Science.gov

Sample records for disease current knowledge

  1. Alzheimer's disease: current knowledge, management and research

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, S; Panisset, M; Nalbantoglu, J; Poirier, J

    1997-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a common neurological condition, appearing as early as age 40 but increasing dramatically in incidence over age 85. Different genetic factors are at play, modified by events over a lifetime. Clinical diagnosis is possible through careful history taking with a reliable informant and a minimum number of laboratory tests. A relatively predictable natural history can be observed, with progression through stages of cognitive loss, functional impairment and behavioural disinhibition or apathy. New medications such as donepezil offer hope for improving or stabilizing symptoms. Such treatment can be administered by primary care physicians with experience in the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease. Disease stabilization, or even prevention, may be possible in the future. PMID:9347775

  2. Clostridium perfringens in Animal Disease: A Review of Current Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Niilo, L.

    1980-01-01

    The diseases caused by various types of Clostridium perfringens are critically reviewed in the light of current knowledge. Particular emphasis is placed on information concerning these diseases in Canadian livestock. There are two etiologically clearly-defined acute C. perfringens diseases recognized in Canada: hemorrhagic enteritis of the new born calf, caused by C. perfringens type C, and enterotoxemia of sheep, caused by type D. Clostridium perfringens type A may play a role as a secondary pathological agent in various disease conditions, such as necrotic enteritis of chickens. It may also cause wound infections and may provide a source for human food poisoning outbreaks. There appears to be a considerable lack of knowledge regarding the distribution of C. perfringens types, their pathogenesis, diagnosis and the incidence of diseases caused by this organism. PMID:6253040

  3. Depression and Parkinson’s Disease: Current Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Depressive disturbances are common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and influence many other clinical aspects of the disease. In addition to causing inherent emotional distress, depressive disorders negatively impact quality of life, motor and cognitive deficits, functional disability, and other psychiatric comorbidities in patients with PD. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of PD depression remains limited. However, clinical studies demonstrate the efficacy of medications and psychotherapies for PD depression, underscoring the importance of their timely detection and concerted management. PMID:24190780

  4. Alzheimer's disease genetics: current knowledge and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Paul; Harold, Denise; Jones, Lesley; Owen, Michael J; Williams, Julie

    2011-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is highly heritable, but genetically complex. Recently, three large-scale genome-wide association studies have made substantial breakthroughs in disentangling the genetic architecture of the disease. These studies combined include data from over 43 000 independent individuals and provide compelling evidence that variants in four novel susceptibility genes (CLU, PICALM, CR1, BIN1) are associated with disease risk. These findings are tremendously exciting, not only in providing new avenues for exploration, but also highlighting the potential for further gene discovery when larger samples are analysed. Here we discuss progress to date in identifying risk genes for dementia, ways forward and how current findings are refining previous ideas and defining new putative primary disease mechanisms.

  5. Pain in Neurodegenerative Disease: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    de Tommaso, Marina; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Defrin, Ruth; Kunz, Miriam; Pickering, Gisele; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are going to increase as the life expectancy is getting longer. The management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, Parkinson's disease (PD) and PD related disorders, motor neuron diseases (MND), Huntington's disease (HD), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), is mainly addressed to motor and cognitive impairment, with special care to vital functions as breathing and feeding. Many of these patients complain of painful symptoms though their origin is variable, and their presence is frequently not considered in the treatment guidelines, leaving their management to the decision of the clinicians alone. However, studies focusing on pain frequency in such disorders suggest a high prevalence of pain in selected populations from 38 to 75% in AD, 40% to 86% in PD, and 19 to 85% in MND. The methods of pain assessment vary between studies so the type of pain has been rarely reported. However, a prevalent nonneuropathic origin of pain emerged for MND and PD. In AD, no data on pain features are available. No controlled therapeutic trials and guidelines are currently available. Given the relevance of pain in neurodegenerative disorders, the comprehensive understanding of mechanisms and predisposing factors, the application and validation of specific scales, and new specific therapeutic trials are needed. PMID:27313396

  6. Chronic wasting disease of cervids: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Haley, Nicholas J; Hoover, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    A naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of mule deer was first reported in Colorado and Wyoming in 1967 and has since spread to other members of the cervid family in 22 states, 2 Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. Chronic wasting disease (CWD), caused by exposure to an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein, is characterized by progressive neurological disease in susceptible natural and experimental hosts and is ultimately fatal. CWD is thought to be transmitted horizontally in excreta and through contaminated environments, features common to scrapie of sheep, though rare among TSEs. Evolving detection methods have revealed multiple strains of CWD and with continued development may lead to an effective antemortem test. Managing the spread of CWD, through the development of a vaccine or environmental cleanup strategies, is an active area of interest. As such, CWD represents a unique challenge in the study of prion diseases.

  7. Aberrant insulin signaling in Alzheimer's disease: current knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Bedse, Gaurav; Di Domenico, Fabio; Serviddio, Gaetano; Cassano, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting elderly people. AD is a multifaceted pathology characterized by accumulation of extracellular neuritic plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and neuronal loss mainly in the cortex and hippocampus. AD etiology appears to be linked to a multitude of mechanisms that have not been yet completely elucidated. For long time, it was considered that insulin signaling has only peripheral actions but now it is widely accepted that insulin has neuromodulatory actions in the brain. Insulin signaling is involved in numerous brain functions including cognition and memory that are impaired in AD. Recent studies suggest that AD may be linked to brain insulin resistance and patients with diabetes have an increased risk of developing AD compared to healthy individuals. Indeed insulin resistance, increased inflammation and impaired metabolism are key pathological features of both AD and diabetes. However, the precise mechanisms involved in the development of AD in patients with diabetes are not yet fully understood. In this review we will discuss the role played by aberrant brain insulin signaling in AD. In detail, we will focus on the role of insulin signaling in the deposition of neuritic plaques and intracellular NFTs. Considering that insulin mitigates beta-amyloid deposition and phosphorylation of tau, pharmacological strategies restoring brain insulin signaling, such as intranasal delivery of insulin, could have significant therapeutic potential in AD treatment. PMID:26136647

  8. Social stress as a cause of diseases in farm animals: Current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Kathryn; Habing, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, biomedical research has established a strong linkage between psychosocial stress and disease risk in humans, which has transformed the understanding of stress and the role it plays in human lives. This research has led to personalized medicine where a reduction in daily life stress is a main goal for many people with debilitating illnesses. This review describes the supporting evidence that social stress also plays a critical role in farm animal disease prevention, and may be a mediator by which common management practices can increase disease risk. There is evidence that social factors, including deprivation of social contact ('social isolation'), reducing space allowance ('crowding') and disturbing social order ('social instability') trigger physiological and behavioral indicators of stress in livestock. Less research exists, however, linking management practices that trigger social stress with higher disease risk. Suggestions are offered for future research opportunities, and practical, evidence-based recommendations are made for reducing the negative effects of social isolation, instability and crowding. The current evidence that social factors contribute to disease risk in farm animals is not as convincing as the human literature, but remains a promising and important area for future research.

  9. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools. PMID:27089354

  10. Current knowledge of coffee wilt disease, a major constraint to coffee production in Africa.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Mike A

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Coffee is vital to the economy of East and Central Africa, providing a major source of foreign exchange earnings and, as a cash crop, supporting the livelihoods of millions involved in cultivation, processing, marketing, and export. Coffee wilt disease (CWD), attributed to Gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium xylarioides), has caused losses to coffee production in Africa since 1927 but has been largely contained through the use of host resistance and in some instances wide-scale sanitation practices. A reemergence of CWD on Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee) in Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Tanzania has already led to heavy losses and threatens future production in these countries and elsewhere in the region. The relevance of CWD is all the more pertinent given the impact of a considerable fall in world coffee prices over the last decade. Recent research has clarified the extent of the problem in the region and revealed a low level of diversity within the pathogen, suggesting that two genetically and biologically distinct forms are responsible for current problems. These findings and related research and development initiatives undertaken under the auspices of the Regional Coffee Wilt Programme are of fundamental importance in providing an urgently needed solution to this devastating disease.

  11. Drug Delivery for Treatment of Inner Ear Disease: Current State of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Andrew A.; Leary Swan, Erin E.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Sewell, William F.; Kujawa, Sharon G.; McKenna, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Delivery of medications to the inner ear has been an area of considerable growth in both the research and clinical realms over the past several decades. Systemic delivery of medication destined for treatment of the inner ear is the foundation upon which newer delivery techniques have been developed. Due to systemic side effects, investigators and clinicians have begun developing and utilizing techniques to deliver therapeutic agents locally. Alongside the now commonplace use of intratympanic gentamicin for Meniere's disease and the emerging use of intratympanic steroids for sudden sensorineural hearing loss, novel technologies, such as hydrogels and nanoparticles, are being explored. At the horizon of inner ear drug delivery techniques, intracochlear devices that leverage recent advances in microsystems technology are being developed to apply medications directly into the inner ear. Potential uses for such devices include neurotrophic factor and steroid delivery with cochlear implantation, RNA interference technologies, and stem cell therapy. The historical, current, and future delivery techniques and uses of drug delivery for treatment of inner ear disease serve as the basis for this review. PMID:19952751

  12. Representing Medical Knowledge in the Form of Structured Text: The Development of Current Disease Descriptions*

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Stuart J.; Sherertz, David D.; Erlbaum, Mark S.; Tuttle, Mark S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) initiative, some 900 diseases have been described using “structured text.” Structured text is words and short phrases entered under labelled contexts. Vocabulary is not controlled. The contexts comprise a template for the disease description. The structured text is both manipulable by machine and readable by humans. Use of the template was natural, and only a few problems arose in using the template. Instructions to disease description composers must be explicit in definitions of the contexts. Diseases to be described are chosen, after clustering related diseases, according to the distinctions that physicians practicing in the area under question believe are important. Limiting disease descriptions to primitive observations and to entities otherwise described within the corpus appears to be both feasible and desirable.

  13. Ecology of zoonotic infectious diseases in bats: current knowledge and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayman, D.T.; Bowen, R.A.; Cryan, P.M.; McCracken, G.F.; O'Shea, T.J.; Peel, A.J.; Gilbert, A.; Webb, C.T.; Wood, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Bats are hosts to a range of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Human activities that increase exposure to bats will likely increase the opportunity for infections to spill over in the future. Ecological drivers of pathogen spillover and emergence in novel hosts, including humans, involve a complex mixture of processes, and understanding these complexities may aid in predicting spillover. In particular, only once the pathogen and host ecologies are known can the impacts of anthropogenic changes be fully appreciated. Cross-disciplinary approaches are required to understand how host and pathogen ecology interact. Bats differ from other sylvatic disease reservoirs because of their unique and diverse lifestyles, including their ability to fly, often highly gregarious social structures, long lifespans and low fecundity rates. We highlight how these traits may affect infection dynamics and how both host and pathogen traits may interact to affect infection dynamics. We identify key questions relating to the ecology of infectious diseases in bats and propose that a combination of field and laboratory studies are needed to create data-driven mechanistic models to elucidate those aspects of bat ecology that are most critical to the dynamics of emerging bat viruses. If commonalities can be found, then predicting the dynamics of newly emerging diseases may be possible. This modelling approach will be particularly important in scenarios when population surveillance data are unavailable and when it is unclear which aspects of host ecology are driving infection dynamics.

  14. Ecology of zoonotic infectious diseases in bats: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hayman, D T S; Bowen, R A; Cryan, P M; McCracken, G F; O'Shea, T J; Peel, A J; Gilbert, A; Webb, C T; Wood, J L N

    2013-02-01

    Bats are hosts to a range of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Human activities that increase exposure to bats will likely increase the opportunity for infections to spill over in the future. Ecological drivers of pathogen spillover and emergence in novel hosts, including humans, involve a complex mixture of processes, and understanding these complexities may aid in predicting spillover. In particular, only once the pathogen and host ecologies are known can the impacts of anthropogenic changes be fully appreciated. Cross-disciplinary approaches are required to understand how host and pathogen ecology interact. Bats differ from other sylvatic disease reservoirs because of their unique and diverse lifestyles, including their ability to fly, often highly gregarious social structures, long lifespans and low fecundity rates. We highlight how these traits may affect infection dynamics and how both host and pathogen traits may interact to affect infection dynamics. We identify key questions relating to the ecology of infectious diseases in bats and propose that a combination of field and laboratory studies are needed to create data-driven mechanistic models to elucidate those aspects of bat ecology that are most critical to the dynamics of emerging bat viruses. If commonalities can be found, then predicting the dynamics of newly emerging diseases may be possible. This modelling approach will be particularly important in scenarios when population surveillance data are unavailable and when it is unclear which aspects of host ecology are driving infection dynamics.

  15. Ecology of Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Bats: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, D T S; Bowen, R A; Cryan, P M; McCracken, G F; O’Shea, T J; Peel, A J; Gilbert, A; Webb, C T; Wood, J L N

    2013-01-01

    Bats are hosts to a range of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Human activities that increase exposure to bats will likely increase the opportunity for infections to spill over in the future. Ecological drivers of pathogen spillover and emergence in novel hosts, including humans, involve a complex mixture of processes, and understanding these complexities may aid in predicting spillover. In particular, only once the pathogen and host ecologies are known can the impacts of anthropogenic changes be fully appreciated. Cross-disciplinary approaches are required to understand how host and pathogen ecology interact. Bats differ from other sylvatic disease reservoirs because of their unique and diverse lifestyles, including their ability to fly, often highly gregarious social structures, long lifespans and low fecundity rates. We highlight how these traits may affect infection dynamics and how both host and pathogen traits may interact to affect infection dynamics. We identify key questions relating to the ecology of infectious diseases in bats and propose that a combination of field and laboratory studies are needed to create data-driven mechanistic models to elucidate those aspects of bat ecology that are most critical to the dynamics of emerging bat viruses. If commonalities can be found, then predicting the dynamics of newly emerging diseases may be possible. This modelling approach will be particularly important in scenarios when population surveillance data are unavailable and when it is unclear which aspects of host ecology are driving infection dynamics. PMID:22958281

  16. microRNAs in cardiovascular diseases: current knowledge and the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Condorelli, Gianluigi; Latronico, Michael V G; Cavarretta, Elena

    2014-06-01

    Over the last few years, the field of microribonucleic acid (miRNA) in cardiovascular biology and disease has expanded at an incredible pace. miRNAs are themselves part of a larger family, that of non-coding RNAs, the importance of which for biological processes is starting to emerge. miRNAs are ~22-nucleotide-long RNA sequences that can legate messenger (m)RNAs at partially complementary binding sites, and hence regulate the rate of protein synthesis by altering the stability of the targeted mRNAs. In the cardiovascular system, miRNAs have been shown to be critical regulators of development and physiology. They control basic functions in virtually all cell types relevant to the cardiovascular system (such as endothelial cells, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, inflammatory cells, and fibroblasts) and, thus, are directly involved in the pathophysiology of many cardiovascular diseases. As a result of their role in disease, they are being studied for exploitation in diagnostics, prognostics, and therapeutics. However, there are still significant obstacles that need to be overcome before they enter the clinical arena. We present here a review of the literature and outline the directions toward their use in the clinic.

  17. Improving medical students’ knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices

    PubMed Central

    Wolyniak, Michael J; Bemis, Lynne T; Prunuske, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student’s critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics. PMID:26604852

  18. Improving medical students' knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices.

    PubMed

    Wolyniak, Michael J; Bemis, Lynne T; Prunuske, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student's critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics. PMID:26604852

  19. Improving medical students' knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices.

    PubMed

    Wolyniak, Michael J; Bemis, Lynne T; Prunuske, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student's critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics.

  20. Current knowledge and importance of dGEMRIC techniques in diagnosis of hip joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Zilkens, Christoph; Tiderius, Carl Johann; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Bittersohl, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    Accurate assessment of early hip joint cartilage alterations may help optimize patient selection and follow-up of hip joint preservation surgery. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is sensitive to the glycosaminoglycan content in cartilage that is lost early in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Hence, the dGEMRIC technique holds promise for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, because of the location of the hip joint deep within the body and due to the fairly thin cartilage layers that require high spatial resolution, the diagnosis of early hip joint cartilage alterations may be problematic. The purpose of this review is to outline the current status of dGEMRIC in the assessment of hip joint cartilage. A literature search was performed with PubMed, using the terms "cartilage, osteoarthritis, hip joint, MRI, and dGEMRIC", considering all levels of studies. This review revealed that dGEMRIC can be reliably used in the evaluation of early stage cartilage pathology in various hip joint disorders. Modifications in the technique, such as the operation of three-dimensional imaging and dGEMRIC after intra-articular contrast medium administration, have expanded the range of application. Notably, the studies differ considerably in patient selection and technical prerequisites. Furthermore, there is a need for multicenter prospective studies with the required technical conditions in place to establish outcome based dGEMRIC data to obtain, in conjunction with clinical data, reliable threshold values for normal and abnormal cartilage, and for hips that may benefit from conservative or surgical treatment.

  1. Current Knowledge on Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iovanna, Juan; Mallmann, Maria Cecilia; Gonçalves, Anthony; Turrini, Olivier; Dagorn, Jean-Charles

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death with a median survival of 6 months and a dismal 5-year survival rate of 3–5%. The development and progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways. Therefore, the strategies targeting these molecules as well as their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, although targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer have yielded encouraging results in vitro and in animal models, these findings have not been translated into improved outcomes in clinical trials. This failure is due to an incomplete understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer and to the selection of poorly efficient or imperfectly targeted agents. In this review, we will critically present the current knowledge regarding the molecular, biochemical, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22655256

  2. HIV Disease: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Describes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), newly characterized human retrovirus which causes chronic, progressive, immune deficiency disease, the most severe phase of which is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Reviews most important current epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic information about HIV and HIV disease and provides…

  3. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin®. PMID:26355220

  4. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-06-28

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin(®). PMID:26355220

  5. 'Limits and current knowledge of Pick's disease: its differential diagnosis'. A translation of the 1957 Delay, Brion, Escourolle article.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Marie-Pierre; Miller, Bruce L

    2013-01-01

    This article is a translation of a French article by Delay, Brion, and Escourolle. In a seminal article published in French in 1957 these authors summarized the work of previous researchers and reviewed a wide sample of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) cases formerly referred to as Pick's disease. The authors were among the first to define the critical clinical and anatomical differences between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and FTD and they even delineated distinctive FTD subtypes making possible the advances that now constitute the base of our studies. Reviewing their work allows us to appreciate the progress research has made.

  6. Development of a Comprehensive Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Hannah E.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Moser, Richard P.; Scholl, Sarah; Klein, William M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Heart disease is the number one killer of both men and women in the United States, yet a comprehensive and evidence-based heart disease knowledge assessment is currently not available. Purpose: This paper describes the two-phase development of a novel heart disease knowledge questionnaire. Methods: After review and critique of the…

  7. Clinical management of dilated cardiomyopathy: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Marco; Cannatá, Antonio; Vitagliano, Alice; Zambon, Elena; Lardieri, Gerardina; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a primary heart muscle disease characterized by a progressive dilation and dysfunction of either the left or both ventricles. The management of DCM is currently challenging for clinicians. The persistent lack of knowledge about the etiology and pathophysiology of this disease continues to determine important fields of uncertainty in managing this condition. Molecular cardiology and genetics currently represent the most crucial horizon of increasing knowledge. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the disease allows clinicians to treat this disease more effectively and to further improve outcomes of DCM patients through advancements in etiologic characterization, prognostic stratification and individualized therapy. Left ventricular reverse remodeling predicts a lower rate of major cardiac adverse events independently from other factors. Optimized medical treatment and device implantation are pivotal in inducing left ventricular reverse remodeling. Newly identified targets, such as angiotensin-neprilysin inhibition, phosphodiesterase inhibition and calcium sensitizing are important in improving prognosis in patients affected by DCM.

  8. Current Levels of Salt Knowledge: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sarmugam, Rani; Worsley, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    High salt intake increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the role of knowledge as a determinant of food intake, this paper aims to review the current levels of salt knowledge and the association between salt knowledge and dietary salt intake and salt-related dietary practices in the general population. Twenty two studies were included in the review. In general, the studies showed consumers were able to identify the health risks associated with high salt intake. However, knowledge of recommended daily intakes, understanding of the relationships between salt and sodium and foods that contribute most salt to the diet were poor. Four of the five studies which examined the relationships between salt knowledge and salt-related dietary practices reported significant associations. Two important gaps in the current literature were identified. First, there is a need for a robustly validated tool to examine salt knowledge and its impact on salt intake. Second, a comprehensive salt knowledge assessment should include assessment of procedural, as well as declarative, knowledge. PMID:25470377

  9. Hydrotropism: the current state of our knowledge.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H

    1997-06-01

    The response of roots to a moisture gradient has been reexamined, and positive hydrotropism has been demonstrated in recent years. Agravitropic roots of a pea mutant have contributed to the studies on hydrotropism. The kinetics of hydrotropic curvature, interactions between hydrotropism and gravitropism, moisture gradients required for the induction of hydrotropism, the sensing site for moisture gradients, characteristics of hydrotropic signal and differential growth, and calcium involvement in signal transduction have been subjects of these studies. This review summarizes the current state of our knowledge on hydrotropism in roots. PMID:11541137

  10. Current knowledge of Kangaroo Mother Intervention.

    PubMed

    Charpak, N; Ruiz-Peláez, J G; Figueroa de Calume, Z

    1996-04-01

    Kangaroo Mother Intervention (KMI) started in 1978 in Colombia as a way of dealing with overcrowding and scarcity of resources in hospitals caring for low birth weight infants. Currently the intervention comprises three components: kangaroo position (skin-to-skin contact), kangaroo nutrition (exclusive or nearly exclusive breast-feeding), and kangaroo discharge policies (early discharge in kangaroo position regardless of weight or gestational age). Different authors have adopted and adapted diverse components of the KMI to suit the particular needs of their parents. We discuss different modalities of kangaroo care reported in developed and in developing countries and also describe in some detail the components of the whole KMI program. In addition, results from a systematic review of kangaroo-related papers published in English between 1991 and 1995 are provided, together with a summary of current knowledge (evidence-based) and research needs.

  11. Current knowledge of Kangaroo Mother Intervention.

    PubMed

    Charpak, N; Ruiz-Peláez, J G; Figueroa de Calume, Z

    1996-04-01

    Kangaroo Mother Intervention (KMI) started in 1978 in Colombia as a way of dealing with overcrowding and scarcity of resources in hospitals caring for low birth weight infants. Currently the intervention comprises three components: kangaroo position (skin-to-skin contact), kangaroo nutrition (exclusive or nearly exclusive breast-feeding), and kangaroo discharge policies (early discharge in kangaroo position regardless of weight or gestational age). Different authors have adopted and adapted diverse components of the KMI to suit the particular needs of their parents. We discuss different modalities of kangaroo care reported in developed and in developing countries and also describe in some detail the components of the whole KMI program. In addition, results from a systematic review of kangaroo-related papers published in English between 1991 and 1995 are provided, together with a summary of current knowledge (evidence-based) and research needs. PMID:8723803

  12. [Male contraception - the current state of knowledge].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmynt; Kasperska, Karolina; Lewandowska, Marta

    2016-08-01

    Contraception is important from a health, psychological and socioeconomic point of view. Due to the fact that male-based contraceptive methods are mostly represented by condoms and vasectomy, researchers are working on the new solutions, which could let the men be more involved in a conscious family planning. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge on this subject. There is a lot going on in the field of hormonal contraception. Studies including testosterone, progestins, synthetic androgens and other derivatives are on a different stages of clinical trials and mostly demonstrate high efficacy rates. Recent discovers of Izumo and Juno proteins, essential for the fertilization process, give hope for an easily reversible, non-hormonal method. Researchers are also trying to interfere with the process of spermatogenesis using BRDT inhibitor - JQ1, or neutralize the sperm by injecting styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) into the lumen of the vas deferens. The other studies explore processes involved in proper sperm motility. A vaccine which induces an immune response to the reproductive system is also an interesting method. The latest research use ultrasound waves and mechanical device which blocks the patency of vas deferens. The aim of the study current state of knowledge male contraception.

  13. [Male contraception - the current state of knowledge].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmynt; Kasperska, Karolina; Lewandowska, Marta

    2016-07-01

    Contraception is important from a health, psychological and socioeconomic point of view. Due to the fact that male-based contraceptive methods are mostly represented by condoms and vasectomy, researchers are working on the new solutions, which could let the men be more involved in a conscious family planning. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge on this subject. There is a lot going on in the field of hormonal contraception. Studies including testosterone, progestins, synthetic androgens and other derivatives are on a different stages of clinical trials and mostly demonstrate high efficacy rates. Recent discovers of Izumo and Juno proteins, essential for the fertilization process, give hope for an easily reversible, non-hormonal method. Researchers are also trying to interfere with the process of spermatogenesis using BRDT inhibitor - JQ1, or neutralize the sperm by injecting styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) into the lumen of the vas deferens. The other studies explore processes involved in proper sperm motility. A vaccine which induces an immune response to the reproductive system is also an interesting method. The latest research use ultrasound waves and mechanical device which blocks the patency of vas deferens. The aim of the study current state of knowledge male contraception. PMID:27590656

  14. [Male contraception - the current state of knowledge].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmynt; Kasperska, Karolina; Lewandowska, Marta

    2016-08-01

    Contraception is important from a health, psychological and socioeconomic point of view. Due to the fact that male-based contraceptive methods are mostly represented by condoms and vasectomy, researchers are working on the new solutions, which could let the men be more involved in a conscious family planning. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge on this subject. There is a lot going on in the field of hormonal contraception. Studies including testosterone, progestins, synthetic androgens and other derivatives are on a different stages of clinical trials and mostly demonstrate high efficacy rates. Recent discovers of Izumo and Juno proteins, essential for the fertilization process, give hope for an easily reversible, non-hormonal method. Researchers are also trying to interfere with the process of spermatogenesis using BRDT inhibitor - JQ1, or neutralize the sperm by injecting styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) into the lumen of the vas deferens. The other studies explore processes involved in proper sperm motility. A vaccine which induces an immune response to the reproductive system is also an interesting method. The latest research use ultrasound waves and mechanical device which blocks the patency of vas deferens. The aim of the study current state of knowledge male contraception. PMID:27591451

  15. Primordial Germ Cells: Current Knowledge and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Aleksandar; Volarevic, Vladislav; Armstrong, Lyle; Lako, Majlinda; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a condition that occurs very frequently and understanding what defines normal fertility is crucial to helping patients. Causes of infertility are numerous and the treatment often does not lead to desired pregnancy especially when there is a lack of functional gametes. In humans, the primordial germ cell (PGC) is the primary undifferentiated stem cell type that will differentiate towards gametes: spermatozoa or oocytes. With the development of stem cell biology and differentiation protocols, PGC can be obtained from pluripotent stem cells providing a new therapeutic possibility to treat infertile couples. Recent studies demonstrated that viable mouse pups could be obtained from in vitro differentiated stem cells suggesting that translation of these results to human is closer. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about PGC indicating the perspective of their use in both research and medical application for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26635880

  16. Human bocavirus: Current knowledge and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Guido, Marcello; Tumolo, Maria Rosaria; Verri, Tiziano; Romano, Alessandro; Serio, Francesca; De Giorgi, Mattia; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Zizza, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a parvovirus isolated about a decade ago and found worldwide in both respiratory samples, mainly from early life and children of 6-24 mo of age with acute respiratory infection, and in stool samples, from patients with gastroenteritis. Since then, other viruses related to the first HBoV isolate (HBoV1), namely HBoV2, HBoV3 and HBoV4, have been detected principally in human faeces. HBoVs are small non-enveloped single-stranded DNA viruses of about 5300 nucleotides, consisting of three open reading frames encoding the first two the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and nuclear phosphoprotein (NP1) and the third the viral capsid proteins 1 and 2 (VP1 and VP2). HBoV pathogenicity remains to be fully clarified mainly due to the lack of animal models for the difficulties in replicating the virus in in vitro cell cultures, and the fact that HBoV infection is frequently accompanied by at least another viral and/or bacterial respiratory and/or gastroenteric pathogen infection. Current diagnostic methods to support HBoV detection include polymerase chain reaction, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme immunoassay using recombinant VP2 or virus-like particle capsid proteins, although sequence-independent amplification techniques combined with next-generation sequencing platforms promise rapid and simultaneous detection of the pathogens in the future. This review presents the current knowledge on HBoV genotypes with emphasis on taxonomy, phylogenetic relationship and genomic analysis, biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and diagnostic methods. The emerging discussion on HBoVs as true pathogen or innocent bystander is also emphasized.

  17. Current Knowledge on Cannabinoids in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dayong; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is a new biological matrix for clinical and forensic drug testing, offering non-invasive and directly observable sample collection reducing adulteration potential, ease of multiple sample collections, lower biohazard risk during collection, recent exposure identification, and stronger correlation with blood than urine concentrations. Because cannabinoids are usually the most prevalent analytes in illicit drug testing, application of OF drug testing requires sufficient scientific data to support sensitive and specific OF cannabinoid detection. This review presents current knowledge on OF cannabinoids, evaluating pharmacokinetic properties, detection windows, and correlation with other biological matrices and impairment from field applications and controlled drug administration studies. In addition, on-site screening technologies, confirmatory analytical methods, drug stability, and effects of sample collection procedure, adulterants, and passive environmental exposure are reviewed. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol OF concentrations could be > 1000 μg/L shortly after smoking, whereas minor cannabinoids are detected at 10-fold and metabolites at 1000-fold lower concentrations. OF research over the past decade demonstrated that appropriate interpretation of test results requires a comprehensive understanding of distinct elimination profiles and detection windows for different cannabinoids, which are influenced by administration route, dose, and drug use history. Thus, each drug testing program should establish cutoff criteria, collection/analysis procedures, and storage conditions tailored to its purposes. Building a scientific basis for OF testing is on-going, with continuing OF cannabinoids research on passive environmental exposure, drug use history, donor physiological conditions, and oral cavity metabolism needed to better understand mechanisms of cannabinoid OF disposition and expand OF drug testing applicability. PMID:23983217

  18. Women and Ischemic Heart Disease: Evolving Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Leslee J.; Bugiardini, Raffaelle; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2009-01-01

    Evolving knowledge regarding sex differences in coronary heart disease (CHD) is emerging. Given the lower burden of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and preserved systolic function in women contrasted by higher rates of myocardial ischemia and near-term mortality compared to men, we propose the term ischemic heart disease (IHD) as appropriate for this discussion specific to women, rather than CAD or CHD. This paradoxical difference where women have lower rates of anatomical CAD but more symptoms, ischemia, and outcomes appear linked to coronary reactivity which includes microvascular dysfunction. Novel risk factors can improve the Framingham risk score, including inflammatory markers and reproductive hormones, as well as noninvasive imaging and functional capacity measurements. Risk for women with obstructive CAD is elevated compared to men, yet women are less likely to receive guideline-indicated therapies. In the setting of non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction, interventional strategies are equally effective in biomarker positive women and men, while conservative management is indicated for biomarker negative women. For women with evidence of ischemia but no obstructive CAD, anti-anginal and anti-ischemic therapies can improve symptoms, endothelial function, and quality of life; however trials evaluating adverse outcomes are needed. We hypothesize that women experience more adverse outcomes compared to men because obstructive CAD remains the current focus of therapeutic strategies. Continued research is indicated to devise therapeutic regimens to improve symptom burden and reduce risk in women with IHD. PMID:19833255

  19. Nausea: current knowledge of mechanisms, measurement and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Kenward, Hannah; Pelligand, Ludovic; Savary-Bataille, Karine; Elliott, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Nausea is a subjective sensation, which often acts as a signal that emesis is imminent. It is a widespread problem that occurs as a clinical sign of disease or as an adverse effect of a drug therapy or surgical procedure. The mechanisms of nausea are complex and the neural pathways are currently poorly understood. This review summarises the current knowledge of nausea mechanisms, the available animal models for nausea research and the anti-nausea properties of commercially available anti-emetic drugs. The review also presents subjective assessment and scoring of nausea. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of nausea might reveal potential clinically useful biomarkers for objective measurement of nausea in species of veterinary interest.

  20. Intestinal microbiota transplant - current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Leszczyszyn, Jarosław Jerzy; Radomski, Marek; Leszczyszyn, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has induced a lot scientific interest and hopes for the last couple of years. FMT has been approved as a treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis. Highly sophisticated molecular DNA identification methods have been used to assess the healthy human microbiome as well as its disturbances in several diseases. The metabolic and immunologic functions of the microbiome have become more clear and understandable. A lot of pathological changes, such as production of short-chain fatty acids or components of the inflammatory cascade, caused by changes in microbiome diversity, variability and richness have been observed among patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, type 2 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis. The published clinical results are encouraging, but still there is huge demand for FMT controlled clinical trials. PMID:27407273

  1. Intestinal microbiota transplant - current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Leszczyszyn, Jarosław Jerzy; Radomski, Marek; Leszczyszyn, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has induced a lot scientific interest and hopes for the last couple of years. FMT has been approved as a treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis. Highly sophisticated molecular DNA identification methods have been used to assess the healthy human microbiome as well as its disturbances in several diseases. The metabolic and immunologic functions of the microbiome have become more clear and understandable. A lot of pathological changes, such as production of short-chain fatty acids or components of the inflammatory cascade, caused by changes in microbiome diversity, variability and richness have been observed among patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, type 2 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis. The published clinical results are encouraging, but still there is huge demand for FMT controlled clinical trials.

  2. [Hypnosis and pain: current and perspective knowledge].

    PubMed

    Bioy, Antoine

    2012-06-27

    After further controversies, the definition of hypnosis is to be at the same time a modified state of consciousness and a particular intersubjective relation between a practitioner and his patient. In a synthetic way, we can say that mechanisms of hypnosis on acute pain are now well known, and its efficiency is particularly proved in the pain provoked by the care. On the other hand, the knowledge concerning the action of the hypnosis on chronic pain is much more complex to understand. If the hypnosis allows connoting differently pain and to decrease its implication in patient's life, otherWise the long-term reorganizations of hypnosis on chronic pain are still for the study. In practice, the field which his particularly in development is the analogical processes of the speech, because they are particularly present in pain medicine, and easy to use in hypnotic method. PMID:22872940

  3. Cetacean Morbillivirus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Duignan, Pádraig J.; Banyard, Ashley; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M; De Guise, Sylvain; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Domingo, Mariano; Fauquier, Deborah; Fernandez, Antonio; Goldstein, Tracey; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R.; Gulland, Frances; Jensen, Brenda A; Jepson, Paul D; Hall, Ailsa; Kuiken, Thijs; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E; Nielsen, Ole; Raga, Juan A; Rowles, Teresa K; Saliki, Jeremy; Sierra, Eva; Stephens, Nahiid; Stone, Brett; Tomo, Ikuko; Wang, Jianning; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James FX

    2014-01-01

    We review the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) and the diagnosis and pathogenesis of associated disease, with six different strains detected in cetaceans worldwide. CeMV has caused epidemics with high mortality in odontocetes in Europe, the USA and Australia. It represents a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus. Although most CeMV strains are phylogenetically closely related, recent data indicate that morbilliviruses recovered from Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), from Western Australia, and a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), from Brazil, are divergent. The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) cell receptor for CeMV has been characterized in cetaceans. It shares higher amino acid identity with the ruminant SLAM than with the receptors of carnivores or humans, reflecting the evolutionary history of these mammalian taxa. In Delphinidae, three amino acid substitutions may result in a higher affinity for the virus. Infection is diagnosed by histology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, RT-PCR, and serology. Classical CeMV-associated lesions include bronchointerstitial pneumonia, encephalitis, syncytia, and lymphoid depletion associated with immunosuppression. Cetaceans that survive the acute disease may develop fatal secondary infections and chronic encephalitis. Endemically infected, gregarious odontocetes probably serve as reservoirs and vectors. Transmission likely occurs through the inhalation of aerosolized virus but mother to fetus transmission was also reported. PMID:25533660

  4. Lyme Disease in West Virginia: An Assessment of Distribution and Clinicians' Knowledge of Disease and Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarah; Parker, David; Mark-Carew, Miguella; White, Robert; Fisher, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease case misclassification, a top public health concern, may be attributed to the current disconnect between clinical diagnosis and surveillance. This study examines Lyme disease distribution in West Virginia (WV) and determines clinicians' knowledge of both disease and surveillance. Lyme disease surveillance data for 2013 were obtained from the WV Bureau for Public Health. A validated survey, distributed to clinicians at an academic medical center, assessed clinicians' knowledge of disease diagnosis and surveillance. There were 297 adult Lyme disease cases of which 83 were confirmed. Clinician survey responses resulted in a correct response rate of 70% for Lyme disease knowledge questions. Fewer than half of all clinicians were aware of the surveillance criteria for confirming Lyme disease cases. Neither medical specialty nor previous treatment of patients with Lyme disease were significantly associated with clinicians' knowledge of the disease. Clinicians in WV are familiar with symptoms and clinical management of Lyme disease. However, they are less knowledgeable about diagnosis and public health surveillance comprising reporting and confirming cases of the disease. Clinicians and public health authorities should collaborate more closely to promote education and awareness as a key step to successfully reducing the burden of Lymne disease. PMID:27491103

  5. Lyme Disease in West Virginia: An Assessment of Distribution and Clinicians' Knowledge of Disease and Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarah; Parker, David; Mark-Carew, Miguella; White, Robert; Fisher, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease case misclassification, a top public health concern, may be attributed to the current disconnect between clinical diagnosis and surveillance. This study examines Lyme disease distribution in West Virginia (WV) and determines clinicians' knowledge of both disease and surveillance. Lyme disease surveillance data for 2013 were obtained from the WV Bureau for Public Health. A validated survey, distributed to clinicians at an academic medical center, assessed clinicians' knowledge of disease diagnosis and surveillance. There were 297 adult Lyme disease cases of which 83 were confirmed. Clinician survey responses resulted in a correct response rate of 70% for Lyme disease knowledge questions. Fewer than half of all clinicians were aware of the surveillance criteria for confirming Lyme disease cases. Neither medical specialty nor previous treatment of patients with Lyme disease were significantly associated with clinicians' knowledge of the disease. Clinicians in WV are familiar with symptoms and clinical management of Lyme disease. However, they are less knowledgeable about diagnosis and public health surveillance comprising reporting and confirming cases of the disease. Clinicians and public health authorities should collaborate more closely to promote education and awareness as a key step to successfully reducing the burden of Lymne disease.

  6. [Tularaemia - an overview of the current knowledge].

    PubMed

    Lukásová, Eva; Cermák, Pavel; Smelá, Gabriela; Jedlicková, Anna

    2010-02-01

    Francisella tularensis belongs to the family Francisellaceae. It is the aetiological agent of a zoonosis called tularaemia, spread throughout the northern hemisphere. Currently, several subspecies of F. tularensis may be distinguished with various pathogenicity and geographical distribution. In human medicine, only sporadic infections or local epidemics are reported. Given the fact that F. tularensis is highly pathogenic for humans and is easily spread by aerosol, water or food, it may be exploited as a biological weapon. It belongs to fastidious strains requiring specially prepared culture media.

  7. Faecal incontinence: Current knowledges and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Benezech, Alban; Bouvier, Michel; Vitton, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Faecal incontinence (FI) is a disabling and frequent symptom since its prevalence can vary between 5% and 15% of the general population. It has a particular negative impact on quality of life. Many tools are currently available for the treatment of FI, from conservative measures to invasive surgical treatments. The conservative treatment may be dietetic measures, various pharmacological agents, anorectal rehabilitation, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, and transanal irrigation. If needed, patients may have miniinvasive approaches such as sacral nerve modulation or antegrade irrigation. In some cases, a surgical treatment is proposed, mainly external anal sphincter repair. Although these different therapeutic options are available, new techniques are arriving allowing new hopes for the patients. Moreover, most of them are non-invasive such as local application of an α1-adrenoceptor agonist, stem cell injections, rectal injection of botulinum toxin, acupuncture. New more invasive techniques with promising results are also coming such as anal magnetic sphincter and antropylorus transposition. This review reports the main current available treatments of FI and the developing therapeutics tools. PMID:26909229

  8. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Adrian U.; Chua, Ai Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that “cures” or “stops” SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief.

  9. Current Knowledge on Genetic Biofortification in Lentil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gupta, Debjyoti Sen; Kumar, Shiv; Gupta, Sanjeev; Singh, Narendra Pratap

    2016-08-24

    Micronutrient deficiency in the human body, popularly known as "hidden hunger", causes many health problems. It presently affects >2 billion people worldwide, especially in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Biofortification of food crop varieties is one way to combat the problem of hidden hunger using conventional plant breeding and transgenic methods. Lentils are rich sources of protein, micronutrients, and vitamins including iron, zinc, selenium, folates, and carotenoids. Lentil genetic resources including germplasm and wild species showed genetic variability for these traits. Studies revealed that a single serving of lentils could provide a significant amount of the recommended daily allowance of micronutrients and vitamins for adults. Therefore, lentils have been identified as a food legume for biofortification, which could provide a whole food solution to the global micronutrient malnutrition. The present review discusses the current ongoing efforts toward genetic biofortification in lentils using classical breeding and molecular marker-assisted approaches.

  10. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U; Chua, Ai Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that "cures" or "stops" SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief. PMID:27656052

  11. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Adrian U.; Chua, Ai Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that “cures” or “stops” SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief. PMID:27656052

  12. Current Knowledge on Genetic Biofortification in Lentil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gupta, Debjyoti Sen; Kumar, Shiv; Gupta, Sanjeev; Singh, Narendra Pratap

    2016-08-24

    Micronutrient deficiency in the human body, popularly known as "hidden hunger", causes many health problems. It presently affects >2 billion people worldwide, especially in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Biofortification of food crop varieties is one way to combat the problem of hidden hunger using conventional plant breeding and transgenic methods. Lentils are rich sources of protein, micronutrients, and vitamins including iron, zinc, selenium, folates, and carotenoids. Lentil genetic resources including germplasm and wild species showed genetic variability for these traits. Studies revealed that a single serving of lentils could provide a significant amount of the recommended daily allowance of micronutrients and vitamins for adults. Therefore, lentils have been identified as a food legume for biofortification, which could provide a whole food solution to the global micronutrient malnutrition. The present review discusses the current ongoing efforts toward genetic biofortification in lentils using classical breeding and molecular marker-assisted approaches. PMID:27507630

  13. Legionnaire's disease: a current update.

    PubMed

    Lane, George; Ferrari, Anne; Dreher, H Michael

    2004-12-01

    Legionnaire's disease was first identified and described in January 1977. Even today, it is often regarded as an unusual or exotic disease, when in fact it is a very common form of community and nosocomial acquired pneumonia. The major roles of the acute care nurse, including patient health education; psychosocial needs of the patient; and strategies for disease prevention and control, are discussed.

  14. Current understanding of the relationship between periodontal and systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mawardi, Hani H.; Elbadawi, Lena S.; Sonis, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is among the most common infectious diseases affecting humans. While the burden of periodontal disease on oral health has been extensively investigated, a possible specific relationship between the disease and systemic health is a relatively new area of interest. More recently it has been suggested that PD has an etiological role in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and preterm low-birth weight, among others. In this review, we critically evaluate the current knowledge on the relation between PD and systemic diseases overall, and specifically with cardiovascular diseases. The best available evidence today suggests that the infection and inflammatory reaction associated with PD may contribute toward systemic disease. It is critical that dentists and physicians are well informed of the potential general health impact of periodontal disease so that they are in a position to knowledgeably counsel patients. PMID:25719577

  15. Newcastle disease: current vaccine research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important infectious diseases that affect poultry due to its devastating economic impact and world-wide distribution and contribution towards malnutrition in countries that rely on production of village chickens as a source of animal protein. Besides biosec...

  16. Current therapeutic approaches in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Malekzadeh, Reza; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and is broadly classified into Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). In the last decade, our understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of this group of disorders has been improved. More specifically, recent development of biologics and use of immunomodulator agents in IBD have made it possible to robustly control mucosal inflammation and heal mucosal ulcerations and thus provide an opportunity to potentially modify disease course and prevent complications and future surgery. However, unfortunately we have not identified reliable, sensitive and specific markers to predict disease course and to identify those patients with aggressive and progressive course that would benefit from early use of biologics to prevent future complication and surgery. Thus, optimal medical management of IBD has remained multifaceted and individualized. Our primary therapeutic goals have remained unchanged and are to: [1] improve patient quality of life by treating flare ups [induction of remission], maintaining remission, and treating symptoms like diarrhea; [2] predict and prevent/treat complication; [3] prevent/treat nutritional deficiency and maintain optimal nutrition, [4] provide appropriate psychosocial support, and of course [5] attempt to modify disease course in those with aggressive disease. We can achieve these goals by appropriate use of therapeutic agents that include 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, antibiotics, nutritional support, and the biologic agents. Information from well designed double blind placebo controlled trials combined with knowledge of the potential impact of patient and disease characteristics on disease course which can assist us to individualized treatment plan will be the guide for us to appropriately use these therapeutic agents. For example, age of the onset of the disease, patient gender and race

  17. United airway disease: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Aun, Marcelo Vivolo; Takejima, Priscila; Kalil, Jorge; Agondi, Rosana Câmara

    2016-01-01

    Upper and lower airways are considered a unified morphological and functional unit, and the connection existing between them has been observed for many years, both in health and in disease. There is strong epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, and clinical evidence supporting an integrated view of rhinitis and asthma: united airway disease in the present review. The term “united airway disease” is opportune, because rhinitis and asthma are chronic inflammatory diseases of the upper and lower airways, which can be induced by allergic or nonallergic reproducible mechanisms, and present several phenotypes. Management of rhinitis and asthma must be jointly carried out, leading to better control of both diseases, and the lessons of the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma initiative cannot be forgotten. PMID:27257389

  18. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  19. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  20. Current Pipelines for Neglected Diseases

    PubMed Central

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  1. Tendon Mechanobiology: Current Knowledge and Future Research Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Lavagnino, Michael; Wall, Michelle E.; Little, Dianne; Banes, Albert J.; Guilak, Farshid; Arnoczky, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Tendons mainly function as load-bearing tissues in the muscloskeletal system, transmitting loads from muscle to bone. Tendons are dynamic structures that respond to the magnitude, direction, frequency, and duration of physiologic as well as pathologic mechanical loads via complex interactions between cellular pathways and the highly specialized extracellular matrix. This paper reviews the evolution and current knowledge of mechanobiology in tendon development, homeostasis, disease, and repair. In addition, we review several novel mechanotransduction pathways that have been identified recently in other tissues and cell types, providing potential research opportunities in the field of tendon mechanobiology. We also highlight current methods, models, and technologies being used in a wide variety of mechanobiology research that could be investigated in the context of their potential applicability for answering some of the fundamental unanswered questions in this field. The article concludes with a review of the major questions and future goals discussed during the recent ORS/ISMMS New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference held September 10–11, 2014 in New York City. PMID:25763779

  2. A knowledge network for a dynamic taxonomy of psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Ranga R

    2015-03-01

    Current taxonomic approaches in medicine and psychiatry are limited in validity and utility. They do serve simple communication purposes for medical coding, teaching, and reimbursement, but they are not suited for the modern era with its rapid explosion of knowledge from the "omics" revolution. The National Academy of Sciences published a report entitled Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease. The authors advocate a new taxonomy that would integrate molecular data, clinical data, and health outcomes in a dynamic, iterative fashion, bringing together research, public health, and health-care delivery with the interlinked goals of advancing our understanding of disease pathogenesis and thereby improving health. As the need for an information hub and a knowledge network with a dynamic taxonomy based on integration of clinical and research data is vital, and timely, this proposal merits consideration.

  3. Chagas disease: changes in knowledge and management.

    PubMed

    Lescure, François-Xavier; Le Loup, Guillaume; Freilij, Hector; Develoux, Michel; Paris, Luc; Brutus, Laurent; Pialoux, Gilles

    2010-08-01

    More than 100 years after the discovery of human American trypanosomiasis by Carlos Chagas, our knowledge and management of the disease are profoundly changing. Substantial progress made by disease control programmes in most endemic areas contrasts with persisting difficulties in the Gran Chaco region in South America and the recent emergence of the disease in non-endemic areas because of population movements. In terms of pathogenesis, major discoveries have been made about the life cycle and genomics of Trypanosoma cruzi, and the role of the parasite itself in the chronic phase of the disease. From a clinical perspective, a growing number of arguments have challenged the notion of an indeterminate phase, and suggest new approaches to manage patients. New methods such as standardised PCR will be necessary to ensure follow-up of this chronic infection. Although drugs for treatment of Chagas disease are limited, poorly tolerated, and not very effective, treatment indications are expanding. The results of the Benznidazole Evaluation For Interrupting Trypanosomiasis (BENEFIT) trial in 2012 will also help to inform treatment. Mobilisation of financial resources to fund research on diagnosis and randomised controlled trials of treatment are international health priorities.

  4. Communications Media and Current-Events Knowledge Among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Christopher J.; Schmitz, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 863 college students in a large Midwestern university were polled to ascertain what media sources they might use most extensively for current events, to gauge their actual knowledge of current events, and to compare responses obtained with reported types of media exposure. (Author/MSE)

  5. Current treatment of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, T.; Shimaoka, K.; Mimura, T.; Ito, K.

    1987-04-01

    In this review we have described the rationale for the appropriate treatment of patients with Graves' disease. Because the etiology of this disorder remains obscure, its management remains controversial. Since antithyroid drugs and radioiodine became readily available in the early 1950s, they have been widely used for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis, and the number of cases treated surgically has markedly decreased. However, almost four decades of experience have disclosed an unexpectedly high incidence of delayed hypothyroidism after radioiodine treatment and a low remission rate after antithyroid therapy. As a result, surgery is again being advocated as the treatment of choice. The three modalities of treatment have different advantages and disadvantages, and selection of treatment is of importance. In principle, we believe that for most patients a subtotal thyroidectomy should be performed after the patient has been rendered euthyroid by antithyroid drugs. We attempt to leave a thyroid remnant of 6 to 8 gm.36 references.

  6. Prophylaxis and therapeutic potential of ozone in buiatrics: Current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Đuričić, Dražen; Valpotić, Hrvoje; Samardžija, Marko

    2015-08-01

    Ozone therapy has been in use since 1896 in the USA. As a highly reactive molecule, ozone may inactivate bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeasts and protozoans, stimulate the oxygen metabolism of tissue, treat diseases, activate the immune system, and exhibit strong analgesic activity. More recently, ozone has been used in veterinary medicine, particularly in buiatrics, but still insufficiently. Medical ozone therapy has shown effectiveness as an alternative to the use of antibiotics, which are restricted to clinical use and have been withdrawn from non-clinical use as in-feed growth promoters in animal production. This review is an overview of current knowledge regarding the preventive and therapeutic effects of ozone in ruminants for the treatment of puerperal diseases and improvement in their fertility. In particular, ozone preparations have been tested in the treatment of reproductive tract lesions, urovagina and pneumomovagina, metritis, endometritis, fetal membrane retention and mastitis, as well as in the functional restoration of endometrium in dairy cows and goats. In addition, the preventive use of the intrauterine application of ozone has been assessed in order to evaluate its effectiveness in improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. No adverse effects were observed in cows and goats treated with ozone preparations. Moreover, there is a lot of evidence indicating the advantages of ozone preparation therapy in comparison to the application of antibiotics. However, there are certain limitations on ozone use in veterinary medicine and buiatrics, such as inactivity against intracellular microbes and selective activity against the same bacterial species, as well as the induction of tissue inflammation through inappropriate application of the preparation.

  7. Principals' Knowledge of Fundamental and Current Issues in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakeman, Shawnee Y.; Browder, Diane M.; Flowers, Claudia; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the comprehensive knowledge base of national secondary principals related to special education issues. Using a survey developed from the empirical and conceptual literature for assessing fundamental and current issues in special education, data were collected from a national sample of secondary school…

  8. Conceptual knowledge representation: A cross-section of current research.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Timothy T; Wolmetz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    How is conceptual knowledge encoded in the brain? This special issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology takes stock of current efforts to answer this question through a variety of methods and perspectives. Across this work, three questions recur, each fundamental to knowledge representation in the mind and brain. First, what are the elements of conceptual representation? Second, to what extent are conceptual representations embodied in sensory and motor systems? Third, how are conceptual representations shaped by context, especially linguistic context? In this introductory article we provide relevant background on these themes and introduce how they are addressed by our contributing authors. PMID:27454108

  9. Conceptual knowledge representation: A cross-section of current research.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Timothy T; Wolmetz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    How is conceptual knowledge encoded in the brain? This special issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology takes stock of current efforts to answer this question through a variety of methods and perspectives. Across this work, three questions recur, each fundamental to knowledge representation in the mind and brain. First, what are the elements of conceptual representation? Second, to what extent are conceptual representations embodied in sensory and motor systems? Third, how are conceptual representations shaped by context, especially linguistic context? In this introductory article we provide relevant background on these themes and introduce how they are addressed by our contributing authors.

  10. Knowledge, attitude, and behavior of students regarding 'mad cow disease'.

    PubMed

    Harakeh, Steve; Soweid, Rema Adel Afifi; Nassar, Nabil T; Zananiri, Nathalie S; Tfaily, Rania; Rola, Ali Hassan; Allam, Shirine; Bassim, Mark; Aram, Bouraa Bou; Harkous, Bissan; Nashawi, Tarek

    2003-08-01

    The aim of the current study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of students enrolled at the American University of Beirut (AUB) in Lebanon, towards mad cow disease (MCD). Three hundred and fifty-six students (199 males and 157 females), ranging in age between 17 and 25 years were randomly selected from various majors and were asked to fill out a self-administered questionnaire. It was found that 99.7% of students had heard about MCD and 85.8% knew that the cow is the host for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Seventy five percent reported that animals contract the disease through the consumption of meat and bone meal. Thirty-seven percent wrongly believed that MCD cases were reported in Lebanon and 89% were not satisfied with the measures undertaken by the Lebanese government to curb the disease. Eighty four percent were concerned about the disease and 72% stated having modified their eating habits accordingly. Moreover, students majoring in biology and other health-related majors knew significantly more about MCD compared with students majoring in non-health related majors. A surprising finding was that females were more likely to modify their eating habits than males. Hence, this study provides an insight into the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of AUB students towards MCD. A limitation of this study is that our sample is not representative of all university students in Lebanon. Future surveys should also target students enrolled in other universities in the country. PMID:12873414

  11. Knowledge, attitude, and behavior of students regarding 'mad cow disease'.

    PubMed

    Harakeh, Steve; Soweid, Rema Adel Afifi; Nassar, Nabil T; Zananiri, Nathalie S; Tfaily, Rania; Rola, Ali Hassan; Allam, Shirine; Bassim, Mark; Aram, Bouraa Bou; Harkous, Bissan; Nashawi, Tarek

    2003-08-01

    The aim of the current study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of students enrolled at the American University of Beirut (AUB) in Lebanon, towards mad cow disease (MCD). Three hundred and fifty-six students (199 males and 157 females), ranging in age between 17 and 25 years were randomly selected from various majors and were asked to fill out a self-administered questionnaire. It was found that 99.7% of students had heard about MCD and 85.8% knew that the cow is the host for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Seventy five percent reported that animals contract the disease through the consumption of meat and bone meal. Thirty-seven percent wrongly believed that MCD cases were reported in Lebanon and 89% were not satisfied with the measures undertaken by the Lebanese government to curb the disease. Eighty four percent were concerned about the disease and 72% stated having modified their eating habits accordingly. Moreover, students majoring in biology and other health-related majors knew significantly more about MCD compared with students majoring in non-health related majors. A surprising finding was that females were more likely to modify their eating habits than males. Hence, this study provides an insight into the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of AUB students towards MCD. A limitation of this study is that our sample is not representative of all university students in Lebanon. Future surveys should also target students enrolled in other universities in the country.

  12. Managing inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pinder, Matthew; Lummis, Katie; Selinger, Christian P

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects many women of childbearing age. The course of IBD is closely related to pregnancy outcomes with poorly controlled IBD increasing the risk of prematurity, low weight for gestation, and fetal loss. As such, women with IBD face complex decision making weighing the risks of active disease versus those of medical treatments. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of IBD treatments during pregnancy and lactation aiming to provide up-to-date guidance for clinicians. Over 50% of women have poor IBD- and pregnancy-related knowledge, which is associated with views contrary to medical evidence and voluntary childlessness. This review highlights the effects of poor patient knowledge and critically evaluates interventions for improving patient knowledge and outcomes. PMID:27789969

  13. Alzheimer disease: current concepts & future directions.

    PubMed

    Musiek, Erik S; Schindler, Suzanne E

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in individuals over age 65, and is expected to cause a major public health crisis as the number of older Americans rapidly expands in the next three decades. Herein, we review current strategies for diagnosis and management of AD, and discuss ongoing clinical research and future therapeutic directions in the battle against this devastating disease.

  14. The current status of sheep pox disease.

    PubMed

    Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K

    2006-01-01

    Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem.

  15. Current and Emerging Biomarkers of Cell Death in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kongning; Wu, Deng; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Ying; Miao, Zhengqiang; Jin, Nana; Bi, Xiaoman; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Cell death is a critical biological process, serving many important functions within multicellular organisms. Aberrations in cell death can contribute to the pathology of human diseases. Significant progress made in the research area enormously speeds up our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cell death. According to the distinct morphological and biochemical characteristics, cell death can be triggered by extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death, and mitotic catastrophe. Nevertheless, the realization that all of these efforts seek to pursue an effective treatment and cure for the disease has spurred a significant interest in the development of promising biomarkers of cell death to early diagnose disease and accurately predict disease progression and outcome. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about cell death, survey current and emerging biomarkers of cell death, and discuss the relationship with human diseases. PMID:24949464

  16. The Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…

  17. Geomagnetically induced currents: Present knowledge and future research

    SciTech Connect

    Boteler, D.H. )

    1994-01-01

    The knowledge base regarding the production of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in power systems is briefly reviewed. The relationship between electric and magnetic fields for a layered earth is derived and used to calculate the electric fields produced in Quebec during the March 13, 1989, magnetic disturbance. Factors influencing the distribution of GIC throughout a system are also examined. The transfer functions of the earth and of power systems vary with frequency and so the relation between GIC and magnetic field variations is most appropriately examined in the frequency domain. Data collection requirements to allow this in future research are discussed.

  18. Current research knowledge about adolescent victimization via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Janis; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly; Finkelhor, David

    2007-08-01

    We review current knowledge about adolescent Internet-mediated victimization, including Internet-initiated sex crimes in which offenders use the Internet to meet victims, unwanted online sexual solicitations, Internet harassment, and unwanted and wanted exposure to online pornography. Internet-initiated sex crimes have received considerable publicity, but the media stories have contributed to stereotypes that do not accurately portray adolescent Internet experience. Adults' concerns are valid but need to be supported with information that illuminates the real safety issues and targets the specific population of youth impacted.

  19. Epigenetics of Addiction: Current Knowledge, Challenges, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; Walton, Esther; Viding, Essi

    2016-09-01

    Addiction to psychoactive substances is a debilitating condition underpinned by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. At present, a key challenge for research is to delineate how, at a molecular level, these influences become "biologically embedded," contributing to the onset and persistence of addictive behaviors. Recently, epigenetic processes that regulate gene expression have emerged as a potential mechanism of interest. In this commentary, we discuss the relevance of epigenetics to addiction research, starting with the current state of knowledge, what challenges we have yet to overcome, and what the future may hold in terms of research methodology and translational potential. PMID:27588525

  20. Current role of capsule endoscopy in Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Luján-Sanchis, Marisol; Sanchis-Artero, Laura; Larrey-Ruiz, Laura; Peño-Muñoz, Laura; Núñez-Martínez, Paola; Castillo-López, Génesis; González-González, Lara; Clemente, Carlos Boix; Albert Antequera, Cecilia; Durá-Ayet, Ana; Sempere-Garcia-Argüelles, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) currently plays an important role in Crohn’s disease (CD). It is a noninvasive technique that has led to a breakthrough in the endoscopic diagnosis of diseases of the small intestine. Its superior diagnostic performance and excellent safety profile lead to its considerable acceptance on the part of the patient. This paper reviews current indications of CE in three stages of clinical practice: Suspected CD, unclassified colitis and its extensive role in diagnosed CD. The diagnostic and therapeutic impact of the results of CE on the monitoring of this disease is also reviewed. Knowledge of its applications, the interpretation of its results in an appropriate context and the existence of a validated endoscopic activity index could change the way in which these patients are managed. The definition of mucosal healing and postoperative recurrence by means of endoscopic scoring systems will endow CE with new applications in the management of CD in the near future.

  1. Current role of capsule endoscopy in Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Luján-Sanchis, Marisol; Sanchis-Artero, Laura; Larrey-Ruiz, Laura; Peño-Muñoz, Laura; Núñez-Martínez, Paola; Castillo-López, Génesis; González-González, Lara; Clemente, Carlos Boix; Albert Antequera, Cecilia; Durá-Ayet, Ana; Sempere-Garcia-Argüelles, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) currently plays an important role in Crohn’s disease (CD). It is a noninvasive technique that has led to a breakthrough in the endoscopic diagnosis of diseases of the small intestine. Its superior diagnostic performance and excellent safety profile lead to its considerable acceptance on the part of the patient. This paper reviews current indications of CE in three stages of clinical practice: Suspected CD, unclassified colitis and its extensive role in diagnosed CD. The diagnostic and therapeutic impact of the results of CE on the monitoring of this disease is also reviewed. Knowledge of its applications, the interpretation of its results in an appropriate context and the existence of a validated endoscopic activity index could change the way in which these patients are managed. The definition of mucosal healing and postoperative recurrence by means of endoscopic scoring systems will endow CE with new applications in the management of CD in the near future. PMID:27668067

  2. Current role of capsule endoscopy in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Luján-Sanchis, Marisol; Sanchis-Artero, Laura; Larrey-Ruiz, Laura; Peño-Muñoz, Laura; Núñez-Martínez, Paola; Castillo-López, Génesis; González-González, Lara; Clemente, Carlos Boix; Albert Antequera, Cecilia; Durá-Ayet, Ana; Sempere-Garcia-Argüelles, Javier

    2016-09-16

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) currently plays an important role in Crohn's disease (CD). It is a noninvasive technique that has led to a breakthrough in the endoscopic diagnosis of diseases of the small intestine. Its superior diagnostic performance and excellent safety profile lead to its considerable acceptance on the part of the patient. This paper reviews current indications of CE in three stages of clinical practice: Suspected CD, unclassified colitis and its extensive role in diagnosed CD. The diagnostic and therapeutic impact of the results of CE on the monitoring of this disease is also reviewed. Knowledge of its applications, the interpretation of its results in an appropriate context and the existence of a validated endoscopic activity index could change the way in which these patients are managed. The definition of mucosal healing and postoperative recurrence by means of endoscopic scoring systems will endow CE with new applications in the management of CD in the near future. PMID:27668067

  3. Current knowledge, gaps and challenges in the Southern European Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathanassiou, Evangelos

    2015-04-01

    New knowledge advances our current understanding on the selection and application of the appropriate tools for assessing the state of the marine environment in the Southern European Seas (SES). Diminishing the lack of knowledge is a prerequisite for sound policy decisions. Although gaps and knowledge are fewer today, the health of marine and coastal ecosystems in the SES is under pressure and shows, in places, some signs of deterioration and declining quality. Overall, there is a lack of data accessibility and long time series in the SES, while in many cases poorly constrained processes cannot really support knowledge-based policy making (e.g. ecosystem functioning, climate change, fisheries management, etc.). New knowledge has to be produced and excellence must be promoted to support sustainable economic growth. At the same time, existing and new capacities have to be upgraded and increased in order to support sustainable convergence between SES countries. There are several gaps that have been identified and processes that have been poorly understood in the SES, mainly from research projects that have been working at basin level. The main research priorities that have been identified from the SeasERA Project for both, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea include: the climate change and its impacts, the hydrological cycle, the ventilation and the inter-basin coupling, the marine biodiversity and the provision of goods and services, the marine protected areas, the deep sea ecosystems, the biological invasions, the marine pollution and the ocean and human health, the renewable energy, the maritime transport, the fisheries and aquaculture activities and the biotechnology and the exploitation of marine resources for industrial application. More important, however, is the fact that the economic, the social and the scientific and the environmental challenges must be collectively tackled. They should have prioritisation and clear objectives as well as data sharing for

  4. [Current issues on gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Kim, Jie-Hyun; Kim, Beom Jin; Kim, Sang Wook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yeon Soo; Sung, Hye Young; Oh, Tae-Hoon; Jeong, In Du; Park, Moo In

    2014-09-25

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common problems in gastrointestinal disorders. With the increase in our understanding on the pathophysiology of GERD along with the development of proton pump inhibitors, the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to GERD have changed dramatically over the past decade. However, GERD still poses a problem to many clinicians since the spectrum of the disease has evolved to encompass more challenging presentations such as refractory GERD and extraesophageal manifestations. This has led to significant confusion regarding the optimal approach to these patients. This article aims to discuss current issues on GERD.

  5. Climate change and respiratory health: current evidence and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Knowlton, Kim; Balmes, John R

    2013-08-01

    Climate change is a key driver of the accelerating environmental change affecting populations around the world. Many of these changes and our response to them can affect respiratory health. This is an expert opinion review of recent peer-reviewed literature, focused on more recent medical journals and climate-health relevant modeling results from non-biomedical journals pertaining to climate interactions with air pollution. Global health impacts in low resource countries and migration precipitated by environmental change are addressed. The major findings are of respiratory health effects related to heat, air pollution, shifts in infectious diseases and allergens, flooding, water, food security and migration. The review concludes with knowledge gaps and research need that will support the evidence-base required to address the challenges ahead.

  6. Epigenetic mechanisms in microbial members of the human microbiota: current knowledge and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cureau, Natacha; AlJahdali, Nesreen; Vo, Nguyen; Carbonero, Franck

    2016-09-01

    The human microbiota and epigenetic processes have both been shown to play a crucial role in health and disease. However, there is extremely scarce information on epigenetic modulation of microbiota members except for a few pathogens. Mainly DNA adenine methylation has been described extensively in modulating the virulence of pathogenic bacteria in particular. It would thus appear likely that such mechanisms are widespread for most bacterial members of the microbiota. This review will present briefly the current knowledge on epigenetic processes in bacteria, give examples of known methylation processes in microbial members of the human microbiota and summarize the knowledge on regulation of host epigenetic processes by the human microbiota. PMID:27587189

  7. Cyanobactins from Cyanobacteria: Current Genetic and Chemical State of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Joana; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to be one of the most promising sources of new, natural products. Apart from non-ribosomal peptides and polyketides, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are one of the leading groups of bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Among these, cyanobactins have sparked attention due to their interesting bioactivities and for their potential to be prospective candidates in the development of drugs. It is assumed that the primary source of cyanobactins is cyanobacteria, although these compounds have also been isolated from marine animals such as ascidians, sponges and mollusks. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge of cyanobactins, recognized as being produced by cyanobacteria, and to emphasize their genetic clusters and chemical structures as well as their bioactivities, ecological roles and biotechnological potential. PMID:26580631

  8. Cyanobactins from Cyanobacteria: Current Genetic and Chemical State of Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Martins, Joana; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-11-13

    Cyanobacteria are considered to be one of the most promising sources of new, natural products. Apart from non-ribosomal peptides and polyketides, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are one of the leading groups of bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Among these, cyanobactins have sparked attention due to their interesting bioactivities and for their potential to be prospective candidates in the development of drugs. It is assumed that the primary source of cyanobactins is cyanobacteria, although these compounds have also been isolated from marine animals such as ascidians, sponges and mollusks. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge of cyanobactins, recognized as being produced by cyanobacteria, and to emphasize their genetic clusters and chemical structures as well as their bioactivities, ecological roles and biotechnological potential.

  9. The Transition to High School: Current Knowledge, Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the American educational system, school transitions are frequent and predictable, but they can disrupt student functioning across developmental domains. How students experience school transitions has been a focus of research for some time, but the high school transition has received less attention, and the limited research often focuses on a particular developmental domain (e.g., academics and socioemotional well-being) to the exclusion of a more integrated model. This review relies on life course theory to establish an organizational framework for interpreting and connecting the diffuse and sometimes disparate findings on the high school transition, including adolescent developmental trajectories and the influence of social ties, changing sociocultural contexts, and stratification systems. Conclusions identify aspects for future inquiry suggested by current knowledge and the tenets of the life course perspective. PMID:21966178

  10. Paederus Outbreaks in Human Settings: A Review of Current Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bong, Lee-Jin; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Jaal, Zairi; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2015-07-01

    Although rove beetles (Paederus spp.) play a beneficial role as biological control agents to manage crop pests in agro-ecosystems, their high prevalence in human settings has elevated them to pest status in urban areas. Rove beetles neither bite nor sting, but accidental crushing on human skin causes them to release the toxin paederin, which causes dermatitis linearis. This review integrates currently available knowledge about the issues pertaining to Paederus infestation. For instance, the results of life history studies conducted under different food and temperature regimes are summarized, as they indicate how large a population can be in a habitat to cause massive and widespread infestation and illustrate the physiological traits required to maintain the population at the maximum level even under adverse conditions. In contrast to what is generally reported, we speculate that climatic factors do not necessarily result in Paederus dispersal in temperate regions; instead, habitat disturbance and site unsuitability may be the main factors that lead to massive dispersal to human settings. Factors such as whether dispersers are adaptable to xeric conditions in human settings, the probability that dispersed Paederus mate with the opposite sex, and whether dispersers have adequate nutrient intake to reproduce are considered to evaluate their potential to reproduce in human settings. Finally, the effectiveness of current commercial insecticides, challenges faced in managing infestations, and sustainable management practices are discussed to provide information for long-term control programs. PMID:26335457

  11. Bassoonists' medical problems-current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dawson, William J

    2012-06-01

    Specific musical instruments can be a source of physical problems to their players. Based on reviews of the literature and personal experience, this paper summarizes current knowledge of problems affecting musicians who play instruments in the bassoon family (including the bassoon, contrabassoon, and several other instruments). Prevalence rates are higher in reports of surveys (ranging up to 86%), compared to clinical reports of patients seen and treated. Significant risk factors include young age, small body size, female gender, and use of large instruments. Problems unique to bassoonists are rare; most physical difficulties also are seen in general musculoskeletal clinical practices and in musicians playing all types of instruments. The left upper extremity is more commonly affected by overuse-related conditions in bassoonists. Non-playing-related problems are equally important for consideration (such as degenerative disorders and acute trauma), since they also affect practice and performance. Little experimental data exist to validate current and widely-held principles of treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention.

  12. Paederus Outbreaks in Human Settings: A Review of Current Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bong, Lee-Jin; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Jaal, Zairi; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2015-07-01

    Although rove beetles (Paederus spp.) play a beneficial role as biological control agents to manage crop pests in agro-ecosystems, their high prevalence in human settings has elevated them to pest status in urban areas. Rove beetles neither bite nor sting, but accidental crushing on human skin causes them to release the toxin paederin, which causes dermatitis linearis. This review integrates currently available knowledge about the issues pertaining to Paederus infestation. For instance, the results of life history studies conducted under different food and temperature regimes are summarized, as they indicate how large a population can be in a habitat to cause massive and widespread infestation and illustrate the physiological traits required to maintain the population at the maximum level even under adverse conditions. In contrast to what is generally reported, we speculate that climatic factors do not necessarily result in Paederus dispersal in temperate regions; instead, habitat disturbance and site unsuitability may be the main factors that lead to massive dispersal to human settings. Factors such as whether dispersers are adaptable to xeric conditions in human settings, the probability that dispersed Paederus mate with the opposite sex, and whether dispersers have adequate nutrient intake to reproduce are considered to evaluate their potential to reproduce in human settings. Finally, the effectiveness of current commercial insecticides, challenges faced in managing infestations, and sustainable management practices are discussed to provide information for long-term control programs.

  13. Cirrhosis and autoimmune liver disease: Current understanding

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Grant, Charlotte R

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) constitute the classic autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs). While AIH target the hepatocytes, in PBC and PSC the targets of the autoimmune attack are the biliary epithelial cells. Persistent liver injury, associated with chronic AILD, leads to un-resolving inflammation, cell proliferation and the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells and portal myofibroblasts. Liver cirrhosis, and the resultant loss of normal liver function, inevitably ensues. Patients with cirrhosis have higher risks or morbidity and mortality, and that in the decompensated phase, complications of portal hypertension and/or liver dysfunction lead to rapid deterioration. Accurate diagnosis and monitoring of cirrhosis is, therefore of upmost importance. Liver biopsy is currently the gold standard technique, but highly promising non-invasive methodology is under development. Liver transplantation (LT) is an effective therapeutic option for the management of end-stage liver disease secondary to AIH, PBC and PSC. LT is indicated for AILD patients who have progressed to end-stage chronic liver disease or developed intractable symptoms or hepatic malignancy; in addition, LT may also be indicated for patients presenting with acute liver disease due to AIH who do not respond to steroids. PMID:27729952

  14. Anatomy of the human mammary gland: Current status of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hassiotou, Foteini; Geddes, Donna

    2013-01-01

    Mammary glands are unique to mammals, with the specific function of synthesizing, secreting, and delivering milk to the newborn. Given this function, it is only during a pregnancy/lactation cycle that the gland reaches a mature developmental state via hormonal influences at the cellular level that effect drastic modifications in the micro- and macro-anatomy of the gland, resulting in remodeling of the gland into a milk-secretory organ. Pubertal and post-pubertal development of the breast in females aids in preparing it to assume a functional state during pregnancy and lactation. Remarkably, this organ has the capacity to regress to a resting state upon cessation of lactation, and then undergo the same cycle of expansion and regression again in subsequent pregnancies during reproductive life. This plasticity suggests tight hormonal regulation, which is paramount for the normal function of the gland. This review presents the current status of knowledge of the normal macro- and micro-anatomy of the human mammary gland and the distinct changes it undergoes during the key developmental stages that characterize it, from embryonic life through to post-menopausal age. In addition, it discusses recent advances in our understanding of the normal function of the breast during lactation, with special reference to breastmilk, its composition, and how it can be utilized as a tool to advance knowledge on normal and aberrant breast development and function. Finally, anatomical and molecular traits associated with aberrant expansion of the breast are discussed to set the basis for future comparisons that may illuminate the origin of breast cancer.

  15. Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics; state of current knowledge and implementation in practice.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Payman; Dubé, Marie-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is the science that examines how an individual's genetic make-up affects the safety and efficacy of therapeutic drugs. PGx of response to cardiovascular (CV) medications is of the most successfully translated branches of PGx into the clinical workout. However, the clinical implementation of PGx of CV drugs is yet far beyond the growth of our understanding of the role of genetics in drug therapy. A considerable amount of efforts have been devoted by the regulatory agents like the food and drug administration (FDA) as well as the expert-based networks such as the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) to overcome the existing barriers. This has been done, at least in part, for some of the most widely prescribed CV drugs, including clopidogrel, warfarin and simvastatin for which the PGx knowledge have been satisfactorily robust to provoke the CPIC to issue the guidelines for these drugs and the FDA to update the drugs' labeling, both strongly recommended the use of genotype-guided dosing for these medications, provided that the genetic data are available. For other drugs, however, studies have produced contradictory results and further large and well-designed clinical trials are required to expand and confirm the clinical utility of their PGx data. This review paper presents the current state of knowledge in the field of PGx of CV medications and describes the facilities assisting to the translation of PGx data into the clinical practice. Afterward, the existing body of PGx literature of the most-commonly used CV medications is comprehensively discussed.

  16. Genomics and pharmacogenomics of breast cancer: current knowledge and trends.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Nehad; Lucas, Courtney; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2011-01-01

    The impact of genomics and pharmacogenomics in the current arena of clinical oncology is well-established. In breast cancer, mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been well-characterized to carry a high risk of the disease during a woman's lifespan. However, these high risk genes contribute to only a small proportion of the familial cases of breast cancer. Hence, further efforts aimed to study the contribution of genetic mutations in other genes, including the estrogen receptor gene, TP53, CYP19, and mismatch repair genes to further investigate the genetic component of breast cancer. Multiple pharmacogenomic studies have previously linked genetic variants in known pathways with treatment response in cancer patients. Currently, polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes, efflux transporters, as well as, drug targets have shown correlations to variations in response and toxicity to commonly prescribed chemotherapeutic treatments of breast cancer. CYP2D6 variants have been correlated with tamoxifen response and interindividual variability seen. An emerging application of cancer genetics and pharmacogenetics involves the use of inherited or acquired genetic abnormalities to predict treatment toxicity or outcomes. Recently, methods that involve the scanning of entire genomes for common variants have begun to influence studies of cancer causation. Currently, treatment individualization for breast cancer can take place on the basis of few molecular targets including the estrogen receptor and the overexpression of the HER2 receptor. Overall, the current review summarizes the recent findings in the genetic and pharmacogenetic research of breast cancer and the advances made in personalization of treatment. PMID:21875255

  17. People's knowledge of health and disease.

    PubMed

    Farrow, S C; Charny, M C; Lewis, P A

    1990-02-01

    A community survey based on the Cardiff electoral register was carried out in 1986. Seven hundred and ten adults were asked 10 open-ended questions about common serious illnesses in the United Kingdom and were given 18 statements about common diseases and asked to state whether they were true or false. This paper reports their responses. Amongst those gaining the highest scores there were more young people, more females, more from social classes I and II and more who had been educated to college or university level. We discuss the implications of the results for patient behaviour and for health education programmes. PMID:2390306

  18. People's knowledge of health and disease.

    PubMed

    Farrow, S C; Charny, M C; Lewis, P A

    1990-02-01

    A community survey based on the Cardiff electoral register was carried out in 1986. Seven hundred and ten adults were asked 10 open-ended questions about common serious illnesses in the United Kingdom and were given 18 statements about common diseases and asked to state whether they were true or false. This paper reports their responses. Amongst those gaining the highest scores there were more young people, more females, more from social classes I and II and more who had been educated to college or university level. We discuss the implications of the results for patient behaviour and for health education programmes.

  19. Centipede venom: recent discoveries and current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2015-02-25

    Centipedes are among the oldest extant venomous predators on the planet. Armed with a pair of modified, venom-bearing limbs, they are an important group of predatory arthropods and are infamous for their ability to deliver painful stings. Despite this, very little is known about centipede venom and its composition. Advances in analytical tools, however, have recently provided the first detailed insights into the composition and evolution of centipede venoms. This has revealed that centipede venom proteins are highly diverse, with 61 phylogenetically distinct venom protein and peptide families. A number of these have been convergently recruited into the venoms of other animals, providing valuable information on potential underlying causes of the occasionally serious complications arising from human centipede envenomations. However, the majority of venom protein and peptide families bear no resemblance to any characterised protein or peptide family, highlighting the novelty of centipede venoms. This review highlights recent discoveries and summarises the current state of knowledge on the fascinating venom system of centipedes.

  20. Centipede Venom: Recent Discoveries and Current State of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Fry, Bryan G.; King, Glenn F.

    2015-01-01

    Centipedes are among the oldest extant venomous predators on the planet. Armed with a pair of modified, venom-bearing limbs, they are an important group of predatory arthropods and are infamous for their ability to deliver painful stings. Despite this, very little is known about centipede venom and its composition. Advances in analytical tools, however, have recently provided the first detailed insights into the composition and evolution of centipede venoms. This has revealed that centipede venom proteins are highly diverse, with 61 phylogenetically distinct venom protein and peptide families. A number of these have been convergently recruited into the venoms of other animals, providing valuable information on potential underlying causes of the occasionally serious complications arising from human centipede envenomations. However, the majority of venom protein and peptide families bear no resemblance to any characterised protein or peptide family, highlighting the novelty of centipede venoms. This review highlights recent discoveries and summarises the current state of knowledge on the fascinating venom system of centipedes. PMID:25723324

  1. Phocine Distemper Virus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Duignan, Pádraig J.; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Baker, Jason D.; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M.; De Guise, Sylvain; de Swart, Rik L.; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Duprex, W. Paul; Early, Greg; Fauquier, Deborah; Goldstein, Tracey; Goodman, Simon J.; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R.; Gulland, Frances; Hall, Ailsa; Jensen, Brenda A.; Lamy, Karina; Matassa, Keith; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E.; Nielsen, Ole; Rotstein, David; Rowles, Teresa K.; Saliki, Jeremy T.; Siebert, Ursula; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F.X.

    2014-01-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years. PMID:25533658

  2. Centipede venom: recent discoveries and current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2015-03-01

    Centipedes are among the oldest extant venomous predators on the planet. Armed with a pair of modified, venom-bearing limbs, they are an important group of predatory arthropods and are infamous for their ability to deliver painful stings. Despite this, very little is known about centipede venom and its composition. Advances in analytical tools, however, have recently provided the first detailed insights into the composition and evolution of centipede venoms. This has revealed that centipede venom proteins are highly diverse, with 61 phylogenetically distinct venom protein and peptide families. A number of these have been convergently recruited into the venoms of other animals, providing valuable information on potential underlying causes of the occasionally serious complications arising from human centipede envenomations. However, the majority of venom protein and peptide families bear no resemblance to any characterised protein or peptide family, highlighting the novelty of centipede venoms. This review highlights recent discoveries and summarises the current state of knowledge on the fascinating venom system of centipedes. PMID:25723324

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from grasslands: current knowledge and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merbold, L. M.; Wohlfahrt, G. W.

    2012-04-01

    Grassland ecosystems in a wider sense cover up to 40% of the global terrestrial surface (White et al. 2000). Knowledge about the exchange of the major greenhouse gases (GHG's, carbon dioxide - CO2, methane - CH4 and nitrous oxide - N2O) remains still limited for grasslands, while other ecosystems such as forests and peatlands (particularly systems storing large amounts of carbon) have been investigated more intensively. Here, we give an overview of the current state of GHG measurements in the alpine region of Europe (Switzerland, Austria) and the associated challenges in deriving annual GHG budgets as well as determining the abiotic and biotic variables driving the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O. In particular the importance of management activities, that is fertilization and removal of above-ground biomass through harvesting and grazing, besides climate, the challenges when trying to measure small fluxes of CH4 and N2O using chamber or micrometeorological methods and the need of including winter emissions in annual balances will be stressed.

  4. Phocine distemper virus: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Duignan, Pádraig J; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Baker, Jason D; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M; De Guise, Sylvain; de Swart, Rik L; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Duprex, W Paul; Early, Greg; Fauquier, Deborah; Goldstein, Tracey; Goodman, Simon J; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R; Gulland, Frances; Hall, Ailsa; Jensen, Brenda A; Lamy, Karina; Matassa, Keith; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E; Nielsen, Ole; Rotstein, David; Rowles, Teresa K; Saliki, Jeremy T; Siebert, Ursula; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-12-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years. PMID:25533658

  5. Phocine distemper virus: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Duignan, Pádraig J; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Baker, Jason D; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M; De Guise, Sylvain; de Swart, Rik L; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Duprex, W Paul; Early, Greg; Fauquier, Deborah; Goldstein, Tracey; Goodman, Simon J; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R; Gulland, Frances; Hall, Ailsa; Jensen, Brenda A; Lamy, Karina; Matassa, Keith; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E; Nielsen, Ole; Rotstein, David; Rowles, Teresa K; Saliki, Jeremy T; Siebert, Ursula; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-12-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years.

  6. Self-Efficacy, Media Use as Predictors of Current-Events Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhagen, John E.

    1994-01-01

    Finds that current-affairs knowledge among journalism students was correlated to newspaper use but that, when student self-efficacy was taken into account, newspaper use no longer served as a robust predictor of current-affairs knowledge. (SR)

  7. Current and future treatment of amyloid diseases.

    PubMed

    Ankarcrona, M; Winblad, B; Monteiro, C; Fearns, C; Powers, E T; Johansson, J; Westermark, G T; Presto, J; Ericzon, B-G; Kelly, J W

    2016-08-01

    There are more than 30 human proteins whose aggregation appears to cause degenerative maladies referred to as amyloid diseases or amyloidoses. These disorders are named after the characteristic cross-β-sheet amyloid fibrils that accumulate systemically or are localized to specific organs. In most cases, current treatment is limited to symptomatic approaches and thus disease-modifying therapies are needed. Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with extracellular amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) fibrils and intracellular tau neurofibrillary tangles as pathological hallmarks. Numerous clinical trials have been conducted with passive and active immunotherapy, and small molecules to inhibit Aβ formation and aggregation or to enhance Aβ clearance; so far such clinical trials have been unsuccessful. Novel strategies are therefore required and here we will discuss the possibility of utilizing the chaperone BRICHOS to prevent Aβ aggregation and toxicity. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is symptomatically treated with insulin. However, the underlying pathology is linked to the aggregation and progressive accumulation of islet amyloid polypeptide as fibrils and oligomers, which are cytotoxic. Several compounds have been shown to inhibit islet amyloid aggregation and cytotoxicity in vitro. Future animal studies and clinical trials have to be conducted to determine their efficacy in vivo. The transthyretin (TTR) amyloidoses are a group of systemic degenerative diseases compromising multiple organ systems, caused by TTR aggregation. Liver transplantation decreases the generation of misfolded TTR and improves the quality of life for a subgroup of this patient population. Compounds that stabilize the natively folded, nonamyloidogenic, tetrameric conformation of TTR have been developed and the drug tafamidis is available as a promising treatment. PMID:27165517

  8. Vitamin D in the light of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Radlović, Nedeljko; Mladenović, Marija; Simić, Dusica; Radlović, Petar

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D, i.e., 1.25(OH)2D, is an essential factor, not only of homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus, but also of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, immune and hormonal regulation, as well as other body processes.Thus, its optimal presence in the body is of exceptional significance for health, both of children, as well as adults and elderly persons. Today, it is known that the lack of vitamin D, besides having negative effects on the skeleton and teeth, also contributes to the development of various malignancies, primarily of the large bowel, prostate and breasts, as well as of autoimmune and allergic diseases, diabetes mellitus type II, arterial hypertension and others. Considered from the biological aspect, physiological requirements in vitamin D are achieved by cutaneous synthesis from 7-dehydrocholesterol during sun exposure, while, except rarely, it is very scarce in food. Having in mind extensive evidence that sun exposure presents a high risk for the development of skin malignancies, primarily melanoma, it is clear that humans are deprived of the natural and basic source of vitamin D. In accordance, as well as based on numerous epidemiological studies showing the increase of diseases, in the basis of which vitamin D deficiency plays the important role, next led to the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin D, regardless of age. According to current attitudes, it is recommended that the daily dietary allowances of vitamin D, i.e., the quantity of oral intake that would safely cover the optimal body requirements should be 400 IU for ages 0-18 years, 600 IU for ages 19-70 years and 800 IU for persons aged over 70 years. PMID:22462359

  9. 46 CFR 11.713 - Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters... § 11.713 Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated. (a) If a first class... current knowledge of the route. Persons using this method of re-familiarization shall certify,...

  10. Passive Immunization against Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: Current State of Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jückstock, Julia; Rothenburger, Markus; Friese, Klaus; Traunmüller, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Primary infection with the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) occurs in 1-4% of pregnancies. The rates of maternal-fetal CMV transmissions are around 25, 36, 41, and 66%, for infections occurring in the peri-conceptional weeks, first, second, and third trimester of pregnancy, respectively. On the other hand, the severity of fetal organ damage and dysfunction diminishes with increasing gestational age. Congenitally CMV-infected newborns may have neurosensory impairments like mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, progressive hearing loss or visual defects, or even may have a fatal outcome. In in-vitro experiments, CMV specific neutralizing IgG antibodies - which are abundant in CMV specific hyperimmune globulin (HIG) products - inhibited the entry of the virus into target cells and hampered viral cell-to-cell spread. This article provides a brief overview on the epidemiology and diagnostic tools in congenital CMV infection. It also concisely summarizes the currently available study results on the safety and effectiveness of HIG treatment. Accordingly, in clinical studies HIG administration to expectant mothers following primary CMV infection (prophylactic use) was shown to lower the risk of maternal-fetal transmission of CMV compared to untreated controls. HIG was also able to ameliorate the disease sequelae in evidently infected fetuses (therapeutic use), as demonstrated by the regression or even resolution of sonographic pathologies including placental inflammation.

  11. Latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult: current knowledge and uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Laugesen, E; Østergaard, J A; Leslie, R D G

    2015-01-01

    Patients with adult-onset autoimmune diabetes have less Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA)-associated genetic risk and fewer diabetes-associated autoantibodies compared with patients with childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes. Metabolic changes at diagnosis reflect a broad clinical phenotype ranging from diabetic ketoacidosis to mild non-insulin-requiring diabetes, also known as latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA). This latter phenotype is the most prevalent form of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes and probably the most prevalent form of autoimmune diabetes in general. Although LADA is associated with the same genetic and immunological features as childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes, it also shares some genetic features with Type 2 diabetes, which raises the question of genetic heterogeneity predisposing to this form of the disease. The potential value of screening patients with adult-onset diabetes for diabetes-associated autoantibodies to identify those with LADA is emphasized by their lack of clinically distinct features, their different natural history compared with Type 2 diabetes and their potential need for a dedicated management strategy. The fact that, in some studies, patients with LADA show worse glucose control than patients with Type 2 diabetes, highlights the need for further therapeutic studies. Challenges regarding classification, epidemiology, genetics, metabolism, immunology, clinical presentation and treatment of LADA were discussed at a 2014 workshop arranged by the Danish Diabetes Academy. The presentations and discussions are summarized in this review, which sets out the current ideas and controversies surrounding this form of diabetes. What’s new? Latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA) is an autoimmune diabetes defined by adult-onset, presence of diabetes associated autoantibodies, and no insulin treatment requirement for a period after diagnosis. Immunologically, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies are by far the most

  12. Inflammatory bowel diseases: Current problems and future tasks.

    PubMed

    Actis, Giovanni C; Pellicano, Rinaldo; Rosina, Floriano

    2014-08-01

    Current knowledge on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is mainly endorsed by controlled trials and epidemiologic studies. Yet, we seldom look at the messages from real-world practice. Among a patient population followed since 2008, we looked at an unselected sample of 64 IBD patients [26 Crohn's disease (CD) and 38 ulcerative colitis (UC)] who had been seen as out-patients in the last year. Inducing remission, mesalamines (86% for UC/69% for CD/33%-16% as MMX formulation) prevailed as prescriptions; steroids (55%/19% for UC/CD) ranked second. Prescription of third-party drugs (antibiotics, NSAIDs, biologics) and adherence, were issues in the maintenance. 34% of CD, and 23% of UC patients showed accompanying immunologic diseases: CD-associated familiar psoriasis (4:9) ranked first. Main Message. The association between IBD (CD mainly) and psoriasis, now found in our practice, matches current basic science gathering IBD together with psoriasis (and perhaps chronic respiratory disease) under the comprehensive term "barrier organ disease" wherein an epithelial surface with sensor systems rules contacts between outer antigens and a reactive underneath tissue, with the balance between inflammation and quiescence kept at any time by mucosal permeability. IBD is thus viewed as a polyfactorial/polygenic/syndromic disorder, embedded into a galaxy of immune conditions offering multiple points of attack. This mindset of splitting the IBDs into pathogenic categories may allow overcoming the uniformly targeting of a single cytokine by biological drugs, in favor of demarcating the boundaries between different disease-subtype-specific indications, and paving the way to future personalized strategies. PMID:25133045

  13. Knowledge of infectious disease reporting amongst military and civilian medical officers.

    PubMed

    Drysdale, S F

    1994-10-01

    Anecdotally expressed concern over the military/civilian interface regarding infectious disease notification, and the current review of procedures in both civilian and military settings prompted this study. Its aim was to quantify knowledge of doctors involved in the provision of care to Army personnel and their dependants in the United Kingdom regarding infectious disease reporting and make recommendations to improve the process. A questionnaire was sent to all such military and civilian doctors in the Southern Military District of England. The group was no less knowledgeable than others studied previously. Differences were found in the knowledge of reporting procedures between civilian and military doctors, with military hospital doctors demonstrating particularly poor knowledge. It is recommended that specific instruction on all aspects of infectious disease reporting be given to doctors joining the Army and to civilian GPs involved in care of the Military.

  14. Lyme disease and current aspects of immunization

    PubMed Central

    Kamradt, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne multisystem disease that affects primarily the skin, nervous system, heart and joints. At least three species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, namely Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii, can cause the disease. This review will focus mainly on the pathophysiology of Lyme arthritis, the long-term outcome of Lyme disease, and the recently licensed vaccine against Lyme disease. PMID:11879534

  15. Current Pharmacological Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Kuang; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Wang, Sophie S. W.; Lu, Chien-Yu; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Su, Yu-Chung; Yang, Sheau-Fang; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a common disorder with troublesome symptoms caused by reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, has adverse impact on quality of life. A variety of medications have been used in GERD treatment, and acid suppression therapy is the mainstay of treatment for GERD. Although proton pump inhibitor is the most potent acid suppressant and provides good efficacy in esophagitis healing and symptom relief, about one-third of patients with GERD still have persistent symptoms with poor response to standard dose PPI. Antacids, alginate, histamine type-2 receptor antagonists, and prokinetic agents are usually used as add-on therapy to PPI in clinical practice. Development of novel therapeutic agents has focused on the underlying mechanisms of GERD, such as transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, motility disorder, mucosal protection, and esophageal hypersensitivity. Newer formulations of PPI with faster and longer duration of action and potassium-competitive acid blocker, a newer acid suppressant, have also been investigated in clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the current and developing therapeutic agents for GERD treatment. PMID:23878534

  16. From Information to Knowledge: Some Reflections on the Origin of the Current Shifting Towards Knowledge Processing and Further Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluic-Vukovic, Vesna

    2001-01-01

    Examines reasons that prompted the current shift from information to knowledge processing, encompassing both social contextualization and the recent technological advance. Discusses knowledge production, viewed as a five-step process. The highly interdisciplinary perspective and the primacy of the user are distinguished as necessary prerequisites…

  17. Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…

  18. Dietary selection by domestic grazing ruminants: Current state of knowledge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminants grazing biodiverse pasture face many choices, including when and where to graze and how much herbage to consume. Scientific research has led to considerable knowledge about some of these choices (e.g. herbage DMI), but other aspects of the complex decision-making process of a grazing rumin...

  19. Diagnoses, syndromes, and diseases: a knowledge representation problem.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Franz; Karras, Bryant T; Phillips, Richard; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wolf, Fred

    2003-01-01

    Despite their widespread use, the terms "syndrome", "disease" and "diagnosis" are sometimes utilized improperly and ambiguously, compounding the complexities of medical knowledge representation. The definitions and illustrative examples provided here will be useful for developers of diagnostic expert systems. Description of the Problem Representing medical knowledge is a highly complex endeavor. The improper use of the terms "syndrome", "disease" and their relations to "diagnosis" is one of the difficulties with which medical informaticians must deal, especially when developing expert systems to support diagnoses. Although ubiquitous in medical and lay discourse, the term "disease" has no unambiguous, generally accepted definition. How-ever, most of those using this term allow themselves the comfortable delusion that everyone knows what it means. Only sparse and fragmented literature could be found regarding this issue.

  20. Disease Related Knowledge Summarization Based on Deep Graph Search

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaofang; Yang, Zhihao; Li, ZhiHeng; Lin, Hongfei; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The volume of published biomedical literature on disease related knowledge is expanding rapidly. Traditional information retrieval (IR) techniques, when applied to large databases such as PubMed, often return large, unmanageable lists of citations that do not fulfill the searcher's information needs. In this paper, we present an approach to automatically construct disease related knowledge summarization from biomedical literature. In this approach, firstly Kullback-Leibler Divergence combined with mutual information metric is used to extract disease salient information. Then deep search based on depth first search (DFS) is applied to find hidden (indirect) relations between biomedical entities. Finally random walk algorithm is exploited to filter out the weak relations. The experimental results show that our approach achieves a precision of 60% and a recall of 61% on salient information extraction for Carcinoma of bladder and outperforms the method of Combo. PMID:26413521

  1. A Systematic Review of Athletes’ and Coaches’ Nutrition Knowledge and Reflections on the Quality of Current Nutrition Knowledge Measures

    PubMed Central

    Trakman, Gina L.; Forsyth, Adrienne; Devlin, Brooke L.; Belski, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Context: Nutrition knowledge can influence dietary choices and impact on athletic performance. Valid and reliable measures are needed to assess the nutrition knowledge of athletes and coaches. Objectives: (1) To systematically review the published literature on nutrition knowledge of adult athletes and coaches and (2) to assess the quality of measures used to assess nutrition knowledge. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscuss, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. Study Selection: 36 studies that provided a quantitative measure of nutrition knowledge and described the measurement tool that was used were included. Data extraction: Participant description, questionnaire description, results (mean correct and responses to individual items), study quality, and questionnaire quality. Data synthesis: All studies were of neutral quality. Tools used to measure knowledge did not consider health literacy, were outdated with regards to consensus recommendations, and lacked appropriate and adequate validation. The current status of nutrition knowledge in athletes and coaches is difficult to ascertain. Gaps in knowledge also remain unclear, but it is likely that energy density, the need for supplementation, and the role of protein are frequently misunderstood. Conclusions: Previous reports of nutrition knowledge need to be interpreted with caution. A new, universal, up-to-date, validated measure of general and sports nutrition knowledge is required to allow for assessment of nutrition knowledge. PMID:27649242

  2. Diagnosis and management of chronic pancreatitis: current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Rudolf W

    2006-03-18

    This paper reviews the current literature on chronic pancreatitis (CP). Despite marked progress in diagnostic tools, predominately imaging methods, no consensus has been reached on the nomenclature of CP, ie diagnosis, classification, staging, pathomechanisms of pain and its optimal treatment. A major problem is that no single reliable diagnostic test exists for early-stage CP except histopathology (rarely available). This stage is characterised typically by recurrent acute pancreatitis +/- necrosis (eg pseudocysts). Acute pancreatitis is a well-defined condition caused in 80% of cases by gallstones or alcohol abuse. Alcoholic pancreatitis, in contrast to biliary pancreatitis, progresses to CP in the majority of patients. However, a definite CP-diagnosis is often delayed because progressive dysfunction and/or calcification, the clinical markers of CP, develop on average 5 years from disease onset. The progression rate is variable and depends on several factors eg aetiology, smoking, continued alcohol abuse. Repeated function testing eg by the faecal elastase test, is the best alternative for histology to monitor progression (or non-progression) of suspected (probable) to definite CP. The pathomechanism of pain in CP is multifactorial and data from different series are hardly comparable mainly because insufficient data of the various variables ie diagnosis, classification, staging of CP, pain pattern and presumptive pain cause, are provided. Pain in CP is rarely intractable except in the presence of cancer, opiate addiction or extra-pancreatic pain causes. Local complications like pseudocysts or obstructive cholestasis are the most common causes of severe persistent pain which can be relieved promptly by an appropriate drainage procedure. Notably, partial to complete pain relief is a common feature in 50-80% of patients with late-stage CP irrespective of surgery and about 50% of CP-patients never need surgery (or endoscopic intervention). The spontaneous "burn

  3. Persulfides: Current Knowledge and Challenges in Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chung-Min; Weerasinghe, Laksiri; Day, Jacob J.; Fukuto, Jon M.; Xian, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies conducted in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling have revealed potential importance of persulfides (RSSH) in redox biology. The inherent instability of RSSH makes these species difficult to study and sometimes controversial results are reported. In this review article we summarize known knowledge about both small molecule persulfides and protein persulfides. Their fundamental physical and chemical properties such as preparation/formation and reactivity are discussed. The biological implications of persulfides and their detection methods are also discussed. PMID:25969163

  4. Current and future trends in metagenomics : Development of knowledge bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hiroshi; Yamada, Takuji; Kurokawa, Ken

    Microbes are essential for every part of life on Earth. Numerous microbes inhabit the biosphere, many of which are uncharacterized or uncultivable. They form a complex microbial community that deeply affects against surrounding environments. Metagenome analysis provides a radically new way of examining such complex microbial community without isolation or cultivation of individual bacterial community members. In this article, we present a brief discussion about a metagenomics and the development of knowledge bases, and also discuss about the future trends in metagenomics.

  5. Patients' knowledge of risk and protective factors for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Wartak, Siddharth A; Friderici, Jennifer; Lotfi, Amir; Verma, Ashish; Kleppel, Reva; Naglieri-Prescod, Deborah; Rothberg, Michael B

    2011-05-15

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. The American Heart Association has proposed improving overall cardiovascular health by promoting 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health, including health behaviors (not smoking, regular exercise, and healthy diet) and health factors (ideal body mass index, cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood glucose). The patients' knowledge of these 7 components is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional survey of patients at 4 primary care and 1 cardiology clinic. The survey measured demographic data, personal behaviors/health factors, cardiovascular disease history, and knowledge about these 7 components. A multivariate model was developed to assess patient characteristics associated with high knowledge scores. Of the 2,200 surveys distributed, 1,702 (77%) were returned with sufficient responses for analysis. Of these, 49% correctly identified heart disease as the leading cause of death, and 37% (95% confidence interval [CI] 35% to 39%) correctly identified all 7 components. The average respondent identified 4.9 components (95% CI 4.7 to 5.0). The lowest recognition rates were for exercise (57%), fruit/vegetable consumption (58%), and diabetes (63%). In a multivariate model, knowledge of all 7 components was positively associated with high school education or greater (odds ratio 2.43, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.52) and white ethnicity (odds ratio 1.78, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.50), and negatively associated with attending an urban neighborhood clinic (odds ratio 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.82). In conclusion, just >1/3 of patients could identify all 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health. Educational efforts should target patients in low socioeconomic strata and focus on improving knowledge about healthy diet and regular exercise. Although patients with diabetes were more likely than those without diabetes to recognize their risk, 1 in 5 were not aware that diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  6. Mechanisms of early life programming: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Ozanne, Susan E

    2011-12-01

    It has been >20 y since epidemiologic studies showed a relation between patterns of early growth and subsequent risk of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and the metabolic syndrome. Studies of identical twins, individuals who were in utero during periods of famine, and animal models have provided strong evidence that the early environment, including early nutrition, plays an important role in mediating these relations. The concept of early life programming is therefore widely accepted. However, the mechanisms by which a phenomenon that occurs in early life can have long-term effects on the function of a cell and therefore on the metabolism of an organism many years later are only starting to emerge. These mechanisms include 1) permanent structural changes in an organ resulting from suboptimal concentrations of an important factor during a critical period of development, eg, the permanent reduction in β cell mass in the endocrine pancreas; 2) persistent alterations in epigenetic modifications (eg, DNA methylation and histone modifications) that lead to changes in gene expression (eg, several transcription factors are susceptible to programmed changes in gene expression through such mechanisms); and 3) permanent effects on the regulation of cellular aging (eg, increases in oxidative stress that lead to macromolecular damage, including that to DNA and specifically to telomeres, can contribute to such effects). Further understanding of such processes will enable the development of preventive and intervention strategies to combat the burden of common diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:21543536

  7. Mechanisms of early life programming: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Ozanne, Susan E

    2011-12-01

    It has been >20 y since epidemiologic studies showed a relation between patterns of early growth and subsequent risk of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and the metabolic syndrome. Studies of identical twins, individuals who were in utero during periods of famine, and animal models have provided strong evidence that the early environment, including early nutrition, plays an important role in mediating these relations. The concept of early life programming is therefore widely accepted. However, the mechanisms by which a phenomenon that occurs in early life can have long-term effects on the function of a cell and therefore on the metabolism of an organism many years later are only starting to emerge. These mechanisms include 1) permanent structural changes in an organ resulting from suboptimal concentrations of an important factor during a critical period of development, eg, the permanent reduction in β cell mass in the endocrine pancreas; 2) persistent alterations in epigenetic modifications (eg, DNA methylation and histone modifications) that lead to changes in gene expression (eg, several transcription factors are susceptible to programmed changes in gene expression through such mechanisms); and 3) permanent effects on the regulation of cellular aging (eg, increases in oxidative stress that lead to macromolecular damage, including that to DNA and specifically to telomeres, can contribute to such effects). Further understanding of such processes will enable the development of preventive and intervention strategies to combat the burden of common diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  8. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  9. Current Perspectives on Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arvind; Teuber, Suzanne S.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2006-01-01

    Since the original description of X-linked agammaglobulinemia in 1952, the number of independent primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) has expanded to more than 100 entities. By definition, a PID is a genetically determined disorder resulting in enhanced susceptibility to infectious disease. Despite the heritable nature of these diseases, some PIDs are clinically manifested only after prerequisite environmental exposures but they often have associated malignant, allergic, or autoimmune manifestations. PIDs must be distinguished from secondary or acquired immunodeficiencies, which are far more common. In this review, we will place these immunodeficiencies in the context of both clinical and laboratory presentations as well as highlight the known genetic basis. PMID:17162365

  10. Intestinal microbiota transplant – current state of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Radomski, Marek; Leszczyszyn, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has induced a lot scientific interest and hopes for the last couple of years. FMT has been approved as a treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis. Highly sophisticated molecular DNA identification methods have been used to assess the healthy human microbiome as well as its disturbances in several diseases. The metabolic and immunologic functions of the microbiome have become more clear and understandable. A lot of pathological changes, such as production of short-chain fatty acids or components of the inflammatory cascade, caused by changes in microbiome diversity, variability and richness have been observed among patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, type 2 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis. The published clinical results are encouraging, but still there is huge demand for FMT controlled clinical trials. PMID:27407273

  11. Th22 cells in autoimmunity: a review of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Azizi, G; Yazdani, R; Mirshafiey, A

    2015-07-01

    Newly identified T helper cell 22 (Th22) is a subset of CD4+ T cells with specific properties apart from other known CD4+ T cell subsets. Th22 is obviously discrete from Th17 and Th1 subsets by production of interleukin (IL)-22 but not IL-17 or IFN-γ, and also with distinguished expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) as the key transcription factor. This T helper subset, by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-22 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune disorder. This review discusses the role of Th22 and its cytokine IL-22 in the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune disease including acute coronary syndrome, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Behçet's disease, type 1 and 2 diabetes and immune thrombocytopenia. PMID:26159476

  12. Current knowledge on HIV-associated Plasmablastic Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bibas, Michele; Castillo, Jorge J.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated PBL is an AIDS-defining cancer, classified by WHO as a distinct entity of aggressive DLBCL. To date less than 250 cases have been published, of them 17 are pediatric. The pathogenesis of this rare disease is related to immunodeficiency, chronic immune stimulation and EBV. Clinically is a rapid growing destructive disease mainly involving the oral cavity even if extraoral and extranodal sites are not infrequent. The diagnosis requires tissue mass or lymph node biopsy and core needle or fine needle biopsy is acceptable only for difficult access sites. Classically immunophenotype is CD45, CD20, CD79a negative and CD38, CD138, MUM1 positive, EBER and KI67 is >80%. Regarding the therapy, standard treatment is, usually, CHOP or CHOP-like regimens while more intensive regimens as CODOX-M/IVAC or DA-EPOCH are possible options. Use of cART is recommended during chemotherapy, keeping in mind the possible overlapping toxicities. Rituximab is not useful for this CD20 negative disease and CNS prophylaxis is mandatory. Intensification with ABMT in CR1 may be considered for fit patients. For refractory/relapsed patients, therapy is, usually, considered palliative, however, in chemo-sensitive disease, intensification + ABMT or new drugs as Bortezomib may be considered. Factors affecting outcome are achieving complete remission, PS, clinical stage, MYC, IPI score. Reported median PFS ranges between 6–7 months and median OS ranges between 11–13 months. Long term survivors are reported but mostly in pediatric patients. Finally, due to the scarcity of data on this subtype of NHL we suggest that the diagnosis and the management of HIV-positive PBL patients should be performed in specialized centers. PMID:25408850

  13. Bacillus anthracis: current knowledge in relation to contamination of food.

    PubMed

    Erickson, M C; Kornacki, J L

    2003-04-01

    In this article, information related to anthrax and its etiologic agent, Bacillus anthracis, in food is reviewed. The major topics discussed include the taxonomic relationship of B. anthracis to other Bacillus species, methods used for the recovery of the organism from surfaces and foods, routes of infection, the pathogenesis of the organism, the microbial ecology of the vegetative cell and spore in foods and the environment, chemical and physical treatments for spore inactivation, and the control of the disease in animals. PMID:12696699

  14. Current Knowledge and Projection on Assessing the Effectiveness of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlansky, Jesse

    This discussion of methods used to assess the effectiveness of training for U.S. Army personnel identifies various types of training, describes methods currently used, and suggests ways of improving the assessment process. The methodology and results of assessments of effectiveness, including the costs associated with the level of performance, are…

  15. Urinary Stone Disease: Advancing Knowledge, Patient Care, and Population Health.

    PubMed

    Scales, Charles D; Tasian, Gregory E; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Goldfarb, David S; Star, Robert A; Kirkali, Ziya

    2016-07-01

    Expanding epidemiologic and physiologic data suggest that urinary stone disease is best conceptualized as a chronic metabolic condition punctuated by symptomatic, preventable stone events. These acute events herald substantial future chronic morbidity, including decreased bone mineral density, cardiovascular disease, and CKD. Urinary stone disease imposes a large and growing public health burden. In the United States, 1 in 11 individuals will experience a urinary stone in their lifetime. Given this high incidence and prevalence, urinary stone disease is one of the most expensive urologic conditions, with health care charges exceeding $10 billion annually. Patient care focuses on management of symptomatic stones rather than prevention; after three decades of innovation, procedural interventions are almost exclusively minimally invasive or noninvasive, and mortality is rare. Despite these advances, the prevalence of stone disease has nearly doubled over the past 15 years, likely secondary to dietary and health trends. The NIDDK recently convened a symposium to assess knowledge and treatment gaps to inform future urinary stone disease research. Reducing the public health burden of urinary stone disease will require key advances in understanding environmental, genetic, and other individual disease determinants; improving secondary prevention; and optimal population health strategies in an increasingly cost-conscious care environment. PMID:26964844

  16. Immunotherapies Targeting Fish Mucosal Immunity - Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Koshio, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, studies on the mucosal immunity in fish species have shown much progress. Although there are some organs such as skin, gills, and gut are directly associated with the mucosal immunity of fish species, this mini review emphasizes the general knowledge on the role and production figures of skin mucus and factors affecting the secretion of skin mucus of fish species. As the skin mucus of fish species is the first defense line for protection against invading microorganisms such as pathogens (bacteria, virus), parasites, etc., the information for understanding the roles of the skin mucus is very important. Furthermore, the information in the review will shed light on the development of high quality aquafeeds for the sustainable aquaculture field as well. PMID:26779184

  17. 5p deletions: Current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Joanne M; Qualmann, Krista J; Okashah, Rebecca; Reilly, AmySue; Alexeyev, Mikhail F; Campbell, Dennis J

    2015-09-01

    Disorders resulting from 5p deletions (5p-) were first recognized by Lejeune et al. in 1963 [Lejeune et al. (1963); C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 257:3098-3102]. 5p- is caused by partial or total deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The most recognizable phenotype is characterized by a high-pitched cry, dysmorphic features, poor growth, and developmental delay. This report reviews 5p- disorders and their molecular basis. Hemizygosity for genes located within this region have been implicated in contributing to the phenotype. A review of the genes on 5p which may be dosage sensitive is summarized. Because of the growing knowledge of these specific genes, future directions to explore potential targeted therapies for individuals with 5p- are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26235846

  18. 5p Deletions: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Joanne M.; Qualmann, Krista J.; Okashah, Rebecca; Reilly, Amysue; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.; Campbell, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders resulting from 5p deletions (5p–) were first recognized by Lejeune et al. in 1963 [Lejeune et al. (1963); C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 257:3098-3102]. 5p– is caused by partial or total deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The most recognizable phenotype is characterized by a high-pitched cry, dysmorphic features, poor growth, and developmental delay. This report reviews 5p– disorders and their molecular basis. Hemizygosity for genes located within this region have been implicated in contributing to the phenotype. A review of the genes on 5p which may be dosage sensitive is summarized. Because of the growing knowledge of these specific genes, future directions to explore potential targeted therapies for individuals with 5p– are discussed. PMID:26235846

  19. Disease-Related Knowledge and Information Needs Among Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yang-Sook; Cha, Kyeong-Sook

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify disease-related knowledge and information needs of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The 313 patients (Crohn disease: n = 169, colitis: n = 144) presenting to an outpatient gastroenterology clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea, were scored on their knowledge of Crohn disease and colitis and their information needs were assessed in the questionnaire. Patients with Crohn disease obtained a higher mean knowledge score than patients with colitis. The patients with Crohn disease had significantly higher scores about complications than patients with colitis. The patients with Crohn disease showed significantly higher mean scores relating to the patients' information needs than patients with colitis. The favorite topics of information needed were disease, medication, and diagnosis/operations. The patients with Crohn disease wanted more information than patients with colitis about medications used for treatment, daily life, and pregnancy. The effectiveness of the training and education given to patients can be maximized in this education system when the information about disease and medications for Crohn disease patients or information about disease and diet for colitis patients is primarily provided according to the degree of the patients' need for information. PMID:25159269

  20. [The evolution of knowledge about the inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Hrabák, Petr; Hrabák, Pavel; Štajnerova, Markéta; Novotný, Aleš; Lukáš, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis has affected people for many centuries however its incidence most likely used to be very low. The knowledge of the idiopathic intestinal inflammation at that time was also very limited - an interest about the disease has emerged since the second half of 19th century. Despite all the progress in medicine its etiology still remains unclear.Diagnosis had for a long been based only on clinical investigation and later radiography, endoscopy came in to use in the 1970s. First significant advances in therapy came during the 1940s and 1950s with the invention of aminosalicylates, antibiotics and corticoids. The most advanced conservative therapy today is biological treatment although the importance of gastrointestinal surgery should not be overlooked.The aim of this article is to briefly review the development of knowledge of the idiopathic intestinal inflammation with an emphasis on the 20th century. PMID:27088790

  1. Current state of knowledge: the canine gastrointestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hooda, Seema; Minamoto, Yasushi; Suchodolski, Jan S; Swanson, Kelly S

    2012-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) microbes have important roles in the nutritional, immunological, and physiologic processes of the host. Traditional cultivation techniques have revealed bacterial density ranges from 10(4) to 10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/g in the stomach, from 10(5) to 10(7) CFU/g in the small intestine, and from 10(9) to 10(11) CFU/g in the colon of healthy dogs. As a small number of bacterial species can be grown and studied in culture, however, progress was limited until the recent emergence of DNA-based techniques. In recent years, DNA sequencing technology and bioinformatics have allowed for better phylogenetic and functional/metabolic characterization of the canine gut microbiome. Predominant phyla include Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Studies using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene pyrosequencing have demonstrated spatial differences along the GI tract and among microbes adhered to the GI mucosa compared to those in intestinal contents or feces. Similar to humans, GI microbiome dysbiosis is common in canine GI diseases such as chronic diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases. DNA-based assays have also identified key pathogens contributing to such conditions, including various Clostridium, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia spp. Moreover, nutritionists have applied DNA-based techniques to study the effects of dietary interventions such as dietary fiber, prebiotics, and probiotics on the canine GI microbiome and associated health indices. Despite recent advances in the field, the canine GI microbiome is far from being fully characterized and a deeper characterization of the phylogenetic and functional/metabolic capacity of the GI microbiome in health and disease is needed. This paper provides an overview of recent studies performed to characterize the canine GI microbiome. PMID:22647637

  2. The human gut microbiome: current knowledge, challenges, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Dave, Maneesh; Higgins, Peter D; Middha, Sumit; Rioux, Kevin P

    2012-10-01

    The Human Genome Project was completed a decade ago, leaving a legacy of process, tools, and infrastructure now being turned to the study of the microbes that reside in and on the human body as determinants of health and disease, and has been branded "The Human Microbiome Project." Of the various niches under investigation, the human gut houses the most complex and abundant microbial community and is an arena for important host-microbial interactions that have both local and systemic impact. Initial studies of the human microbiome have been largely descriptive, a testing ground for innovative molecular techniques and new hypotheses. Methods for studying the microbiome have quickly evolved from low-resolution surveys of microbial community structure to high-definition description of composition, function, and ecology. Next-generation sequencing technologies combined with advanced bioinformatics place us at the doorstep of revolutionary insight into the composition, capability, and activity of the human intestinal microbiome. Renewed efforts to cultivate previously "uncultivable" microbes will be important to the overall understanding of gut ecology. There remain numerous methodological challenges to the effective study and understanding of the gut microbiome, largely relating to study design, sample collection, and the number of predictor variables. Strategic collaboration of clinicians, microbiologists, molecular biologists, computational scientists, and bioinformaticians is the ideal paradigm for success in this field. Meaningful interpretation of the gut microbiome requires that host genetic and environmental influences be controlled or accounted for. Understanding the gut microbiome in healthy humans is a foundation for discovering its influence in various important gastrointestinal and nutritional diseases (eg, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, and obesity), and for rational translation to human health gains. PMID:22683238

  3. Current state of knowledge: the canine gastrointestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hooda, Seema; Minamoto, Yasushi; Suchodolski, Jan S; Swanson, Kelly S

    2012-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) microbes have important roles in the nutritional, immunological, and physiologic processes of the host. Traditional cultivation techniques have revealed bacterial density ranges from 10(4) to 10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/g in the stomach, from 10(5) to 10(7) CFU/g in the small intestine, and from 10(9) to 10(11) CFU/g in the colon of healthy dogs. As a small number of bacterial species can be grown and studied in culture, however, progress was limited until the recent emergence of DNA-based techniques. In recent years, DNA sequencing technology and bioinformatics have allowed for better phylogenetic and functional/metabolic characterization of the canine gut microbiome. Predominant phyla include Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Studies using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene pyrosequencing have demonstrated spatial differences along the GI tract and among microbes adhered to the GI mucosa compared to those in intestinal contents or feces. Similar to humans, GI microbiome dysbiosis is common in canine GI diseases such as chronic diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases. DNA-based assays have also identified key pathogens contributing to such conditions, including various Clostridium, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia spp. Moreover, nutritionists have applied DNA-based techniques to study the effects of dietary interventions such as dietary fiber, prebiotics, and probiotics on the canine GI microbiome and associated health indices. Despite recent advances in the field, the canine GI microbiome is far from being fully characterized and a deeper characterization of the phylogenetic and functional/metabolic capacity of the GI microbiome in health and disease is needed. This paper provides an overview of recent studies performed to characterize the canine GI microbiome.

  4. Pharmacotherapy for Neonatal Seizures: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Maria D; Griffin, Brendan T; Kharoshankaya, Liudmila; Cryan, John F; Boylan, Geraldine B

    2016-04-01

    Seizures are the most common neurological emergencies in the neonatal period and are associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Seizures affect up to five per 1000 term births and population-based studies suggest that they occur even more frequently in premature infants. Seizures are a sign of an underlying cerebral pathology, the most common of which is hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in term infants. Due to a growing body of evidence that seizures exacerbate cerebral injury, effective diagnosis and treatment of neonatal seizures is of paramount importance to reduce long-term adverse outcomes. Electroencephalography is essential for the diagnosis of seizures in neonates due to their subtle clinical expression, non-specific neurological presentation and a high frequency of electro-clinical uncoupling in the neonatal period. Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy may require neuroprotective therapeutic hypothermia, accompanying sedation with opioids, anticonvulsant drugs or a combination of all of these. The efficacy, safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of seven anticonvulsant drugs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, levetiracetam, lidocaine, midazolam, topiramate and bumetanide) are reviewed. This review is focused only on studies reporting electrographically confirmed seizures and highlights the knowledge gaps that exist in optimal treatment regimens for neonatal seizures. Randomised controlled trials are needed to establish a safe and effective treatment protocol for neonatal seizures. PMID:26943929

  5. Consumer health plan choice: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, D P; Chernew, M; Lave, J R

    1997-01-01

    A keystone of the competitive strategy in health insurance markets is the assumption that "consumers" can make informed choices based on the costs and quality of competing health plans, and that selection effects are not large. However, little is known about how individuals use information other than price in the decision making process. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about how individuals make choices among health plans and outlines an agenda for future research. We find that the existing literature on health plan choice is no longer sufficient given the widespread growth and acceptance of managed care, and the increased proportion of consumers' income now going toward the purchase of health plans. Instead, today's environment of health plan choice requires better understanding of how plan attributes other than price influence plan choice, how other variables such as health status interact with plan attributes in the decision making process, and how specific populations differ from one another in terms of the sensitivity of their health plan choices to these different types of variables.

  6. Pharmacogenomics and metastatic colorectal cancer: current knowledge and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Benhaim, Leonor; Labonte, Melissa Janae; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2012-03-01

    The pharmacogenomics field is crucial for optimizing the selection of which chemotherapy regimen to use according to the patient's genomic profile. Indeed, the individual's inherited genome accounts for a large proportion of the variation in his or her response to chemotherapeutic agents both in terms of efficiency and toxicity. Patients with metastatic disease are more likely to receive different lines of chemotherapy with variable efficacy and experience some related complications. It is therefore critical to tailor the best therapeutic arsenal to improve the efficacy and avoid as much as possible related complications that are susceptible to interrupt the treatment. The pharmacogenomics approach investigates for each drug the implicated metabolic pathway and the potential personal variations in gene function. The aim of this review is to present a clear overview of the most accurate polymorphisms that have been identified as related to drug response in patients with mCRC.

  7. Current knowledge and pharmacological profile of berberine: An update.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Ekavali; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Mukherjee, Madhurima; Pottabathini, Raghavender; Dhull, Dinesh K

    2015-08-15

    Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, occurs as an active constituent in numerous medicinal plants and has an array of pharmacological properties. It has been used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine for its antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, antidiarrheal and antitrachoma activity. Moreover, several clinical and preclinical studies demonstrate ameliorative effect of berberine against several disorders including metabolic, neurological and cardiological problems. This review provides a summary regarding the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of berberine, with a focus on the different mechanisms underlying its multispectrum activity. Studies regarding the safety profile, drug interactions and important clinical trials of berberine have also been included. Clinical trials with respect to neurological disorders need to be undertaken to exploit the beneficiary effects of berberine against serious disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Also, clinical studies to detect rare adverse effects of berberine need to be initiated to draw a complete safety profile of berberine and strengthen its applicability.

  8. Diabetes and Cancer: a Review of Current Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, J; Krajewski, W; Bolanowski, M; Kręcicki, T; Zatoński, T

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), one of the most common life-threatening illnesses worldwide, is a group of metabolic diseases, characterized by sustained hyperglycemia. The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus among adults reached 387 millions in 2014 and is still rising. It is suggested there is a strong association between diabetes mellitus (especially type 2 diabetes mellitus) and carcinogenesis. The possible biological links between diabetes mellitus and cancer comprise hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and fat-induced chronic inflammation. Although, the strongest association refers to pancreas and liver, there are many other organs involved in carcinogenesis in diabetic patients including breast, endometrium, bladder and kidney.Recent studies suggest that there is also association between cancer incidence and anti-diabetic medications. It was observed that some medications decrease the risk of carcinogenesis and some increase that risk. The majority of studies concern metformin, a drug of choice in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and its anti-neoplastic and tumor-suppressing activity. The positive effect of metformin was found in numerous researches investigating breast, pancreas, liver, colon, ovaries and prostate tumors.Because a variety of studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus and cancer are frequently coexisting diseases, recently published studies try to explain the influence of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic medications on carcinogenesis in different organs.We present the review of the latest studies investigating the association between both diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic medications and cancer incidence and prognosis.Particularly we highlight the problem of concomitant head and neck cancers in diabetics, rarely analysed and often omitted in studies. PMID:27219686

  9. The Roles of Ability, Personality, and Interests in Acquiring Current Events Knowledge: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, David Z.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.; Pettibone, Jonathan C.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate sources of inter-individual differences in current events knowledge. The study occurred in two sessions. In the initial session, 579 participants completed tests to ability, personality, and interest factors, as well as prior knowledge of current events. Approximately 10 weeks later, participants…

  10. The Effect of the "Weekly Reader" on Children's Knowledge of Current Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, Carolyn Huie; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Lapp, Diane; Flood, James

    2000-01-01

    Studied the effects of reading the "Weekly Reader" on children's knowledge of current events. Results from 2,331 urban and suburban elementary school students, aged 8 to 12, show increased knowledge of current events among younger children who used the "Weekly Reader," but the effect was less in grades 4 through 6. (SLD)

  11. STR allele sequence variation: Current knowledge and future issues.

    PubMed

    Gettings, Katherine Butler; Aponte, Rachel A; Vallone, Peter M; Butler, John M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews what is currently known about short tandem repeat (STR) allelic sequence variation in and around the twenty-four loci most commonly used throughout the world to perform forensic DNA investigations. These STR loci include D1S1656, TPOX, D2S441, D2S1338, D3S1358, FGA, CSF1PO, D5S818, SE33, D6S1043, D7S820, D8S1179, D10S1248, TH01, vWA, D12S391, D13S317, Penta E, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, Penta D, and D22S1045. All known reported variant alleles are compiled along with genomic information available from GenBank, dbSNP, and the 1000 Genomes Project. Supplementary files are included which provide annotated reference sequences for each STR locus, characterize genomic variation around the STR repeat region, and compare alleles present in currently available STR kit allelic ladders. Looking to the future, STR allele nomenclature options are discussed as they relate to next generation sequencing efforts underway. PMID:26197946

  12. [Cancer-related Cognitive Impairment: Current Knowledge and Future Challenges].

    PubMed

    Tanimukai, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients often suffer from various distresses, including cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment during and after cancer diagnosis and treatment are collectively called "Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI)". The number of publications about cognitive impairment due to cancer therapy, especially chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy, has been growing. Patients often worry not only about their disease condition and therapies, but also experience concerns regarding their memory, attention, and ability to concentrate. Even subtle CRCI can have a significant impact on social relationships, the ability to work, undergo treatment, accomplish meaningful goals, and the quality of life. Longitudinal studies of cancer patients indicated that up to 75% experience CRCI during treatment. Furthermore, CRCI may persist for many years following treatment. However, it is not well understood by most physicians and medical staff. CRCI can be mediated through increased inflammatory cytokines and hormonal changes. In addition, the biology of the cancer, stress, and attentional fatigue can also contribute to CRCI. Genetic factors and co-occurring symptoms may explain some of the inter-individual variability in CRCI. Researchers and patients are actively trying to identify effective interventional methods and useful coping strategies. Many patients are willing to discuss their disease condition and future treatment with medical staff and/or their families. Some patients also hope to discuss their end-of-life care. However, it is difficult to express their will after developing cognitive impairment. Advance care planning (ACP) can help in such situations. This process involves discussion between a patient, their family, and clinicians to clarify and reflect on values, treatment preferences, and goals to develop a shared understanding of how end-of-life care should proceed. The number of cancer patients with cognitive impairment has been increasing owing to the

  13. [Cancer-related Cognitive Impairment: Current Knowledge and Future Challenges].

    PubMed

    Tanimukai, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients often suffer from various distresses, including cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment during and after cancer diagnosis and treatment are collectively called "Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI)". The number of publications about cognitive impairment due to cancer therapy, especially chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy, has been growing. Patients often worry not only about their disease condition and therapies, but also experience concerns regarding their memory, attention, and ability to concentrate. Even subtle CRCI can have a significant impact on social relationships, the ability to work, undergo treatment, accomplish meaningful goals, and the quality of life. Longitudinal studies of cancer patients indicated that up to 75% experience CRCI during treatment. Furthermore, CRCI may persist for many years following treatment. However, it is not well understood by most physicians and medical staff. CRCI can be mediated through increased inflammatory cytokines and hormonal changes. In addition, the biology of the cancer, stress, and attentional fatigue can also contribute to CRCI. Genetic factors and co-occurring symptoms may explain some of the inter-individual variability in CRCI. Researchers and patients are actively trying to identify effective interventional methods and useful coping strategies. Many patients are willing to discuss their disease condition and future treatment with medical staff and/or their families. Some patients also hope to discuss their end-of-life care. However, it is difficult to express their will after developing cognitive impairment. Advance care planning (ACP) can help in such situations. This process involves discussion between a patient, their family, and clinicians to clarify and reflect on values, treatment preferences, and goals to develop a shared understanding of how end-of-life care should proceed. The number of cancer patients with cognitive impairment has been increasing owing to the

  14. Current knowledge and future perspectives regarding stented valves.

    PubMed

    Santarpino, Giuseppe; Kalisnik, Jurij M; Fischlein, Theodor; Pfeiffer, Steffen

    2016-10-01

    Aortic valve bioprostheses are commonly implanted in the current era (also in younger patients) as they may obviate the need for anticoagulation while providing better hemodynamic performance and a more favorable quality of life. The steady increase in the use of biological valves has prompted the development of several different models of conventional stented bioprostheses. At present, there are four main types of stented aortic bioprostheses that compete in the market: the LivaNova Crown PRT (LivaNova Group, Burnaby, Canada), the St. Jude Medical Trifecta (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA), the Carpentier-Edwards Perimount Magna Ease (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA), and the Medtronic Mosaic Ultra (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA). The purpose of this review is to describe the features of these bioprosthetic valve models and to compare the data provided by the manufacturers with those derived from the available literature. PMID:27575598

  15. Object knowledge in infancy: current controversies and approaches.

    PubMed

    Mareschal

    2000-11-01

    Studies relying on looking-time measures have found evidence of a far more precocious understanding of hidden objects than Piaget originally described. However, there is now a heated controversy surrounding the results from looking-time studies - do they constitute any evidence of a conceptual or explicit understanding of objects? Moreover, even within the looking-time paradigm, young infants show rapid changes in their understanding of what constitutes a legitimate occlusion event, and in their ability to use feature information to individuate or keep track of the number of hidden objects. The picture that emerges from these studies is that young infants have a limited and sometimes fragmented understanding of hidden objects. We suggest that computational modelling could help provide a coherent account of the emergence of object-directed behaviours in infancy, although the fit between current models and existing data remains poor. PMID:11058818

  16. Current status of orphan disease drug development.

    PubMed

    Thoene, J G

    1994-04-01

    The Orphan Drug Act has successfully stimulated the production of many orphan products for a number of orphan diseases. The success of its exclusive marketing provision in bringing otherwise unprofitable products to market has attracted the attention of manufacturers who use this provision to gain a monopoly for products with much larger annual sales than were contemplated by the original legislation. Corrective legislation to close this loophole is being prepared for introduction to Congress.

  17. Filoviruses in bats: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Olival, Kevin J; Hayman, David T S

    2014-04-01

    Filoviruses, including Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus, pose significant threats to public health and species conservation by causing hemorrhagic fever outbreaks with high mortality rates. Since the first outbreak in 1967, their origins, natural history, and ecology remained elusive until recent studies linked them through molecular, serological, and virological studies to bats. We review the ecology, epidemiology, and natural history of these systems, drawing on examples from other bat-borne zoonoses, and highlight key areas for future research. We compare and contrast results from ecological and virological studies of bats and filoviruses with those of other systems. We also highlight how advanced methods, such as more recent serological assays, can be interlinked with flexible statistical methods and experimental studies to inform the field studies necessary to understand filovirus persistence in wildlife populations and cross-species transmission leading to outbreaks. We highlight the need for a more unified, global surveillance strategy for filoviruses in wildlife, and advocate for more integrated, multi-disciplinary approaches to understand dynamics in bat populations to ultimately mitigate or prevent potentially devastating disease outbreaks. PMID:24747773

  18. Filoviruses in Bats: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Olival, Kevin J.; Hayman, David T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Filoviruses, including Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus, pose significant threats to public health and species conservation by causing hemorrhagic fever outbreaks with high mortality rates. Since the first outbreak in 1967, their origins, natural history, and ecology remained elusive until recent studies linked them through molecular, serological, and virological studies to bats. We review the ecology, epidemiology, and natural history of these systems, drawing on examples from other bat-borne zoonoses, and highlight key areas for future research. We compare and contrast results from ecological and virological studies of bats and filoviruses with those of other systems. We also highlight how advanced methods, such as more recent serological assays, can be interlinked with flexible statistical methods and experimental studies to inform the field studies necessary to understand filovirus persistence in wildlife populations and cross-species transmission leading to outbreaks. We highlight the need for a more unified, global surveillance strategy for filoviruses in wildlife, and advocate for more integrated, multi-disciplinary approaches to understand dynamics in bat populations to ultimately mitigate or prevent potentially devastating disease outbreaks. PMID:24747773

  19. Current management of urethral stricture disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Broadly defined, urethral strictures are narrowing of the urethral lumen that is surrounded by corpus spongiosum, i.e., urethral meatus through the bulbar urethra. Urethral stenosis is narrowing of the posterior urethra, i.e., membranous urethra through bladder neck/prostate junction, which is not enveloped by corpus spongiosum. The disease has significant quality of life ramifications because many times younger patients are affected by this compared to many other urological diseases. Methods: A review of the scientific literature concerning urethral stricture, stenosis, treatment, and outcomes was performed using Medline and PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health). Abstracts from scientific meetings were included in this review. Results: There is level 3 evidence regarding the etiology and epidemiology of urethral strictures, stenoses, and pelvic fracture urethral injuries. Outcomes data from literature regarding intervention for urethral stricture are largely limited to level 3 evidence and expert opinion. There is a single level 1 study comparing urethral dilation and direct vision internal urethrotomy. Urethroplasty outcomes data are limited to level 3 case series. Conclusions: Progress is being made toward consistent terminology, and nomenclature which will, in turn, help to standardize treatment within the field of urology. Treatment for urethral stricture and stenosis remains inconsistent between reconstructive and nonreconstructive urologists due to varying treatment algorithms and approaches to disease management. Tissue engineering appears to be future for reconstructive urethral surgery with reports demonstrating feasibility in the use of different tissue substitutes and grafts. PMID:26941491

  20. [Global spread of Zika virus epidemic: current knowledges and uncertainties].

    PubMed

    Şahiner, Fatih

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an enveloped RNA virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. Although more than 60 years have passed since the discovery and first reported human cases of the virus, only a small number (< 10) of cases had been encountered in the literature until the last 10 years. Zika virus was known as a virus which caused sporadic infections and was confined to Africa and Asia along a narrow equatorial line. In 2007, however, the first major outbreak of ZIKV occurred in Yap Island (Micronesia), and so it was reported for the first time outside of Africa and Asia. Between the years of 2007 and 2014, ZIKV spreaded to island groups located in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean, and in 2015-2016, it has spread to South and Central America and the Caribbean. Today, travel-related imported cases is still been reported in Europe, North America, and other countries in the Far East. According to the data from the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as of March 2016, ZIKV infections have already spread locally in more than 30 countries, and travel alerts have been issued for the countries where the virus is present. Zika virus infections are generally asymptomatic or may present with a moderate clinical picture (e.g. acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and nonpurulent conjunctivitis). Although no deaths were attributed to ZIKV infection over the past 60 years, as of November 2015, it has been suggested that three deaths in Brazil, including the death of a newborn with microcephaly, may be attributed to ZIKV infection. In addition, concurrent with outbreaks in 2013 in French Polynesia and in 2015 in Brazil, there have been significant rises reported in the incidence of some autoimmune and neurodevelopmental disorders, including Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly; these reports have caused considerable international concern. There are many points that are still unclear about ZIKV, including: (1

  1. [Global spread of Zika virus epidemic: current knowledges and uncertainties].

    PubMed

    Şahiner, Fatih

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an enveloped RNA virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. Although more than 60 years have passed since the discovery and first reported human cases of the virus, only a small number (< 10) of cases had been encountered in the literature until the last 10 years. Zika virus was known as a virus which caused sporadic infections and was confined to Africa and Asia along a narrow equatorial line. In 2007, however, the first major outbreak of ZIKV occurred in Yap Island (Micronesia), and so it was reported for the first time outside of Africa and Asia. Between the years of 2007 and 2014, ZIKV spreaded to island groups located in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean, and in 2015-2016, it has spread to South and Central America and the Caribbean. Today, travel-related imported cases is still been reported in Europe, North America, and other countries in the Far East. According to the data from the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as of March 2016, ZIKV infections have already spread locally in more than 30 countries, and travel alerts have been issued for the countries where the virus is present. Zika virus infections are generally asymptomatic or may present with a moderate clinical picture (e.g. acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and nonpurulent conjunctivitis). Although no deaths were attributed to ZIKV infection over the past 60 years, as of November 2015, it has been suggested that three deaths in Brazil, including the death of a newborn with microcephaly, may be attributed to ZIKV infection. In addition, concurrent with outbreaks in 2013 in French Polynesia and in 2015 in Brazil, there have been significant rises reported in the incidence of some autoimmune and neurodevelopmental disorders, including Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly; these reports have caused considerable international concern. There are many points that are still unclear about ZIKV, including: (1

  2. Cardiac issues in adults with the mucopolysaccharidoses: current knowledge and emerging needs.

    PubMed

    Braunlin, Elizabeth; Wang, Raymond

    2016-08-15

    The growing availability of innovative treatments for rare genetic diseases with a cardiac component-such as the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs)-has changed these syndromes from 'back of the textbook' curiosities of childhood to chronic, but rare, adult cardiac conditions that require both centres of expertise and knowledgeable subspecialists. The MPSs are inherited progressive lysosomal storage diseases, occurring in about 1:25 000 births and resulting from absence of functional hydrolases responsible for the degradation of glycosaminoglycans, naturally occurring complex sugars ubiquitous throughout the body. In the heart, accumulation of glycosaminoglycans occurs within the cardiac valves, the epicardial coronary arteries, the myocytes and cardiac interstitium and the walls of the great vessels. As a consequence, cardiac valve regurgitation and stenosis, diffuse coronary artery stenosis, myocardial dysfunction and aortic root dilation often occur. Haematopoietic cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy have changed the previously lethal natural history of the MPSs to one of survival well into adulthood. Despite this improved lifespan, the left-sided cardiac valves continue to show progressive functional involvement and cardiac valve replacement is not uncommon, especially in adults. The risk of any intervention is increased in these patients because of the systemic effects of the disease on the respiratory system and cervical cord. Our current understanding of other cardiac issues in adults with the MPSs, especially with the coronary circulation and myocardium, is meagre and more needs to be known to effectively care for this emerging population of adults. Incorporation of the MPSs, as well as other now-treatable rare diseases, into the educational curriculum of current and future adult subspecialists is an important next step. PMID:27102649

  3. Oxytocin and socioemotional aging: Current knowledge and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Maura, Gabriela M.; MacDonald, Kai; Westberg, Lars; Fischer, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    The oxytocin (OT) system is involved in various aspects of social cognition and prosocial behavior. Specifically, OT has been examined in the context of social memory, emotion recognition, cooperation, trust, empathy, and bonding, and—though evidence is somewhat mixed-intranasal OT appears to benefit aspects of socioemotional functioning. However, most of the extant data on aging and OT is from animal research and human OT research has focused largely on young adults. As such, though we know that various socioemotional capacities change with age, we know little about whether age-related changes in the OT system may underlie age-related differences in socioemotional functioning. In this review, we take a genetic-neuro-behavioral approach and evaluate current evidence on age-related changes in the OT system as well as the putative effects of these alterations on age-related socioemotional functioning. Looking forward, we identify informational gaps and propose an Age-Related Genetic, Neurobiological, Sociobehavioral Model of Oxytocin (AGeNeS-OT model) which may structure and inform investigations into aging-related genetic, neural, and sociocognitive processes related to OT. As an exemplar of the use of the model, we report exploratory data suggesting differences in socioemotional processing associated with genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in samples of young and older adults. Information gained from this arena has translational potential in depression, social stress, and anxiety-all of which have high relevance in aging—and may contribute to reducing social isolation and improving well-being of individuals across the lifespan. PMID:24009568

  4. Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses: current state of knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Olen M.; Wright, Peter F.; Agol, Vadim I.; Delpeyroux, Francis; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nathanson, Neal; Pallansch, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 4 years, poliomyelitis outbreaks associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) have occurred in Hispaniola (2000-01), the Philippines (2001), and Madagascar (2001-02). Retrospective studies have also detected the circulation of endemic cVDPV in Egypt (1988-93) and the likely localized spread of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)-derived virus in Belarus (1965-66). Gaps in OPV coverage and the previous eradication of the corresponding serotype of indigenous wild poliovirus were the critical risk factors for all cVDPV outbreaks. The cVDPV outbreaks were stopped by mass immunization campaigns using OPV. To increase sensitivity for detecting vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), in 2001 the Global Polio Laboratory Network implemented additional testing requirements for all poliovirus isolates under investigation. This approach quickly led to the recognition of the Philippines and Madagascar cVDPV outbreaks, but of no other current outbreaks. The potential risk of cVDPV emergence has increased dramatically in recent years as wild poliovirus circulation has ceased in most of the world. The risk appears highest for the type 2 OPV strain because of its greater tendency to spread to contacts. The emergence of cVDPVs underscores the critical importance of eliminating the last pockets of wild poliovirus circulation, maintaining universally high levels of polio vaccine coverage, stopping OPV use as soon as it is safely possible to do so, and continuing sensitive poliovirus surveillance into the foreseeable future. Particular attention must be given to areas where the risks for wild poliovirus circulation have been highest, and where the highest rates of polio vaccine coverage must be maintained to suppress cVDPV emergence. PMID:15106296

  5. Current knowledge of hagfish reproduction: implications for fisheries management.

    PubMed

    Powell, Mickie L; Kavanaugh, Scott I; Sower, Stacia A

    2005-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes the latest findings on reproductive endocrinology of Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) and implications for fisheries management. In response to a major decline or collapse of the fisheries (groundfish and anadromous species) industry in the Northeast, species that were once considered alternative or underutilized have and are being identified that may be suitable for commercial harvest, one such example is the hagfish. Hagfish in recent years have been sought after as valuable fish not only for their flesh, but also their skin. Currently, there are no regulations governing the harvesting of hagfish along the East Coast. There has been little to no information of the life history of hagfish including growth rate, age determination, reproductive biology, life span, and larval size at hatching. Thus, the level at which a sustainable fisheries for this species can be maintained is unknown. In some parts of the world, hagfish stocks are being depleted due to overfishing. In order for fisheries management to manage its hagfish stocks and develop a sustainable commercial hagfish fishery, critical information is needed to assist in determining the optimal use of this valuable resource.Key elements of the reproductive system have not been elucidated in hagfish. However, there is new evidence from recent reproductive studies that Atlantic hagfish may have a seasonal reproductive cycle. These data include seasonal changes in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), gonadal steroids, estradiol and progesterone, corresponding to gonadal reproductive stages along with the putative identity of a functional corpus luteum. This newly acquired data may provide important information to fisheries managers of the East Coast.

  6. Current knowledge on groundwater microbial pathogens and their control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Merkle, Jon C.

    Those who drink groundwater that has not been disinfected are at increased risk of infection and disease from pathogenic microorganisms. Recent studies have shown that up to half of all US drinking-water wells tested had evidence of fecal contamination. A significant fraction of all waterborne disease outbreaks is associated with groundwater. An estimated 750,000 to 5.9million illnesses per year result from contaminated groundwaters in the US. Mortality from these illnesses may be 1400-9400 deaths per year. Control of these pathogens starts with source-water protection activities to prevent fecal contamination of aquifers and wells. These include assessment of wellhead vulnerability to fecal contamination and correction of identified deficiencies. Correction may include control of sources or rehabilitation of the well itself. Disinfection can serve as a useful barrier and is recommended as a prudent public-health policy for all groundwater systems. Ceux qui boivent une eau souterraine non désinfectée présentent un risque accru d'infection et de maladie par des germes pathogènes. De récentes études ont montré que près de la moitié de tous les puits américains testés, captés pour l'eau potable, sont soumis à une contamination fécale. Une fraction significative de l'ensemble des premières manifestations de maladies liées à l'eau est associée aux eaux souterraines. On estime qu'entre 750 000 et 5,9millions de personnes sont malades chaque année aux États-Unis à cause d'eaux souterraines polluées. La mortalité parmi ces malades doit ètre de l'ordre de 1400 à 9400 décès par an. La protection contre ces germes pathogènes commence avec des mesures prises au niveau du captage pour empècher la pollution des aquifères et des puits. Celles-ci comprennent une évaluation de la vulnérabilité des tètes de puits à la pollution fécale et une correction des insuffisances mises en évidence. Cette correction peut comprendre une maîtrise des sources

  7. Current Approach to Dry Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Valim, Valéria; Trevisani, Virginia Fernandes Moça; de Sousa, Jacqueline Martins; Vilela, Verônica Silva; Belfort, Rubens

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that causes tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. The prevalence of dry eye in the world population ranges from 6 to 34 %. It is more common in those aged over 50, and affects mainly women. Since the introduction of the Schirmer's test in 1903, other tests have been developed to evaluate dry eye, such as biomicroscopy, the tear film breakup time (BUT), vital dyes (lissamine green and rose bengal), fluorescein, leaf fern test, corneal sensitivity test, conjunctiva impression cytology, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and tear osmolarity measurement. Although there is no gold standard, it is advisable to combine at least two tests. Strategies for treating DED have recently been modified and include patient education, tear substitute, corticosteroids, secretagogues, fatty acids, immunomodulators, occlusion of lacrimal puncta surgery and, tarsorrhaphy. Biological therapy and new topical immunomodulators such as tacrolimus, tofacitinib and IL-1 receptor inhibitor are being tested. In this review, the evaluation tests for dry eye are compared and the main studies on treatment are presented, with emphasis on studies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. The authors propose an approach for the management of dry eye. PMID:25081064

  8. Current and Emerging Therapy for Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Makharia, Govind K.

    2014-01-01

    At present, strict and lifelong gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment for celiac disease. Even small amounts of gluten (50 mg/day) can be immunogenic; therefore all food and food items and drugs that contain gluten and its derivatives must be eliminated completely from the diet. While prescribing gluten-free diet is easy; the key to the success is the dietary counseling by a nutrition specialist and maintenance of adherence to GFD by the patient. In recent times, a number of targets to halt the process of immunological injury have been explored to find out alternative treatment for celiac disease. These targets include exploration of ancient wheat if they are less immunogenic, intra-luminal digestion of gluten using prolylendopeptidases, pretreatment of whole gluten with bacterial-derived peptidase before ingestion; prevention of passage of immunogenic peptides through the tight junctions such as zonulin antagonists, Blocking of HLA-DQ2 to prevent binding of immunogenic peptides, inhibition of transglutaminase 2, immune-modulation, and induction of tolerance to gluten using gluten tolerizing vaccines, use of gluten-sequestering polymers, use of anti-inflammatory drugs (glucocorticoids, budesonides) and anti-cytokines such as anti TNF-α, and anti-interleukin-15. While many of these targets are still in the pre-clinical phase, some of them including zonulin antagonist and endopeptidases have already reached phase II and phase III clinical trials. Furthermore, while these targets appear very exciting; they at best are likely to be used as adjunctive therapy rather than a complete replacement for gluten-free diet. PMID:25705619

  9. Current applications of lasers in heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Garrett; Chan, Ming C.; Mason, Dean T.

    1993-03-01

    Although the laser has been in existence for abut 30 years, its application in heart disease has only been examined in the past decade. Much attention has been given its exciting potential in treating coronary artery disease. Transmitted through a catheter comprised of one or more thin optical fibers which can be threaded nonsurgically into the coronary artery, the laser can ablate atherosclerotic plaque that obstructs the artery and diminishes blood flow to the myocardium. In clinical studies, the laser can treat some obstructive lesions that are not suitable for balloon angioplasty (i.e., long and diffuse lesions, very tight stenoses, ostial lesions, calcified lesions). In patients who failed balloon angioplasty due to severe dissection or abrupt closure, the laser may seal up the dissections and restore antegrade blood flow. In addition, the laser may have other applications and treatment modalities that are still under investigation. It may ablate ectopic ventricular foci, or terminate supraventricular tachyrhythmia by destroying the heart's abnormal conduction pathways. It can cut the hypertrophied septum that is associated with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, or create a channel in the atrial septum as a palliative procedure in newborns with transposition of the great vessels. It may provide a wider orifice for blood flow within the heart in infants with pulmonary outflow obstruction and in adults with aortic valvular stenosis. It is also capable of fusing small thin-walled blood vessels together. Further, a more intriguing possibility is its use to bore several tiny channels in the myocardium to allow oxygenated blood from within the ventricular chamber to perfuse the ischemic heart tissue.

  10. Current Understanding of Psychosis in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Oluwadamilola O; Fernandez, Hubert H

    2016-10-01

    Psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the greatest determinants of nursing home placement and caregiver stress. Traditionally associated with medications with dopaminergic effect, it has now been linked to other medications and other stressors e.g. systemic illnesses. The development of hallucinations in a PD patient can herald the onset of dementia and usually predicts increased mortality risk. Medication reduction in PD psychosis usually reduces the symptoms; however, this comes at the cost of worsening motor function. If gradually decreasing the patient's medications does not resolve the psychosis, the treatment of choice is an atypical antipychotic. Though only clozapine has level A recommendation for this indication, other atypicals like quetiapine continue to get used for this purpose on account of the logistics involved with clozapine use. Cholinesterase inhibitors are also increasingly being used for PD psychosis on account of the association with dementia. The treatment of PD psychosis is an unmet need in PD management and search for suitable agents constitutes an active area of research in PD. PMID:27629356

  11. Knowledge of current dietary guidelines and food choice by college students: better eaters have higher knowledge of dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Kolodinsky, Jane; Harvey-Berino, Jean Ruth; Berlin, Linda; Johnson, Rachel K; Reynolds, Travis William

    2007-08-01

    College students enrolled in university dining plans are exposed daily to a food environment characterized by foods high in energy, fats, and added sugars, and low in nutrient density. Their decisions about what to eat are currently made in an environment where no nutrition labeling is required. To fill the gap in current literature regarding whether or not increased nutrition knowledge of dietary guidance actually translates into positive behavior, this cross-sectional study investigated self-reported eating patterns of 200 college students. An Internet-based survey was used to identify how closely respondents followed the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, and whether their eating patterns were related to their knowledge of dietary guidance. It was observed that, for fruit, dairy, protein, and whole grains, increased knowledge is related to increased likelihood of meeting dietary guidelines. Moreover, when asked about individual food choices, nutrition knowledge was related to making more healthful choices in every case. Ultimately, increased knowledge of dietary guidance appears to be positively related to more healthful eating patterns. This suggests that guidelines such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, in conjunction with effective public-awareness campaigns, may be a useful mechanism for promoting change in what foods consumers choose to eat.

  12. Knowledge of current dietary guidelines and food choice by college students: better eaters have higher knowledge of dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Kolodinsky, Jane; Harvey-Berino, Jean Ruth; Berlin, Linda; Johnson, Rachel K; Reynolds, Travis William

    2007-08-01

    College students enrolled in university dining plans are exposed daily to a food environment characterized by foods high in energy, fats, and added sugars, and low in nutrient density. Their decisions about what to eat are currently made in an environment where no nutrition labeling is required. To fill the gap in current literature regarding whether or not increased nutrition knowledge of dietary guidance actually translates into positive behavior, this cross-sectional study investigated self-reported eating patterns of 200 college students. An Internet-based survey was used to identify how closely respondents followed the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, and whether their eating patterns were related to their knowledge of dietary guidance. It was observed that, for fruit, dairy, protein, and whole grains, increased knowledge is related to increased likelihood of meeting dietary guidelines. Moreover, when asked about individual food choices, nutrition knowledge was related to making more healthful choices in every case. Ultimately, increased knowledge of dietary guidance appears to be positively related to more healthful eating patterns. This suggests that guidelines such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, in conjunction with effective public-awareness campaigns, may be a useful mechanism for promoting change in what foods consumers choose to eat. PMID:17659910

  13. Identification of the Competencies, Knowledge, and Skills Needed by School Nutrition Assistants in the Current Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.; Cater, Jerry B.; Federico, Holly A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Study objectives were to identify the functional areas, competencies, knowledge, and skills needed by effective school nutrition (SN) assistants in the current SN environment, and determine at what point the SN assistant should be able to know/perform the knowledge/skill statement, at time of hire or after training. Methods: In…

  14. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in solid organ transplant recipients: The current scientific knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Assfalg, Volker; Hüser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to heparin is associated with a high incidence of immunization against platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes. A subgroup of immunized patients is at risk of developing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), an immune mediated prothrombotic adverse drug effect. Transplant recipients are frequently exposed to heparin either due to the underlying end-stage disease, which leads to listing and transplantation or during the transplant procedure and the perioperative period. To review the current scientific knowledge on anti-heparin/PF4 antibodies and HIT in transplant recipients a systematic PubMed literature search on articles in English language was performed. The definition of HIT is inconsistent amongst the publications. Overall, six studies and 15 case reports have been published on HIT before or after heart, liver, kidney, and lung transplantation, respectively. The frequency of seroconversion for anti-PF4/heparin antibodies ranged between 1.9% and 57.9%. However, different methods to detect anti-PF4/heparin antibodies were applied. In none of the studies HIT-associated thromboembolic events or fatalities were observed. More importantly, in patients with a history of HIT, reexposure to heparin during transplantation was not associated with thrombotic complications. Taken together, the overall incidence of HIT after solid organ transplantation seems to be very low. However, according to the current knowledge, cardiac transplant recipients may have the highest risk to develop HIT. Different alternative suggestions for heparin-free anticoagulation have been reported for recipients with suspected HIT albeit no official recommendations on management have been published for this special collective so far. PMID:27011914

  15. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in solid organ transplant recipients: The current scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Assfalg, Volker; Hüser, Norbert

    2016-03-24

    Exposure to heparin is associated with a high incidence of immunization against platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes. A subgroup of immunized patients is at risk of developing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), an immune mediated prothrombotic adverse drug effect. Transplant recipients are frequently exposed to heparin either due to the underlying end-stage disease, which leads to listing and transplantation or during the transplant procedure and the perioperative period. To review the current scientific knowledge on anti-heparin/PF4 antibodies and HIT in transplant recipients a systematic PubMed literature search on articles in English language was performed. The definition of HIT is inconsistent amongst the publications. Overall, six studies and 15 case reports have been published on HIT before or after heart, liver, kidney, and lung transplantation, respectively. The frequency of seroconversion for anti-PF4/heparin antibodies ranged between 1.9% and 57.9%. However, different methods to detect anti-PF4/heparin antibodies were applied. In none of the studies HIT-associated thromboembolic events or fatalities were observed. More importantly, in patients with a history of HIT, reexposure to heparin during transplantation was not associated with thrombotic complications. Taken together, the overall incidence of HIT after solid organ transplantation seems to be very low. However, according to the current knowledge, cardiac transplant recipients may have the highest risk to develop HIT. Different alternative suggestions for heparin-free anticoagulation have been reported for recipients with suspected HIT albeit no official recommendations on management have been published for this special collective so far. PMID:27011914

  16. Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Europe: many calculations, little knowledge.

    PubMed

    Strasen, Jörn; Williams, Tatjana; Ertl, Georg; Zoller, Thomas; Stich, August; Ritter, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease and its causative agent Trypanosoma cruzi are endemic in almost all countries in South and Middle America. Currently, there are more than 10 million affected people. It is the most common reason for heart failure and a frequent cause of intestinal problems in Latin America. The phenotype of the Chagas cardiomyopathy is varying. Dilative cardiomyopathy, often accompanied by an apical aneurysm is the most common finding in the end stage heart failure, but rhythm disorders like conduction blocks, ventricular or supraventricular forms of tachycardia or repolarization changes occur as well, mainly in the early stages. Migration of infected people leads to a distribution from the endemic countries to North America and Europe. Although more than 500,000 people of Latin American origin are currently living in Europe, Chagas disease is not considered as a public health problem, yet. Cases of transmission via blood donation, organ transplantation or from mother-to-child are reported for several European countries but there is no database for Germany. Current epidemiological data are mostly available from regional surveys from other countries or are extrapolated. Hence, there is a large variation in the estimated numbers on the incidence of Chagas. Robust and reliable data are lacking. This review gives an overview on the currently available data and calls for a German Chagas surveillance.

  17. Quadricuspid aortic valves in Syrian hamsters and their formation according to current knowledge on valvulogenesis.

    PubMed

    López-García, Alejandro; Carmen Fernández, M; Durán, Ana Carmen; Sans-Coma, Valentín; Fernández, Borja

    2015-02-01

    Occurrence of quadricuspid aortic valves has been reported in humans, in nine dogs and in a greater white-toothed shrew. Moreover, two cases of developing aortic valves with four anticipated leaflets have been described in Syrian hamster embryos. Currently, however, no case of quadricuspid aortic valve in adult hamsters has been recorded. The aim here is to present four adults of this rodent species, two of them with unequivocally quadricuspid aortic valves and the other two with quadricuspid-like aortic valves. The four anomalous aortic valves were detected among 4,190 Syrian hamsters examined in our laboratory, representing an incidence of 0.09%. None of the affected hamsters showed apparent signs of disease. The present findings are considered on the light of current empirical knowledge about the morphogenesis of quadricuspid and bicuspid aortic and pulmonary valves. Quadricuspid aortic valves result from the partition of one of the normal mesenchymal cushions which normally give rise to normal (tricuspid) valves, while quadricuspid-like valves might be the product of a combined mechanism of fusion and partition of the cushions at the onset of the valvulogenesis. The presence of aortic valves with four leaflets in ancient mammalian lineages such as insectivors and rodents suggest that quadricuspid aortic valves, although showing almost certainly a low incidence, may be widespread among the different groups of mammals, including domestic animals.

  18. Human Disease Insight: An integrated knowledge-based platform for disease-gene-drug information.

    PubMed

    Tasleem, Munazzah; Ishrat, Romana; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-01-01

    The scope of the Human Disease Insight (HDI) database is not limited to researchers or physicians as it also provides basic information to non-professionals and creates disease awareness, thereby reducing the chances of patient suffering due to ignorance. HDI is a knowledge-based resource providing information on human diseases to both scientists and the general public. Here, our mission is to provide a comprehensive human disease database containing most of the available useful information, with extensive cross-referencing. HDI is a knowledge management system that acts as a central hub to access information about human diseases and associated drugs and genes. In addition, HDI contains well-classified bioinformatics tools with helpful descriptions. These integrated bioinformatics tools enable researchers to annotate disease-specific genes and perform protein analysis, search for biomarkers and identify potential vaccine candidates. Eventually, these tools will facilitate the analysis of disease-associated data. The HDI provides two types of search capabilities and includes provisions for downloading, uploading and searching disease/gene/drug-related information. The logistical design of the HDI allows for regular updating. The database is designed to work best with Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome and is freely accessible at http://humandiseaseinsight.com.

  19. Human Disease Insight: An integrated knowledge-based platform for disease-gene-drug information.

    PubMed

    Tasleem, Munazzah; Ishrat, Romana; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-01-01

    The scope of the Human Disease Insight (HDI) database is not limited to researchers or physicians as it also provides basic information to non-professionals and creates disease awareness, thereby reducing the chances of patient suffering due to ignorance. HDI is a knowledge-based resource providing information on human diseases to both scientists and the general public. Here, our mission is to provide a comprehensive human disease database containing most of the available useful information, with extensive cross-referencing. HDI is a knowledge management system that acts as a central hub to access information about human diseases and associated drugs and genes. In addition, HDI contains well-classified bioinformatics tools with helpful descriptions. These integrated bioinformatics tools enable researchers to annotate disease-specific genes and perform protein analysis, search for biomarkers and identify potential vaccine candidates. Eventually, these tools will facilitate the analysis of disease-associated data. The HDI provides two types of search capabilities and includes provisions for downloading, uploading and searching disease/gene/drug-related information. The logistical design of the HDI allows for regular updating. The database is designed to work best with Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome and is freely accessible at http://humandiseaseinsight.com. PMID:26631432

  20. Anaesthesia in Von Gierke's disease. Current approach to management.

    PubMed

    Bevan, J C

    1980-07-01

    A case report of a patient with Von Gierke's (glycogen storage disease Cori type (1)1 disease who required femoral osteotomy is presented. Current techniques of management of this condition which are likely to improve the outcome of general anaesthesia and surgery are discussed. PMID:6933867

  1. Natural Products in Caries Research: Current (Limited) Knowledge, Challenges and Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, J.-G; Rosalen, P.L.; Falsetta, M.L.; Koo, H.

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Virulent biofilms firmly attached to tooth surfaces are prime biological factors associated with this disease. The formation of an exopolysaccharide-rich biofilm matrix, acidification of the milieu and persistent low pH at the tooth-biofilm interface are major controlling virulence factors that modulate dental caries pathogenesis. Each one offers a selective therapeutic target for prevention. Although fluoride, delivered in various modalities, remains the mainstay for the prevention of caries, additional approaches are required to enhance its effectiveness. Available antiplaque approaches are based on the use of broad-spectrum microbicidal agents, e.g. chlorhexidine. Natural products offer a rich source of structurally diverse substances with a wide range of biological activities, which could be useful for the development of alternative or adjunctive anticaries therapies. However, it is a challenging approach owing to complex chemistry and isolation procedures to derive active compounds from natural products. Furthermore, most of the studies have been focused on the general inhibitory effects on glucan synthesis as well as on bacterial metabolism and growth, often employing methods that do not address the pathophysiological aspects of the disease (e.g. bacteria in biofilms) and the length of exposure/retention in the mouth. Thus, the true value of natural products in caries prevention and/or their exact mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Nevertheless, natural substances potentially active against virulent properties of cariogenic organisms have been identified. This review focuses on gaps in the current knowledge and presents a model for investigating the use of natural products in anticaries chemotherapy. PMID:21576957

  2. Altered brain response for semantic knowledge in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wierenga, Christina E; Stricker, Nikki H; McCauley, Ashley; Simmons, Alan; Jak, Amy J; Chang, Yu-Ling; Nation, Daniel A; Bangen, Katherine J; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W

    2011-02-01

    Word retrieval deficits are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are thought to reflect a degradation of semantic memory. Yet, the nature of semantic deterioration in AD and the underlying neural correlates of these semantic memory changes remain largely unknown. We examined the semantic memory impairment in AD by investigating the neural correlates of category knowledge (e.g., living vs. nonliving) and featural processing (global vs. local visual information). During event-related fMRI, 10 adults diagnosed with mild AD and 22 cognitively normal (CN) older adults named aloud items from three categories for which processing of specific visual features has previously been dissociated from categorical features. Results showed widespread group differences in the categorical representation of semantic knowledge in several language-related brain areas. For example, the right inferior frontal gyrus showed selective brain response for nonliving items in the CN group but living items in the AD group. Additionally, the AD group showed increased brain response for word retrieval irrespective of category in Broca's homologue in the right hemisphere and rostral cingulate cortex bilaterally, which suggests greater recruitment of frontally mediated neural compensatory mechanisms in the face of semantic alteration. PMID:21163275

  3. Psychology's Role in the Assessment of Erectile Dysfunction: Historical Precedents, Current Knowledge, and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Mark D.; Carey, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role of the psychologist in the evaluation of erectile dysfunction. Reviews current diagnostic criteria and provides a historical overview of the topic. Summarizes current epidemiologic knowledge, including data on prevalence and research on cognitive, affective, dydactic, and lifestyle etiologic risk factors. Discusses assessment…

  4. Treatment of autoimmune liver disease: current and future therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Palak J.

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune liver disease spans three predominant processes, from the interface hepatitis of autoimmune hepatitis to the lymphocytic cholangitis of primary biliary cirrhosis, and finally the obstructive fibrosing sclerotic cholangiopathy of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Although all autoimmune in origin, they differ in their epidemiology, presentation and response to immunosuppressive therapy and bile acid based treatments. With an ongoing better appreciation of disease aetiology and pathogenesis, treatment is set ultimately to become more rational. We provide an overview of current and future therapies for patients with autoimmune liver disease, with an emphasis placed on some of the evidence that drives current practice. PMID:23634279

  5. Correlates of disease-specific knowledge in Chinese patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Carlos KH; Yu, WC

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the associations of various sociodemographic factors with the level of disease-specific knowledge among Hong Kong Chinese patients with COPD. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 100 Chinese adults with COPD recruited from outpatient clinics was conducted from September 2009 to September 2010. Data on the knowledge specific to COPD and patients’ sociodemographics were collected from face-to-face interviews. Primary outcome of disease-specific knowledge was measured using 65-item Bristol COPD Knowledge Questionnaire (BCKQ), summing up the 65 items as the BCKQ overall score. Associations of sociodemographic factors with the BCKQ overall score were evaluated using the linear regression model. Results The mean BCKQ overall score of our patients was 41.01 (SD: 10.64). The knowledge in topics of “Smoking” and “Phlegm” achieved the first (3.97, SD: 0.82) and second (3.91, SD: 1.17) highest mean scores, respectively, while the topic of “Oral steroids” returned the lowest mean score of 1.89 (SD: 1.64). The BCKQ overall score progressively declined (P<0.001) with increase in education level, with the highest BCKQ overall score of 46.71 at no formal education among all subgroups. Compared to nondrinkers, current drinkers were associated with lower total BCKQ score. Conclusion We found that among COPD patients in outpatient clinics, impairments in the level of COPD knowledge were evident in patients who were current drinkers or had higher level of education. PMID:27695309

  6. Correlates of disease-specific knowledge in Chinese patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Carlos KH; Yu, WC

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the associations of various sociodemographic factors with the level of disease-specific knowledge among Hong Kong Chinese patients with COPD. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 100 Chinese adults with COPD recruited from outpatient clinics was conducted from September 2009 to September 2010. Data on the knowledge specific to COPD and patients’ sociodemographics were collected from face-to-face interviews. Primary outcome of disease-specific knowledge was measured using 65-item Bristol COPD Knowledge Questionnaire (BCKQ), summing up the 65 items as the BCKQ overall score. Associations of sociodemographic factors with the BCKQ overall score were evaluated using the linear regression model. Results The mean BCKQ overall score of our patients was 41.01 (SD: 10.64). The knowledge in topics of “Smoking” and “Phlegm” achieved the first (3.97, SD: 0.82) and second (3.91, SD: 1.17) highest mean scores, respectively, while the topic of “Oral steroids” returned the lowest mean score of 1.89 (SD: 1.64). The BCKQ overall score progressively declined (P<0.001) with increase in education level, with the highest BCKQ overall score of 46.71 at no formal education among all subgroups. Compared to nondrinkers, current drinkers were associated with lower total BCKQ score. Conclusion We found that among COPD patients in outpatient clinics, impairments in the level of COPD knowledge were evident in patients who were current drinkers or had higher level of education.

  7. Current genetics and epigenetics of smoking/tobacco-related cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Breitling, Lutz P

    2013-07-01

    Genetic and epigenetic factors are of great importance in cardiovascular biology and disease. Tobacco-smoking, one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors, is itself partially determined by genetic background and is associated with altered epigenetic patterns. This could render the genetics and epigenetics of smoking-related cardiovascular disease a textbook example of environmental epigenetics and modern approaches to multimodal data analysis. A pronounced association of smoking-related methylation patterns in the F2RL3 gene with prognosis in patients with stable coronary heart disease has recently been described. Nonetheless, surprisingly little concrete knowledge on the role of specific genetic variants and epigenetic modifications in the development of cardiovascular diseases in people who smoke has been accumulated. Beyond the current knowledge, the present review briefly outlines some chief challenges and priorities for moving forward in this field. PMID:23640490

  8. Biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease: current practices and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Heba N; Ciorba, Matthew A

    2012-04-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis represent the two main forms of the idiopathic chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Currently available blood and stool based biomarkers provide reproducible, quantitative tools that can complement clinical assessment to aid clinicians in IBD diagnosis and management. C-reactive protein and fecal based leukocyte markers can help the clinician distinguish IBD from noninflammatory diarrhea and assess disease activity. The ability to differentiate between forms of IBD and predict risk for disease complications is specific to serologic tests including antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic proteins. Advances in genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic array based technologies are facilitating the development of new biomarkers for IBD. The discovery of novel biomarkers, which can correlate with mucosal healing or predict long-term disease course has the potential to significantly improve patient care. This article reviews the uses and limitations of currently available biomarkers and highlights recent advances in IBD biomarker discovery. PMID:22424434

  9. Antigen-based immunotherapy for autoimmune disease: current status

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Darren Lowell; Ponda, Punita

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are common chronic disorders that not only have a major impact on the quality of life but are also potentially life-threatening. Treatment modalities that are currently favored have conferred significant clinical benefits, but they may have considerable side effects. An optimal treatment strategy for autoimmune disease would specifically target disease-associated antigens and limit systemic side effects. Similar to allergen-specific immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis, antigen-specific immunotherapy for autoimmune disease aims to induce immune deviation and promote tolerance to specific antigens. In this review, we present the current status of studies and clinical trials in both human and animal hosts that use antigen-based immunotherapy for autoimmune disease. PMID:27471707

  10. Integrative Therapies and Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: The Current Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sanghamitra M.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) primarily describes two distinct chronic conditions with unknown etiology, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). UC is limited to the colon, while CD may involve any portion of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus. These diseases exhibit a pattern of relapse and remission, and the disease processes are often painful and debilitating. Due to the chronic nature of IBD and the negative side effects of many of the conventional therapies, many patients and their families turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for symptom relief. This article focuses on the current available evidence behind CAM/integrative therapies for IBD. PMID:27417473

  11. Mycobacterium bovis infection in the lion (Panthera leo): Current knowledge, conundrums and research challenges.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, Ignatius M; van Helden, Paul D; Millar, Robert P

    2015-06-12

    Mycobacterium bovis has global public-health and socio-economic significance and can infect a wide range of species including the lion (Panthera leo) resulting in tuberculosis. Lions are classified as vulnerable under the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and have experienced a 30% population decline in the past two decades. However, no attempt has been made to collate and critically evaluate the available knowledge of M. bovis infections in lions and potential effects on population. In this review we set out to redress this. Arguments suggesting that ingestion of infected prey animals are the main route of infection for lions have not been scientifically proven and research is needed into other possible sources and routes of infection. The paucity of knowledge on host susceptibility, transmission directions and therefore host status, manifestation of pathology, and epidemiology of the disease in lions also needs to be addressed. Advances have been made in diagnosing the presence of M. bovis in lions. However, these diagnostic tests are unable to differentiate between exposure, presence of infection, or stage of disease. Furthermore, there are contradictory reports on the effects of M. bovis on lion populations with more data needed on disease dynamics versus the lion population's reproductive dynamics. Knowledge on disease effects on the lion reproduction and how additional stressors such as drought or co-morbidities may interact with tuberculosis is also lacking. Filling these knowledge gaps will contribute to the understanding of mycobacterial infections and disease in captive and wild lions and assist in lion conservation endeavours.

  12. Knowledge and experiences of Chagas disease in Bolivian women living in Spain: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Blasco-Hernández, Teresa; Miguel, Lucía García-San; Navaza, Bárbara; Navarro, Miriam; Benito, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Background In Europe, Spain has the highest number of people with Chagas disease (CD). Bolivian migrants account for 81% of the reported cases. One of the priorities in controlling the disease is prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Despite under-diagnosis in Spain being estimated at 90%, there are currently few studies that explore the social and cultural dimensions of this disease. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and experiences of Bolivian women with CD, in order to generate a useful understanding for the design and implementation of public health initiatives. Design Qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews, triangular groups, and field notes. Participants Fourteen Bolivian women with CD living in Madrid. Results The participants were aware that the disease was transmitted through the vector, that it could be asymptomatic, and that it could also be associated with sudden death by heart failure. They opined that the treatment as such could not cure the disease but only slow it down. There was a sense of indifference along with a lack of understanding of the risk of contracting the disease. Participants who presented with symptoms, or those with relatives suffering from the disease, were concerned about fatalities, cardiac problems, and possible vertical transmission. There was also a fear of being rejected by others. The disease was described as something that affected a large number of people but only showed up in a few cases and that too after many years. There was a widespread assumption that it was better not to know because doing so, allows the disease to take hold. Conclusions Disease risk perception was very low in Bolivian women living in Madrid. This factor, together with the fear of being screened, may be contributing to the current rate of under-diagnosis. PMID:26976265

  13. Women's knowledge about heart disease: Differences among ethnic and cultural groups in the Israeli Women's Health in Midlife Study.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Tzvia; Benyamini, Yael; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2016-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to assess levels of knowledge about risk factors for heart disease among midlife Israeli women, and to evaluate the relationship of knowledge to personal risk factors and vulnerability to heart disease. Face-to-face interviews with women aged 45-64 years were conducted during 2004-2006 within three population groups: long-term Jewish residents (LTR), immigrants from the former Soviet Union, and Arab women. The survey instrument included six knowledge statements relating to: the risk after menopause, family history, elevated cholesterol level, diabetes, obesity, and warning signs of a heart attack. The findings showed wide disparities in knowledge by educational level and between immigrants and LTR, after taking into account personal risk factors and education. Personal risk factors were not significantly related to the knowledge items, except for personal history of cardiovascular disease, which was associated with knowledge about "warning signs of a heart attack" and "family history." Women who perceived themselves as more vulnerable to heart disease were more likely to identify several risk factors correctly. These findings stress the need to increase knowledge about heart disease, especially among less educated and minority women, and to emphasize the risk of patients' personal status by health providers.

  14. The effects of strontium on bone mineral: A review on current knowledge and microanalytical approaches.

    PubMed

    Querido, William; Rossi, Andre L; Farina, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The interest in effects of strontium (Sr) on bone has greatly increased in the last decade due to the development of the promising drug strontium ranelate. This drug is used for treating osteoporosis, a major bone disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women. The novelty of strontium ranelate compared to other treatments for osteoporosis is its unique effect on bone: it simultaneously promotes bone formation by osteoblasts and inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts. Besides affecting bone cells, treatment with strontium ranelate also has a direct effect on the mineralized bone matrix. Due to the chemical similarities between Sr and Ca, a topic that has long been of particular interest is the incorporation of Sr into bones replacing Ca from the mineral phase, which is composed by carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Several groups have analyzed the mineral produced during treatment; however, most analysis were done with relatively large samples containing numerous nanocrystals, resulting thus on data that represents an average of many crystalline domains. The nanoscale analysis of the bone apatite crystals containing Sr has only been described in a few studies. In this study, we review the current knowledge on the effects of Sr on bone mineral and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used in the field. In particular, we focus on the great potential that advanced microscopy and microanalytical techniques may have on the detailed analysis of the nanostructure and composition of bone apatite nanocrystals produced during treatment with strontium ranelate. PMID:26546967

  15. Influence of Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields on the Circadian System: Current Stage of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Żak, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    One of the side effects of each electrical device work is the electromagnetic field generated near its workplace. All organisms, including humans, are exposed daily to the influence of different types of this field, characterized by various physical parameters. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the effects of an electromagnetic field on the physiological and pathological processes occurring in cells, tissues, and organs. Numerous epidemiological and experimental data suggest that the extremely low frequency magnetic field generated by electrical transmission lines and electrically powered devices and the high frequencies electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic devices have a potentially negative impact on the circadian system. On the other hand, several studies have found no influence of these fields on chronobiological parameters. According to the current state of knowledge, some previously proposed hypotheses, including one concerning the key role of melatonin secretion disruption in pathogenesis of electromagnetic field induced diseases, need to be revised. This paper reviews the data on the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol rhythms—two major markers of the circadian system as well as on sleep. It also provides the basic information about the nature, classification, parameters, and sources of these fields. PMID:25136557

  16. Influence of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on the circadian system: current stage of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Lewczuk, Bogdan; Redlarski, Grzegorz; Zak, Arkadiusz; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara; Krawczuk, Marek

    2014-01-01

    One of the side effects of each electrical device work is the electromagnetic field generated near its workplace. All organisms, including humans, are exposed daily to the influence of different types of this field, characterized by various physical parameters. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the effects of an electromagnetic field on the physiological and pathological processes occurring in cells, tissues, and organs. Numerous epidemiological and experimental data suggest that the extremely low frequency magnetic field generated by electrical transmission lines and electrically powered devices and the high frequencies electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic devices have a potentially negative impact on the circadian system. On the other hand, several studies have found no influence of these fields on chronobiological parameters. According to the current state of knowledge, some previously proposed hypotheses, including one concerning the key role of melatonin secretion disruption in pathogenesis of electromagnetic field induced diseases, need to be revised. This paper reviews the data on the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol rhythms-two major markers of the circadian system as well as on sleep. It also provides the basic information about the nature, classification, parameters, and sources of these fields.

  17. The effects of strontium on bone mineral: A review on current knowledge and microanalytical approaches.

    PubMed

    Querido, William; Rossi, Andre L; Farina, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The interest in effects of strontium (Sr) on bone has greatly increased in the last decade due to the development of the promising drug strontium ranelate. This drug is used for treating osteoporosis, a major bone disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women. The novelty of strontium ranelate compared to other treatments for osteoporosis is its unique effect on bone: it simultaneously promotes bone formation by osteoblasts and inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts. Besides affecting bone cells, treatment with strontium ranelate also has a direct effect on the mineralized bone matrix. Due to the chemical similarities between Sr and Ca, a topic that has long been of particular interest is the incorporation of Sr into bones replacing Ca from the mineral phase, which is composed by carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Several groups have analyzed the mineral produced during treatment; however, most analysis were done with relatively large samples containing numerous nanocrystals, resulting thus on data that represents an average of many crystalline domains. The nanoscale analysis of the bone apatite crystals containing Sr has only been described in a few studies. In this study, we review the current knowledge on the effects of Sr on bone mineral and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used in the field. In particular, we focus on the great potential that advanced microscopy and microanalytical techniques may have on the detailed analysis of the nanostructure and composition of bone apatite nanocrystals produced during treatment with strontium ranelate.

  18. Knowledge about Aging and Alzheimer Disease: A Comparison of Professional Caregivers and Noncaregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Tiana B.; See, Sheree Kwong

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed professional caregivers of persons with Alzheimer disease (AD) and non-caregivers' knowledge about aging and AD. Participants completed modified versions of the Alzheimer Disease Knowledge Test and the multiple-choice version of the Facts on Aging Quiz #1. Overall, knowledge levels about AD and aging were low. Caregivers were…

  19. Addiction: Current Criticism of the Brain Disease Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Rachel; Dingel, Molly; Ostergren, Jenny; Partridge, Brad; McCormick, Jennifer; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    To deepen understanding of efforts to consider addiction a “brain disease,” we review critical appraisals of the disease model in conjunction with responses from in-depth semistructured stakeholder interviews with (1) patients in treatment for addiction and (2) addiction scientists. Sixty-three patients (from five alcohol and/or nicotine treatment centers in the Midwest) and 20 addiction scientists (representing genetic, molecular, behavioral, and epidemiologic research) were asked to describe their understanding of addiction, including whether they considered addiction to be a disease. To examine the NIDA brain disease paradigm, our approach includes a review of current criticism from the literature, enhanced by the voices of key stakeholders. Many argue that framing addiction as a disease will enhance therapeutic outcomes and allay moral stigma. We conclude that it is not necessary, and may be harmful, to frame addiction as a disease. PMID:24693488

  20. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of cardiomyopathies: a critical review of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sangiorgi, Mario

    2003-02-01

    unknown origin, familial forms of a genetic origin, depending on alterations of contractile or regulating functional proteins, when myocardial injury is the sole manifestation (idiopathic) of clinical picture. The most modern etiopathogenetic, pathophysiological, and clinical features of each form of CM are briefly described in order to suggest a complete definition of the disease and to state a clinical-epidemiological setting that encompasses the current knowledge. PMID:12554005

  1. Poverty and Health Disparities for American Indian and Alaska Native Children: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Sarche, Michelle; Spicer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This report explores the current state of knowledge regarding inequalities and their effect on American Indian and Alaska Native children, underscoring gaps in our current knowledge and the opportunities for early intervention to begin to address persistent challenges in young American Indian and Alaska Native children’s development. This overview documents demographic, social, health, and health care disparities as they affect American Indian and Alaska Native children, the persistent cultural strengths that must form the basis for any conscientious intervention effort, and the exciting possibilities for early childhood interventions. PMID:18579879

  2. Knowledge Mapping for Climate Change and Food- and Waterborne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Semenza, Jan C.; Höuser, Christoph; Herbst, Susanne; Rechenburg, Andrea; Suk, Jonathan E.; Frechen, Tobias; Kistemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The authors extracted from the PubMed and ScienceDirect bibliographic databases all articles published between 1998 and 2009 that were relevant to climate change and food- and waterborne diseases. Any material within each article that provided information about a relevant pathogen and its relationship with climate and climate change was summarized as a key fact, entered into a relational knowledge base, and tagged with the terminology (predefined terms) used in the field. These terms were organized, quantified, and mapped according to predefined hierarchical categories. For noncholera Vibrio sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., data on climatic and environmental influences (52% and 49% of the total number of key facts, respectively) pertained to specific weather phenomena (as opposed to climate change phenomena) and environmental determinants, whereas information on the potential effects of food-related determinants that might be related to climate or climate change were virtually absent. This proportion was lower for the other pathogens studied (Campylobacter sp. 40%, Salmonella sp. 27%, Norovirus 25%, Listeria sp. 8%), but they all displayed a distinct concentration of information on general food-and water-related determinants or effects, albeit with little detail. Almost no information was available concerning the potential effects of changes in climatic variables on the pathogens evaluated, such as changes in air or water temperature, precipitation, humidity, UV radiation, wind, cloud coverage, sunshine hours, or seasonality. Frequency profiles revealed an abundance of data on weather and food-specific determinants, but also exposed extensive data deficiencies, particularly with regard to the potential effects of climate change on the pathogens evaluated. A reprioritization of public health research is warranted to ensure that funding is dedicated to explicitly studying the effects of changes in climate variables on food- and waterborne diseases. PMID:24771989

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease in pigs: current epidemiological situation and control methods.

    PubMed

    León, Emilio A

    2012-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the paradigm of a transboundary animal disease. Beyond any doubt, it is the most serious challenge for livestock's health. Official Veterinary Services from free countries invest considerable amount of money to prevent its introduction, whereas those from endemic countries invest most of their resources in the control of the disease. A very important volume of scientific production is developed every year in different aspects of FMD, and for that reason, the current knowledge makes the diagnosis of the disease easier to a great extent. However, FMD is still endemic in about two-thirds of the countries, and periodically re-emergent in several countries. This paper is a review of recent publications, focusing mainly on control measures and current world epidemiological situation, emphasizing primarily pigs. PMID:22225815

  4. Current Status of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine in Lung Biology and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Lung diseases remain a significant and devastating cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In contrast to many other major diseases, lung diseases notably chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), including both asthma and emphysema, are increasing in prevalence and COPD is expected to become the 3rd leading cause of disease mortality worldwide by 2020. New therapeutic options are desperately needed. A rapidly growing number of investigations of stem cells and cell therapies in lung biology and diseases as well as in ex vivo lung bioengineering have offered exciting new avenues for advancing knowledge of lung biology as well as providing novel potential therapeutic approaches for lung diseases. These initial observations have led to a growing exploration of endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells in clinical trials of pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with other clinical investigations planned. Ex vivo bioengineering of the trachea, larynx, diaphragm, and the lung itself with both biosynthetic constructs as well as decellularized tissues have been utilized to explore engineering both airway and vascular systems of the lung. Lung is thus a ripe organ for a variety of cell therapy and regenerative medicine approaches. Current state-of-the-art progress for each of the above areas will be presented as will discussion of current considerations for cell therapy based clinical trials in lung diseases. PMID:23959715

  5. Encouraging Civic Knowledge and Engagement: Exploring Current Events through a Psychological Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Debbie; Baugh, Stacey-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Engagement with political, social, and civil issues is a fundamental component of an educated population, but civic knowledge and engagement are decreasing among adolescents and young adults. A Psychology in Current Events class sought to increase this engagement and key skills such as critical thinking. A one-group pretest-posttest…

  6. Child Abuse: Current Knowledge and Future Needs for Research. Matrix No. 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberger, Eli H.; Newberger, Carolyn Moore

    At the beginning of this paper what is known about the effects of maltreatment on children is described. From that discussion, a general impression of the nature and quality of current knowledge emerges, with a focus on theoretical and methodological implications. It is concluded that reports on the physical, social, emotional, and…

  7. Current Status in the Therapy of Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Philipp; Fricker, Gert; Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic diseases, like viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Wilson’s disease, play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis and, hence, hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, the current treatment options and the molecular mechanisms of action of the drugs are summarized. Unfortunately, the treatment options for most of these hepatic diseases are limited. Since hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infections are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, they are the focus of the development of new drugs. The current treatment of choice for HBV/HCV infection is an interferon-based combination therapy with oral antiviral drugs, like nucleos(t)ide analogues, which is associated with improving the therapeutic success and also preventing the development of resistances. Currently, two new protease inhibitors for HCV treatment are expected (deleobuvir, faldaprevir) and together with the promising drug, daclatasvir (NS5A-inhibitor, currently in clinical trials), adequate therapy is to be expected in due course (circumventing the requirement of interferon with its side-effects), while in contrast, efficient HBV therapeutics are still lacking. In this respect, entry inhibitors, like Myrcludex B, the lead substance of the first entry inhibitor for HBV/HDV (hepatitis D) infection, provide immense potential. The pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of action of Myrcludex B are described in detail. PMID:24786290

  8. Current status in the therapy of liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Philipp; Fricker, Gert; Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic diseases, like viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Wilson's disease, play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis and, hence, hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, the current treatment options and the molecular mechanisms of action of the drugs are summarized. Unfortunately, the treatment options for most of these hepatic diseases are limited. Since hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infections are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, they are the focus of the development of new drugs. The current treatment of choice for HBV/HCV infection is an interferon-based combination therapy with oral antiviral drugs, like nucleos(t)ide analogues, which is associated with improving the therapeutic success and also preventing the development of resistances. Currently, two new protease inhibitors for HCV treatment are expected (deleobuvir, faldaprevir) and together with the promising drug, daclatasvir (NS5A-inhibitor, currently in clinical trials), adequate therapy is to be expected in due course (circumventing the requirement of interferon with its side-effects), while in contrast, efficient HBV therapeutics are still lacking. In this respect, entry inhibitors, like Myrcludex B, the lead substance of the first entry inhibitor for HBV/HDV (hepatitis D) infection, provide immense potential. The pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of action of Myrcludex B are described in detail.

  9. Alzheimer disease: current concepts and emerging diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher M; Karlawish, Jason H T

    2003-03-01

    Alzheimer disease is a complex neurodegenerative dementing illness. It has become a major public health problem because of its increasing prevalence, long duration, high cost of care, and lack of disease-modifying therapy. Over the past few years, however, remarkable advances have taken place in understanding both the genetic and molecular biology associated with the intracellular processing of amyloid and tau and the changes leading to the pathologic formation of extracellular amyloid plaques and the intraneuronal aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau into neurofibrillary tangles. The identification of disease-causing autosomal dominant mutations as well as gene polymorphisms that alter the risk for pathology indicate that Alzheimer disease is a genetically complex disorder. This progress in our understanding of the molecular pathology has set the stage for clinically meaningful advances in diagnosis and treatment. Emerging diagnostic methods that are based on biochemical and imaging biomarkers of disease-specific pathology hold the potential for accurately diagnosing Alzheimer disease at the earliest stage of the illness--the time when disease-modifying treatment will be most effective. Currently available cholinesterase inhibition therapy targets the cognitive symptoms. However, the goal of new therapies under development is halting the pathologic cascade and potentially reversing the course of the disease. If these new therapies are successful, they will represent a remarkable medical advance for patients and the families who care for them.

  10. Defining Disease Severity in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Current and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Panés, Julián; Sandborn, William J; Vermeire, Séverine; Danese, Silvio; Feagan, Brian G; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Hanauer, Stephen B; Rycroft, Beth

    2016-03-01

    Although most treatment algorithms in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) begin with classifying patients according to disease severity, no formal validated or consensus definitions of mild, moderate, or severe IBD currently exist. There are 3 main domains relevant to the evaluation of disease severity in IBD: impact of the disease on the patient, disease burden, and disease course. These measures are not mutually exclusive and the correlations and interactions between them are not necessarily proportionate. A comprehensive literature search was performed regarding current definitions of disease severity in both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and the ability to categorize disease severity in a particular patient. Although numerous assessment tools for symptoms, quality of life, patient-reported outcomes, fatigue, endoscopy, cross-sectional imaging, and histology (in ulcerative colitis) were identified, few have validated thresholds for categorizing disease activity or severity. Moving forward, we propose a preliminary set of criteria that could be used to classify IBD disease severity. These are grouped by the 3 domains of disease severity: impact of the disease on the patient (clinical symptoms, quality of life, fatigue, and disability); measurable inflammatory burden (C-reactive protein, mucosal lesions, upper gastrointestinal involvement, and disease extent), and disease course (including structural damage, history/extension of intestinal resection, perianal disease, number of flares, and extraintestinal manifestations). We further suggest that a disease severity classification should be developed and validated by an international group to develop a pragmatic means of identifying patients with severe disease. This is increasingly important to guide current therapeutic strategies for IBD and to develop treatment algorithms for clinical practice. PMID:26071941

  11. Mycobacterium bovis infection in the lion (Panthera leo): Current knowledge, conundrums and research challenges.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, Ignatius M; van Helden, Paul D; Millar, Robert P

    2015-06-12

    Mycobacterium bovis has global public-health and socio-economic significance and can infect a wide range of species including the lion (Panthera leo) resulting in tuberculosis. Lions are classified as vulnerable under the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and have experienced a 30% population decline in the past two decades. However, no attempt has been made to collate and critically evaluate the available knowledge of M. bovis infections in lions and potential effects on population. In this review we set out to redress this. Arguments suggesting that ingestion of infected prey animals are the main route of infection for lions have not been scientifically proven and research is needed into other possible sources and routes of infection. The paucity of knowledge on host susceptibility, transmission directions and therefore host status, manifestation of pathology, and epidemiology of the disease in lions also needs to be addressed. Advances have been made in diagnosing the presence of M. bovis in lions. However, these diagnostic tests are unable to differentiate between exposure, presence of infection, or stage of disease. Furthermore, there are contradictory reports on the effects of M. bovis on lion populations with more data needed on disease dynamics versus the lion population's reproductive dynamics. Knowledge on disease effects on the lion reproduction and how additional stressors such as drought or co-morbidities may interact with tuberculosis is also lacking. Filling these knowledge gaps will contribute to the understanding of mycobacterial infections and disease in captive and wild lions and assist in lion conservation endeavours. PMID:25891424

  12. Cell therapy for liver diseases: current medicine and future promises.

    PubMed

    Alejandra, Meza-Ríos; Juan, Armendáriz-Borunda; Ana, Sandoval-Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Liver diseases are a major health problem worldwide since they usually represent the main causes of death in most countries, causing excessive costs to public health systems. Nowadays, there are no efficient current therapies for most hepatic diseases and liver transplant is infrequent due to the availability of organs, cost and risk of transplant rejection. Therefore, alternative therapies for liver diseases have been developed, including cell-based therapies. Stem cells (SCs) are characterized by their self-renewing capacity, unlimited proliferation and differentiation under certain conditions into tissue- or organ-specific cells with special functions. Cell-based therapies for liver diseases have been successful in experimental models, showing anti-inflammatory, antifibrogenic and regenerative effects. Nowadays, clinical trials using SCs for liver pathologies are increasing in number, and those that have reached publication have achieved favorable effects, encouraging us to think that SCs will have a potential clinical use in a short time.

  13. Developing genomic knowledge bases and databases to support clinical management: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Huser, Vojtech; Sincan, Murat; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Personalized medicine, the ability to tailor diagnostic and treatment decisions for individual patients, is seen as the evolution of modern medicine. We characterize here the informatics resources available today or envisioned in the near future that can support clinical interpretation of genomic test results. We assume a clinical sequencing scenario (germline whole-exome sequencing) in which a clinical specialist, such as an endocrinologist, needs to tailor patient management decisions within his or her specialty (targeted findings) but relies on a genetic counselor to interpret off-target incidental findings. We characterize the genomic input data and list various types of knowledge bases that provide genomic knowledge for generating clinical decision support. We highlight the need for patient-level databases with detailed lifelong phenotype content in addition to genotype data and provide a list of recommendations for personalized medicine knowledge bases and databases. We conclude that no single knowledge base can currently support all aspects of personalized recommendations and that consolidation of several current resources into larger, more dynamic and collaborative knowledge bases may offer a future path forward.

  14. A review and current perspective on Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Patil, Mallikarjun; Sheth, Keyur A; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh C; Devarbhavi, Harshad

    2013-12-01

    Wilson disease is a rare, inherited autosomal recessive disease of copper metabolism and may be more common where consanguinity is prevalent. Much has been known about the disease after it was first described by Kinnier Wilson as 'progressive lenticular degeneration in 1912. Over 500 mutations of the ATP7B gene has been identified with no clear genotype to phenotype correlation. Loss of ATP7B function leads various grades of reduced biliary excretion of copper and reduced incorporation of copper into ceruloplasmin; accumulation and toxicity of copper in the liver, brain and other tissues results in liver toxicity and other myriad manifestations of the disease. The clinical features may vary from asymptomatic state to chronic liver disease, acute liver failure, neuropsychiatric manifestations and hemolytic anemia. Diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical sign's, biochemical features, histologic findings and mutation analysis of ATP7B gene. Subtle geographical differences exist with a disproportionate proportion of children presenting with acute liver failure. A high index of suspicion is needed for an early diagnosis. Ratios of biochemical indices for early diagnosis need validation across geographical regions and may not be particularly applicable in children. Better biomarkers or the need for tests for early detection of ALF persists. Drugs used in the treatment of Wilson disease include copper chelating agents such as d-Penicillamine, trientine and zinc salt. Untreated Wilson disease uniformly leads to death from liver disease or severe neurological disability. Early recognition and treatment has excellent prognosis. Liver transplantation is indicated in acute liver failure and end stage liver disease. Family screening in order to detect the disorder in the first-degree relatives is warranted. This review provides an overview of different aspects of Wilson disease including geographical differences in presentations and clinical management and the

  15. A Review and Current Perspective on Wilson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Mallikarjun; Sheth, Keyur A.; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh C.; Devarbhavi, Harshad

    2013-01-01

    Wilson disease is a rare, inherited autosomal recessive disease of copper metabolism and may be more common where consanguinity is prevalent. Much has been known about the disease after it was first described by Kinnier Wilson as ‘progressive lenticular degeneration in 1912. Over 500 mutations of the ATP7B gene has been identified with no clear genotype to phenotype correlation. Loss of ATP7B function leads various grades of reduced biliary excretion of copper and reduced incorporation of copper into ceruloplasmin; accumulation and toxicity of copper in the liver, brain and other tissues results in liver toxicity and other myriad manifestations of the disease. The clinical features may vary from asymptomatic state to chronic liver disease, acute liver failure, neuropsychiatric manifestations and hemolytic anemia. Diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical sign's, biochemical features, histologic findings and mutation analysis of ATP7B gene. Subtle geographical differences exist with a disproportionate proportion of children presenting with acute liver failure. A high index of suspicion is needed for an early diagnosis. Ratios of biochemical indices for early diagnosis need validation across geographical regions and may not be particularly applicable in children. Better biomarkers or the need for tests for early detection of ALF persists. Drugs used in the treatment of Wilson disease include copper chelating agents such as d-Penicillamine, trientine and zinc salt. Untreated Wilson disease uniformly leads to death from liver disease or severe neurological disability. Early recognition and treatment has excellent prognosis. Liver transplantation is indicated in acute liver failure and end stage liver disease. Family screening in order to detect the disorder in the first-degree relatives is warranted. This review provides an overview of different aspects of Wilson disease including geographical differences in presentations and clinical management and the

  16. Concise review: current status of stem cells and regenerative medicine in lung biology and diseases.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Lung diseases remain a significant and devastating cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In contrast to many other major diseases, lung diseases notably chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs), including both asthma and emphysema, are increasing in prevalence and COPD is expected to become the third leading cause of disease mortality worldwide by 2020. New therapeutic options are desperately needed. A rapidly growing number of investigations of stem cells and cell therapies in lung biology and diseases as well as in ex vivo lung bioengineering have offered exciting new avenues for advancing knowledge of lung biology as well as providing novel potential therapeutic approaches for lung diseases. These initial observations have led to a growing exploration of endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells in clinical trials of pulmonary hypertension and COPD with other clinical investigations planned. Ex vivo bioengineering of the trachea, larynx, diaphragm, and the lung itself with both biosynthetic constructs as well as decellularized tissues have been used to explore engineering both airway and vascular systems of the lung. Lung is thus a ripe organ for a variety of cell therapy and regenerative medicine approaches. Current state-of-the-art progress for each of the above areas will be presented as will discussion of current considerations for cell therapy-based clinical trials in lung diseases.

  17. [Current Trend of Drug Development for Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)].

    PubMed

    Kita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    EBOLA hemorrhagic fever, a typical emerging infectious disease, began in December 2013 in the southern part of Guinea, and killed more than 11000 people by the end of June, 2015. In addition to emerging/re-emerging diseases and the 3 major infectious diseases i.e. HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have recently become important tropical diseases of the poor. It is remarkable that Japan succeeded in the eradication of malaria and other tropical diseases, which include lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis. However, despite these achievements, it is important to sustain our efforts when we consider global health. This review highlights the significance of elimination and/or control of NTDs, and then introduces the current situation of drug development activities in Japan, which are aimed towards combating tropical infectious diseases. They include studies on a novel drug target, the "mitochondrial NADH-fumarate reductase system (Fumarate respiration)" composed of complex I, rhodoquinone and complex II, which plays an important role in the anaerobic energy metabolism of many helminths such as Ascaris suum. An additional interesting finding highlighted herein is that ascofuranone, a recently developed anti-African trypanosome drug, shows specific inhibition of fumarate respiration in Echinococcus multilocularis mitochondria. PMID:26831795

  18. Febrile Seizures and Febrile Seizure Syndromes: An Updated Overview of Old and Current Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Khair, Abdulhafeez M; Elmagrabi, Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common paroxysmal episode during childhood, affecting up to one in 10 children. They are a major cause of emergency facility visits and a source of family distress and anxiety. Their etiology and pathophysiological pathways are being understood better over time; however, there is still more to learn. Genetic predisposition is thought to be a major contributor. Febrile seizures have been historically classified as benign; however, many emerging febrile seizure syndromes behave differently. The way in which human knowledge has evolved over the years in regard to febrile seizures has not been dealt with in depth in the current literature, up to our current knowledge. This review serves as a documentary of how scientists have explored febrile seizures, elaborating on the journey of knowledge as far as etiology, clinical features, approach, and treatment strategies are concerned. Although this review cannot cover all clinical aspects related to febrile seizures at the textbook level, we believe it can function as a quick summary of the past and current sources of knowledge for all varieties of febrile seizure types and syndromes. PMID:26697219

  19. Current and future treatments for Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Sokratis G.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) is increasingly being recognized as one of the most important medical and social problems in older people in industrialized and non-industrialized nations. To date, only symptomatic treatments exist for this disease, all trying to counterbalance the neurotransmitter disturbance. Three cholinesterase inhibitors (CIs) are currently available and have been approved for the treatment of mild to moderate AD. A further therapeutic option available for moderate to severe AD is memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor noncompetitive antagonist. Treatments capable of stopping or at least effectively modifying the course of AD, referred to as ‘disease-modifying’ drugs, are still under extensive research. To block the progression of the disease they have to interfere with the pathogenic steps responsible for the clinical symptoms, including the deposition of extracellular amyloid β plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangle formation, inflammation, oxidative damage, iron deregulation and cholesterol metabolism. In this review we discuss current symptomatic treatments and new potential disease-modifying therapies for AD that are currently being studied in phase I–III trials. PMID:23277790

  20. Knowledge of AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Foster Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, E. V.; Pryde, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    The sample consisted of 533 adolescent state wards. Knowledge levels were classified by sex and race. Scores were compared with results of National Adolescent Student Health Survey. Within sample, females scored higher than males, and whites scored higher than nonwhites. Variations in knowledge levels and implications for AIDS prevention education…

  1. Rapidly expanding knowledge on the role of the gut microbiome in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Cénit, M C; Matzaraki, V; Tigchelaar, E F; Zhernakova, A

    2014-10-01

    The human gut is colonized by a wide diversity of micro-organisms, which are now known to play a key role in the human host by regulating metabolic functions and immune homeostasis. Many studies have indicated that the genomes of our gut microbiota, known as the gut microbiome or our "other genome" could play an important role in immune-related, complex diseases, and growing evidence supports a causal role for gut microbiota in regulating predisposition to diseases. A comprehensive analysis of the human gut microbiome is thus important to unravel the exact mechanisms by which the gut microbiota are involved in health and disease. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technology, along with the development of metagenomics and bioinformatics tools, have provided opportunities to characterize the microbial communities. Furthermore, studies using germ-free animals have shed light on how the gut microbiota are involved in autoimmunity. In this review we describe the different approaches used to characterize the human microbiome, review current knowledge about the gut microbiome, and discuss the role of gut microbiota in immune homeostasis and autoimmunity. Finally, we indicate how this knowledge could be used to improve human health by manipulating the gut microbiota. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: From Genome to Function.

  2. Cardiovascular disease-related knowledge and attitudes in a high-risk Australian population.

    PubMed

    Cumming, R G; Barton, G E; Fahey, P P; Wilson, A; Leeder, S R

    1989-05-15

    The population of Sydney's western suburbs has higher-than-average mortality rates of heart disease and has raised prevalence rates of the associated risk factors. To enquire into the cardiovascular disease-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of this population, a survey that used a multistage area-probability sampling method was conducted in May 1987. A total of 484 subjects was interviewed. The self-reported prevalence rates of angina, heart attacks, strokes and diabetes all were high compared with the rates from the Australia-wide National Heart Foundation's Risk Factor Prevalence Study in 1983. The rates of smoking, hypertension, high blood-lipid levels and sedentary life-style also were raised. Awareness of cardiovascular disease-related issues was high but detailed knowledge often was deficient. The majority of respondents reported having attempted to change their health-related behaviours. Of special note was the finding that 80% of current smokers had tried to quit smoking. The high level of awareness of the importance of making life-style changes, and the frequency with which attempts at behavioural changes were reported, suggest that improvements in the health of the population of Sydney's western suburbs will require two complementary strategies: the teaching of the skills that are needed to maintain healthy behaviours successfully and environmental changes to facilitate healthy life-style choices.

  3. [Leprosy--current aspects of a disease from biblical times].

    PubMed

    Sticht-Groh, V; Bretzel, G

    1995-12-01

    95% of individuals who come in contact with M. leprae do not develop an overt disease. It begins as an indeterminate form that may undergo spontaneous cure or may progress to different forms of leprosy (TT, BT, unstable form of BB, BL, or LL). The clinical form of the disease correlates with the T cell mediated immune response rather than to the direct damage caused by the bacilli. The lack of cellular immunity in lepromatous patients relates specifically to M. leprae. Current aspects of etiology, transmission, epidemiology, classification, clinical features, immunopathology, chemotherapy, treatment of reactions, immunotherapy and vaccination are elucidated and discussed.

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease imaging: Current practice and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kilcoyne, Aoife; Kaplan, Jess L; Gee, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of imaging in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including detection of extraluminal complications and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD, assessment of disease activity and treatment response, and discrimination of inflammatory from fibrotic strictures. IBD is a chronic idiopathic disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract that is comprised of two separate, but related intestinal disorders; Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The paper discusses, in detail the pros and cons of the different IBD imaging modalities that need to be considered in order to optimize the imaging and clinical evaluation of patients with IBD. Historically, IBD evaluation of the bowel has included imaging to assess the portions of the small bowel that are inaccessible to optical endoscopic visualization. This traditionally was performed using barium fluoroscopic techniques; however, cross-sectional imaging techniques (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) are being increasingly utilized for IBD evaluation because they can simultaneously assess mural and extramural IBD manifestations. Recent advances in imaging technology, that continue to improve the ability of imaging to noninvasively follow disease activity and treatment response, are also discussed. This review article summarizes the current imaging approach in inflammatory bowel disease as well as the role of emerging imaging modalities. PMID:26811637

  5. College Students' Ageist Behavior: The Role of Aging Knowledge and Perceived Vulnerability to Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Metzger, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the associations among perceived vulnerability to disease, aging knowledge, and ageism (positive and negative) in a sample of undergraduate students enrolled in a human development course (N = 649; M age = 19.94 years, SD = 2.84 years). Perceived vulnerability to disease and aging knowledge were associated with…

  6. Particularities of Crohn's disease in pediatric patients: current status and perspectives regarding imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Chiorean, Liliana; Cui, Xin-Wu; Braden, Barbara; Kucharzik, Torsten; Jüngert, Jörg; Kosiak, Wojciech; Stenzel, Martin; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2015-01-01

    A consensus on the best imaging modality evaluating inflammatory bowel disease in the pediatric population is lacking and it is often unclear which modality to choose in specific clinical circumstances. Children with inflammatory bowel disease are exposed to ionizing radiation from multiple imaging studies performed at initial diagnosis, throughout treatment and during the follow-up period. This paper discusses the value of different imaging techniques in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease and gives a review of the literature. In addition, particular features of inflammatory bowel disease in children including the predilection of affected segments in the gastrointestinal tract are highlighted. Based on current literature knowledge, we encourage an integrative approach to the interpretation of clinical and imaging data for diagnosis and follow-up in daily clinical settings.

  7. Current Topics in Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    UMEMURA, Atsushi; OYAMA, Genko; SHIMO, Yasushi; NAKAJIMA, Madoka; NAKAJIMA, Asuka; JO, Takayuki; SEKIMOTO, Satoko; ITO, Masanobu; MITSUHASHI, Takumi; HATTORI, Nobutaka; ARAI, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    There is a long history of surgical treatment for Parkinson disease (PD). After pioneering trials and errors, the current primary surgical treatment for PD is deep brain stimulation (DBS). DBS is a promising treatment option for patients with medically refractory PD. However, there are still many problems and controversies associated with DBS. In this review, we discuss current issues in DBS for PD, including patient selection, clinical outcomes, complications, target selection, long-term outcomes, management of axial symptoms, timing of surgery, surgical procedures, cost-effectiveness, and new technology. PMID:27349658

  8. Key tasks in healthcare marketing: assessing importance and current level of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kennett, Pamela A; Henson, Steve W; Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J

    2005-01-01

    When examining the healthcare industry, the need for continuing education in internal functions (i.e., HR management) has been documented. However, equally important to success in the healthcare industry are external functions such as marketing. In an expansion of research on internally focused functions, we report findings from an exploratory study designed to examine the perceptions of executives about managerial skill needs in the externally focused area of marketing. Specifically, we examine eight key tasks in marketing and ask executives to rate the level of knowledge required for each and then to assess current, or actual, levels of knowledge in the field. Findings suggest that pricing strategy, product strategy, and segmentation and targeting were the tasks that require the most knowledge for healthcare marketers, and that they do, in fact, perceive various gaps in all of the areas examined. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  9. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation in neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, Roberta; Bocci, Tommaso; Cortese, Francesca; Ruggiero, Fabiana; Priori, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted the therapeutic potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with neurological diseases, including dementia, epilepsy, post-stroke dysfunctions, movement disorders, and other pathological conditions. Because of this technique's ability to modify cerebellar excitability without significant side effects, cerebellar tDCS is a new, interesting, and powerful tool to induce plastic modifications in the cerebellum. In this report, we review a number of interesting studies on the application of cerebellar tDCS for various neurological conditions (ataxia, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor) and the possible mechanism by which the stimulation acts on the cerebellum. Study findings indicate that cerebellar tDCS is a promising therapeutic tool in treating several neurological disorders; however, this method's efficacy appears to be limited, given the current data. PMID:27595007

  10. [Current Status of Translational Research on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease].

    PubMed

    Jeong, In Du; Park, Moo In

    2016-09-25

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the incidence of some of its complications have risen strikingly over the last few decades. With the increase in our understanding of the pathophysiology of GERD along with the development of proton pump inhibitors, the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to GERD have changed dramatically over the past decade. However, GERD still poses a problem to many clinicians since the spectrum of the disease has evolved to encompass more challenging presentations such as refractory GERD and extra-esophageal manifestations. The aim of this article is to provide a review of available current translational research on GERD. This review includes acid pocket, ambulatory pH monitoring, impedance pH monitoring, mucosa impedance, and high resolution manometry. This article discusses current translational research on GERD. PMID:27646580

  11. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative

  12. Burden of Circulatory System Diseases and Ignored Barriers of Knowledge Translation

    PubMed Central

    Ghafouri, Hamed-Basir; Saravani, Shahzad; Shokraneh, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Circulatory system disease raise third highest disability-adjusted life years among Iranians and ischemic cardiac diseases are main causes for such burden. Despite available evidences on risk factors of the disease, no effective intervention was implemented to control and prevent the disease. This paper non-systematically reviews available literature on the problem, solutions, and barriers of implementation of knowledge translation in Iran. It seems that there are ignored factors such as cultural and motivational issues in knowledge translation interventions but there are hopes for implementation of started projects and preparation of students as next generation of knowledge transferors. PMID:24250994

  13. Disease Ontology 2015 update: an expanded and updated database of human diseases for linking biomedical knowledge through disease data

    PubMed Central

    Kibbe, Warren A.; Arze, Cesar; Felix, Victor; Mitraka, Elvira; Bolton, Evan; Fu, Gang; Mungall, Christopher J.; Binder, Janos X.; Malone, James; Vasant, Drashtti; Parkinson, Helen; Schriml, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    The current version of the Human Disease Ontology (DO) (http://www.disease-ontology.org) database expands the utility of the ontology for the examination and comparison of genetic variation, phenotype, protein, drug and epitope data through the lens of human disease. DO is a biomedical resource of standardized common and rare disease concepts with stable identifiers organized by disease etiology. The content of DO has had 192 revisions since 2012, including the addition of 760 terms. Thirty-two percent of all terms now include definitions. DO has expanded the number and diversity of research communities and community members by 50+ during the past two years. These community members actively submit term requests, coordinate biomedical resource disease representation and provide expert curation guidance. Since the DO 2012 NAR paper, there have been hundreds of term requests and a steady increase in the number of DO listserv members, twitter followers and DO website usage. DO is moving to a multi-editor model utilizing Protégé to curate DO in web ontology language. This will enable closer collaboration with the Human Phenotype Ontology, EBI's Ontology Working Group, Mouse Genome Informatics and the Monarch Initiative among others, and enhance DO's current asserted view and multiple inferred views through reasoning. PMID:25348409

  14. Disease Ontology 2015 update: An expanded and updated database of human diseases for linking biomedical knowledge through disease data

    SciTech Connect

    Kibbe, Warren A.; Arze, Cesar; Felix, Victor; Mitraka, Elvira; Bolton, Evan; Fu, Gang; Mungall, Christopher J.; Binder, Janos X.; Malone, James; Vasant, Drashtti; Parkinson, Helen; Schriml, Lynn M.

    2014-10-27

    The current version of the Human Disease Ontology (DO) (http://www.disease-ontology.org) database expands the utility of the ontology for the examination and comparison of genetic variation, phenotype, protein, drug and epitope data through the lens of human disease. DO is a biomedical resource of standardized common and rare disease concepts with stable identifiers organized by disease etiology. The content of DO has had 192 revisions since 2012, including the addition of 760 terms. Thirty-two percent of all terms now include definitions. DO has expanded the number and diversity of research communities and community members by 50+ during the past two years. These community members actively submit term requests, coordinate biomedical resource disease representation and provide expert curation guidance. Since the DO 2012 NAR paper, there have been hundreds of term requests and a steady increase in the number of DO listserv members, twitter followers and DO website usage. DO is moving to a multi-editor model utilizing Protégé to curate DO in web ontology language. In conclusion, this will enable closer collaboration with the Human Phenotype Ontology, EBI's Ontology Working Group, Mouse Genome Informatics and the Monarch Initiative among others, and enhance DO's current asserted view and multiple inferred views through reasoning.

  15. Disease Ontology 2015 update: An expanded and updated database of human diseases for linking biomedical knowledge through disease data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kibbe, Warren A.; Arze, Cesar; Felix, Victor; Mitraka, Elvira; Bolton, Evan; Fu, Gang; Mungall, Christopher J.; Binder, Janos X.; Malone, James; Vasant, Drashtti; et al

    2014-10-27

    The current version of the Human Disease Ontology (DO) (http://www.disease-ontology.org) database expands the utility of the ontology for the examination and comparison of genetic variation, phenotype, protein, drug and epitope data through the lens of human disease. DO is a biomedical resource of standardized common and rare disease concepts with stable identifiers organized by disease etiology. The content of DO has had 192 revisions since 2012, including the addition of 760 terms. Thirty-two percent of all terms now include definitions. DO has expanded the number and diversity of research communities and community members by 50+ during the past two years.more » These community members actively submit term requests, coordinate biomedical resource disease representation and provide expert curation guidance. Since the DO 2012 NAR paper, there have been hundreds of term requests and a steady increase in the number of DO listserv members, twitter followers and DO website usage. DO is moving to a multi-editor model utilizing Protégé to curate DO in web ontology language. In conclusion, this will enable closer collaboration with the Human Phenotype Ontology, EBI's Ontology Working Group, Mouse Genome Informatics and the Monarch Initiative among others, and enhance DO's current asserted view and multiple inferred views through reasoning.« less

  16. Disease Ontology 2015 update: an expanded and updated database of human diseases for linking biomedical knowledge through disease data.

    PubMed

    Kibbe, Warren A; Arze, Cesar; Felix, Victor; Mitraka, Elvira; Bolton, Evan; Fu, Gang; Mungall, Christopher J; Binder, Janos X; Malone, James; Vasant, Drashtti; Parkinson, Helen; Schriml, Lynn M

    2015-01-01

    The current version of the Human Disease Ontology (DO) (http://www.disease-ontology.org) database expands the utility of the ontology for the examination and comparison of genetic variation, phenotype, protein, drug and epitope data through the lens of human disease. DO is a biomedical resource of standardized common and rare disease concepts with stable identifiers organized by disease etiology. The content of DO has had 192 revisions since 2012, including the addition of 760 terms. Thirty-two percent of all terms now include definitions. DO has expanded the number and diversity of research communities and community members by 50+ during the past two years. These community members actively submit term requests, coordinate biomedical resource disease representation and provide expert curation guidance. Since the DO 2012 NAR paper, there have been hundreds of term requests and a steady increase in the number of DO listserv members, twitter followers and DO website usage. DO is moving to a multi-editor model utilizing Protégé to curate DO in web ontology language. This will enable closer collaboration with the Human Phenotype Ontology, EBI's Ontology Working Group, Mouse Genome Informatics and the Monarch Initiative among others, and enhance DO's current asserted view and multiple inferred views through reasoning.

  17. Current drug therapy and pharmaceutical challenges for Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, José; Davies, Carolina; Simonazzi, Analía; Real, Juan Pablo; Palma, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    One of the most significant health problems in the American continent in terms of human health, and socioeconomic impact is Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Infection was originally transmitted by reduviid insects, congenitally from mother to fetus, and by oral ingestion in sylvatic/rural environments, but blood transfusions, organ transplants, laboratory accidents, and sharing of contaminated syringes also contribute to modern day transmission. Likewise, Chagas disease used to be endemic from Northern Mexico to Argentina, but migrations have earned it global. The parasite has a complex life cycle, infecting different species, and invading a variety of cells - including muscle and nerve cells of the heart and gastrointestinal tract - in the mammalian host. Human infection outcome is a potentially fatal cardiomyopathy, and gastrointestinal tract lesions. In absence of a vaccine, vector control and treatment of patients are the only tools to control the disease. Unfortunately, the only drugs now available for Chagas' disease, Nifurtimox and Benznidazole, are relatively toxic for adult patients, and require prolonged administration. Benznidazole is the first choice for Chagas disease treatment due to its lower side effects than Nifurtimox. However, different strategies are being sought to overcome Benznidazole's toxicity including shorter or intermittent administration schedules-either alone or in combination with other drugs. In addition, a long list of compounds has shown trypanocidal activity, ranging from natural products to specially designed molecules, re-purposing drugs commercialized to treat other maladies, and homeopathy. In the present review, we will briefly summarize the upturns of current treatment of Chagas disease, discuss the increment on research and scientific publications about this topic, and give an overview of the state-of-the-art research aiming to produce an alternative medication to treat T. cruzi infection.

  18. Current drug therapy and pharmaceutical challenges for Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, José; Davies, Carolina; Simonazzi, Analía; Real, Juan Pablo; Palma, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    One of the most significant health problems in the American continent in terms of human health, and socioeconomic impact is Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Infection was originally transmitted by reduviid insects, congenitally from mother to fetus, and by oral ingestion in sylvatic/rural environments, but blood transfusions, organ transplants, laboratory accidents, and sharing of contaminated syringes also contribute to modern day transmission. Likewise, Chagas disease used to be endemic from Northern Mexico to Argentina, but migrations have earned it global. The parasite has a complex life cycle, infecting different species, and invading a variety of cells - including muscle and nerve cells of the heart and gastrointestinal tract - in the mammalian host. Human infection outcome is a potentially fatal cardiomyopathy, and gastrointestinal tract lesions. In absence of a vaccine, vector control and treatment of patients are the only tools to control the disease. Unfortunately, the only drugs now available for Chagas' disease, Nifurtimox and Benznidazole, are relatively toxic for adult patients, and require prolonged administration. Benznidazole is the first choice for Chagas disease treatment due to its lower side effects than Nifurtimox. However, different strategies are being sought to overcome Benznidazole's toxicity including shorter or intermittent administration schedules-either alone or in combination with other drugs. In addition, a long list of compounds has shown trypanocidal activity, ranging from natural products to specially designed molecules, re-purposing drugs commercialized to treat other maladies, and homeopathy. In the present review, we will briefly summarize the upturns of current treatment of Chagas disease, discuss the increment on research and scientific publications about this topic, and give an overview of the state-of-the-art research aiming to produce an alternative medication to treat T. cruzi infection

  19. Assessment of knowledge and awareness among radiology personnel regarding current computed tomography technology and radiation dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bradley, D. A.; Bahruddin, N. A.; Ang, W. C.; Salehhon, N.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness among 120 radiology personnel working in 7 public hospitals in Johor, Malaysia, concerning Computed Tomography (CT) technology and radiation doses based on a set of questionnaires. Subjects were divided into two groups (Medical profession (Med, n=32) and Allied health profession (AH, n=88). The questionnaires are addressed: (1) demographic data (2) relative radiation dose and (3) knowledge of current CT technology. One-third of respondents from both groups were able to estimate relative radiation dose for routine CT examinations. 68% of the allied health profession personnel knew of the Malaysia regulations entitled ‘Basic Safety Standard (BSS) 2010’, although notably 80% of them had previously attended a radiation protection course. No significant difference (p < 0.05) in mean scores of CT technology knowledge detected between the two groups, with the medical professions producing a mean score of (26.7 ± 2.7) and the allied health professions a mean score of (25.2 ± 4.3). This study points to considerable variation among the respondents concerning their understanding of knowledge and awareness of risks of radiation and CT optimization techniques.

  20. A review of the current state of knowledge of fossil Mantispidae (Insecta: Neuroptera).

    PubMed

    Jepson, James E

    2015-01-01

    There are 32 individual specimens of Mantispidae (Insecta: Neuroptera) currently recorded from the fossil record, the oldest of which dates back to the Lower Jurassic. These include 19 described species (in 16 genera), 1 specimen described to genus level and 9 unnamed specimens The specimens have been assigned to the extant subfamilies Drepanicinae (4), Mantispinae (10), Symphrasinae (1), and the extinct subfamily Mesomantispinae (16), with one incertae sedis within Mantispidae. There are currently no known fossil representatives of the subfamily Calomantispinae. Mesithoninae has been removed from Mantispidae and placed back within Berothidae. The species Mesithone carnaria and M. monstruosa, however, are true mantispids and have been removed from Mesithone and placed within a new genus Karataumantispa gen. nov. in the subfamily Mesomantispinae. The current state of knowledge of the fossil record of Mantispidae is reviewed and a key to the genera of Mesomantispinae is provided. PMID:26249453

  1. Current and Prospective Methods for Plant Disease Detection

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yi; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P.

    2015-01-01

    Food losses due to crop infections from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi are persistent issues in agriculture for centuries across the globe. In order to minimize the disease induced damage in crops during growth, harvest and postharvest processing, as well as to maximize productivity and ensure agricultural sustainability, advanced disease detection and prevention in crops are imperative. This paper reviews the direct and indirect disease identification methods currently used in agriculture. Laboratory-based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence (IF), fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry (FCM) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are some of the direct detection methods. Indirect methods include thermography, fluorescence imaging and hyperspectral techniques. Finally, the review also provides a comprehensive overview of biosensors based on highly selective bio-recognition elements such as enzyme, antibody, DNA/RNA and bacteriophage as a new tool for the early identification of crop diseases. PMID:26287253

  2. [The treatment of Graves' disease: current views and controversies].

    PubMed

    Orgiazzi, Jacques

    2011-12-01

    One of the more prevalent among the organ-specific autoimmune diseases, Graves' disease share their chronic evolution and lack of immunomodulatory treatment. Treatment strategy has to consider as opposite options as medical conservatory or ablative approach which requires much expertise and attention to patients' wish. Whatever treatment option, it is mandatory to prevent any risk of iatrogenic hypothyroidism, especially a rise of TSH above normal limit. The long-lasting benefit-risk ratio of treatment options is of primordial importance in this usually benign but enduring disease. Occurrence of Graves' orbitopathy, a significant complication, requires a special multidisciplinary management; the same is true in the case of a current or planned pregnancy. Overall quality-of-life is often markedly affected by Graves' disease; this should not be overlooked. Smoking increases relapse risk after a course of antithyroid drug; it also increases the risk and severity of Graves' orbitopathy. Patients must be made aware of these deleterious effects and encouraged to quit smoking.

  3. Fluid biomarkers in Alzheimer’s diseasecurrent concepts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The diagnostic guidelines of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have recently been updated to include brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, with the aim of increasing the certainty of whether a patient has an ongoing AD neuropathologic process or not. The CSF biomarkers total tau (T-tau), hyperphosphorylated tau (P-tau) and the 42 amino acid isoform of amyloid β (Aβ42) reflect the core pathologic features of AD, which are neuronal loss, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular senile plaques. Since the pathologic processes of AD start decades before the first symptoms, these biomarkers may provide means of early disease detection. The updated guidelines identify three different stages of AD: preclinical AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD and AD with dementia. In this review, we aim to summarize the CSF biomarker data available for each of these stages. We also review results from blood biomarker studies. In summary, the core AD CSF biomarkers have high diagnostic accuracy both for AD with dementia and to predict incipient AD (MCI due to AD). Longitudinal studies on healthy elderly and recent cross-sectional studies on patients with dominantly inherited AD mutations have also found biomarker changes in cognitively normal at-risk individuals. This will be important if disease-modifying treatment becomes available, given that treatment will probably be most effective early in the disease. An important prerequisite for this is trustworthy analyses. Since measurements vary between studies and laboratories, standardization of analytical as well as pre-analytical procedures will be essential. This process is already initiated. Apart from filling diagnostic roles, biomarkers may also be utilized for prognosis, disease progression, development of new treatments, monitoring treatment effects and for increasing the knowledge about pathologic processes coupled to the disease. Hence, the search for new biomarkers continues. Several

  4. Current trends in pharmacy benefit designs: a threat to disease management in chronic complex diseases.

    PubMed

    Owens, Gary; Emons, Matthew F; Christian-Herman, Jennifer; Lawless, Grant

    2007-04-01

    With a focus on those patients who are candidates for treatment with biologic agents, we review the impact that current pharmacy benefit trends have on patients with chronic complex diseases and how they affect opportunities for disease management in this unique patient population. Dramatic increases in health care costs have led to a variety of strategies to manage cost. Many of these strategies either limit access to care or increase the patient's responsibility for choosing and paying for care, especially for medications. These strategies have a disproportionate impact on patients with chronic complex diseases, particularly those who require the use of biologic medications. A fundamental prerequisite of disease management has been coverage of disease-modifying therapies. If current pharmacy benefit trends continue, unintended consequences will likely occur including lost opportunities for disease management. Current pharmacy benefit trends could adversely impact disease management, particularly for patients requiring the use of biologic agents. Health plans should consider innovative benefit designs that reflect an appropriate level of cost sharing across all key stake-holders, ensuring appropriate access to needed therapies. Additional research is needed to clarify the value of newer approaches to therapies or benefit design changes.

  5. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Celik, Orcun; Türk, Hakan; Cakmak, Ozgur; Budak, Salih; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Yildiz, Guner; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-01-14

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  6. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Celik, Orcun; Türk, Hakan; Cakmak, Ozgur; Budak, Salih; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Yildiz, Guner; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2015-12-01

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman. PMID:26766798

  7. A review of current knowledge of the complement system and the therapeutic opportunities in inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, M

    2006-01-01

    The complement activation system, a key component of the innate immune system, protects the host from microorganisms such as bacteria, and other foreign threats including abnormal cells. However, it is also double-edged in that it can have negative effects in the host; excessive complement activation damages the host and can even kill in anaphylactic shock and septic shock. Regulation of the complement system is a useful strategy to control inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a common inflammatory disease worldwide. Many medicines are developed to control inflammation, including recently developed biological response modifiers such as anti-TNF and IL-6 agents. Nevertheless, in some patients disease remains difficult to control because of complications, side effects and tolerance of medicines. In inflammatory arthritis, including rheumatoid arthritis, there is abundant evidence implicating complement activation in humans and animal models. Therefore, anti-complement agents might be beneficial as part of clinical treatment. However, at present, there are still no applicable agents for therapeutic regulation of excessive complement activation in chronic disease. Novel agents in development might be useful as a strategy to control complement activation. Here I describe recent knowledge of the complement system in inflammatory arthritis, the recent developments in anti-complement agents and their considerable potential for the future.

  8. Current management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most frequent cause of genetic renal disease affecting approximately 4 to 7 million individuals worldwide and accounting for 7%-15% of patients on renal replacement therapy, is a systemic disorder mainly involving the kidney but cysts can also occur in other organs such as the liver, pancreas, arachnoid membrane and seminal vesicles. Though computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were similar in evaluating 81% of cystic lesions of the kidney, MRI may depict septa, wall thickening or enhancement leading to upgrade in cyst classification that can affect management. A screening strategy for intracranial aneurysms would provide 1.0 additional year of life without neurological disability to a 20-year-old patient with ADPKD and reduce the financial impact on society of the disease. Current treatment strategies include reducing: cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, cell proliferation and fluid secretion. Several randomised clinical trials (RCT) including mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, somatostatin analogues and a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist have been performed to study the effect of diverse drugs on growth of renal and hepatic cysts, and on deterioration of renal function. Prophylactic native nephrectomy is indicated in patients with a history of cyst infection or recurrent haemorrhage or to those in whom space must be made to implant the graft. The absence of large RCT on various aspects of the disease and its treatment leaves considerable uncertainty and ambiguity in many aspects of ADPKD patient care as it relates to end stage renal disease (ESRD). The outlook of patients with ADPKD is improving and is in fact much better than that for patients in ESRD due to other causes. This review highlights the need for well-structured RCTs as a first step towards trying newer interventions so as to develop updated clinical management guidelines. PMID:26380198

  9. Current management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2015-09-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most frequent cause of genetic renal disease affecting approximately 4 to 7 million individuals worldwide and accounting for 7%-15% of patients on renal replacement therapy, is a systemic disorder mainly involving the kidney but cysts can also occur in other organs such as the liver, pancreas, arachnoid membrane and seminal vesicles. Though computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were similar in evaluating 81% of cystic lesions of the kidney, MRI may depict septa, wall thickening or enhancement leading to upgrade in cyst classification that can affect management. A screening strategy for intracranial aneurysms would provide 1.0 additional year of life without neurological disability to a 20-year-old patient with ADPKD and reduce the financial impact on society of the disease. Current treatment strategies include reducing: cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, cell proliferation and fluid secretion. Several randomised clinical trials (RCT) including mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, somatostatin analogues and a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist have been performed to study the effect of diverse drugs on growth of renal and hepatic cysts, and on deterioration of renal function. Prophylactic native nephrectomy is indicated in patients with a history of cyst infection or recurrent haemorrhage or to those in whom space must be made to implant the graft. The absence of large RCT on various aspects of the disease and its treatment leaves considerable uncertainty and ambiguity in many aspects of ADPKD patient care as it relates to end stage renal disease (ESRD). The outlook of patients with ADPKD is improving and is in fact much better than that for patients in ESRD due to other causes. This review highlights the need for well-structured RCTs as a first step towards trying newer interventions so as to develop updated clinical management guidelines.

  10. Knowledge, attitude, and practices with respect to disease surveillance among urban private practitioners in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Phalkey, Revati K.; Kroll, Mareike; Dutta, Sayani; Shukla, Sharvari; Butsch, Carsten; Bharucha, Erach; Kraas, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation of private practitioners in routine disease surveillance in India is minimal despite the fact that they account for over 70% of the primary healthcare provision. We aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of private practitioners in the city of Pune toward disease surveillance. Our goal was to identify what barriers and facilitators determine their participation in current and future surveillance efforts. Design A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 258 practitioners (response rate 86%). Data were processed using SPSS™ Inc., Chicago, IL, USA, version 17.0.1. Results Knowledge regarding surveillance, although limited, was better among allopathy practitioners. Surveillance practices did not differ significantly between allopathy and alternate medicine practitioners. Multivariable logistic regression suggested practicing allopathy [odds ratio (OR) 3.125, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.234–7.915, p=0.016] and availability of a computer (OR 3.670, 95% CI 1.237–10.889, p=0.019) as significant determinants and the presence of a laboratory (OR 3.792, 95% CI 0.998–14.557, p=0.052) as a marginal determinant of the practitioner's willingness to participate in routine disease surveillance systems. Lack of time (137, 55%) was identified as the main barrier at the individual level alongside inadequately trained subordinate staff (14, 6%). Main extrinsic barriers included lack of cooperation between government and the private sector (27, 11%) and legal issues involved in reporting data (15, 6%). There was a general agreement among respondents (239, 94%) that current surveillance efforts need strengthening. Over a third suggested that availability of detailed information and training about surveillance processes (70, 33%) would facilitate reporting. Conclusions The high response rate and the practitioners’ willingness to participate in a proposed pilot non-communicable disease surveillance system indicate that

  11. Controlling disease spread on networks with incomplete knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybiec, B.; Kleczkowski, A.; Gilligan, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    Models for control of highly infectious diseases on local, small-world, and scale-free networks are considered, with only partial information accessible about the status of individuals and their connections. We consider a case when individuals can be infectious before showing symptoms and thus before detection. For small to moderately severe incidence of infection with a small number of nonlocal links, it is possible to control disease spread by using purely local methods applied in a neighborhood centered around a detected infectious individual. There exists an optimal radius for such a control neighborhood leading to the lowest severity of the epidemic in terms of economic costs associated with disease and treatment. The efficiency of a local control strategy is very sensitive to the choice of the radius. Below the optimal radius, the local strategy is unsuccessful; the disease spreads throughout the system, necessitating treatment of the whole population. At the other extreme, a strategy involving a neighborhood that is too large controls the disease but is wasteful of resources. It is not possible to stop an epidemic on scale-free networks by preventive actions, unless a large proportion of the population is treated.

  12. [Alice's adventures in the wonderland of knowledge: the path to current literacy].

    PubMed

    Sanz-Valero, Javier; Castiel, Luis David; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2010-03-01

    Alice wants to study with amusing books filled with colorful drawings. "Alice's adventures in Wonderland" serves as excuse to introduce and discuss the current importance of digital literacy and how communication and information technologies have changed the way of transmitting and disseminating knowledge. Considering as a corollary, Alice today would have access to a multitude of beautiful multimedia documents, of greater or lesser quality, available through multiple paths. However, given her incipient education, knowing their true worth and aptitude is a privilege she has yet to obtain. This is her challenge! PMID:21461500

  13. Current Research Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment.

    PubMed

    Folch, Jaume; Petrov, Dmitry; Ettcheto, Miren; Abad, Sonia; Sánchez-López, Elena; García, M Luisa; Olloquequi, Jordi; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Auladell, Carme; Camins, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) currently presents one of the biggest healthcare issues in the developed countries. There is no effective treatment capable of slowing down disease progression. In recent years the main focus of research on novel pharmacotherapies was based on the amyloidogenic hypothesis of AD, which posits that the beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide is chiefly responsible for cognitive impairment and neuronal death. The goal of such treatments is (a) to reduce Aβ production through the inhibition of β and γ secretase enzymes and (b) to promote dissolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques. However, this approach has proven to be only modestly effective. Recent studies suggest an alternative strategy centred on the inhibition of the downstream Aβ signalling, particularly at the synapse. Aβ oligomers may cause aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation postsynaptically by forming complexes with the cell-surface prion protein (PrPC). PrPC is enriched at the neuronal postsynaptic density, where it interacts with Fyn tyrosine kinase. Fyn activation occurs when Aβ is bound to PrPC-Fyn complex. Fyn causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Fyn kinase blockers masitinib and saracatinib have proven to be efficacious in treating AD symptoms in experimental mouse models of the disease.

  14. Current Research Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Folch, Jaume; Petrov, Dmitry; Ettcheto, Miren; Abad, Sonia; Sánchez-López, Elena; García, M. Luisa; Olloquequi, Jordi; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Auladell, Carme; Camins, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) currently presents one of the biggest healthcare issues in the developed countries. There is no effective treatment capable of slowing down disease progression. In recent years the main focus of research on novel pharmacotherapies was based on the amyloidogenic hypothesis of AD, which posits that the beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide is chiefly responsible for cognitive impairment and neuronal death. The goal of such treatments is (a) to reduce Aβ production through the inhibition of β and γ secretase enzymes and (b) to promote dissolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques. However, this approach has proven to be only modestly effective. Recent studies suggest an alternative strategy centred on the inhibition of the downstream Aβ signalling, particularly at the synapse. Aβ oligomers may cause aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation postsynaptically by forming complexes with the cell-surface prion protein (PrPC). PrPC is enriched at the neuronal postsynaptic density, where it interacts with Fyn tyrosine kinase. Fyn activation occurs when Aβ is bound to PrPC-Fyn complex. Fyn causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Fyn kinase blockers masitinib and saracatinib have proven to be efficacious in treating AD symptoms in experimental mouse models of the disease. PMID:26881137

  15. Current and novel therapeutic molecules and targets in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwini; Nisha, Chaluveelaveedu Murleedharan; Silakari, Chitrangda; Sharma, Isha; Anusha, Kanukanti; Gupta, Nityasha; Nair, Prateek; Tripathi, Timir; Kumar, Awanish

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline, i.e., dementia. The disease starts with mild symptoms and gradually becomes severe. AD is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Several different hallmarks of the disease have been reported such as deposits of β-amyloid around neurons, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, oxidative stress, dyshomeostasis of bio-metals, low levels of acetylcholine, etc. AD is not simple to diagnose since there is no single diagnostic test for it. Pharmacotherapy for AD currently provides only symptomatic relief and mostly targets cognitive revival. Computational biology approaches have proved to be reliable tools for the selection of novel targets and therapeutic ligands. Molecular docking is a key tool in computer-assisted drug design and development. Docking has been utilized to perform virtual screening on large libraries of compounds, and propose structural hypotheses of how the ligands bind with the target with lead optimization. Another potential application of docking is optimization stages of the drug-discovery cycle. This review summarizes the known drug targets of AD, in vivo active agents against AD, state-of-the-art docking studies done in AD, and future prospects of the docking with particular emphasis on AD. PMID:26220908

  16. Elicitors as alternative strategy to pesticides in grapevine? Current knowledge on their mode of action from controlled conditions to vineyard.

    PubMed

    Delaunois, Bertrand; Farace, Giovanni; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2014-04-01

    Development and optimisation of alternative strategies to reduce the use of classic chemical inputs for protection against diseases in vineyard is becoming a necessity. Among these strategies, one of the most promising consists in the stimulation and/or potentiation of the grapevine defence responses by the means of elicitors. Elicitors are highly diverse molecules both in nature and origins. This review aims at providing an overview of the current knowledge on these molecules and will highlight their potential efficacy from the laboratory in controlled conditions to vineyards. Recent findings and concepts (especially on plant innate immunity) and the new terminology (microbe-associated molecular patterns, effectors, etc.) are also discussed in this context. Other objectives of this review are to highlight the difficulty of transferring elicitors use and results from the controlled conditions to the vineyard, to determine their practical and effective use in viticulture and to propose ideas for improving their efficacy in non-controlled conditions. PMID:23719689

  17. Knowledge of Natural Kinds in Semantic Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Katy; Smith, Edward E.; Grossman, Murray

    2008-01-01

    We examined the semantic impairment for natural kinds in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and semantic dementia (SD) using an inductive reasoning paradigm. To learn about the relationships between natural kind exemplars and how these are distinguished from manufactured artifacts, subjects judged the strength of arguments such as…

  18. Deficient knowledge nursing diagnosis: identifying the learning needs of patients with cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Galdeano, Luzia Elaine; Rossi, Lídia Aparecida; Spadoti Dantas, Rosana Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. To identify the learning needs of patients with cardiac disease and the aspects of the disease and anesthetic and surgical procedures about which Brazilian patients have the greatest gaps in knowledge. METHODS. Eighty preoperative patients answered a General Evaluation Questionnaire, a Questionnaire to Evaluate Patient Knowledge, and the Mini-Mental State Exam. FINDINGS. Fifty-nine patients had learning needs. More than 50% of the patients were mistaken or unable to answer questions about the disease, and the goals of and type of surgery to be performed and anesthesia to be used. CONCLUSIONS. Most patients had poor performance on the questionnaire that assessed their knowledge about coronary artery disease and its treatment. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. This study can contribute to health professionals' assessment of patients' knowledge.

  19. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  20. Swine influenza in sub-saharan Africa--current knowledge and emerging insights.

    PubMed

    Meseko, C; Olaleye, D; Capua, I; Cattoli, G

    2014-06-01

    Pigs have been associated with several episodes of influenza outbreaks in the past and are considered to play a significant role in the ecology of influenza virus. The recent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus originated from swine and not only did it cause widespread infection in humans, but was also transmitted back to swine in Asia, Europe and America. What may be the prevailing situation in Africa, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, with respect to the circulation of classical swine or pandemic influenza? The ecology of influenza viruses, as well as the epidemiology of human or animal influenza, is poorly understood in the region. In particular, little is known about swine influenza in Africa despite the relevance of this production in the continent and the widespread pig husbandry operations in urban and rural areas. In this review, the gap in the knowledge of classical and pandemic swine influenza is attributed to negligence of disease surveillance, as well as to the economic and public health impact that the disease may cause in sub-Saharan Africa. However, emerging serological and virological evidence of swine influenza virus in some countries in the region underscores the importance of integrated surveillance to better understand the circulation and epidemiology of swine influenza, a disease of global economic and public health importance.

  1. [Epidemiology, clinical features and treatment of chronic pancreatitis: current knowledge and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Capurso, Gabriele; Archibugi, Livia; Stigliano, Serena; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a complex disease both for the epidemiology, with uncertain data on the exact prevalence, but also for the etiology, often not identified and for whom, compared to the past, post acute pancreatitis forms are showing a high impact; also smoking is an etiological factor often underestimated compared to alcohol. Chronic pancreatitis is associated with high mortality and morbidity, mostly due to extrapancreatic diseases. The eventual occurrence of exocrine or endocrine pancreatic insufficiency can lead to complications, often serious and not prevented in time. It is, in fact, well known how this can cause micro or macronutrient and vitamin deficit which, if not screened and corrected, can cause complications such as osteoporosis. Abdominal pain is the most relevant symptom, with a complex pathogenesis, due not only to obstructive or mechanical factors or inflammation, but also to a chronic alteration of the adaptation process of pain in the central nervous system. Also for this reason, therapies are often not effective. Derivative surgery is indicated in obstructive forms, with results superior to those of endoscopy, while resective surgery is indicated when an inflammatory mass is present. A new opportunity is total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation, which offers excellent results in terms of pain relief and possibility to avoid diabetes in a high percentage of patients. This review will discuss these hot topics comprehending both most recent evidence and a view on how our knowledge on this disease will change in the upcoming years. PMID:27362725

  2. The Immunology of Neuromyelitis Optica—Current Knowledge, Clinical Implications, Controversies and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Jasiak-Zatonska, Michalina; Kalinowska-Lyszczarz, Alicja; Michalak, Slawomir; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with typical clinical manifestations of optic neuritis and acute transverse myelitis attacks. Previously believed to be a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is now considered an independent disorder which needs to be differentiated from MS. The discovery of autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgGs) changed our understanding of NMO immunopathogenesis and revolutionized the diagnostic process. AQP4-IgG is currently regarded as a specific biomarker of NMO and NMO spectrum disorders (NMOsd) and a key factor in its pathogenesis. Nevertheless, AQP4-IgG seronegativity in 10%–25% of NMO patients suggests that there are several other factors involved in NMO immunopathogenesis, i.e., autoantibodies against aquaporin-1 (AQP1-Abs) and antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgGs). This manuscript reviews current knowledge about NMO immunopathogenesis, pointing out the controversial issues and showing potential directions for future research. Further efforts should be made to broaden our knowledge of NMO immunology which could have important implications for clinical practice, including the use of potential novel biomarkers to facilitate an early and accurate diagnosis, and modern treatment strategies improving long-term outcome of NMO patients. PMID:26950113

  3. The Immunology of Neuromyelitis Optica-Current Knowledge, Clinical Implications, Controversies and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jasiak-Zatonska, Michalina; Kalinowska-Lyszczarz, Alicja; Michalak, Slawomir; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with typical clinical manifestations of optic neuritis and acute transverse myelitis attacks. Previously believed to be a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is now considered an independent disorder which needs to be differentiated from MS. The discovery of autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgGs) changed our understanding of NMO immunopathogenesis and revolutionized the diagnostic process. AQP4-IgG is currently regarded as a specific biomarker of NMO and NMO spectrum disorders (NMOsd) and a key factor in its pathogenesis. Nevertheless, AQP4-IgG seronegativity in 10%-25% of NMO patients suggests that there are several other factors involved in NMO immunopathogenesis, i.e., autoantibodies against aquaporin-1 (AQP1-Abs) and antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgGs). This manuscript reviews current knowledge about NMO immunopathogenesis, pointing out the controversial issues and showing potential directions for future research. Further efforts should be made to broaden our knowledge of NMO immunology which could have important implications for clinical practice, including the use of potential novel biomarkers to facilitate an early and accurate diagnosis, and modern treatment strategies improving long-term outcome of NMO patients. PMID:26950113

  4. Current knowledge on the genetics of autism and propositions for future research.

    PubMed

    Bourgeron, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by problems in social communication, as well as by the presence of restricted interests, stereotyped and repetitive behaviours. In the last 40years, genetic studies have provided crucial information on the causes of ASD and its diversity. In this article, I will first review the current knowledge on the genetics of ASD and then suggest three propositions to foster research in this field. Twin and familial studies estimated the heritability of ASD to be 50%. While most of the inherited part of ASD is captured by common variants, our current knowledge on the genetics of ASD comes almost exclusively from the identification of highly penetrant de novo mutations through candidate gene or whole exome/genome sequencing studies. Approximately 10% of patients with ASD, especially those with intellectual disability, are carriers of de novo copy-number (CNV) or single nucleotide variants (SNV) affecting clinically relevant genes for ASD. Given the function of these genes, it was hypothesized that abnormal synaptic plasticity and failure of neuronal/synaptic homeostasis could increase the risk of ASD. In addition to these discoveries, three propositions coming from institutions, researchers and/or communities of patients and families can be made to foster research on ASD: (i) to use more dimensional and quantitative data than diagnostic categories; (ii) to increase data sharing and research on genetic and brain diversity in human populations; (iii) to involve patients and relatives as participants for research. Hopefully, this knowledge will lead to a better diagnosis, care and integration of individuals with ASD.

  5. Interaction of memory systems during acquisition of tool knowledge and skills in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shumita; Park, Norman W; Roy, Eric A; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that different aspects of tool knowledge are mediated by different memory systems. It is believed that tool attributes (e.g., function, color) are represented as declarative memory while skill learning is supported by procedural memory. It has been proposed that other aspects (e.g., skilled tool use) may rely on an interaction of both declarative and procedural memory. However, the specific form of procedural memory underlying skilled tool use and the nature of interaction between declarative and procedural memory systems remain unclear. In the current study, individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls were trained over 2 sessions, 3 weeks apart, to use a set of novel complex tools. They were also tested on their ability to recall tool attributes as well as their ability to demonstrate grasp and use of the tools to command. Results showed that, compared to controls, participants with PD showed intact motor skill acquisition and tool use to command within sessions, but failed to retain performance across sessions. In contrast, people with PD showed equivalent recall of tool attributes and tool grasping relative to controls, both within and across sessions. Current findings demonstrate that the frontal-striatal network, compromised in PD, mediates long-term retention of motor skills. Intact initial skill learning raises the possibility of compensation from declarative memory for frontal-striatal dysfunction. Lastly, skilled tool use appears to rely on both memory systems which may reflect a cooperative interaction between the two systems. Current findings regarding memory representations of tool knowledge and skill learning may have important implications for delivery of rehabilitation programs for individuals with PD.

  6. Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of these diseases in India and identify existing knowledge gaps in the literature which need to be addressed. The available literature on this subject, although limited, suggests that a number of canine vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are endemic throughout India, as diagnosed mostly by morphological methods. Detailed investigations of the epidemiology and zoonotic potential of these pathogens has been neglected. Further study is essential to develop a better understanding of the diversity of canine vector-borne diseases in India, and their significance for veterinary and public health. PMID:20377862

  7. Current view from Alzheimer disease to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Arif; Qazi, Aamer M; Sheikh, Ishfaq A; Manan, Abdul; Shaheen, Sumaira; Qazi, Mahmood H; Chaudhary, Adeel G; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Asif, Muhammad; Alqahtani, Mohammed H; Iqbal, Zafar; Shaik, Munvar M; Gan, Siew H; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2014-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that leads to memory problems. It has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus at both the molecular and biochemical level. Pancreatic cells have molecular similarities to the brain at the transcriptomic and proteomic levels. Several genes have been reported to be responsible for both AD and diabetes. Currently, no proper treatment is available but various therapeutic approaches are utilized worldwide for the management of these disorders and may be nanoparticles and herbal treatment of Bacopa monnieri will make promise for the treatment of AD in future. The formation of amyloids in neurons and the formation of amylin in pancreatic cells are potential links between these two disorders, which can be silent killers.

  8. Nondopaminergic treatments for Parkinson's disease: current and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Maria Eliza; Fox, Susan H

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is primarily caused by dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons, however, nondopaminergic (ND) systems are also involved. ND targets are potentially useful to reduce doses of levodopa or to treat nonlevodopa-responsive symptoms. Recent studies have investigated the role of ND drugs for motor and nonmotor symptoms. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, mixed inhibitors of sodium/calcium channels and monoamine oxidase-B have recently been found to improve motor fluctuations. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists and serotonin 5HT1B receptor agonists demonstrated benefit in levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Conversely, studies using antiepileptic drugs and adrenoreceptor antagonist had conflicting results. Moreover, metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists also failed to improve symptoms. The current review summarizes the most recent findings on ND drugs over the last 2 years. PMID:27230697

  9. Bovine respiratory disease: commercial vaccines currently available in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Bowland, S L; Shewen, P E

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) remains a significant cost to both the beef and dairy industries. In the United States, an estimated 640 million dollars is lost annually due to BRD. Losses are largely a result of pneumonic pasteurellosis ("shipping fever"), enzootic pneumonia of calves, and atypical interstitial pneumonia. In Canada, over 80% of the biologics licensed for use in cattle are against agents associated with BRD. The objectives of this paper were (a) to summarize information available concerning commercial vaccines currently used in Canada for protection against BRD, and (b) to provide an easily accessible resource for veterinary practitioners and researchers. Information from the most recent Compendium of Veterinary Products has been tabulated for each vaccine by trade name, according to vaccine type, and the pathogens against which they are designed to protect. Additional information from published articles (peer-reviewed and other) has been provided and referenced. PMID:10642871

  10. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: The microbiome of the horse hindgut: History and current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Julliand, V; Grimm, P

    2016-06-01

    In the early 1990s, the equine hindgut microbial ecosystem looked like a "black box." Its vital role in hydrolyzing and fermenting fiber, thus providing energy to the host, was recognized. Although there was a critical lack of information on the hindgut microbes, their role in preventing intestinal diseases was suggested. Traditionally, the microbes of the horse hindgut were studied using culture-dependent techniques. More recently, culture-independent methods have been used and provided further insight. This review presents the history and updated knowledge regarding the microbes that live inside the different intestinal ecosystems and which collective genomes compose the hindgut microbiome. In the first section, the quantification and diversity are described for each microbial community as well as the implication of plant fiber degradation and their crucial role for an herbivore host. The microbial communities are presented in chronological order of discovery: due to their large size, protozoa were brought to light as early as 1843 in the horse cecum; in 1897, bacteria were described in the horse intestine; as early as 1910, monoflagellated eukaryotic organisms resembling protozoa were observed in the horse cecum; since then, they have been identified to be zoospores of anaerobic fungi; in 1970, bacteriophage-like particles were recognized in the cecum and colon of pony and horse; and finally, in 1996, archaea were identified in the horse cecum. The second section discusses the variations that can occur between digestive segments or between individuals. The representativeness of the fecal microbiota to the hindgut one is debated, especially as the majority of recent studies conducted on the horse hindgut are in fact focused on the feces, rather than the cecum or colon. Also, the representation of microbiota between individuals is questioned. It has long been suggested in the literature that some ponies or horses that were more susceptible to intestinal diseases

  11. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: The microbiome of the horse hindgut: History and current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Julliand, V; Grimm, P

    2016-06-01

    In the early 1990s, the equine hindgut microbial ecosystem looked like a "black box." Its vital role in hydrolyzing and fermenting fiber, thus providing energy to the host, was recognized. Although there was a critical lack of information on the hindgut microbes, their role in preventing intestinal diseases was suggested. Traditionally, the microbes of the horse hindgut were studied using culture-dependent techniques. More recently, culture-independent methods have been used and provided further insight. This review presents the history and updated knowledge regarding the microbes that live inside the different intestinal ecosystems and which collective genomes compose the hindgut microbiome. In the first section, the quantification and diversity are described for each microbial community as well as the implication of plant fiber degradation and their crucial role for an herbivore host. The microbial communities are presented in chronological order of discovery: due to their large size, protozoa were brought to light as early as 1843 in the horse cecum; in 1897, bacteria were described in the horse intestine; as early as 1910, monoflagellated eukaryotic organisms resembling protozoa were observed in the horse cecum; since then, they have been identified to be zoospores of anaerobic fungi; in 1970, bacteriophage-like particles were recognized in the cecum and colon of pony and horse; and finally, in 1996, archaea were identified in the horse cecum. The second section discusses the variations that can occur between digestive segments or between individuals. The representativeness of the fecal microbiota to the hindgut one is debated, especially as the majority of recent studies conducted on the horse hindgut are in fact focused on the feces, rather than the cecum or colon. Also, the representation of microbiota between individuals is questioned. It has long been suggested in the literature that some ponies or horses that were more susceptible to intestinal diseases

  12. Opportunities for Improved Chagas Disease Vector Control Based on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Communities in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rosecrans, Kathryn; Cruz-Martin, Gabriela; King, Ashley; Dumonteil, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is a vector-borne parasitic disease of major public health importance. Current prevention efforts are based on triatomine vector control to reduce transmission to humans. Success of vector control interventions depends on their acceptability and value to affected communities. We aimed to identify opportunities for and barriers to improved vector control strategies in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. Methodology/principal findings We employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative research methods to investigate knowledge, attitudes and practices surrounding Chagas disease, triatomines and vector control in three rural communities. Our combined data show that community members are well aware of triatomines and are knowledgeable about their habits. However, most have a limited understanding of the transmission dynamics and clinical manifestations of Chagas disease. While triatomine control is not a priority for community members, they frequently use domestic insecticide products including insecticide spray, mosquito coils and plug-in repellents. Families spend about $32 US per year on these products. Alternative methods such as yard cleaning and window screens are perceived as desirable and potentially more effective. Screens are nonetheless described as unaffordable, in spite of a cost comparable to the average annual spending on insecticide products. Conclusion/Significance Further education campaigns and possibly financing schemes may lead families to redirect their current vector control spending from insecticide products to window screens. Also, synergism with mosquito control efforts should be further explored to motivate community involvement and ensure sustainability of Chagas disease vector control. PMID:24676038

  13. Current relevance of pharmacogenetics in immunomodulation treatment for Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rebecca L; Barclay, Murray L

    2012-10-01

    No drug therapy is completely risk free, and the costs associated with non-response and adverse effects can exceed the cost of the therapy. The ultimate goal of pharmacogenetic research is to find robust genetic predictors of drug response that enable the development of prospective genetic tests to reliably identify patients at risk of non-response or of developing an adverse effect prior to the drug being prescribed. Currently, thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) deficiency is the only pharmacogenetic factor that is prospectively assessed before azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine immunomodulation is commenced in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). As yet no other inherited determinant of drug response has made the transition from bench to bedside for the management of this disease. In this review we summarize what is known about TPMT deficiency and explore whether there is evidence to support a role of other genetic polymorphisms in predicting the response of CD patients to thiopurine drugs, methotrexate, and anti-tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) therapy. PMID:22741564

  14. Current and emerging treatment options for Peyronie's disease.

    PubMed

    Gokce, Ahmet; Wang, Julie C; Powers, Mary K; Hellstrom, Wayne Jg

    2013-01-01

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is a condition of the penis, characterized by the presence of localized fibrotic plaque in the tunica albuginea. PD is not an uncommon disorder, with recent epidemiologic studies documenting a prevalence of 3-9% of adult men affected. The actual prevalence of PD may be even higher. It is often associated with penile pain, anatomical deformities in the erect penis, and difficulty with intromission. As the definitive pathophysiology of PD has not been completely elucidated, further basic research is required to make progress in the understanding of this enigmatic condition. Similarly, research on effective therapies is limited. Currently, nonsurgical treatments are used for those men who are in the acute stage of PD, whereas surgical options are reserved for men with established PD who cannot successfully penetrate. Intralesional treatments are growing in clinical popularity as a minimally invasive approach in the initial treatment of PD. A surgical approach should be considered when men with PD do not respond to conservative, medical, or minimally invasive therapies for approximately 1 year and cannot have satisfactory sexual intercourse. As scientific breakthroughs in the understanding of the mechanisms of this disease process evolve, novel treatments for the many men suffering with PD are anticipated.

  15. [Reflection on 2 current viral diseases: yellow fever and dengue].

    PubMed

    Chastel, C

    1997-01-01

    Yellow fever and dengue are two current viral diseases induced by flaviviruses and usually transmitted by the same mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. From 1987 to 1991, 18,753 cases of yellow fever, mainly from Africa, have been notified to WHO, leading to 4,522 deaths. On the other hand, WHO estimates that 2.5 billions individuals living in tropical areas are at risk to contract dengue fevers. In fact, 500,000 patients are hospitalized each year for dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome and 90% of them are children. Nevertheless, the control of these two viral diseases would be reached easily in destroying mechanically the mosquito larval resting places. Although superficially similar, the two entities are in fact quite different. Relatively few is known about the pathogenesis of yellow fever whereas, for dengue fevers, it is difficult to integrate so many results accumulated to explain the occurrence of haemorrhagic phenomena according to the two main theories so far proposed which are not exclusive. The immunological one (S.B. Halstead) tries to explain the pathological events by the effect of anti-dengue enhancing antibodies acquired during a previous exposure to one of the dengue viruses, whereas that of increased virus virulence (L. Rosen) refers to fast passages between individuals during explosive epidemics.

  16. Nontyphoidal salmonella disease: Current status of vaccine research and development.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Sharon M; MacLennan, Calman A; Simon, Raphael; Martin, Laura B; Khan, M Imran

    2016-06-01

    Among more than 2500 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) serovars, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis account for approximately fifty percent of all human isolates of NTS reported globally. The global incidence of NTS gastroenteritis in 2010 was estimated to be 93 million cases, approximately 80 million of which were contracted via food-borne transmission. It is estimated that 155,000 deaths resulted from NTS in 2010. NTS also causes severe, extra-intestinal, invasive bacteremia, referred to as invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. iNTS disease usually presents as a febrile illness, frequently without gastrointestinal symptoms, in both adults and children. Symptoms of iNTS are similar to malaria, often including fever (>90%) and splenomegaly (>40%). The underlying reasons for the high rates of iNTS disease in Africa are still being elucidated. Evidence from animal and human studies supports the feasibility of developing a safe and effective vaccine against iNTS. Both antibodies and complement can kill Salmonella species in vitro. Proof-of-principle studies in animal models have demonstrated efficacy for live attenuated and subunit vaccines that target the O-antigens, flagellin proteins, and other outer membrane proteins of serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. More recently, a novel delivery strategy for NTS vaccines has been developed: the Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) technology which presents surface polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins in their native conformation. GMMA technology is self-adjuvanting, as it delivers multiple pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules. GMMA may be particularly relevant for low- and middle-income countries as it has the potential for high immunologic potency at a low cost and involves a relatively simple production process without the need for complex conjugation. Several vaccines for the predominant NTS serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, are

  17. Nontyphoidal salmonella disease: Current status of vaccine research and development.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Sharon M; MacLennan, Calman A; Simon, Raphael; Martin, Laura B; Khan, M Imran

    2016-06-01

    Among more than 2500 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) serovars, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis account for approximately fifty percent of all human isolates of NTS reported globally. The global incidence of NTS gastroenteritis in 2010 was estimated to be 93 million cases, approximately 80 million of which were contracted via food-borne transmission. It is estimated that 155,000 deaths resulted from NTS in 2010. NTS also causes severe, extra-intestinal, invasive bacteremia, referred to as invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. iNTS disease usually presents as a febrile illness, frequently without gastrointestinal symptoms, in both adults and children. Symptoms of iNTS are similar to malaria, often including fever (>90%) and splenomegaly (>40%). The underlying reasons for the high rates of iNTS disease in Africa are still being elucidated. Evidence from animal and human studies supports the feasibility of developing a safe and effective vaccine against iNTS. Both antibodies and complement can kill Salmonella species in vitro. Proof-of-principle studies in animal models have demonstrated efficacy for live attenuated and subunit vaccines that target the O-antigens, flagellin proteins, and other outer membrane proteins of serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. More recently, a novel delivery strategy for NTS vaccines has been developed: the Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) technology which presents surface polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins in their native conformation. GMMA technology is self-adjuvanting, as it delivers multiple pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules. GMMA may be particularly relevant for low- and middle-income countries as it has the potential for high immunologic potency at a low cost and involves a relatively simple production process without the need for complex conjugation. Several vaccines for the predominant NTS serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, are

  18. [Translational research in gestational diabetes mellitus and mild gestational hyperglycemia: current knowledge and our experience].

    PubMed

    Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Piculo, Fernanda; Marini, Gabriela; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Barbosa, Angélica Pascon

    2013-10-01

    Maternal diabetes constitutes an unfavorable environment for fetal-placental and embryonic development. It is has important repercussion in modern obstetrics, since it is associated to an increased risk of neonatal and maternal morbidity, and it still is a significant medical challenge. The increased occurrence of diabetes worldwide, the increase in diabetes type 2 in women at reproductive age and the crossed generation of intrauterine programming for diabetes type 2 are the bases for the growing interest in utilization of diabetic experimental samples, with the aim to acquire knowledge about the mechanisms that induce development alterations in gestational diabetes. Several studies have shown the benefits of diabetes prevention, with interventions in lifestyle, metabolic improvement and control of cardiovascular risk factors to substantially prevent the complications of this devastating disease. Despite these findings, the recent revolution in the scientific knowledge, and the infinite number of new therapies for diabetes, there is still a large gap between what was learned through research and what is really done in public, clinical and community health. The negative economic impact of this complacency in people, families, and national economies is alarming. It is expected that translational research in the binomial diabetes and pregnancy are implemented in centers of excellence, in both basic and applied research, and complemented by multicenter clinical studies, conducted in a pragmatic way to increase the level of scientific evidence with more reliable diagnostic and propaedeutic resources.

  19. Coral-associated bacterial assemblages: current knowledge and the potential for climate-driven impacts.

    PubMed

    Mouchka, Morgan E; Hewson, Ian; Harvell, C Drew

    2010-10-01

    The importance of associations between microorganisms and their invertebrate hosts is becoming increasingly apparent. An emerging field, driven by the necessity to understand the microbial relationships that both maximize coral health and cause coral disease, is the study of coral-bacteria interactions. In this article, we review our current understanding of the diversity, specificity, development, and functions of coral-associated bacteria. We also summarize what is known regarding the role of coral microbiota in the health and disease of coral. We conduct a meta-analysis to determine whether the presence of unique taxa correlates with the state of coral health (i.e. healthy, diseased or bleached), as well as whether coral reef habitats harbor clusters of distinct taxa. We find that healthy and bleached corals harbor similar dominant taxa, although bleached corals had higher proportions of Vibrio and Acidobacteria. Diseased corals generally had more Rhodobacter, Clostridia, and Cyanobacteria sequences, and fewer Oceanospirillum sequences. We caution, however, that while 16S rRNA is useful for microbial species identification, it is a poor predictor of habitat or lifestyle, and care should be taken in interpretation of 16S rRNA surveys to identify potential pathogens amongst complex coral-microbial assemblages. Finally, we highlight evidence that coral-bacterial assemblages could be sensitive to the effects of climatic change. We suggest that the relationship between coral and their bacterial associates represents a valuable model that can be applied to the broader discipline of invertebrate-microbial interactions.

  20. Primary Health Care Providers' Knowledge Gaps on Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Megan R.; Stone, Ramona F.; Ochs, V. Dan; Litvan, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine primary health care providers' (PCPs) knowledge gaps on Parkinson's disease, data were collected before and after a one-hour continuing medical education (CME) lecture on early Parkinson's disease recognition and treatment from a sample of 104 PCPs participating at an annual meeting. The main outcome measure…

  1. Current Pharmaceutical Treatments and Alternative Therapies of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Cui, Yanhua; Li, Song; Le, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Over the decades, pharmaceutical treatments, particularly dopaminergic (DAergic) drugs have been considered as the main therapy against motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is proposed that DAergic drugs in combination with other medications, such as monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors, catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors, anticholinergics and other newly developed non-DAergic drugs can make a better control of motor symptoms or alleviate levodopa-induced motor complications. Moreover, non-motor symptoms of PD, such as cognitive, neuropsychiatric, sleep, autonomic and sensory disturbances caused by intrinsic PD pathology or drug-induced side effects, are gaining increasing attention and urgently need to be taken care of due to their impact on quality of life. Currently, neuroprotective therapies have been investigated extensively in pre-clinical studies, and some of them have been subjected to clinical trials. Furthermore, non-pharmaceutical treatments, including deep brain stimulation (DBS), gene therapy, cell replacement therapy and some complementary managements, such as Tai chi, Yoga, traditional herbs and molecular targeted therapies have also been considered as effective alternative therapies to classical pharmaceutics. This review will provide us updated information regarding the current drugs and non-drugs therapies for PD. PMID:26585523

  2. Oral Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: Current Pathogenesis, Therapy, and Research

    PubMed Central

    Mays, JW; Fassil, H; Edwards, DA; Pavletic, SZ; Bassim, CW

    2012-01-01

    Optimal management of complex autoimmune diseases requires a multidisciplinary medical team including dentists to care for lesions of the oral cavity. In this review, we discuss the presentation, prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of oral manifestations in chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (cGVHD) which is a major late complication in patients treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We assess current general knowledge of systemic and oral cGVHD, and present general treatment recommendations based on literature review and our clinical experience. Additionally, we review areas where the understanding of oral cGVHD could be improved by further research, and address tools with which to accomplish the long-term goal of providing better health and quality-of-life to patients with cGVHD. PMID:23107104

  3. Survival in extreme environments - on the current knowledge of adaptations in tardigrades.

    PubMed

    Møbjerg, N; Halberg, K A; Jørgensen, A; Persson, D; Bjørn, M; Ramløv, H; Kristensen, R M

    2011-07-01

    Tardigrades are microscopic animals found worldwide in aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystems. They belong to the invertebrate superclade Ecdysozoa, as do the two major invertebrate model organisms: Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. We present a brief description of the tardigrades and highlight species that are currently used as models for physiological and molecular investigations. Tardigrades are uniquely adapted to a range of environmental extremes. Cryptobiosis, currently referred to as a reversible ametabolic state induced by e.g. desiccation, is common especially among limno-terrestrial species. It has been shown that the entry and exit of cryptobiosis may involve synthesis of bioprotectants in the form of selective carbohydrates and proteins as well as high levels of antioxidant enzymes and other free radical scavengers. However, at present a general scheme of mechanisms explaining this phenomenon is lacking. Importantly, recent research has shown that tardigrades even in their active states may be extremely tolerant to environmental stress, handling extreme levels of ionizing radiation, large fluctuation in external salinity and avoiding freezing by supercooling to below -20 °C, presumably relying on efficient DNA repair mechanisms and osmoregulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on adaptations found among tardigrades, and presents new data on tardigrade cell numbers and osmoregulation.

  4. Survival in extreme environments - on the current knowledge of adaptations in tardigrades.

    PubMed

    Møbjerg, N; Halberg, K A; Jørgensen, A; Persson, D; Bjørn, M; Ramløv, H; Kristensen, R M

    2011-07-01

    Tardigrades are microscopic animals found worldwide in aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystems. They belong to the invertebrate superclade Ecdysozoa, as do the two major invertebrate model organisms: Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. We present a brief description of the tardigrades and highlight species that are currently used as models for physiological and molecular investigations. Tardigrades are uniquely adapted to a range of environmental extremes. Cryptobiosis, currently referred to as a reversible ametabolic state induced by e.g. desiccation, is common especially among limno-terrestrial species. It has been shown that the entry and exit of cryptobiosis may involve synthesis of bioprotectants in the form of selective carbohydrates and proteins as well as high levels of antioxidant enzymes and other free radical scavengers. However, at present a general scheme of mechanisms explaining this phenomenon is lacking. Importantly, recent research has shown that tardigrades even in their active states may be extremely tolerant to environmental stress, handling extreme levels of ionizing radiation, large fluctuation in external salinity and avoiding freezing by supercooling to below -20 °C, presumably relying on efficient DNA repair mechanisms and osmoregulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on adaptations found among tardigrades, and presents new data on tardigrade cell numbers and osmoregulation. PMID:21251237

  5. Does the level of reproductive knowledge specific to inflammatory bowel disease predict childlessness among women with inflammatory bowel disease?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Vivian W; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Kroeker, Karen I; Goodman, Karen J; Hegadoren, Kathleen M; Dieleman, Levinus A; Fedorak, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may choose to remain childless due to a lack of IBD-specific reproductive knowledge. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of IBD-specific reproductive knowledge and discussion of family planning with a physician on childlessness among women with IBD. METHODS: Female IBD patients 18 to 45 years of age completed the Crohn’s and Colitis Pregnancy Knowledge questionnaire (CCPKnow), and answered questions regarding reproductive history, plans to have children and discussion of family planning with a physician. CCPKnow scores were grouped according to poor (0 to 7), adequate (8 to 10), good (11 to 13) and very good (14 to 17). RESULTS: Of 434 eligible women, 248 (57.1%) completed the questionnaires. Of these 248 women, 51.6% were childless and, among these, 12.9% were voluntarily childless and 12.1% were trying to become pregnant. Childless women had a lower median CCPKnow score than women with children (6.0 versus 8.0; P=0.001). After adjusting for current age and marital status, each one point increase in the CCPKnow score corresponded to 8% lower odds of childlessness (OR 0.92 [95% CI 0.86 to 0.99]), 9% lower odds of voluntary child-lessness (OR 0.91 [95% CI 0.79 to 1.0]) and 20% higher odds of trying to become pregnant (OR 1.2 [95% CI 1.0 to 1.4]). Discussion of family planning with a gastroenterologist corresponded to 72% lower odds of a poor CCPKnow score (OR 0.28 [95% CI 0.15 to 0.53]) and of voluntary childlessness (OR 0.28 [95% CI 0.057 to 1.3]). CONCLUSION: In the present study, higher IBD-specific reproductive knowledge lowered the odds of childlessness among women with IBD. Discussion of family planning with a physician was associated with higher CCPKnow scores and lower odds of voluntary childlessness. PMID:25803020

  6. Q Fever: Current State of Knowledge and Perspectives of Research of a Neglected Zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Czaplicki, Guy; Mainil, Jacques; Guattéo, Raphaël; Saegerman, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Q fever is an ubiquitous zoonosis caused by an resistant intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. In certain areas, Q fever can be a severe public health problem, and awareness of the disease must be promoted worldwide. Nevertheless, knowledge of Coxiella burnetii remains limited to this day. Its resistant (intracellular and environmental) and infectious properties have been poorly investigated. Further understanding of the interactions between the infected host and the bacteria is necessary. Domestic ruminants are considered as the main reservoir of bacteria. Infected animals shed highly infectious organisms in milk, feces, urine, vaginal mucus, and, very importantly, birth products. Inhalation is the main route of infection. Frequently asymptomatic in humans and animals, Q fever can cause acute or chronic infections. Financial consequences of infection can be dramatic at herd level. Vaccination with inactive whole-cell bacteria has been performed and proved effective in humans and animals. However, inactive whole-cell vaccines present several defects. Recombinant vaccines have been developed in experimental conditions and have great potential for the future. Q fever is a challenging disease for scientists as significant further investigations are necessary. Great research opportunities are available to reach a better understanding and thus a better prevention and control of the infection. PMID:22194752

  7. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S K; Adjeroud, M; Bellwood, D R; Berumen, M L; Booth, D; Bozec, Y-Marie; Chabanet, P; Cheal, A; Cinner, J; Depczynski, M; Feary, D A; Gagliano, M; Graham, N A J; Halford, A R; Halpern, B S; Harborne, A R; Hoey, A S; Holbrook, S J; Jones, G P; Kulbiki, M; Letourneur, Y; De Loma, T L; McClanahan, T; McCormick, M I; Meekan, M G; Mumby, P J; Munday, P L; Ohman, M C; Pratchett, M S; Riegl, B; Sano, M; Schmitt, R J; Syms, C

    2010-03-15

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that, if addressed, would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. Thirty-three scientists provided 155 questions, and 32 scientists scored these questions in terms of: (i) identifying a knowledge gap, (ii) achievability, (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats, and (iv) priority. Forty-two per cent of the questions related to habitat associations and community dynamics of fish, reflecting the established effects and immediate concern relating to climate-induced coral loss and habitat degradation. However, there were also questions on fish demographics, physiology, behaviour and management, all of which could be potentially affected by climate change. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background, scientists scored questions from different topics similarly, suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Presented here are the 53 highest-scoring unique questions. These questions should act as a guide for future research, providing a basis for better assessment and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities.

  8. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease in older adults: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Halter, Jeffrey B; Musi, Nicolas; McFarland Horne, Frances; Crandall, Jill P; Goldberg, Andrew; Harkless, Lawrence; Hazzard, William R; Huang, Elbert S; Kirkman, M Sue; Plutzky, Jorge; Schmader, Kenneth E; Zieman, Susan; High, Kevin P

    2014-08-01

    The prevalence of diabetes increases with age, driven in part by an absolute increase in incidence among adults aged 65 years and older. Individuals with diabetes are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease, and age strongly predicts cardiovascular complications. Inflammation and oxidative stress appear to play some role in the mechanisms underlying aging, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other complications of diabetes. However, the mechanisms underlying the age-associated increase in risk for diabetes and diabetes-related cardiovascular disease remain poorly understood. Moreover, because of the heterogeneity of the older population, a lack of understanding of the biology of aging, and inadequate study of the effects of treatments on traditional complications and geriatric conditions associated with diabetes, no consensus exists on the optimal interventions for older diabetic adults. The Association of Specialty Professors, along with the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and the American Diabetes Association, held a workshop, summarized in this Perspective, to discuss current knowledge regarding diabetes and cardiovascular disease in older adults, identify gaps, and propose questions to guide future research.

  9. Physiological Reactivity to Psychological Stress in Human Pregnancy: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine reactivity to acute stress are important predictors of health outcomes in non-pregnant populations. Greater magnitude and duration of physiological responses have been associated with increased risk of hypertensive disorders and diabetes, greater susceptibility to infectious illnesses, suppression of cell-mediated immunity as well as risk for depression and anxiety disorders. Stress reactivity during pregnancy has unique implications for maternal health, birth outcomes, and fetal development. However, as compared to the larger literature, our understanding of the predictors and consequences of exaggerated stress reactivity in pregnancy is limited. This paper reviews the current state of this literature with an emphasis on gaps in knowledge and future directions. PMID:22800930

  10. Summary of knowledge gaps related to quality and efficacy of current influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pfleiderer, Michael; Trouvin, Jean-Hugues; Brasseur, Daniel; Gränstrom, Marta; Shivji, Ragini; Mura, Manuela; Cavaleri, Marco

    2014-07-31

    Influenza viruses are a public health threat, as they are pathogenic, highly transmissible and prone to genetic changes. For decades vaccination strategies have been based on trivalent inactivated vaccines, which are regulated by specific guidelines. The progress in scientific knowledge and the lessons learned from the A(H1N1)2009 pandemic have highlighted further the need to improve current guidelines, including the immunogenicity criteria set by the CHMP in 1997, and to promote the discussion on the shortcomings encountered, e.g. the evaluation of vaccine efficacy in the paediatric and elderly populations, the measurement of the naivety of a population, the impact of prior immunity on subsequent vaccinations, and the technical issues with the serological assays for detection of immunity and immunogenicity. The authors attempted to summarise and tackle key gaps in the existing evidence concerning quality and efficacy of influenza vaccines, aiming at favouring a common understanding and a coordinated approach across stakeholders.

  11. Effects of alternating current stimulation on the healthy and diseased brain

    PubMed Central

    Abd Hamid, Aini Ismafairus; Gall, Carolin; Speck, Oliver; Antal, Andrea; Sabel, Bernhard A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive and neurological dysfunctions can severely impact a patient's daily activities. In addition to medical treatment, non-invasive transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been proposed as a therapeutic technique to improve the functional state of the brain. Although during the last years tACS was applied in numerous studies to improve motor, somatosensory, visual and higher order cognitive functions, our knowledge is still limited regarding the mechanisms as to which type of ACS can affect cortical functions and altered neuronal oscillations seem to be the key mechanism. Because alternating current send pulses to the brain at predetermined frequencies, the online- and after-effects of ACS strongly depend on the stimulation parameters so that “optimal” ACS paradigms could be achieved. This is of interest not only for neuroscience research but also for clinical practice. In this study, we summarize recent findings on ACS-effects under both normal conditions and in brain diseases. PMID:26578858

  12. Cardiovascular Disease Could be Contained based on Currently Available Data!

    PubMed Central

    Ofodile, Okom Nkili F.C.

    2006-01-01

    Largely due to better control of infectious diseases and significant advances in biomedical research, life expectancy worldwide has increased dramatically in the last three decades. However, as the average age of the population has risen, the incidence of chronic age-related diseases such as arthritis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and late-onset diabetes have increased and have become serious public health problem, as well. The etiology of these disorders is still incompletely understood, therefore, neither preventive strategies nor long-term effective treatment modalities are available for these disorders. In keeping with the aforementioned, the ultimate goal in cardiovascular research is to prevent the onset of cardiovascular episodes and thereby allow successful ageing without morbidity and cognitive decline. Herein, I argue that cardiovascular episodes could be contained with relatively simple approaches. Cardiovascular disorder is characterized by cellular and molecular changes that are commonplace in age-related diseases in other organ system, such alterations include increased level of oxidative stress, perturbed energy metabolism, and “horror autotoxicus” largely brought about by the perturbation of ubiquitin -proteasome system, and excessive oxidative stress damage to the cardiac muscle cells and tissues, and cross-reactions of specific antibodies against human heat shock protein 60 with that of mycobacterial heat shock protein 65.” Horror autotoxicus”, a Latin expression, is a term coined by Paul Ehrlich at the turn of the last century to describe autoimmunity to self, or the attack of “self” by immune system, which ultimately results to autoimmune condition. Based on the currently available data, the risk of cardiovascular episodes and several other age-related disorders, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease and diabetes, is known to be influenced by the nature and

  13. Cardiovascular disease could be contained based on currently available data!

    PubMed

    Ofodile, Okom Nkili F C

    2006-01-01

    Largely due to better control of infectious diseases and significant advances in biomedical research, life expectancy worldwide has increased dramatically in the last three decades. However, as the average age of the population has risen, the incidence of chronic age-related diseases such as arthritis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and late-onset diabetes have increased and have become serious public health problem, as well. The etiology of these disorders is still incompletely understood, therefore, neither preventive strategies nor long-term effective treatment modalities are available for these disorders. In keeping with the aforementioned, the ultimate goal in cardiovascular research is to prevent the onset of cardiovascular episodes and thereby allow successful ageing without morbidity and cognitive decline. Herein, I argue that cardiovascular episodes could be contained with relatively simple approaches. Cardiovascular disorder is characterized by cellular and molecular changes that are commonplace in age-related diseases in other organ system, such alterations include increased level of oxidative stress, perturbed energy metabolism, and "horror autotoxicus" largely brought about by the perturbation of ubiquitin -proteasome system, and excessive oxidative stress damage to the cardiac muscle cells and tissues, and cross-reactions of specific antibodies against human heat shock protein 60 with that of mycobacterial heat shock protein 65. "Horror autotoxicus", a Latin expression, is a term coined by Paul Ehrlich at the turn of the last century to describe autoimmunity to self, or the attack of "self" by immune system, which ultimately results to autoimmune condition. Based on the currently available data, the risk of cardiovascular episodes and several other age-related disorders, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease and diabetes, is known to be influenced by the nature and level of food

  14. Current knowledge and future research directions in treatment-related second primary malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Schaapveld, Michael; Ramadan, Safaa; Hodgson, David C.; Radford, John; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, 17–19% of all new primary malignancies occur in survivors of cancer, causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Research has shown that cancer treatments are important contributors to second malignant neoplasm (SMN) risk. In this paper we summarise current knowledge with regard to treatment-related SMNs and provide recommendations for future research. We address the risks associated with radiotherapy and systemic treatments, modifying factors of treatment-related risks (genetic susceptibility, lifestyle) and the potential benefits of screening and interventions. Research priorities were identified during a workshop at the 2014 Cancer Survivorship Summit organised by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Recently, both systemic cancer treatments and radiotherapy approaches have evolved rapidly, with the carcinogenic potential of new treatments being unknown. Also, little knowledge is available about modifying factors of treatment-associated risk, such as genetic variants and lifestyle. Therefore, large prospective studies with biobanking, high quality treatment data (radiation dose–volume, cumulative drug doses), and data on other cancer risk factors are needed. International collaboration will be essential to have adequate statistical power for such investigations. While screening for SMNs is included in several follow-up guidelines for cancer survivors, its effectiveness in this special population has not been demonstrated. Research into the pathogenesis, tumour characteristics and survival of SMNs is essential, as well as the development of interventions to reduce SMN-related morbidity and mortality. Prediction models for SMN risk are needed to inform initial treatment decisions, balancing chances of cure and SMNs and to identify high-risk subgroups of survivors eligible for screening. PMID:26217162

  15. Current knowledge in lentil genomics and its application for crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shiv; Rajendran, Karthika; Kumar, Jitendra; Hamwieh, Aladdin; Baum, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Most of the lentil growing countries face a certain set of abiotic and biotic stresses causing substantial reduction in crop growth, yield, and production. Until-to date, lentil breeders have used conventional plant breeding techniques of selection-recombination-selection cycle to develop improved cultivars.These techniques have been successful in mainstreaming some of the easy-to-manage monogenic traits. However, in case of complex quantitative traits, these conventional techniques are less precise. As most of the economic traits are complex, quantitative, and often influenced by environments and genotype–environment interaction, the genetic improvement of these traits becomes difficult. Genomics assisted breeding is relatively powerful and fast approach to develop high yielding varieties more suitable to adverse environmental conditions. New tools such as molecular markers and bioinformatics are expected to generate new knowledge and improve our understanding on the genetics of complex traits. In the past, the limited availability of genomic resources in lentil could not allow breeders to employ these tools in mainstream breeding program.The recent application of the next generation sequencing and genotyping by sequencing technologies has facilitated to speed up the lentil genome sequencing project and large discovery of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Currently, several linkage maps have been developed in lentil through the use of expressed sequenced tag (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) and SNP markers.These maps have emerged as useful genomic resources to identify quantitative trait loci imparting tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in lentil. In this review, the current knowledge on available genomic resources and its application in lentil breeding program are discussed. PMID:25755659

  16. Current knowledge in lentil genomics and its application for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shiv; Rajendran, Karthika; Kumar, Jitendra; Hamwieh, Aladdin; Baum, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Most of the lentil growing countries face a certain set of abiotic and biotic stresses causing substantial reduction in crop growth, yield, and production. Until-to date, lentil breeders have used conventional plant breeding techniques of selection-recombination-selection cycle to develop improved cultivars.These techniques have been successful in mainstreaming some of the easy-to-manage monogenic traits. However, in case of complex quantitative traits, these conventional techniques are less precise. As most of the economic traits are complex, quantitative, and often influenced by environments and genotype-environment interaction, the genetic improvement of these traits becomes difficult. Genomics assisted breeding is relatively powerful and fast approach to develop high yielding varieties more suitable to adverse environmental conditions. New tools such as molecular markers and bioinformatics are expected to generate new knowledge and improve our understanding on the genetics of complex traits. In the past, the limited availability of genomic resources in lentil could not allow breeders to employ these tools in mainstream breeding program.The recent application of the next generation sequencing and genotyping by sequencing technologies has facilitated to speed up the lentil genome sequencing project and large discovery of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Currently, several linkage maps have been developed in lentil through the use of expressed sequenced tag (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) and SNP markers.These maps have emerged as useful genomic resources to identify quantitative trait loci imparting tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in lentil. In this review, the current knowledge on available genomic resources and its application in lentil breeding program are discussed.

  17. Assessing Exposure and Health Consequences of Chemicals in Drinking Water: Current State of Knowledge and Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Kogevinas, Manolis; Cordier, Sylvaine; Templeton, Michael R.; Vermeulen, Roel; Nuckols, John R.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Levallois, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Safe drinking water is essential for well-being. Although microbiological contamination remains the largest cause of water-related morbidity and mortality globally, chemicals in water supplies may also cause disease, and evidence of the human health consequences is limited or lacking for many of them. Objectives: We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge, identify gaps in understanding, and provide recommendations for epidemiological research relating to chemicals occurring in drinking water. Discussion: Assessing exposure and the health consequences of chemicals in drinking water is challenging. Exposures are typically at low concentrations, measurements in water are frequently insufficient, chemicals are present in mixtures, exposure periods are usually long, multiple exposure routes may be involved, and valid biomarkers reflecting the relevant exposure period are scarce. In addition, the magnitude of the relative risks tends to be small. Conclusions: Research should include well-designed epidemiological studies covering regions with contrasting contaminant levels and sufficient sample size; comprehensive evaluation of contaminant occurrence in combination with bioassays integrating the effect of complex mixtures; sufficient numbers of measurements in water to evaluate geographical and temporal variability; detailed information on personal habits resulting in exposure (e.g., ingestion, showering, swimming, diet); collection of biological samples to measure relevant biomarkers; and advanced statistical models to estimate exposure and relative risks, considering methods to address measurement error. Last, the incorporation of molecular markers of early biological effects and genetic susceptibility is essential to understand the mechanisms of action. There is a particular knowledge gap and need to evaluate human exposure and the risks of a wide range of emerging contaminants. Citation: Villanueva CM, Kogevinas M, Cordier S, Templeton MR, Vermeulen R

  18. What Is the Current Level of Asthma Knowledge in Elementary, Middle, and High School Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teacher asthma knowledge based on three areas including (a) the level of teacher asthma knowledge in the Maury County Public School System, (b) the level of teacher asthma knowledge based on five demographic factors, and (c) the level of teacher asthma knowledge in the Maury County Public School System compared with teacher…

  19. The formation of lipid hydroperoxide-derived amide-type lysine adducts on proteins: a review of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoji

    2014-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation is an important biological reaction. In particular, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) can be oxidized easily. Peroxidized lipids often react with other amines accompanied by the formation of various covalent adducts. Novel amide-type lipid-lysine adducts have been identified from an in vitro reaction mixture of lipid hydroperoxide with a protein, biological tissues exposed to conditions of oxidative stress and human urine from a healthy person. In this chapter, the current knowledge of amide type adducts is reviewed with a focus on the evaluation of functional foods and diseases with a history of discovery of hexanoyl-lysine (HEL). Although there is extensive research on HEL and other amide-type adducts, the mechanism of generation of the amide bond remains unclear. We have found that the decomposed aldehyde plus peroxide combined with a lysine moiety does not fully explain the formation of the amide-type lipid-lysine adduct that is generated by lipid hydroperoxide. Singlet oxygen or an excited state of the ketone generated from the lipid hydroperoxide may also contribute to the formation of the amide linkage. The amide-adducts may prove useful not only for the detection of oxidative stress induced by disease but also for the estimation of damage caused by an excess intake of PUFA. PMID:24374915

  20. Translational research in infectious disease: current paradigms and challenges ahead

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Judith M.; Alexander, Elizabeth; Salvatore, Mirella

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the biomedical community has witnessed a rapid scientific and technological evolution following the development and refinement of high-throughput methodologies. Concurrently and consequentially, the scientific perspective has changed from the reductionist approach of meticulously analyzing the fine details of a single component of biology, to the “holistic” approach of broadmindedly examining the globally interacting elements of biological systems. The emergence of this new way of thinking has brought about a scientific revolution in which genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” have become the predominant tools by which large amounts of data are amassed, analyzed and applied to complex questions of biology that were previously unsolvable. This enormous transformation of basic science research and the ensuing plethora of promising data, especially in the realm of human health and disease, have unfortunately not been followed by a parallel increase in the clinical application of this information. On the contrary, the number of new potential drugs in development has been steadily decreasing, suggesting the existence of roadblocks that prevent the translation of promising research into medically relevant therapeutic or diagnostic application. In this paper we will review, in a non-inclusive fashion, several recent scientific advancements in the field of translational research, with a specific focus on how they relate to infectious disease. We will also present a current picture of the limitations and challenges that exist for translational research, as well as ways that have been proposed by the National Institutes of Health to improve the state of this field. PMID:22633095

  1. On Not Knowing Zoonotic Diseases: Pastoralists’ Ethnoveterinary Knowledge in the Far North Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Mark; Ewing, Daniel; Garabed, Rebecca B.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the implications of Murray Last’s (1981) Knowing About Not Knowing for the study of ethnoveterinary knowledge of mobile pastoralists in the Far North Region of Cameroon. Specifically, we ask two interrelated questions: (1) what is the nature of this knowledge, and (2) what is the best way to study it? We conducted a study of pastoralists’ knowledge of human and animal infectious diseases to evaluate the claim that mobile pastoralists in the Chad Basin do not have a concept for zoonotic diseases. We used a combination of free lists and semi-structured interviews to study pastoralists’ knowledge. The results suggest that pastoralists do not have a concept for zoonotic diseases. Moreover, we found considerable variation in pastoralists’ ethnoveterinary knowledge and examples of not knowing, which contrasts with previous studies that do not describe much variation in ethnoveterinary knowledge. In our discussion, we consider to what extent descriptions of ethnoveterinary knowledge are the product of researchers’ conceptual framework and methodology. PMID:23990687

  2. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus "MERS-CoV": current knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Banik, G R; Khandaker, G; Rashid, H

    2015-06-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that causes a severe lower respiratory tract infection in humans is now considered a pandemic threat to the Gulf region. Since its discovery in 2012, MERS-CoV has reached 23 countries affecting about 1100 people, including a dozen children, and claiming over 400 lives. Compared to SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), MERS-CoV appears to kill more people (40% versus 10%), more quickly, and is especially more severe in those with pre-existing medical conditions. Most MERS-CoV cases (>85%) reported thus far have a history of residence in, or travel to the Middle East. The current epidemiology is characterised by slow and sustained transmission with occasional sparks. The dromedary camel is the intermediate host of MERS-CoV, but the transmission cycle is not fully understood. In this current review, we have briefly summarised the latest information on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of MERS-CoV especially highlighting the knowledge gaps in its transmission dynamics, diagnosis and preventive strategy. PMID:26002405

  3. Demographic and traditional knowledge perspectives on the current status of Canadian polar bear subpopulations.

    PubMed

    York, Jordan; Dowsley, Martha; Cornwell, Adam; Kuc, Miroslaw; Taylor, Mitchell

    2016-05-01

    Subpopulation growth rates and the probability of decline at current harvest levels were determined for 13 subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) that are within or shared with Canada based on mark-recapture estimates of population numbers and vital rates, and harvest statistics using population viability analyses (PVA). Aboriginal traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) on subpopulation trend agreed with the seven stable/increasing results and one of the declining results, but disagreed with PVA status of five other declining subpopulations. The decline in the Baffin Bay subpopulation appeared to be due to over-reporting of harvested numbers from outside Canada. The remaining four disputed subpopulations (Southern Beaufort Sea, Northern Beaufort Sea, Southern Hudson Bay, and Western Hudson Bay) were all incompletely mark-recapture (M-R) sampled, which may have biased their survival and subpopulation estimates. Three of the four incompletely sampled subpopulations were PVA identified as nonviable (i.e., declining even with zero harvest mortality). TEK disagreement was nonrandom with respect to M-R sampling protocols. Cluster analysis also grouped subpopulations with ambiguous demographic and harvest rate estimates separately from those with apparently reliable demographic estimates based on PVA probability of decline and unharvested subpopulation growth rate criteria. We suggest that the correspondence between TEK and scientific results can be used to improve the reliability of information on natural systems and thus improve resource management. Considering both TEK and scientific information, we suggest that the current status of Canadian polar bear subpopulations in 2013 was 12 stable/increasing and one declining (Kane Basin). We do not find support for the perspective that polar bears within or shared with Canada are currently in any sort of climate crisis. We suggest that monitoring the impacts of climate change (including sea ice decline) on polar bear

  4. Demographic and traditional knowledge perspectives on the current status of Canadian polar bear subpopulations.

    PubMed

    York, Jordan; Dowsley, Martha; Cornwell, Adam; Kuc, Miroslaw; Taylor, Mitchell

    2016-05-01

    Subpopulation growth rates and the probability of decline at current harvest levels were determined for 13 subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) that are within or shared with Canada based on mark-recapture estimates of population numbers and vital rates, and harvest statistics using population viability analyses (PVA). Aboriginal traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) on subpopulation trend agreed with the seven stable/increasing results and one of the declining results, but disagreed with PVA status of five other declining subpopulations. The decline in the Baffin Bay subpopulation appeared to be due to over-reporting of harvested numbers from outside Canada. The remaining four disputed subpopulations (Southern Beaufort Sea, Northern Beaufort Sea, Southern Hudson Bay, and Western Hudson Bay) were all incompletely mark-recapture (M-R) sampled, which may have biased their survival and subpopulation estimates. Three of the four incompletely sampled subpopulations were PVA identified as nonviable (i.e., declining even with zero harvest mortality). TEK disagreement was nonrandom with respect to M-R sampling protocols. Cluster analysis also grouped subpopulations with ambiguous demographic and harvest rate estimates separately from those with apparently reliable demographic estimates based on PVA probability of decline and unharvested subpopulation growth rate criteria. We suggest that the correspondence between TEK and scientific results can be used to improve the reliability of information on natural systems and thus improve resource management. Considering both TEK and scientific information, we suggest that the current status of Canadian polar bear subpopulations in 2013 was 12 stable/increasing and one declining (Kane Basin). We do not find support for the perspective that polar bears within or shared with Canada are currently in any sort of climate crisis. We suggest that monitoring the impacts of climate change (including sea ice decline) on polar bear

  5. Current drivers and future directions of global livestock disease dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Brian D.; Grace, Delia; Sones, Keith

    2013-01-01

    We review the global dynamics of livestock disease over the last two decades. Our imperfect ability to detect and report disease hinders assessment of trends, but we suggest that, although endemic diseases continue their historic decline in wealthy countries, poor countries experience static or deteriorating animal health and epidemic diseases show both regression and expansion. At a mesolevel, disease is changing in terms of space and host, which is illustrated by bluetongue, Lyme disease, and West Nile virus, and it is also emerging, as illustrated by highly pathogenic avian influenza and others. Major proximate drivers of change in disease dynamics include ecosystem change, ecosystem incursion, and movements of people and animals; underlying these are demographic change and an increasing demand for livestock products. We identify three trajectories of global disease dynamics: (i) the worried well in developed countries (demanding less risk while broadening the circle of moral concern), (ii) the intensifying and market-orientated systems of many developing countries, where highly complex disease patterns create hot spots for disease shifts, and (iii) the neglected cold spots in poor countries, where rapid change in disease dynamics is less likely but smallholders and pastoralists continue to struggle with largely preventable and curable livestock diseases. PMID:21576468

  6. Sea urchin overgrazing of seagrasses: A review of current knowledge on causes, consequences, and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklöf, J. S.; de la Torre-Castro, M.; Gullström, M.; Uku, J.; Muthiga, N.; Lyimo, T.; Bandeira, S. O.

    2008-09-01

    Sea urchins are one of the most common seagrass macro-grazers in contemporary seagrass systems. Occasionally their grazing rates exceed seagrass growth rates, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as overgrazing. Because of a reported increasing frequency of overgrazing events, concomitant with loss of seagrass-associated ecosystem services, it has been suggested that overgrazing is one of the key threats to tropical and subtropical seagrasses. In light of this, we review the current knowledge on causes, consequences, and management of sea urchin overgrazing of seagrasses. Initially we argue that the definition of overgrazing must include scale and impairment of ecosystem services, since this is the de facto definition used in the literature, and will highlight the potential societal costs of seagrass overgrazing. A review of 16 identified cases suggests that urchin overgrazing is a global phenomenon, ranging from temperate to tropical coastal waters and involving at least 11 seagrass and 7 urchin species. Even though most overgrazing events seem to affect areas of <0.5 km 2, and recovery often occurs within a few years, overgrazing can have a range of large, long-term indirect effects such as loss of associated fauna and decreased sediment stabilization. A range of drivers behind overgrazing have been suggested, including bottom-up (nutrient enrichment), top-down (reduced predation control due to e.g. overfishing), "side-in" mechanisms (e.g. changes in water temperature) and natural population fluctuations. Based on recent studies, there seems to be fairly strong support for the top-down and bottom-up hypotheses. However, many potential drivers often co-occur and interact, especially in areas with high anthropogenic pressure, suggesting that multiple disturbances—by simultaneously reducing predation control, increasing urchin recruitment and reducing the resistance of seagrasses—could pave the way for overgrazing. In management, the most common response to

  7. Current status of the HIBMC and results of representative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Masao; Demizu, Yusuke; Niwa, Yasue; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Terashima, Kazuki; Arimura, Takeshi; Mima, Masayuki; Maeda, Takuya; Akagi, Takashi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Nagayama, Shinichi; Baba, Masashi

    2009-07-25

    The proton radiotherapy (PRT) has been spreading, since 1990 when 250 MeV proton beams with rotation gantry was developed for medical use. On the other hand, carbon-ion radiotherapy (CRT) that has both physical and biological features is available at 4 facilities in the world. HIBMC is the only facility to be able to use both particles. From Apr 2001 to Dec 2008, 2486 patients were treated with PRT in 2030 patients or with CRT in 456. Treatment to the Head and Neck (H and N: in 405 patients), the lung (245), the liver (371), and the prostatic carcinoma (1059) was a major subject. The 2-year local control rates is 72% in H and N (n = 163, T1:9, T2:18, T3:36, T4:79, malignant melanoma 48, adenoid cystic carcinoma 35, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) 32, adenocarcinoma 14, others 34), 88% in lung (n = 116, T1:59, T2:42, T3:4, T4:6, SCC 30, adenocarcinoma 59, others 27), and 89% in liver cancer (n = 153, Proton: 130, carbon: 23). Biochemical disease free 3-year survival of 291 prostate cancer is 100% in 9 patients with initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level < = 4 ng/ml, 99% in 140 with PSA 4.1-10 ng/ml, 90% in 71 with PSA 10.1-20 ng/ml, and 79% in 71 with PSA>20 ng/ml. These results are excellent comparable or superior to those of surgery. Thus, particle therapy is sophisticated radiotherapy, however the only problem to prohibit the progress is high costs for construction and maintenance. Facilities at which both proton and carbon ion beams can be used, including the HIBMC, have to investigate the differential use. We started clinical randomized trial to compare both ion beams, and started biological examinations in a project aiming at the development of a laser driven proton radiotherapy. We stated about the current status of the HIBMC and the results of representative diseases.

  8. Current status of the HIBMC and results of representative diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Masao; Demizu, Yusuke; Niwa, Yasue; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Terashima, Kazuki; Arimura, Takeshi; Mima, Masayuki; Nagayama, Shinichi; Maeda, Takuya; Baba, Masashi; Akagi, Takashi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    2009-07-01

    The proton radiotherapy (PRT) has been spreading, since 1990 when 250 MeV proton beams with rotation gantry was developed for medical use. On the other hand, carbon-ion radiotherapy (CRT) that has both physical and biological features is available at 4 facilities in the world. HIBMC is the only facility to be able to use both particles. From Apr 2001 to Dec 2008, 2486 patients were treated with PRT in 2030 patients or with CRT in 456. Treatment to the Head and Neck (H&N: in 405 patients), the lung (245), the liver (371), and the prostatic carcinoma (1059) was a major subject. The 2-year local control rates is 72% in H&N (n = 163, T1:9, T2:18, T3:36, T4:79, malignant melanoma 48, adenoid cystic carcinoma 35, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) 32, adenocarcinoma 14, others 34), 88% in lung (n = 116, T1:59, T2:42, T3:4, T4:6, SCC 30, adenocarcinoma 59, others 27), and 89% in liver cancer (n = 153, Proton: 130, carbon: 23). Biochemical disease free 3-year survival of 291 prostate cancer is 100% in 9 patients with initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level < = 4 ng/ml, 99% in 140 with PSA 4.1-10 ng/ml, 90% in 71 with PSA 10.1-20 ng/ml, and 79% in 71 with PSA>20 ng/ml. These results are excellent comparable or superior to those of surgery. Thus, particle therapy is sophisticated radiotherapy, however the only problem to prohibit the progress is high costs for construction and maintenance. Facilities at which both proton and carbon ion beams can be used, including the HIBMC, have to investigate the differential use. We started clinical randomized trial to compare both ion beams, and started biological examinations in a project aiming at the development of a laser driven proton radiotherapy. We stated about the current status of the HIBMC and the results of representative diseases.

  9. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): properties and frontier of current knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is well known internationally and widely used for scoring the severity of illness in psychiatry. Problems with GAF show a need for its further development (for example validity and reliability problems). The aim of the present study was to identify gaps in current knowledge about properties of GAF that are of interest for further development. Properties of GAF are defined as characteristic traits or attributes that serve to define GAF (or may have a role to define a future updated GAF). Methods A thorough literature search was conducted. Results A number of gaps in knowledge about the properties of GAF were identified: for example, the current GAF has a continuous scale, but is a continuous or categorical scale better? Scoring is not performed by setting a mark directly on a visual scale, but could this improve scoring? Would new anchor points, including key words and examples, improve GAF (anchor points for symptoms, functioning, positive mental health, prognosis, improvement of generic properties, exclusion criteria for scoring in 10-point intervals, and anchor points at the endpoints of the scale)? Is a change in the number of anchor points and their distribution over the total scale important? Could better instructions for scoring within 10-point intervals improve scoring? Internationally, both single and dual scales for GAF are used, but what is the advantage of having separate symptom and functioning scales? Symptom (GAF-S) and functioning (GAF-F) scales should score different dimensions and still be correlated, but what is the best combination of definitions for GAF-S and GAF-F? For GAF with more than two scales there is limited empirical testing, but what is gained or lost by using more than two scales? Conclusions In the history of GAF, its basic properties have undergone limited changes. Problems with GAF may, in part, be due to lack of a research programme testing the effects of different changes in basic

  10. IgG4-related disease: current challenges and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Lang, David; Zwerina, Jochen; Pieringer, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) represents an immune-mediated fibroinflammatory condition with a characteristic histopathological appearance that can affect various organs. Although numerous single-organ manifestations have been described more than a century ago, its systemic nature and unique features were only discovered in the last 2 decades, when IgG4-RD emerged as a new entity of disease. IgG4-RD is usually considered a rare disease, but its true epidemiology has not yet been fully clarified. Also, despite recent advances in the identification of the underlying immunological processes, its pathophysiology is only incompletely understood till now. The diagnostic workup of IgG4-RD is complex and usually requires a combination of clinical examination, imaging, histological, and serological analyses. However, no finding alone is specific for IgG4-RD. Therefore, its diagnosis requires careful interpretation of examination results in context with the patient's clinical appearance as well as the exclusion of a broad variety of differential diagnoses. The past years brought rapid advances concerning this novel disease entity: diagnostic criteria, further insights into the underlying immunological processes, new biomarkers, and novel therapeutic approaches were proposed and widened the knowledge in the field of IgG4-RD. Still, a greater number of questions remain unanswered, and many recent developments require further discussion and proof from clinical trials. This review should give an overview on current knowledge and future perspectives in epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of IgG4-RD. PMID:26929632

  11. IgG4-related disease: current challenges and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Lang, David; Zwerina, Jochen; Pieringer, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) represents an immune-mediated fibroinflammatory condition with a characteristic histopathological appearance that can affect various organs. Although numerous single-organ manifestations have been described more than a century ago, its systemic nature and unique features were only discovered in the last 2 decades, when IgG4-RD emerged as a new entity of disease. IgG4-RD is usually considered a rare disease, but its true epidemiology has not yet been fully clarified. Also, despite recent advances in the identification of the underlying immunological processes, its pathophysiology is only incompletely understood till now. The diagnostic workup of IgG4-RD is complex and usually requires a combination of clinical examination, imaging, histological, and serological analyses. However, no finding alone is specific for IgG4-RD. Therefore, its diagnosis requires careful interpretation of examination results in context with the patient’s clinical appearance as well as the exclusion of a broad variety of differential diagnoses. The past years brought rapid advances concerning this novel disease entity: diagnostic criteria, further insights into the underlying immunological processes, new biomarkers, and novel therapeutic approaches were proposed and widened the knowledge in the field of IgG4-RD. Still, a greater number of questions remain unanswered, and many recent developments require further discussion and proof from clinical trials. This review should give an overview on current knowledge and future perspectives in epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of IgG4-RD. PMID:26929632

  12. Tool use in left brain damage and Alzheimer's disease: What about function and manipulation knowledge?

    PubMed

    Jarry, Christophe; Osiurak, François; Besnard, Jérémy; Baumard, Josselin; Lesourd, Mathieu; Croisile, Bernard; Etcharry-Bouyx, Frédérique; Chauviré, Valérie; Le Gall, Didier

    2016-03-01

    Tool use disorders are usually associated with difficulties in retrieving function and manipulation knowledge. Here, we investigate tool use (Real Tool Use, RTU), function (Functional Association, FA) and manipulation knowledge (Gesture Recognition, GR) in 17 left-brain-damaged (LBD) patients and 14 AD patients (Alzheimer disease). LBD group exhibited predicted deficit on RTU but not on FA and GR while AD patients showed deficits on GR and FA with preserved tool use skills. These findings question the role played by function and manipulation knowledge in actual tool use. PMID:26765078

  13. Prescription drug advertising, disease knowledge, and older adults' optimistic bias about the future risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seong; Ju, Ilwoo

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to broaden the scope of knowledge on the role of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) in the construction of consumers' optimistic bias regarding health issues and their intentions for coping actions. Based on an online survey of U.S. adults aged 65 years or older (N = 622), this study revealed that (a) respondents were optimistically biased in estimating their future risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD); (b) exposure to DTCA for AD medicine related negatively to optimistic bias when respondents had a low level of knowledge about AD, while the relationship disappeared when knowledge was high; (c) optimistic bias was negatively associated with intentions to seek information about AD and professional help to discuss it; and (d) optimistic bias mediated the relationship between the DTCA exposure × AD knowledge interaction and information- and help-seeking intentions. Implications for the theory and practice of DTCA are discussed.

  14. Prescription drug advertising, disease knowledge, and older adults' optimistic bias about the future risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seong; Ju, Ilwoo

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to broaden the scope of knowledge on the role of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) in the construction of consumers' optimistic bias regarding health issues and their intentions for coping actions. Based on an online survey of U.S. adults aged 65 years or older (N = 622), this study revealed that (a) respondents were optimistically biased in estimating their future risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD); (b) exposure to DTCA for AD medicine related negatively to optimistic bias when respondents had a low level of knowledge about AD, while the relationship disappeared when knowledge was high; (c) optimistic bias was negatively associated with intentions to seek information about AD and professional help to discuss it; and (d) optimistic bias mediated the relationship between the DTCA exposure × AD knowledge interaction and information- and help-seeking intentions. Implications for the theory and practice of DTCA are discussed. PMID:26361065

  15. Medical Student Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Peru: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Errea, Renato A; Vasquez-Rios, George; Machicado, Jorge D; Gallardo, Maria Susana; Cornejo, Marilhia; Urquiaga, Jorge F; Montoya, Diego; Zamudio, Rodrigo; Terashima, Angelica; Marcos, Luis A; Samalvides, Frine

    2015-11-01

    In developing countries, education to health-care professionals is a cornerstone in the battle against neglected tropical diseases (NTD). Studies evaluating the level of knowledge of medical students in clinical and socio-demographic aspects of NTD are lacking. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted among students from a 7 year-curriculum medical school in Peru to assess their knowledge of NTD by using a pilot survey comprised by two blocks of 10 short questions. Block I consisted of socio-demographic and epidemiological questions whereas block II included clinical vignettes. Each correct answer had the value of 1 point. Out of 597 responders (response rate: 68.4%), 583 were considered to have valid surveys (male:female ratio: 1:1.01; mean age 21 years, SD ± 2.42). Total knowledge showed a raising trend through the 7-year curriculum. Clinical knowledge seemed to improve towards the end of medical school whereas socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts only showed progress the first 4 years of medical school, remaining static for the rest of the curricular years (p = 0.66). Higher mean scores in socio-demographic and epidemiological knowledge compared to clinical knowledge were seen in the first two years (p<0.001) whereas the last three years showed higher scores in clinical knowledge (p<0.001). In conclusion, students from this private medical school gained substantial knowledge in NTD throughout the career which seems to be related to improvement in clinical knowledge rather than to socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts. This study assures the feasibility of measuring the level of knowledge of NTD in medical students and stresses the importance of evaluating education on NTD as it may need more emphasis in epidemiological concepts, especially at developing countries such as Peru where many people are affected by these preventable and treatable diseases.

  16. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Current Knowledge on Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques and Serological Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Loens, Katherine; Ieven, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) belongs to the class Mollicutes and has been recognized as a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), that occur worldwide and in all age groups. In addition, M. pneumoniae can simultaneously or sequentially lead to damage in the nervous system and has been associated with a wide variety of other acute and chronic diseases. During the past 10 years, the proportion of LRTI in children and adults, associated with M. pneumoniae infection has ranged from 0 to more than 50%. This variation is due to the age and the geographic location of the population examined but also due to the diagnostic methods used. The true role of M. pneumoniae in RTIs remains a challenge given the many limitations and lack of standardization of the applied diagnostic tool in most cases, with resultant wide variations in data from different studies. Correct and rapid diagnosis and/or management of M. pneumoniae infections is, however, critical to initiate appropriate antibiotic treatment and is nowadays usually done by PCR and/or serology. Several recent reviews, have summarized current methods for the detection and identification of M. pneumoniae. This review will therefore provide a look at the general principles, advantages, diagnostic value, and limitations of the most currently used detection techniques for the etiological diagnosis of a M. pneumoniae infection as they evolve from research to daily practice. PMID:27064893

  17. Review of the Current State of Knowledge on the Effects of Radiation on Concrete

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rosseel, Thomas M.; Maruyama, Ippei; Le Pape, Yann; Kontani, Osamu; Giorla, Alain B.; Remec, Igor; Wall, James J.; Sircar, Madhumita; Andrade, Carmen; Ordonez, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    A review of the current state of knowledge on the effects of radiation on concrete in nuclear applications is presented. Emphasis is placed on the effects of radiation damage as reflected by changes in engineering properties of concrete in the evaluation of the long-term operation (LTO) and for Plant Life or Aging Management of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Japan, Spain, and the United States. National issues and concerns are described for Japan and the US followed by a discussion of the fundamental understanding of the effects radiation on concrete. Specifically, the effects of temperature, moisture content, and irradiation onmore » ordinary Portland cement paste and the role of temperature and neutron energy spectra on radiation induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) of aggregate-forming minerals are described. This is followed by a discussion of the bounding conditions for extended operation, the significance of accelerated irradiation conditions, the role of temperature, creep, and how these issues are being incorporated into numerical and meso-scale models. From these insights on radiation damage, analyses of these effects on concrete structures are reviewed and the current status of work in Japan and the US are described. Also discussed is the recent formation of a new international scientific and technical organization, the International Committee on Irradiated Concrete (ICIC), to provide a forum for timely information exchanges among organizations pursuing the identification, quantification, and modeling of the effects of radiation on concrete in commercial nuclear applications. Lastly, the paper concludes with a discussion of research gaps including: 1) interpreting test-reactor data, 2) evaluating service-irradiated concrete for aging management and to inform radiation damage models with the Zorita NPP (Spain) serving as the first comprehensive test case, 3) irradiated-assisted alkali-silica reactions, and 4) RIVE under constrained conditions.« less

  18. MSeqDR: A Centralized Knowledge Repository and Bioinformatics Web Resource to Facilitate Genomic Investigations in Mitochondrial Disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lishuang; Diroma, Maria Angela; Gonzalez, Michael; Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Leipzig, Jeremy; Lott, Marie T; van Oven, Mannis; Wallace, Douglas C; Muraresku, Colleen Clarke; Zolkipli-Cunningham, Zarazuela; Chinnery, Patrick F; Attimonelli, Marcella; Zuchner, Stephan; Falk, Marni J; Gai, Xiaowu

    2016-06-01

    MSeqDR is the Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource, a centralized and comprehensive genome and phenome bioinformatics resource built by the mitochondrial disease community to facilitate clinical diagnosis and research investigations of individual patient phenotypes, genomes, genes, and variants. A central Web portal (https://mseqdr.org) integrates community knowledge from expert-curated databases with genomic and phenotype data shared by clinicians and researchers. MSeqDR also functions as a centralized application server for Web-based tools to analyze data across both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, including investigator-driven whole exome or genome dataset analyses through MSeqDR-Genesis. MSeqDR-GBrowse genome browser supports interactive genomic data exploration and visualization with custom tracks relevant to mtDNA variation and mitochondrial disease. MSeqDR-LSDB is a locus-specific database that currently manages 178 mitochondrial diseases, 1,363 genes associated with mitochondrial biology or disease, and 3,711 pathogenic variants in those genes. MSeqDR Disease Portal allows hierarchical tree-style disease exploration to evaluate their unique descriptions, phenotypes, and causative variants. Automated genomic data submission tools are provided that capture ClinVar compliant variant annotations. PhenoTips will be used for phenotypic data submission on deidentified patients using human phenotype ontology terminology. The development of a dynamic informed patient consent process to guide data access is underway to realize the full potential of these resources.

  19. MSeqDR: A Centralized Knowledge Repository and Bioinformatics Web Resource to Facilitate Genomic Investigations in Mitochondrial Disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lishuang; Diroma, Maria Angela; Gonzalez, Michael; Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Leipzig, Jeremy; Lott, Marie T; van Oven, Mannis; Wallace, Douglas C; Muraresku, Colleen Clarke; Zolkipli-Cunningham, Zarazuela; Chinnery, Patrick F; Attimonelli, Marcella; Zuchner, Stephan; Falk, Marni J; Gai, Xiaowu

    2016-06-01

    MSeqDR is the Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource, a centralized and comprehensive genome and phenome bioinformatics resource built by the mitochondrial disease community to facilitate clinical diagnosis and research investigations of individual patient phenotypes, genomes, genes, and variants. A central Web portal (https://mseqdr.org) integrates community knowledge from expert-curated databases with genomic and phenotype data shared by clinicians and researchers. MSeqDR also functions as a centralized application server for Web-based tools to analyze data across both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, including investigator-driven whole exome or genome dataset analyses through MSeqDR-Genesis. MSeqDR-GBrowse genome browser supports interactive genomic data exploration and visualization with custom tracks relevant to mtDNA variation and mitochondrial disease. MSeqDR-LSDB is a locus-specific database that currently manages 178 mitochondrial diseases, 1,363 genes associated with mitochondrial biology or disease, and 3,711 pathogenic variants in those genes. MSeqDR Disease Portal allows hierarchical tree-style disease exploration to evaluate their unique descriptions, phenotypes, and causative variants. Automated genomic data submission tools are provided that capture ClinVar compliant variant annotations. PhenoTips will be used for phenotypic data submission on deidentified patients using human phenotype ontology terminology. The development of a dynamic informed patient consent process to guide data access is underway to realize the full potential of these resources. PMID:26919060

  20. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia.

  1. The Genetics of Non-conventional Wine Yeasts: Current Knowledge and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Masneuf-Pomarede, Isabelle; Bely, Marina; Marullo, Philippe; Albertin, Warren

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is by far the most widely used yeast in oenology. However, during the last decade, several other yeasts species has been purposed for winemaking as they could positively impact wine quality. Some of these non-conventional yeasts (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Lachancea thermotolerans, etc.) are now proposed as starters culture for winemakers in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae, and several others are the subject of various studies (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Starmerella bacillaris, etc.). Along with their biotechnological use, the knowledge of these non-conventional yeasts greatly increased these last 10 years. The aim of this review is to describe the last updates and the current state-of-art of the genetics of non-conventional yeasts (including S. uvarum, T. delbrueckii, S. bacillaris, etc.). We describe how genomics and genetics tools provide new data into the population structure and biodiversity of non-conventional yeasts in winemaking environments. Future challenges will lie on the development of selection programs and/or genetic improvement of these non-conventional species. We discuss how genetics, genomics and the advances in next-generation sequencing will help the wine industry to develop the biotechnological use of non-conventional yeasts to improve the quality and differentiation of wines. PMID:26793188

  2. The iron-sulfur cluster assembly machineries in plants: current knowledge and open questions

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Jérémy; Touraine, Brigitte; Briat, Jean-François; Gaymard, Frédéric; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Many metabolic pathways and cellular processes occurring in most sub-cellular compartments depend on the functioning of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins, whose cofactors are assembled through dedicated protein machineries. Recent advances have been made in the knowledge of the functions of individual components through a combination of genetic, biochemical and structural approaches, primarily in prokaryotes and non-plant eukaryotes. Whereas most of the components of these machineries are conserved between kingdoms, their complexity is likely increased in plants owing to the presence of additional assembly proteins and to the existence of expanded families for several assembly proteins. This review focuses on the new actors discovered in the past few years, such as glutaredoxin, BOLA and NEET proteins as well as MIP18, MMS19, TAH18, DRE2 for the cytosolic machinery, which are integrated into a model for the plant Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems. It also discusses a few issues currently subjected to an intense debate such as the role of the mitochondrial frataxin and of glutaredoxins, the functional separation between scaffold, carrier and iron-delivery proteins and the crosstalk existing between different organelles. PMID:23898337

  3. A synthesis of current knowledge and future directions for soil magnetism research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, Jacqueline A.; Van Dam, Remke L.; Harmon, Russell S.

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic properties of soils have adverse effects on metal detectors, particularly hampering operations during clearance of landmines and unexploded ordnance. Although there is well established research in soil magnetism and modeling electromagnetic induction systems these have tended to exist in disparate disciplines. Hence, a workshop was organized to bring together researchers, academics, stakeholders and manufacturers to discuss key priorities for research and technology in a unique multidisciplinary environment. Key knowledge gaps identified include limited information on the spatial heterogeneity of soil magnetic properties in 2D and 3D, whether current models describing soil responses are appropriate for all soils and the need for compensation mechanisms in detectors to be improved. Several priorities were identified that would maximize future developments for multidisciplinary research in soil magnetism and detector technology. These include acquiring well constrained empirical data on soil electromagnetic properties and detector response over the frequency range of detectors; development of predictive models of soil magnetic properties; investigating variability of soil magnetic properties in two and three dimensions across a range of scales. Improved communication between disciplines is key to effective targeting and realization of research priorities. Possible platforms include a multidisciplinary pilot study at an appropriate site and the development of an online repository to assist dissemination of results and information.

  4. The rings of Saturn: State of current knowledge and some suggestions for future studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    The state of our current knowledge of the properties of the ring system as a whole, and of the particles individually, is assessed. Attention is primarily devoted to recent results and possibilities for exploration of the ring system by a Saturn orbiter. In particular, the infrared and microwave properties of the ring system are discussed. The behavior of the ring brightness is not well understood in the critical transition spectral region from approximately 100 micrometers to approximately 1 cm. Also, the dynamical behavior of the ring system is discussed. Recent theoretical studies show that ongoing dynamical effects continually affect the ring structure in azimuth (possibly producing the A ring brightness asymmetry) and in the vertical direction. Orbital spacecraft-based studies of the rings will offer several unique advantages and impact important cosmogonical questions. Bistatic radar studies and millimeter-wavelength spectrometer/radiometry will give particle sizes and composition limits needed to resolve the question of the density of the rings, and provide important boundary conditions on the state of Saturn's protoplanetary nebula near the time of planetary formation.

  5. Defining Established and Emerging Microbial Risks in the Aquatic Environment: Current Knowledge, Implications, and Outlooks

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Neil J.

    2011-01-01

    This timely review primarily addresses important but presently undefined microbial risks to public health and to the natural environment. It specifically focuses on current knowledge, future outlooks and offers some potential alleviation strategies that may reduce or eliminate the risk of problematic microbes in their viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the aquatic environment. As emphasis is placed on water quality, particularly surrounding efficacy of decontamination at the wastewater treatment plant level, this review also touches upon other related emerging issues, namely, the fate and potential ecotoxicological impact of untreated antibiotics and other pharmaceutically active compounds in water. Deciphering best published data has elucidated gaps between science and policy that will help stakeholders work towards the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), which provides an ambitious legislative framework for water quality improvements within its region and seeks to restore all water bodies to “good ecological status” by 2015. Future effective risk-based assessment and management, post definition of the plethora of dynamic inter-related factors governing the occurrence, persistence and/or control of these presently undefined hazards in water will also demand exploiting and harnessing tangential advances in allied disciplines such as mathematical and computer modeling that will permit efficient data generation and transparent reporting to be undertaken by well-balanced consortia of stakeholders. PMID:20976256

  6. Transmission routes of African swine fever virus to domestic pigs: current knowledge and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Guinat, Claire; Gogin, Andrey; Blome, Sandra; Keil, Guenther; Pollin, Reiko; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Dixon, Linda

    2016-03-12

    African swine fever (ASF) is a major threat to the pig industry in Europe. Since 2007, ASF outbreaks have been ongoing in the Caucasus, Eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, causing severe economic losses for many pig farmers and pork producers. In addition, the number of ASF cases in wild boar populations has dramatically increased over the past few years. Evidence supports direct contact with infectious domestic pigs and wild boars, and consumption of contaminated feed, as the main transmission routes of ASF virus (ASFV) to domestic pigs. However, significant knowledge gaps highlight the urgent need for research to investigate the dynamics of indirect transmission via the environment, the minimal infective doses for contaminated feed ingestion, the probability of effective contacts between infectious wild boars and domestic pigs, the potential for recovered animals to become carriers and a reservoir for transmission, the potential virus persistence within wild boar populations and the influence of human behaviour for the spread of ASFV. This will provide an improved scientific basis to optimise current interventions and develop new tools and strategies to reduce the risk of ASFV transmission to domestic pigs. PMID:26966305

  7. Transmission routes of African swine fever virus to domestic pigs: current knowledge and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    Guinat, Claire; Gogin, Andrey; Blome, Sandra; Keil, Guenther; Pollin, Reiko; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Dixon, Linda

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a major threat to the pig industry in Europe. Since 2007, ASF outbreaks have been ongoing in the Caucasus, Eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, causing severe economic losses for many pig farmers and pork producers. In addition, the number of ASF cases in wild boar populations has dramatically increased over the past few years. Evidence supports direct contact with infectious domestic pigs and wild boars, and consumption of contaminated feed, as the main transmission routes of ASF virus (ASFV) to domestic pigs. However, significant knowledge gaps highlight the urgent need for research to investigate the dynamics of indirect transmission via the environment, the minimal infective doses for contaminated feed ingestion, the probability of effective contacts between infectious wild boars and domestic pigs, the potential for recovered animals to become carriers and a reservoir for transmission, the potential virus persistence within wild boar populations and the influence of human behaviour for the spread of ASFV. This will provide an improved scientific basis to optimise current interventions and develop new tools and strategies to reduce the risk of ASFV transmission to domestic pigs. PMID:26966305

  8. Transmission routes of African swine fever virus to domestic pigs: current knowledge and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Guinat, Claire; Gogin, Andrey; Blome, Sandra; Keil, Guenther; Pollin, Reiko; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Dixon, Linda

    2016-03-12

    African swine fever (ASF) is a major threat to the pig industry in Europe. Since 2007, ASF outbreaks have been ongoing in the Caucasus, Eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, causing severe economic losses for many pig farmers and pork producers. In addition, the number of ASF cases in wild boar populations has dramatically increased over the past few years. Evidence supports direct contact with infectious domestic pigs and wild boars, and consumption of contaminated feed, as the main transmission routes of ASF virus (ASFV) to domestic pigs. However, significant knowledge gaps highlight the urgent need for research to investigate the dynamics of indirect transmission via the environment, the minimal infective doses for contaminated feed ingestion, the probability of effective contacts between infectious wild boars and domestic pigs, the potential for recovered animals to become carriers and a reservoir for transmission, the potential virus persistence within wild boar populations and the influence of human behaviour for the spread of ASFV. This will provide an improved scientific basis to optimise current interventions and develop new tools and strategies to reduce the risk of ASFV transmission to domestic pigs.

  9. Fire and aquatic ecosystems of the western USA: Current knowledge and key questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bisson, P.A.; Rieman, B.; Luce, C.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Lee, D.; Kershner, J.; Reeves, G.H.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding of the effects of wildland fire and fire management on aquatic and riparian ecosystems is an evolving field, with many questions still to be resolved. Limitations of current knowledge, and the certainty that fire management will continue, underscore the need to summarize available information. Integrating fire and fuels management with aquatic ecosystem conservation begins with recognizing that terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are linked and dynamic, and that fire can play a critical role in maintaining aquatic ecological diversity. To protect aquatic ecosystems we argue that it will be important to: (1) accommodate fire-related and other ecological processes that maintain aquatic habitats and biodiversity, and not simply control fires or fuels; (2) prioritize projects according to risks and opportunities for fire control and the protection of aquatic ecosystems; and (3) develop new consistency in the management and regulatory process. Ultimately, all natural resource management is uncertain; the role of science is to apply experimental design and hypothesis testing to management applications that affect fire and aquatic ecosystems. Policy-makers and the public will benefit from an expanded appreciation of fire ecology that enables them to implement watershed management projects as experiments with hypothesized outcomes, adequate controls, and replication.

  10. Tropical forest responses to increasing [CO2]: current knowledge and opportunities for future research

    SciTech Connect

    Cernusak, Lucas; Winter, Klaus; Dalling, James; Holtum, Joseph; Jaramillo, Carlos; Korner, Christian; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Norby, Richard J; Poulter, Benjamin; Turner, Benjamin; Wright, S. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric [CO2] (ca) will undoubtedly affect the metabolism of tropical forests worldwide; however, critical aspects of how tropical forests will respond remain largely unknown. Here we review the current state of knowledge about physiological and ecological responses, with the aim of providing a framework that can help to guide future experimental research. Modelling studies have indicated that elevated ca can potentially stimulate photosynthesis more in the tropics than at higher latitudes, because suppression of photorespiration by elevated ca increases with temperature. However, canopy leaves in tropical forests could also potentially reach a high temperature threshold under elevated ca that will moderate the rise in photosynthesis. Belowground responses, including fine root production, nutrient foraging, and soil organic matter processing, will be especially important to the integrated ecosystem response to elevated CO2. Water-use efficiency will increase as ca rises, potentially impacting upon soil moisture status and nutrient availability. Recruitment may be differentially altered for some functional groups, potentially decreasing ecosystem carbon storage. Whole-forest CO2 enrichment experiments are urgently needed to test predictions of tropical forest functioning under elevated ca. Smaller scale experiments in the understory and in gaps would also be informative, and could provide stepping stones toward stand-scale manipulations.

  11. Cannabinoid-related agents in the treatment of anxiety disorders: current knowledge and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tambaro, Simone; Bortolato, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Rich evidence has shown that cannabis products exert a broad gamut of effects on emotional regulation. The main psychoactive ingredient of hemp, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and its synthetic cannabinoid analogs have been reported to either attenuate or exacerbate anxiety and fear-related behaviors in humans and experimental animals. The heterogeneity of cannabis-induced psychological outcomes reflects a complex network of molecular interactions between the key neurobiological substrates of anxiety and fear and the endogenous cannabinoid system, mainly consisting of the arachidonic acid derivatives anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and two receptors, respectively termed CB1 and CB2. The high degree of interindividual variability in the responses to cannabis is contributed by a wide spectrum of factors, including genetic and environmental determinants, as well as differences in the relative concentrations of THC and other alkaloids (such as cannabidiol) within the plant itself. The present article reviews the currently available knowledge on the herbal, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids with respect to the modulation of anxiety responses, and highlights the challenges that should be overcome to harness the therapeutic potential of some of these compounds, all the while limiting the side effects associated with cannabis consumption. PMID:22280339

  12. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia. PMID:26790893

  13. Public Knowledge, Perception and Source of Information on Ebola Virus Disease – Lagos, Nigeria; September, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Gidado, Saheed; Oladimeji, Abisola M.; Roberts, Alero Ann; Nguku, Patrick; Nwangwu, Iruoma Genevieve; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Shuaib, Faisal; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Musa, Emmanuel; Nzuki, Charles; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Adewuyi, Peter; Daniel, Tom-Aba; Olayinka, Adebola; Odubanjo, Oladoyin; Poggensee, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background: The first ever outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Nigeria was declared in July, 2014. Level of public knowledge, perception and adequacy of information on EVD were unknown. We assessed the public preparedness level to adopt disease preventive behavior which is premised on appropriate knowledge, perception and adequate information. Methods: We enrolled 5,322 respondents in a community-based cross-sectional study. We used interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, EVD–related knowledge, perception and source of information. We performed univariate and bivariate data analysis using Epi-Info software setting p-value of 0.05 as cut-off for statistical significance. Results: Mean age of respondents was 34 years (± 11.4 years), 52.3% were males. Forty one percent possessed satisfactory general knowledge; 44% and 43.1% possessed satisfactory knowledge on mode of spread and preventive measures, respectively. Residing in EVD cases districts, male respondents and possessing at least secondary education were positively associated with satisfactory general knowledge (p-value: 0.01, 0.001 and 0.000004, respectively). Seventy one percent perceived EVD as a public health problem while 61% believed they cannot contract the disease. Sixty two percent and 64% of respondents will not shake hands and hug a successfully treated EVD patient respectively. Only 2.2% of respondents practice good hand-washing practice. Television (68.8%) and radio (55.0%) are the most common sources of information on EVD. Conclusions: Gaps in EVD-related knowledge and perception exist. Targeted public health messages to raise knowledge level, correct misconception and discourage stigmatization should be widely disseminated, with television and radio as media of choice. PMID:25914860

  14. Contributions of pediatrics and pediatric pathology to the body of knowledge regarding human disease.

    PubMed

    Nezelof, Christian; Seemayer, Thomas A; Bridge, Julia A

    2010-03-01

    A century or so ago, pediatrics and pediatric pathology did not exist. Then, many fetuses/newborns died in utero or shortly after birth. With time, the issue of sepsis was addressed, and a greater number of newborns survived. Gradually, in this soil, the disciplines of pediatrics and pediatric nursing arose, as some recognized that infants were not merely small adults but were, in fact, quite different. Years later, pediatric pathology developed as a field of exploration. Today, pediatric pathology is a specialty, as witnessed by training programs, societies devoted to research and education, an expanding number of textbooks and innovative research. Pediatric pathology is distinct from adult pathology, as seen by the diversity of malformations and metabolic diseases stemming from mutations, the immaturity of the newborn's immune system, and the types of neoplasms germane to infants and children. Much of the progress in these areas was facilitated by the simultaneous emergence of cytogenetics and molecular biology and their powerful tools of investigation. The latter were applied in a synergistic fashion to a major extent in maternity clinics and children's hospitals by, among others, molecular biologists, clinical geneticists, cytogeneticists, pediatricians, and pediatric pathologists. This article describes a select but small number of the many contributions of pediatrics and pediatric pathology to the current body of medical knowledge.

  15. Heat waves and morbidity: current knowledge and further direction-a comprehensive literature review.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengmeng; Gu, Shaohua; Bi, Peng; Yang, Jun; Liu, Qiyong

    2015-05-18

    In the past few decades, several devastating heat wave events have significantly challenged public health. As these events are projected to increase in both severity and frequency in the future, it is important to assess the relationship between heat waves and the health indicators that can be used in the early warning systems to guide the public health response. Yet there is a knowledge gap in the impact of heat waves on morbidity. In this study, a comprehensive review was conducted to assess the relationship between heat waves and different morbidity indicators, and to identify the vulnerable populations. The PubMed and ScienceDirect database were used to retrieve published literature in English from 1985 to 2014 on the relationship between heat waves and morbidity, and the following MeSH terms and keywords were used: heat wave, heat wave, morbidity, hospital admission, hospitalization, emergency call, emergency medical services, and outpatient visit. Thirty-three studies were included in the final analysis. Most studies found a short-term negative health impact of heat waves on morbidity. The elderly, children, and males were more vulnerable during heat waves, and the medical care demand increased for those with existing chronic diseases. Some social factors, such as lower socioeconomic status, can contribute to heat-susceptibility. In terms of study methods and heat wave definitions, there remain inconsistencies and uncertainties. Relevant policies and guidelines need to be developed to protect vulnerable populations. Morbidity indicators should be adopted in heat wave early warning systems in order to guide the effective implementation of public health actions.

  16. Heat Waves and Morbidity: Current Knowledge and Further Direction-A Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengmeng; Gu, Shaohua; Bi, Peng; Yang, Jun; Liu, Qiyong

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, several devastating heat wave events have significantly challenged public health. As these events are projected to increase in both severity and frequency in the future, it is important to assess the relationship between heat waves and the health indicators that can be used in the early warning systems to guide the public health response. Yet there is a knowledge gap in the impact of heat waves on morbidity. In this study, a comprehensive review was conducted to assess the relationship between heat waves and different morbidity indicators, and to identify the vulnerable populations. The PubMed and ScienceDirect database were used to retrieve published literature in English from 1985 to 2014 on the relationship between heat waves and morbidity, and the following MeSH terms and keywords were used: heat wave, heat wave, morbidity, hospital admission, hospitalization, emergency call, emergency medical services, and outpatient visit. Thirty-three studies were included in the final analysis. Most studies found a short-term negative health impact of heat waves on morbidity. The elderly, children, and males were more vulnerable during heat waves, and the medical care demand increased for those with existing chronic diseases. Some social factors, such as lower socioeconomic status, can contribute to heat-susceptibility. In terms of study methods and heat wave definitions, there remain inconsistencies and uncertainties. Relevant policies and guidelines need to be developed to protect vulnerable populations. Morbidity indicators should be adopted in heat wave early warning systems in order to guide the effective implementation of public health actions. PMID:25993103

  17. Current insights into animal models of Graves' disease and orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Wiesweg, B; Johnson, K T M; Eckstein, A K; Berchner-Pfannschmidt, U

    2013-08-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is a systemic autoimmune disease that is characterized by hyperthyroidism, orbitopathy and in rare cases dermopathy. Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is an inflammatory disease of eye and orbit which occurs in about 30-60% of patients. Hyperthyroidism occurs due to the presence of stimulating TSHR-autoantibodies (TRAbs) leading to increased serum levels of thyroid hormones. Attempts to induce Graves' disease in mice by immunization against the hTSHR or its variants have resulted in production of TRAbs that stimulate thyroid follicular cells to increase thyroid hormone secretion. Graves' like orbital changes, such as inflammation, adipogenesis and muscle fibrosis are more difficult to induce. In this review we summarize different methods used to induce murine Graves'-like disease and their impact on murine orbits.

  18. Impaired Semantic Knowledge Underlies the Reduced Verbal Short-Term Storage Capacity in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve; De Baerdemaeker, Julie; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor…

  19. Coronary Heart Disease Knowledge and Risk Factors among Tri-Ethnic College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutoubi, Samer; Huffman, Fatma G.; Ciccazzo, Michele W.; Himburg, Susan P.; Johnson, Paulette

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and Europe. This study identified and compared nutritional knowledge associated with CHD risk factors among tri-ethnic college students. Design: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study using questionnaires. Setting: University laboratory.…

  20. Knowledge and attitudes to personal genomics testing for complex diseases among Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The study examined the knowledge and attitudes to personal genomics testing for complex diseases among Nigerians and identified how the knowledge and attitudes vary with gender, age, religion, education and related factors. Methods Data were collected using qualitative method in 2 districts of the Federal Capital Territory. In the study, eight (8) Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) and twenty seven (27) Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. Participants for the research were recruited among healthy Nigerians, individuals with complex diseases, health care professionals, community leaders and health policy makers. Result Analysis of the result showed that most respondents in both FGDs and KIIs had limited knowledge about genomics test initially. Their understanding of the test however improved after explanation on its concept. Participants showed positive attitude towards genomics tests. Nevertheless they expressed fear over direct to consumer personal genomics testing, testing unborn babies and disclosure of results to third parties. Culture and religion were found to influence the perspectives of respondents on genomics test particularly those aspects that could either directly contradict their beliefs and practices or lead to actions which contradict them. Conclusion In conclusion, most Nigerians interviewed had limited knowledge of genomics test but with supportive attitude towards its use in predicting future risk of complex diseases after understanding the test concept. Genomics testing for complex diseases was not a common practice in Nigeria. PMID:24766930

  1. Soy Protein and Coronary Heart Disease: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Theresa A.; Bakhiet, Raga M.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed how knowledge of soy protein and its relationship to heart disease influences the attitudes and practices of college students. Results showed that family members, schools, and newspapers were the primary sources of students' nutritional information. One fourth of the participating students answered at least four nutrition…

  2. [Kawasaki's disease, current concepts of coronary revascularization surgery in the pediatric poblation].

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Salazar, Jorge Luis; Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; García-Montes, José A; Patiño Bahena, Emilia J; González Pacheco, Héctor; Soule Egea, Mauricio; Ramírez-Marroquín, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Kawasaki's disease is by now the first cause of pediatric acquired cardiopathies in many countries, even more than rheumatic fever. Probably the most common complication of this disease is coronary affection, which often causes stenosis. Treatment of the acute and chronic coronary events in children is based on the knowledge acquired from the disease in adults. The increasing experience in pediatric patients with this pathology has led to better ways of handling and treating this disease.

  3. Genetic considerations for mollusk production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Astorga, Marcela P.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first). Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops, and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources. PMID:25540651

  4. How rare bone diseases have informed our knowledge of complex diseases.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Rare bone diseases, generally defined as monogenic traits with either autosomal recessive or dominant patterns of inheritance, have provided a rich database of genes and associated pathways over the past 2-3 decades. The molecular genetic dissection of these bone diseases has yielded some major surprises in terms of the causal genes and/or involved pathways. The discovery of genes/pathways involved in diseases such as osteopetrosis, osteosclerosis, osteogenesis imperfecta and many other rare bone diseases have all accelerated our understanding of complex traits. Importantly these discoveries have provided either direct validation for a specific gene embedded in a group of genes within an interval identified through a complex trait genome-wide association study (GWAS) or based upon the pathway associated with a monogenic trait gene, provided a means to prioritize a large number of genes for functional validation studies. In some instances GWAS studies have yielded candidate genes that fall within linkage intervals associated with monogenic traits and resulted in the identification of causal mutations in those rare diseases. Driving all of this discovery is a complement of technologies such as genome sequencing, bioinformatics and advanced statistical analysis methods that have accelerated genetic dissection and greatly reduced the cost. Thus, rare bone disorders in partnership with GWAS have brought us to the brink of a new era of personalized genomic medicine in which the prevention and management of complex diseases will be driven by the molecular understanding of each individuals contributing genetic risks for disease. PMID:27688878

  5. How rare bone diseases have informed our knowledge of complex diseases.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Rare bone diseases, generally defined as monogenic traits with either autosomal recessive or dominant patterns of inheritance, have provided a rich database of genes and associated pathways over the past 2-3 decades. The molecular genetic dissection of these bone diseases has yielded some major surprises in terms of the causal genes and/or involved pathways. The discovery of genes/pathways involved in diseases such as osteopetrosis, osteosclerosis, osteogenesis imperfecta and many other rare bone diseases have all accelerated our understanding of complex traits. Importantly these discoveries have provided either direct validation for a specific gene embedded in a group of genes within an interval identified through a complex trait genome-wide association study (GWAS) or based upon the pathway associated with a monogenic trait gene, provided a means to prioritize a large number of genes for functional validation studies. In some instances GWAS studies have yielded candidate genes that fall within linkage intervals associated with monogenic traits and resulted in the identification of causal mutations in those rare diseases. Driving all of this discovery is a complement of technologies such as genome sequencing, bioinformatics and advanced statistical analysis methods that have accelerated genetic dissection and greatly reduced the cost. Thus, rare bone disorders in partnership with GWAS have brought us to the brink of a new era of personalized genomic medicine in which the prevention and management of complex diseases will be driven by the molecular understanding of each individuals contributing genetic risks for disease.

  6. Current Status of Therapy in Autoimmune Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harthi, Nadya; Heathcote, E. Jenny

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies for autoimmune liver diseases are increasingly established. Although proportionately uncommon, specialist centers have with time refined the best approaches for each disease, based on an improved understanding of the spectrum of presentation. The major treatment aims are to prevent end-stage liver disease and its associated complications. As a result of drugs such as ursodeoxycholic acid, predniso(lo)ne and azathioprine, both primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune hepatitis are now less commonly indications for liver transplantation. Unfortunately, the same inroads in treatment efficacy have as yet not been made for primary sclerosing cholangitis, although the recognition that a subset of patients may have a treatable secondary sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4 related) is helping a proportion. With better biological understanding, more specific interventions are expected that will benefit all those with autoimmune liver diseases. PMID:21180531

  7. Current Status of Herbal Medicines in Chronic Liver Disease Therapy: The Biological Effects, Molecular Targets and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ming; Li, Sha; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Feng, Yibin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver dysfunction or injury is a serious health problem worldwide. Chronic liver disease involves a wide range of liver pathologies that include fatty liver, hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The efficiency of current synthetic agents in treating chronic liver disease is not satisfactory and they have undesirable side effects. Thereby, numerous medicinal herbs and phytochemicals have been investigated as complementary and alternative treatments for chronic liver diseases. Since some herbal products have already been used for the management of liver diseases in some countries or regions, a systematic review on these herbal medicines for chronic liver disease is urgently needed. Herein, we conducted a review describing the potential role, pharmacological studies and molecular mechanisms of several commonly used medicinal herbs and phytochemicals for chronic liver diseases treatment. Their potential toxicity and side effects were also discussed. Several herbal formulae and their biological effects in chronic liver disease treatment as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms are also summarized in this paper. This review article is a comprehensive and systematic analysis of our current knowledge of the conventional medicinal herbs and phytochemicals in treating chronic liver diseases and on the potential pitfalls which need to be addressed in future study. PMID:26633388

  8. Mirizzi syndrome: History, current knowledge and proposal of a simplified classification

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Marcelo A

    2012-01-01

    Chronic complications of symptomatic gallstone disease, such as Mirizzi syndrome, are rare in Western developed countries with an incidence of less than 1% a year. The importance and implications of this condition are related to their associated and potentially serious surgical complications such as bile duct injury, and to its modern management when encountered during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The pathophysiological process leading to the subtypes of Mirizzi syndrome has been explained by means of a pressure ulcer caused by an impacted gallstone at the gallbladder infundibulum, leading to an inflammatory response causing first external obstruction of the bile duct, and eventually eroding into the bile duct and evolving to a cholecystocholedochal or cholecystohepatic fistula. This article reviews the life of Pablo Luis Mirizzi, describes the earlier and later descriptions of Mirizzi syndrome, discusses the pathophysiological process leading to the development of these uncommon fistulas, reviews the current diagnostic modalities and surgical approaches and finally proposes a simplified classification for Mirizzi syndrome intended to standardize the reports on this condition and to eventually develop a consensual surgical approach to this unexpected and seriously dangerous condition. PMID:23002333

  9. Adjuvants and immunostimulants in fish vaccines: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tafalla, Carolina; Bøgwald, Jarl; Dalmo, Roy A

    2013-12-01

    Vaccination is the most adequate method to control infectious diseases that threaten the aquaculture industry worldwide. Unfortunately, vaccines are usually not able to confer protection on their own; especially those vaccines based on recombinant antigens or inactivated pathogens. Therefore, the use of adjuvants or immunostimulants is often necessary to increase the vaccine efficacy. Traditional adjuvants such as mineral oils are routinely used in different commercial bacterial vaccines available for fish; however, important side effects may occur with this type of adjuvants. A search for alternative molecules or certain combinations of them as adjuvants is desirable in order to increase animal welfare without reducing protection levels. Especially, combinations that may target specific cell responses and thus a specific pathogen, with no or minor side effects, should be explored. Despite this, the oil adjuvants currently used are quite friendlier with respect to side effects compared with the oil adjuvants previously used. The great lack of fish antiviral vaccines also evidences the importance of identifying optimal combinations of a vaccination strategy with the use of a targeting adjuvant, especially for the promising fish antiviral DNA vaccines. In this review, we summarise previous studies performed with both traditional adjuvants as well as the most promising new generation adjuvants such as ligands for Toll receptors or different cytokines, focussing mostly on their protective efficacies, and also on what is known concerning their effects on the fish immune system when delivered in vivo.

  10. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roger E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Literature search Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and reference lists of retrieved articles. Methods All abstracts and titles were independently read by two reviewers and data independently entered by two reviewers. Results All serious adverse events that met the Brighton Classification criteria were associated with first YF vaccinations. Sixty-two published cases (35 died) met the Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic criteria, with 32 from the US, six from Brazil, five from Peru, three from Spain, two from the People’s Republic of China, one each from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Ecuador, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the UK, and four with no country stated. Two cases met both the viscerotropic and YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease criteria. Seventy cases proposed by authors as viscerotropic disease did not meet any Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic level of diagnostic certainty or any YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease causality criteria (37 died). Conclusion Viscerotropic disease is rare in the published literature and in pharmacovigilance databases. All published cases were from developing countries. Because the symptoms are usually very severe and life threatening, it is unlikely that cases would not come to medical attention (but might not be published). Because viscerotropic disease has a highly predictable pathologic course, it is likely that viscerotropic disease post-YF vaccine occurs in low-income countries with the same incidence as in developing countries. YF vaccine is a very safe vaccine that likely confers lifelong immunity. PMID:27784992

  11. Knowledge of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors among a Community Sample in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Ammouri, Ali A.; Tailakh, Ayman; Isac, Chandrani; Kamanyire, Joy K.; Muliira, Joshua; Balachandran, Shreedevi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of Omani adults regarding conventional coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and to identify demographic variables associated with these knowledge levels. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional pilot study was carried out among a convenience sample of 130 adults attending a health awareness fair held in a local shopping mall in Muscat, Oman, in November 2012. A modified version of the Heart Disease Facts Questionnaire in both English and Arabic was used to assess knowledge of CHD risk factors. Scores were calculated by summing the correct answers for each item (range: 0–21). Inadequate knowledge was indicated by a mean score of <70%. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to establish the participants’ knowledge levels and identify associated demographic variables. Results: A total of 114 subjects participated in the study (response rate: 87.7%). Of these, 69 participants (60.5%) had inadequate mean CHD knowledge scores. Knowledge of CHD risk factors was significantly associated with body mass index (odds ratio [OR] = 0.739; P = 0.023), marital status (OR = 0.057; P = 0.036) and education level (OR = 9.243; P = 0.006). Conclusion: Low knowledge levels of CHD risk factors were observed among the studied community sample in Oman; this is likely to limit the participants’ ability to engage in preventative practices. These findings support the need for education programmes to enhance awareness of risk factors and prevention of CHD in Oman. PMID:27226910

  12. Developing socio-spatial knowledge networks: a qualitative methodology for chronic disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Cravey, A J; Washburn, S A; Gesler, W M; Arcury, T A; Skelly, A H

    2001-06-01

    Chronic disease is a significant and costly social problem. The burden is even more pronounced in communities with high rates of a particular chronic disease. Assessment of health belief systems and the local geographies of health beliefs can assist community health planners to create cost-effective strategic intervention programs where populations are at high risk for chronic diseases. In this paper, we elaborate the concept of socio-spatial knowledge networks (SSKNs) and demonstrate that SSKNs can be useful in informing the design of health care prevention strategies. In our project, we demonstrate how to identify key socio-spatial information for intervention strategies which will prevent or delay the onset of a particular chronic disease, Type 2 diabetes. Our qualitative framework allows us to determine which sites might be best characterized as socio-spatial knowledge network nodes for sharing diabetes information and which sites might be less suited to such exchange. Our strategy explores cross-cultural similarities, differences, and overlap in a multi-ethnic rural North Carolina context through simple techniques such as mapping social networks and sites in which people share their knowledge and beliefs about diabetes. This geographical analysis allows us to examine exactly where health knowledge coincides with other social support, and where such resources may be improved in a particular community. Knowing precisely what people in a community understand about a chronic disease and its treatment or prevention and knowing where people go to share that information helps to (1) identify strategic locations within a community for future interventions and, (2) evaluate the effectiveness of existing interventions. The geographical approach presented here is one that can serve other communities and health practitioners who hope to improve chronic disease management in diverse local environments.

  13. Relationship between chronic kidney disease and metabolic syndrome: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Nashar, Khaled; Egan, Brent M

    2014-01-01

    Both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are increasing in incidence and lead to significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The relationship between these two entities is complex. Individual components of the MetS are known risk factors for incident kidney disease, but it is not clear how the clustering of these components is linked to the development and progression of kidney disease. Cross-sectional studies show an association of the MetS and prevalent CKD; however, one cannot draw conclusions as to which came first – the MetS or the kidney disease. Observational studies suggest a relationship between MetS and incident CKD, but they also demonstrate the development of MetS in patients with established CKD. These observations suggest a bidirectional relationship. A better understanding of the relationship between components of the MetS and whether and how these components contribute to progression of CKD and incident cardiovascular disease could inform more effective prevention strategies. PMID:25258547

  14. A Semiautomated Framework for Integrating Expert Knowledge into Disease Marker Identification

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Jing; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Brown, Joseph N.; Riensche, Roderick M.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Hoidal, John R.; Scholand, Mary Beth; et al

    2013-01-01

    Background . The availability of large complex data sets generated by high throughput technologies has enabled the recent proliferation of disease biomarker studies. However, a recurring problem in deriving biological information from large data sets is how to best incorporate expert knowledge into the biomarker selection process. Objective . To develop a generalizable framework that can incorporate expert knowledge into data-driven processes in a semiautomated way while providing a metric for optimization in a biomarker selection scheme. Methods . The framework was implemented as a pipeline consisting of five components for the identification of signatures from integrated clustering (ISIC).more » Expert knowledge was integrated into the biomarker identification process using the combination of two distinct approaches; a distance-based clustering approach and an expert knowledge-driven functional selection. Results . The utility of the developed framework ISIC was demonstrated on proteomics data from a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Biomarker candidates were identified in a mouse model using ISIC and validated in a study of a human cohort. Conclusions . Expert knowledge can be introduced into a biomarker discovery process in different ways to enhance the robustness of selected marker candidates. Developing strategies for extracting orthogonal and robust features from large data sets increases the chances of success in biomarker identification.« less

  15. A Semiautomated Framework for Integrating Expert Knowledge into Disease Marker Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Brown, Joseph N.; Riensche, Roderick M.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Hoidal, John R.; Scholand, Mary Beth; Pounds, Joel G.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Rodland, Karin D.; McDermott, Jason E.

    2013-10-01

    Background. The availability of large complex data sets generated by high throughput technologies has enabled the recent proliferation of disease biomarker studies. However, a recurring problem in deriving biological information from large data sets is how to best incorporate expert knowledge into the biomarker selection process. Objective. To develop a generalizable framework that can incorporate expert knowledge into data-driven processes in a semiautomated way while providing a metric for optimization in a biomarker selection scheme. Methods. The framework was implemented as a pipeline consisting of five components for the identification of signatures from integrated clustering (ISIC). Expert knowledge was integrated into the biomarker identification process using the combination of two distinct approaches; a distance-based clustering approach and an expert knowledge-driven functional selection. Results. The utility of the developed framework ISIC was demonstrated on proteomics data from a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Biomarker candidates were identified in a mouse model using ISIC and validated in a study of a human cohort. Conclusions. Expert knowledge can be introduced into a biomarker discovery process in different ways to enhance the robustness of selected marker candidates. Developing strategies for extracting orthogonal and robust features from large data sets increases the chances of success in biomarker identification.

  16. Can Children Enhance Their Family's Health Knowledge? An Infectious Disease Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Iraj; Nouri, Shahla; Sadrosadat, Taravat; Nemati, Reza; Shahbazi, Mojgan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to propose an innovative method of knowledge transfer that aims to improve health literacy about pediatric infectious diseases prevention in families. Children have an appreciable role in this scheme. Methods This study is a before and after trial that has been conducted in Hamedan in 2009. After changing seven infectious disease topics into childish poems, we selected five kindergartens randomly and taught these poetries to the children. Teaching process held after a pretest containing 24 questions that examined 103 of parents about mentioned topics. The same post-test was given after 4 months of teaching process. Findings The mean of correct answers to the pretest was 59.22% comparable with 81.00% for post-test (P<0.00). Gender and knowledge degree could not change the results significantly. Assuming one's correct answers to the questions as his/her Knowledge Mark, the mean of this variable increased to 5.32 by this method. Conclusion This cost-effective and joyful method had successful results in promoting health knowledge. Children are able to play an active role in family's health situation. Learning within family atmosphere without any obligations makes our scheme a solution for paving the knowledge transferring way. PMID:23430134

  17. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato genotypes infecting humans--review of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Romig, Thomas; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2014-01-01

    the G5, G8 and G10 genotypes. No cases of human infection with G4 have been described. Biological differences between the species and genotypes have potential to affect the transmission dynamics of the parasite, requiring modification of methods used in disease control initiatives. Recent investigations have revealed that the protective vaccine antigen (EG95), developed for the G1 genotype, is immunologically different in the G6 genotype. Further research will be required to determine whether the current EG95 vaccine would be effective against the G6 or G7 genotypes, or whether it will be necessary, and possible, to develop genotype-specific vaccines.

  18. Current management of intestinal bowel disease: the role of surgery.

    PubMed

    Solina, Gaspare; Mandalà, Stefano; La Barbera, Camillo; Mandalà, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic affection, in which the two main phenotypical components are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In both diseases, medical treatment has the main role; in some phases of the natural history of IBD, surgery becomes an important therapeutic tool. The IBD represents a model of multidisciplinary management. Timing represents the key issue for proper management of IBD patients. For acute and severe IBD, the surgery can be a salvage procedure. Today, the laparoscopic approach plays an important role in armamentarium of the surgeon. Several articles compared the short- and long-term results between laparoscopic and open approaches in IBD. The aim of this review is to focus the role of surgery in IBD as well as the role of laparoscopic approach, and principally, the "state of the art" for surgical treatment, sometimes very challenging for surgeon, in all clinical features of IBD by a review of literature highlighted by the most recent international guidelines.

  19. Current perspectives on ophthalmic manifestations of childhood rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Palejwala, Neal V; Yeh, Steven; Angeles-Han, Sheila T

    2013-07-01

    Inflammatory eye diseases are an important manifestation of many pediatric rheumatologic conditions. Early screening and diagnosis are imperative as these illnesses can not only result in significant visual morbidity but are also an indicator of systemic inflammation. Time to presentation of ocular inflammation varies significantly and can range from many years prior to the onset of systemic symptoms to well after the diagnosis of the rheumatologic disorder. Due to this variability in presentation, careful monitoring by an ophthalmologist is vital to preventing ocular complications and preserving vision. Both local and systemic immunosuppressive medications have been effective in the management of ocular disease. In this review, we will focus on the known ophthalmologic manifestations of common pediatric rheumatologic diseases and discuss recent advances in therapeutic considerations for these conditions. PMID:23686303

  20. [Current protocols for diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, A

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the guidelines for the treatment of individuals with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) that were developed by the STD Study Group "GIRVE" of the Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Venereologia (Italian Society of Dermatology and Venerology) in accordance with those developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1998. The guidelines represent a useful tool for physicians and other health-care providers in preventing and controlling STDs. The guidelines include new recommendations for treating genital herpes and genital warts.

  1. Current stage in inflammatory bowel disease: What is next?

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Gómez, Gonzalo Jesús; Masedo, Ángeles; Yela, Carmen; Martínez-Montiel, Maria del Pilar; Casís, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been on the rise, extending to countries where it was infrequent in the past. As a result, the gap between high and low incidence countries is decreasing. The disease, therefore, has an important economic impact on the healthcare system. Advances in recent years in pharmacogenetics and clinical pharmacology have allowed for the development of treatment strategies adjusted to the patient profile. Concurrently, new drugs aimed at inflammatory targets have been developed that may expand future treatment options. This review examines advances in the optimization of existing drug treatments and the development of novel treatment options for IBD. PMID:26525013

  2. Current Drug Managements of Wilson's Disease: From West to East.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Jie; Chen, Chen; You, Zhi-Fei; Yang, Ren-Min; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD), also called hepatolenticular degeneration, is an autosomal recessive inheritance disorder of copper metabolism characterized by the multiple mutations in the ATP-ase 7B gene of chromosome 13q. About half of the WD patients have neurological or psychiatric symptoms. As WD is a kind of medicable or nearly curable neurodegenerative disease in the field of medicine, early consideration/examination and without delay/ life-long treatment usually lead to better prognoses. The drugs, also named as anticopper agents, are commonly used in clinics including D-penicillamine, trientine, sodium dimercaptosuccinate, dimercaptosuccinic acid, zinc and tetrathiomolybdate. This provides detailed reviews about these medicines.

  3. Current Drug Managements of Wilson's Disease: From West to East.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Jie; Chen, Chen; You, Zhi-Fei; Yang, Ren-Min; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD), also called hepatolenticular degeneration, is an autosomal recessive inheritance disorder of copper metabolism characterized by the multiple mutations in the ATP-ase 7B gene of chromosome 13q. About half of the WD patients have neurological or psychiatric symptoms. As WD is a kind of medicable or nearly curable neurodegenerative disease in the field of medicine, early consideration/examination and without delay/ life-long treatment usually lead to better prognoses. The drugs, also named as anticopper agents, are commonly used in clinics including D-penicillamine, trientine, sodium dimercaptosuccinate, dimercaptosuccinic acid, zinc and tetrathiomolybdate. This provides detailed reviews about these medicines. PMID:26639459

  4. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K.; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge of bacteria, halophilic archaea, fungi and algae mediated degradation/transformation of PAHs. In addition, factors affecting PAHs degradation in the environment, recent advancement in genetic, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques are also highlighted with an aim to facilitate the development of a new insight into the bioremediation of PAH in the environment. PMID:27630626

  5. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K.; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge of bacteria, halophilic archaea, fungi and algae mediated degradation/transformation of PAHs. In addition, factors affecting PAHs degradation in the environment, recent advancement in genetic, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques are also highlighted with an aim to facilitate the development of a new insight into the bioremediation of PAH in the environment.

  6. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge of bacteria, halophilic archaea, fungi and algae mediated degradation/transformation of PAHs. In addition, factors affecting PAHs degradation in the environment, recent advancement in genetic, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques are also highlighted with an aim to facilitate the development of a new insight into the bioremediation of PAH in the environment.

  7. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge of bacteria, halophilic archaea, fungi and algae mediated degradation/transformation of PAHs. In addition, factors affecting PAHs degradation in the environment, recent advancement in genetic, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques are also highlighted with an aim to facilitate the development of a new insight into the bioremediation of PAH in the environment. PMID:27630626

  8. Current issues in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease-associated arthropathies.

    PubMed

    Cardile, Sabrina; Romano, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Joint involvement is the most common extraintestinal manifestation in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and may involve 16%-33% of patients at diagnosis or during follow-up. It is possible to distinguish asymmetrical, transitory and migrating arthritis (pauciarticular and polyarticular) and spondyloarthropathy (SpA). Clinical manifestations can be variable, and peripheral arthritis often occurs before gastrointestinal symptoms develop. The inflammatory intestinal pattern is variable, ranging from sub-clinical inflammation conditions, classified as indeterminate colitis and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the ileum, to Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Unlike the axial form, there is an association between gut inflammation and evolution of recurrent peripheral articular disease that coincides with a flare-up of intestinal disease. This finding seems to confirm a key role of intestinal inflammation in the pathogenesis of SpA. An association between genetic background and human leukocyte antigen-B27 status is less common in pediatric than n adult populations. Seronegative sacroiliitis and SpA are the most frequent forms of arthropathy in children with IBD. In pediatric patients, a correct therapeutic approach relies on the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, local steroid injections, physiotherapy and anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy (infliximab). Early diagnosis of these manifestations reduces the risk of progression and complications, and as well as increasing the efficacy of the therapy. PMID:24415857

  9. Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

  10. Currently Clinical Views on Genetics of Wilson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Shen, Bo; Xiao, Jia-Jia; Wu, Rong; Canning, Sarah Jane Duff; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to review the research on clinical genetics of Wilson's disease (WD). Data Sources: We searched documents from PubMed and Wanfang databases both in English and Chinese up to 2014 using the keywords WD in combination with genetic, ATP7B gene, gene mutation, genotype, phenotype. Study Selection: Publications about the ATP7B gene and protein function associated with clinical features were selected. Results: Wilson's disease, also named hepatolenticular degeneration, is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by abnormal copper metabolism caused by mutations to the copper-transporting gene ATP7B. Decreased biliary copper excretion and reduced incorporation of copper into apoceruloplasmin caused by defunctionalization of ATP7B protein lead to accumulation of copper in many tissues and organs, including liver, brain, and cornea, finally resulting in liver disease and extrapyramidal symptoms. It is the most common genetic neurological disorder in the onset of adolescents, second to muscular dystrophy in China. Early diagnosis and medical therapy are of great significance for improving the prognosis of WD patients. However, diagnosis of this disease is usually difficult because of its complicated phenotypes. In the last 10 years, an increasing number of clinical studies have used molecular genetics techniques. Improved diagnosis and prediction of the progression of this disease at the molecular level will aid in the development of more individualized and effective interventions, which is a key to transition from molecular genetic research to the clinical study. Conclusions: Clinical genetics studies are necessary to understand the mechanism underlying WD at the molecular level from the genotype to the phenotype. Clinical genetics research benefits newly emerging medical treatments including stem cell transplantation and gene therapy for WD patients. PMID:26112727

  11. Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

  12. Investigating Relationships among Pre-Service Science Teachers' Conceptual Knowledge of Electric Current, Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inaltun, Hüseyin; Ates, Salih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine relationships among pre-service science teachers' conceptual knowledge of electric current, motivational beliefs, and self-regulation. One hundred and twenty-seven students (female = 107, male = 20) enrolled in the science education program of a public university in Ankara participated the study. A concept…

  13. Layer Charge of Clay Minerals; Selected papers from the Symposium on Current Knowledge on the Layer Charge of Clay Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This Special issue contains papers based on the contributions presented during the workshop “Current Knowledge on the Layer Charge of Clay Minerals”, held on September 18 and 19, 2004, in the Smolenice Castle, Slovakia. Layer charge is one of the most important characteristics of clay minerals as it...

  14. A review on current knowledge and future prospects of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in Asian birds.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Frantz, Adrien; Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard

    2016-01-15

    The release of harmful chemicals in the Asian environment has recently increased dramatically due to rising industrial and agricultural activities. About 60% of the global human population is currently living on the Asian continent and may thus be exposed to a large range of different chemicals. Different classes of organohalogen chemicals have indeed been reported in various environmental compartments from Asia including humans and wildlife, but this issue has received less attention in birds. In this article, we reviewed the available literature on levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and various flame retardants (FRs) in Asian avifauna to analyze the existing pool of knowledge as well as to identify the gaps that should be addressed in future research. Furthermore, we discussed the variation in levels of organohalogens based on differences in regions, trophic level, dietary sources and migratory behaviors of species including distribution patterns in different tissues of birds. Although the mass of published literature is very low and even absent in many important regions of Asia, we deduced from the reported studies that levels of almost all classes of organohalogens (OHCs) including FRs were highest in East Asian countries such as Japan, China and South Korea, except for HCHs that were found at maximum levels in birds of South India. Concentrations (ng/g LW) of different OHCs in Asian birds ranged between

  15. A review on current knowledge and future prospects of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in Asian birds.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Frantz, Adrien; Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard

    2016-01-15

    The release of harmful chemicals in the Asian environment has recently increased dramatically due to rising industrial and agricultural activities. About 60% of the global human population is currently living on the Asian continent and may thus be exposed to a large range of different chemicals. Different classes of organohalogen chemicals have indeed been reported in various environmental compartments from Asia including humans and wildlife, but this issue has received less attention in birds. In this article, we reviewed the available literature on levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and various flame retardants (FRs) in Asian avifauna to analyze the existing pool of knowledge as well as to identify the gaps that should be addressed in future research. Furthermore, we discussed the variation in levels of organohalogens based on differences in regions, trophic level, dietary sources and migratory behaviors of species including distribution patterns in different tissues of birds. Although the mass of published literature is very low and even absent in many important regions of Asia, we deduced from the reported studies that levels of almost all classes of organohalogens (OHCs) including FRs were highest in East Asian countries such as Japan, China and South Korea, except for HCHs that were found at maximum levels in birds of South India. Concentrations (ng/g LW) of different OHCs in Asian birds ranged between

  16. Towards the intergrated management of apple replant disease using knowledge on disease etiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young apple orchards that are cultivated on old apple soils often suffer from apple replant disease (ARD). ARD symptom expression is characterized by tree stunting, shortened internodes and discoloured roots, which appears throughout the orchard shortly after orchard establishment when trees are mos...

  17. Rare diseases knowledge management: the contribution of proximity measurements in OntoOrpha and OMIM.

    PubMed

    Aimé, X; Charlet, J; Furst, F; Kuntz, P; Trichet, F; Dhombres, F

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an application of Proxima and define a new measure of proximity between two concepts present in an ontology. The approach is based on the three dimensions of a conceptualization: intention with relations between concepts, expression with terms denoting concepts, and extension with instances of concepts. This preliminary work, in the field of rare diseases, involved the Orphanet Ontology of Rare Diseases (OntoOrpha) and corpus of texts extracted from Online Inheritance in Man (OMIM). The proximity measurements are consistent with an appropriate representation of groups of diseases in the ontology, which are derived from the Orphanet classifications of rare diseases. Other semantic relations are explored and new perspectives in medical knowledge curation are proposed.

  18. Rare diseases knowledge management: the contribution of proximity measurements in OntoOrpha and OMIM.

    PubMed

    Aimé, X; Charlet, J; Furst, F; Kuntz, P; Trichet, F; Dhombres, F

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an application of Proxima and define a new measure of proximity between two concepts present in an ontology. The approach is based on the three dimensions of a conceptualization: intention with relations between concepts, expression with terms denoting concepts, and extension with instances of concepts. This preliminary work, in the field of rare diseases, involved the Orphanet Ontology of Rare Diseases (OntoOrpha) and corpus of texts extracted from Online Inheritance in Man (OMIM). The proximity measurements are consistent with an appropriate representation of groups of diseases in the ontology, which are derived from the Orphanet classifications of rare diseases. Other semantic relations are explored and new perspectives in medical knowledge curation are proposed. PMID:22874158

  19. Tay-Sachs disease: current perspectives from Australia.

    PubMed

    Lew, Raelia M; Burnett, Leslie; Proos, Anné L; Delatycki, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a fatal, recessively inherited neurodegenerative condition of infancy and early childhood. Although rare in most other populations, the carrier frequency is one in 25 in Ashkenazi Jews. Australian high-school-based TSD preconception genetic screening programs aim to screen, educate, and optimize reproductive choice for participants. These programs have demonstrated high uptake, low psychological morbidity, and have been shown to result in fewer than expected Jewish TSD-affected births over 18 years of operation. The majority of Jewish individuals of reproductive age outside of the high school screening program setting in Australia have not accessed screening. Recent recommendations advocate supplementing the community high school screening programs with general practitioner- and obstetrician-led genetic screening of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals for TSD and other severe recessive diseases for which this group is at risk. Massively parallel DNA sequencing is expected to become the testing modality of choice over the coming years.

  20. Tay-Sachs disease: current perspectives from Australia.

    PubMed

    Lew, Raelia M; Burnett, Leslie; Proos, Anné L; Delatycki, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a fatal, recessively inherited neurodegenerative condition of infancy and early childhood. Although rare in most other populations, the carrier frequency is one in 25 in Ashkenazi Jews. Australian high-school-based TSD preconception genetic screening programs aim to screen, educate, and optimize reproductive choice for participants. These programs have demonstrated high uptake, low psychological morbidity, and have been shown to result in fewer than expected Jewish TSD-affected births over 18 years of operation. The majority of Jewish individuals of reproductive age outside of the high school screening program setting in Australia have not accessed screening. Recent recommendations advocate supplementing the community high school screening programs with general practitioner- and obstetrician-led genetic screening of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals for TSD and other severe recessive diseases for which this group is at risk. Massively parallel DNA sequencing is expected to become the testing modality of choice over the coming years. PMID:25653550

  1. LEG ULCERS IN SICKLE CELL DISEASE: CURRENT PATTERNS AND PRACTICES

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Kara-Marie H.; Axelrod, Karen C.; Buscetta, Ashley; Hassell, Kathryn L.; Adams-Graves, Patricia E.; Seamon, Catherine; Kato, Gregory J.; Minniti, Caterina P.

    2013-01-01

    Leg ulcers are a debilitating complication of patients with sickle cell disease, and their frequency in North America was reported to be 2.5% by the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease more than 20 years ago. We sought to determine if the frequency of leg ulcers in sickle cell patients in the United States had declined and to assess which treatments providers use most commonly. We sent an e-mail survey to health professionals belonging to the national Sickle Cell Adult Provider Network. Responses were obtained from 31 of them (26.0%). Most of them (96.0%) reported having some patients with leg ulcers. Providers reported a total of 185 patients with active leg ulcers and 224 in the previous 5 years, for a total of 409 patients. Hb SS (homozygous sickle cell anemia) was the most common genotype of affected individuals, followed by Hb SC (double heterozygote for Hb S [β6(A3)Glu→Val, GAG>GTG; HBB: c.20A>T] and Hb C [β6(A3)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.19G>A]). Males showed a 2:1 predominance. Two-thirds of patients were treated with either hydroxyurea (HU) or transfusion therapy and most used compression stockings and topical therapies as directed by wound care services. We conclude that leg ulcers continue to be a debilitating complication of young adults with sickle cell disease, despite improved supportive care and the widespread use of disease modifying agents such HU and transfusion. While some providers offer office-based ulcer care, the majority prefer specialty consultation including podiatry, plastic surgery and dermatology. Despite their frequency, there is no clear consensus among providers as to the best treatment. PMID:23600469

  2. Screening for rheumatic heart disease: current approaches and controversies.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kathryn; Colquhoun, Samantha; Steer, Andrew; Reményi, Bo; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a leading cause of cardiac disease among children in developing nations, and in indigenous populations of some industrialized countries. In endemic areas, RHD has long been a target of screening programmes that, historically, have relied on cardiac auscultation. The evolution of portable echocardiographic equipment has changed the face of screening for RHD over the past 5 years, with greatly improved sensitivity. However, concerns have been raised about the specificity of echocardiography, and the interpretation of minor abnormalities poses new challenges. The natural history of RHD in children with subclinical abnormalities detected by echocardiographic screening remains unknown, and long-term follow-up studies are needed to evaluate the significance of detecting these changes at an early stage. For a disease to be deemed suitable for screening from a public health perspective, it needs to fulfil a number of criteria. RHD meets some, but not all, of these criteria. If screening programmes are to identify additional cases of RHD, parallel improvements in the systems that deliver secondary prophylaxis are essential.

  3. Awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab

    PubMed Central

    Hundal, Jaspal Singh; Sodhi, Simrinder Singh; Gupta, Aparna; Singh, Jaswinder; Chahal, Udeybir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab. Materials and Methods: 250 livestock farmers were selected randomly and interviewed with a pretested questionnaire, which contained both open and close ended questions on different aspects of zoonotic diseases, i.e., awareness, knowledge, risks, etc. Knowledge scorecard was developed, and each correct answer was awarded one mark, and each incorrect answer was given zero mark. Respondents were categorized into low (mean − ½ standard deviation [SD]), moderate (mean ± ½ SD), and high knowledge (Mean + ½ SD) category based on the mean and SD. The information about independent variables viz., age, education, and herd size were collected with the help of structured schedule and scales. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, and results were prepared to assess awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases and its relation with independent variables. Results: Majority of the respondents had age up to 40 years (70%), had their qualification from primary to higher secondary level (77.6%), and had their herd size up to 10 animals (79.6%). About 51.2% and 54.0% respondents had the history of abortion and retained placenta, respectively, at their farms. The respondents not only disposed off the infected placenta (35.6%), aborted fetus (39.6%), or feces (56.4%) from a diarrheic animal but also gave intrauterine medication (23.2%) bare-handedly. About 3.6-69.6% respondents consumed uncooked or unpasteurized animal products. About 84.8%, 46.0%, 32.8%, 4.61%, and 92.4% of livestock farmers were aware of zoonotic nature of rabies, brucellosis, tuberculosis, anthrax, and bird flu, respectively. The 55.6%, 67.2%, 52.0%, 64.0%, and 51.2% respondents were aware of the transmission of zoonotic diseases to human being through contaminated milk, meat, air, feed, or through contact with infected animals, respectively. The transmission of rabies

  4. Identifying disease mutations in genomic medicine settings: current challenges and how to accelerate progress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The pace of exome and genome sequencing is accelerating, with the identification of many new disease-causing mutations in research settings, and it is likely that whole exome or genome sequencing could have a major impact in the clinical arena in the relatively near future. However, the human genomics community is currently facing several challenges, including phenotyping, sample collection, sequencing strategies, bioinformatics analysis, biological validation of variant function, clinical interpretation and validity of variant data, and delivery of genomic information to various constituents. Here we review these challenges and summarize the bottlenecks for the clinical application of exome and genome sequencing, and we discuss ways for moving the field forward. In particular, we urge the need for clinical-grade sample collection, high-quality sequencing data acquisition, digitalized phenotyping, rigorous generation of variant calls, and comprehensive functional annotation of variants. Additionally, we suggest that a 'networking of science' model that encourages much more collaboration and online sharing of medical history, genomic data and biological knowledge, including among research participants and consumers/patients, will help establish causation and penetrance for disease causal variants and genes. As we enter this new era of genomic medicine, we envision that consumer-driven and consumer-oriented efforts will take center stage, thus allowing insights from the human genome project to translate directly back into individualized medicine. PMID:22830651

  5. Community health nurses' knowledge of Lyme disease: implications for surveillance and community education.

    PubMed

    Capps, P A; Pinger, R R; Russell, K M; Wood, M L

    1999-01-01

    A statewide assessment was conducted to determine the general knowledge and professional practices about Lyme disease (LD) of local health department nurses. The study sample included 226 nurses practicing in 80 health departments in Indiana. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using group independent t tests. Findings showed that nurses were most knowledgeable about personal protection against LD and least knowledgeable about symptoms, case definition, and reporting criteria. Nonbaccalaureate degreed nurses scored significantly higher on questions about LD than the baccalaureate or master's prepared nurses. Results point to the need for better dissemination of LD information among public health nurses, expanded LD education for the public, and further development of LD surveillance activities.

  6. A situational approach to the design of a patient-oriented disease-specific knowledge base.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Matthew I.; Ladenson, Paul; Johnson, Kevin B.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a situational approach to the organization of disease-specific information that seeks to provide patients with targeted access to content in a knowledge base. Our approach focuses on dividing a defined knowledge base into sections corresponding to discrete clinical events associated with the evaluation and treatment of a specific disorder. Common reasons for subspecialty referral are used to generate situational statements that serve as entry points into the knowledge base. Each section includes defining questions generated using keywords associated with specific topics. Defining questions are linked to patient-focused answers. Evaluation of a thyroid cancer web site designed using this approach has identified high ratings for usability, relevance, and comprehension of retrieved information. This approach may be particularly useful in the development of resources for newly diagnosed patients. PMID:12463852

  7. Prevalence, risk factors and disease knowledge of breast cancer in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Sultana, Sabira; Akhtar, Naveed; Rehman, Jalil Ur; Rehman, Riaz Ur

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females all over the world with approximately one million new cases each year as well as one of second leading causes of death among females. In Pakistan, the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females is also breast cancer, accounting for nearly one in nine female patients. Its incidence in Pakistan is 2.5 times higher than that in neighboring countries like Iran and India. The risk factors associated with breast cancer are age, family history, early menarche, intake of combined estrogen and progestin menopausal hormones, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, low socioeconomic status and lack of awareness regarding the disease. This mini-review article aims to provide awareness about breast cancer as well as an updated knowledge about the prevalence, risk factors and disease knowledge of breast cancer in Pakistan.

  8. Knowledge, Attitude and practices regarding vector-borne diseases in Western Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Alobuia, Wilson M; Missikpode, Celestin; Aung, Maung; Jolly, Pauline E

    2015-01-01

    Background Outbreaks of vector-borne diseases such as dengue, and malaria can overwhelm health systems in resource-poor countries. Environmental management strategies that reduce/eliminate vector breeding sites combined with improved personal prevention strategies can help to significantly reduce transmission of these infections. Objective This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of residents in Western Jamaica regarding control of mosquito vectors and protection from mosquito bites. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and August 2010 among patients or family members of patients waiting to be seen at hospitals in Western Jamaica. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic factors and KAPs regarding vector-borne diseases. KAP scores were calculated and categorized as high or low based on number of correct/positive responses. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of KAP and linear regression analysis conducted to determine if knowledge and attitude scores predicted practice scores. Results Three-hundred and sixty-one people (85 males and 276 females) participated in the study. Most participants (87%) scored low on knowledge and practice items (78%). Conversely, 78% scored high on attitudes items. By multivariate logistic regression, housewives were 82% less likely to have high attitude scores than laborers, and homeowners were 65% less likely to have high attitude scores than renters. Participants from households with 1–2 children were 3.4 times more likely to have high attitude scores compared to those from households with no children. Participants from households ≥5 people were 65% less likely to have high practice scores compared to those from households with <5. By multivariable linear regression knowledge and attitude scores were significant predictors of practice score. Conclusion The study revealed poor knowledge of vector

  9. Pathobiology and diagnosis of animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: current knowledge, research gaps, and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that can affect several animal species and human beings. There are four animal TSE agents found in the United States: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink ...

  10. Current Knowledge and Perceptions of Cancer Held by African American Seniors in the District of Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Stephanie; Young, Loretha; Cousin, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a disease that is perceived negatively, especially in the African American community. Cultural attitudes, beliefs, and the lack of relevant health information all play a role in the extent of the negative perceptions of this multifaceted disease. Purpose: To conduct a qualitative assessment of the perceptions of cancer of…

  11. Genetic analysis in inherited metabolic disorders--from diagnosis to treatment. Own experience, current state of knowledge and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna; Gos, Monika; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Bal, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Inherited metabolic disorders, also referred to as inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), are a group of congenital disorders caused by mutation in genomic or mitochondrial DNA. IEM are mostly rare disorders with incidence ranging from 1/50,000-1/150,000), however in total IEM may affect even 1/1000 people. A particular mutation affects specific protein or enzyme that improper function leads to alterations in specific metabolic pathway. Inborn errors of metabolism are monogenic disorders that can be inherited in autosomal recessive manner or, less frequently, in autosomal dominant or X-linked patterns. Some exceptions to Mendelian rules of inheritance have also been described. Vast majority of mutations responsible for IEM are small DNA changes affecting single or several nucleotides, although larger rearrangements were also identified. Therefore, the methods used for the identification of pathogenic mutations are mainly based on molecular techniques, preferably on Sanger sequencing. Moreover, the next generation sequencing technique seems to be another prospective method that can be successfully implemented for the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. The identification of the genetic defect underlying the disease is not only indispensable for genetic counseling, but also might be necessary to apply appropriate treatment to the patient. Therapeutic strategies for IEM are continuously elaborated and tested (eg. enzyme replacement therapy, specific cells or organ transplantation or gene therapy, both in vivo and ex vivo) and have already been implemented for several disorders. In this article we present current knowledge about various aspects of IEM on the basis of our own experience and literature review.

  12. Oral health status, knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Rasouli-Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza; Khorsand, Afshin; Yaghobee, Siamak; Rokn, Amirreza; Jalali, Mohammad; Masudi, Sima; Rahimi, Hamed; Kabir, Ali

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients about their oral health status. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the data of 150 CVD patients that collected by a self-administered questionnaire consists of demographic characteristics and KAP. Oral health indicators calculated based on the results of oral examination by an expert dentist. RESULTS CVD patients had an overall moderate level of knowledge and attitude, but their practice was lower than moderate. There were important associations between knowledge scores with gender, education, residential area and financial status, between attitude scores with education and residential area, and between practice scores with education and financial status. There were no associations between KAP and age, marital status or job. Significant positive correlations were found between KAP components. Significant negative correlations were found between oral hygiene index with knowledge and practice. CONCLUSION The practice of heart disease patients about their oral health was poor, and declares that increasing awareness and attitude may not promote practice. Efficient programs are needed to promote oral health practice of adult populations in special groups. PMID:27114731

  13. A knowledge-poor approach to chemical-disease relation extraction

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Firoj; Corazza, Anna; Lavelli, Alberto; Zanoli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The article describes a knowledge-poor approach to the task of extracting Chemical-Disease Relations from PubMed abstracts. A first version of the approach was applied during the participation in the BioCreative V track 3, both in Disease Named Entity Recognition and Normalization (DNER) and in Chemical-induced diseases (CID) relation extraction. For both tasks, we have adopted a general-purpose approach based on machine learning techniques integrated with a limited number of domain-specific knowledge resources and using freely available tools for preprocessing data. Crucially, the system only uses the data sets provided by the organizers. The aim is to design an easily portable approach with a limited need of domain-specific knowledge resources. In the participation in the BioCreative V task, we ranked 5 out of 16 in DNER, and 7 out of 18 in CID. In this article, we present our follow-up study in particular on CID by performing further experiments, extending our approach and improving the performance. PMID:27189609

  14. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Kidney Disease Knowledge Survey (KiKS) to Spanish

    PubMed Central

    Anaya, Evelin Mota; Wright Nunes, Julie A.; Mayta- Tristán, Percy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 50 million people globally. Several studies show the importance of implementing interventions that enhance patients' knowledge about their disease. In 2011, the Kidney Disease Knowledge Survey (KiKS) was developed, a questionnaire that assesses the specific knowledge about CKD in pre-dialysis patients. Objective To translate to Spanish, culturally adapt and validate the questionnaire KiKS in a population of patients with pre-dialysis CKD. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation of KiKS was performed. Subsequently, its validity and reliability were determined. The validity was evaluated by construct validity; and the reliability by its internal consistency and its intra-observer reliability (test-retest). Results A good internal consistency was found (Kuder-Richardson = 0.85). Regarding intra-observer reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient with a value of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.5–1.0) indicated a good reproducibility; the mean difference of −1.1 test-retest S.D. 6.0 (p = 0.369) confirm this. Conclusions The Spanish version of KiKS is acceptable and equivalent to the original version and has good reliability, validity and reproducibility. Therefore, it could be used in a population of culturally similar patients with pre-dialysis CKD. PMID:27513762

  15. Nanoimaging in cardiovascular diseases: Current state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Deb, Suryyani; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati Dharmapal

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been integrated into healthcare system in terms of diagnosis as well as therapy. The massive impact of imaging nanotechnology has a deeper intervention in cardiology i.e. as contrast agents, to target vulnerable plaques with site specificity and in a theranostic approach to treat these plaques, stem cell delivery in necrotic myocardium, etc. Thus cardiovascular nanoimaging is not limited to simple diagnosis but also can help real time tracking during therapy as well as surgery. The present review provides a comprehensive description of the molecular imaging techniques for cardiovascular diseases with the help of nanotechnology and the potential clinical implications of nanotechnology for future applications. PMID:25963489

  16. Current Pharmacologic Therapy for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Swaytha; Rustgi, Vinod K

    2016-05-01

    Weight loss, regular exercise, and diet composition modification seem to improve biochemical and histologic abnormalities. Other therapies directed at insulin resistance, oxidative stress, cytoprotection, and fibrosis may also offer benefits. Insulin sensitizers and vitamin E seem to be the most promising; however, they cause side effects. A multifaceted approach of lifestyle modifications, weight loss, and pharmacotherapy can be used in combination, but no single treatment approach has proved universally applicable to the general population with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Continuous clinical and preclinical studies on existing and potential drugs are needed to improve treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/NASH. PMID:27063274

  17. [Oral disease modifying therapy of multiple sclerosis: the current view].

    PubMed

    Kappos, L; Boĭko, A N

    2014-01-01

    The review includes data on experimental and clinical studies of new oral methods of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease modifying therapy (DMT). The mechanisms of action, results of clinical trials of stages II and III with the data on their clinical and MRI-efficacy, tolerability and safety of fingolimod, dimethylfumarate (BG-12), teriflunomide and laquinimod are included. The risk management plans for possible side-effects of every product and the peculiarities of their use in individually selected MS treatment are discussed. PMID:24662359

  18. A Current Update on the Rule of Alternative and Complementary Medicine in the Treatment of Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong-Song; He, Qing

    2013-01-01

    There is a vast body of knowledge which is ever-increasing about the treatment of liver disease with alternative and complementary medicine for which hundreds of thousands of literatures have been documented. Liver disease is a general term. This term covers all the potential problems that cause the liver to fail to perform its specified operations. Liver disease has a variety of presentations and causes a great public health problem worldwide which threatens the wellness of billions of people. Incidences of many types of liver disease are currently rising. Although there is still a debate about the entity of alternative and complementary medicine, it is now widely used and it is improving. And it covers the shortages and compensates for the weaknesses of conventional methods in the treatment of liver diseases. Alternative and complementary medicine for liver diseases provides benefits by regulating immunity, controlling disease progression, improving quality of life, and prolonging survival. This paper reviews the increasing interest and growing research into alternative and complementary medicine for liver diseases, with a look at the rough classification, principle of management, evidence-based applications, and issues for prescription and perspectives. PMID:24109491

  19. Pertussis: History of the Disease and Current Prevention Failure.

    PubMed

    Kuchar, E; Karlikowska-Skwarnik, M; Han, S; Nitsch-Osuch, A

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis or whooping cough has been given many names over the centuries. It was first recognized in the Middle Ages and since then various epidemics have been described. Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou isolated Bordetella pertussis, a causative agent for whooping cough, in Paris more than 100 years ago, which created an excellent opportunity to invent a vaccine. In 1914 the whole-cell pertussis vaccine was invented, then in the 1940s it was combined with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids to become DTP and it became widely available. A successive decrease in the incidence of the disease has since been observed. The vaccine has been about 80 % effective in preventing serious disease and death from pertussis. The disadvantage is that the vaccine offers protection for 5-10 years after the last dose of the full vaccination course. The second issue is the question of how to prevent side effects of the whole-cell vaccine. In the 1990s, the acellular vaccine was introduced in the US and gradually replaced the whole-cell vaccine. About 10 years later, a possible failure with the new vaccine has been observed, that is a lack of long-term protection. Nowadays, both vaccines are used, with the acellular vaccine being vastly predominant in most developed countries. Pertussis incidence has increased since the 1980s, but new prevention strategies include booster doses for specific age groups. PMID:27256351

  20. Current Situation and Analysis of Geography Teachers' Active Learning Knowledge and Usage in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuna, Fikret

    2012-01-01

    In parallel to the developments in the approach to education, the secondary education geography curriculum in Turkey was renewed in 2005. This new programme encourages the use of active learning methods and techniques in the classroom by adopting the idea that students should construct and interpret knowledge by actively participating in the…

  1. High School Students' Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and Perceived Risk of Currently Having AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuRant, Robert H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Study examined factors associated with adolescents' knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and perceived risk of human immunodeficiency infection (HIV). Results of a health risk survey indicated that minority youth, particularly IV drug users, had the most need of intensive, specialized HIV/AIDS education. (SM)

  2. [Craniofacial growth. 1. Critical review of the most authoritative current knowledge].

    PubMed

    Oyen, O J

    1989-01-01

    After an analysis of the knowledge of today about the cranio-facial growth, the author presents a theory of the structural function as a proper conclusion of the change from a genetic hypothesis to a functional matrix. This theory will explain some skeletal modifications that before were incomprehensible.

  3. Feed Efficiency: An Assessment of Current Knowledge from a Voluntary Subsample of the Swine Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, Josh R.; Tokach, Mike D.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Goodband, Robert D.; Dritz, Steve S.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Patience, John F.

    2014-01-01

    A voluntary sample of pork producers and advisers to the swine industry were surveyed about feed efficiency. The questionnaire was designed to accomplish three objectives: (a) determine the level of knowledge related to feed efficiency topics, (b) identify production practices used that influence feed efficiency, and (c) identify information gaps…

  4. Current Knowledge and Training Needs of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors to Work Effectively with Veterans with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frain, Michael; Bishop, Malachy; Tansey, Timothy; Sanchez, Jennifer; Wijngaarde, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Veterans with disabilities have gained national attention in recent years because of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This study examined certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs) knowledge and preparation for working with veterans with disabilities on their rehabilitation. Results indicate that CRCs report low levels of preparation in…

  5. Civic Education and Charter Schools: Current Knowledge and Future Research Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, as schools have shifted more attention to English language arts and mathematics, several groups have made a plea for renewed attention to civic education for all students. One such group is the Spencer Foundation, which promotes research to improve students' civics knowledge and skills and their dispositions for responsible…

  6. Evaluation of the Current Status and Knowledge Contributions of Professional Doctorates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the status and knowledge contributions of professional doctorates (PDs) undertaken by practising professionals who in most cases are not intending to join the academic community. The purpose of these doctorates is usually to research and develop an original contribution to practice through practitioner-research. Giving greater…

  7. Dentists' knowledge and opinions of oral-systemic disease relationships: relevance to patient care and education.

    PubMed

    Paquette, David W; Bell, Kathryn P; Phillips, Ceib; Offenbacher, Steven; Wilder, Rebecca S

    2015-06-01

    Population studies consistently support associations between poor oral (periodontal) health and systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of dentists and document their opinions regarding the evidence on oral-systemic disease relationships. A survey consisting of 39 items was developed and mailed to 1,350 licensed dentists in North Carolina. After three mailings, 667 dentists (49%) meeting inclusion criteria responded. The respondents were predominantly male (76.3%), in solo practice (59.5%), and in non-rural settings (74%). More than 75% of these dentists correctly identified risk factors like diet, genetics, smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity for CVD and diabetes. The majority rated the evidence linking periodontal disease with CVD and diabetes as strong (71% and 67%, respectively). These dentists were most comfortable inquiring about patients' tobacco habits (93%), treating patients with diabetes (89%) or CVD (84%) and concurrent periodontal disease, and discussing diabetes-periodontal disease risks with patients (88%). Fewer respondents were comfortable asking patients about alcohol consumption (54%) or providing alcohol counseling (49%). Most agreed that dentists should be trained to identify risk factors (96%) or actively manage systemically diseased patients (74%). Over 90% agreed that medical and dental professionals should be taught to practice more collaboratively. These data indicate that these dentists were knowledgeable about oral-systemic health associations, had mixed comfort levels translating the evidence into clinical practice, but expressed support for interprofessional education to improve their readiness to actively participate in their patients' overall health management.

  8. Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire about Heart Failure Patients' Knowledge of Their Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bonin, Christiani Decker Batista; dos Santos, Rafaella Zulianello; Ghisi, Gabriela Lima de Melo; Vieira, Ariany Marques; Amboni, Ricardo; Benetti, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of tools to measure heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in rehabilitation programs demonstrates the need for specific recommendations regarding the amount or content of information required. Objectives To develop and validate a questionnaire to assess heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs. Methods The tool was developed based on the Coronary Artery Disease Education Questionnaire and applied to 96 patients with heart failure, with a mean age of 60.22 ± 11.6 years, 64% being men. Reproducibility was obtained via the intraclass correlation coefficient, using the test-retest method. Internal consistency was assessed by use of Cronbach's alpha, and construct validity, by use of exploratory factor analysis. Results The final version of the tool had 19 questions arranged in ten areas of importance for patient education. The proposed questionnaire had a clarity index of 8.94 ± 0.83. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.856, and Cronbach's alpha, 0.749. Factor analysis revealed five factors associated with the knowledge areas. Comparing the final scores with the characteristics of the population evidenced that low educational level and low income are significantly associated with low levels of knowledge. Conclusion The instrument has satisfactory clarity and validity indices, and can be used to assess the heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs. PMID:24652054

  9. Current knowledge and practices related to seed transmission of sugarcane pathogens and movement of seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane breeding programs benefit from sharing genetic resources. Traditionally, this has been accomplished by exchanging vegetative planting material of clones of interest. Diseases can spread during this process, and quarantines were established to enable continued sharing of germplasm while min...

  10. Current drug patenting for retinal diseases: beyond VEGF inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mucke, Hermann A M; Mucke, Peter M

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of patent applications that address strategies for the pharmacological treatment of retinal diseases that are not directly related to VEGF inhibition, published under the PCT during the 18-month period from January 2008 to June 2009, is presented. The largest number of therapeutic patent applications focused on attempts to correct visual cycle dysfunctions, complement overactivation or beta-amyloid deposition in drusen to control age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Biomarker-based and genetic diagnostic modalities that assess AMD risk were also frequently claimed in the patent applications, and have become a significant factor in patenting for ocular disorders. The fields of both visual cycle therapy and AMD biomarkers were dominated by non-corporate patent assignees. Diabetic retinopathy has not received as much attention from inventors compared with AMD; retinopathy of prematurity remains a field in which little specific patenting occurs.

  11. Prophylactic vaccinations in chronic kidney disease: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E

    2015-01-01

    In this review, recent data on results concerning prophylactic vaccinations against hepatitis B virus, influenza viruses, and pneumococci are presented. Effects of active immunization in chronic kidney disease depend on category of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The lower GFR category the better results of response to vaccination. Abnormalities in toll-like receptors and down-regulation of B-cell activating factor receptor in transitional B cells were recently included into uremia-associated deficits in immunocompetence. Development of novel, more potent vaccines containing toll-like receptor agonists as adjuvants may help to achieve more effective immunization against hepatitis B virus in immunocompromised patients. Experimental studies announce further vaccine adjuvants. A vaccine against hepatitis C virus is not available yet, but promising results were already obtained in the experimental and preliminary clinical studies. Prophylactic vaccinations against influenza viruses and pneumococci become increasingly popular in dialysis facilities due to their proved benefits. PMID:25911956

  12. Geothermal projects funded under the NER 300 programme - current state of development and knowledge gained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uihlein, Andreas; Salto Saura, Lourdes; Sigfusson, Bergur; Lichtenvort, Kerstin; Gagliardi, Filippo

    2015-04-01

    Introduction The NER 300 programme, managed by the European Commission is one of the largest funding programmes for innovative low-carbon energy demonstration projects. NER 300 is so called because it is funded from the sale of 300 million emission allowances from the new entrants' reserve (NER) set up for the third phase of the EU emissions trading system (ETS). The programme aims to successfully demonstrate environmentally safe carbon capture and storage (CCS) and innovative renewable energy (RES) technologies on a commercial scale with a view to scaling up production of low-carbon technologies in the EU. Consequently, it supports a wide range of CCS and RES technologies (bioenergy, concentrated solar power, photovoltaics, geothermal, wind, ocean, hydropower, and smart grids). Funded projects and the role of geothermal projects for the programme In total, about EUR 2.1 billion have been awarded to 39 projects through the programme's 2 calls for proposals (the first awarded in December 2012, the second in July 2014). The programme has awarded around 70 mEUR funding to 3 geothermal projects in Hungary, Croatia and France (see Annex). The Hungarian geothermal project awarded funding under the first call will enter into operation at the end of 2015 and the rest are expected to start in 2016 (HR) and in 2018 (FR), respectively. Knowledge Sharing Knowledge sharing requirements are built into the legal basis of the programme as a critical tool to lower risks in bridging the transition to large-scale production of innovative renewable energy and CCS deployment. Projects have to submit annually to the European Commission relevant knowledge gained during that year in the implementation of their project. The relevant knowledge is aggregated and disseminated by the European Commission to industry, research, government, NGO and other interest groups and associations in order to provide a better understanding of the practical challenges that arise in the important step of

  13. Knowledge and perceptions of risk for cardiovascular disease: Findings of a qualitative investigation from a low-income peri-urban community in the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Steyn, Krisela; Everett-Murphy, Katherine; Gaziano, Thomas A.; Levitt, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Background South Africa currently faces an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease. Although referred to clinics after community screening initiatives, few individuals who are identified to be at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease attend. Low health literacy and risk perception have been identified as possible causes. We investigated the knowledge and perceptions about risk for cardiovascular disease in a community. Method We conducted a series of focus group discussions with individuals from a low-income peri-urban community in the Western Cape, South Africa. Different methods of presenting risk were explored. The data were organised into themes and analysed to find associations between themes to provide explanations for our findings. Results Respondents’ knowledge of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors varied, but most were familiar with the terms used to describe cardiovascular disease. In contrast, understanding of the concept of risk was poor. Risk was perceived as a binary concept and evaluation of different narrative and visual methods of presenting risk was not possible. Conclusion Understanding cardiovascular disease and its risk factors requires a different set of skills from that needed to understand uncertainty and risk. The former requires knowledge of facts, whereas understanding of risk requires numerical and computational skills. Without a better understanding of risk, risk assessments for cardiovascular disease may fail in this community. PMID:26842511

  14. Guidelines for incorporating scientific knowledge and practice on rare diseases into higher education: neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses as a model disorder.

    PubMed

    Cismondi, Inés Adriana; Kohan, Romina; Adams, Heather; Bond, Mike; Brown, Rachel; Cooper, Jonathan D; de Hidalgo, Perla K; Holthaus, Sophia-Martha Kleine; Mole, Sara E; Mugnaini, Julia; de Ramirez, Ana María Oller; Pesaola, Favio; Rautenberg, Gisela; Platt, Frances M; Noher de Halac, Inés

    2015-10-01

    This article addresses the educational issues associated with rare diseases (RD) and in particular the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (NCLs, or CLN diseases) in the curricula of Health Sciences and Professional's Training Programs. Our aim is to develop guidelines for improving scientific knowledge and practice in higher education and continuous learning programs. Rare diseases (RD) are collectively common in the general population with 1 in 17 people affected by a RD in their lifetime. Inherited defects in genes involved in metabolism are the commonest group of RD with over 8000 known inborn errors of metabolism. The majority of these diseases are neurodegenerative including the NCLs. Any professional training program on NCL must take into account the medical, social and economic burdens related to RDs. To address these challenges and find solutions to them it is necessary that individuals in the government and administrative authorities, academia, teaching hospitals and medical schools, the pharmaceutical industry, investment community and patient advocacy groups all work together to achieve these goals. The logistical issues of including RD lectures in university curricula and in continuing medical education should reflect its complex nature. To evaluate the state of education in the RD field, a summary should be periodically up dated in order to assess the progress achieved in each country that signed up to the international conventions addressing RD issues in society. It is anticipated that auditing current practice will lead to higher standards and provide a framework for those educators involved in establishing RD teaching programs world-wide.

  15. Lyme disease: Knowledge and practices of family practitioners in southern Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Ferrouillet, Cécile; Milord, François; Lambert, Louise; Vibien, Anne; Ravel, André

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Public health authorities in Quebec have responded to the progressive emergence of Lyme disease (LD) with surveillance activities and education for family physicians (FPs) who are key actors in both vigilance and case management. OBJECTIVES: To describe FPs’ clinical experience with LD, their degree of knowledge, and their practices in two areas, one with known infected tick populations (Montérégie) and one without (regions nearby Montérégie). METHODS: In the present descriptive cross-sectional study, FPs were recruited during educational sessions. They were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their clinical experience with Lyme disease, their knowledge of signs and symptoms of LD, and their familiarity with accepted guidelines for diagnosing and treating LD in two clinical scenarios (tick bite and erythema migrans). RESULTS: A total of 201 FPs participated, mostly from Montérégie (n=151). Overall, results revealed a moderate lack of knowledge and suboptimal practices rather than systematically insufficient knowledge or inadequate practices. A majority of participants agreed to more education on LD. As expected, FPs from Montérégie had a higher clinical experience with tick bites (57% versus 25%), better knowledge of LD endemic areas in Canada and erythema migrans characteristics, and better management of erythema migrans (72% versus 50%). CONCLUSION: The present study documented the inappropriate intention to order serology tests for tick bites and the unjustified intention to use tick analysis for diagnostic purposes. Such practices should be discouraged because they are unnecessary and overuse collective laboratory and medical resources. In addition, public health authorities must pursue their education efforts regarding FPs to optimize case management. PMID:26236357

  16. Disease related knowledge and quality of life: a descriptive study focusing on hypertensive population in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Fahad; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Atif, Muhammad; ul Haq, Noman; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to evaluate association between Health related quality of lifeand disease state knowledge among hypertensive population of Pakistan. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was undertaken with a representative cohort of hypertension patients. Using prevalence based sampling technique, a total of 385 hypertensive patients were selected from two public hospitals of Quetta city, Pakistan. Hypertension Fact Questionnaire (HFQ) and European Quality of Life scale (EQ-5D) were used for data collection. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 16.0 was used to compute descriptive analysis of patients’ demographic and disease related information. Categorical variables were described as percentages while continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Spearman’s rho correlation was used to identify the association between study variables. Results: The mean (SD) age of the patients was 39.02 (6.59), with 68.8% males (n=265). The mean (SD) duration of hypertension was 3.01 (0.93) years. Forty percent (n=154) had bachelor degree with 34.8% (n=134) working in private sector. Almost forty one percent (n=140) had monthly income of more than 15000 Pakistan rupees per month with 75.1% (n=289) having urban residency. The mean EQ-5D descriptive score (0.46±0.28) and EQ-VAS score (63.97±6.62) indicated lower HRQoL in our study participants. Mean knowledge score was 8.03 ± 0.42. Correlation coefficient between HRQoL and knowledge was 0.208 (p< 0.001), indicating a week positive association. Conclusion: Results of this study highlight hypertension knowledge to be weakly associated with HRQoL suggesting that imparting knowledge to patients do not necessarily improve HRQoL. More attention should be given to identify individualized factors affecting HRQoL. PMID:23093899

  17. Casemix in the Islamic Republic of Iran: current knowledge and attitudes of health care staff.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, S; Doran, C M; Wilson, A

    2008-01-01

    Casemix is a tool that classifies patients according to their clinical similarity and the homogeneity of resources required. A descriptive study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge and attitude toward the casemix-based funding system among staff working in the Iranian Social Security Organization in Tehran. The survey showed that knowledge of casemix and diagnosis-related groups (DRG) was poor among the study group and any attempt to implement the casemix system--which about three-quarters of high-level staff had never heard of--would be likely to fail. This highlights the necessity for creating awareness of the casemix and DRG systems among the hospital staff before any action takes place. PMID:19166177

  18. Etiology of cardiovascular disease in patients with schizophrenia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Emul, Murat; Kalelioglu, Tevfik

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are important problems among patients with schizophrenia. A wide spectrum of reasons, ranging from genes to the environment, are held responsible for causing the cardiovascular risk factors that may lead to shortening the life expectancy of patients with schizophrenia. Here, we have summarized the etiologic issues related with the cardiovascular risk factors in schizophrenia. First, we focused on heritable factors associated with cardiovascular disease and schizophrenia by mentioning studies about genetics–epigenetics, in the first-episode or drug-naïve patients. In this context, the association and candidate gene studies about metabolic disturbances in schizophrenia are reviewed, and the lack of the effects of epigenetic/posttranscriptional factors such as microRNAs is mentioned. Increased rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus and disrupted metabolic parameters in schizophrenia are forcing clinicians to struggle with metabolic syndrome parameters and related issues, which are also the underlying causes for the risk of having cardiometabolic and cardiovascular etiology. Second, we summarized the findings of metabolic syndrome-related entities and discussed the influence of the illness itself, antipsychotic drug treatment, and the possible disadvantageous lifestyle on the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or diabetes mellitus. Third, we emphasized on the risk factors of sudden cardiac death in patients with schizophrenia. We reviewed the findings on the arrhythmias such as QT prolongation, which is a risk factor for Torsade de Pointes and sudden cardiac death or P-wave prolongation that is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. For example, the use of antipsychotics is an important reason for the prolongation of QT and some other cardiac autonomic dysfunctions. Additionally, we discussed relatively rare issues such as myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, which are important for prognosis in schizophrenia that may have

  19. Etiology of cardiovascular disease in patients with schizophrenia: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Emul, Murat; Kalelioglu, Tevfik

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are important problems among patients with schizophrenia. A wide spectrum of reasons, ranging from genes to the environment, are held responsible for causing the cardiovascular risk factors that may lead to shortening the life expectancy of patients with schizophrenia. Here, we have summarized the etiologic issues related with the cardiovascular risk factors in schizophrenia. First, we focused on heritable factors associated with cardiovascular disease and schizophrenia by mentioning studies about genetics-epigenetics, in the first-episode or drug-naïve patients. In this context, the association and candidate gene studies about metabolic disturbances in schizophrenia are reviewed, and the lack of the effects of epigenetic/posttranscriptional factors such as microRNAs is mentioned. Increased rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus and disrupted metabolic parameters in schizophrenia are forcing clinicians to struggle with metabolic syndrome parameters and related issues, which are also the underlying causes for the risk of having cardiometabolic and cardiovascular etiology. Second, we summarized the findings of metabolic syndrome-related entities and discussed the influence of the illness itself, antipsychotic drug treatment, and the possible disadvantageous lifestyle on the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or diabetes mellitus. Third, we emphasized on the risk factors of sudden cardiac death in patients with schizophrenia. We reviewed the findings on the arrhythmias such as QT prolongation, which is a risk factor for Torsade de Pointes and sudden cardiac death or P-wave prolongation that is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. For example, the use of antipsychotics is an important reason for the prolongation of QT and some other cardiac autonomic dysfunctions. Additionally, we discussed relatively rare issues such as myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, which are important for prognosis in schizophrenia that may have originated

  20. Caffeine and cardiovascular diseases: critical review of current research.

    PubMed

    Zulli, Anthony; Smith, Renee M; Kubatka, Peter; Novak, Jan; Uehara, Yoshio; Loftus, Hayley; Qaradakhi, Tawar; Pohanka, Miroslav; Kobyliak, Nazarii; Zagatina, Angela; Klimas, Jan; Hayes, Alan; La Rocca, Giampiero; Soucek, Miroslav; Kruzliak, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Caffeine is a most widely consumed physiological stimulant worldwide, which is consumed via natural sources, such as coffee and tea, and now marketed sources such as energy drinks and other dietary supplements. This wide use has led to concerns regarding the safety of caffeine and its proposed beneficial role in alertness, performance and energy expenditure and side effects in the cardiovascular system. The question remains "Which dose is safe?", as the population does not appear to adhere to the strict guidelines listed on caffeine consumption. Studies in humans and animal models yield controversial results, which can be explained by population, type and dose of caffeine and low statistical power. This review will focus on comprehensive and critical review of the current literature and provide an avenue for further study. PMID:26932503

  1. Knowledge and practice of Brazilian pediatricians on gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; de Freitas, Carla Lima; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and practice of pediatricians about infants with physiological reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease. METHODS: 140 pediatricians were interviewed during two scientific events in 2009 and 2010. The questions referred to two clinical cases of infants. One with symptoms of infant regurgitation (physiological reflux) and another with gastroesophageal reflux disease. RESULTS: Among 140 pediatricians, 11.4% (n=16) and 62.1% (n=87) would require investigation tests, respectively for infant regurgitation (physiological reflux) and gastroesophageal reflux disease. A series of upper gastrointestinal exams would be the first requested with a higher frequency. Medication would be prescribed by 18.6% (n=6) in the case of physiological reflux and 87.1% (n=122) in the case of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Prokinetic drugs would be prescribed more frequently than gastric acid secretion inhibitors. Sleeping position would be recommended by 94.2% (n=132) and 92.9% (n=130) of the respondents, respectively for the case of physiological reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease; however, about half of the respondents would recommend the prone position. Only 10 (7.1%) of the pediatricians would exclude the cow's milk protein from the infants' diet. CONCLUSIONS: Approaches different from the international guidelines are often considered appropriate, especially when recommending a different position other than the supine and prescription of medication. In turn, the interviews enable us to infer the right capacity of the pediatricians to distinguish physiologic reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease correctly. PMID:25662014

  2. A review of current state of knowledge concerning Perkinsus marinus effects on Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) (the eastern oyster).

    PubMed

    Smolowitz, R

    2013-05-01

    The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), is both an important component of our estuaries and an important farmed food animal along the east and south coasts of the United States. Its populations have been significantly diminished in the wild due to decades of overfishing beginning in the 1890 s. Unfortunately, in 1950, a new disease in eastern oysters caused by the protistan agent, Perkinsus marinus, was identified. The disease, resulting from infection with this protozoan, leads to high mortality of both wild and cultured eastern oysters. Current restoration efforts are hampered by the disease, as is the aquaculture of this economically important food. The parasite infects hemocytes and causes hemolytic anemia and general degeneration of the tissues, leading to death. Ongoing research efforts are attempting to develop oysters resistant to the disease. Transport regulations exist in may states. Infection with P. marinus is listed as a reportable disease by the World Health Organization. PMID:23462867

  3. A review of current state of knowledge concerning Perkinsus marinus effects on Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) (the eastern oyster).

    PubMed

    Smolowitz, R

    2013-05-01

    The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), is both an important component of our estuaries and an important farmed food animal along the east and south coasts of the United States. Its populations have been significantly diminished in the wild due to decades of overfishing beginning in the 1890 s. Unfortunately, in 1950, a new disease in eastern oysters caused by the protistan agent, Perkinsus marinus, was identified. The disease, resulting from infection with this protozoan, leads to high mortality of both wild and cultured eastern oysters. Current restoration efforts are hampered by the disease, as is the aquaculture of this economically important food. The parasite infects hemocytes and causes hemolytic anemia and general degeneration of the tissues, leading to death. Ongoing research efforts are attempting to develop oysters resistant to the disease. Transport regulations exist in may states. Infection with P. marinus is listed as a reportable disease by the World Health Organization.

  4. [Current treatment for Gaucher's disease and new prospects].

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Pilar; Latre, Paz

    2011-09-01

    Two new useful enzymes have recently undergone clinical trials for the treatment of Gaucher's disease (GD): velaglucerase alpha and taliglucerase alpha were both approved for early access programs as of the June 2009 shortage in Imiglucerase supply. Velaglucerase has been approved by both, Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency. The Phase I/II trial of velaglucerase is in its 8th year: There were no drug-related serious adverse events or withdrawals, and no antibodies. Statistically significant improvements (p<0.004) were noted in mean percent change from baseline to nine months and baseline to 48 months for hemoglobin (19.2% and 21.7%, respectively), platelet counts (67.6% and 157.8%, respectively), normalized liver volume (<18.2% and <42.8%, respectively), and normalized spleen volume (<49.5% and <79.3%, respectively). Within 2 years of initiation of therapy, all patients achieved normalization of hemoglobin level, all but one patient achieved platelet counts of greater than 100×10(9)/L, all patients achieved near normalization in liver volumes, and all patients but one exhibited a reduction of more than 50% in spleen volume. At present, velaglucerase alpha is indicated in type 1 GD symptomatic patients (children or adults) and is accepted as an orphan drug by the EMA with similar cost to imiglucerase. Taliglucerasa alpha, obtained from transfected plant cell cultures, is pending to approval. PMID:22230127

  5. Rehabilitation for Parkinson's disease: Current outlook and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Marchese, Roberta; Avanzino, Laura; Pelosin, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Rehabilitation is considered as an adjuvant to pharmacological and surgical treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) to maximize functional ability and minimize secondary complications. Originally, approaches were based on empirical experience, but growing evidence suggests that exercise-dependent plasticity constitutes the main mechanism underlying the effects of physiotherapy. Exercise increases synaptic strength and influences neurotransmission, thus potentiating functional circuitry in PD. In addition, exercise is a pivotal element of motor learning. PD patients retain a sufficient capacity of motor learning, though learning rates and performance are reduced in comparison to normal controls. Recent meta-analyses demonstrated that rehabilitation could induce short-lasting, but clinically important benefits, particularly for gait and balance. However, the interventions are largely heterogeneous (stretching, muscle strengthening, balance, postural exercises, occupational therapy, cueing, treadmill training), and there is still no consensus about the optimal approach. Innovative techniques have been recently proposed: virtual reality and exergaming, motor imagery and action observation, robot-assisted physiotherapy and non-conventional therapies (e.g.: dance, martial arts). The rehabilitative program for PD should be "goal-based" (targeted to practicing and learning specific activities in the core areas), but a number of practice variables (intensity, specificity, complexity) need to be identified and the program should tailored to the individual patients' characteristics.

  6. Rehabilitation for Parkinson's disease: Current outlook and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Marchese, Roberta; Avanzino, Laura; Pelosin, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Rehabilitation is considered as an adjuvant to pharmacological and surgical treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) to maximize functional ability and minimize secondary complications. Originally, approaches were based on empirical experience, but growing evidence suggests that exercise-dependent plasticity constitutes the main mechanism underlying the effects of physiotherapy. Exercise increases synaptic strength and influences neurotransmission, thus potentiating functional circuitry in PD. In addition, exercise is a pivotal element of motor learning. PD patients retain a sufficient capacity of motor learning, though learning rates and performance are reduced in comparison to normal controls. Recent meta-analyses demonstrated that rehabilitation could induce short-lasting, but clinically important benefits, particularly for gait and balance. However, the interventions are largely heterogeneous (stretching, muscle strengthening, balance, postural exercises, occupational therapy, cueing, treadmill training), and there is still no consensus about the optimal approach. Innovative techniques have been recently proposed: virtual reality and exergaming, motor imagery and action observation, robot-assisted physiotherapy and non-conventional therapies (e.g.: dance, martial arts). The rehabilitative program for PD should be "goal-based" (targeted to practicing and learning specific activities in the core areas), but a number of practice variables (intensity, specificity, complexity) need to be identified and the program should tailored to the individual patients' characteristics. PMID:26360239

  7. Mapping fire effects on ash and soil properties. Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Strielko, Irina

    2014-05-01

    floor consumption (Lewis et al., 2011), ash cover (Robichaud et al., 2007) and other aspects related with soil as the vegetation factors that affect post-fire erosion risk (Fox et al., 2008). Field studies had also indented to estimate and map the impacts of fire in soil properties. Contrary to remote sensing studies, the mapping of fire effects on ash and soil properties in the field is specially carried out at small scale (e.g. slope or plot). The small scale resolution studies are important because identify small patterns that are normally ignored by remote sensing studies, but fundamental to understand the post-fire evolution of the burned areas. One of the important aspects of the small scale studies of fire effect on ash and soil properties is the great spatial variability, showing that the impact of fire is extremely heterogeneous in space and time (Outeiro et al., 2008; Pereira et al. in press). The small scale mapping of fire effects on soil properties normally is carried out using Geostatistical methods or using deterministic interpolation methods (Robichaud and Miller, 1999; Pereira et al., 2013). Several reports were published on the spatial distribution and mapping of ash and duff thickness (Robichaud and Miller, 1999; Pereira et al., 2013; Pereira et al. in press), fire severity (Pereira et al., 2014), ash chemical characteristics as total nitrogen (Pereira et al., 2010a), and ash extractable elements (Pereira et al., 2010b). Also, previous works mapped fire effects on soil temperature (Gimeno-Garcia et al., 2004), soil hydrophobicity (Woods et al., 2007), total nitrogen (Hirobe et al., 2003), phosphorous (Rodriguez et al., 2009) and major cations (Outeiro et al., 2008). It is important to integrate remote sensing and field based works of fire effects on ash and soil properties in order to have a better validation of the models predicted. The aim of this work is present the current knowledge about mapping fire effects in ash and soil properties at diverse

  8. The needs, current knowledge, and attitudes of care staff toward the implementation of palliative care in old age homes.

    PubMed

    Lo, Raymond S K; Kwan, Bonnie H F; Lau, Kay P K; Kwan, Cecilia W M; Lam, L M; Woo, Jean

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to explore in depth the needs, current knowledge, and attitudes of all ranks of old age home staff. A large-scale qualitative study with 13 semistructured focus groups was conducted in Hong Kong. Key themes were extracted by framework analysis. Three major themes were extracted, including role as a service provider, current knowledge, and attitude toward palliative care. There was a marked difference in familiarity with the concept of ''palliative care'' between different groups of staff, yet both shared the motivation for enhancement. The biggest concerns for the staff were elderly residents' readiness to accept palliative care, manpower, and resources. Care staff, regardless of rank, seemed to welcome and be ready to adopt a palliative care approach in caring for old age home residents, though not without worries and concerns. PMID:19959840

  9. Impacts of wildlife baiting and supplemental feeding on infectious disease transmission risk: a synthesis of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Anja; van Beest, Floris M; Brook, Ryan K

    2014-03-01

    Baiting and supplemental feeding of wildlife are widespread, yet highly controversial management practices, with important implications for ecosystems, livestock production, and potentially human health. An often underappreciated threat of such feeding practices is the potential to facilitate intra- and inter-specific disease transmission. We provide a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence of baiting and supplemental feeding on disease transmission risk in wildlife, with an emphasis on large herbivores in North America. While the objectives of supplemental feeding and baiting typically differ, the effects on disease transmission of these practices are largely the same. Both feeding and baiting provide wildlife with natural or non-natural food at specific locations in the environment, which can result in large congregations of individuals and species in a small area and increased local densities. Feeding can lead to increased potential for disease transmission either directly (via direct animal contact) or indirectly (via feed functioning as a fomite, spreading disease into the adjacent environment and to other animals). We identified numerous diseases that currently pose a significant concern to the health of individuals and species of large wild mammals across North America, the spread of which are either clearly facilitated or most likely facilitated by the application of supplemental feeding or baiting. Wildlife diseases also have important threats to human and livestock health. Although the risk of intra- and inter-species disease transmission likely increases when animals concentrate at feeding stations, only in a few cases was disease prevalence and transmission measured and compared between populations. Mostly these were experimental situations under controlled conditions, limiting direct scientific evidence that feeding practices exacerbates disease occurrence, exposure, transmission, and spread in the environment. Vaccination programs utilizing

  10. Restless Legs Syndrome: Current Concepts about Disease Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Brian B.; Bagai, Kanika; Walters, Arthur S.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the past few decades, much has been learned about the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Investigators have studied neuropathology, imaging, electrophysiology, and genetics of RLS, identifying brain regions and biological systems affected in RLS. This manuscript will review RLS pathophysiology literature, examining the RLS state through consideration of the neuroanatomy, then the biological, organ, and genetic systems. Methods Pubmed (1966 to April 2016) was searched for the term “restless legs syndrome” cross-referenced with “pathophysiology,” “pathogenesis,” “pathology,” or “imaging.” English language papers were reviewed. Studies that focused on RLS in relation to another disease were not reviewed. Results Although there are no gross structural brain abnormalities in RLS, widespread brain areas are activated, including the pre- and post-central gyri, cingulate cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum. Pathologically, the most consistent finding is striatal iron deficiency in RLS patients. A host of other biological systems are also altered in RLS, including the dopaminergic, oxygen-sensing, opioid, glutamatergic, and serotonergic systems. Polymorphisms in genes including BTBD9 and MEIS1 are associated with RLS. Discussion RLS is a neurologic sensorimotor disorder that involves pathology, most notably iron deficiency, in motor and sensory brain areas. Brain areas not subserving movement or sensation such as the cingulate cortex and cerebellum are also involved. Other biological systems including the dopaminergic, oxygen-sensing, opioid, glutamatergic, and serotonergic systems are involved. Further research is needed to determine which of these anatomic locations or biological systems are affected primarily, and which are affected in a secondary response. PMID:27536462

  11. Lactoferrin and oral diseases: current status and perspective in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Berlutti, Francesca; Pilloni, Andrea; Pietropaoli, Miriam; Polimeni, Antonella; Valenti, Piera

    2012-01-01

    Summary Lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-binding glycoprotein able to chelate two ferric ions per molecule, is a component of human secretions synthesized by exocrine glands and neutrophils in infection/inflammation sites. Lactoferrin in saliva represents an important defence factor against bacterial injuries including those related to Streptococcus mutans and periodontopathic bacteria through its ability to decrease bacterial growth, biofilm development, iron overload, reactive oxygen formation and inflammatory processes. A growing body of research suggests that inflammatory periodontal disease involves a failure of resolution pathways to restore tissue homeostasis. There is an important distinction between anti-inflammation and resolution; anti-inflammation is pharmacologic intervention in inflammatory pathways, whereas resolution involves biologic pathways restoring inflammatory homeostasis. An appropriate regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis might be useful in reducing periodontal tissue destruction. Recently, the multi-functional IL-6 is emerging as an important factor able to modulate bone, iron and inflammatory homeostasis. Here, we report an overview of Lf functions as well as for the first time Lf anti-inflammatory ability against periodontitis in in vitro model and observational clinical study. In in vitro model, represented by gingival fibroblasts infected with Prevotella intermedia, Lf exerted a potent anti-inflammatory activity. In the observational clinical trial performed through bovine Lf (bLf) topically administered to volunteers suffering from periodontitis, bLf decreased cytokines, including IL-6 in crevicular fluid, edema, bleeding, pocket depth, gingival and plaque index, thus improving clinical attachment levels. Even if other clinical trials are required, these results provide strong evidence for a instead of an therapeutic potential of this multifunctional natural protein. PMID:22545184

  12. Current trends in the management of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, B.; Glinoer, D.; Lagasse, R.; Wartofsky, L. )

    1990-06-01

    Members of the American Thyroid Association were invited to participate in a survey of the management of Graves' disease. One primary case and several variations were provided, which differed in respect to age, sex, goiter size, severity, etc. The questionnaire was based on the format used in a similar survey of members of the European Thyroid Association. The aim of the survey was to determine (1) how expert thyroidologist employ diagnostic procedures for this disorder, and (2) the choice of therapy of the three treatment options and its manner of implementation. Questionnaires were sent only to clinically active members. The overall response rate was 62%. Data analysis was possible on 52% of members surveyed and was performed using SPSS and a specific Fortran program. In the laboratory evaluation of the primary case a radioiodine uptake, scan, serum total T4, and basal TSH were requested by 92%, 47%, 83%, and 66%, respectively, with 84% of respondents using an ultrasensitive TSH assay. For management of the primary case, radioiodine treatment was the first choice of 69% of the respondents. Antithyroid drugs were used briefly (3-7 days) before 131I by 28%, whereas 41% said they would employ thioureas after 131I. Of those using 131I, 66% tailored the dose to achieve euthyroidism as the goal of therapy, while 34% aimed for hypothyroidism requiring T4 replacement. Only 30% of respondents chose thioureas as a first line of treatment (72% propylthiouracil; 28% tapazole). The duration of drug therapy was a predetermined fixed interval for 80% of the respondents, with 90% treating for 1-2 yr. Other specific trends in diagnostic approach and therapeutic preferences were identified for the eight variations on the primary case problem.

  13. Current Status of Interventional Radiology Treatment of Infrapopliteal Arterial Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, T.; Uberoi, R.

    2013-06-15

    Treatment of infrapopliteal arteries has developed to a standard technique during the past two decades. With the introduction of innovative devices, a variety of techniques has been created and is still under investigation. Treatment options range from plain balloon angioplasty (POBA), all sorts of stent applications, such as bare metal, balloon expanding, self-expanding, coated and drug-eluting stents, and bio-absorbable stents, to latest developments, such as drug-eluting balloons. Regarding the scientific background, several prospective, randomized studies with relevant numbers of patients have been (or will be) published that are Level I evidence. In contrast to older studies, which primarily were based mostly on numeric parameters, such as diameters or residual stenoses, more recent study concepts focus increasingly on clinical features, such as amputation rate improvement or changes of clinical stages and quality of life standards. Although it is still not decided, which of the individual techniques might be the best one, we can definitely conclude that whatever treatment of infrapopliteal arteries will be used it is of substantial benefit for the patient. Therefore, the goal of this review is to give an overview about the current developments and techniques for the treatment of infrapopliteal arteries, to present clinical and technical results, to weigh individual techniques, and to discuss the recent developments.

  14. Management of North American Culicoides biting midges: Current knowledge and research needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of two important viruses infecting North American ruminants: bluetongue (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHDV). While these viruses have been identified for over 60 years, we still lack an adequate understanding of t...

  15. A systematic review of the public's knowledge and understanding of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Suzanne; Pierce, Maria; Werner, Perla; Darley, Andrew; Bobersky, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a systematic review of the literature on the general public's knowledge and understanding of dementia/Alzheimer's disease. The key purpose of the review was to evaluate existing literature with specific attention paid to conceptual and methodological issues and to key findings. Over a 20-year period, 40 published articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. Only 4 of these were qualitative and 5 were cross-national. The review revealed a lack of consistency across studies regarding how knowledge was operationalized, approaches to sampling, response rates, and data collection instruments used including validated scales. A consistent finding across the vast majority of studies was the only fair to moderate knowledge and understanding the general public had. The most common misconception was that dementia was a normal part of aging and there was a lack of clarity about at which point normal age-related memory loss problems become severe enough to indicate dementia. Knowledge of dementia was found to be particularly poor among racial and ethnic minority groups where several myths about causes of dementia were found. Findings point to the need for more educational and advocacy programmes on dementia to be developed particularly in low-income to middle-income countries.

  16. Update on Legionnaires' disease and cooling systems: Case history reviews -- What happened/what to do and current guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Puckorius, P.R.

    1999-07-01

    Along with a brief history of Legionnaires' disease, this paper presents a detailed review of several outbreaks in the US since 1995 relative to cooling tower systems. Discussion of these systems, water treatment programs before the outbreaks, important system design and operation considerations, investigative finds, and corrective actions after the outbreaks are given in detail. What happened can be a lesson on what should be done. Specific guidelines, incorporating current knowledge and practices in cooling tower water treatment, LB testing, system operation, and verification of treatment application, are provided.

  17. Gender differences in knowledge, intentions, and behaviors concerning pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease prevention among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Leland, N L; Barth, R P

    1992-11-01

    Gender differences in knowledge, intentions, and behaviors regarding preventing pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases were studied. Data for the study were collected from 1,033 students in 13 California high schools. Females in this sample were more likely than males to have discussed sexuality topics with parents, to have engaged in sexual intercourse more frequently, to have experienced a pregnancy scare, to have used oral contraceptives during their last sexual encounter, to perceive that a larger proportion of their peers were engaging in sex and using birth control, to obtain birth control from health facilities, and to report intentions to abstain or use protection in hypothetical situations placing them at risk for unprotected sex. In contrast, males reported that they were more likely to have always used birth control, to have used birth control during their first sexual encounter, and to have used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Furthermore, males were more likely to obtain birth control from a store or a friend. Finally, males knew more about using condoms correctly and their role in preventing sexually transmitted diseases. The efficacy of interventions designed to reduce unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents may be increased by addressing these gender differences. Understanding gender differences may also facilitate an increased role for males in the overall prevention scheme. Further research is clearly needed to increase knowledge about these gender differences.

  18. Learning from local knowledge to improve disease surveillance: perceptions of the guinea worm illness experience.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Kendall, C

    1992-12-01

    Surveillance is an essential tool in any campaign to eradicate disease; guinea worm (dracunculiasis), which is targeted for eradication before the year 2000, is no exception. One criterion of an eradicable disease is that it be easy to recognize as the program advances. Few experts doubt that the experience of a meter-long subcutaneous worm protruding through a painful ulcer can be missed or confused with another disease, thus ensuring that guinea worm meets this criterion. Field experiences of anthropologists and health educators have shown that one should never assume that community perceptions of illness experience coincide fully with medical case definitions of disease. This paper describes efforts to learn how the Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria perceive sobia, the local name for guinea worm. Qualitative methods including informal interview, village discussion and participant observation were used to discern a pattern of illness presentation and progression. Interestingly, local perceptions were found to include a variety of illness manifestations beyond the common clinical case definition of an emergent worm, thus creating the potential for a high level of false positive reports. Local knowledge was then used to design a pilot project that trained volunteers to become part of the surveillance network for the national eradication program. The volunteers, who were largely illiterate, were able to distinguish between cultural and clinical definitions, and submit quite accurate reports on the guinea worm status of their villages. Among the 164 volunteers, only two submitted false reports due to incorrect disease definition. In contrast local government health workers who were conducting village searches during the same period were significantly more likely to register false positive reports. The culturally sensitive training based on local knowledge received by the village volunteers is thought to have contributed to their superior performance.

  19. Current understanding of the literate versus illiterate patient's knowledge about anesthesiologists: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Parul; Khurana, Gurjeet; Bharadwaj, Ashuma; Mallik, Sanjay; Oberoi, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Context: There is a widespread ignorance among the public about the role of anesthesiologists and their responsibilities inside or outside the operating room both in developed and developing countries. Aims: The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of literate and illiterate patient about the role of anesthesiologists and their concerns regarding anesthesiology. Setting and Design: This is a prospective study conducted in a preoperative anesthetic clinic of a large tertiary care hospital. The study consisted of a standard preanesthetic interview and questionnaire. Materials and Methods: After obtaining permission from the Ethics committee, patients in the age group 18–75 years of either sex undergoing elective surgery were included. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of their education: Group A: included patient who are illiterate; Group B: included patients who are literate, completed a questionnaire, which was later evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t test and correlation r test were used. Results: There was limited knowledge among both literates and illiterates regarding the perioperative role of anesthesiologists. They wanted to be fully explained about the anesthesiology technique and were keen to meet their anesthesiologist both before and after the surgery. Conclusion: To eliminate the ignorance among general public regarding the role of anesthesiologists, efforts must be made to educate and generate awareness among the population. PMID:25885722

  20. Current progress in the management of rare diseases and orphan drugs in China

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shiwei; Jin, Si

    2012-01-01

    Summary Currently, the issues of how to treat rare diseases and to improve accessibility to orphan drugs are arousing more and more concerns in China. Here we describe the push and pull incentive policies for rare diseases and orphan drugs and analyze the coverage and reimbursement level of rare diseases in the current Chinese medical insurance system. Three key obstacle factors that hinder Chinese patients' accessibility to timely drug treatment are summarized. Based on a comprehensive analysis, the measures of orphan drugs legislation, incentive mechanism, supply mechanism, and reimbursement mechanism are urgently expected to be established with the purpose of improving healthcare for patients with rare diseases in China. PMID:25343073

  1. Review article: Intrapartum neuraxial analgesia and breastfeeding outcomes: limitations of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Ashley L

    2013-02-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the relationship between intrapartum neuraxial analgesia, particularly epidural fentanyl, and breastfeeding, substantial study design limitations have precluded the current literature from furnishing strong, clinically significant conclusions. Lack of randomized controlled trials, nonstandardization of breastfeeding evaluations across studies, and failure to control for confounding variables all pose significant problems. Further research is needed to elucidate the specific relationship between neuraxial opioids and breastfeeding and, if there are significant associations, whether these drugs act directly on neonatal brain tissue to attenuate exhibition of breastfeeding behaviors. In this review, I will detail the deficiencies of the current literature and make recommendations for future research. PMID:23302971

  2. Recommending flavanols and procyanidins for cardiovascular health: current knowledge and future needs.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Hagen; Heiss, Christian; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Keen, Carl L; Lupton, Joanne R; Schmitz, Harold H

    2010-12-01

    Data on the potential health benefits of dietary flavanols and procyanidins, especially in the context of cardiovascular health, are considerable and continue to accumulate. Significant progress has been made in flavanol analytics and the creation of phytonutrient-content food databases, and novel data emanated from epidemiological investigations as well as dietary intervention studies. However, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological properties of flavanols and procyanidins, including their precise mechanisms of action in vivo, and a conclusive, consensus-based accreditation of a causal relationship between intake and health benefits in the context of primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention is still outstanding. Thus, the objective of this review is to identify and discuss key questions and gaps that will need to be addressed in order to conclusively demonstrate whether or not dietary flavanols and procyanidins have a role in preventing, delaying the onset of, or treating cardiovascular diseases, and thus improving human life expectancy and quality of life.

  3. Proteomic study of acute respiratory distress syndrome: current knowledge and implications for drug development.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Joseph E; Rogers, Angela J

    2016-05-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common cause of acute respiratory failure, and is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity. Dozens of clinical trials targeting ARDS have failed, with no drug specifically targeting lung injury in widespread clinical use. Thus, the need for drug development in ARDS is great. Targeted proteomic studies in ARDS have identified many key pathways in the disease, including inflammation, epithelial injury, endothelial injury or activation, and disordered coagulation and repair. Recent studies reveal the potential for proteomic changes to identify novel subphenotypes of ARDS patients who may be most likely to respond to therapy and could thus be targeted for enrollment in clinical trials. Nontargeted studies of proteomics in ARDS are just beginning and have the potential to identify novel drug targets and key pathways in the disease. Proteomics will play an important role in phenotyping of patients and developing novel therapies for ARDS in the future. PMID:27031735

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus superinfection and recombination: current state of knowledge and potential clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Blackard, Jason T; Cohen, Daniel E; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2002-04-15

    Superinfection with multiple strains or subtypes of the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses has been documented. Recent increases in the prevalences of both unprotected anal intercourse and sexually transmitted diseases among men who have sex with men indicate that these men continue to practice unsafe sex and, therefore, are at risk for superinfection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recurrent exposure to HIV among seropositive individuals who engage in high-risk behaviors can have serious consequences, because superinfection is a necessary first step for viral recombination to occur. Recombination may produce more virulent viruses, drug-resistant viruses, or viruses with altered cell tropism. Additionally, recombinant viruses and superinfection can accelerate disease progression and increase the likelihood of sexual transmission by increasing virus load in the blood and genital tract. The extent of superinfection and recombination in persons living with HIV is unknown. The implications of HIV superinfection and the generation of recombinant viruses are discussed. PMID:11915000

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Heart Disease Knowledge Scale: Evidence from Item and Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Bee Chiu; Kueh, Yee Cheng; Arifin, Wan Nor; Ng, Kok Huan

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart disease knowledge is an important concept for health education, yet there is lack of evidence on proper validated instruments used to measure levels of heart disease knowledge in the Malaysian context. Methods A cross-sectional, survey design was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the adapted English version of the Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (HDKQ). Using proportionate cluster sampling, 788 undergraduate students at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia, were recruited and completed the HDKQ. Item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for the psychometric evaluation. Construct validity of the measurement model was included. Results Most of the students were Malay (48%), female (71%), and from the field of science (51%). An acceptable range was obtained with respect to both the difficulty and discrimination indices in the item analysis results. The difficulty index ranged from 0.12–0.91 and a discrimination index of ≥ 0.20 were reported for the final retained 23 items. The final CFA model showed an adequate fit to the data, yielding a 23-item, one-factor model [weighted least squares mean and variance adjusted scaled chi-square difference = 1.22, degrees of freedom = 2, P-value = 0.544, the root mean square error of approximation = 0.03 (90% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.04); close-fit P-value = > 0.950]. Conclusion Adequate psychometric values were obtained for Malaysian undergraduate university students using the 23-item, one-factor model of the adapted HDKQ. PMID:27660543

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Heart Disease Knowledge Scale: Evidence from Item and Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Bee Chiu; Kueh, Yee Cheng; Arifin, Wan Nor; Ng, Kok Huan

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart disease knowledge is an important concept for health education, yet there is lack of evidence on proper validated instruments used to measure levels of heart disease knowledge in the Malaysian context. Methods A cross-sectional, survey design was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the adapted English version of the Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (HDKQ). Using proportionate cluster sampling, 788 undergraduate students at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia, were recruited and completed the HDKQ. Item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for the psychometric evaluation. Construct validity of the measurement model was included. Results Most of the students were Malay (48%), female (71%), and from the field of science (51%). An acceptable range was obtained with respect to both the difficulty and discrimination indices in the item analysis results. The difficulty index ranged from 0.12–0.91 and a discrimination index of ≥ 0.20 were reported for the final retained 23 items. The final CFA model showed an adequate fit to the data, yielding a 23-item, one-factor model [weighted least squares mean and variance adjusted scaled chi-square difference = 1.22, degrees of freedom = 2, P-value = 0.544, the root mean square error of approximation = 0.03 (90% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.04); close-fit P-value = > 0.950]. Conclusion Adequate psychometric values were obtained for Malaysian undergraduate university students using the 23-item, one-factor model of the adapted HDKQ.

  7. Microbiology of Wind-eroded Sediments: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion is a threat to the sustainability and productivity of soils that takes place at local, regional, and global scales. Current estimates of cost of wind erosion have not included the costs associated with the loss of soil biodiversity and reduced ecosystem functions. Microorganisms carrie...

  8. The State of Knowledge of Outdoor Orientation Programs: Current Practices, Research, and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Brent J.; Gass, Michael A.; Nafziger, Christopher S.; Starbuck, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor orientation programs represent a prominent area of experiential education with over 25,000 participants annually. More than 191 outdoor orientation programs currently operate in the United States and Canada. The research examining outdoor orientation programs consists of 25 peer-reviewed published studies and 11 dissertations. A new theory…

  9. Beliefs about Language Learning: Current Knowledge, Pedagogical Implications, and New Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernat, Eva; Gvozdenko, Inna

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues for an interdisciplinary approach to beliefs about language learning research, and suggests that current studies in this area do not go far enough to examine the extent to which stable factors, such as individual learner differences, account for the nature of beliefs. Next, it elucidates how cognitive and personality psychology…

  10. Gene therapy for chronic granulomatous disease: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Kerstin B; Chiriaco, Maria; Siler, Ulrich; Finocchi, Andrea; Reichenbach, Janine; Stein, Stefan; Grez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Several Phase I/II clinical trials aiming at the correction of X-linked CGD by gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of gene modified autologous HSCs for the treatment of CGD. Resolution of therapy-resistant bacterial and fungal infections in liver, lung and spinal canal of CGD patients were clearly documented in all trials. However, clinical benefits were not sustained over time due to the failure of gene transduced cells to engraft long-term. Moreover, severe adverse effects were observed in some of the treated patients due to insertional mutagenesis leading to the activation of growth promoting genes and to myeloid malignancy. These setbacks fostered the development of novel safety and efficacy improved vectors that have already entered or are about to enter the clinics. Meanwhile, ongoing research is constantly refining the CGD disease phenotype, including the definition of factors that may explain the unique engraftment phenotype observed in CGD gene therapy trials. This review provides a condensed overview on the current knowledge of the molecular pathomechanisms and clinical manifestations of CGD and summarizes the lessons learned from clinical gene therapy trials, the preclinical progress in vector design and the future perspectives for the gene therapy of CGD.

  11. Facilitating superior chronic disease management through a knowledge-based systems development model.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Nilmini S; Goldberg, Steve

    2008-01-01

    To date, the adoption and diffusion of technology-enabled solutions to deliver better healthcare has been slow. There are many reasons for this. One of the most significant is that the existing methodologies that are normally used in general for Information and Communications Technology (ICT) implementations tend to be less successful in a healthcare context. This paper describes a knowledge-based adaptive mapping to realisation methodology to traverse successfully from idea to realisation rapidly and without compromising rigour so that success ensues. It is discussed in connection with trying to implement superior ICT-enabled approaches to facilitate superior Chronic Disease Management (CDM).

  12. The invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus: current knowledge and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Gasperi, Giuliano; Chen, Xioaguang; James, Anthony A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most dynamic events in public health is being mediated by the global spread of the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus. Its rapid expansion and vectorial capacity for various arboviruses affect an increasingly larger proportion of the world population. Responses to the challenges of controlling this vector are expected to be enhanced by an increased knowledge of its biology, ecology, and vector competence. Details of population genetics and structure will allow following, and possibly predicting, the geographical and temporal dynamics of its expansion, and will inform the practical operations of control programs. Experts are coming together now to describe the history, characterize the present circumstances, and collaborate on future efforts to understand and mitigate this emerging public health threat. PMID:23916878

  13. Gender-Specific Research on Mental Illness in the Emergency Department: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Megan L.; Locci, Natalie; Adams, Erica J.; Betz, Marian; Burmeister, David B.; Corbin, Ted; Dalawari, Preeti; Jacoby, Jeanne L.; Linden, Judith; Purtle, Jonathan; North, Carol; Houry, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Mental illness is a growing, and largely unaddressed, problem for the population and for emergency department (ED) patients in particular. Extensive literature outlines sex and gender differences in mental illness’ epidemiology and risk and protective factors. Few studies, however, examined sex and gender differences in screening, diagnosis, and management of mental illness in the ED setting. Our consensus group used the nominal group technique to outline major gaps in knowledge and research priorities for these areas, including the influence of violence and other risk factors on the course of mental illness for ED patients. Our consensus group urges the pursuit of this research in general, and conscious use of a gender lens when conducting, analyzing, and authoring future ED-based investigations of mental illness. PMID:25413369

  14. Immunotherapies Targeting Fish Mucosal Immunity – Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Koshio, Shunsuke

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, studies on the mucosal immunity in fish species have shown much progress. Although there are some organs such as skin, gills, and gut are directly associated with the mucosal immunity of fish species, this mini review emphasizes the general knowledge on the role and production figures of skin mucus and factors affecting the secretion of skin mucus of fish species. As the skin mucus of fish species is the first defense line for protection against invading microorganisms such as pathogens (bacteria, virus), parasites, etc., the information for understanding the roles of the skin mucus is very important. Furthermore, the information in the review will shed light on the development of high quality aquafeeds for the sustainable aquaculture field as well. PMID:26779184

  15. Mapping fire effects on ash and soil properties. Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Strielko, Irina

    2014-05-01

    floor consumption (Lewis et al., 2011), ash cover (Robichaud et al., 2007) and other aspects related with soil as the vegetation factors that affect post-fire erosion risk (Fox et al., 2008). Field studies had also indented to estimate and map the impacts of fire in soil properties. Contrary to remote sensing studies, the mapping of fire effects on ash and soil properties in the field is specially carried out at small scale (e.g. slope or plot). The small scale resolution studies are important because identify small patterns that are normally ignored by remote sensing studies, but fundamental to understand the post-fire evolution of the burned areas. One of the important aspects of the small scale studies of fire effect on ash and soil properties is the great spatial variability, showing that the impact of fire is extremely heterogeneous in space and time (Outeiro et al., 2008; Pereira et al. in press). The small scale mapping of fire effects on soil properties normally is carried out using Geostatistical methods or using deterministic interpolation methods (Robichaud and Miller, 1999; Pereira et al., 2013). Several reports were published on the spatial distribution and mapping of ash and duff thickness (Robichaud and Miller, 1999; Pereira et al., 2013; Pereira et al. in press), fire severity (Pereira et al., 2014), ash chemical characteristics as total nitrogen (Pereira et al., 2010a), and ash extractable elements (Pereira et al., 2010b). Also, previous works mapped fire effects on soil temperature (Gimeno-Garcia et al., 2004), soil hydrophobicity (Woods et al., 2007), total nitrogen (Hirobe et al., 2003), phosphorous (Rodriguez et al., 2009) and major cations (Outeiro et al., 2008). It is important to integrate remote sensing and field based works of fire effects on ash and soil properties in order to have a better validation of the models predicted. The aim of this work is present the current knowledge about mapping fire effects in ash and soil properties at diverse

  16. Patterns of regional brain hypometabolism associated with knowledge of semantic features and categories in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Roland; Garrard, Peter; Talazko, Jochen; Gondan, Matthias; Bubrowski, Philine; Juengling, Freimut; Slawik, Helen; Dykierek, Petra; Koester, Bernd; Hull, Michael

    2006-12-01

    The study of semantic memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has raised important questions about the representation of conceptual knowledge in the human brain. It is still unknown whether semantic memory impairments are caused by localized damage to specialized regions or by diffuse damage to distributed representations within nonspecialized brain areas. To our knowledge, there have been no direct correlations of neuroimaging of in vivo brain function in AD with performance on tasks differentially addressing visual and functional knowledge of living and nonliving concepts. We used a semantic verification task and resting 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a group of mild to moderate AD patients to investigate this issue. The four task conditions required semantic knowledge of (1) visual, (2) functional properties of living objects, and (3) visual or (4) functional properties of nonliving objects. Visual property verification of living objects was significantly correlated with left posterior fusiform gyrus metabolism (Brodmann's area [BA] 37/19). Effects of visual and functional property verification for non-living objects largely overlapped in the left anterior temporal (BA 38/20) and bilateral premotor areas (BA 6), with the visual condition extending more into left lateral precentral areas. There were no associations with functional property verification for living concepts. Our results provide strong support for anatomically separable representations of living and nonliving concepts, as well as visual feature knowledge of living objects, and against distributed accounts of semantic memory that view visual and functional features of living and nonliving objects as distributed across a common set of brain areas. PMID:17129196

  17. Targeting brain α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in Alzheimer's disease: rationale and current status.

    PubMed

    Vallés, Ana Sofía; Borroni, María Virginia; Barrantes, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older persons. Pathognomonic hallmarks of the disease include the development of amyloid senile plaques and deposits of neurofibrillary tangles. These changes occur in the brain long before the clinical manifestations of AD (cognitive impairment in particular) become apparent. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), particularly the α7 subtype, are highly expressed in brain regions relevant to cognitive and memory functions and involved in the processing of sensory information. There is strong evidence that implicates the participation of AChRs in AD. This review briefly introduces current strategies addressing the pathophysiologic findings (amyloid-β-peptide plaques, neurofibrillary tangles) and then focuses on more recent efforts of pharmacologic intervention in AD, specifically targeted to the α7 AChR. Whereas cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine, together with the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine are at the forefront of present-day clinical intervention for AD, new insights into AChR molecular pharmacology are bringing other drugs, directed at AChRs, to center stage. Among these are the positive allosteric modulators that selectively target α7 AChRs and are aimed at unleashing the factors that hinder agonist-mediated, α7 AChR channel activation. This calls for more detailed knowledge of the distribution, functional properties, and involvement of AChRs in various signaling cascades-together with the corresponding abnormalities in all these properties-to be able to engineer strategies in drug design and evaluate the therapeutic possibilities of new compounds targeting this class of neurotransmitter receptors. PMID:25248971

  18. Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: Current State of Knowledge, New Developments and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Biteker, Murat; Kayataş, Kadir; Duman, Dursun; Turkmen, Muhsin; Bozkurt, Biykem

    2014-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a form of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy affecting women in late pregnancy or early puerperium. Although initially described in the late 1800s, it has only recently been recognized as a distinct cardiac condition. The reported incidence and prognosis varies according to geography. The clinical course varies between complete recovery to rapid progression to chronic heart failure, heart transplantation or death. In spite of significant improvements in understanding the pathophysiology and management of the PPCM many features of this unique disease are poorly understood, including incidence, etiology, epidemiology, pathophysiology, predictors of prognosis and optimal therapy. The present article revisits these concepts and recent advances in PPCM. PMID:24646160

  19. [Psychogenic NonEpileptic Seizures: Current Knowledge and Contributions of the Study of Emotions].

    PubMed

    Rutka, Roman; Denis, Anne; Vercueil, Laurent; Hot, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are paroxysmal attacks that can imitate epileptic seizures but do not have a neurological origin. There has been mounting interest these last few years to unravel psychological and neuronal factors that contribute to the development of PNES. The objective of this review is twofold. First, we examine recent contributions of clinical and researches studies to define the main features of PNES. Then, we focus on the possible link between changes in processing of emotional information and the onset of PNES. In this article, we identify promising directions for future research and argue that affective neuroscience may provide original findings to better understand this disease. PMID:27570954

  20. Pancreatic cystic neoplasms: Review of current knowledge, diagnostic challenges, and management options

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Tanima; Shroff, Jennifer; Bhutani, Manoop S.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesions are being detected with increasing frequency, largely due to advances in cross-sectional imaging. The most common neoplasms include serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystic neoplasms, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic pancreatic endocrine neoplasms. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are currently used as imaging modalities. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration has proved to be a useful diagnostic tool, and enables an assessment of tumor markers, cytology, chemistries, and DNA analysis. Here, we review the current literature on pancreatic cystic neoplasms, including classification, diagnosis, treatment, and recommendations for surveillance. Data for this manuscript was acquired via searching the literature from inception to December 2014 on PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE. PMID:25821410

  1. Current knowledge on evidence-based shockwave treatments for shoulder pathology.

    PubMed

    Moya, Daniel; Ramón, Silvia; Guiloff, Leonardo; Gerdesmeyer, Ludger

    2015-12-01

    Shoulder pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal pathologies. Treatment by ESWT (extracorporeal shockwave therapy) has emerged as an alternative when conservative treatment fails in rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy, prior to invasive procedures. The clinical efficacy of ESWT in non-calcific tendinopathy remains controversial. The good results in the treatment of rotator cuff calcifications, have led to indications of ESWT being expanded to other shoulder pathologies. We review the current state of indications and evidence based practice.

  2. Academic health center management of chronic diseases through knowledge networks: Project ECHO.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sanjeev; Geppert, Cynthia M A; Kalishman, Summers; Dion, Denise; Pullara, Frank; Bjeletich, Barbara; Simpson, Gary; Alverson, Dale C; Moore, Lori B; Kuhl, Dave; Scaletti, Joseph V

    2007-02-01

    The authors describe an innovative academic health center (AHC)-led program of health care delivery and clinical education for the management of complex, common, and chronic diseases in underserved areas, using hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a model. The program, based at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, represents a paradigm shift in thinking and funding for the threefold mission of AHCs, moving from traditional fee-for-service models to public health funding of knowledge networks. This program, Project Extension for Community Health care Outcomes (ECHO), involves a partnership of academic medicine, public health offices, corrections departments, and rural community clinics dedicated to providing best practices and protocol-driven health care in rural areas. Telemedicine and Internet connections enable specialists in the program to comanage patients with complex diseases, using case-based knowledge networks and learning loops. Project ECHO partners (nurse practitioners, primary care physicians, physician assistants, and pharmacists) present HCV-positive patients during weekly two-hour telemedicine clinics using a standardized, case-based format that includes discussion of history, physical examination, test results, treatment complications, and psychiatric, medical, and substance abuse issues. In these case-based learning clinics, partners rapidly gain deep domain expertise in HCV as they collaborate with university specialists in hepatology, infectious disease, psychiatry, and substance abuse in comanaging their patients. Systematic monitoring of treatment outcomes is an integral aspect of the project. The authors believe this methodology will be generalizable to other complex and chronic conditions in a wide variety of underserved areas to improve disease outcomes, and it offers an opportunity for AHCs to enhance and expand their traditional mission of teaching, patient care, and research.

  3. Survey of public knowledge about digestive health and diseases: implications for health education.

    PubMed Central

    Kreps, G L; Ruben, B D; Baker, M W; Rosenthal, S R

    1987-01-01

    Increasing emphasis in recent years has been placed on health promotion, prevention, and the self-management of health care. These strategies presume the public has sufficient levels of relevant health information, as well as necessary attitudes and skills for the effective use of this information in the management of their own health care. This study tests this assumption as it relates to the level of public knowledge of digestive health and disease, a major health concern affecting an estimated 1 in 10 Americans. This paper reports results of a telephone survey of a representative national sample administered to 1,250 Americans in May 1983 that was designed to assess their level of information about digestive health and disease, comfort in communicating about digestive problems, and preference for health information sources. The results indicate that the American public is largely uninformed and misinformed about digestive health and disease, and they underscore the need for disseminating relevant health information about digestive health and disease to the public to facilitate prevention of digestive health problems and self-management of digestive health care. Health information dissemination is severely complicated by the widespread stigma associated with digestive topics, manifested in the American public's general discomfort in communicating with others about digestive health. These factors necessitate development of sensitive and pervasive digestive health promotion and education programs in the United States. PMID:3108942

  4. Extraction of chemical-induced diseases using prior knowledge and textual information.

    PubMed

    Pons, Ewoud; Becker, Benedikt F H; Akhondi, Saber A; Afzal, Zubair; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    We describe our approach to the chemical-disease relation (CDR) task in the BioCreative V challenge. The CDR task consists of two subtasks: automatic disease-named entity recognition and normalization (DNER), and extraction of chemical-induced diseases (CIDs) from Medline abstracts. For the DNER subtask, we used our concept recognition tool Peregrine, in combination with several optimization steps. For the CID subtask, our system, which we named RELigator, was trained on a rich feature set, comprising features derived from a graph database containing prior knowledge about chemicals and diseases, and linguistic and statistical features derived from the abstracts in the CDR training corpus. We describe the systems that were developed and present evaluation results for both subtasks on the CDR test set. For DNER, our Peregrine system reached anF-score of 0.757. For CID, the system achieved anF-score of 0.526, which ranked second among 18 participating teams. Several post-challenge modifications of the systems resulted in substantially improvedF-scores (0.828 for DNER and 0.602 for CID). RELigator is available as a web service athttp://biosemantics.org/index.php/software/religator. PMID:27081155

  5. Extraction of chemical-induced diseases using prior knowledge and textual information

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Ewoud; Becker, Benedikt F.H.; Akhondi, Saber A.; Afzal, Zubair; van Mulligen, Erik M.; Kors, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe our approach to the chemical–disease relation (CDR) task in the BioCreative V challenge. The CDR task consists of two subtasks: automatic disease-named entity recognition and normalization (DNER), and extraction of chemical-induced diseases (CIDs) from Medline abstracts. For the DNER subtask, we used our concept recognition tool Peregrine, in combination with several optimization steps. For the CID subtask, our system, which we named RELigator, was trained on a rich feature set, comprising features derived from a graph database containing prior knowledge about chemicals and diseases, and linguistic and statistical features derived from the abstracts in the CDR training corpus. We describe the systems that were developed and present evaluation results for both subtasks on the CDR test set. For DNER, our Peregrine system reached an F-score of 0.757. For CID, the system achieved an F-score of 0.526, which ranked second among 18 participating teams. Several post-challenge modifications of the systems resulted in substantially improved F-scores (0.828 for DNER and 0.602 for CID). RELigator is available as a web service at http://biosemantics.org/index.php/software/religator. PMID:27081155

  6. [Current knowledge on the action of retinoids in carcinoma of the head and neck].

    PubMed

    Dolivet, G; Ton Van, J; Sarini, J; Wattel, E; Lagarde, P; Chomy, F; Lefebvre, J L

    1996-01-01

    The retinoids are a pharmacologic class based on the vitamin A or retinol. The most known related derivatives are the all-trans (ATRA), 13 and 9 Cis retinoic acids. The antitumor and differenciative activities have been demonstrated in: in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies. In head and neck cancers, the clinical phase III trials in chemoprevention of second primary tumors have shown discordant results related to the type of retinoic acid. Nuclear retinoic acid receptors are members of the steroid-thyroid and vitamin D3 superfamily of nuclear receptors which regulate differenciation proliferation and apoptosis in cooperation with mediated proteins of the apoptosis (especially p53 protein). A thorough knowledge on the earlier mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis of squamous cell carcinomas would lead to futur reversal therapy with the reversal of pathologic to normal tissues by the restauration of mechanisms of the physiologic control. This futur clinical trial research could provide cancer prevention and control by the induction of cellular differentiation rather than proliferation (retinoids) and/or the expression of tumor-suppressor genes (p53 protein transfection). Finally, the retinoids treatment should be performed in control studies because of the toxicity at high doses.

  7. Terrestrial movement energetics: current knowledge and its application to the optimising animal.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Lewis G

    2016-05-15

    The energetic cost of locomotion can be a substantial proportion of an animal's daily energy budget and thus key to its ecology. Studies on myriad species have added to our knowledge about the general cost of animal movement, including the effects of variations in the environment such as terrain angle. However, further such studies might provide diminishing returns on the development of a deeper understanding of how animals trade-off the cost of movement with other energy costs, and other ecological currencies such as time. Here, I propose the 'individual energy landscape' as an approach to conceptualising the choices facing the optimising animal. In this Commentary, first I outline previous broad findings about animal walking and running locomotion, focusing in particular on the use of net cost of transport as a metric of comparison between species, and then considering the effects of environmental perturbations and other extrinsic factors on movement costs. I then introduce and explore the idea that these factors combine with the behaviour of the animal in seeking short-term optimality to create that animal's individual energy landscape - the result of the geographical landscape and environmental factors combined with the animal's selected trade-offs. Considering an animal's locomotion energy expenditure within this context enables hard-won empirical data on transport costs to be applied to questions about how an animal can and does move through its environment to maximise its fitness, and the relative importance, or otherwise, of locomotion energy economy. PMID:27207950

  8. Historical first descriptions of Cajal–Retzius cells: from pioneer studies to current knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Vanessa; Nocentini, Sara; del Río, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal developed a great body of scientific research during the last decade of 19th century, mainly between 1888 and 1892, when he published more than 30 manuscripts. The neuronal theory, the structure of dendrites and spines, and fine microscopic descriptions of numerous neural circuits are among these studies. In addition, numerous cell types (neuronal and glial) were described by Ramón y Cajal during this time using this “reazione nera” or Golgi method. Among these neurons were the special cells of the molecular layer of the neocortex. These cells were also termed Cajal cells or Retzius cells by other colleagues. Today these cells are known as Cajal–Retzius cells. From the earliest description, several biological aspects of these fascinating cells have been analyzed (e.g., cell morphology, physiological properties, origin and cellular fate, putative function during cortical development, etc). In this review we will summarize in a temporal basis the emerging knowledge concerning this cell population with specific attention the pioneer studies of Santiago Ramón y Cajal. PMID:24904301

  9. Mesenchymal stem cell treatment for hemophilia: a review of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sokal, E M; Lombard, C; Mazza, G

    2015-06-01

    Hemophilia remains a non-curative disease, and patients are constrained to undergo repeated injections of clotting factors. In contrast, the sustained production of endogenous factors VIII (FVIII) or IX (FIX) by the patient's own cells could represent a curative treatment. Gene therapy has thus provided new hope for these patients. However, the issues surrounding the durability of expression and immune responses against gene transfer vectors remain. Cell therapy, involving stem cells expanded in vitro, can provide de novo protein synthesis and, if implanted successfully, could induce a steady-state production of low quantities of factors, which may keep the patient above the level required to prevent spontaneous bleeding. Liver-derived stem cells are already being assessed in clinical trials for inborn errors of metabolism and, in view of their capacity to produce FVIII and FIX in cell culture, they are now also being considered for clinical application in hemophilia patients.

  10. Thiamin deficiency and heart failure: the current knowledge and gaps in literature.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mavra; Azizi-Namini, Parastoo; Yan, Andrew T; Keith, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The management of heart failure (HF) represents a significant challenge for both patients as well as the healthcare system in industrialized countries. Thiamin is a required coenzyme in the energy-producing reactions that fuel myocardial contraction. Therefore, thiamin deficiency (TD) may contribute to myocardial weakness by limiting the energy available for contraction. Previous studies have reported a wide range in the prevalence of TD in patients with HF (3-91 %). The impact of thiamin supplementation in patients with HF is inconclusive. Studies conducted to date are limited by their small sample size, indirect methods of assessing thiamin concentration, methodological inconsistencies, use of impractical means of thiamin supplementation, a focus on hospitalized patients, and lack a robust technique for the assessment of cardiac function. Future large prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to improve our understanding of any change in nutritional requirements associated with chronic disease as well as the clinical benefit of supplementation.

  11. Thiomersal-containing vaccines - a review of the current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Gołoś, Aleksandra; Lutyńska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Thiomersal is an organomercury compound known for its antiseptic and antifungal properties and used as an antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical products, including vaccines and other injectable biological products. In recent years, concerns about the possible link between immunization with thiomersal-containing vaccines and autism development have grown. Many case-control and cohort studies have been conducted on a number of populations, and none of them have confirmed the hypothetical relation between thiomersal and increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) development. It is also confirmed by the fact, that since 1999, number of thiomersal-containing vaccines used worldwide is decreasing year by year, while the prevalence of ASDs cases is rising. There are no contraindications to the use of vaccines with thiomersal in infants, children and non-pregnant women. The risk of serious complications associated with the development of diseases in unvaccinated individuals far outweighs the potential risk of adverse consequences associated with immunization with thiomersal-containing vaccines.

  12. Combining machine learning, crowdsourcing and expert knowledge to detect chemical-induced diseases in text.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Àlex; Li, Tong Shu; Su, Andrew I; Good, Benjamin M; Furlong, Laura I

    2016-01-01

    Drug toxicity is a major concern for both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. In this context, text-mining methods for the identification of drug side effects from free text are key for the development of up-to-date knowledge sources on drug adverse reactions. We present a new system for identification of drug side effects from the literature that combines three approaches: machine learning, rule- and knowledge-based approaches. This system has been developed to address the Task 3.B of Biocreative V challenge (BC5) dealing with Chemical-induced Disease (CID) relations. The first two approaches focus on identifying relations at the sentence-level, while the knowledge-based approach is applied both at sentence and abstract levels. The machine learning method is based on the BeFree system using two corpora as training data: the annotated data provided by the CID task organizers and a new CID corpus developed by crowdsourcing. Different combinations of results from the three strategies were selected for each run of the challenge. In the final evaluation setting, the system achieved the highest Recall of the challenge (63%). By performing an error analysis, we identified the main causes of misclassifications and areas for improving of our system, and highlighted the need of consistent gold standard data sets for advancing the state of the art in text mining of drug side effects.Database URL: https://zenodo.org/record/29887?ln¼en#.VsL3yDLWR_V.

  13. Combining machine learning, crowdsourcing and expert knowledge to detect chemical-induced diseases in text.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Àlex; Li, Tong Shu; Su, Andrew I; Good, Benjamin M; Furlong, Laura I

    2016-01-01

    Drug toxicity is a major concern for both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. In this context, text-mining methods for the identification of drug side effects from free text are key for the development of up-to-date knowledge sources on drug adverse reactions. We present a new system for identification of drug side effects from the literature that combines three approaches: machine learning, rule- and knowledge-based approaches. This system has been developed to address the Task 3.B of Biocreative V challenge (BC5) dealing with Chemical-induced Disease (CID) relations. The first two approaches focus on identifying relations at the sentence-level, while the knowledge-based approach is applied both at sentence and abstract levels. The machine learning method is based on the BeFree system using two corpora as training data: the annotated data provided by the CID task organizers and a new CID corpus developed by crowdsourcing. Different combinations of results from the three strategies were selected for each run of the challenge. In the final evaluation setting, the system achieved the highest Recall of the challenge (63%). By performing an error analysis, we identified the main causes of misclassifications and areas for improving of our system, and highlighted the need of consistent gold standard data sets for advancing the state of the art in text mining of drug side effects.Database URL: https://zenodo.org/record/29887?ln¼en#.VsL3yDLWR_V. PMID:27307137

  14. Combining machine learning, crowdsourcing and expert knowledge to detect chemical-induced diseases in text

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Àlex; Li, Tong Shu; Su, Andrew I.; Good, Benjamin M.; Furlong, Laura I.

    2016-01-01

    Drug toxicity is a major concern for both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. In this context, text-mining methods for the identification of drug side effects from free text are key for the development of up-to-date knowledge sources on drug adverse reactions. We present a new system for identification of drug side effects from the literature that combines three approaches: machine learning, rule- and knowledge-based approaches. This system has been developed to address the Task 3.B of Biocreative V challenge (BC5) dealing with Chemical-induced Disease (CID) relations. The first two approaches focus on identifying relations at the sentence-level, while the knowledge-based approach is applied both at sentence and abstract levels. The machine learning method is based on the BeFree system using two corpora as training data: the annotated data provided by the CID task organizers and a new CID corpus developed by crowdsourcing. Different combinations of results from the three strategies were selected for each run of the challenge. In the final evaluation setting, the system achieved the highest Recall of the challenge (63%). By performing an error analysis, we identified the main causes of misclassifications and areas for improving of our system, and highlighted the need of consistent gold standard data sets for advancing the state of the art in text mining of drug side effects. Database URL: https://zenodo.org/record/29887?ln¼en#.VsL3yDLWR_V PMID:27307137

  15. Network Analysis of a Comprehensive Knowledge Repository Reveals a Dual Role for Ceramide in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Satoshi; Ogishima, Soichi; Kitatani, Kazuyuki; Kikuchi, Masataka; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Nakaya, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of senile dementia. Many inflammatory factors such as amyloid-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines are known to contribute to the inflammatory response in the AD brain. Sphingolipids are widely known to have roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, where the precise roles for sphingolipids in inflammation-associated pathogenesis of AD are not well understood. Here we performed a network analysis to clarify the importance of sphingolipids and to model relationships among inflammatory factors and sphingolipids in AD. In this study, we have updated sphingolipid signaling and metabolic cascades in a map of AD signaling networks that we named "AlzPathway," a comprehensive knowledge repository of signaling pathways in AD. Our network analysis of the updated AlzPathway indicates that the pathways related to ceramide are one of the primary pathways and that ceramide is one of the important players in the pathogenesis of AD. The results of our analysis suggest the following two prospects about inflammation in AD: (1) ceramide could play important roles in both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways of AD, and (2) several factors such as Sphingomyelinase and Siglec-11 may be associated with ceramide related inflammation and anti-inflammation pathways in AD. In this study, network analysis of comprehensive knowledge repository reveals a dual role for ceramide in AD. This result provides a clue to clarify sphingolipids related inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways in AD. PMID:26849355

  16. [Treatment of children with acute diarrheal disease. Knowledge and attitudes of the health personnel].

    PubMed

    Mota-Hernández, F; Zamora-Escudero, G

    1992-10-01

    Diarrheal diseases are still one of the most frequent causes of death due to dehydration in children; lack of information regarding the adequate treatment of diarrhea is the main cause. The results of an inquire sent to 620 physicians and nurses were analyzed to determine the knowledge and attitudes of the health care workers that reside in different diarrheal mortality areas in Mexico. The less professional experience time was correlated with more knowledge in etiology of diarrhea. More physicians than nurses had correct answers regarding the place of diarrheal diseases in child mortality and the correct use of antimicrobial, and other drugs and liquids to prevent and treat dehydration. Most workers did not know the inconvenience of hypertonic solutions to prevent dehydration and the importance of the oral solution flavor. This results suggest that nurses will, be included in clinical training by means of seminars in oral hydration therapy. Furthermore it seems convenient to increase the access to oral hydration solutions as well as the diffusion of its advantages.

  17. Awareness and knowledge of prophylaxis for infective endocarditis in patients with severe rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, B; Vayej, A C

    2013-03-01

    Prevention of infective endocardit s (IE) is mportant because it has a high mortalty rate.This study sets out to to gather information from patients who were at risk of developing IE of their knowledge of the need for prophylaxis for the disease. Forty-one black patients suffering from severe rheumatic heart disease (RHD) were interviewed. Only one patient (2.4%) was regularly visiting a dentist to maintain good oral health and only five (12.2%) had received advice about the need for antibiotic cover prior to dental extraction. The vast majority of patients (97.5%) visited a dentist only when driven by dental pain, 36.6 % had to travel for more than an hour to reach their nearest dentist, and 87.8% indicated that they brushed their teeth. It may be concluded that in this group of black patients with severe RHD there was a lack of knowledge of the need for and of measures recommended for prophylaxs against IE. In addition, attempts by the health care team to ensure good oral health and access to dental care for these patients were inadequate, if not non-existent. PMID:23951767

  18. Effects of antibiotics on acquired immunity in vivo--current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Pomorska-Mól, M; Pejsak, Z

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in the therapy of infections. Besides the respective interactions between antibiotics and pathogens it seems that antibiotics also directly interact with the immune system. Some commonly used antibiotics are currently known to have effects on the innate immune response, as shown by in vitro, ex vivo and also in vivo animal experiments and clinical studies. Most of the experimental papers published to date, as well as most reviews, relate to how antibiotics affect the innate immune response or non-specific monocyte or lymphocyte proliferation. However the effects of antibiotics on the adaptive immune response are still not well characterized. This review of the literature considering different in vivo experiments indicate the real importance of interrelations existing between acquired immune responses and antibiotics, however, the mechanism of immunomodulatory effects of antibiotics are still poorly understood. Currently, data on the immunomodulating effects of antibiotics often remain heterogeneous, contradictory or insufficient, but most results published to date revealed the immunosuppressive effect of antibiotics on the antigen-specific immune response in vivo. In pigs as well as in poultry herds, it is not uncommon practice to add antibiotics to drinking water or feed at the time of vaccination. Information on the effects of such practices on the immune system of animals is restricted and more in vivo studies are needed to investigate the effects of antimicrobial drugs on the immune system, especially in the field conditions.

  19. Environmental regulation of sex determination in oil palm: current knowledge and insights from other species

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Hélène; Collin, Myriam; Richaud, Frédérique; Beulé, Thierry; Cros, David; Omoré, Alphonse; Nodichao, Leifi; Nouy, Bruno; Tregear, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Background The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a monoecious species of the palm subfamily Arecoideae. It may be qualified as ‘temporally dioecious’ in that it produces functionally unisexual male and female inflorescences in an alternating cycle on the same plant, resulting in an allogamous mode of reproduction. The ‘sex ratio’ of an oil palm stand is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In particular, the enhancement of male inflorescence production in response to water stress has been well documented. Scope This paper presents a review of our current understanding of the sex determination process in oil palm and discusses possible insights that can be gained from other species. Although some informative phenological studies have been carried out, nothing is as yet known about the genetic basis of sex determination in oil palm, nor the mechanisms by which this process is regulated. Nevertheless new genomics-based techniques, when combined with field studies and biochemical and molecular cytological-based approaches, should provide a new understanding of the complex processes governing oil palm sex determination in the foreseeable future. Current hypotheses and strategies for future research are discussed. PMID:21712294

  20. Awareness and knowledge of common eye diseases among the academic staff (non-medical faculties) of University of Malaya.

    PubMed

    Chew, Y K; Reddy, S C; Karina, R

    2004-08-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of common eye diseases (cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and refractive errors) among 473 academic staff (non-medical faculties) of University Malaya. The awareness of cataract was in 88.2%, diabetic retinopathy in 83.5%, refractive errors in 75.3% and glaucoma in 71.5% of the study population. The knowledge about all the above common eye diseases was moderate, except presbyopia which was poor. Multivariate analysis revealed that females, older people, and those having family history of eye diseases were significantly more aware and more knowledgeable about the eye diseases. Health education about eye diseases would be beneficial to seek early treatment and prevent visual impairment in the society.

  1. Current knowledge and future research perspectives on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chemical defenses: An agroecological view.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Pareja, Martín; Ambrogi, Bianca G

    2016-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important staple crops worldwide. It constitutes the major source of carbohydrates for millions of low-income people living in rural areas, as well as a cash crop for smallholders in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations predicts that cassava plantations will increase and production systems will intensify in the future, highlighting the need for developing strategies that improve the sustainability of production. Plant chemical defenses hold the potential for developing pest management strategies, as these plant traits can influence the behavior and performance of both pests and beneficial arthropods. Cassava plants are well-defended and produce a number of compounds involved in direct defense, such as cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, and hydroxycoumarins. In addition, volatile organic compounds induced upon herbivory and the secretion of extrafloral nectar act as indirect defense against herbivores by recruiting natural enemies. Here, cassava chemical defenses against pest arthropods are reviewed, with the aim of identifying gaps in our knowledge and areas of research that deserve further investigation for developing sound pest control strategies to improve sustainable production of this crop, and how these defenses can be used to benefit other crops. Cyanogenic content in cassava is also highly toxic to humans, and can cause irreversible health problems even at sub-lethal doses when consumed over prolonged periods. Therefore, the promotion of chemical defense in this crop should not aggravate these problems, and must be accompanied with the education on processing methods that reduce human exposure to cyanide. PMID:27316676

  2. The Search for Life on Mars - Current Knowledge, Earth Analogues, and Principal Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    For centuries, the planet Mars has been imagined as a possible abode for life. Serious searches for life's signatures began in the 19th century via ground-based visual astronomy that stimulated a vibrant fantasy literature but little lasting scientific knowledge. Modern scientific inquiry has emphasized the search for chemical signatures of life in the soil and rocks at the planet's surface, and via biomarker gases in the atmosphere. Today, investigations are based on high-resolution spectroscopy at Earth's largest telescopes along with planet orbiting and landed space missions. Methane has assumed central importance in these searches. Living systems produce more than 900/0 of Earth's atmospheric methane; the balance is of geochemical origin. Abundant methane is not expected in an oxidizing atmosphere such as Mars', and its presence would imply recent release - whether biological or geochemical. F or that reason, the quest for methane on Mars has been a continuing thread in the fabric of searches conducted since 1969. I will review aspects of the discovery and distribution of methane on Mars, and will mention ongoing extended searches for clues to its origin and destruction. On Earth, hydrogen (generated via serpentinization or radiolysis of water) provides an important 'fuel' for carbonate-reducing and sulphate-reducing biota (CH4 and H2S producers, respectively). Several such communities are known to reside at depth in continental domains (e.g., Lidy Hot Springs, Idaho; Witwatersrand Basin, S. Africa). If similar conditions exist in favourable locations on Mars, organisms similar to these could likely prosper there. Geologic (abiotic) production will also be mentioned, especially abiotic methane production associated with low-temperature serpentinization (e.g., terrestrial ophiolites). It is vitally important to pursue evidence for geochemical and biological production with equal vigour and intellectual weight lest unwanted and unintended bias contaminate the

  3. Current knowledge and future research perspectives on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chemical defenses: An agroecological view.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Pareja, Martín; Ambrogi, Bianca G

    2016-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important staple crops worldwide. It constitutes the major source of carbohydrates for millions of low-income people living in rural areas, as well as a cash crop for smallholders in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations predicts that cassava plantations will increase and production systems will intensify in the future, highlighting the need for developing strategies that improve the sustainability of production. Plant chemical defenses hold the potential for developing pest management strategies, as these plant traits can influence the behavior and performance of both pests and beneficial arthropods. Cassava plants are well-defended and produce a number of compounds involved in direct defense, such as cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, and hydroxycoumarins. In addition, volatile organic compounds induced upon herbivory and the secretion of extrafloral nectar act as indirect defense against herbivores by recruiting natural enemies. Here, cassava chemical defenses against pest arthropods are reviewed, with the aim of identifying gaps in our knowledge and areas of research that deserve further investigation for developing sound pest control strategies to improve sustainable production of this crop, and how these defenses can be used to benefit other crops. Cyanogenic content in cassava is also highly toxic to humans, and can cause irreversible health problems even at sub-lethal doses when consumed over prolonged periods. Therefore, the promotion of chemical defense in this crop should not aggravate these problems, and must be accompanied with the education on processing methods that reduce human exposure to cyanide.

  4. Maternity referral systems in developing countries: current knowledge and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan F; Pearson, Stephen C

    2006-05-01

    A functioning referral system is generally considered to be a necessary element of successful Safe Motherhood programmes. This paper draws on a scoping review of available literature to identify key requisites for successful maternity referral systems in developing countries, to highlight knowledge gaps, and to suggest items for a future research agenda. Key online social science, medical and health system bibliographic databases, and websites were searched in July 2004 for evidence relating to referral systems for maternity care. Documentary evidence on implementation is scarce, but it suggests that many healthcare systems in developing countries are failing to optimise women's rapid access to emergency obstetric care, and that the poor and marginalised are affected disproportionately. Likely requisites for successful maternity referral systems include: a referral strategy informed by the assessment of population needs and health system capabilities; an adequately resourced referral centre; active collaboration between referral levels and across sectors; formalised communication and transport arrangements; agreed setting-specific protocols for referrer and receiver; supervision and accountability for providers' performance; affordable service costs; the capacity to monitor effectiveness; and underpinning all of these, policy support. Theoretically informed social and organisational research is required on the referral care needs of the poor and marginalised, on the maternity workforce and organisation, and on the implications of the mixed economy of healthcare for referral networks. Clinical research is required to determine how maternity referral fits within newborn health priorities and where the needs are different. Finally, research is required to determine how and whether a more integrated approach to emergency care systems may benefit women and their communities.

  5. Host immune modulation by antimicrobial drugs: current knowledge and implications for antimicrobial chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Banche, Giuliana; Allizond, Valeria; Mandras, Narcisa; Tullio, Vivian; Cuffini, Anna Maria

    2014-10-01

    It is known that antimicrobial agents possess several, beneficial, secondary properties which complement their primary antimicrobial activity like the immunomodulatory capacity that enforces host defense mechanisms or reduces host inflammatory response. In this review the current state of our recent research about the interaction between some antimicrobial agents and the immune system as complex pyramid of redundant cellular factors, humoral effectors and mediators against various microbial pathogens, will be presented and compared with recent literature data. The nature of such interactions is diverse and depends on the drug, the host immunological status and the microorganism. A more complete understanding of the host immune modulation by antimicrobial drugs may guide the selection of appropriate regimens for given clinical situations.

  6. [Formula: see text]Current knowledge on motor disorders in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Paquet, A; Olliac, B; Golse, B; Vaivre-Douret, L

    2016-01-01

    Motor symptomatology in autism is currently poorly understood, and still not included in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic criteria, although some studies suggest the presence of motor disturbances in this syndrome. We provide here a literature review on early motor symptoms in autism, focusing on studies on psychomotor issues (tone, postural control, manual dexterity, handedness, praxis). The approach adopted in research to study altered motor behaviors is generally global and there is no detailed semiology of the motor or neuromotor disorders observed in people with ASD. This global approach does not enable understanding of the neuro-developmental mechanisms involved in ASD. Identification of clinical neuro-psychomotor profiles in reference to a standard would help to better understand the origin and the nature of the disorders encountered in ASD, and would thus give new directions for treatment.

  7. Neuroimaging of diving-related decompression illness: current knowledge and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kamtchum Tatuene, J; Pignel, R; Pollak, P; Lovblad, K O; Kleinschmidt, A; Vargas, M I

    2014-01-01

    Diving-related decompression illness is classified into 2 main categories: arterial gas embolism and decompression sickness. The latter is further divided into types 1 and 2, depending on the clinical presentation. MR imaging is currently the most accurate neuroimaging technique available for the detection of brain and spinal cord lesions in neurologic type 2 decompression sickness. Rapid bubble formation in tissues and the bloodstream during ascent is the basic pathophysiologic mechanism in decompression illness. These bubbles can damage the central nervous system through different mechanisms, namely arterial occlusion, venous obstruction, or in situ toxicity. Neuroimaging studies of decompression sickness have reported findings associated with each of these mechanisms: some typical results are summarized and illustrated in this article. We also review the limitations of previous work and make practical methodologic suggestions for future neuroimaging studies.

  8. Measuring disease activity in Crohn’s disease: what is currently available to the clinician

    PubMed Central

    D’Incà, Renata; Caccaro, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by a relapsing-remitting clinical behavior and dominated by intestinal inflammation. Being a chronic disorder that with time develops into a disabling disease, it is important to monitor the severity of inflammation to assess the efficacy of medication, rule out complications, and prevent progression. This is particularly true now that the goals of treatment are mucosal healing and deep remission. Endoscopy has always been the gold standard for assessing mucosal activity in CD, but its use is limited by its invasiveness and its inability to examine the small intestine, proximal to the terminal ileum. Enteroscopy and the less invasive small bowel capsule endoscopy enable the small bowel to be thoroughly explored and scores are emerging for classifying small bowel disease activity. Cross-sectional imaging techniques (ultrasound, magnetic resonance, computed tomography) are emerging as valid tools for monitoring CD patients, assessing inflammatory activity in the mucosa and the transmucosal extent of the disease, and for excluding extra-intestinal complications. Neither endoscopy nor imaging are suitable for assessing patients frequently, however. Noninvasive markers such as C-reactive protein, and fecal biomarkers such as calprotectin and lactoferrin, are therefore useful to confirm the inflammatory burden of the disease and to identify patients requiring further investigations. PMID:24876789

  9. Human embryonic stem cell responses to ionizing radiation exposures: current state of knowledge and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Mykyta V; Neumann, Ronald D

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells, which are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, have become an object of intense study over the last decade. They possess two unique properties that distinguish them from many other cell types: (i) the ability to self-renew indefinitely in culture under permissive conditions, and (ii) the pluripotency, defined as the capability of giving rise to all cell types of embryonic lineage under the guidance of the appropriate developmental cues. The focus of many recent efforts has been on the elucidating the signaling pathways and molecular networks operating in human embryonic stem cells. These cells hold great promise in cell-based regenerative therapies, disease modeling, drug screening and testing, assessing genotoxic and mutagenic risks associated with exposures to a variety of environmental factors, and so forth. Ionizing radiation is ubiquitous in nature, and it is widely used in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in medicine. In this paper, our goal is to summarize the recent progress in understanding how human embryonic stem cells respond to ionizing radiation exposures, using novel methodologies based on "omics" approaches, and to provide a critical discussion of what remains unknown; thus proposing a roadmap for the future research in this area. PMID:22966236

  10. Worldwide Exposures to Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Associated Health Effects: Current Knowledge and Data Gaps.

    PubMed

    Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Elliott, Paul; Kontis, Vasilis; Ezzati, Majid

    2016-06-01

    Information on exposure to, and health effects of, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors is needed to develop effective strategies to prevent CVD events and deaths. Here, we provide an overview of the data and evidence on worldwide exposures to CVD risk factors and the associated health effects. Global comparative risk assessment studies have estimated that hundreds of thousands or millions of CVD deaths are attributable to established CVD risk factors (high blood pressure and serum cholesterol, smoking, and high blood glucose), high body mass index, harmful alcohol use, some dietary and environmental exposures, and physical inactivity. The established risk factors plus body mass index are collectively responsible for ≈9.7 million annual CVD deaths, with high blood pressure accounting for more CVD deaths than any other risk factor. Age-standardized CVD death rates attributable to established risk factors plus high body mass index are lowest in high-income countries, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean; they are highest in the region of central and eastern Europe and central Asia. However, estimates of the health effects of CVD risk factors are highly uncertain because there are insufficient population-based data on exposure to most CVD risk factors and because the magnitudes of their effects on CVDs in observational studies are likely to be biased. We identify directions for research and surveillance to better estimate the effects of CVD risk factors and policy options for reducing CVD burden by modifying preventable risk factors. PMID:27267538

  11. Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas

    PubMed Central

    González, Camila; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico. PMID:22049037

  12. Thiomersal-containing vaccines - a review of the current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Gołoś, Aleksandra; Lutyńska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Thiomersal is an organomercury compound known for its antiseptic and antifungal properties and used as an antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical products, including vaccines and other injectable biological products. In recent years, concerns about the possible link between immunization with thiomersal-containing vaccines and autism development have grown. Many case-control and cohort studies have been conducted on a number of populations, and none of them have confirmed the hypothetical relation between thiomersal and increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) development. It is also confirmed by the fact, that since 1999, number of thiomersal-containing vaccines used worldwide is decreasing year by year, while the prevalence of ASDs cases is rising. There are no contraindications to the use of vaccines with thiomersal in infants, children and non-pregnant women. The risk of serious complications associated with the development of diseases in unvaccinated individuals far outweighs the potential risk of adverse consequences associated with immunization with thiomersal-containing vaccines. PMID:25862449

  13. Current knowledge of the multifunctional 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD17B1).

    PubMed

    He, Wanhong; Gauri, Misra; Li, Tang; Wang, Ruixuan; Lin, Sheng-Xiang

    2016-08-15

    At the late 1940s, 17β-HSD1 was discovered as the first member of the 17β-HSD family with its gene cloned. The three-dimensional structure of human 17β-HSD1 is the first example of any human steroid converting enzyme. The human enzyme's structure and biological function have thus been studied extensively in the last two decades. In humans, the enzyme is expressed in placenta, ovary, endometrium and breast. The high activity of estrogen activation provides the basis of 17β-HSD1's implication in estrogen-dependent diseases, such as breast cancer, endometriosis and non-small cell lung carcinomas. Its dual function in estrogen activation and androgen inactivation has been revealed in molecular and breast cancer cell levels, significantly stimulating the proliferation of such cells. The enzyme's overexpression in breast cancer was demonstrated by clinical samples. Inhibition of human 17β-HSD1 led to xenograft tumor shrinkage. Unfortunately, through decades of studies, there is still no drug using the enzyme's inhibitors available. This is due to the difficulty to get rid of the estrogenic activity of its inhibitors, which are mostly estrogen analogues. New non-steroid inhibitors for the enzyme provide new hope for non-estrogenic inhibitors of the enzyme. PMID:27102893

  14. The Nuclear Signaling of NF-κB – Current Knowledge, New Insights, and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Fengyi; Lenardo, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor plays a critical role in diverse cellular processes associated with proliferation, cell death, development, as well as innate and adaptive immune responses. NF-κB is normally sequestered in the cytoplasm by a family of inhibitory proteins known as IκBs. The signal pathways leading to the liberation and nuclear accumulation of NF-κB, which can be activated by a wide variety of stimuli, have been extensively studied in the past two decades. After gaining access to the nucleus, NF-κB must be actively regulated to execute its fundamental function as a transcription factor. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of nuclear signaling in the regulation of NF-κB transcriptional activity. A non-Rel subunit of NF-κB, ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), and numerous other nuclear regulators of NF-κB including Akirin, Nurr1, SIRT6, and others, have recently been identified, unveiling novel and exciting layers of regulatory specificity for NF-κB in the nucleus. Further insights into the nuclear events that govern NF-κB function will deepen our understanding of the elegant control of its transcriptional activity and better inform the potential rational design of therapeutics for NF-κB-associated diseases. PMID:19997086

  15. Could gestational diabetes mellitus be managed through dietary bioactive compounds? Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Carmela; Zicari, Alessandra; Mandosi, Elisabetta; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Mari, Emanuela; Morano, Susanna; Masella, Roberta

    2016-04-14

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a serious problem growing worldwide that needs to be addressed with urgency in consideration of the resulting severe complications for both mother and fetus. Growing evidence indicates that a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables, nuts, extra-virgin olive oil and fish has beneficial effects in both the prevention and management of several human diseases and metabolic disorders. In this review, we discuss the latest data concerning the effects of dietary bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and PUFA on the molecular mechanisms regulating glucose homoeostasis. Several studies, mostly based on in vitro and animal models, indicate that dietary polyphenols, mainly flavonoids, positively modulate the insulin signalling pathway by attenuating hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance, reducing inflammatory adipokines, and modifying microRNA (miRNA) profiles. Very few data about the influence of dietary exposure on GDM outcomes are available, although this approach deserves careful consideration. Further investigation, which includes exploring the 'omics' world, is needed to better understand the complex interaction between dietary compounds and GDM.

  16. Could gestational diabetes mellitus be managed through dietary bioactive compounds? Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Carmela; Zicari, Alessandra; Mandosi, Elisabetta; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Mari, Emanuela; Morano, Susanna; Masella, Roberta

    2016-04-14

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a serious problem growing worldwide that needs to be addressed with urgency in consideration of the resulting severe complications for both mother and fetus. Growing evidence indicates that a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables, nuts, extra-virgin olive oil and fish has beneficial effects in both the prevention and management of several human diseases and metabolic disorders. In this review, we discuss the latest data concerning the effects of dietary bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and PUFA on the molecular mechanisms regulating glucose homoeostasis. Several studies, mostly based on in vitro and animal models, indicate that dietary polyphenols, mainly flavonoids, positively modulate the insulin signalling pathway by attenuating hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance, reducing inflammatory adipokines, and modifying microRNA (miRNA) profiles. Very few data about the influence of dietary exposure on GDM outcomes are available, although this approach deserves careful consideration. Further investigation, which includes exploring the 'omics' world, is needed to better understand the complex interaction between dietary compounds and GDM. PMID:26879600

  17. Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis in Otolaryngologist Practice: A Review of Current Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowska, Joanna; Krajewski, Wojciech; Krajewski, Piotr; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is an idiopathic vasculitis of medium and small arteries, characterized by necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. GPA typically affects upper and lower respiratory tract with coexisting glomerulonephritis. This disease is generally characterized by antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA), nevertheless, there are rare cases with negative ANCA. GPA affects people at any age, with predominance of the sixth and seventh decade of life. In 80%–95% of the patients the first symptoms of GPA are otorhinolaryngological manifestations of head and neck including nose/sinuses, ears, eyes, larynx/trachea, oral cavity, and salivary glands. Diagnosis of GPA is based on Criteria of the American College of Rheumatology. In clinical practice diagnosis, the presence of distinctive ANCA antibodies and biopsy of affected organ are crucial. GPA must be differentiated from neoplastic, infectious or inflammatory ulcerative lesions of the head and neck. The standard treatment procedure is divided into two essential phases, induction and maintenance. The induction phase is based on combination of systemic corticosteroid and immunosuppressant therapy, whereas the maintenance phase comprises corticosteroids and azathioprine/methotrexate supplementation. Surgical treatment ought to be considered for patients who are not responding to pharmacotherapy. PMID:26976020

  18. The ecotoxicology of nanoparticles and nanomaterials: current status, knowledge gaps, challenges, and future needs.

    PubMed

    Handy, Richard D; Owen, Richard; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-07-01

    performed using the existing tiered approach and regulatory framework, but with modifications to methodology including chemical characterisation of the materials being used. There are many challenges ahead, and controversies (e.g., reference substances for ecotoxicology), but knowledge transfer from mammalian toxicology, colloid chemistry, as well as material and geological sciences, will enable ecotoxicology studies to move forward in this new multi-disciplinary field.

  19. A synthesis of current knowledge on forests and carbon storage in the United States.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Duncan C; Ryan, Michael G; Birdsey, Richard A; Giardina, Christian P; Harmon, Mark E; Heath, Linda S; Houghton, Richard A; Jackson, Robert B; Morrison, James F; Murray, Brian C; Patakl, Diane E; Skog, Kenneth E

    2011-09-01

    Using forests to mitigate climate change has gained much interest in science and policy discussions. We examine the evidence for carbon benefits, environmental and monetary costs, risks and trade-offs for a variety of activities in three general strategies: (1) land use change to increase forest area (afforestation) and avoid deforestation; (2) carbon management in existing forests; and (3) the use of wood as biomass energy, in place of other building materials, or in wood products for carbon storage. We found that many strategies can increase forest sector carbon mitigation above the current 162-256 Tg C/yr, and that many strategies have co-benefits such as biodiversity, water, and economic opportunities. Each strategy also has trade-offs, risks, and uncertainties including possible leakage, permanence, disturbances, and climate change effects. Because approximately 60% of the carbon lost through deforestation and harvesting from 1700 to 1935 has not yet been recovered and because some strategies store carbon in forest products or use biomass energy, the biological potential for forest sector carbon mitigation is large. Several studies suggest that using these strategies could offset as much as 10-20% of current U.S. fossil fuel emissions. To obtain such large offsets in the United States would require a combination of afforesting up to one-third of cropland or pastureland, using the equivalent of about one-half of the gross annual forest growth for biomass energy, or implementing more intensive management to increase forest growth on one-third of forestland. Such large offsets would require substantial trade-offs, such as lower agricultural production and non-carbon ecosystem services from forests. The effectiveness of activities could be diluted by negative leakage effects and increasing disturbance regimes. Because forest carbon loss contributes to increasing climate risk and because climate change may impede regeneration following disturbance, avoiding

  20. A synthesis of current knowledge on forests and carbon storage in the United States.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Duncan C; Ryan, Michael G; Birdsey, Richard A; Giardina, Christian P; Harmon, Mark E; Heath, Linda S; Houghton, Richard A; Jackson, Robert B; Morrison, James F; Murray, Brian C; Patakl, Diane E; Skog, Kenneth E

    2011-09-01

    Using forests to mitigate climate change has gained much interest in science and policy discussions. We examine the evidence for carbon benefits, environmental and monetary costs, risks and trade-offs for a variety of activities in three general strategies: (1) land use change to increase forest area (afforestation) and avoid deforestation; (2) carbon management in existing forests; and (3) the use of wood as biomass energy, in place of other building materials, or in wood products for carbon storage. We found that many strategies can increase forest sector carbon mitigation above the current 162-256 Tg C/yr, and that many strategies have co-benefits such as biodiversity, water, and economic opportunities. Each strategy also has trade-offs, risks, and uncertainties including possible leakage, permanence, disturbances, and climate change effects. Because approximately 60% of the carbon lost through deforestation and harvesting from 1700 to 1935 has not yet been recovered and because some strategies store carbon in forest products or use biomass energy, the biological potential for forest sector carbon mitigation is large. Several studies suggest that using these strategies could offset as much as 10-20% of current U.S. fossil fuel emissions. To obtain such large offsets in the United States would require a combination of afforesting up to one-third of cropland or pastureland, using the equivalent of about one-half of the gross annual forest growth for biomass energy, or implementing more intensive management to increase forest growth on one-third of forestland. Such large offsets would require substantial trade-offs, such as lower agricultural production and non-carbon ecosystem services from forests. The effectiveness of activities could be diluted by negative leakage effects and increasing disturbance regimes. Because forest carbon loss contributes to increasing climate risk and because climate change may impede regeneration following disturbance, avoiding