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Sample records for disease current knowledge

  1. RADIATION-RELATED HEART DISEASE: CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

    PubMed Central

    Darby, Sarah C.; Cutter, David J.; Boerma, Marjan; Constine, Louis S.; Fajardo, Luis F.; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyo; Marks, Lawrence B.; Mettler, Fred A.; Pierce, Lori J.; Trott, Klaus R.; Yeh, Edward T.H.; Shore, Roy E.

    2014-01-01

    The heart has traditionally been considered a radio-resistant organ that would be unaffected by cardiac doses below about 30 Gray. During the last few years, however, evidence that radiation-related heart disease can occur following lower doses has emerged from several sources. These include studies of breast cancer patients, who received mean cardiac doses of 3–17 Gray when given radiotherapy following surgery, and studies of survivors of the atomic bombings of Japan who received doses of up to 4 Gray. At doses above 30 Gray, radiation-related heart disease may occur within a year or two of exposure and risk increases with higher radiotherapy dose, younger age at irradiation, and the presence of conventional risk factors. At lower doses the typical latent period is much longer and is often more than a decade. However, the nature and magnitude of the risk following lower doses is not well characterized, and it is not yet clear whether there is a threshold dose below which there is no risk. The evidence regarding radiation-related heart disease comes from several different disciplines. The present review brings together information from pathology, radiobiology, cardiology, radiation oncology and epidemiology. It summarises current knowledge, identifies gaps in that knowledge, and outlines some potential strategies for filling them. Further knowledge about the nature and magnitude of radiation-related heart disease would have immediate application in radiation oncology. It would also provide a basis for radiation protection policies for use in diagnostic radiology and occupational exposure. PMID:20159360

  2. Depression and Parkinson’s Disease: Current Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Depressive disturbances are common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and influence many other clinical aspects of the disease. In addition to causing inherent emotional distress, depressive disorders negatively impact quality of life, motor and cognitive deficits, functional disability, and other psychiatric comorbidities in patients with PD. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of PD depression remains limited. However, clinical studies demonstrate the efficacy of medications and psychotherapies for PD depression, underscoring the importance of their timely detection and concerted management. PMID:24190780

  3. Pain in Neurodegenerative Disease: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    de Tommaso, Marina; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Defrin, Ruth; Kunz, Miriam; Pickering, Gisele; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are going to increase as the life expectancy is getting longer. The management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, Parkinson's disease (PD) and PD related disorders, motor neuron diseases (MND), Huntington's disease (HD), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), is mainly addressed to motor and cognitive impairment, with special care to vital functions as breathing and feeding. Many of these patients complain of painful symptoms though their origin is variable, and their presence is frequently not considered in the treatment guidelines, leaving their management to the decision of the clinicians alone. However, studies focusing on pain frequency in such disorders suggest a high prevalence of pain in selected populations from 38 to 75% in AD, 40% to 86% in PD, and 19 to 85% in MND. The methods of pain assessment vary between studies so the type of pain has been rarely reported. However, a prevalent nonneuropathic origin of pain emerged for MND and PD. In AD, no data on pain features are available. No controlled therapeutic trials and guidelines are currently available. Given the relevance of pain in neurodegenerative disorders, the comprehensive understanding of mechanisms and predisposing factors, the application and validation of specific scales, and new specific therapeutic trials are needed. PMID:27313396

  4. Pain in Neurodegenerative Disease: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, Marina; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Defrin, Ruth; Kunz, Miriam; Pickering, Gisele; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are going to increase as the life expectancy is getting longer. The management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, Parkinson's disease (PD) and PD related disorders, motor neuron diseases (MND), Huntington's disease (HD), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), is mainly addressed to motor and cognitive impairment, with special care to vital functions as breathing and feeding. Many of these patients complain of painful symptoms though their origin is variable, and their presence is frequently not considered in the treatment guidelines, leaving their management to the decision of the clinicians alone. However, studies focusing on pain frequency in such disorders suggest a high prevalence of pain in selected populations from 38 to 75% in AD, 40% to 86% in PD, and 19 to 85% in MND. The methods of pain assessment vary between studies so the type of pain has been rarely reported. However, a prevalent nonneuropathic origin of pain emerged for MND and PD. In AD, no data on pain features are available. No controlled therapeutic trials and guidelines are currently available. Given the relevance of pain in neurodegenerative disorders, the comprehensive understanding of mechanisms and predisposing factors, the application and validation of specific scales, and new specific therapeutic trials are needed.

  5. Autoimmune thyroid disease: mechanism, genetics and current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dong, Y H; Fu, D G

    2014-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies recognized a steady increase in the incidence of different autoimmune endocrine disorders, including autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). The etiology of AITD is multifactorial and involves genetic and environmental factors and apparently with a strong preponderance in females. There are mainly two types of AITD, Graves' disease and Hashimoto's disease and both of these show strong association in age groups above 45-50 years. Among environmental factors smoking and alcohol have significant effects, both protective as well as for aggravating the disease, even though the precise nature of these effects are not clearly known. There are elevated levels of circulating antibodies against the thyroid proteins, mainly thyroid oxidase, thyroglobulin and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor, in patients with Graves' disease or Hashimoto's disease. Linkage and association studies in AITD identified several major genes that are relevant for the onset of AITD, including the thyroid-specific genes, thyroglobulin and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor and also many immune-regulatory genes. In this review we addressed many aspects of AITD including disease mechanisms, involved thyroid antigens, environmental factors and genetic factors.

  6. Chronic wasting disease of cervids: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Haley, Nicholas J; Hoover, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    A naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of mule deer was first reported in Colorado and Wyoming in 1967 and has since spread to other members of the cervid family in 22 states, 2 Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. Chronic wasting disease (CWD), caused by exposure to an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein, is characterized by progressive neurological disease in susceptible natural and experimental hosts and is ultimately fatal. CWD is thought to be transmitted horizontally in excreta and through contaminated environments, features common to scrapie of sheep, though rare among TSEs. Evolving detection methods have revealed multiple strains of CWD and with continued development may lead to an effective antemortem test. Managing the spread of CWD, through the development of a vaccine or environmental cleanup strategies, is an active area of interest. As such, CWD represents a unique challenge in the study of prion diseases.

  7. Diabetic kidney disease; review of the current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Shahbazian, Heshmatollah; Rezaii, Isa

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in most parts of the world. 20 to 30% of diabetic patient have diabetic nephropathy in type 1 and type 2. Hyperglycemia is the key of nephropathy creation. Hyperglycemia also by production of toxic materials, advanced glycosylated end product (AGE), increased activity of aldose reductase has some role. Some metabolites of arachidonic acid, hemodynamic derangements and genetic factors have also some role. Although diabetic nephropathy is most common cause of nephropathy in these patients, but diabetic patients are also prone to other urinary tract and renal parenchymal disease and should not be confused with renal failure due to diabetic nephropathy. The principle of treatment of diabetic nephropathy is based on tight control of hyperglycemia, tight control of blood pressure and glomerular pressure, control of dyslipidemia, restriction of protein intake and smoking withdrawal.

  8. The Genetics of Ischemic Heart Disease: From Current Knowledge to Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Elosua, Roberto; Sayols-Baixeras, Sergi

    2017-09-01

    Ischemic heart disease continues to cause high morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence is expected to increase due to population aging, and its prevention is a major goal of health policies. The risk of developing ischemic heart disease is related to a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. In the last decade, considerable progress has been made in knowledge of the genetic architecture of this disease. This narrative review provides an overview of current knowledge of the genetics of ischemic heart disease and of its translation to clinical practice: identification of new therapeutic targets, assessment of the causal relationship between biomarkers and disease, improved risk prediction, and identification of responders and nonresponders to specific drugs (pharmacogenomics). Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Cassava brown streak disease: historical timeline, current knowledge and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Katie R; Bailey, Andy M; Alicai, Titus; Seal, Sue; Foster, Gary D

    2017-09-08

    Cassava is the second most important staple food crop in terms of per capita calories consumed in Africa and holds potential for climate change adaptation. Unfortunately, productivity in East and Central Africa is severely constrained by two viral diseases: cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). CBSD was first reported in 1936 from northeast Tanzania. For approximately seventy years CBSD was restricted to coastal East Africa and so had a relatively low impact on food security compared to CMD. However, at the turn of the 21(st) century CBSD re-emerged further inland, in areas around Lake Victoria and it has since spread through many East and Central African countries, causing high yield losses and jeopardising the food security of subsistence farmers. This recent re-emergence has attracted intense scientific interest, with studies shedding light on CBSD viral epidemiology, sequence diversity, host interactions and potential sources of resistance within the cassava genome. This review reflects on 80 years of CBSD research history (1936 - 2016) with a timeline of key events. We provide insights into current CBSD knowledge, management efforts and future prospects for improved understanding needed to underpin effective control and mitigation of impacts on food security. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Epidemiologic knowledge and current situation of Chagas disease in the state of Jalisco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Kasten, Felipe; Magallón-Gastélum, Ezequiel; Soto-Gutiérrez, Margarita; Kasten-Monges, Marina; Bosseno, Marie-France; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2008-01-01

    Chagas disease in the state of Jalisco, Mexico was described for the first time in 1967; however, knowledge on the disease remains in a slow process. Between 1967 and 2006, the disease was described in its acute and chronic forms. The vector species have been identified, and the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi has been isolated and genetically characterized. Also, the magnitude of the infection in humans has been determined through serological studies of different populations as well as of blood donors. The up-to-dateness of knowledge of the disease in the state of Jalisco, unveils a necessity of increased research on the epidemiology of Chagas disease as well as on clinical studies to assess the health of individuals and the populations.

  11. Bacterial Diseases of Bananas and Enset: Current State of Knowledge and Integrated Approaches Toward Sustainable Management

    PubMed Central

    Blomme, Guy; Dita, Miguel; Jacobsen, Kim Sarah; Pérez Vicente, Luis; Molina, Agustin; Ocimati, Walter; Poussier, Stephane; Prior, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense). However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1) Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by R. syzygii subsp. celebesensis); (2) Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3) Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi), bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot (Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca). Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: bacterial wilt of abaca, Javanese vascular wilt and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed). This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset. PMID:28785275

  12. Bacterial Diseases of Bananas and Enset: Current State of Knowledge and Integrated Approaches Toward Sustainable Management.

    PubMed

    Blomme, Guy; Dita, Miguel; Jacobsen, Kim Sarah; Pérez Vicente, Luis; Molina, Agustin; Ocimati, Walter; Poussier, Stephane; Prior, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense). However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1) Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by R. syzygii subsp. celebesensis); (2) Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3) Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi), bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot (Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca). Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: bacterial wilt of abaca, Javanese vascular wilt and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed). This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.

  13. Social stress as a cause of diseases in farm animals: Current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Kathryn; Habing, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, biomedical research has established a strong linkage between psychosocial stress and disease risk in humans, which has transformed the understanding of stress and the role it plays in human lives. This research has led to personalized medicine where a reduction in daily life stress is a main goal for many people with debilitating illnesses. This review describes the supporting evidence that social stress also plays a critical role in farm animal disease prevention, and may be a mediator by which common management practices can increase disease risk. There is evidence that social factors, including deprivation of social contact ('social isolation'), reducing space allowance ('crowding') and disturbing social order ('social instability') trigger physiological and behavioral indicators of stress in livestock. Less research exists, however, linking management practices that trigger social stress with higher disease risk. Suggestions are offered for future research opportunities, and practical, evidence-based recommendations are made for reducing the negative effects of social isolation, instability and crowding. The current evidence that social factors contribute to disease risk in farm animals is not as convincing as the human literature, but remains a promising and important area for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools. PMID:27089354

  15. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-04-13

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.

  16. Implications for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in dentistry: a review of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Walker, J T; Dickinson, J; Sutton, J M; Marsh, P D; Raven, N D H

    2008-06-01

    This review explores our current understanding of the risks of (variant) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease transmission via dental practice, and whether they merit the rigorous enforcement of improved standards of instrument cleaning and decontamination. The recognition of prions as novel infectious agents in humans has caused significant concern among the public and medical professionals alike. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans has been shown to be transmissible via several routes, including transplantation, contaminated medical products, and via neurosurgery. While the likelihood of transmission via dentistry is undoubtedly very low, this may be amplified considerably by unknown risk factors, such as disease prevalence (particularly in the UK), altered tissue distribution of vCJD, and the failure of decontamination processes to address the inactivation of prions adequately. Since current diagnostic techniques are unable to detect PrP(Sc) in human dental tissues, there is limited evidence for the presence of infectivity. Given these uncertainties, the control of risk by reinforced and improved decontamination practices seems the most appropriate response.

  17. Drug Delivery for Treatment of Inner Ear Disease: Current State of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Andrew A.; Leary Swan, Erin E.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Sewell, William F.; Kujawa, Sharon G.; McKenna, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Delivery of medications to the inner ear has been an area of considerable growth in both the research and clinical realms over the past several decades. Systemic delivery of medication destined for treatment of the inner ear is the foundation upon which newer delivery techniques have been developed. Due to systemic side effects, investigators and clinicians have begun developing and utilizing techniques to deliver therapeutic agents locally. Alongside the now commonplace use of intratympanic gentamicin for Meniere's disease and the emerging use of intratympanic steroids for sudden sensorineural hearing loss, novel technologies, such as hydrogels and nanoparticles, are being explored. At the horizon of inner ear drug delivery techniques, intracochlear devices that leverage recent advances in microsystems technology are being developed to apply medications directly into the inner ear. Potential uses for such devices include neurotrophic factor and steroid delivery with cochlear implantation, RNA interference technologies, and stem cell therapy. The historical, current, and future delivery techniques and uses of drug delivery for treatment of inner ear disease serve as the basis for this review. PMID:19952751

  18. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha for retinal diseases: current knowledge and future concepts.

    PubMed

    Mirshahi, Alireza; Hoehn, René; Lorenz, Katrin; Kramann, Christina; Baatz, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages and T-cells. It plays an important role both in inflammation and apoptosis. In the eye, TNF-α appears to have a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory, edematous, neovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Several TNF-blocking drugs have been developed and approved, and are in clinical use for inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis. TNF-α blockers are widely used in ophthalmology as an off-label alternative to "traditional" immunosuppressive and immune-modulatory treatments in noninfectious uveitis. Preliminary studies suggest a positive effect of intravenously administered TNF-α blockers, mainly infliximab, for treating refractory diabetic macular edema and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Unfortunately, much of the current data raises considerable safety concerns for intravitreal use of TNF-α inhibitors, in particular, intraocular inflammatory responses have been reported after intravitreal injection of infliximab. Results of dose-finding studies and humanized antibody or antibody fragments (e.g. adalimumab) are anticipated in the coming years; these will shed light on potential benefits and risks of local and systemic TNF-α blockers used for treatment of diseases of the retina and choroid.

  19. Biotherapy in Inflammatory Diseases of the CNS: Current Knowledge and Applications.

    PubMed

    Collongues, Nicolas; Michel, Laure; de Seze, Jérôme

    2017-05-01

    Biotherapy represents an innovative therapeutic approach that includes immunotherapy (vaccines, apheresis, and antibodies); gene therapy; and stem cell transplants. Their development helps to cross the bridge from bench to bedside and brings new hope of a cure for severe diseases in different fields of medicine. In neurology, a growing range of applications is being developed for these medications. Valuable results are now available in the field of autoimmunity, neuro-oncology, paraneoplastic manifestations, and neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we examine the current and future applications of biotherapy in the field of inflammation of the central nervous system. We demonstrate its contribution in clinical practice, where it has enabled a significant level of effectiveness to be achieved. Indeed, the efficacy of these new biodrugs provides a solution for patients refractory to standard therapies, such as intravenous immunoglobulins in limbic encephalitis, plasma exchanges in neuromyelitis optica and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies in multiple sclerosis. They also mark the first steps towards individualized medicine.

  20. Aspirin in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: current knowledge and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Hennekens, Charles H; Dalen, James E

    2014-11-01

    In secondary prevention, among a very wide range of survivors of prior occlusive cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and those suffering acute myocardial infarction (MI) or occlusive stroke, aspirin decreases risks of MI, stroke, and CVD death. In these high risk patients, the absolute benefits are large and absolute risks are far smaller so aspirin should be more widely prescribed. In contrast, in primary prevention, aspirin reduces risks of first MI but the evidence on stroke and CVD death remain inconclusive. Based on the current totality of evidence from predominantly low risk subjects where the absolute benefits is low and side effects the same as in secondary prevention, any decision to prescribe aspirin for primary prevention should be an individual clinical judgment by the healthcare provider that weighs the absolute benefit in reducing the risk of a first MI against the absolute risk of major bleeding. If the ongoing trials of intermediate risks subjects show net benefits then general guidelines may be justified with several caveats. First, any decision to use aspirin should continue to be made by the healthcare provider. Second, therapeutic lifestyle changes and other drugs of life saving benefit such as statins should be considered with aspirin as an adjunct, not alternative. The more widespread and appropriate use of aspirin in primary prevention is particularly attractive, especially in developing countries where CVD is emerging as the leading cause of death. In addition, aspirin is generally widely available over the counter and is extremely inexpensive.

  1. [Current status of knowledge on Chagas' disease in the Mexican Republic].

    PubMed

    Tay, J; Schenone, H; Sánchez, J T; Robert, L

    1992-01-01

    A thorough review of the medical literature is made regarding Chagas' disease in Mexico and elsewhere since 1939, when Trypanosoma cruzi was first reported in this country, until 1991. The location where human cases, non human reservoirs and vectors have been found and are pointed out by means of tables and charts. Comments are made regarding the results reported. The importance of increasing the studies of Chagas' disease in Mexican Republic is stressed.

  2. P. acnes-Driven Disease Pathology: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Leheste, Joerg R; Ruvolo, Kathryn E; Chrostowski, Joanna E; Rivera, Kristin; Husko, Christopher; Miceli, Alyssa; Selig, Martin K; Brüggemann, Holger; Torres, German

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the biology and behavior of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a dominant bacterium species of the skin biogeography thought to be associated with transmission, recurrence and severity of disease. More specifically, we discuss the ability of P. acnes to invade and persist in epithelial cells and circulating macrophages to subsequently induce bouts of sarcoidosis, low-grade inflammation and metastatic cell growth in the prostate gland. Finally, we discuss the possibility of P. acnes infiltrating the brain parenchyma to indirectly contribute to pathogenic processes in neurodegenerative disorders such as those observed in Parkinson's disease (PD).

  3. P. acnes-Driven Disease Pathology: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Leheste, Joerg R.; Ruvolo, Kathryn E.; Chrostowski, Joanna E.; Rivera, Kristin; Husko, Christopher; Miceli, Alyssa; Selig, Martin K.; Brüggemann, Holger; Torres, German

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the biology and behavior of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a dominant bacterium species of the skin biogeography thought to be associated with transmission, recurrence and severity of disease. More specifically, we discuss the ability of P. acnes to invade and persist in epithelial cells and circulating macrophages to subsequently induce bouts of sarcoidosis, low-grade inflammation and metastatic cell growth in the prostate gland. Finally, we discuss the possibility of P. acnes infiltrating the brain parenchyma to indirectly contribute to pathogenic processes in neurodegenerative disorders such as those observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). PMID:28352613

  4. [Relationships between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease: current knowledges and therapeutic prospects].

    PubMed

    Garofalo, G S

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of the endocrine system. An important pathology of dental interest to which the diabetic patient can go encounter, especially if not controlled from the metabolic point of view, is the periodontal disease. The aim of this review is to illustrate the relation between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease estimating the several therapeutic options on hand in the clinical daily practice. Many studies show an important association between diabetes and the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Vascular changes caused by hyper-glycemia are associated to the development of periodontal pathogens species. Moreover, diabetics show an exacerbate host response with hyperproduction of inflammatory mediators and polymorphonuclear dysfunction. Diabetics with good metabolic control and patients with good oral hygiene show a reduced risk of periodontitis. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus (of type 1 and type 2) is an important risk factor for periodontitis. Diabetes mellitus determines changes in bacterial population and production of inflammatory mediators, and reduces the efficacy of the host response. Good controlled diabetes do not cause a major risk of periodontitis and improve the results of the periodontal initial therapy and of the eventual surgical therapy. Moreover, periodontal therapy may reduce the request of insulin in diabetics. It is reasonable a reciprocal relation between diabetes and periodontal disease.

  5. Ecology of zoonotic infectious diseases in bats: current knowledge and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayman, D.T.; Bowen, R.A.; Cryan, P.M.; McCracken, G.F.; O'Shea, T.J.; Peel, A.J.; Gilbert, A.; Webb, C.T.; Wood, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are hosts to a range of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Human activities that increase exposure to bats will likely increase the opportunity for infections to spill over in the future. Ecological drivers of pathogen spillover and emergence in novel hosts, including humans, involve a complex mixture of processes, and understanding these complexities may aid in predicting spillover. In particular, only once the pathogen and host ecologies are known can the impacts of anthropogenic changes be fully appreciated. Cross-disciplinary approaches are required to understand how host and pathogen ecology interact. Bats differ from other sylvatic disease reservoirs because of their unique and diverse lifestyles, including their ability to fly, often highly gregarious social structures, long lifespans and low fecundity rates. We highlight how these traits may affect infection dynamics and how both host and pathogen traits may interact to affect infection dynamics. We identify key questions relating to the ecology of infectious diseases in bats and propose that a combination of field and laboratory studies are needed to create data-driven mechanistic models to elucidate those aspects of bat ecology that are most critical to the dynamics of emerging bat viruses. If commonalities can be found, then predicting the dynamics of newly emerging diseases may be possible. This modelling approach will be particularly important in scenarios when population surveillance data are unavailable and when it is unclear which aspects of host ecology are driving infection dynamics.

  6. Ecology of zoonotic infectious diseases in bats: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hayman, D T S; Bowen, R A; Cryan, P M; McCracken, G F; O'Shea, T J; Peel, A J; Gilbert, A; Webb, C T; Wood, J L N

    2013-02-01

    Bats are hosts to a range of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Human activities that increase exposure to bats will likely increase the opportunity for infections to spill over in the future. Ecological drivers of pathogen spillover and emergence in novel hosts, including humans, involve a complex mixture of processes, and understanding these complexities may aid in predicting spillover. In particular, only once the pathogen and host ecologies are known can the impacts of anthropogenic changes be fully appreciated. Cross-disciplinary approaches are required to understand how host and pathogen ecology interact. Bats differ from other sylvatic disease reservoirs because of their unique and diverse lifestyles, including their ability to fly, often highly gregarious social structures, long lifespans and low fecundity rates. We highlight how these traits may affect infection dynamics and how both host and pathogen traits may interact to affect infection dynamics. We identify key questions relating to the ecology of infectious diseases in bats and propose that a combination of field and laboratory studies are needed to create data-driven mechanistic models to elucidate those aspects of bat ecology that are most critical to the dynamics of emerging bat viruses. If commonalities can be found, then predicting the dynamics of newly emerging diseases may be possible. This modelling approach will be particularly important in scenarios when population surveillance data are unavailable and when it is unclear which aspects of host ecology are driving infection dynamics. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Ecology of Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Bats: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, D T S; Bowen, R A; Cryan, P M; McCracken, G F; O’Shea, T J; Peel, A J; Gilbert, A; Webb, C T; Wood, J L N

    2013-01-01

    Bats are hosts to a range of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Human activities that increase exposure to bats will likely increase the opportunity for infections to spill over in the future. Ecological drivers of pathogen spillover and emergence in novel hosts, including humans, involve a complex mixture of processes, and understanding these complexities may aid in predicting spillover. In particular, only once the pathogen and host ecologies are known can the impacts of anthropogenic changes be fully appreciated. Cross-disciplinary approaches are required to understand how host and pathogen ecology interact. Bats differ from other sylvatic disease reservoirs because of their unique and diverse lifestyles, including their ability to fly, often highly gregarious social structures, long lifespans and low fecundity rates. We highlight how these traits may affect infection dynamics and how both host and pathogen traits may interact to affect infection dynamics. We identify key questions relating to the ecology of infectious diseases in bats and propose that a combination of field and laboratory studies are needed to create data-driven mechanistic models to elucidate those aspects of bat ecology that are most critical to the dynamics of emerging bat viruses. If commonalities can be found, then predicting the dynamics of newly emerging diseases may be possible. This modelling approach will be particularly important in scenarios when population surveillance data are unavailable and when it is unclear which aspects of host ecology are driving infection dynamics. PMID:22958281

  8. Improving medical students' knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices.

    PubMed

    Wolyniak, Michael J; Bemis, Lynne T; Prunuske, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student's critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics.

  9. Improving medical students’ knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices

    PubMed Central

    Wolyniak, Michael J; Bemis, Lynne T; Prunuske, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student’s critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics. PMID:26604852

  10. Complementary feeding and non communicable diseases: current knowledge and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Poskitt, E M E; Breda, J

    2012-10-01

    Early diet and nutrition may set in place growth patterns and/or metabolic pathways that promote risk factors for later NCDs. Most relevant studies so far available have a cross-sectional or retrospective design and are thus of limited validity for evaluating the impact of early feeding on later disease. Standardised protocols for prospective research should be developed. The contribution of protein intake in early life to later NCD development has been the object of several studies; however future research should specifically target the effects of early protein intake on (a) how protein intake influences body composition, (b) how different body composition in infancy contributes to later NCDs, (c) whether there is an age 'window' when high protein intake is particularly associated with later overweight and obesity, (d) what levels of protein intake may protect against later overweight/obesity, (e) what level of cow milk intake in the first years of life minimises risk-inducing growth whilst meeting recommended calcium intakes. The role of the quality of fat and carbohydrate intakes at early ages should be better investigated. There is a dearth of data from many communities about the foods introduced as complementary feeds, the ages at which they are introduced and why mothers use these foods. Definitely more information is needed on how and to what extent mothers' behaviour is influenced by media, advertising and other commercial pressures and why formula fed infants are started on other foods much earlier than breast fed infants. Standardized protocols are needed to develop more data on complementary feeding in different regions, different countries and different socio-economic environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Current knowledge and importance of dGEMRIC techniques in diagnosis of hip joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Zilkens, Christoph; Tiderius, Carl Johann; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Bittersohl, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    Accurate assessment of early hip joint cartilage alterations may help optimize patient selection and follow-up of hip joint preservation surgery. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is sensitive to the glycosaminoglycan content in cartilage that is lost early in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Hence, the dGEMRIC technique holds promise for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, because of the location of the hip joint deep within the body and due to the fairly thin cartilage layers that require high spatial resolution, the diagnosis of early hip joint cartilage alterations may be problematic. The purpose of this review is to outline the current status of dGEMRIC in the assessment of hip joint cartilage. A literature search was performed with PubMed, using the terms "cartilage, osteoarthritis, hip joint, MRI, and dGEMRIC", considering all levels of studies. This review revealed that dGEMRIC can be reliably used in the evaluation of early stage cartilage pathology in various hip joint disorders. Modifications in the technique, such as the operation of three-dimensional imaging and dGEMRIC after intra-articular contrast medium administration, have expanded the range of application. Notably, the studies differ considerably in patient selection and technical prerequisites. Furthermore, there is a need for multicenter prospective studies with the required technical conditions in place to establish outcome based dGEMRIC data to obtain, in conjunction with clinical data, reliable threshold values for normal and abnormal cartilage, and for hips that may benefit from conservative or surgical treatment.

  12. Current knowledge of vitamin D in dogs.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Nicole; Verbrugghe, Adronie

    2017-12-12

    There is emerging interest in linking vitamin D status to physiological health and disease states in the dog, as evidenced by the recent increase in publications in this area. This research has most likely been spurred by the studies exploring vitamin D and disease in humans. However, there are important differences in vitamin D intake and metabolism between humans and dogs that should be accounted for. The understanding of basic vitamin D metabolism and the relationship between vitamin D intake and vitamin D status in dogs remains even more limited than current knowledge in humans. This review will summarize current knowledge of vitamin D in the dog, including metabolism and dietary recommendations. Emphasis is placed on the limitations to current knowledge. Studies investigating links between vitamin D and disease will be discussed in light of this knowledge. Suggestions for future research, including the development of reference ranges to define blood vitamin D sufficiency, are provided.

  13. Current Knowledge on Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iovanna, Juan; Mallmann, Maria Cecilia; Gonçalves, Anthony; Turrini, Olivier; Dagorn, Jean-Charles

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death with a median survival of 6 months and a dismal 5-year survival rate of 3–5%. The development and progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways. Therefore, the strategies targeting these molecules as well as their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, although targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer have yielded encouraging results in vitro and in animal models, these findings have not been translated into improved outcomes in clinical trials. This failure is due to an incomplete understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer and to the selection of poorly efficient or imperfectly targeted agents. In this review, we will critically present the current knowledge regarding the molecular, biochemical, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22655256

  14. Current knowledge on esophageal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Paulo Fernando Martins; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Pereira, Regina Maria

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is the most common congenital anomaly of the esophagus. The improvement of survival observed over the previous two decades is multifactorial and largely attributable to advances in neonatal intensive care, neonatal anesthesia, ventilatory and nutritional support, antibiotics, early surgical intervention, surgical materials and techniques. Indeed, mortality is currently limited to those cases with coexisting severe life-threatening anomalies. The diagnosis of EA is most commonly made during the first 24 h of life but may occur either antenatally or may be delayed. The primary surgical correction for EA and TEF is the best option in the absence of severe malformations. There is no ideal replacement for the esophagus and the optimal surgical treatment for patients with long-gap EA is still controversial. The primary complications during the postoperative period are leak and stenosis of the anastomosis, gastro-esophageal reflux, esophageal dysmotility, fistula recurrence, respiratory disorders and deformities of the thoracic wall. Data regarding long-term outcomes and follow-ups are limited for patients following EA/TEF repair. The determination of the risk factors for the complicated evolution following EA/TEF repair may positively impact long-term prognoses. Much remains to be studied regarding this condition. This manuscript provides a literature review of the current knowledge regarding EA. PMID:22851858

  15. The role of gene-environment interplay in occupational and environmental diseases: current concepts and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Kwo, Elizabeth; Christiani, David

    2017-03-01

    The interplay between genetic susceptibilities and environmental exposures in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases is an area of increased scientific, epidemiologic, and social interest. Given the variation in methodologies used in the field, this review aims to create a framework to help understand occupational exposures as they currently exist and provide a foundation for future inquiries into the biological mechanisms of the gene-environment interactions. Understanding of this complex interplay will be important in the context of occupational health, given the public health concerns surrounding a variety of occupational exposures. Studies found evidence that suggest genetics influence the progression of disease postberyllium exposure through genetically encoded major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP alpha 2 (HLA-DP2)-peptide complexes as it relates to T-helper cells. This was characterized at the molecular level by the accumulation of Be-responsive CD4 T cells in the lung, which resulted in posttranslational change in the HLA-DPB1 complex. These studies provide important evidence of gene-environment association, and many provide insights into specific pathogenic mechanisms. The following includes a review of the literature regarding gene-environment associations with a focus on pulmonary diseases as they relate to the workplace.

  16. Fetal growth restriction: current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Caetano, Ana Carolina Rabachini; Zamarian, Ana Cristina Perez; Mazzola, Jaqueline Brandão; Silva, Carolina Pacheco; Marçal, Vivian Macedo Gomes; Lobo, Thalita Frutuoso; Peixoto, Alberto Borges; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2017-05-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a condition that affects 5-10% of pregnancies and is the second most common cause of perinatal mortality. This review presents the most recent knowledge on FGR and focuses on the etiology, classification, prediction, diagnosis, and management of the condition, as well as on its neurological complications. The Pubmed, SCOPUS, and Embase databases were searched using the term "fetal growth restriction". Fetal growth restriction (FGR) may be classified as early or late depending on the time of diagnosis. Early FGR (<32 weeks) is associated with substantial alterations in placental implantation with elevated hypoxia, which requires cardiovascular adaptation. Perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are high. Late FGR (≥32 weeks) presents with slight deficiencies in placentation, which leads to mild hypoxia and requires little cardiovascular adaptation. Perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are lower. The diagnosis of FGR may be clinical; however, an arterial and venous Doppler ultrasound examination is essential for diagnosis and follow-up. There are currently no treatments to control FGR; the time at which pregnancy is interrupted is of vital importance for protecting both the mother and fetus. Early diagnosis of FGR is very important, because it enables the identification of the etiology of the condition and adequate monitoring of the fetal status, thereby minimizing risks of premature birth and intrauterine hypoxia.

  17. HIV Disease: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Describes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), newly characterized human retrovirus which causes chronic, progressive, immune deficiency disease, the most severe phase of which is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Reviews most important current epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic information about HIV and HIV disease and provides…

  18. HIV Disease: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Describes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), newly characterized human retrovirus which causes chronic, progressive, immune deficiency disease, the most severe phase of which is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Reviews most important current epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic information about HIV and HIV disease and provides…

  19. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-06-28

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin(®).

  20. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin®. PMID:26355220

  1. 'Limits and current knowledge of Pick's disease: its differential diagnosis'. A translation of the 1957 Delay, Brion, Escourolle article.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Marie-Pierre; Miller, Bruce L

    2013-01-01

    This article is a translation of a French article by Delay, Brion, and Escourolle. In a seminal article published in French in 1957 these authors summarized the work of previous researchers and reviewed a wide sample of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) cases formerly referred to as Pick's disease. The authors were among the first to define the critical clinical and anatomical differences between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and FTD and they even delineated distinctive FTD subtypes making possible the advances that now constitute the base of our studies. Reviewing their work allows us to appreciate the progress research has made.

  2. [Current knowledge of bacterial vaginosis].

    PubMed

    Djukić, Slobodanka; Opavski, Nataša; Mijač, Vera; Ranin, Lazar

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, earlier termed nonspecific vaginitis (anaerobic vaginosis) because of the absence of recognized pathogens, is most common vaginal syndrome of women of childbearing age affecting 15-30%. This syndrome, whose aetiology and pathogenesis remains unknown, is characterized by significant changes in the vaginal ecosystem. These changes consist of a decrease in the number of lactobacilli and a large increase in the number of anaerobic organisms. The bacteria adhere to desquamated epithelial cells with a distinctive appearance of clue cells The main complaints of women with symptomatic bacterial vaginosis include vaginal discharge and odour. However, a significant number of all women who have bacterial vaginosis deny symptoms. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with a number of gynaecologic and obstetric complications including cervicitis, cervical neoplasia, pelvic inflammatory disease, postoperative infections, and preterm labour.The diagnosis is most frequently made based on vaginal smear stained according to Gram (Nugent scoring method). Metronidazole and clindamycin are the drugs of choice for treatment of women with bacterial vaginosis. Which women should undergo treatment? According to the prevailing attitude, it should include women with symptoms. Symptomatic women with frequent relapses of bacterial vaginosisas, as a rule, have poor response to the applied therapy. To achieve better efficiency in the treatment of such women, it is necessary to have more extensive understanding of all factors in the pathogenesis of the syndrome.

  3. Hand osteoarthritis: current knowledge and new ideas.

    PubMed

    Haugen, I K

    2016-08-01

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent disease that can lead to substantial pain and physical disability. Currently, no disease-modifying drugs exist for the treatment of OA. Most OA research has been conducted on knee OA and we have limited knowledge about disease mechanisms in hand OA. During her research career, Ida K Haugen (IKH) has focused on the epidemiology of hand OA and imaging techniques. She has established a large international network, providing the opportunity to study the epidemiology of hand OA in large international OA cohorts. In the Framingham study, she found that symptomatic hand OA was present in 16% of women and 8% of men aged between 40 and 84 years. In her PhD thesis, IKH studied the reliability and validity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in hand OA. In collaboration with OMERACT (Outcome Measures in Rheumatology), an MRI scoring system for hand OA was developed. MRI is more sensitive than radiographs for detecting structural abnormalities. Synovitis, as detected by both MRI and ultrasound, is associated with pain and predicts future disease progression. Hence, synovitis may represent a treatment target in hand OA. Her future research plans include the observational Nor-Hand study and a placebo-controlled randomized trial on methotrexate (MTX) in hand OA. The data collection of 300 patients in the Nor-Hand study is ongoing, and focuses on causes of pain and novel imaging techniques to assess inflammation in hand OA. In a future clinical trial, patients with moderate to severe long-lasting pain and inflammation will be treated with MTX and the effect on pain and inflammation will be explored.

  4. The Contribution of Geography to Current Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerasimov, I. P.

    1975-01-01

    The three main principles on which geographical knowledge is based are regionalism, ecology, and anthropogenesis. The role that each of these principles has played in the development of geographical science is examined. Current and future trends in geography are also discussed. For address of journal see SO 504 028. (Author/RM)

  5. Clinical management of dilated cardiomyopathy: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Marco; Cannatá, Antonio; Vitagliano, Alice; Zambon, Elena; Lardieri, Gerardina; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a primary heart muscle disease characterized by a progressive dilation and dysfunction of either the left or both ventricles. The management of DCM is currently challenging for clinicians. The persistent lack of knowledge about the etiology and pathophysiology of this disease continues to determine important fields of uncertainty in managing this condition. Molecular cardiology and genetics currently represent the most crucial horizon of increasing knowledge. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the disease allows clinicians to treat this disease more effectively and to further improve outcomes of DCM patients through advancements in etiologic characterization, prognostic stratification and individualized therapy. Left ventricular reverse remodeling predicts a lower rate of major cardiac adverse events independently from other factors. Optimized medical treatment and device implantation are pivotal in inducing left ventricular reverse remodeling. Newly identified targets, such as angiotensin-neprilysin inhibition, phosphodiesterase inhibition and calcium sensitizing are important in improving prognosis in patients affected by DCM.

  6. Development of a Comprehensive Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Hannah E.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Moser, Richard P.; Scholl, Sarah; Klein, William M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Heart disease is the number one killer of both men and women in the United States, yet a comprehensive and evidence-based heart disease knowledge assessment is currently not available. Purpose: This paper describes the two-phase development of a novel heart disease knowledge questionnaire. Methods: After review and critique of the…

  7. Current Levels of Salt Knowledge: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sarmugam, Rani; Worsley, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    High salt intake increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the role of knowledge as a determinant of food intake, this paper aims to review the current levels of salt knowledge and the association between salt knowledge and dietary salt intake and salt-related dietary practices in the general population. Twenty two studies were included in the review. In general, the studies showed consumers were able to identify the health risks associated with high salt intake. However, knowledge of recommended daily intakes, understanding of the relationships between salt and sodium and foods that contribute most salt to the diet were poor. Four of the five studies which examined the relationships between salt knowledge and salt-related dietary practices reported significant associations. Two important gaps in the current literature were identified. First, there is a need for a robustly validated tool to examine salt knowledge and its impact on salt intake. Second, a comprehensive salt knowledge assessment should include assessment of procedural, as well as declarative, knowledge. PMID:25470377

  8. Primordial Germ Cells: Current Knowledge and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Aleksandar; Volarevic, Vladislav; Armstrong, Lyle; Lako, Majlinda; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a condition that occurs very frequently and understanding what defines normal fertility is crucial to helping patients. Causes of infertility are numerous and the treatment often does not lead to desired pregnancy especially when there is a lack of functional gametes. In humans, the primordial germ cell (PGC) is the primary undifferentiated stem cell type that will differentiate towards gametes: spermatozoa or oocytes. With the development of stem cell biology and differentiation protocols, PGC can be obtained from pluripotent stem cells providing a new therapeutic possibility to treat infertile couples. Recent studies demonstrated that viable mouse pups could be obtained from in vitro differentiated stem cells suggesting that translation of these results to human is closer. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about PGC indicating the perspective of their use in both research and medical application for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26635880

  9. [Collagen type IV: major component of basement membranes. Current knowledge].

    PubMed

    Mercier, P; Ekindjian, O G

    1990-01-01

    The collagen family represents the most abundant protein in animals. Type IV collagen ([alpha 1 (IV)]2 alpha 2 (IV)) differs from the other types in several respects and particularly in its distribution, being strictly limited to the basement membranes. Alterations in the structure and functions of basement membranes are observed in a number of diseases, such as tumoral angiogenesis and diabetic nephropathy. This article reviews current structural and pathophysiological knowledge concerning type IV collagen.

  10. Human bocavirus: Current knowledge and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Guido, Marcello; Tumolo, Maria Rosaria; Verri, Tiziano; Romano, Alessandro; Serio, Francesca; De Giorgi, Mattia; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Zizza, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a parvovirus isolated about a decade ago and found worldwide in both respiratory samples, mainly from early life and children of 6-24 mo of age with acute respiratory infection, and in stool samples, from patients with gastroenteritis. Since then, other viruses related to the first HBoV isolate (HBoV1), namely HBoV2, HBoV3 and HBoV4, have been detected principally in human faeces. HBoVs are small non-enveloped single-stranded DNA viruses of about 5300 nucleotides, consisting of three open reading frames encoding the first two the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and nuclear phosphoprotein (NP1) and the third the viral capsid proteins 1 and 2 (VP1 and VP2). HBoV pathogenicity remains to be fully clarified mainly due to the lack of animal models for the difficulties in replicating the virus in in vitro cell cultures, and the fact that HBoV infection is frequently accompanied by at least another viral and/or bacterial respiratory and/or gastroenteric pathogen infection. Current diagnostic methods to support HBoV detection include polymerase chain reaction, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme immunoassay using recombinant VP2 or virus-like particle capsid proteins, although sequence-independent amplification techniques combined with next-generation sequencing platforms promise rapid and simultaneous detection of the pathogens in the future. This review presents the current knowledge on HBoV genotypes with emphasis on taxonomy, phylogenetic relationship and genomic analysis, biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and diagnostic methods. The emerging discussion on HBoVs as true pathogen or innocent bystander is also emphasized. PMID:27818586

  11. Current Knowledge on Cannabinoids in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dayong; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is a new biological matrix for clinical and forensic drug testing, offering non-invasive and directly observable sample collection reducing adulteration potential, ease of multiple sample collections, lower biohazard risk during collection, recent exposure identification, and stronger correlation with blood than urine concentrations. Because cannabinoids are usually the most prevalent analytes in illicit drug testing, application of OF drug testing requires sufficient scientific data to support sensitive and specific OF cannabinoid detection. This review presents current knowledge on OF cannabinoids, evaluating pharmacokinetic properties, detection windows, and correlation with other biological matrices and impairment from field applications and controlled drug administration studies. In addition, on-site screening technologies, confirmatory analytical methods, drug stability, and effects of sample collection procedure, adulterants, and passive environmental exposure are reviewed. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol OF concentrations could be > 1000 μg/L shortly after smoking, whereas minor cannabinoids are detected at 10-fold and metabolites at 1000-fold lower concentrations. OF research over the past decade demonstrated that appropriate interpretation of test results requires a comprehensive understanding of distinct elimination profiles and detection windows for different cannabinoids, which are influenced by administration route, dose, and drug use history. Thus, each drug testing program should establish cutoff criteria, collection/analysis procedures, and storage conditions tailored to its purposes. Building a scientific basis for OF testing is on-going, with continuing OF cannabinoids research on passive environmental exposure, drug use history, donor physiological conditions, and oral cavity metabolism needed to better understand mechanisms of cannabinoid OF disposition and expand OF drug testing applicability. PMID:23983217

  12. Tuberculosis: current state of knowledge: an epilogue.

    PubMed

    Leung, Chi Chiu; Lange, Christoph; Zhang, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), has developed various mechanisms to survive and cause disease in the human host. Incomplete understanding of the complex microbe-host interactions has hindered the identification of suitable biomarkers to expedite the development of diagnostic tools, drugs and vaccines. The field effectiveness of directly observed therapy-short course has been compromised by the intrinsic limitations of sputum microscopy and suboptimal adherence to the long duration of treatment amid the HIV-TB syndemic and various socioeconomic constraints. While molecular tools are transforming the diagnostic processes, especially for multi-drug-resistant (MDR)-TB, drug development and service provision for MDR-TB seriously lag behind. Inappropriate management of detected MDR-TB cases may amplify drug resistance, jeopardizing future control. Targeted screening and treatment of latent infection with M. tuberculosis with the currently available immunodiagnostic tools and treatment regimens aim more for personal protection than major epidemiological impact or elimination. The interferon-γ release assays (IGRA) are not affected by cross-reaction to the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and are increasingly used for such screening before initiation of biologics for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune disorders. BCG offers only partial and unreliable protection against pulmonary TB in adults, the crucial transmission link for this airborne infection. Systems biology and vaccinomics may speed up vaccine research. The successful development of a fully effective TB vaccine that targets both growing bacteria and non-growing persisters may reflect a major breakthrough, as natural infection does not induce sufficient immunity to prevent reinfection.

  13. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: current knowledge and open questions.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Israel; Kennedy, Peter G E

    2015-10-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is usually an acute, multi-focal, and monophasic immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. The disorder is mainly a condition of the pediatric age group, but neurologists are also involved in the management of adult patients. The lack of defined diagnostic criteria for ADEM underlies the limited understanding of its epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, course, prognosis, therapy, as well as the association with, and distinction from, multiple sclerosis. The present review summarizes current knowledge and outlines unanswered questions the answers to which should be eventually provided through a synergistic combination of clinical and basic research.

  14. Polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate ester surfactants - current knowledge and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Taxvig, Camilla; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2014-07-01

    Fluorochemicals are a diverse group of synthetically produced compounds with the unique ability to repel water as well as oil. This property makes them ideal for multiple purposes in a variety of consumer and industrial products. Fluorochemicals have been detected in the environment, as well as in human blood, urine and milk. Due to their long half-life in human beings, there is an increased risk that exposure to these compounds can cause adverse effects. However, except for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), there is a large data gap regarding toxicological information on fluorochemicals. Polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate ester surfactants (PAPs) belong to the group of polyfluorinated alkyl surfactants. They have been detected in indoor dust and are widely used in food-contact materials, from which they have the ability to migrate into food. Toxicological data on PAPs are very limited, but current studies indicate that some PAPs have the potential to interfere with sex hormone synthesis in vitro. Disturbance of the sex hormone balance in foetal life has been suggested to be an important mechanism involved in adverse effects on, for example, male reproductive health and development. The current lack of toxicological data on PAPs impairs the risk assessment of this group of compounds. However, until more toxicological data on PAPs are available, the limited data currently accessible give reason to believe that these compounds might have the ability to cause potentially adverse effects, as seen for other perfluorinated chemicals, including some metabolic products of PAPs. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  15. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: current knowledge and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Malik, M; Elkholy, A A; Khan, W; Hassounah, S; Abubakar, A; Minh, N Tran; Mala, P

    2016-10-02

    A literature review of publically available information was undertaken to summarize current understanding and gaps in knowledge about Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), including its origin, transmission, effective control measures and management. Major databases were searched and relevant published papers and reports during 2012-2015 were reviewed. Of the 2520 publications initially retrieved, 164 were deemed relevant. The collected results suggest that much remains to be discovered about MERS-CoV. Improved surveillance, epidemiological research and development of new therapies and vaccines are important, and the momentum of recent gains in terms of better understanding of disease patterns should be maintained to enable the global community to answer the remaining questions about this disease.

  16. [In the light of current knowledge right ventricle].

    PubMed

    Taçoy, Gülten; Cengel, Atiye

    2014-09-01

    There are important differences between left and right ventricle. Due to anatomical location and structural features, in daily clinical practice the right ventricle cannot be assessed easily as the left ventricle. Therefore, the right ventricle has remained in the background of the left ventricle. Recent clinical studies and advanced imaging modalities have demonstrated that right ventricle is decisive for survival particularly in patients with congenital heart disease, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. Therefore, the detailed evaluation of the right ventricle has become necessary in current clinical practice. For this reason, in our review we aimed to examine the embryological development, anatomical structure, physiological, metabolic characteristics, responses to different pathological conditions, effects on arrhythmias, causes of failure and imaging modalities of the right ventricle in light of the current knowledge's.

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with mild airflow limitation: current knowledge and proposal for future research – a consensus document from six scientific societies

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Andrea; Butorac-Petanjek, Bojana; Chilosi, Marco; Cosío, Borja G; Flezar, Matjaz; Koulouris, Nikolaos; Marin, José; Miculinic, Neven; Polese, Guido; Samaržija, Miroslav; Skrgat, Sabina; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros; Vukić-Dugac, Andrea; Zakynthinos, Spyridon; Miravitlles, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with high and growing prevalence. Its underdiagnosis and hence under-treatment is a general feature across all countries. This is particularly true for the mild or early stages of the disease, when symptoms do not yet interfere with daily living activities and both patients and doctors are likely to underestimate the presence of the disease. A diagnosis of COPD requires spirometry in subjects with a history of exposure to known risk factors and symptoms. Postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity <0.7 or less than the lower limit of normal confirms the presence of airflow limitation, the severity of which can be measured by FEV1% predicted: stage 1 defines COPD with mild airflow limitation, which means postbronchodilator FEV1 ≥80% predicted. In recent years, an elegant series of studies has shown that “exclusive reliance on spirometry, in patients with mild airflow limitation, may result in underestimation of clinically important physiologic impairment”. In fact, exercise tolerance, diffusing capacity, and gas exchange can be impaired in subjects at a mild stage of airflow limitation. Furthermore, growing evidence indicates that smokers without overt abnormal spirometry have respiratory symptoms and undergo therapy. This is an essential issue in COPD. In fact, on one hand, airflow limitation, even mild, can unduly limit the patient’s physical activity, with deleterious consequences on quality of life and even survival; on the other hand, particularly in younger subjects, mild airflow limitation might coincide with the early stage of the disease. Therefore, we thought that it was worthwhile to analyze further and discuss this stage of “mild COPD”. To this end, representatives of scientific societies from five European countries have met and developed this document to stimulate the attention of the scientific

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with mild airflow limitation: current knowledge and proposal for future research - a consensus document from six scientific societies.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Andrea; Butorac-Petanjek, Bojana; Chilosi, Marco; Cosío, Borja G; Flezar, Matjaz; Koulouris, Nikolaos; Marin, José; Miculinic, Neven; Polese, Guido; Samaržija, Miroslav; Skrgat, Sabina; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros; Vukić-Dugac, Andrea; Zakynthinos, Spyridon; Miravitlles, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with high and growing prevalence. Its underdiagnosis and hence under-treatment is a general feature across all countries. This is particularly true for the mild or early stages of the disease, when symptoms do not yet interfere with daily living activities and both patients and doctors are likely to underestimate the presence of the disease. A diagnosis of COPD requires spirometry in subjects with a history of exposure to known risk factors and symptoms. Postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity <0.7 or less than the lower limit of normal confirms the presence of airflow limitation, the severity of which can be measured by FEV1% predicted: stage 1 defines COPD with mild airflow limitation, which means postbronchodilator FEV1 ≥80% predicted. In recent years, an elegant series of studies has shown that "exclusive reliance on spirometry, in patients with mild airflow limitation, may result in underestimation of clinically important physiologic impairment". In fact, exercise tolerance, diffusing capacity, and gas exchange can be impaired in subjects at a mild stage of airflow limitation. Furthermore, growing evidence indicates that smokers without overt abnormal spirometry have respiratory symptoms and undergo therapy. This is an essential issue in COPD. In fact, on one hand, airflow limitation, even mild, can unduly limit the patient's physical activity, with deleterious consequences on quality of life and even survival; on the other hand, particularly in younger subjects, mild airflow limitation might coincide with the early stage of the disease. Therefore, we thought that it was worthwhile to analyze further and discuss this stage of "mild COPD". To this end, representatives of scientific societies from five European countries have met and developed this document to stimulate the attention of the scientific community on

  19. Intestinal microbiota transplant - current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Leszczyszyn, Jarosław Jerzy; Radomski, Marek; Leszczyszyn, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has induced a lot scientific interest and hopes for the last couple of years. FMT has been approved as a treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis. Highly sophisticated molecular DNA identification methods have been used to assess the healthy human microbiome as well as its disturbances in several diseases. The metabolic and immunologic functions of the microbiome have become more clear and understandable. A lot of pathological changes, such as production of short-chain fatty acids or components of the inflammatory cascade, caused by changes in microbiome diversity, variability and richness have been observed among patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, type 2 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis. The published clinical results are encouraging, but still there is huge demand for FMT controlled clinical trials.

  20. [Hypnosis and pain: current and perspective knowledge].

    PubMed

    Bioy, Antoine

    2012-06-27

    After further controversies, the definition of hypnosis is to be at the same time a modified state of consciousness and a particular intersubjective relation between a practitioner and his patient. In a synthetic way, we can say that mechanisms of hypnosis on acute pain are now well known, and its efficiency is particularly proved in the pain provoked by the care. On the other hand, the knowledge concerning the action of the hypnosis on chronic pain is much more complex to understand. If the hypnosis allows connoting differently pain and to decrease its implication in patient's life, otherWise the long-term reorganizations of hypnosis on chronic pain are still for the study. In practice, the field which his particularly in development is the analogical processes of the speech, because they are particularly present in pain medicine, and easy to use in hypnotic method.

  1. Knowledge on Lyme disease among foresters.

    PubMed

    Kurnatowski, Piotr; Warpechowska, Małgorzata; Kurnatowska, Anna J

    2011-03-01

    The first aim was an attempt to evaluate the level of knowledge on Lyme disease among people whose profession involves working in the forest; the second--recognition of the health problems that should be included in health education programmes concerning Lyme disease in this group of professionals. The study was performed on 159 subjects. Only 15% know the etiological factor of disease, 98%--the main cause of infection, and route of pathogen transmission. Propagation of knowledge on Lyme disease, particularly among risk group people, is not satisfactory. Little knowledge on tick risk among secondary school students indicate the necessity for cooperation between teachers, epidemiologists, and health service providers in order to propagate the knowledge on parasites, symptoms, spread and methods of prevention.

  2. Tick-borne parasitic diseases in cattle: current knowledge and prospective risk analysis related to the ongoing evolution in French cattle farming systems.

    PubMed

    L'Hostis, Monique; Seegers, Henri

    2002-01-01

    Parasitic diseases, like babesiosis and theileriosis are transmitted by ticks: their occurrence is therefore linked to the size of the tick stock and the seasonality of the vectors. Babesia divergens bovine babesiosis transmitted by Ixodes ricinus is widespread and often reported in France. Serological prevalence is high, ranging from 20 to 80% according to the farms. Clinical incidence is low: around 0.4% for the whole cattle population. The endemic situation is unstable and clinical cases occur more frequently with farming system modifications. L. ricinus is a tick essentially found in woodlands and so, for the most part, is found in closed rural areas. The situation of the other bovine babesiosis (Babesia major) and theileriosis (Theileria orientalis) is not well documented in France. However, the epidemiology of parasitic diseases is changing, especially because of changes in the environmental characteristics, i.e. both farm and herd management conditions and also climatic conditions. These modifications can provoke an increase in the tick stocks, an increase in the contact rate between cattle and ticks, and an increase in the contact rate between cattle and the wild fauna, especially deer. This results in likely modifications of the endemic situation, with a higher risk of clinical babesiosis in the medium term.

  3. Cetacean Morbillivirus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Duignan, Pádraig J.; Banyard, Ashley; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M; De Guise, Sylvain; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Domingo, Mariano; Fauquier, Deborah; Fernandez, Antonio; Goldstein, Tracey; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R.; Gulland, Frances; Jensen, Brenda A; Jepson, Paul D; Hall, Ailsa; Kuiken, Thijs; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E; Nielsen, Ole; Raga, Juan A; Rowles, Teresa K; Saliki, Jeremy; Sierra, Eva; Stephens, Nahiid; Stone, Brett; Tomo, Ikuko; Wang, Jianning; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James FX

    2014-01-01

    We review the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) and the diagnosis and pathogenesis of associated disease, with six different strains detected in cetaceans worldwide. CeMV has caused epidemics with high mortality in odontocetes in Europe, the USA and Australia. It represents a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus. Although most CeMV strains are phylogenetically closely related, recent data indicate that morbilliviruses recovered from Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), from Western Australia, and a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), from Brazil, are divergent. The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) cell receptor for CeMV has been characterized in cetaceans. It shares higher amino acid identity with the ruminant SLAM than with the receptors of carnivores or humans, reflecting the evolutionary history of these mammalian taxa. In Delphinidae, three amino acid substitutions may result in a higher affinity for the virus. Infection is diagnosed by histology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, RT-PCR, and serology. Classical CeMV-associated lesions include bronchointerstitial pneumonia, encephalitis, syncytia, and lymphoid depletion associated with immunosuppression. Cetaceans that survive the acute disease may develop fatal secondary infections and chronic encephalitis. Endemically infected, gregarious odontocetes probably serve as reservoirs and vectors. Transmission likely occurs through the inhalation of aerosolized virus but mother to fetus transmission was also reported. PMID:25533660

  4. Cetacean morbillivirus: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Duignan, Pádraig J; Banyard, Ashley; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M; De Guise, Sylvain; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Domingo, Mariano; Fauquier, Deborah; Fernandez, Antonio; Goldstein, Tracey; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R; Gulland, Frances; Jensen, Brenda A; Jepson, Paul D; Hall, Ailsa; Kuiken, Thijs; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E; Nielsen, Ole; Raga, Juan A; Rowles, Teresa K; Saliki, Jeremy; Sierra, Eva; Stephens, Nahiid; Stone, Brett; Tomo, Ikuko; Wang, Jianning; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-12-22

    We review the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) and the diagnosis and pathogenesis of associated disease, with six different strains detected in cetaceans worldwide. CeMV has caused epidemics with high mortality in odontocetes in Europe, the USA and Australia. It represents a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus. Although most CeMV strains are phylogenetically closely related, recent data indicate that morbilliviruses recovered from Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), from Western Australia, and a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), from Brazil, are divergent. The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) cell receptor for CeMV has been characterized in cetaceans. It shares higher amino acid identity with the ruminant SLAM than with the receptors of carnivores or humans, reflecting the evolutionary history of these mammalian taxa. In Delphinidae, three amino acid substitutions may result in a higher affinity for the virus. Infection is diagnosed by histology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, RT-PCR, and serology. Classical CeMV-associated lesions include bronchointerstitial pneumonia, encephalitis, syncytia, and lymphoid depletion associated with immunosuppression. Cetaceans that survive the acute disease may develop fatal secondary infections and chronic encephalitis. Endemically infected, gregarious odontocetes probably serve as reservoirs and vectors. Transmission likely occurs through the inhalation of aerosolized virus but mother to fetus transmission was also reported.

  5. [Schizophrenic disorders: current etiologic and clinical knowledge].

    PubMed

    Olié, Jean-Pierre; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Lôo, Henri

    2005-05-01

    Brain anomalies associated with schizophrenic disorders may be of a cognitive, neurophysiological or neurological nature [the latter being relatively minor and nonspecific]. Brain imaging has revealed early anomalies such as cortical-subcortical atrophy and abnormal gyration. These anomalies can also be present in relatives free of schizophrenic symptoms. This raises the question of what determines the transition from vulnerability to clinical onset. There is now evidence that schizophrenic disorders are true brain diseases. This is based on neuropathological studies, brain imaging and clinical findings such as "soft" neurological signs (pyramidal and extrapyramidal symptoms, coordination difficulties, etc.). Cognitive dysfunctions such as attention and memory disorders and abnormal verbal fluency have also been described. Oculomotor pursuit and auditive evoked potentials have identified specific neurophysiological disorders such as N300 and P50 wave modifications. Schizophrenic disorders can also be associated with neuronal abnormalities, notably affecting factors involved in synaptic transmission and plasticity. For example, BDNF protein deficit is linked to certain late-onset forms of schizophrenia. Genetic studies are no longer focusing on a possible disease genotype but rather on phenotypic characteristics determined by simpler genotypes (P50 wave modulation, COMT and BDNF genes). The ultimate objective is to identify high-risk subjects, in order to shorten the treatment delay and thereby improve long-term outcome. The benefit of primary prophylaxis remains to be determined, however.

  6. [Tularaemia - an overview of the current knowledge].

    PubMed

    Lukásová, Eva; Cermák, Pavel; Smelá, Gabriela; Jedlicková, Anna

    2010-02-01

    Francisella tularensis belongs to the family Francisellaceae. It is the aetiological agent of a zoonosis called tularaemia, spread throughout the northern hemisphere. Currently, several subspecies of F. tularensis may be distinguished with various pathogenicity and geographical distribution. In human medicine, only sporadic infections or local epidemics are reported. Given the fact that F. tularensis is highly pathogenic for humans and is easily spread by aerosol, water or food, it may be exploited as a biological weapon. It belongs to fastidious strains requiring specially prepared culture media.

  7. Faecal incontinence: Current knowledges and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Benezech, Alban; Bouvier, Michel; Vitton, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Faecal incontinence (FI) is a disabling and frequent symptom since its prevalence can vary between 5% and 15% of the general population. It has a particular negative impact on quality of life. Many tools are currently available for the treatment of FI, from conservative measures to invasive surgical treatments. The conservative treatment may be dietetic measures, various pharmacological agents, anorectal rehabilitation, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, and transanal irrigation. If needed, patients may have miniinvasive approaches such as sacral nerve modulation or antegrade irrigation. In some cases, a surgical treatment is proposed, mainly external anal sphincter repair. Although these different therapeutic options are available, new techniques are arriving allowing new hopes for the patients. Moreover, most of them are non-invasive such as local application of an α1-adrenoceptor agonist, stem cell injections, rectal injection of botulinum toxin, acupuncture. New more invasive techniques with promising results are also coming such as anal magnetic sphincter and antropylorus transposition. This review reports the main current available treatments of FI and the developing therapeutics tools. PMID:26909229

  8. Cholangiocarcinoma: Current Knowledge and New Developments

    PubMed Central

    Blechacz, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the second most common primary malignancy. Although it is more common in Asia, its incidence in Europe and North America has significantly increased in recent decades. The prognosis of CCA is dismal. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment, but the majority of patients present with advanced stage disease, and recurrence after resection is common. Over the last two decades, our understanding of the molecular biology of this malignancy has increased tremendously, diagnostic techniques have evolved, and novel therapeutic approaches have been established. This review discusses the changing epidemiologic trends and provides an overview of newly identified etiologic risk factors for CCA. Furthermore, the molecular pathogenesis is discussed as well as the influence of etiology and biliary location on the mutational landscape of CCA. This review provides an overview of the diagnostic evaluation of CCA and its staging systems. Finally, new therapeutic options are critically reviewed, and future therapeutic strategies discussed. PMID:27928095

  9. Cholangiocarcinoma: Current Knowledge and New Developments.

    PubMed

    Blechacz, Boris

    2017-01-15

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the second most common primary malignancy. Although it is more common in Asia, its incidence in Europe and North America has significantly increased in recent decades. The prognosis of CCA is dismal. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment, but the majority of patients present with advanced stage disease, and recurrence after resection is common. Over the last two decades, our understanding of the molecular biology of this malignancy has increased tremendously, diagnostic techniques have evolved, and novel therapeutic approaches have been established. This review discusses the changing epidemiologic trends and provides an overview of newly identified etiologic risk factors for CCA. Furthermore, the molecular pathogenesis is discussed as well as the influence of etiology and biliary location on the mutational landscape of CCA. This review provides an overview of the diagnostic evaluation of CCA and its staging systems. Finally, new therapeutic options are critically reviewed, and future therapeutic strategies discussed.

  10. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U; Chua, Ai Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that "cures" or "stops" SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief.

  11. Current Knowledge on Genetic Biofortification in Lentil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gupta, Debjyoti Sen; Kumar, Shiv; Gupta, Sanjeev; Singh, Narendra Pratap

    2016-08-24

    Micronutrient deficiency in the human body, popularly known as "hidden hunger", causes many health problems. It presently affects >2 billion people worldwide, especially in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Biofortification of food crop varieties is one way to combat the problem of hidden hunger using conventional plant breeding and transgenic methods. Lentils are rich sources of protein, micronutrients, and vitamins including iron, zinc, selenium, folates, and carotenoids. Lentil genetic resources including germplasm and wild species showed genetic variability for these traits. Studies revealed that a single serving of lentils could provide a significant amount of the recommended daily allowance of micronutrients and vitamins for adults. Therefore, lentils have been identified as a food legume for biofortification, which could provide a whole food solution to the global micronutrient malnutrition. The present review discusses the current ongoing efforts toward genetic biofortification in lentils using classical breeding and molecular marker-assisted approaches.

  12. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Adrian U.; Chua, Ai Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that “cures” or “stops” SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief. PMID:27656052

  13. Cryoprecipitate: the current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Callum, Jeannie L; Karkouti, Keyvan; Lin, Yulia

    2009-07-01

    Cryoprecipitate is a diverse product containing factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, fibronectin, factor XIII, and platelet microparticles. The role of this complex product in the management of hemostasis has not been well studied (excluding patients with factor VIII deficiency). There are insufficient data to determine the clinical setting where this product might be clinically efficacious despite its widespread use in multiple different clinical scenarios. The best method of pooling before transfusion has also not been thoroughly investigated to determine the optimal infusion strategy (intralaboratory vs bedside). The most common current indication for the use of this product is hypofibrinogenemia in the setting of massive hemorrhage. There are insufficient data in the literature to determine the efficacy, safety, and dosage in this patient population. Despite 45 years of the use of this product, we still have a lot to learn regarding the optimal use of cryoprecipitate.

  14. Public knowledge of prevention of dental disease.

    PubMed

    Gift, H C; Corbin, S B; Nowjack-Raymer, R E

    1994-01-01

    The authors present data describing the level and extent of the general public's knowledge of oral diseases and their prevention. They discuss data from the 1990 National Health Interview Survey's Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Supplement in the context of national oral health objectives. They focus on demographic and socioeconomic differences seen in the public's knowledge of the preventive purposes of fluorides and dental sealants for dental caries and of symptoms of gum disease. Reported low levels of knowledge regarding oral disease symptoms and their prevention show the continuing trend reported during the past decade. Racial and ethnic minorities and groups with low levels of formal education demonstrate the least knowledge of prevention of oral diseases. For example, 76 percent of those with more than 12 years of schooling know the preventive purpose of water fluoridation, compared with 61 percent of those with 12 years, and 36 percent of those with less than 12 years of school. Efforts to increase levels of knowledge about oral disease prevention are required to achieve national objectives for oral health.

  15. Autophagy in Drosophila: From Historical Studies to Current Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Mulakkal, Nitha C.; Nagy, Peter; Takats, Szabolcs; Tusco, Radu; Juhász, Gábor; Nezis, Ioannis P.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of evolutionarily conserved Atg genes required for autophagy in yeast truly revolutionized this research field and made it possible to carry out functional studies on model organisms. Insects including Drosophila are classical and still popular models to study autophagy, starting from the 1960s. This review aims to summarize past achievements and our current knowledge about the role and regulation of autophagy in Drosophila, with an outlook to yeast and mammals. The basic mechanisms of autophagy in fruit fly cells appear to be quite similar to other eukaryotes, and the role that this lysosomal self-degradation process plays in Drosophila models of various diseases already made it possible to recognize certain aspects of human pathologies. Future studies in this complete animal hold great promise for the better understanding of such processes and may also help finding new research avenues for the treatment of disorders with misregulated autophagy. PMID:24949430

  16. A Survey of 25 North Carolina Health Departments/Districts on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Current Practices to Seeking Reimbursement From Third-Party Payers for Sexually Transmitted Disease Services.

    PubMed

    Kovar, Cheryl L; Carter, Susan

    2017-06-01

    North Carolina Administrative Code 10A Chapter 41A.0204 (a) states "local health departments shall provide diagnosis, testing, treatment, follow-up, and preventive services for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, … These services shall be provided upon request and at no charge to the patient." Although health departments/districts may bill governmental or nongovernmental insurance providers for sexually transmitted disease (STD) services, current billing practices are unknown. Because of its high STD morbidity, the eastern region of North Carolina was targeted. Using a Qualtrics Survey developed to measure attitudes as well as knowledge and reimbursement practices, this descriptive study was performed with staff from 25 eastern North Carolina health departments/districts. Snowball sampling was used to allow for greater inclusion. Analysis of data was performed at the individual and agency level based on types of questions in the survey. For knowledge, 87% of the respondents reported being aware of the possibility of reimbursement from third-party payers/commercial insurance carriers for STD services. In regard to current billing of these services, 20 health departments/districts (80%) reported they were billing these payers. When asked about their attitude of seeking reimbursement from commercial insurance, 92% reported it was acceptable or very acceptable. But when asked if STD services should remain a free service at the health department, 55% supported and 45% did not. These data provide a knowledge base for assisting health departments/districts to move forward in improving STD services as well as maximizing reimbursement from third-party payers/commercial insurance carriers when possible.

  17. Current knowledge and future perspectives on acute hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Hullegie, S J; Arends, J E; Rijnders, B J A; Irving, W L; Salmon, D; Prins, M; Wensing, A M; Klenerman, P; Leblebicioglu, H; Boesecke, C; Rockstroh, J K; Hoepelman, A I M

    2015-08-01

    Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are frequently seen worldwide in certain risk groups, with an annual incidence rate varying between 0.08% and 66%. Although this incidence is substantial, a delayed diagnosis during chronic infection is most often made in the absence of clinical symptoms in the acute phase of the infection. Currently used methods to diagnose acute HCV infection are IgG antibody seroconversion and repeated HCV RNA measurements, although no definitive diagnostic test is currently available. Progress in the field of adaptive and innate immune responses has aided both advances in the field of HCV vaccine development and a more basic understanding of viral persistence. The rapid changes in the treatment of chronic HCV infection will affect therapeutic regimens for acute HCV infection in the coming years, leading to shorter treatment courses and pegylated interferon-free modalities. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge and uncertainties, together with some future perspectives on acute hepatitis C epidemiology, virology, immunology, and treatment. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Infant fungal communities: current knowledge and research opportunities.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tonya L; Knights, Dan; Gale, Cheryl A

    2017-02-13

    The microbes colonizing the infant gastrointestinal tract have been implicated in later-life disease states such as allergies and obesity. Recently, the medical research community has begun to realize that very early colonization events may be most impactful on future health, with the presence of key taxa required for proper immune and metabolic development. However, most studies to date have focused on bacterial colonization events and have left out fungi, a clinically important sub-population of the microbiota. A number of recent findings indicate the importance of host-associated fungi (the mycobiota) in adult and infant disease states, including acute infections, allergies, and metabolism, making characterization of early human mycobiota an important frontier of medical research. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge with a focus on factors influencing infant mycobiota development and associations between early fungal exposures and health outcomes. We also propose next steps for infant fungal mycobiome research, including longitudinal studies of mother-infant pairs while monitoring long-term health outcomes, further exploration of bacterium-fungus interactions, and improved methods and databases for mycobiome quantitation.

  19. Newcastle disease: current vaccine research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important infectious diseases that affect poultry due to its devastating economic impact and world-wide distribution and contribution towards malnutrition in countries that rely on production of village chickens as a source of animal protein. Besides biosec...

  20. Lyme Disease in West Virginia: An Assessment of Distribution and Clinicians' Knowledge of Disease and Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarah; Parker, David; Mark-Carew, Miguella; White, Robert; Fisher, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease case misclassification, a top public health concern, may be attributed to the current disconnect between clinical diagnosis and surveillance. This study examines Lyme disease distribution in West Virginia (WV) and determines clinicians' knowledge of both disease and surveillance. Lyme disease surveillance data for 2013 were obtained from the WV Bureau for Public Health. A validated survey, distributed to clinicians at an academic medical center, assessed clinicians' knowledge of disease diagnosis and surveillance. There were 297 adult Lyme disease cases of which 83 were confirmed. Clinician survey responses resulted in a correct response rate of 70% for Lyme disease knowledge questions. Fewer than half of all clinicians were aware of the surveillance criteria for confirming Lyme disease cases. Neither medical specialty nor previous treatment of patients with Lyme disease were significantly associated with clinicians' knowledge of the disease. Clinicians in WV are familiar with symptoms and clinical management of Lyme disease. However, they are less knowledgeable about diagnosis and public health surveillance comprising reporting and confirming cases of the disease. Clinicians and public health authorities should collaborate more closely to promote education and awareness as a key step to successfully reducing the burden of Lymne disease.

  1. The California spotted owl: current state of knowledge

    Treesearch

    R.J. Gutiérrez; Patricia N. Manley; Peter A. Stine

    2017-01-01

    This conservation assessment represents a comprehensive review by scientists of the current scientific knowledge about the ecology, habitat use, population dynamics, and current threats to the viability of the California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). It is based primarily on peer-reviewed published information with an emphasis on new scientific...

  2. United airway disease: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Aun, Marcelo Vivolo; Takejima, Priscila; Kalil, Jorge; Agondi, Rosana Câmara

    2016-01-01

    Upper and lower airways are considered a unified morphological and functional unit, and the connection existing between them has been observed for many years, both in health and in disease. There is strong epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, and clinical evidence supporting an integrated view of rhinitis and asthma: united airway disease in the present review. The term “united airway disease” is opportune, because rhinitis and asthma are chronic inflammatory diseases of the upper and lower airways, which can be induced by allergic or nonallergic reproducible mechanisms, and present several phenotypes. Management of rhinitis and asthma must be jointly carried out, leading to better control of both diseases, and the lessons of the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma initiative cannot be forgotten. PMID:27257389

  3. Current Pipelines for Neglected Diseases

    PubMed Central

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  4. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  5. Current Discoveries and Interventions for Barlow's Disease.

    PubMed

    Siordia, Juan A

    2016-08-01

    Mitral valve prolapse is a common valve pathology. One particular type of mitral valve prolapse that can be difficult to treat is Barlow's disease. This review serves to give insight on the current discoveries and therapeutic interventions of Barlow's disease.

  6. Asthma and metabolic syndrome: Current knowledge and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Serafino-Agrusa, Laura; Spatafora, Mario; Scichilone, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Asthma and obesity are epidemiologically linked; however, similar relationships are also observed with other markers of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, which cannot be accounted for by increased body mass alone. Obesity appears to be a predisposing factor for the asthma onset, both in adults and in children. In addition, obesity could make asthma more difficult to control and to treat. Although obesity may predispose to increased Th2 inflammation or tendency to atopy, other mechanisms need to be considered, such as those mediated by hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia in the context of metabolic syndrome. The mechanisms underlying the association between asthma and metabolic syndrome are yet to be determined. In the past, these two conditions were believed to occur in the same individual without any pathogenetic link. However, the improvement in asthma symptoms following weight reduction indicates a causal relationship. The interplay between these two diseases is probably due to a bidirectional interaction. The purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge about the possible link between metabolic syndrome and asthma, and explore potential application for future studies and strategic approaches. PMID:25789301

  7. Prophylaxis and therapeutic potential of ozone in buiatrics: Current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Đuričić, Dražen; Valpotić, Hrvoje; Samardžija, Marko

    2015-08-01

    Ozone therapy has been in use since 1896 in the USA. As a highly reactive molecule, ozone may inactivate bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeasts and protozoans, stimulate the oxygen metabolism of tissue, treat diseases, activate the immune system, and exhibit strong analgesic activity. More recently, ozone has been used in veterinary medicine, particularly in buiatrics, but still insufficiently. Medical ozone therapy has shown effectiveness as an alternative to the use of antibiotics, which are restricted to clinical use and have been withdrawn from non-clinical use as in-feed growth promoters in animal production. This review is an overview of current knowledge regarding the preventive and therapeutic effects of ozone in ruminants for the treatment of puerperal diseases and improvement in their fertility. In particular, ozone preparations have been tested in the treatment of reproductive tract lesions, urovagina and pneumomovagina, metritis, endometritis, fetal membrane retention and mastitis, as well as in the functional restoration of endometrium in dairy cows and goats. In addition, the preventive use of the intrauterine application of ozone has been assessed in order to evaluate its effectiveness in improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. No adverse effects were observed in cows and goats treated with ozone preparations. Moreover, there is a lot of evidence indicating the advantages of ozone preparation therapy in comparison to the application of antibiotics. However, there are certain limitations on ozone use in veterinary medicine and buiatrics, such as inactivity against intracellular microbes and selective activity against the same bacterial species, as well as the induction of tissue inflammation through inappropriate application of the preparation.

  8. Alzheimer's Disease: A Current Review

    PubMed Central

    Watson, W. J.; Seiden, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function from a previously established level, and is the most common cause of all the dementias. While the exact etiology remains to be determined, there are several theories about possible genetic, immunological, biochemical and viral causes. Clinical diagnosis is by exclusion of other established causes of dementia and requires a careful history, physical examination and, often, psychological testing. Definitive diagnosis is made at post-mortem, although some cases show none of the histological hallmarks such as neurofibrillary tangles or senile plaques. There is no effective preventive or therapeutic treatment. Symptomatic management includes pharmacotherapy, socialization, support for the patient and his family and, ultimately, institutionalization. Patients are best managed by an interdisciplinary team using community resources. PMID:21279077

  9. Current treatment of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, T.; Shimaoka, K.; Mimura, T.; Ito, K.

    1987-04-01

    In this review we have described the rationale for the appropriate treatment of patients with Graves' disease. Because the etiology of this disorder remains obscure, its management remains controversial. Since antithyroid drugs and radioiodine became readily available in the early 1950s, they have been widely used for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis, and the number of cases treated surgically has markedly decreased. However, almost four decades of experience have disclosed an unexpectedly high incidence of delayed hypothyroidism after radioiodine treatment and a low remission rate after antithyroid therapy. As a result, surgery is again being advocated as the treatment of choice. The three modalities of treatment have different advantages and disadvantages, and selection of treatment is of importance. In principle, we believe that for most patients a subtotal thyroidectomy should be performed after the patient has been rendered euthyroid by antithyroid drugs. We attempt to leave a thyroid remnant of 6 to 8 gm.36 references.

  10. A knowledge network for a dynamic taxonomy of psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Ranga R

    2015-03-01

    Current taxonomic approaches in medicine and psychiatry are limited in validity and utility. They do serve simple communication purposes for medical coding, teaching, and reimbursement, but they are not suited for the modern era with its rapid explosion of knowledge from the "omics" revolution. The National Academy of Sciences published a report entitled Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease. The authors advocate a new taxonomy that would integrate molecular data, clinical data, and health outcomes in a dynamic, iterative fashion, bringing together research, public health, and health-care delivery with the interlinked goals of advancing our understanding of disease pathogenesis and thereby improving health. As the need for an information hub and a knowledge network with a dynamic taxonomy based on integration of clinical and research data is vital, and timely, this proposal merits consideration.

  11. A knowledge network for a dynamic taxonomy of psychiatric disease

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ranga R.

    2015-01-01

    Current taxonomic approaches in medicine and psychiatry are limited in validity and utility. They do serve simple communication purposes for medical coding, teaching, and reimbursement, but they are not suited for the modern era with its rapid explosion of knowledge from the “omics” revolution. The National Academy of Sciences published a report entitled Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease. The authors advocate a new taxonomy that would integrate molecular data, clinical data, and health outcomes in a dynamic, iterative fashion, bringing together research, public health, and health-care delivery with the interlinked goals of advancing our understanding of disease pathogenesis and thereby improving health. As the need for an information hub and a knowledge network with a dynamic taxonomy based on integration of clinical and research data is vital, and timely, this proposal merits consideration. PMID:25987866

  12. Current knowledge and attitudes: Russian olive biology, ecology and management

    Treesearch

    Sharlene E. Sing; Kevin J. Delaney

    2016-01-01

    The primary goals of a two-day Russian olive symposium held in February 2014 were to disseminate current knowledge and identify data gaps regarding Russian olive biology and ecology, distributions, integrated management, and to ascertain the feasibility and acceptance of a proposed program for classical biological control of Russian olive. The symposium was...

  13. Chagas disease: changes in knowledge and management.

    PubMed

    Lescure, François-Xavier; Le Loup, Guillaume; Freilij, Hector; Develoux, Michel; Paris, Luc; Brutus, Laurent; Pialoux, Gilles

    2010-08-01

    More than 100 years after the discovery of human American trypanosomiasis by Carlos Chagas, our knowledge and management of the disease are profoundly changing. Substantial progress made by disease control programmes in most endemic areas contrasts with persisting difficulties in the Gran Chaco region in South America and the recent emergence of the disease in non-endemic areas because of population movements. In terms of pathogenesis, major discoveries have been made about the life cycle and genomics of Trypanosoma cruzi, and the role of the parasite itself in the chronic phase of the disease. From a clinical perspective, a growing number of arguments have challenged the notion of an indeterminate phase, and suggest new approaches to manage patients. New methods such as standardised PCR will be necessary to ensure follow-up of this chronic infection. Although drugs for treatment of Chagas disease are limited, poorly tolerated, and not very effective, treatment indications are expanding. The results of the Benznidazole Evaluation For Interrupting Trypanosomiasis (BENEFIT) trial in 2012 will also help to inform treatment. Mobilisation of financial resources to fund research on diagnosis and randomised controlled trials of treatment are international health priorities.

  14. Conceptual knowledge representation: A cross-section of current research.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Timothy T; Wolmetz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    How is conceptual knowledge encoded in the brain? This special issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology takes stock of current efforts to answer this question through a variety of methods and perspectives. Across this work, three questions recur, each fundamental to knowledge representation in the mind and brain. First, what are the elements of conceptual representation? Second, to what extent are conceptual representations embodied in sensory and motor systems? Third, how are conceptual representations shaped by context, especially linguistic context? In this introductory article we provide relevant background on these themes and introduce how they are addressed by our contributing authors.

  15. A venereal disease knowledge evaluation instrument.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, N G; Landiss, C W; Ponder, L D

    1975-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid, reliable test to measure the knowledge of elementary school teachers about venereal disease. Recommended scientific test construction procedures were carefully followed. These included the development of a content outline and a table of specification; submitting potential test items to a review panel; revision of items and initial administration of the test; item analysis, revision, and a second administration; and the item analysis and revision which resulted in the Schmidt VD Knowlege Evaluator. This test consists of 45 multiple-choice items related primarily to syphilis and gonorrhea with some items related to the other venereal diseases. Test construction procedures assure face validity and the Kuder-Richardson formula estimates reliability to be 0.79. The instrument would be useful as a pre-test and/or post-test for inservice programs, workshops, and seminars for teachers, school nurses, or any similar group.

  16. Towards building a disease-phenotype knowledge base: extracting disease-manifestation relationship from literature

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rong; Li, Li; Wang, QuanQiu

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Systems approaches to studying phenotypic relationships among diseases are emerging as an active area of research for both novel disease gene discovery and drug repurposing. Currently, systematic study of disease phenotypic relationships on a phenome-wide scale is limited because large-scale machine-understandable disease–phenotype relationship knowledge bases are often unavailable. Here, we present an automatic approach to extract disease–manifestation (D-M) pairs (one specific type of disease–phenotype relationship) from the wide body of published biomedical literature. Data and Methods: Our method leverages external knowledge and limits the amount of human effort required. For the text corpus, we used 119 085 682 MEDLINE sentences (21 354 075 citations). First, we used D-M pairs from existing biomedical ontologies as prior knowledge to automatically discover D-M–specific syntactic patterns. We then extracted additional pairs from MEDLINE using the learned patterns. Finally, we analysed correlations between disease manifestations and disease-associated genes and drugs to demonstrate the potential of this newly created knowledge base in disease gene discovery and drug repurposing. Results: In total, we extracted 121 359 unique D-M pairs with a high precision of 0.924. Among the extracted pairs, 120 419 (99.2%) have not been captured in existing structured knowledge sources. We have shown that disease manifestations correlate positively with both disease-associated genes and drug treatments. Conclusions: The main contribution of our study is the creation of a large-scale and accurate D-M phenotype relationship knowledge base. This unique knowledge base, when combined with existing phenotypic, genetic and proteomic datasets, can have profound implications in our deeper understanding of disease etiology and in rapid drug repurposing. Availability: http://nlp.case.edu/public/data/DMPatternUMLS/ Contact: rxx@case.edu PMID:23828786

  17. Current and never smokers: differentials in characteristics, knowledge and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Youssef, R M; Abou-Khatwa, S A; Fouad, H M

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional interview survey of tobacco use was conducted in Alexandria, Egypt, comparing current smokers with never smokers. Among men, the risk of current tobacco use was significantly higher among married participants (OR = 1.74), especially those with low educational or occupational status. In contrast, although few women smoked, tobacco use was significantly higher among those holding a university degree (OR = 15.33). Never smokers were significantly more knowledgeable than current smokers about tobacco-related health hazards. Never smokers had significantly better perceptions of the danger of tobacco use, susceptibility to health-related hazards and the benefits of being tobacco-free. Multivariate analysis revealed that tobacco use is independently predicted by participants' sex, age and educational attainment as well as their perceptions.

  18. Current and future treatments for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Salloway, Stephen

    2009-08-01

    There are currently >5 million people in the United States who have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. That prevalence rate is expected to triple as the population ages. The health and economic burden due to Alzheimer's disease is a worldwide problem, with some of the greatest burden coming from the developing world as people live longer in those societies. Throughout the world, the projected growth of Alzheimer's disease is dramatic. This is a worldwide public health problem of the highest order, and there is a compelling need to develop new treatments and methods of earlier diagnosis need to slow the progression of the disease and lessen its impact.

  19. Current knowledge of US metal and nonmetal miner health: Current and potential data sources for analysis of miner health status

    PubMed Central

    Yeoman, K. M.; Halldin, C. N.; Wood, J.; Storey, E.; Johns, D.; Laney, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about the current health status of US metal and nonmetal (MNM) miners, in part because no health surveillance systems exist for this population. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is developing a program to characterize burden of disease among MNM miners. This report discusses current knowledge and potential data sources of MNM miner health. Recent national surveys were analyzed, and literature specific to MNM miner health status was reviewed. No robust estimates of disease prevalence were identified, and national surveys did not provide information specific to MNM miners. Because substantial gaps exist in the understanding of MNM miners' current health status, NIOSH plans to develop a health surveillance program for this population to guide intervention efforts to reduce occupational and personal risks for chronic illness. PMID:25658684

  20. Prosthetic aortic valve selection: current patient experience, preferences and knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Korteland, Nelleke M; Bras, Frans J; van Hout, Fabienne M A; Kluin, Jolanda; Klautz, Robert J M; Bogers, Ad J J C; Takkenberg, Johanna J M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Current clinical practice guidelines advocate shared decision-making (SDM) in prosthetic valve selection. This study assesses among adult patients accepted for aortic valve replacement (AVR): (1) experience with current clinical decision-making regarding prosthetic valve selection, (2) preferences for SDM and risk presentation and (3) prosthetic valve knowledge and numeracy. Methods In a prospective multicentre cohort study, AVR patients were surveyed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Results 132 patients (89 males/43 females; mean age 67 years (range 23–86)) responded preoperatively. Decisional conflict was observed in 56% of patients, and in 25% to such an extent that it made them feel unsure about the decision. 68% wanted to be involved in decision-making, whereas 53% agreed that they actually were. 69% were able to answer three basic knowledge questions concerning prosthetic valves correctly. 56% were able to answer three basic numeracy questions correctly. Three months postsurgery, 90% (n=110) were satisfied with their aortic valve prosthesis, with no difference between mechanical and bioprosthetic valve recipients. Conclusions In current clinical practice, many AVR patients experience decisional conflict and suboptimal involvement in prosthetic valve selection, and exhibit impaired knowledge concerning prosthetic valves and numeracy. Given the broad support for SDM among AVR patients and the obvious need for understandable information, to-be-developed tools to support SDM in the setting of prosthetic valve selection will help to improve quality of decision-making, better inform and actively involve patients, and reduce decisional conflict. Trial registration number NTR3618. PMID:25893105

  1. Current research knowledge about adolescent victimization via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Janis; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly; Finkelhor, David

    2007-08-01

    We review current knowledge about adolescent Internet-mediated victimization, including Internet-initiated sex crimes in which offenders use the Internet to meet victims, unwanted online sexual solicitations, Internet harassment, and unwanted and wanted exposure to online pornography. Internet-initiated sex crimes have received considerable publicity, but the media stories have contributed to stereotypes that do not accurately portray adolescent Internet experience. Adults' concerns are valid but need to be supported with information that illuminates the real safety issues and targets the specific population of youth impacted.

  2. The azoospermic male: current knowledge and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sandro C; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is fully dedicated to the topic of azoospermia and contains the seminal work of renowned scientists and clinicians from seven countries on three continents. In seventeen chapters, a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, genetics, physiopathology, diagnosis, and management of azoospermia addresses our current knowledge on the topic. The clinical results of assisted reproductive techniques applied to this category of male infertility and the health of offspring originating from such fathers are critically analyzed. In addition, the challenges and the future biotechnological perspectives for the treatment of azoospermic males seeking fertility are discussed. PMID:23503949

  3. Epigenetics of Addiction: Current Knowledge, Challenges, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; Walton, Esther; Viding, Essi

    2016-09-01

    Addiction to psychoactive substances is a debilitating condition underpinned by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. At present, a key challenge for research is to delineate how, at a molecular level, these influences become "biologically embedded," contributing to the onset and persistence of addictive behaviors. Recently, epigenetic processes that regulate gene expression have emerged as a potential mechanism of interest. In this commentary, we discuss the relevance of epigenetics to addiction research, starting with the current state of knowledge, what challenges we have yet to overcome, and what the future may hold in terms of research methodology and translational potential.

  4. Managing inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pinder, Matthew; Lummis, Katie; Selinger, Christian P

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects many women of childbearing age. The course of IBD is closely related to pregnancy outcomes with poorly controlled IBD increasing the risk of prematurity, low weight for gestation, and fetal loss. As such, women with IBD face complex decision making weighing the risks of active disease versus those of medical treatments. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of IBD treatments during pregnancy and lactation aiming to provide up-to-date guidance for clinicians. Over 50% of women have poor IBD- and pregnancy-related knowledge, which is associated with views contrary to medical evidence and voluntary childlessness. This review highlights the effects of poor patient knowledge and critically evaluates interventions for improving patient knowledge and outcomes. PMID:27789969

  5. Alzheimer disease: current concepts & future directions.

    PubMed

    Musiek, Erik S; Schindler, Suzanne E

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in individuals over age 65, and is expected to cause a major public health crisis as the number of older Americans rapidly expands in the next three decades. Herein, we review current strategies for diagnosis and management of AD, and discuss ongoing clinical research and future therapeutic directions in the battle against this devastating disease.

  6. Alzheimer's Disease therapeutics: current and future therapies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin-Ben; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Qin; Zhou, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Pathologically, Alzheimer's Disease is characterized by amyloidal protein plaques that lead to dementia in the elderly population. While advances have been made in therapeutics over the course of the last 20 years, the drugs generally target the symptoms rather than the underlying pathology. Unfortunately, despite the advances, the mechanisms behind Alzheimer's Disease have still not been clearly identified. Some of these current treatments include acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonists. Recently, the pathophysiology behind this disease is becoming more clearly understood and this has led to some novel therapeutic targets that may be able to break the barrier and target the underlying disease. In this review, we will discuss Alzheimer's Disease pathology and the pharmacological therapy that has been in use for a long time as well as novel therapies.

  7. Current knowledge, gaps and challenges in the Southern European Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathanassiou, Evangelos

    2015-04-01

    New knowledge advances our current understanding on the selection and application of the appropriate tools for assessing the state of the marine environment in the Southern European Seas (SES). Diminishing the lack of knowledge is a prerequisite for sound policy decisions. Although gaps and knowledge are fewer today, the health of marine and coastal ecosystems in the SES is under pressure and shows, in places, some signs of deterioration and declining quality. Overall, there is a lack of data accessibility and long time series in the SES, while in many cases poorly constrained processes cannot really support knowledge-based policy making (e.g. ecosystem functioning, climate change, fisheries management, etc.). New knowledge has to be produced and excellence must be promoted to support sustainable economic growth. At the same time, existing and new capacities have to be upgraded and increased in order to support sustainable convergence between SES countries. There are several gaps that have been identified and processes that have been poorly understood in the SES, mainly from research projects that have been working at basin level. The main research priorities that have been identified from the SeasERA Project for both, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea include: the climate change and its impacts, the hydrological cycle, the ventilation and the inter-basin coupling, the marine biodiversity and the provision of goods and services, the marine protected areas, the deep sea ecosystems, the biological invasions, the marine pollution and the ocean and human health, the renewable energy, the maritime transport, the fisheries and aquaculture activities and the biotechnology and the exploitation of marine resources for industrial application. More important, however, is the fact that the economic, the social and the scientific and the environmental challenges must be collectively tackled. They should have prioritisation and clear objectives as well as data sharing for

  8. The current status of sheep pox disease.

    PubMed

    Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K

    2006-01-01

    Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem.

  9. Current and Emerging Biomarkers of Cell Death in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kongning; Wu, Deng; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Ying; Miao, Zhengqiang; Jin, Nana; Bi, Xiaoman; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Cell death is a critical biological process, serving many important functions within multicellular organisms. Aberrations in cell death can contribute to the pathology of human diseases. Significant progress made in the research area enormously speeds up our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cell death. According to the distinct morphological and biochemical characteristics, cell death can be triggered by extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death, and mitotic catastrophe. Nevertheless, the realization that all of these efforts seek to pursue an effective treatment and cure for the disease has spurred a significant interest in the development of promising biomarkers of cell death to early diagnose disease and accurately predict disease progression and outcome. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about cell death, survey current and emerging biomarkers of cell death, and discuss the relationship with human diseases. PMID:24949464

  10. Current status of adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brunicardi, F.C.; Rosman, P.M.; Lesser, K.L.; Andersen, D.K.

    1985-12-01

    To evaluate the current use of adrenalectomy in the treatment of Cushing's disease, we reviewed seven consecutive patients who have undergone adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease at this medical center during 1983 to 1984. Seventy-one percent (5/7) had pituitary, or type I, Cushing's disease, while 29% (2/7) had adrenal, or type II, Cushing's disease from either an adenoma or an adrenocortical carcinoma. Presenting signs and symptoms, either initially or at the time of recurrence, were typical of Cushing's syndrome. Four of five patients with type I disease had recurrent disease after transphenoidal hypophysectomy, bilateral adrenalectomy, or unilateral adrenalectomy. In three of five patients, medical therapy of hypercortisolism was abandoned because of adverse side effects. Preoperative evaluation in all patients included cortisol and ACTH levels, dexamethasone suppression tests, and computerized tomography (both abdominal and head). In patients with a prior history of adrenalectomy, radiocholesterol scans were also performed and were useful. Angiographic procedures were not required in these patients. In patients with type I disease, posterior operative approaches were used. In patients with type II disease, an anterolateral approach was used. Posterolateral incisions are preferred over Hugh-Young incisions and provide better exposure with a reduced risk of poor wound healing. Morbidity and mortality included one death and three nonhealing wounds. In the six surviving patients, symptoms resolved with variable frequency. Findings suggestive of Nelson's syndrome (hyperpigmentation) have occurred in two patients; serial computerized tomographic scans fail to reveal evidence of pituitary tumors.

  11. Current laparoscopic management of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, M; Fichera, A

    2011-12-01

    Since the introduction of laparoscopic surgery in the management of colorectal disease in the early '90s, minimally invasive techniques have gained popularity. While good quality studies have been published in the literature on laparoscopy for colorectal cancer, evidence supporting the use of minimally invasive surgery for inflammatory bowel disease is lacking. This patient population represents a challenge to the colorectal surgeon even in conventional open surgery and this has limited the widespread application of minimally invasive techniques especially in Crohn's disease. Laparoscopic ileocecal resection for Crohn's disease is the most performed minimally invasive procedure in the field of inflammatory bowel disease, with promising short-term outcomes but with still some concerns related to prolonged operative times and overall costs. For ulcerative colitis the magnitude of restorative procedures has also restricted the use of minimally invasive approaches to highly specialized tertiary referral centers. The benefits of performing restorative procedures laparoscopically for ulcerative colitis are less obvious based on the limited reports available in the literature with adequate follow-up for assessing long-term outcomes, and controversies still remains about the need for a staged approach in the era of biologic therapy. Nevertheless, surgeons are actively working in an effort to obviate to the current technical limitations of laparoscopy, and to further minimize surgical trauma. In this manuscript we will present the current evidence supporting the use of laparoscopy and minimally invasive techniques in inflammatory bowel disease and present the future direction of development and research.

  12. PDON: Parkinson's disease ontology for representation and modeling of the Parkinson's disease knowledge domain.

    PubMed

    Younesi, Erfan; Malhotra, Ashutosh; Gündel, Michaela; Scordis, Phil; Kodamullil, Alpha Tom; Page, Matt; Müller, Bernd; Springstubbe, Stephan; Wüllner, Ullrich; Scheller, Dieter; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2015-09-22

    Despite the unprecedented and increasing amount of data, relatively little progress has been made in molecular characterization of mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease. In the area of Parkinson's research, there is a pressing need to integrate various pieces of information into a meaningful context of presumed disease mechanism(s). Disease ontologies provide a novel means for organizing, integrating, and standardizing the knowledge domains specific to disease in a compact, formalized and computer-readable form and serve as a reference for knowledge exchange or systems modeling of disease mechanism. The Parkinson's disease ontology was built according to the life cycle of ontology building. Structural, functional, and expert evaluation of the ontology was performed to ensure the quality and usability of the ontology. A novelty metric has been introduced to measure the gain of new knowledge using the ontology. Finally, a cause-and-effect model was built around PINK1 and two gene expression studies from the Gene Expression Omnibus database were re-annotated to demonstrate the usability of the ontology. The Parkinson's disease ontology with a subclass-based taxonomic hierarchy covers the broad spectrum of major biomedical concepts from molecular to clinical features of the disease, and also reflects different views on disease features held by molecular biologists, clinicians and drug developers. The current version of the ontology contains 632 concepts, which are organized under nine views. The structural evaluation showed the balanced dispersion of concept classes throughout the ontology. The functional evaluation demonstrated that the ontology-driven literature search could gain novel knowledge not present in the reference Parkinson's knowledge map. The ontology was able to answer specific questions related to Parkinson's when evaluated by experts. Finally, the added value of the Parkinson's disease ontology is demonstrated by ontology-driven modeling of PINK1

  13. Climate change and respiratory health: current evidence and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Knowlton, Kim; Balmes, John R

    2013-08-01

    Climate change is a key driver of the accelerating environmental change affecting populations around the world. Many of these changes and our response to them can affect respiratory health. This is an expert opinion review of recent peer-reviewed literature, focused on more recent medical journals and climate-health relevant modeling results from non-biomedical journals pertaining to climate interactions with air pollution. Global health impacts in low resource countries and migration precipitated by environmental change are addressed. The major findings are of respiratory health effects related to heat, air pollution, shifts in infectious diseases and allergens, flooding, water, food security and migration. The review concludes with knowledge gaps and research need that will support the evidence-base required to address the challenges ahead.

  14. Current and emerging therapies for Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Napier, Catherine; Pearce, Simon H S

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the current therapy of Addison's disease and to highlight recent developments in this field. Conventional steroid replacement for Addison's disease consists of twice or three-times daily oral hydrocortisone and once-daily fludrocortisone; however, new treatment modalities such as modified-released hydrocortisone and continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion have recently been developed. These offer the potential for closer simulation of the physiological serum cortisol rhythm. Two studies have also looked at modifying the natural history of adrenal failure using adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation and immunomodulatory therapies, leading to the concept of residual adrenal function in some Addison's disease patients. Following more than 60 years with no significant innovation in the management of Addison's disease, these new approaches hold promise for improved patient health and better quality of life in the future.

  15. Microbiological risk factors in dentistry. Current status of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    Dentists belong to a professional group potentially exposed to harmful biological factors which most often are infectious microorganisms, less frequently - allergenic or toxic microorganisms. The fundamental routes of spreading harmful microorganisms in a dental surgery are: blood-borne, saliva-droplet, direct contact with a patient and with infected equipment, and water-droplet infections. In this paper, the current status of knowledge on microbiological hazards in a dentist's work is presented. Groups of microorganisms, such as prions, viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa, to which a dentist is, or may be exposed, are discussed. Epidemiological assessment of microbiological hazards in a dentist's work was performed and the basic principles of prevention formulated. Special attention was given to microflora in dental unit waterlines, and the biofilm persisting in them, as a source of occupational hazards specific for a dentist's workplace.

  16. Cyanobactins from Cyanobacteria: Current Genetic and Chemical State of Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Martins, Joana; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-11-13

    Cyanobacteria are considered to be one of the most promising sources of new, natural products. Apart from non-ribosomal peptides and polyketides, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are one of the leading groups of bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Among these, cyanobactins have sparked attention due to their interesting bioactivities and for their potential to be prospective candidates in the development of drugs. It is assumed that the primary source of cyanobactins is cyanobacteria, although these compounds have also been isolated from marine animals such as ascidians, sponges and mollusks. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge of cyanobactins, recognized as being produced by cyanobacteria, and to emphasize their genetic clusters and chemical structures as well as their bioactivities, ecological roles and biotechnological potential.

  17. Cyanobactins from Cyanobacteria: Current Genetic and Chemical State of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Joana; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to be one of the most promising sources of new, natural products. Apart from non-ribosomal peptides and polyketides, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are one of the leading groups of bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Among these, cyanobactins have sparked attention due to their interesting bioactivities and for their potential to be prospective candidates in the development of drugs. It is assumed that the primary source of cyanobactins is cyanobacteria, although these compounds have also been isolated from marine animals such as ascidians, sponges and mollusks. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge of cyanobactins, recognized as being produced by cyanobacteria, and to emphasize their genetic clusters and chemical structures as well as their bioactivities, ecological roles and biotechnological potential. PMID:26580631

  18. The physiological ecology of vascular epiphytes: current knowledge, open questions.

    PubMed

    Zotz, G; Hietz, P

    2001-11-01

    The current knowledge of the physiological ecology of vascular epiphytes is reviewed here with an emphasis on the most recent literature. It is argued that by far the most relevant abiotic constraint for growth and vegetative function of vascular epiphytes is water shortage, while other factors such as nutrient availability or irradiation, are generally of inferior importance. However, it is shown that the present understanding of epiphyte biology is still highly biased, both taxonomically and ecologically, and it is concluded that any generalizations are still preliminary. Future studies should include a much wider range of taxa and growing sites within the canopy to reach a better understanding how abiotic factors are limiting epiphyte growth and survival which, in turn, should affect epiphyte community composition. Finally, a more integrative approach to epiphyte biology is encouraged: physiological investigations should be balanced by studies of other possible constraints, for example, substrate instability, dispersal limitation, competition or herbivory.

  19. Micronutrients in pregnancy: current knowledge and unresolved questions.

    PubMed

    Berti, C; Biesalski, H K; Gärtner, R; Lapillonne, A; Pietrzik, K; Poston, L; Redman, C; Koletzko, B; Cetin, I

    2011-12-01

    Micronutrient status is increasingly recognized to play an important role in the health and well-being of pregnant women and in the development and long-term health of the offspring. On 26th - 28th February 2009, The Child Health Foundation invited leading experts in this area to a scientific workshop at Obergurgl, Austria to review and critically discuss current knowledge, to identify issues that may need to be addressed in future recommendations, and to highlight priorities and opportunities for future research. This report summarizes updated key conclusions of the workshop with regards to micronutrients' intake and physiological role related to mother, placenta and fetus, as well as relevance for adverse pregnancy and long-term outcomes.

  20. The Transition to High School: Current Knowledge, Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the American educational system, school transitions are frequent and predictable, but they can disrupt student functioning across developmental domains. How students experience school transitions has been a focus of research for some time, but the high school transition has received less attention, and the limited research often focuses on a particular developmental domain (e.g., academics and socioemotional well-being) to the exclusion of a more integrated model. This review relies on life course theory to establish an organizational framework for interpreting and connecting the diffuse and sometimes disparate findings on the high school transition, including adolescent developmental trajectories and the influence of social ties, changing sociocultural contexts, and stratification systems. Conclusions identify aspects for future inquiry suggested by current knowledge and the tenets of the life course perspective. PMID:21966178

  1. Current role of capsule endoscopy in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Luján-Sanchis, Marisol; Sanchis-Artero, Laura; Larrey-Ruiz, Laura; Peño-Muñoz, Laura; Núñez-Martínez, Paola; Castillo-López, Génesis; González-González, Lara; Clemente, Carlos Boix; Albert Antequera, Cecilia; Durá-Ayet, Ana; Sempere-Garcia-Argüelles, Javier

    2016-09-16

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) currently plays an important role in Crohn's disease (CD). It is a noninvasive technique that has led to a breakthrough in the endoscopic diagnosis of diseases of the small intestine. Its superior diagnostic performance and excellent safety profile lead to its considerable acceptance on the part of the patient. This paper reviews current indications of CE in three stages of clinical practice: Suspected CD, unclassified colitis and its extensive role in diagnosed CD. The diagnostic and therapeutic impact of the results of CE on the monitoring of this disease is also reviewed. Knowledge of its applications, the interpretation of its results in an appropriate context and the existence of a validated endoscopic activity index could change the way in which these patients are managed. The definition of mucosal healing and postoperative recurrence by means of endoscopic scoring systems will endow CE with new applications in the management of CD in the near future.

  2. Current role of capsule endoscopy in Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Luján-Sanchis, Marisol; Sanchis-Artero, Laura; Larrey-Ruiz, Laura; Peño-Muñoz, Laura; Núñez-Martínez, Paola; Castillo-López, Génesis; González-González, Lara; Clemente, Carlos Boix; Albert Antequera, Cecilia; Durá-Ayet, Ana; Sempere-Garcia-Argüelles, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) currently plays an important role in Crohn’s disease (CD). It is a noninvasive technique that has led to a breakthrough in the endoscopic diagnosis of diseases of the small intestine. Its superior diagnostic performance and excellent safety profile lead to its considerable acceptance on the part of the patient. This paper reviews current indications of CE in three stages of clinical practice: Suspected CD, unclassified colitis and its extensive role in diagnosed CD. The diagnostic and therapeutic impact of the results of CE on the monitoring of this disease is also reviewed. Knowledge of its applications, the interpretation of its results in an appropriate context and the existence of a validated endoscopic activity index could change the way in which these patients are managed. The definition of mucosal healing and postoperative recurrence by means of endoscopic scoring systems will endow CE with new applications in the management of CD in the near future. PMID:27668067

  3. Bassoonists' medical problems-current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dawson, William J

    2012-06-01

    Specific musical instruments can be a source of physical problems to their players. Based on reviews of the literature and personal experience, this paper summarizes current knowledge of problems affecting musicians who play instruments in the bassoon family (including the bassoon, contrabassoon, and several other instruments). Prevalence rates are higher in reports of surveys (ranging up to 86%), compared to clinical reports of patients seen and treated. Significant risk factors include young age, small body size, female gender, and use of large instruments. Problems unique to bassoonists are rare; most physical difficulties also are seen in general musculoskeletal clinical practices and in musicians playing all types of instruments. The left upper extremity is more commonly affected by overuse-related conditions in bassoonists. Non-playing-related problems are equally important for consideration (such as degenerative disorders and acute trauma), since they also affect practice and performance. Little experimental data exist to validate current and widely-held principles of treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention.

  4. Current treatments for patients with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Gerald G; Saunders, Amanda Vaughn

    2010-09-01

    There is neither proven effective prevention for Alzheimer disease nor a cure for patients with this disorder. Nevertheless, a spectrum of biopsychosocial therapeutic measures is available for slowing progression of the illness and enhancing quality of life for patients. These measures include a range of educational, psychological, social, and behavioral interventions that remain fundamental to effective care. Also available are a number of pharmacologic treatments, including prescription medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for Alzheimer disease, "off-label" uses of medications to manage target symptoms, and controversial complementary therapies. Physicians must make the earliest possible diagnosis to use these treatments most effectively. Physicians' goals should be to educate patients and their caregivers, to plan long-term care options, to maximally manage concurrent illnesses, to slow and ameliorate the most disabling symptoms, and to preserve effective functioning for as long as possible. The authors review the various current treatments for patients with Alzheimer disease.

  5. Current and Future Chemotherapy for Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Luís; Moraes, Carolina B; Freitas-Junior, Lucio H; Ferrari, Stefania; Costantino, Luca; Costi, Maria Paola; Coron, Ross P; Smith, Terry K; Siqueira-Neto, Jair L; McKerrow, James H; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela

    2015-01-01

    Human American trypanosomiasis, commonly called Chagas disease, is one of the most neglected illnesses in the world and remains one of the most prevalent chronic infectious diseases of Latin America with thousands of new cases every year. The only treatments available have been introduced five decades ago. They have serious, undesirable side effects and disputed benefits in the chronic stage of the disease - a characteristic and debilitating cardiomyopathy and/or megavisceras. Several laboratories have therefore focused their efforts in finding better drugs. Although recent years have brought new clinical trials, these are few and lack diversity in terms of drug mechanism of action, thus resulting in a weak drug discovery pipeline. This fragility has been recently exposed by the failure of two candidates; posaconazole and E1224, to sterilely cure patients in phase 2 clinical trials. Such setbacks highlight the need for continuous, novel and high quality drug discovery and development efforts to discover better and safer treatments. In this article we will review past and current findings on drug discovery for Trypanosoma cruzi made by academic research groups, industry and other research organizations over the last half century. We also analyze the current research landscape that is now better placed than ever to deliver alternative treatments for Chagas disease in the near future.

  6. Anatomy of the human mammary gland: Current status of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hassiotou, Foteini; Geddes, Donna

    2013-01-01

    Mammary glands are unique to mammals, with the specific function of synthesizing, secreting, and delivering milk to the newborn. Given this function, it is only during a pregnancy/lactation cycle that the gland reaches a mature developmental state via hormonal influences at the cellular level that effect drastic modifications in the micro- and macro-anatomy of the gland, resulting in remodeling of the gland into a milk-secretory organ. Pubertal and post-pubertal development of the breast in females aids in preparing it to assume a functional state during pregnancy and lactation. Remarkably, this organ has the capacity to regress to a resting state upon cessation of lactation, and then undergo the same cycle of expansion and regression again in subsequent pregnancies during reproductive life. This plasticity suggests tight hormonal regulation, which is paramount for the normal function of the gland. This review presents the current status of knowledge of the normal macro- and micro-anatomy of the human mammary gland and the distinct changes it undergoes during the key developmental stages that characterize it, from embryonic life through to post-menopausal age. In addition, it discusses recent advances in our understanding of the normal function of the breast during lactation, with special reference to breastmilk, its composition, and how it can be utilized as a tool to advance knowledge on normal and aberrant breast development and function. Finally, anatomical and molecular traits associated with aberrant expansion of the breast are discussed to set the basis for future comparisons that may illuminate the origin of breast cancer.

  7. The Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…

  8. The Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…

  9. Chagas disease diagnostic applications: present knowledge and future steps

    PubMed Central

    Balouz, Virginia; Agüero, Fernán; Buscaglia, Carlos A.

    2017-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a life-long and debilitating illness of major significance throughout Latin America, and an emergent threat to global public health. Being a neglected disease, the vast majority of Chagasic patients have limited access to proper diagnosis and treatment, and there is only a marginal investment into R&D for drug and vaccine development. In this context, identification of novel biomarkers able to transcend the current limits of diagnostic methods surfaces as a main priority in Chagas disease applied research. The expectation is that these novel biomarkers will provide reliable, reproducible and accurate results irrespective of the genetic background, infecting parasite strain, stage of disease, and clinical-associated features of Chagasic populations. In addition, they should be able to address other still unmet diagnostic needs, including early detection of congenital T. cruzi transmission, rapid assessment of treatment efficiency or failure, indication/prediction of disease progression and direct parasite typification in clinical samples. The lack of access of poor and neglected populations to essential diagnostics also stress the necessity of developing new methods operational in Point-of-Care (PoC) settings. In summary, emergent diagnostic tests integrating these novel and tailored tools should provide a significant impact on the effectiveness of current intervention schemes and on the clinical management of Chagasic patients. In this chapter, we discuss the present knowledge and possible future steps in Chagas disease diagnostic applications, as well as the opportunity provided by recent advances in high-throughput methods for biomarker discovery. PMID:28325368

  10. [Established aspects and current knowledge in biomaterials research].

    PubMed

    Griss, P; Orth, J; Wilke, A; Franke, P

    1993-01-01

    A review of the currently clinically established biomaterials UHMWPE, Al2O3-ceramic, CoCr- and Ti-based alloys and HA-coatings is given on the basis of recognized and new insights. Advantages and disadvantages as well as prospectives (PE-disease, Ti wear, HA-resorption in vivo etc.) are discussed and documented with results from experimental and clinical experience. New surface hardening techniques for Ti-based alloys are mentioned. Experimental results and singular experience from clinical retrieval study of new plastics (PAEK, Triazin-resin) are presented. Composite materials as a basis for a new generation of isoelastic hip prosthesis stems are described at the end of this paper.

  11. Centipede venom: recent discoveries and current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2015-02-25

    Centipedes are among the oldest extant venomous predators on the planet. Armed with a pair of modified, venom-bearing limbs, they are an important group of predatory arthropods and are infamous for their ability to deliver painful stings. Despite this, very little is known about centipede venom and its composition. Advances in analytical tools, however, have recently provided the first detailed insights into the composition and evolution of centipede venoms. This has revealed that centipede venom proteins are highly diverse, with 61 phylogenetically distinct venom protein and peptide families. A number of these have been convergently recruited into the venoms of other animals, providing valuable information on potential underlying causes of the occasionally serious complications arising from human centipede envenomations. However, the majority of venom protein and peptide families bear no resemblance to any characterised protein or peptide family, highlighting the novelty of centipede venoms. This review highlights recent discoveries and summarises the current state of knowledge on the fascinating venom system of centipedes.

  12. Phocine Distemper Virus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Duignan, Pádraig J.; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Baker, Jason D.; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M.; De Guise, Sylvain; de Swart, Rik L.; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Duprex, W. Paul; Early, Greg; Fauquier, Deborah; Goldstein, Tracey; Goodman, Simon J.; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R.; Gulland, Frances; Hall, Ailsa; Jensen, Brenda A.; Lamy, Karina; Matassa, Keith; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E.; Nielsen, Ole; Rotstein, David; Rowles, Teresa K.; Saliki, Jeremy T.; Siebert, Ursula; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F.X.

    2014-01-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years. PMID:25533658

  13. Phocine distemper virus: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Duignan, Pádraig J; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Baker, Jason D; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M; De Guise, Sylvain; de Swart, Rik L; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Duprex, W Paul; Early, Greg; Fauquier, Deborah; Goldstein, Tracey; Goodman, Simon J; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R; Gulland, Frances; Hall, Ailsa; Jensen, Brenda A; Lamy, Karina; Matassa, Keith; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E; Nielsen, Ole; Rotstein, David; Rowles, Teresa K; Saliki, Jeremy T; Siebert, Ursula; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-12-22

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years.

  14. Current status of knowledge on public-speaking anxiety.

    PubMed

    Pull, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the current knowledge on public-speaking anxiety, that is, the fear of speaking in front of others. This article summarizes the findings from previous review articles and describes new research findings on basic science aspects, prevalence rates, classification, and treatment that have been published between August 2008 and August 2011. Recent findings highlight the major aspects of psychological and physiological reactivity to public speaking in individuals who are afraid to speak in front of others, confirm high prevalence rates of the disorder, contribute to identifying the disorder as a possibly distinct subtype of social anxiety disorder (SAD), and give support to the efficacy of treatment programs using virtual reality exposure and Internet-based self-help. Public-speaking anxiety is a highly prevalent disorder, leading to excessive psychological and physiological reactivity. It is present in a majority of individuals with SAD and there is substantial evidence that it may be a distinct subtype of SAD. It is amenable to treatment including, in particular, new technologies such as exposure to virtual environments and the use of cognitive-behavioral self-help programs delivered on the Internet.

  15. Microorganisms in Fermented Apple Beverages: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Le Guellec, Rozenn; Schlusselhuber, Margot; Laplace, Jean-Marie; Cretenet, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Production of fermented apple beverages is spread all around the world with specificities in each country. ‘French ciders’ refer to fermented apple juice mainly produced in the northwest of France and often associated with short periods of consumption. Research articles on this kind of product are scarce compared to wine, especially on phenomena associated with microbial activities. The wine fermentation microbiome and its dynamics, organoleptic improvement for healthy and pleasant products and development of starters are now widely studied. Even if both beverages seem close in terms of microbiome and process (with both alcoholic and malolactic fermentations), the inherent properties of the raw materials and different production and environmental parameters make research on the specificities of apple fermentation beverages worthwhile. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cider microbial ecosystem, associated activities and the influence of process parameters. In addition, available data on cider quality and safety is reviewed. Finally, we focus on the future role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the development of even better or new beverages made from apples. PMID:28757560

  16. Microorganisms in Fermented Apple Beverages: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Fabien J; Le Guellec, Rozenn; Schlusselhuber, Margot; Dalmasso, Marion; Laplace, Jean-Marie; Cretenet, Marina

    2017-07-25

    Production of fermented apple beverages is spread all around the world with specificities in each country. 'French ciders' refer to fermented apple juice mainly produced in the northwest of France and often associated with short periods of consumption. Research articles on this kind of product are scarce compared to wine, especially on phenomena associated with microbial activities. The wine fermentation microbiome and its dynamics, organoleptic improvement for healthy and pleasant products and development of starters are now widely studied. Even if both beverages seem close in terms of microbiome and process (with both alcoholic and malolactic fermentations), the inherent properties of the raw materials and different production and environmental parameters make research on the specificities of apple fermentation beverages worthwhile. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cider microbial ecosystem, associated activities and the influence of process parameters. In addition, available data on cider quality and safety is reviewed. Finally, we focus on the future role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the development of even better or new beverages made from apples.

  17. Centipede Venom: Recent Discoveries and Current State of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Fry, Bryan G.; King, Glenn F.

    2015-01-01

    Centipedes are among the oldest extant venomous predators on the planet. Armed with a pair of modified, venom-bearing limbs, they are an important group of predatory arthropods and are infamous for their ability to deliver painful stings. Despite this, very little is known about centipede venom and its composition. Advances in analytical tools, however, have recently provided the first detailed insights into the composition and evolution of centipede venoms. This has revealed that centipede venom proteins are highly diverse, with 61 phylogenetically distinct venom protein and peptide families. A number of these have been convergently recruited into the venoms of other animals, providing valuable information on potential underlying causes of the occasionally serious complications arising from human centipede envenomations. However, the majority of venom protein and peptide families bear no resemblance to any characterised protein or peptide family, highlighting the novelty of centipede venoms. This review highlights recent discoveries and summarises the current state of knowledge on the fascinating venom system of centipedes. PMID:25723324

  18. Cirrhosis and autoimmune liver disease: Current understanding

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Grant, Charlotte R

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) constitute the classic autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs). While AIH target the hepatocytes, in PBC and PSC the targets of the autoimmune attack are the biliary epithelial cells. Persistent liver injury, associated with chronic AILD, leads to un-resolving inflammation, cell proliferation and the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells and portal myofibroblasts. Liver cirrhosis, and the resultant loss of normal liver function, inevitably ensues. Patients with cirrhosis have higher risks or morbidity and mortality, and that in the decompensated phase, complications of portal hypertension and/or liver dysfunction lead to rapid deterioration. Accurate diagnosis and monitoring of cirrhosis is, therefore of upmost importance. Liver biopsy is currently the gold standard technique, but highly promising non-invasive methodology is under development. Liver transplantation (LT) is an effective therapeutic option for the management of end-stage liver disease secondary to AIH, PBC and PSC. LT is indicated for AILD patients who have progressed to end-stage chronic liver disease or developed intractable symptoms or hepatic malignancy; in addition, LT may also be indicated for patients presenting with acute liver disease due to AIH who do not respond to steroids. PMID:27729952

  19. Dupuytren's disease: current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Henry, Mark

    2014-03-01

    This review article critically examines the current literature for Dupuytren's disease. Five procedures are considered: dermofasciectomy, limited fasciectomy, segmental aponeurectomy, needle aponeurotomy, and collagenase injection. Studies regarding the efficacy of these treatments focus primarily on the initial degree of correction, rate of recurrence, and complications. No one treatment has been declared superior and substantial controversy exists. Comparison between studies has been hampered by the absence of uniform definitions for clinical success and measurable disease progression. Traditional post-operative care includes formal therapy and night splinting, but recent studies have questioned the value of these adjuncts. The extent of involvement at which the surgeon should intervene was previously well accepted by convention, but as the paradigm shifts towards less invasive procedures, treatment may be offered at an earlier stage. Future research should be structured to recognize the value-based decision making used by patients when selecting treatment.

  20. Knowledge Management in healthcare libraries: the current picture.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Emily

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge management has seen something of a resurgence in attention amongst health librarians recently. Of course it has never ceased to exist, but now many library staff are becoming more involved in organisational knowledge management, and positioning themselves as key players in the sphere. No single model of knowledge management is proliferating, but approaches that best fit the organisation's size, structure and culture, and a blending of evidence based practice and knowledge sharing. Whatever it is called and whatever models are used, it's clear that for librarians and information professionals, the importance of putting knowledge and evidence into practice, sharing knowledge well and capturing it effectively, are still what we will continue to do. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  1. 46 CFR 11.713 - Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters... § 11.713 Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated. (a) If a first class... current knowledge of the route. Persons using this method of re-familiarization shall certify,...

  2. 46 CFR 11.713 - Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters... § 11.713 Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated. (a) If a first class... current knowledge of the route. Persons using this method of re-familiarization shall certify, when...

  3. 46 CFR 11.713 - Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters... § 11.713 Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated. (a) If a first class... current knowledge of the route. Persons using this method of re-familiarization shall certify, when...

  4. 46 CFR 11.713 - Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters... § 11.713 Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated. (a) If a first class... current knowledge of the route. Persons using this method of re-familiarization shall certify, when...

  5. 46 CFR 11.713 - Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters... § 11.713 Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated. (a) If a first-class... provide the pilot with current knowledge of the route. Persons using this method of re-familiarization...

  6. Adapting Knowledge Translation Strategies for Rare Rheumatic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Cellucci, Tania; Lee, Shirley; Webster, Fiona

    2016-08-01

    Rare rheumatic diseases present unique challenges to knowledge translation (KT) researchers. There is often an urgent need to transfer knowledge from research findings into clinical practice to facilitate earlier diagnosis and better outcomes. However, existing KT frameworks have not addressed the specific considerations surrounding rare diseases for which gold standard evidence is not available. Several widely adopted models provide guidance for processes and problems associated with KT. However, they do not address issues surrounding creation or synthesis of knowledge for rare diseases. Additional problems relate to lack of awareness or experience in intended knowledge users, low motivation, and potential barriers to changing practice or policy. Strategies to address the challenges of KT for rare rheumatic diseases include considering different levels of evidence available, linking knowledge creation and transfer directly, incorporating patient and physician advocacy efforts to generate awareness of conditions, and selecting strategies to address barriers to practice or policy change.

  7. Current and future treatment of amyloid diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ankarcrona, M.; Winblad, B.; Monteiro, C.; Fearns, C.; Powers, E. T.; Johansson, J.; Westermark, G. T.; Presto, J.; Ericzon, B-G.; Kelly, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    There are more than 30 human proteins whose aggregation appears to cause degenerative maladies referred to as amyloid diseases or amyloidoses. These disorders are named after the characteristic cross-β-sheet amyloid fibrils that accumulate systemically or are localized to specific organs. In most cases current treatment is limited to symptomatic approaches and thus disease-modifying therapies are needed. Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles as pathological hallmarks. Numerous clinical trials have been conducted with vaccines and small molecules to target Aβ formation and aggregation and also enhance Aβ clearance; so far such clinical trials have been unsuccessful. Novel strategies are therefore required and here we will discuss the possibility of utilizing the chaperone BRICHOS to prevent Aβ aggregation and toxicity. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is symptomatically treated with insulin. However the disease is linked to the aggregation and progressive accumulation of islet amyloid polypeptide and oligomers of this peptide are cytotoxic. Several compounds have been shown to inhibit islet amyloid aggregation and cytotoxicity in vitro. Future animal studies and clinical trials have to be be conducted to determine their efficacy in vivo. Transthyretin (TTR) amyloidoses are a group of systemic degenerative diseases involving multiple organ systems and caused by TTR aggregation. Liver transplantation decreases the generation of misfolded TTR and improves the quality of life for a subgroup of this patient population. Compounds that stabilize the natively folded, non-amyloidogenic, tetrameric conformation of TTR have been developed and the drug tafamidis is available as treatment. PMID:27165517

  8. The male polyurethane condom: a review of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M J; Waugh, M S; Solomon, H M; Lyszkowski, A D

    1996-03-01

    Condoms are one of the oldest form of contraceptive and the best recognized form of protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Their use, however, is limited by both behavioral factors and device-related factors, including complaints about decreased sensitivity and sexual enjoyment. To address these limitations, a male condom made of polyurethane was developed. Polyurethane is a strong impermeable material with good heat transfer characteristics that is less susceptible to deterioration during storage than latex. Because little information is available comparing polyurethane and latex condoms in terms of consumer preferences as well as breakage and slippage, we reviewed four pre-marketing studies of polyurethane condoms, one of which included comparison to latex. No significant differences in slippage and breakage rates between latex and polyurethane condoms were reported in the study that included a latex comparator, and other studies of polyurethane condoms alone resulted in rates in the same range as published for latex condoms. Subjectively, consumers expressed significantly greater preference for the polyurethane condom over latex in regard to appearance, lack of smell, likelihood of slippage, comfort, sensitivity, natural look, natural feel, and overall. While additional testing is needed, these preliminary results suggest that the male polyurethane condom reviewed performed at least as well as latex condoms and is preferred by consumers. If preference translates to greater use, the male polyurethane condom may address important barriers that have been linked with inadequate condom use in the past. These results, however, may not be generalizable to other brands of polyurethane condom currently under development.

  9. Gulf War Syndrome: a review of current knowledge and understanding.

    PubMed

    Minshall, D

    2014-01-01

    The 1991 Persian Gulf War was a resounding military success for coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait following the Iraqi invasion. The medical legacy we have from the conflict is the poorly understood, yet remarkable, phenomenon of Gulf War Syndrome, which surfaced soon after. Epidemiological research has proven beyond doubt that Gulf War veterans report a wide variety of symptoms, in excess of appropriately matched control subjects, and experience worse general health. Numerous toxic environmental hazards have been suggested as causes of Gulf War Syndrome, yet exhaustive scientific study has failed to provide conclusive proof of any link. No novel or recognised disease has been found to account for the symptomatic burden of veterans, and the optimal treatment remains uncertain. This understanding can be added to from an anthropological perspective, where the narratives of those afflicted provide further insight. The nature of military life was changing at the time of the Gulf War, challenging the identity and beliefs of some veterans and causing socio-cultural distress. The symptomatic presentation of Gulf War Syndrome can be considered an articulation of this disharmony. Gulf War Syndrome can also be considered within the group of post-combat disorders such as shellshock, the like of which have occurred after major wars in the last century. With the current withdrawal from Afghanistan, the Defence Medical Services (DMS) should heed the lessons of history.

  10. Peyronie's disease: urologist's knowledge base and practice patterns.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J; Moskovic, D; Nelson, C; Levine, L; Mulhall, J

    2015-03-01

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is a poorly understood clinical entity. We performed an in-depth analysis of the knowledge base and current practice patterns of urologists in the United States. A 46-question instrument was created by two experienced PD practitioners and emailed to current American Urology Association members nationally. Questions were either multiple-choice or used a visual analogue scale. Responses regarding treatment options were answered by ranking a list of utilized therapies by preference. Data were aggregated and mean values for each category compiled. Responses were received from 639 urologists (67% in private practice). Almost all (98%) reported seeing PD patients with regularity. Twenty-six percent believed PD prevalence is ≤1%, a small fraction (5%) reporting prevalence as ≥10%. Only 3% referred patients to a subspecialist in PD. Twenty-six percent believed PD is a condition that does not warrant any treatment. The preferred initial management was with oral agents (81%). Of those who used intralesional injections as first line, verapamil was most commonly selected (67%). Seventy-nine percent perform surgery for PD with 86% reporting the optimal timing at ≥12 months after onset of symptoms. Seventy percent perform penile plication, most commonly the Nesbit technique (54%), 61% perform implant surgery and 37% reported performing plaque incision/excision and grafting. Although PD is now a more recognized condition, there are still large variances in knowledge and management strategies. Prospective clinical studies are needed to elucidate standardized management guidelines and a more cohesive strategy to manage this common disease.

  11. Current and future treatment of amyloid diseases.

    PubMed

    Ankarcrona, M; Winblad, B; Monteiro, C; Fearns, C; Powers, E T; Johansson, J; Westermark, G T; Presto, J; Ericzon, B-G; Kelly, J W

    2016-08-01

    There are more than 30 human proteins whose aggregation appears to cause degenerative maladies referred to as amyloid diseases or amyloidoses. These disorders are named after the characteristic cross-β-sheet amyloid fibrils that accumulate systemically or are localized to specific organs. In most cases, current treatment is limited to symptomatic approaches and thus disease-modifying therapies are needed. Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with extracellular amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) fibrils and intracellular tau neurofibrillary tangles as pathological hallmarks. Numerous clinical trials have been conducted with passive and active immunotherapy, and small molecules to inhibit Aβ formation and aggregation or to enhance Aβ clearance; so far such clinical trials have been unsuccessful. Novel strategies are therefore required and here we will discuss the possibility of utilizing the chaperone BRICHOS to prevent Aβ aggregation and toxicity. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is symptomatically treated with insulin. However, the underlying pathology is linked to the aggregation and progressive accumulation of islet amyloid polypeptide as fibrils and oligomers, which are cytotoxic. Several compounds have been shown to inhibit islet amyloid aggregation and cytotoxicity in vitro. Future animal studies and clinical trials have to be conducted to determine their efficacy in vivo. The transthyretin (TTR) amyloidoses are a group of systemic degenerative diseases compromising multiple organ systems, caused by TTR aggregation. Liver transplantation decreases the generation of misfolded TTR and improves the quality of life for a subgroup of this patient population. Compounds that stabilize the natively folded, nonamyloidogenic, tetrameric conformation of TTR have been developed and the drug tafamidis is available as a promising treatment.

  12. Occult HCV Infection: The Current State of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Hadi, Reza; Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Hossein Khosravi, Mohammad; Ajudani, Reza; Dolatimehr, Fardin; Ramezani-Binabaj, Mahdi; Miri, Seyyed Mohammad; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2015-01-01

    Context Occult HCV infection (OCI) is defined as the presence of HCV-RNA in hepatocytes and the absence of HCV in the serum according to usual tests. We aimed to define OCI and provide information about the currently available diagnostic methods. Then we focus on specific groups that are at high risk of OCI and finally investigate immune responses to OCI and the available treatment approaches. Evidence Acquisition PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were comprehensively searched with combination of following keywords: “occult”, “hepatitis C virus” and “occult HCV infection”. The definition of OCI, diagnostic methods, specific groups that are at high risk and available treatment approaches were extract from literature. An analysis of available articles on OCI also was done based on Scopus search results. Results OCI has been reported in several high-risk groups, especially in hemodialysis patients and subjects with cryptogenic liver disease. Furthermore, some studies have proposed a specific immune response for OCI in comparison with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Conclusions With a clinical history of approximately 11 years, occult HCV infection can be considered an occult type of CHC. Evidences suggest that considering OCI in these high-risk groups seems to be necessary. We suggest that alternative diagnostic tests should be applied and that there is a need for the participation of all countries to determine the epidemiology of this type of HCV infection. Additionally, evaluating OCI in blood transfusion centers and in patients who receive large amounts of blood and clotting factors, such as patients with hemophilia, should be performed in future projects. PMID:26734487

  13. Patients' knowledge of heart disease in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Philip; Garraway, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Interviews with 400 consecutive patients attending a general practice sought their knowledge of the signs and symptoms of an acute heart attack, what action they would take for such an event, and their understanding of the predisposing factors contributing to heart disease. The survey revealed poor recognition of the relevant signs and symptoms of an acute heart attack and lack of knowledge of some of the main predisposing factors associated with heart disease. PMID:618352

  14. Knowledge Integration in Cancer: Current Landscape and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, John P.A.; Schully, Sheri D.; Lam, Tram Kim; Khoury, Muin J.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge integration includes knowledge management, synthesis, and translation processes. It aims to maximize the use of collected scientific information and accelerate translation of discoveries into individual and population health benefits. Accumulated evidence in cancer epidemiology constitutes a large share of the 2.7 million articles on cancer in PubMed. We examine the landscape of knowledge integration in cancer epidemiology. Past approaches have mostly used retrospective efforts of knowledge management and traditional systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Systematic searches identify 2,332 meta-analyses, about half of which are on genetics and epigenetics. Meta-analyses represent 1:89-1:1162 of published articles in various cancer subfields. Recently, there are more collaborative meta-analyses with individual-level data, including those with prospective collection of measurements [e.g., genotypes in genome-wide association studies (GWAS)]; this may help increase the reliability of inferences in the field. However, most meta-analyses are still done retrospectively with published information. There is also a flurry of candidate gene meta-analyses with spuriously prevalent "positive" results. Prospective design of large research agendas, registration of datasets, and public availability of data and analyses may improve our ability to identify knowledge gaps, maximize and accelerate translational progress or—at a minimum—recognize dead ends in a more timely fashion. PMID:23093546

  15. Knowledge integration in cancer: current landscape and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A; Schully, Sheri D; Lam, Tram Kim; Khoury, Muin J

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge integration includes knowledge management, synthesis, and translation processes. It aims to maximize the use of collected scientific information and accelerate translation of discoveries into individual and population health benefits. Accumulated evidence in cancer epidemiology constitutes a large share of the 2.7 million articles on cancer in PubMed. We examine the landscape of knowledge integration in cancer epidemiology. Past approaches have mostly used retrospective efforts of knowledge management and traditional systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Systematic searches identify 2,332 meta-analyses, about half of which are on genetics and epigenetics. Meta-analyses represent 1:89-1:1162 of published articles in various cancer subfields. Recently, there are more collaborative meta-analyses with individual-level data, including those with prospective collection of measurements [e.g., genotypes in genome-wide association studies (GWAS)]; this may help increase the reliability of inferences in the field. However, most meta-analyses are still done retrospectively with published information. There is also a flurry of candidate gene meta-analyses with spuriously prevalent "positive" results. Prospective design of large research agendas, registration of datasets, and public availability of data and analyses may improve our ability to identify knowledge gaps, maximize and accelerate translational progress or-at a minimum-recognize dead ends in a more timely fashion.

  16. People's knowledge of health and disease.

    PubMed

    Farrow, S C; Charny, M C; Lewis, P A

    1990-02-01

    A community survey based on the Cardiff electoral register was carried out in 1986. Seven hundred and ten adults were asked 10 open-ended questions about common serious illnesses in the United Kingdom and were given 18 statements about common diseases and asked to state whether they were true or false. This paper reports their responses. Amongst those gaining the highest scores there were more young people, more females, more from social classes I and II and more who had been educated to college or university level. We discuss the implications of the results for patient behaviour and for health education programmes.

  17. Achieving Intercultural Effectiveness: Current Knowledge, Goals, and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushner, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    This article explores the way young people become effective intercultural communicators through instruction in international education. Approaches to curriculum and teaching are explored. A new model is introduced which increases knowledge about the impact of culture on interpersonal interactions. A case study of an Hawaiian student is presented.…

  18. Clinical knowledge management: an overview of current understanding.

    PubMed

    Bali, Rajeev K; Dwivedi, Ashish

    2005-01-01

    This chapter outlines contributions to a workshop for ICMCC 2005. We details some of the central issues surrounding the incorporation of the Knowledge Management (KM) paradigm for the healthcare and clinical sectors. The complex nature of KM is discussed, together with some essential theories and some contemporary applications of the tools and techniques are presented.

  19. Dietary selection by domestic grazing ruminants: Current state of knowledge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ruminants grazing biodiverse pasture face many choices, including when and where to graze and how much herbage to consume. Scientific research has led to considerable knowledge about some of these choices (e.g. herbage DMI), but other aspects of the complex decision-making process of a grazing rumin...

  20. From Information to Knowledge: Some Reflections on the Origin of the Current Shifting Towards Knowledge Processing and Further Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluic-Vukovic, Vesna

    2001-01-01

    Examines reasons that prompted the current shift from information to knowledge processing, encompassing both social contextualization and the recent technological advance. Discusses knowledge production, viewed as a five-step process. The highly interdisciplinary perspective and the primacy of the user are distinguished as necessary prerequisites…

  1. Current Understanding of Acute Bovine Liver Disease in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Read, Elizabeth; Edwards, Jacqueline; Deseo, Myrna; Rawlin, Grant; Rochfort, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Acute bovine liver disease (ABLD) is a hepatotoxicity principally of cattle which occurs in southern regions of Australia. Severely affected animals undergo rapid clinical progression with mortalities often occurring prior to the recognition of clinical signs. Less severely affected animals develop photosensitization and a proportion can develop liver failure. The characteristic histopathological lesion in acute fatal cases is severe, with acute necrosis of periportal hepatocytes with hemorrhage into the necrotic areas. Currently there are a small number of toxins that are known to cause periportal necrosis in cattle, although none of these have so far been linked to ABLD. Furthermore, ABLD has frequently been associated with the presence of rough dog’s tail grass (Cynosurus echinatus) and Drechslera spp. fungi in the pasture system, but it is currently unknown if these are etiological factors. Much of the knowledge about ABLD is contained within case reports, with very little experimental research investigating the specific cause(s). This review provides an overview of the current and most recently published knowledge of ABLD. It also draws on wider research and unpublished reports to suggest possible fungi and mycotoxins that may give rise to ABLD. PMID:28035972

  2. [Notifiable infectious diseases: knowledge and notification among hospital physicians].

    PubMed

    Rubio-Cirilo, Laura; Martín-Ríos, M Dolores; de Las Casas-Cámara, Gonzalo; Andrés-Prado, M José; Rodríguez-Caravaca, Gil

    2013-12-01

    Notifiable infectious diseases represent a public health hazard, which is why they are under surveillance and must be reported. We tried to assess hospital physicians' knowledge of hospital physicians on notifiable infectious diseases and their self-reported attitudes to notification. An observational study was conducted using a questionnaire with 11 multiple choice questions, two yes/no questions and one short-answer question. It was distributed to all senior doctors and residents in 19 medical and surgical departments. A total of 248 questionnaires were sent out, with a response rate of 79.84%. More than three-quarters (76.3%) of the respondents were senior doctors. As regards specific knowledge about whether a particular disease is a notifiable disease, 29.5% identified correctly 100% of the named diseases, 3.2% could not identify any of them. All urgent named notifiable infectious diseases were correctly identified by 25.3% of physicians. Statistically significant differences were found in the knowledge of notifiable diseases knowledge in medical and surgical departments, as well as for senior doctors (P=.047) and residents (P=.035). A high percentage of medical services (40%) and surgical (70%) department reported never failing to notify. When asked about the causes of under-reporting, 72% did not know whether notification was mandatory or not, and 88% did not know what diseases must be notified. Although many respondents are aware that diseases notification is part of their daily activity, many of them admit under-reporting. There is insufficient knowledge about what diseases are considered notifiable infectious diseases and how to notify them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Primary Health Care Providers' Knowledge Gaps on Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Megan R.; Stone, Ramona F.; Ochs, V. Dan; Litvan, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine primary health care providers' (PCPs) knowledge gaps on Parkinson's disease, data were collected before and after a one-hour continuing medical education (CME) lecture on early Parkinson's disease recognition and treatment from a sample of 104 PCPs participating at an annual meeting. The main outcome measure was the…

  4. Primary Health Care Providers' Knowledge Gaps on Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Megan R.; Stone, Ramona F.; Ochs, V. Dan; Litvan, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine primary health care providers' (PCPs) knowledge gaps on Parkinson's disease, data were collected before and after a one-hour continuing medical education (CME) lecture on early Parkinson's disease recognition and treatment from a sample of 104 PCPs participating at an annual meeting. The main outcome measure was the…

  5. Current Pharmacological Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Kuang; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Wang, Sophie S. W.; Lu, Chien-Yu; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Su, Yu-Chung; Yang, Sheau-Fang; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a common disorder with troublesome symptoms caused by reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, has adverse impact on quality of life. A variety of medications have been used in GERD treatment, and acid suppression therapy is the mainstay of treatment for GERD. Although proton pump inhibitor is the most potent acid suppressant and provides good efficacy in esophagitis healing and symptom relief, about one-third of patients with GERD still have persistent symptoms with poor response to standard dose PPI. Antacids, alginate, histamine type-2 receptor antagonists, and prokinetic agents are usually used as add-on therapy to PPI in clinical practice. Development of novel therapeutic agents has focused on the underlying mechanisms of GERD, such as transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, motility disorder, mucosal protection, and esophageal hypersensitivity. Newer formulations of PPI with faster and longer duration of action and potassium-competitive acid blocker, a newer acid suppressant, have also been investigated in clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the current and developing therapeutic agents for GERD treatment. PMID:23878534

  6. Persulfides: Current Knowledge and Challenges in Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chung-Min; Weerasinghe, Laksiri; Day, Jacob J.; Fukuto, Jon M.; Xian, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies conducted in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling have revealed potential importance of persulfides (RSSH) in redox biology. The inherent instability of RSSH makes these species difficult to study and sometimes controversial results are reported. In this review article we summarize known knowledge about both small molecule persulfides and protein persulfides. Their fundamental physical and chemical properties such as preparation/formation and reactivity are discussed. The biological implications of persulfides and their detection methods are also discussed. PMID:25969163

  7. Knowledge of cardiovascular disease in Turkish undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Badir, Aysel; Tekkas, Kader; Topcu, Serpil

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. However, there is not enough data exploring student nurses' understanding, knowledge, and awareness of cardiovascular disease. To investigate knowledge of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors among undergraduate nursing students, with an emphasis on understanding of cardiovascular disease as the primary cause of mortality and morbidity, both in Turkey and worldwide. This cross-sectional survey assessed 1138 nursing students enrolled in nursing schools in Istanbul, Turkey. Data were collected using the Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Knowledge Level (CARRF-KL) scale and questions from the Individual Characteristics Form about students' gender, age, level of education, and family cardiovascular health history, as well as smoking and exercise habits. Respondents demonstrated a high level of knowledge about cardiovascular disease, with years of education (p < 0.001), gender (p < 0.001), and high school type (p < 0.05) all significantly associated with CARRF-KL scores. However, more than half of the students were not aware that cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in Turkey and worldwide. The majority of the respondents' body mass index (87%) and waist circumference values (females: 90.3%, males: 94.7%) were in the normal range and most were non-smokers (83.7%). However, more than half of the students did not exercise regularly and had inadequate dietary habits. Although students were knowledgeable about cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors, there were significant gaps in their knowledge; these should be addressed through improved nursing curricula. While students were generally healthy, they could improve their practice of health-promoting behaviors. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  8. A Systematic Review of Athletes’ and Coaches’ Nutrition Knowledge and Reflections on the Quality of Current Nutrition Knowledge Measures

    PubMed Central

    Trakman, Gina L.; Forsyth, Adrienne; Devlin, Brooke L.; Belski, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Context: Nutrition knowledge can influence dietary choices and impact on athletic performance. Valid and reliable measures are needed to assess the nutrition knowledge of athletes and coaches. Objectives: (1) To systematically review the published literature on nutrition knowledge of adult athletes and coaches and (2) to assess the quality of measures used to assess nutrition knowledge. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscuss, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. Study Selection: 36 studies that provided a quantitative measure of nutrition knowledge and described the measurement tool that was used were included. Data extraction: Participant description, questionnaire description, results (mean correct and responses to individual items), study quality, and questionnaire quality. Data synthesis: All studies were of neutral quality. Tools used to measure knowledge did not consider health literacy, were outdated with regards to consensus recommendations, and lacked appropriate and adequate validation. The current status of nutrition knowledge in athletes and coaches is difficult to ascertain. Gaps in knowledge also remain unclear, but it is likely that energy density, the need for supplementation, and the role of protein are frequently misunderstood. Conclusions: Previous reports of nutrition knowledge need to be interpreted with caution. A new, universal, up-to-date, validated measure of general and sports nutrition knowledge is required to allow for assessment of nutrition knowledge. PMID:27649242

  9. A Systematic Review of Athletes' and Coaches' Nutrition Knowledge and Reflections on the Quality of Current Nutrition Knowledge Measures.

    PubMed

    Trakman, Gina L; Forsyth, Adrienne; Devlin, Brooke L; Belski, Regina

    2016-09-16

    Nutrition knowledge can influence dietary choices and impact on athletic performance. Valid and reliable measures are needed to assess the nutrition knowledge of athletes and coaches. (1) To systematically review the published literature on nutrition knowledge of adult athletes and coaches and (2) to assess the quality of measures used to assess nutrition knowledge. MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscuss, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. 36 studies that provided a quantitative measure of nutrition knowledge and described the measurement tool that was used were included. Participant description, questionnaire description, results (mean correct and responses to individual items), study quality, and questionnaire quality. All studies were of neutral quality. Tools used to measure knowledge did not consider health literacy, were outdated with regards to consensus recommendations, and lacked appropriate and adequate validation. The current status of nutrition knowledge in athletes and coaches is difficult to ascertain. Gaps in knowledge also remain unclear, but it is likely that energy density, the need for supplementation, and the role of protein are frequently misunderstood. Previous reports of nutrition knowledge need to be interpreted with caution. A new, universal, up-to-date, validated measure of general and sports nutrition knowledge is required to allow for assessment of nutrition knowledge.

  10. United States medical students’ knowledge of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Brian J.; Usita, Paula M.; Edland, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A knowledge gap exists between general physicians and specialists in diagnosing and managing Alzheimer disease (AD). This gap is concerning due to the estimated rise in prevalence of AD and cost to the health care system. Medical school is a viable avenue to decrease the gap, educating future physicians before they specialize. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge level of students in their first and final years of medical school. Methods: Fourteen participating United States medical schools used e-mail student rosters to distribute an online survey of a quantitative cross-sectional assessment of knowledge about AD; 343 students participated. Knowledge was measured using the 12-item University of Alabama at Birmingham AD Knowledge Test for Health Professionals. General linear models were used to examine the effect of demographic variables and previous experience with AD on knowledge scores. Results: Only 2.5% of first year and 68.0% of final year students correctly scored ten or more items on the knowledge scale. Personal experience with AD predicted higher knowledge scores in final year students (P= 0.027). Conclusion: Knowledge deficiencies were common in final year medical students. Future studies to identify and evaluate the efficacy of AD education programs in medical schools are warranted. Identifying and disseminating effective programs may help close the knowledge gap. PMID:23750313

  11. [Specific inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2): current knowledge and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Rioda, W T; Nervetti, A

    2001-01-01

    The Authors summarize the current knowledge on a new class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the coxib (celecoxib and rofecoxib), in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Celecoxib and rofecoxib are selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors which possess the same anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, but a better gastric tolerability compared to the non-selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors. The Authors also report other possible therapeutic effects of these NSADIs as evidenced by the more recent data of the literature. Celecoxib seems to reduce the incidence of new polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. It has been suggested the use of celecoxib as a protective drug against the development of colorectal cancer. Other (neoplastic) or pre-neoplastic conditions, such as bladder dysplasia, Barret esophagus, attinic keratosis and Alzheimer's disease seem to have benefit from this class of drugs.

  12. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  13. Mechanisms of early life programming: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Ozanne, Susan E

    2011-12-01

    It has been >20 y since epidemiologic studies showed a relation between patterns of early growth and subsequent risk of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and the metabolic syndrome. Studies of identical twins, individuals who were in utero during periods of famine, and animal models have provided strong evidence that the early environment, including early nutrition, plays an important role in mediating these relations. The concept of early life programming is therefore widely accepted. However, the mechanisms by which a phenomenon that occurs in early life can have long-term effects on the function of a cell and therefore on the metabolism of an organism many years later are only starting to emerge. These mechanisms include 1) permanent structural changes in an organ resulting from suboptimal concentrations of an important factor during a critical period of development, eg, the permanent reduction in β cell mass in the endocrine pancreas; 2) persistent alterations in epigenetic modifications (eg, DNA methylation and histone modifications) that lead to changes in gene expression (eg, several transcription factors are susceptible to programmed changes in gene expression through such mechanisms); and 3) permanent effects on the regulation of cellular aging (eg, increases in oxidative stress that lead to macromolecular damage, including that to DNA and specifically to telomeres, can contribute to such effects). Further understanding of such processes will enable the development of preventive and intervention strategies to combat the burden of common diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  14. Current therapy of pediatric Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Lahad, Avishay; Weiss, Batia

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis, are chronic relapsing and remitting diseases of the bowel, with an unknown etiology and appear to involve interaction between genetic susceptibility, environmental factors and the immune system. Although our knowledge and understanding of the pathogenesis and causes of IBD have improved significantly, the incidence in the pediatric population is still rising. In the last decade more drugs and treatment option have become available including 5-aminosalicylate, antibiotics, corticosteroids, immunomodulators and biological agents. Before the use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α became available to patients with IBD, the risk for surgery within five years of diagnosis was very high, however, with anti-TNF-α treatment the risk of surgery has decreased significantly. In the pediatric population a remission in disease can be achieved by exclusive enteral nutrition. Exclusive enteral nutrition also has an important role in the improvement of nutritional status and maintained growth. In this review we summarize the current therapeutic treatments in CD. The progress in the treatment options and the development of new drugs has led to optimized tactics for achieving the primary clinical goals of therapy - induction and maintenance of remission while improving the patient’s growth and overall well-being. PMID:25977836

  15. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in musculoskeletal diseases: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Dallaudière, B; Lecouvet, F; Vande Berg, B; Omoumi, P; Perlepe, V; Cerny, M; Malghem, J; Larbi, A

    2015-04-01

    MR imaging is currently regarded as a pivotal technique for the assessment of a variety of musculoskeletal conditions. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) is a relatively recent sequence that provides information on the degree of cellularity of lesions. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value provides information on the movement of water molecules outside the cells. The literature contains many studies that have evaluated the role of DWI in musculoskeletal diseases. However, to date they yielded conflicting results on the use and the diagnostic capabilities of DWI in the area of musculoskeletal diseases. However, many of them have showed that DWI is a useful technique for the evaluation of the extent of the disease in a subset of musculoskeletal cancers. In terms of tissue characterization, DWI may be an adjunct to the more conventional MR imaging techniques but should be interpreted along with the signal of the lesion as observed on conventional sequences, especially in musculoskeletal cancers. Regarding the monitoring of response to therapy in cancer or inflammatory disease, the use of ADC value may represent a more reliable additional tool but must be compared to the initial ADC value of the lesions along with the knowledge of the actual therapy.

  16. [Therapy of Alzheimer's disease: current status and future development].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Neff, Frauke; Lampl, Christian; Benke, Thomas; Anditsch, Martina; Bancher, Christian; Dal-Bianco, Peter; Reisecker, Franz; Marksteiner, Josef; Rainer, Michael; Kapeller, Peter; Dodel, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine can slow the course of Alzheimer's disease. In Austria the frequency of treatment is in the upper third among countries of the EU. Yet, the majority of Alzheimer patients does not receive adequate medication. Compliance to treatment is low. Studies on cholinesterase inhibitors show that only one third and one fifth of patients adhere to medication after 3 months and 12 months, respectively. Causes for low compliance are only partly patient-related, many factors are system-inherent. Knowledge of these factors is a pre-requisite for the treating physician to improve current unfavourable situation. Present treatment strategies are symptomatic, causal disease-modifying therapies are urgently needed. Research activity in the field is high and dominated by the amyloid hypothesis. We here review the basis and recent studies on secretase-inhibitors, immunization, aggregation of Abeta, statins and PPARgamma-agonists. Research towards strategies against tau-pathology is less dominant and focuses on inhibition of kinases and increase of activity of phosphatases. Causal therapies would have great effects on a population basis even if efficacy is only moderate. A disease-modifying therapy which delays the onset of Alzheimer disease by 5 years, will probably reduce the number of patients by nearly 50% during the next 50 years.

  17. Inflammation in AKI: Current Understanding, Key Questions, and Knowledge Gaps.

    PubMed

    Rabb, Hamid; Griffin, Matthew D; McKay, Dianne B; Swaminathan, Sundararaman; Pickkers, Peter; Rosner, Mitchell H; Kellum, John A; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation is a complex biologic response that is essential for eliminating microbial pathogens and repairing tissue after injury. AKI associates with intrarenal and systemic inflammation; thus, improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory response has high potential for identifying effective therapies to prevent or ameliorate AKI. In the past decade, much knowledge has been generated about the fundamental mechanisms of inflammation. Experimental work in small animal models has revealed many details of the inflammatory response that occurs within the kidney after typical causes of AKI, including insights into the molecular signals released by dying cells, the role of pattern recognition receptors, the diverse subtypes of resident and recruited immune cells, and the phased transition from destructive to reparative inflammation. Although this expansion of the basic knowledge base has increased the number of mechanistically relevant targets of intervention, progress in developing therapies that improve AKI outcomes by modulation of inflammation remains slow. In this article, we summarize the most important recent developments in understanding the inflammatory mechanisms of AKI, highlight key limitations of the commonly used animal models and clinical trial designs that may prevent successful clinical application, and suggest priority approaches for research toward clinical translation in this area.

  18. Current Knowledge and Projection on Assessing the Effectiveness of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlansky, Jesse

    This discussion of methods used to assess the effectiveness of training for U.S. Army personnel identifies various types of training, describes methods currently used, and suggests ways of improving the assessment process. The methodology and results of assessments of effectiveness, including the costs associated with the level of performance, are…

  19. Current Knowledge and Projection on Assessing the Effectiveness of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlansky, Jesse

    This discussion of methods used to assess the effectiveness of training for U.S. Army personnel identifies various types of training, describes methods currently used, and suggests ways of improving the assessment process. The methodology and results of assessments of effectiveness, including the costs associated with the level of performance, are…

  20. Design of Knowledge Management System for Diabetic Complication Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiarni, Cut

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how to develop a Model for Knowledge Management System (KMS) for diabetes complication diseases. People with diabetes have a higher risk of developing a series of serious health problems. Each patient has different condition that could lead to different disease and health problem. But, with the right information, patient could have early detection so the health risk could be minimized and avoided. Hence, the objective of this research is to propose a conceptual framework that integrates social network model, Knowledge Management activities, and content based reasoning (CBR) for designing such a diabetes health and complication disease KMS. The framework indicates that the critical knowledge management activities are in the process to find similar case and the index table for algorithm to fit the framework for the social media. With this framework, KMS developers can work with healthcare provider to easily identify the suitable IT associated with the CBR process when developing a diabetes KMS.

  1. Th22 cells in autoimmunity: a review of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Azizi, G; Yazdani, R; Mirshafiey, A

    2015-07-01

    Newly identified T helper cell 22 (Th22) is a subset of CD4+ T cells with specific properties apart from other known CD4+ T cell subsets. Th22 is obviously discrete from Th17 and Th1 subsets by production of interleukin (IL)-22 but not IL-17 or IFN-γ, and also with distinguished expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) as the key transcription factor. This T helper subset, by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-22 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune disorder. This review discusses the role of Th22 and its cytokine IL-22 in the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune disease including acute coronary syndrome, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Behçet's disease, type 1 and 2 diabetes and immune thrombocytopenia.

  2. Intestinal microbiota transplant – current state of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Radomski, Marek; Leszczyszyn, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has induced a lot scientific interest and hopes for the last couple of years. FMT has been approved as a treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis. Highly sophisticated molecular DNA identification methods have been used to assess the healthy human microbiome as well as its disturbances in several diseases. The metabolic and immunologic functions of the microbiome have become more clear and understandable. A lot of pathological changes, such as production of short-chain fatty acids or components of the inflammatory cascade, caused by changes in microbiome diversity, variability and richness have been observed among patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, type 2 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis. The published clinical results are encouraging, but still there is huge demand for FMT controlled clinical trials. PMID:27407273

  3. Exercise proteinuria and hematuria: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2016-09-01

    Transient proteinuria and hematuria are apparently benign sequelae of intensive physical activity. However, there is a need to establish underlying causes and reasons for progression to chronic renal damage, as well as effects of training in healthy individuals and in those with microalbuminuria. The Ovid/Health Star database was searched from 1994 to November 2014. Terms for the kidneys (adverse effects, blood supply, epidemiology, injuries, pathology, physiology and secretion) and proteinuria (classification, complications, epidemiology, etiology, mortality, physiopathology, prevention and control) with terms related to physical activity (physical activity/motor activity, exercise/exercise therapy, fitness/physical fitness, physical education/physical education and training, and rehabilitation). Review of 519 abstracts yielded 194 relevant hits, supplemented by 70 items from other sources. This material related to both healthy adults (125 items) and renal disease (139 items). The prevalence (18-100%) and duration (1-6 days) of exercise proteinuria varied widely, with risks affected by exercise intensity, posture, age, heat load, altitude and disease. Moderate training reduced exercise proteinuria in healthy individuals and in chronic renal disease. Factors contributing to exercise proteinuria may include vascular changes, hypoxia, lactate accumulation, oxidant stress, hormonal changes and sepsis. Exercise hematuria is frequent; some potential causes are similar to those for proteinuria, but foot-strike and bladder trauma are probably more important. Progression to permanent renal damage is rare. Exercise proteinuria and hematuria are generally transient. However, there remains a need to clarify causation and factors leading to permanent renal damage.

  4. Sensory feedback in cockroach locomotion: current knowledge and open questions.

    PubMed

    Ayali, A; Couzin-Fuchs, E; David, I; Gal, O; Holmes, P; Knebel, D

    2015-09-01

    The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, provides a successful model for the study of legged locomotion. Sensory regulation and the relative importance of sensory feedback vs. central control in animal locomotion are key aspects in our understanding of locomotive behavior. Here we introduce the cockroach model and describe the basic characteristics of the neural generation and control of walking and running in this insect. We further provide a brief overview of some recent studies, including mathematical modeling, which have contributed to our knowledge of sensory control in cockroach locomotion. We focus on two sensory mechanisms and sense organs, those providing information related to loading and unloading of the body and the legs, and leg-movement-related sensory receptors, and present evidence for the instrumental role of these sensory signals in inter-leg locomotion control. We conclude by identifying important open questions and indicate future perspectives.

  5. 5p Deletions: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Joanne M.; Qualmann, Krista J.; Okashah, Rebecca; Reilly, Amysue; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.; Campbell, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders resulting from 5p deletions (5p–) were first recognized by Lejeune et al. in 1963 [Lejeune et al. (1963); C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 257:3098-3102]. 5p– is caused by partial or total deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The most recognizable phenotype is characterized by a high-pitched cry, dysmorphic features, poor growth, and developmental delay. This report reviews 5p– disorders and their molecular basis. Hemizygosity for genes located within this region have been implicated in contributing to the phenotype. A review of the genes on 5p which may be dosage sensitive is summarized. Because of the growing knowledge of these specific genes, future directions to explore potential targeted therapies for individuals with 5p– are discussed. PMID:26235846

  6. Current diagnosis and treatment of Castleman's disease.

    PubMed

    González García, A; Moreno Cobo, M Á; Patier de la Peña, J L

    2016-04-01

    Castleman's disease is not just a single disease but rather an uncommon, heterogeneous group of nonclonal lymphoproliferative disorders, which have a broad spectrum of clinical expression. Three histological types have been reported, along with several clinical forms according to clinical presentation, histological substrate and associated diseases. Interleukin-6, its receptor polymorphisms, the human immunodeficiency virus and the human herpes virus 8 are involved in the etiopathogenesis of Castleman's disease. The study of this disease has shed light on a syndrome whose incidence is unknown. Despite recent significant advances in our understanding of this disease and the increasing therapeutic experience with rituximab, tocilizumab and siltuximab, there are still difficult questions concerning its aetiology, prognosis and optimal treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  7. Arrhythmogenic KCNE gene variants: current knowledge and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Shawn M.; Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    There are twenty-five known inherited cardiac arrhythmia susceptibility genes, all of which encode either ion channel pore-forming subunits or proteins that regulate aspects of ion channel biology such as function, trafficking, and localization. The human KCNE gene family comprises five potassium channel regulatory subunits, sequence variants in each of which are associated with cardiac arrhythmias. KCNE gene products exhibit promiscuous partnering and in some cases ubiquitous expression, hampering efforts to unequivocally correlate each gene to specific native potassium currents. Likewise, deducing the molecular etiology of cardiac arrhythmias in individuals harboring rare KCNE gene variants, or more common KCNE polymorphisms, can be challenging. In this review we provide an update on putative arrhythmia-causing KCNE gene variants, and discuss current thinking and future challenges in the study of molecular mechanisms of KCNE-associated cardiac rhythm disturbances. PMID:24478792

  8. Surf Zone Currents. Volume I. State of Knowledge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Theo - retical rip spacings were still far too small. Mizaguchi (1976) intro- duced (rather arbitrarily) a longshore variation in bottom friction as the...changes in wave height and length. The magnitudes of theo - retical setdown and setup can be shown to depend on wave angle and all other factors that...determined from the breaker ratio, y, plays a key role in the theo - retical longshore current profile. Wave breaking, internal turbulent shears, *and

  9. Limited Knowledge of Acetaminophen in Patients with Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saab, Sammy; Konyn, Peter G.; Viramontes, Matthew R.; Jimenez, Melissa A.; Grotts, Jonathan F.; Hamidzadah, Wally; Dang, Veronica P.; Esmailzadeh, Negin L.; Choi, Gina; Durazo, Francisco A.; El-Kabany, Mohamed M.; Han, Steven-Huy B.; Tong, Myron J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Unintentional acetaminophen overdose remains the leading cause of acute liver failure in the United States. Patients with underlying liver disease are at higher risk of poor outcomes from acetaminophen overdose. Limited knowledge of acetaminophen may be a preventable contributor to elevated rates of overdose and thus acute liver failure. The purpose of this study is to assess knowledge of acetaminophen dosing and presence of acetaminophen in common combination products in patients with liver disease. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with liver disease at the Pfleger Liver Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles between June 2015 and August 2016. Patients completed a demographic questionnaire and an acetaminophen knowledge survey. Additional information was obtained from the medical record. Results: Of 401 patients with liver disease, 30 (15.7%) were able to correctly identify that people without liver disease can safely take up to 4 g/day of acetaminophen. The majority of patients (79.9%–86.8%) did not know that Norco® (hydrocone/acetaminophen), Vicodin® (hydrocone/acetaminophen) and Percocet® (oxycodone/acetaminophen) contained acetaminophen. Only 45.3% of the patients knew that Tylenol® #3 contained acetaminophen. Conclusions: We conclude that patients with liver disease have critically low levels of knowledge of acetaminophen, putting them at risk both of acetaminophen overdose, as well as undermedication, and inadequate management of chronic pain. We recommend an increase in education efforts regarding acetaminophen dosage and its safety in the setting of liver disease. Increasing education for those at risk of low acetaminophen knowledge is essential to minimizing acetaminophen overdose rates and optimizing pain management. PMID:28097095

  10. Limited Knowledge of Acetaminophen in Patients with Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Konyn, Peter G; Viramontes, Matthew R; Jimenez, Melissa A; Grotts, Jonathan F; Hamidzadah, Wally; Dang, Veronica P; Esmailzadeh, Negin L; Choi, Gina; Durazo, Francisco A; El-Kabany, Mohamed M; Han, Steven-Huy B; Tong, Myron J

    2016-12-28

    Background and Aims: Unintentional acetaminophen overdose remains the leading cause of acute liver failure in the United States. Patients with underlying liver disease are at higher risk of poor outcomes from acetaminophen overdose. Limited knowledge of acetaminophen may be a preventable contributor to elevated rates of overdose and thus acute liver failure. The purpose of this study is to assess knowledge of acetaminophen dosing and presence of acetaminophen in common combination products in patients with liver disease. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with liver disease at the Pfleger Liver Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles between June 2015 and August 2016. Patients completed a demographic questionnaire and an acetaminophen knowledge survey. Additional information was obtained from the medical record. Results: Of 401 patients with liver disease, 30 (15.7%) were able to correctly identify that people without liver disease can safely take up to 4 g/day of acetaminophen. The majority of patients (79.9%-86.8%) did not know that Norco® (hydrocone/acetaminophen), Vicodin® (hydrocone/acetaminophen) and Percocet® (oxycodone/acetaminophen) contained acetaminophen. Only 45.3% of the patients knew that Tylenol® #3 contained acetaminophen. Conclusions: We conclude that patients with liver disease have critically low levels of knowledge of acetaminophen, putting them at risk both of acetaminophen overdose, as well as undermedication, and inadequate management of chronic pain. We recommend an increase in education efforts regarding acetaminophen dosage and its safety in the setting of liver disease. Increasing education for those at risk of low acetaminophen knowledge is essential to minimizing acetaminophen overdose rates and optimizing pain management.

  11. Current state of knowledge: the canine gastrointestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hooda, Seema; Minamoto, Yasushi; Suchodolski, Jan S; Swanson, Kelly S

    2012-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) microbes have important roles in the nutritional, immunological, and physiologic processes of the host. Traditional cultivation techniques have revealed bacterial density ranges from 10(4) to 10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/g in the stomach, from 10(5) to 10(7) CFU/g in the small intestine, and from 10(9) to 10(11) CFU/g in the colon of healthy dogs. As a small number of bacterial species can be grown and studied in culture, however, progress was limited until the recent emergence of DNA-based techniques. In recent years, DNA sequencing technology and bioinformatics have allowed for better phylogenetic and functional/metabolic characterization of the canine gut microbiome. Predominant phyla include Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Studies using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene pyrosequencing have demonstrated spatial differences along the GI tract and among microbes adhered to the GI mucosa compared to those in intestinal contents or feces. Similar to humans, GI microbiome dysbiosis is common in canine GI diseases such as chronic diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases. DNA-based assays have also identified key pathogens contributing to such conditions, including various Clostridium, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia spp. Moreover, nutritionists have applied DNA-based techniques to study the effects of dietary interventions such as dietary fiber, prebiotics, and probiotics on the canine GI microbiome and associated health indices. Despite recent advances in the field, the canine GI microbiome is far from being fully characterized and a deeper characterization of the phylogenetic and functional/metabolic capacity of the GI microbiome in health and disease is needed. This paper provides an overview of recent studies performed to characterize the canine GI microbiome.

  12. Current knowledge on the laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Meléndez, Adrián; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor Jesús; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Garza-González, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a spore-forming, toxin-producing, gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that is the principal etiologic agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Infection with C. difficile (CDI) is characterized by diarrhea in clinical syndromes that vary from self-limited to mild or severe. Since its initial recognition as the causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis, C. difficile has spread around the world. CDI is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among older adult hospitalized patients. Due to extensive antibiotic usage, the number of CDIs has increased. Diagnosis of CDI is often difficult and has a substantial impact on the management of patients with the disease, mainly with regards to antibiotic management. The diagnosis of CDI is primarily based on the clinical signs and symptoms and is only confirmed by laboratory testing. Despite the high burden of CDI and the increasing interest in the disease, episodes of CDI are often misdiagnosed. The reasons for misdiagnosis are the lack of clinical suspicion or the use of inappropriate tests. The proper diagnosis of CDI reduces transmission, prevents inadequate or unnecessary treatments, and assures best antibiotic treatment. We review the options for the laboratory diagnosis of CDI within the settings of the most accepted guidelines for CDI diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of CDI. PMID:28321156

  13. Management of acute pancreatitis: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Lorenzo; Tomassetti, Paola; Pezzilli, Raffaele

    2006-05-23

    In recent years, a number of articles have been published on the treatment of acute pancreatitis in experimental models and most of them concerned animals with mild disease. However, it is difficult to translate these results into clinical practice. For example, infliximab, a monoclonal TNF antibody, was experimentally tested in rats and it was found to significantly reduce the pathologic score and serum amylase activity and also to alleviate alveolar edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome; however, no studies are available in clinical human acute pancreatitis. Another substance, such as interleukin 10, was efficacious in decreasing the severity and mortality of lethal pancreatitis in rats, but seems to have no effect on human severe acute pancreatitis. Thus, the main problem in acute pancreatitis, especially in the severe form of the disease, is the difficulty of planning clinical studies capable of giving reliable statistically significant answers regarding the benefits of the various proposed therapeutic agents previously tested in experimental settings.According to the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis, the efficacy of the drugs already available, such as gabexate mesilate, lexipafant and somatostatin should be re-evaluated and should be probably administered in a different manner. Of course, also in this case, we need adequate studies to test this hypothesis.

  14. Current knowledge on the laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Meléndez, Adrián; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor Jesús; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Garza-González, Elvira

    2017-03-07

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a spore-forming, toxin-producing, gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that is the principal etiologic agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Infection with C. difficile (CDI) is characterized by diarrhea in clinical syndromes that vary from self-limited to mild or severe. Since its initial recognition as the causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis, C. difficile has spread around the world. CDI is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among older adult hospitalized patients. Due to extensive antibiotic usage, the number of CDIs has increased. Diagnosis of CDI is often difficult and has a substantial impact on the management of patients with the disease, mainly with regards to antibiotic management. The diagnosis of CDI is primarily based on the clinical signs and symptoms and is only confirmed by laboratory testing. Despite the high burden of CDI and the increasing interest in the disease, episodes of CDI are often misdiagnosed. The reasons for misdiagnosis are the lack of clinical suspicion or the use of inappropriate tests. The proper diagnosis of CDI reduces transmission, prevents inadequate or unnecessary treatments, and assures best antibiotic treatment. We review the options for the laboratory diagnosis of CDI within the settings of the most accepted guidelines for CDI diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of CDI.

  15. Current knowledge in the neurophysiologic modulation of obesity.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Nicholas; Goula, Anastasia; Tolis, George

    2005-09-01

    Obesity is today one of the commonest of life-threatening diseases in developed countries and generally results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Although there is increasing evidence for a genetic basis of obesity in some clinical syndromes, this seems to be the cause only in a limited number of patients and obesity is far from being considered as a gene-related disease. Eating is a complex and multifactorial process involving autonomous pathways that transfer sensory and motor information between the entire length of the digestive tract and the central nervous system. Modulation of the amount of energy that we take in as food involves several mechanisms and networks that connect the brain with the gut, this process being key to the regulation of body weight over time, as well as to the modification of long-term eating behaviors. Furthermore, this axis is closely coupled to other systems that are involved in energy homeostasis, namely, food preference, energy expenditure, and lifestyle. The identification of several neuropeptides that modulate eating behavior in various ways, along with studies performed in animal models, have focused attention on the role of these molecules and their clinical implications in the development of obesity in humans.

  16. [Current infectious disease care in Spain].

    PubMed

    Almirante, Benito; Colmenero, Juan Dios; Fortún, Jesús; Oteo, José Antonio; Santamaría, Juan Mari; Sola, Julio

    2008-12-01

    Despite the specialist activity of Infectious Diseases not being officially recognised, the majority of the hospitals in the autonomous communities of Spain are equipped with structures, with significant heterogeneity among them, to be able to offer high quality care in these diseases. The main characteristics of and Infectious Diseases Department is its important healthcare activity, more than in other officially recognised medical specialities, and also its important interrelationship with other services in the hospital which is clearly horizontal healthcare. Furthermore, the aforementioned infectious disease care units have developed important activities in the arena of community and public health and, in collaboration with health authorities, contribute to the rational use of antimicrobials and the relationship with Primary Care. The future of specialists in infectious diseases, when they are officially recognised, will be the creation of clinical management units in every health institution with the objective of coordinating all the specialised health care, both in the hospital environment and in its health area of influence.

  17. Pharmacotherapy for Neonatal Seizures: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Maria D; Griffin, Brendan T; Kharoshankaya, Liudmila; Cryan, John F; Boylan, Geraldine B

    2016-04-01

    Seizures are the most common neurological emergencies in the neonatal period and are associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Seizures affect up to five per 1000 term births and population-based studies suggest that they occur even more frequently in premature infants. Seizures are a sign of an underlying cerebral pathology, the most common of which is hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in term infants. Due to a growing body of evidence that seizures exacerbate cerebral injury, effective diagnosis and treatment of neonatal seizures is of paramount importance to reduce long-term adverse outcomes. Electroencephalography is essential for the diagnosis of seizures in neonates due to their subtle clinical expression, non-specific neurological presentation and a high frequency of electro-clinical uncoupling in the neonatal period. Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy may require neuroprotective therapeutic hypothermia, accompanying sedation with opioids, anticonvulsant drugs or a combination of all of these. The efficacy, safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of seven anticonvulsant drugs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, levetiracetam, lidocaine, midazolam, topiramate and bumetanide) are reviewed. This review is focused only on studies reporting electrographically confirmed seizures and highlights the knowledge gaps that exist in optimal treatment regimens for neonatal seizures. Randomised controlled trials are needed to establish a safe and effective treatment protocol for neonatal seizures.

  18. Current knowledge on biodegradable microspheres in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Kapadia, Jinita R

    2015-08-01

    Biodegradable microspheres have gained popularity for delivering a wide variety of molecules via various routes. These types of products have been prepared using various natural and synthetic biodegradable polymers through suitable techniques for desired delivery of various challenging molecules. Selection of biodegradable polymers and technique play a key role in desired drug delivery. This review describes an overview of the fundamental knowledge and status of biodegradable microspheres in effective delivery of various molecules via desired routes with consideration of outlines of various compendial and non-compendial biodegradable polymers, formulation techniques and release mechanism of microspheres, patents and commercial biodegradable microspheres. There are various advantages of using biodegradable polymers including promise of development with different types of molecules. Biocompatibility, low dosage and reduced side effects are some reasons why usage biodegradable microspheres have gained in popularity. Selection of biodegradable polymers and formulation techniques to create microspheres is the biggest challenge in research. In the near future, biodegradable microspheres will become the eco-friendly product for drug delivery of various genes, hormones, proteins and peptides at specific site of body for desired periods of time.

  19. [Current knowledge about presumable functions of plant lectins].

    PubMed

    Shakirova, F M; Bezrukova, M V

    2007-01-01

    Current data on the diversity of plant lectins and their functional importance for plants, caused primarily by their capacity to link carbohydrate ligands specifically and convertibly, are reviewed. For instance, the role of plant lectins in the recognition of alien organisms and in the adaptation of plants to various stress-induced effects is discussed. In addition to centres of specific affinity to carbohydrates, plant lectins are characterized by the presence of sites responsible for hydrophobic interactions with non-carbohydrate molecules. These sites link to plant hormones, proteins, and other metabolites, thus participating in the regulation of metabolic processes controlling growth, development, and differentiation in plants. The structure and biological properties of ribosome-inactivating proteins having and not having lectin activity are discussed, as well as their role in plant protection from pests and pathogens. Current data on the assumed functions of the independent groups of plant lectins with specific endogenic role are given. These include chitin-specific lectins synthesized in phloem, which are capable of forming protein-protein and RNA-protein complexes and translocating via vessels, which thus play their specific intra- or intercellular interactions, processes of growth, development, and protection of plants. Other groups of plant lectins, induced by jasmonate, such as Nictaba (Nicotiana tabaccum agglutinin), and cereal lectins related to jacalin, which are localised in the cytoplasm and nucleus, probably play regulatory role in the formation of stress response in plants. The structure and currently discussed functions of wheat germ agglutinin, a typical representative of cereal lectins, are analysed in detail.

  20. Management of periprosthetic joint infection: the current knowledge: AAOS exhibit selection.

    PubMed

    Parvizi, Javad; Adeli, Bahar; Zmistowski, Benjamin; Restrepo, Camilo; Greenwald, Alan Seth

    2012-07-18

    Periprosthetic joint infection continues to frustrate the medical community. Although the demand for total joint arthroplasty is increasing, the burden of such infections is increasing even more rapidly, and they pose a unique challenge because their accurate diagnosis and eradication can prove elusive. This review describes the current knowledge regarding diagnosis and treatment of periprosthetic joint infection. A number of tools are available to aid in establishing a diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection. These include the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein concentration, synovial white blood-cell count and differential, imaging studies, tissue specimen culturing, and histological analysis. Multiple definitions of periprosthetic joint infection have been proposed but there is no consensus. Tools under investigation to diagnose such infections include the C-reactive protein concentration in the joint fluid, point-of-care strip tests for the leukocyte esterase concentration in the joint fluid, and other molecular markers of periprosthetic joint infection. Treatment options include irrigation and debridement with prosthesis retention, one-stage prosthesis exchange, two-stage prosthesis exchange with intervening placement of an antibiotic-loaded spacer, and salvage treatments such as joint arthrodesis and amputation. Treatment selection is dependent on multiple factors including the timing of the symptom onset, patient health, the infecting organism, and a history of infection in the joint. Although prosthesis retention has the theoretical advantages of decreased morbidity and improved return to function, two-stage exchange provides a lower rate of recurrent infection. As the burden of periprosthetic joint infection increases, the orthopaedic and medical community should become more familiar with the disease. It is hoped that the tools currently under investigation will aid clinicians in diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection in an

  1. The Roles of Ability, Personality, and Interests in Acquiring Current Events Knowledge: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, David Z.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.; Pettibone, Jonathan C.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate sources of inter-individual differences in current events knowledge. The study occurred in two sessions. In the initial session, 579 participants completed tests to ability, personality, and interest factors, as well as prior knowledge of current events. Approximately 10 weeks later, participants…

  2. The Roles of Ability, Personality, and Interests in Acquiring Current Events Knowledge: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, David Z.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.; Pettibone, Jonathan C.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate sources of inter-individual differences in current events knowledge. The study occurred in two sessions. In the initial session, 579 participants completed tests to ability, personality, and interest factors, as well as prior knowledge of current events. Approximately 10 weeks later, participants…

  3. STR allele sequence variation: Current knowledge and future issues.

    PubMed

    Gettings, Katherine Butler; Aponte, Rachel A; Vallone, Peter M; Butler, John M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews what is currently known about short tandem repeat (STR) allelic sequence variation in and around the twenty-four loci most commonly used throughout the world to perform forensic DNA investigations. These STR loci include D1S1656, TPOX, D2S441, D2S1338, D3S1358, FGA, CSF1PO, D5S818, SE33, D6S1043, D7S820, D8S1179, D10S1248, TH01, vWA, D12S391, D13S317, Penta E, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, Penta D, and D22S1045. All known reported variant alleles are compiled along with genomic information available from GenBank, dbSNP, and the 1000 Genomes Project. Supplementary files are included which provide annotated reference sequences for each STR locus, characterize genomic variation around the STR repeat region, and compare alleles present in currently available STR kit allelic ladders. Looking to the future, STR allele nomenclature options are discussed as they relate to next generation sequencing efforts underway.

  4. Current knowledge of the aetiology of human tubal ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, J.L.V.; Dey, S.K.; Critchley, H.O.D.; Horne, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy which occurs outside of the uterine cavity, and over 98% implant in the Fallopian tube. Tubal ectopic pregnancy remains the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy. The epidemiological risk factors for tubal ectopic pregnancy are well established and include: tubal damage as a result of surgery or infection (particularly Chlamydia trachomatis), smoking and in vitro fertilization. This review appraises the data to date researching the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. METHODS Scientific literature was searched for studies investigating the underlying aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS Existing data addressing the underlying cause of tubal ectopic pregnancy are mostly descriptive. There are currently few good animal models of tubal ectopic pregnancy. There are limited data explaining the link between risk factors and tubal implantation. CONCLUSIONS Current evidence supports the hypothesis that tubal ectopic pregnancy is caused by a combination of retention of the embryo within the Fallopian tube due to impaired embryo-tubal transport and alterations in the tubal environment allowing early implantation to occur. Future studies are needed that address the functional consequences of infection and smoking on Fallopian tube physiology. A greater understanding of the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy is critical for the development of improved preventative measures, the advancement of diagnostic screening methods and the development of novel treatments. PMID:20071358

  5. Current knowledge and pharmacological profile of berberine: An update.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Ekavali; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Mukherjee, Madhurima; Pottabathini, Raghavender; Dhull, Dinesh K

    2015-08-15

    Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, occurs as an active constituent in numerous medicinal plants and has an array of pharmacological properties. It has been used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine for its antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, antidiarrheal and antitrachoma activity. Moreover, several clinical and preclinical studies demonstrate ameliorative effect of berberine against several disorders including metabolic, neurological and cardiological problems. This review provides a summary regarding the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of berberine, with a focus on the different mechanisms underlying its multispectrum activity. Studies regarding the safety profile, drug interactions and important clinical trials of berberine have also been included. Clinical trials with respect to neurological disorders need to be undertaken to exploit the beneficiary effects of berberine against serious disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Also, clinical studies to detect rare adverse effects of berberine need to be initiated to draw a complete safety profile of berberine and strengthen its applicability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Current knowledge of water quality and safety for livestock.

    PubMed

    Carson, T L

    2000-11-01

    Basic laboratory evaluation of water quality for livestock should include measurement of TDS, sulfate, nitrate-nitrite, and coliform bacteria. Supplementary water tests may include pH, sodium, iron, magnesium, chloride, calcium, potassium, manganese, and contaminants specific to the situation. Using the best-quality drinking water available contributes to the optimal production of livestock. Restricted quantity of drinking water or drinking water containing excessive levels of nitrate, TDS, sulfate, and other constituents can affect growth and production of all classes of animals. Drinking-water quality and availability should be evaluated as a cause of poor performance or nonspecific disease conditions in livestock. It is important that attempts to evaluate water quality include obtaining a thorough history, making astute observations, and asking intelligent questions. A thorough laboratory examination of animal specimens and water samples should be evaluated in view of existing standards for livestock drinking-water quality.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis: achievements and challenges to current knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Megan; Nardell, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, molecular methods have become available with which to strain-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They have allowed researchers to study certain important but previously unresolved issues in the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). For example, some unsuspected microepidemics have been revealed and it has been shown that the relative contribution of recently acquired disease to the TB burden in many settings is far greater than had been thought. These findings have led to the strengthening of TB control. Other research has demonstrated the existence and described the frequency of exogenous reinfection in areas of high incidence. Much recent work has focused on the phenotypic variation among strains and has evaluated the relative transmissibility, virulence, and immunogenicity of different lineages of the organism. We summarize the recent achievements in TB epidemiology associated with the introduction of DNA fingerprinting techniques, and consider the implications of this technology for the design and analysis of epidemiological studies. PMID:12132006

  8. Current knowledge and future prospects for SAPHO syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, C

    2014-11-01

    SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis) syndrome is a complex disorder characterized by osteoarticular and cutaneous symptoms. Most patients experience bone pain and dermatologic manifestations. Diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome is based on exclusion of infectious arthritis and septic osteomyelitis with findings of hyperostosis or chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis involving axial or peripheral skeleton, with or without skin manifestations. The pathophysiology of SAPHO is unclear, although several hypotheses exist. Some of these hypotheses have led to the ever growing treatment options of medications. Broad varieties of medications have been used, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and disease-modifying agents. New therapeutic options, such as tumor necrosis factor inhibitors have evolved and have shown promising results.

  9. Periodontal Disease Awareness and Knowledge among Nigerian Primary School Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, CC; Umoh, AO

    2015-01-01

    Background: Teacher-led oral health education is equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents as dentist-led and peer-led strategies. Aim: The aim was to determine periodontal disease awareness and knowledge among Nigerian primary school teachers. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among primary school teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire which elicited information on demography, awareness of the periodontal disease and source of information, knowledge of etiology, and symptoms of the periodontal disease, was the data collection tool.. The test of association was done using either Chi-square or Fisher's exact statistics. P value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Results: Out of 180 teachers recruited from seven public primary schools in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, 151 of them fully participated by filling the study questionnaires giving a 83.9% (151/180) response rate. The majority 74.2% (112/151) of the participants reported having heard of the periodontal disease and the leading source of information was television. A total of 29.8% (45/151) of participants considered periodontal disease as the main cause of tooth loss among adult Nigerian. Only 12.6% (19/151) of the participants knew dental plaque as soft debris on teeth and 29.1% (44/151) attested that plaque can cause periodontal disease. The majority of the participants were not aware of age 81.5% (123/151) and gender 96.7% (146/151) predisposition to periodontal disease. The perceived manifestations of the periodontal disease reported by were mainly gum bleeding 35.1% (53/151) and swollen gum 20.5% (31/151). A total of 70.2% (106/151) of the participants considered periodontal disease as a preventable disease and about half 49.0% (74/151) of the participants considered daily mouth cleaning as the best preventive method. The majority 95.4% (144/151) of the participants expressed interest in

  10. Periodontal Disease Awareness and Knowledge among Nigerian Primary School Teachers.

    PubMed

    Azodo, C C; Umoh, A O

    2015-01-01

    Teacher-led oral health education is equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents as dentist-led and peer-led strategies. The aim was to determine periodontal disease awareness and knowledge among Nigerian primary school teachers. This cross-sectional study was conducted among primary school teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire which elicited information on demography, awareness of the periodontal disease and source of information, knowledge of etiology, and symptoms of the periodontal disease, was the data collection tool.. The test of association was done using either Chi-square or Fisher's exact statistics. P value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Out of 180 teachers recruited from seven public primary schools in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, 151 of them fully participated by filling the study questionnaires giving a 83.9% (151/180) response rate. The majority 74.2% (112/151) of the participants reported having heard of the periodontal disease and the leading source of information was television. A total of 29.8% (45/151) of participants considered periodontal disease as the main cause of tooth loss among adult Nigerian. Only 12.6% (19/151) of the participants knew dental plaque as soft debris on teeth and 29.1% (44/151) attested that plaque can cause periodontal disease. The majority of the participants were not aware of age 81.5% (123/151) and gender 96.7% (146/151) predisposition to periodontal disease. The perceived manifestations of the periodontal disease reported by were mainly gum bleeding 35.1% (53/151) and swollen gum 20.5% (31/151). A total of 70.2% (106/151) of the participants considered periodontal disease as a preventable disease and about half 49.0% (74/151) of the participants considered daily mouth cleaning as the best preventive method. The majority 95.4% (144/151) of the participants expressed interest in learning about the periodontal disease and the

  11. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: Current knowledge and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Chun-Yan; Lee, Hung-Chang; Chan, Wai-Tao; Jiang, Chun-Bin; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chuang, Chih-Kuang

    2014-09-27

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global health issue. Infection by the HCV can cause acute and chronic liver diseases and may lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma or liver failure. The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 3% of the world population have been infected with HCV and the worldwide prevalence is between 1% and 8% in pregnant women and between 0.05% and 5% in children. Following the introduction of blood product screening, vertical transmission becomes the leading cause of childhood HCV infection. The prevalence of pediatric HCV infection varies from 0.05% to 0.36% in developed countries and between 1.8% and 5% in the developing world. All children born to women with anti-HCV antibodies should be checked for HCV infection. Though universal screening is controversial, selective antenatal HCV screening on high-risk populations is highly recommended and should be tested probably. Multiple risk factors were shown to increase the possibility of HCV vertical transmission, including coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus, intravenous drug use and elevated maternal HCV viral load, while breastfeeding and HCV genotypes have been studied to have little impact. At present, no clinical intervention has been clearly studied and proved to reduce the HCV vertical transmission risk. Cesarean section should not be recommended as a procedure to prevent vertical transmission, however, breastfeeding is generally not forbidden. The high prevalence of global HCV infection necessitates renewed efforts in primary prevention, including vaccine development, as well as new approaches to reduce the burden of chronic liver disease. Future researches should focus on the interruption of vertical transmission, developments of HCV vaccine and direct-acting antivirals in infancy and early childhood.

  12. Acetate-buffered crystalloid fluids: Current knowledge, a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Fleischmann, Edith

    2016-10-01

    The concept of fluid resuscitation with balanced solutions containing acetate is relatively new. The knowledge about acetate mostly originates from nephrological research, as acetate was primarily used as a dialysis buffer where much higher doses of acetate are infused. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of an acetate-buffered crystalloid fluid when compared with other crystalloid infusates. We report trials with the primary object of comparing an acetate-buffered infusion solute to another crystalloid infusate. A systematic literature search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical trials register was conducted to identify suitable studies. The search strategy used produced 1205 potential titles. After eliminating doubles, 312 titles and abstracts were screened, and 31 references were retrieved for full-text analysis. A total of 27 scientific studies were included in the study. Acetate-buffered crystalloid solutes do have a favorable influence on microcirculation. To what extent the acetate-buffered crystalloids influence kidney function is controversially discussed and not yet clear. Metabolic alkalosis did not occur in a single study in humans after an acetate-buffered infusate; potassium levels stayed stable in all studies. Cardiac output and contractility seem to be positively influenced; nonetheless, data on maintenance of a target blood pressure remain inconclusive. Whether acetate-buffered crystalloid fluids lead to lower rates of acute kidney injury and increased survival when compared with normal saline is yet unclear and may depend on the amount of fluid administered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Links between headaches and epilepsy: current knowledge and terminology.

    PubMed

    Caminero, A; Manso-Calderón, R

    2014-10-01

    Headaches (including migraines) and epilepsy have a high level of comorbidity and may be confused during diagnosis. Although physicians have known for centuries that these two conditions are somehow linked, their relationship remains poorly understood. Herein we describe the known associations between them, their underlying physiopathologic and genetic mechanisms, and the treatments recommended for them. We have reviewed the most relevant publication of headache/migraine and epilepsy by using the PubMed data base. An individual can suffer both from headaches (either migraine and/or other type of headache) and epilepsy, either by chance or because of a common underlying pathology. In these cases, the headache usually occurs at a different moment than the seizure ("interictal headache"). However, headaches sometimes occur simultaneously with, or very close in time to, the seizure: one that occurs at the same time as an epileptic seizure is known as an "ictal epileptic headache" or as "hemicrania epileptica"; one that precedes a seizure is known as a "pre-ictal headache"; and one that follows a seizure is known as a "post-ictal headache". There is a particular type of pre-ictal headache, known as "migralepsy", which occurs during or just after a migraine aura. The terminology and concepts employed to describe possible associations between headaches (mainly migraines) and epilepsy have evolved over time with increasing clinical and physiopathogenic knowledge. Some researchers have suggested eliminating the term migralepsy and using the terms ictal epileptic headache and hemicrania epileptica exclusively and uniformly in all classification systems. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Current Perspectives on Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arvind; Teuber, Suzanne S.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2006-01-01

    Since the original description of X-linked agammaglobulinemia in 1952, the number of independent primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) has expanded to more than 100 entities. By definition, a PID is a genetically determined disorder resulting in enhanced susceptibility to infectious disease. Despite the heritable nature of these diseases, some PIDs are clinically manifested only after prerequisite environmental exposures but they often have associated malignant, allergic, or autoimmune manifestations. PIDs must be distinguished from secondary or acquired immunodeficiencies, which are far more common. In this review, we will place these immunodeficiencies in the context of both clinical and laboratory presentations as well as highlight the known genetic basis. PMID:17162365

  15. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Current Aspects of a Recently Recognized Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lucendo, Alfredo J.; Gonzalez-Castillo, Sonia; Guagnozzi, Danila; Yague-Compadre, Jose Luis; Arias, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic clinicopathological entity characterized by large numbers of intraepithelial eosinophils infiltrating the esophageal mucosa. The inflammation leads to alterations in the caliber and the motility of the organ, which determines esophageal symptoms, especially dysphagia and frequent food impaction. Firstly described in 1978, EoE represents today an increasingly recognized disease, with cases coming from all developed countries and rising epidemiology. The origin of EoE has been related to allergy to food components or inhalants, and a number of studies support a Th2-type reaction in the origin of the disease. Thus, several treatment strategies based on controlling the exposition to triggering allergens or therapies using anti-allergic drugs have demonstrated efficacy in EoE. Since EoE frequently presents with esophageal stenosis, endoscopic dilation has been also used in treating these patients, but a high risk of complications has been documented. However, single treatment strategies have not been compared to a placebo group in most of studies, and we do not know the long-term consequences of eosinophilic inflammation, esophageal fibrous remodeling or its possible modifications using different therapies. Furthermore, we lack of a common accepted therapeutic end-point to assess the efficacy of the treatment: from mere resolution of symptoms to full control of esophageal inflammation. This article summarizes the current knowledge about the epidemiology, origin and pathogenesis of the disease, and discuses several practical questions, especially those related to how the affected patients should be treated. PMID:27956987

  16. Health in People with Intellectual Disabilities: Current Knowledge and Gaps in Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M. J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The health needs of people with intellectual disabilities have recently received increasing attention. Method: Based on a review of the 2003 literature, this paper presents an overview of our knowledge on physical, mental and social well-being in this group. Results: Physical well-being is threatened by handicap-related conditions,…

  17. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung

    2017-06-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  18. Police peer support programs: current knowledge and practice.

    PubMed

    Grauwiler, Peggy; Barocas, Briana; Mills, Linda G

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the current empirical research and literature on peer assistance programs, peer support, and peer-facilitated interventions for police officers. A literature search was conducted to identify studies on police, peer support, and peer assistance programs. Studies were examined in terms of the following criteria: description of data collection methods, findings, study limitations, implications for police, workplace assistance, and peer support. Articles on peer support in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center rescue and recovery efforts were also reviewed. The research studies reviewed in this article do not evaluate peer program effectiveness from the perspective of those officers receiving peer services. To better serve this invaluable population, efforts must be made to incorporate their views. Information is also needed on the effectiveness of peer assistance programs and peer-driven crisis intervention models. Finally, research is needed that specifically examines the effectiveness of programs that utilize trained peers in partnership with professional mental health practitioners.

  19. Alcoholic Liver Disease: Pathogenesis and Current Management

    PubMed Central

    Osna, Natalia A.; Donohue, Terrence M.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.

    2017-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a global healthcare problem. The liver sustains the greatest degree of tissue injury by heavy drinking because it is the primary site of ethanol metabolism. Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption produces a wide spectrum of hepatic lesions, the most characteristic of which are steatosis, hepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Steatosis is the earliest response to heavy drinking and is characterized by the deposition of fat in hepatocytes. Steatosis can progress to steatohepatitis, which is a more severe, inflammatory type of liver injury. This stage of liver disease can lead to the development of fibrosis, during which there is excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The fibrotic response begins with active pericellular fibrosis, which may progress to cirrhosis, characterized by excessive liver scarring, vascular alterations, and eventual liver failure. Among problem drinkers, about 35 percent develop advanced liver disease because a number of disease modifiers exacerbate, slow, or prevent alcoholic liver disease progression. There are still no FDA-approved pharmacological or nutritional therapies for treating patients with alcoholic liver disease. Cessation of drinking (i.e., abstinence) is an integral part of therapy. Liver transplantation remains the life-saving strategy for patients with end-stage alcoholic liver disease.

  20. Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…

  1. Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…

  2. Minimal intervention prosthodontics: current knowledge and societal implications.

    PubMed

    Bowley, John

    2002-01-01

    Minimal intervention prosthodontics can be considered a treatment option for a country's overall dental health care plan. Prosthodontics can cover a range of increasingly aggressive treatment interventions depending on the severity and progression of the disease. The 'shortened dental arch' concept is a minimal treatment intervention approach that has been advocated for a wide range of partially edentulous patients. This concept favors limited prosthodontic intervention to achieve patient-perceived acceptable function levels in the presence of multiple missing teeth. The implementation of minimal interventions should be balanced by considering risk-to-benefit ratios, as well as the consequences of nonintervention of low-level prosthodontic interventions. The 'nonintervention' approach and low-level prosthodontic interventions have inherent consequences and well-documented risks; professional ethics dictate that a practitioner present these risks as well as the known benefits of all treatment options. Developing countries are under significant pressure to effectively utilize limited resources, increase skilled human resources, provide advanced levels of care to very large numbers of patients and plan for the future dental health care of their society. Many developing countries are prime candidates for inadvertent abuse and misappropriation of prosthodontic materials, treatment modalities and human resources in trying to provide cost-effective prosthodontic care. A developing country can learn from the mistakes that developed countries have made in the past and use the evidence from these experiences to plan for a better future state of dental health for their society.

  3. Filoviruses in Bats: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Olival, Kevin J.; Hayman, David T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Filoviruses, including Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus, pose significant threats to public health and species conservation by causing hemorrhagic fever outbreaks with high mortality rates. Since the first outbreak in 1967, their origins, natural history, and ecology remained elusive until recent studies linked them through molecular, serological, and virological studies to bats. We review the ecology, epidemiology, and natural history of these systems, drawing on examples from other bat-borne zoonoses, and highlight key areas for future research. We compare and contrast results from ecological and virological studies of bats and filoviruses with those of other systems. We also highlight how advanced methods, such as more recent serological assays, can be interlinked with flexible statistical methods and experimental studies to inform the field studies necessary to understand filovirus persistence in wildlife populations and cross-species transmission leading to outbreaks. We highlight the need for a more unified, global surveillance strategy for filoviruses in wildlife, and advocate for more integrated, multi-disciplinary approaches to understand dynamics in bat populations to ultimately mitigate or prevent potentially devastating disease outbreaks. PMID:24747773

  4. Are iron oxide nanoparticles safe? Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Fernández-Bertólez, Natalia; Kiliç, Gözde; Costa, Carla; Costa, Solange; Fraga, Sonia; Bessa, Maria Joao; Pásaro, Eduardo; Teixeira, João Paulo; Laffon, Blanca

    2016-12-01

    Due to their unique physicochemical properties, including superparamagnetism, iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have a number of interesting applications, especially in the biomedical field, that make them one of the most fascinating nanomaterials. They are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, in targeted drug delivery, and for induced hyperthermia cancer treatments. Together with these valuable uses, concerns regarding the onset of unexpected adverse health effects following exposure have been also raised. Nevertheless, despite the numerous ION purposes being explored, currently available information on their potential toxicity is still scarce and controversial data have been reported. Although ION have traditionally been considered as biocompatible - mainly on the basis of viability tests results - influence of nanoparticle surface coating, size, or dose, and of other experimental factors such as treatment time or cell type, has been demonstrated to be important for ION in vitro toxicity manifestation. In vivo studies have shown distribution of ION to different tissues and organs, including brain after passing the blood-brain barrier; nevertheless results from acute toxicity, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity investigations in different animal models do not provide a clear overview on ION safety yet, and epidemiological studies are almost inexistent. Much work has still to be done to fully understand how these nanomaterials interact with cellular systems and what, if any, potential adverse health consequences can derive from ION exposure.

  5. Diabetes management by probiotics: Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rad, Aziz Homayouni; Sahhaf, Farnaz; Hassanalilou, Tohid; Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Motayagheni, Negar; Soroush, Ahmad-Reza; Javadi, Mina; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad; Khalili, Leila

    2016-10-14

    Diabetes mellitus, a condition of multifactorial origin, is related to the intestinal microbiota by numerous molecular mechanisms. Controlling the vast increase in the prevalence of diabetes needs a natural and safe solution. Probiotics, known as live microorganisms that exert health benefits to the host, have anti-diabetic property. This review will highlight the current evidences in probiotic effectiveness and future prospects for exploring probiotic therapy in the prevention and control of diabetes. We interrogated Pub Med and Science Direct by using "Probiotics" and "Diabetes" for searching the studies aiming the application of probiotics and the beneficial effects of probiotics in diabetes prevention and control. It has been shown that probiotics can increase insulin sensitivity and reduce autoimmune responses by modulating intestinal microbiota and decreasing the inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress. Recent evidences show that probiotics influences the host through modulating intestinal permeability and mucosal immune response, manipulating eating behaviors by appetite-regulating hormones and controlling gut endocannabinoid (eCB) system that is believed to be associated with inflammation and diabetes. Moreover, modulating the intestinal microbiota by probiotics controls host metabolism by affecting energy extraction from food and by biochemically converting molecules derived from the host or from gut microbes themselves. Experimental and clinical evidences support the hypothesis that the modulation of the gut microbiota by probiotics could be effective in prevention and management of diabetes.

  6. PIP IMPLANTS--CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND LITERATURE REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Molitor M; Meš'ták O; Popelka P; Vítová L; Matejovská J; Kalinová L; Hromádková V; Mešt'ák J

    2015-01-01

    Non-compliance with the production process and use of non-certified materials du- ring production of PIP implants opened an extensive debate regarding regulation and control mechanisms during their production, but the question of health safety of breast implants in general was also reopened. Production of breast implants is subject to various control mechanisms in each country and it is necessary to unify and coordinate such mechanisms. PIP implants were on the market for more than 15 years and in this period the production process and used materials were being changed purposely and without control, which resulted in production of implants with poor quality capsule filled with non-certified silicon gel. There were around 600,000 of these erroneous implants produced. Despite demonstrable harmfulness of the PIP implants, the current studies were not able to reliably confirm health hazard of these implants. Financial costs together with the inability to demonstrate health risk of PIP implants is the reason why the question to widely replace these implants was not solved and each state has a different opinion on this issue.

  7. Current knowledge of Aronia melanocarpa as a medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Stefka V; Belcheva, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa, native to eastern North America, has become popular in Eastern Europe and Russia. Aronia melanocarpa fruits are one of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances, mainly anthocyanins--glycosides of cyanidin. Anthocyanins are water soluble pigments accounting for the dark blue and even black color of the fruits. Administered orally they can be absorbed as intact glycosides. Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice and anthocyanins derived from the fruits have been studied intensively for the last 15 years. Most of the effects of Aronia melanocarpa anthocyanins are due to their high antioxidative activity. Our investigations have demonstrated a remarkable hepatoprotective, a very good gastroprotective and a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice in rats as well as a bacteriostatic activity in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and an antiviral activity against type A influenza virus. Research of other authors has demonstrated that Aronia melanocarpa anthocyanins can normalize the carbohydrate metabolism in diabetic patients and in streptozotocin-diabetic rats, have an in vitro antimutagenic activity and exhibit a distinct immunomodulatory activity in human lymphocyte cultures and in patients with breast cancer, suppress the growth of human HT-29 colon cancer cells, inhibit the N-nitrosamine formation in rats and decrease the toxicity and cumulation of cadmium in liver and kidneys. Currently, there are no data in literature about any unwanted and toxic effects of Aronia melanocarpa fruits, juice and extracts.

  8. [Global spread of Zika virus epidemic: current knowledges and uncertainties].

    PubMed

    Şahiner, Fatih

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an enveloped RNA virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. Although more than 60 years have passed since the discovery and first reported human cases of the virus, only a small number (< 10) of cases had been encountered in the literature until the last 10 years. Zika virus was known as a virus which caused sporadic infections and was confined to Africa and Asia along a narrow equatorial line. In 2007, however, the first major outbreak of ZIKV occurred in Yap Island (Micronesia), and so it was reported for the first time outside of Africa and Asia. Between the years of 2007 and 2014, ZIKV spreaded to island groups located in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean, and in 2015-2016, it has spread to South and Central America and the Caribbean. Today, travel-related imported cases is still been reported in Europe, North America, and other countries in the Far East. According to the data from the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as of March 2016, ZIKV infections have already spread locally in more than 30 countries, and travel alerts have been issued for the countries where the virus is present. Zika virus infections are generally asymptomatic or may present with a moderate clinical picture (e.g. acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and nonpurulent conjunctivitis). Although no deaths were attributed to ZIKV infection over the past 60 years, as of November 2015, it has been suggested that three deaths in Brazil, including the death of a newborn with microcephaly, may be attributed to ZIKV infection. In addition, concurrent with outbreaks in 2013 in French Polynesia and in 2015 in Brazil, there have been significant rises reported in the incidence of some autoimmune and neurodevelopmental disorders, including Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly; these reports have caused considerable international concern. There are many points that are still unclear about ZIKV, including: (1

  9. Current knowledge and perspectives of Paenibacillus: a review.

    PubMed

    Grady, Elliot Nicholas; MacDonald, Jacqueline; Liu, Linda; Richman, Alex; Yuan, Ze-Chun

    2016-12-01

    Isolated from a wide range of sources, the genus Paenibacillus comprises bacterial species relevant to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Many Paenibacillus species can promote crop growth directly via biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and release of siderophores that enable iron acquisition. They can also offer protection against insect herbivores and phytopathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and viruses. This is accomplished by the production of a variety of antimicrobials and insecticides, and by triggering a hypersensitive defensive response of the plant, known as induced systemic resistance (ISR). Paenibacillus-derived antimicrobials also have applications in medicine, including polymyxins and fusaricidins, which are nonribosomal lipopeptides first isolated from strains of Paenibacillus polymyxa. Other useful molecules include exo-polysaccharides (EPS) and enzymes such as amylases, cellulases, hemicellulases, lipases, pectinases, oxygenases, dehydrogenases, lignin-modifying enzymes, and mutanases, which may have applications for detergents, food and feed, textiles, paper, biofuel, and healthcare. On the negative side, Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood, a lethal disease of honeybees, while a variety of species are opportunistic infectors of humans, and others cause spoilage of pasteurized dairy products. This broad review summarizes the major positive and negative impacts of Paenibacillus: its realised and prospective contributions to agriculture, medicine, process manufacturing, and bioremediation, as well as its impacts due to pathogenicity and food spoilage. This review also includes detailed information in Additional files 1, 2, 3 for major known Paenibacillus species with their locations of isolation, genome sequencing projects, patents, and industrially significant compounds and enzymes. Paenibacillus will, over time

  10. Knowledge legitimacy: how trans-patient behavior supports and challenges current medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Jodie M

    2008-10-01

    In this article, I examine the accounts of transsexual/transgender patients and their involvement with medical professionals in the Midwestern United States. Data are taken from 22 in-depth interviews and one year of participant observation of three transsexual/transgender organizations. I show that trans-patients are made aware of larger political, religious, and cultural ideologies through their medical experiences. Trans-patients internalize these views, which affect how they make sense of their medical treatment and how they choose to alter their behavior in future medical encounters. Trans-patients, in an attempt to gain credibility and avoid stigmas, prepare how they will approach doctors to improve their likelihood of receiving desired treatments. The data will reveal that through their approach, trans-patients both support and challenge existing medical knowledge. Patients support medical discourse by using established medical language in their interaction with doctors. Patients challenge medical knowledge by resisting established medical decisions.

  11. Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses: current state of knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Olen M.; Wright, Peter F.; Agol, Vadim I.; Delpeyroux, Francis; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nathanson, Neal; Pallansch, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 4 years, poliomyelitis outbreaks associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) have occurred in Hispaniola (2000-01), the Philippines (2001), and Madagascar (2001-02). Retrospective studies have also detected the circulation of endemic cVDPV in Egypt (1988-93) and the likely localized spread of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)-derived virus in Belarus (1965-66). Gaps in OPV coverage and the previous eradication of the corresponding serotype of indigenous wild poliovirus were the critical risk factors for all cVDPV outbreaks. The cVDPV outbreaks were stopped by mass immunization campaigns using OPV. To increase sensitivity for detecting vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), in 2001 the Global Polio Laboratory Network implemented additional testing requirements for all poliovirus isolates under investigation. This approach quickly led to the recognition of the Philippines and Madagascar cVDPV outbreaks, but of no other current outbreaks. The potential risk of cVDPV emergence has increased dramatically in recent years as wild poliovirus circulation has ceased in most of the world. The risk appears highest for the type 2 OPV strain because of its greater tendency to spread to contacts. The emergence of cVDPVs underscores the critical importance of eliminating the last pockets of wild poliovirus circulation, maintaining universally high levels of polio vaccine coverage, stopping OPV use as soon as it is safely possible to do so, and continuing sensitive poliovirus surveillance into the foreseeable future. Particular attention must be given to areas where the risks for wild poliovirus circulation have been highest, and where the highest rates of polio vaccine coverage must be maintained to suppress cVDPV emergence. PMID:15106296

  12. Oxytocin and socioemotional aging: Current knowledge and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Maura, Gabriela M.; MacDonald, Kai; Westberg, Lars; Fischer, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    The oxytocin (OT) system is involved in various aspects of social cognition and prosocial behavior. Specifically, OT has been examined in the context of social memory, emotion recognition, cooperation, trust, empathy, and bonding, and—though evidence is somewhat mixed-intranasal OT appears to benefit aspects of socioemotional functioning. However, most of the extant data on aging and OT is from animal research and human OT research has focused largely on young adults. As such, though we know that various socioemotional capacities change with age, we know little about whether age-related changes in the OT system may underlie age-related differences in socioemotional functioning. In this review, we take a genetic-neuro-behavioral approach and evaluate current evidence on age-related changes in the OT system as well as the putative effects of these alterations on age-related socioemotional functioning. Looking forward, we identify informational gaps and propose an Age-Related Genetic, Neurobiological, Sociobehavioral Model of Oxytocin (AGeNeS-OT model) which may structure and inform investigations into aging-related genetic, neural, and sociocognitive processes related to OT. As an exemplar of the use of the model, we report exploratory data suggesting differences in socioemotional processing associated with genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in samples of young and older adults. Information gained from this arena has translational potential in depression, social stress, and anxiety-all of which have high relevance in aging—and may contribute to reducing social isolation and improving well-being of individuals across the lifespan. PMID:24009568

  13. Current knowledge of hagfish reproduction: implications for fisheries management.

    PubMed

    Powell, Mickie L; Kavanaugh, Scott I; Sower, Stacia A

    2005-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes the latest findings on reproductive endocrinology of Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) and implications for fisheries management. In response to a major decline or collapse of the fisheries (groundfish and anadromous species) industry in the Northeast, species that were once considered alternative or underutilized have and are being identified that may be suitable for commercial harvest, one such example is the hagfish. Hagfish in recent years have been sought after as valuable fish not only for their flesh, but also their skin. Currently, there are no regulations governing the harvesting of hagfish along the East Coast. There has been little to no information of the life history of hagfish including growth rate, age determination, reproductive biology, life span, and larval size at hatching. Thus, the level at which a sustainable fisheries for this species can be maintained is unknown. In some parts of the world, hagfish stocks are being depleted due to overfishing. In order for fisheries management to manage its hagfish stocks and develop a sustainable commercial hagfish fishery, critical information is needed to assist in determining the optimal use of this valuable resource.Key elements of the reproductive system have not been elucidated in hagfish. However, there is new evidence from recent reproductive studies that Atlantic hagfish may have a seasonal reproductive cycle. These data include seasonal changes in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), gonadal steroids, estradiol and progesterone, corresponding to gonadal reproductive stages along with the putative identity of a functional corpus luteum. This newly acquired data may provide important information to fisheries managers of the East Coast.

  14. Current knowledge on groundwater microbial pathogens and their control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Merkle, Jon C.

    Those who drink groundwater that has not been disinfected are at increased risk of infection and disease from pathogenic microorganisms. Recent studies have shown that up to half of all US drinking-water wells tested had evidence of fecal contamination. A significant fraction of all waterborne disease outbreaks is associated with groundwater. An estimated 750,000 to 5.9million illnesses per year result from contaminated groundwaters in the US. Mortality from these illnesses may be 1400-9400 deaths per year. Control of these pathogens starts with source-water protection activities to prevent fecal contamination of aquifers and wells. These include assessment of wellhead vulnerability to fecal contamination and correction of identified deficiencies. Correction may include control of sources or rehabilitation of the well itself. Disinfection can serve as a useful barrier and is recommended as a prudent public-health policy for all groundwater systems. Ceux qui boivent une eau souterraine non désinfectée présentent un risque accru d'infection et de maladie par des germes pathogènes. De récentes études ont montré que près de la moitié de tous les puits américains testés, captés pour l'eau potable, sont soumis à une contamination fécale. Une fraction significative de l'ensemble des premières manifestations de maladies liées à l'eau est associée aux eaux souterraines. On estime qu'entre 750 000 et 5,9millions de personnes sont malades chaque année aux États-Unis à cause d'eaux souterraines polluées. La mortalité parmi ces malades doit ètre de l'ordre de 1400 à 9400 décès par an. La protection contre ces germes pathogènes commence avec des mesures prises au niveau du captage pour empècher la pollution des aquifères et des puits. Celles-ci comprennent une évaluation de la vulnérabilité des tètes de puits à la pollution fécale et une correction des insuffisances mises en évidence. Cette correction peut comprendre une maîtrise des sources

  15. Disease Related Knowledge Summarization Based on Deep Graph Search.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofang; Yang, Zhihao; Li, ZhiHeng; Lin, Hongfei; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The volume of published biomedical literature on disease related knowledge is expanding rapidly. Traditional information retrieval (IR) techniques, when applied to large databases such as PubMed, often return large, unmanageable lists of citations that do not fulfill the searcher's information needs. In this paper, we present an approach to automatically construct disease related knowledge summarization from biomedical literature. In this approach, firstly Kullback-Leibler Divergence combined with mutual information metric is used to extract disease salient information. Then deep search based on depth first search (DFS) is applied to find hidden (indirect) relations between biomedical entities. Finally random walk algorithm is exploited to filter out the weak relations. The experimental results show that our approach achieves a precision of 60% and a recall of 61% on salient information extraction for Carcinoma of bladder and outperforms the method of Combo.

  16. Disease Related Knowledge Summarization Based on Deep Graph Search

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaofang; Yang, Zhihao; Li, ZhiHeng; Lin, Hongfei; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The volume of published biomedical literature on disease related knowledge is expanding rapidly. Traditional information retrieval (IR) techniques, when applied to large databases such as PubMed, often return large, unmanageable lists of citations that do not fulfill the searcher's information needs. In this paper, we present an approach to automatically construct disease related knowledge summarization from biomedical literature. In this approach, firstly Kullback-Leibler Divergence combined with mutual information metric is used to extract disease salient information. Then deep search based on depth first search (DFS) is applied to find hidden (indirect) relations between biomedical entities. Finally random walk algorithm is exploited to filter out the weak relations. The experimental results show that our approach achieves a precision of 60% and a recall of 61% on salient information extraction for Carcinoma of bladder and outperforms the method of Combo. PMID:26413521

  17. Whole dairy matrix or single nutrients in assessment of health effects: current evidence and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; de Groot, Lisette; Dupont, Didier; Feeney, Emma; Ipsen, Richard; Lecerf, Jean Michel; Mackie, Alan; McKinley, Michelle C; Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Rémond, Didier; Risérus, Ulf; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Tholstrup, Tine; Weaver, Connie; Astrup, Arne; Givens, Ian

    2017-05-01

    Foods consist of a large number of different nutrients that are contained in a complex structure. The nature of the food structure and the nutrients therein (i.e., the food matrix) will determine the nutrient digestion and absorption, thereby altering the overall nutritional properties of the food. Thus, the food matrix may exhibit a different relation with health indicators compared to single nutrients studied in isolation. The evidence for a dairy matrix effect was presented and discussed by an expert panel at a closed workshop, and the following consensus was reached: 1) Current evidence does not support a positive association between intake of dairy products and risk of cardiovascular disease (i.e., stroke and coronary heart disease) and type 2 diabetes. In contrast, fermented dairy products, such as cheese and yogurt, generally show inverse associations. 2) Intervention studies have indicated that the metabolic effects of whole dairy may be different than those of single dairy constituents when considering the effects on body weight, cardiometabolic disease risk, and bone health. 3) Different dairy products seem to be distinctly linked to health effects and disease risk markers. 4) Different dairy structures and common processing methods may enhance interactions between nutrients in the dairy matrix, which may modify the metabolic effects of dairy consumption. 5) In conclusion, the nutritional values of dairy products should not be considered equivalent to their nutrient contents but, rather, be considered on the basis of the biofunctionality of the nutrients within dairy food structures. 6) Further research on the health effects of whole dairy foods is warranted alongside the more traditional approach of studying the health effects of single nutrients. Future diet assessments and recommendations should carefully consider the evidence of the effects of whole foods alongside the evidence of the effects of individual nutrients. Current knowledge gaps and

  18. Knowledge on musculoskeletal diseases by the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, Pablo; Alfaro, Noelia; Méndez, José Ignacio; Garcia-Vicuña, Rosario; Jover, Juan Ángel; Sevilla, Jordi; Gabriele, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    To explore knowledge on musculoskeletal-diseases (MSDs) by the Spanish population. This was a cross-sectional study of the general population (> 18 years) using a telephone survey of 1,009 subjects stratified by habitat size, age, sex, and geographic area. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the subjects, their general knowledge of MSDs (GK), their specific knowledge of particular MSDs (SK), and their knowledge of their social impact (KSI). Synthetic indicators of the level of knowledge were used to analyze, using univariate and multivariate models, variables associated to the level of knowledge. The KSI level ranges from medium-high (mean: 0.62 ± 0.16 out of 1), suggesting that most subjects recognize MSDs as disabling conditions which affect the ability to work and have a high personal and social cost. The GK level is intermediate (mean: 0.50 ± 0.17); 60% of subjects know something about MSDs, but 54% state that their information is poor/very poor. The SK level is low (mean: 0.18 ± 0.10), and there are some MSDs that are little known (lupus, spondylitis). Being male or retired or having a MSD is associated to a greater knowledge of MSDs. The Spanish population has a medium level of knowledge of the frequency and extent to which MSDs affect performance of activities by those who suffer them. They identify them adequately and have a GK of their symptoms, but have little information about them. The level of knowledge varies depending on social and demographic factors and on whether or not the subject has direct or indirect experience of what a MSD means. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiovascular disease knowledge among culturally Deaf patients in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Margellos-Anast, Helen; Estarziau, Melanie; Kaufman, Gary

    2006-03-01

    Deaf persons experience communication barriers that may impact on their knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, data measuring this deficit are limited. A comprehensive health survey of Deaf adults included questions on CVD knowledge. Between November 2002 and March 2003, 203 Deaf adults participated in the survey, which was conducted via face-to-face interviews in American Sign Language. Questions assessed knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptoms, risk factors, and emergency response. Forty percent of respondents could not list any symptoms of a heart attack, while over 60% could not list any symptoms of a stroke. Less than half of respondents identified chest pain/pressure as a symptom of a heart attack. Only 61% reported that they would call 911 in response to cardiovascular disease symptoms. The median number of risk factors correctly identified by respondents was 3 of 6. Knowledge of cardiovascular disease among Deaf respondents is low, and considerably lower than that of the general hearing population. The need to develop health education materials and programs for Deaf individuals is evident. Health care providers should be educated on Deaf culture and barriers in communication. Finally, efforts need to be made to assure that 911 is deaf-accessible.

  20. Physician Knowledge of Chagas Disease in Hispanic Immigrants Living in Appalachian Ohio.

    PubMed

    Amstutz-Szalay, Shelley

    2017-06-01

    Studies have indicated that US physicians may not consider Chagas disease when diagnosing immigrant patients from Chagas-endemic areas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate physician knowledge of Chagas disease in six Appalachian Ohio counties. Physician knowledge was assessed by self-administrated survey (n = 105). Over 80 % of physicians reported that their current knowledge of Chagas disease was limited or very limited, and 50 % reported never considering Chagas disease diagnosis for their at-risk patients. Nearly 70 % of physicians were unaware of the percentage of chronic Chagas patients that develop clinical disease, and 36 % could not correctly identify the disease course. In addition, over 30 % of physicians reported that no services were available within their practice to assist Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency. A lack of physician awareness of Chagas disease, coupled with a lack of translation services, may create a barrier to care by decreasing the likelihood of identification of patients at risk for Chagas disease. The results of this study support the need for interventions to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment of Chagas disease in Hispanic immigrants in rural Appalachian Ohio.

  1. [Knowledge of vector-borne diseases (dengue, rickettsiosis and Chagas disease) in physicians].

    PubMed

    Lugo-Caballero, César I; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Dzul-Tut, Irving; Balam-May, Ángel; Zavala-Castro, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    The ecological conditions of Yucatan made it a suitable region for the acquisition of vector-borne diseases such as dengue, rickettsiosis, and Chagas disease. As the epidemiological burden of these diseases shows an alarming increase of severe cases, the early establishment of diagnosis and therapeutics by first-contact physicians is a critical step that is not being fulfilled due to several reasons, including poor knowledge. To determine the level of knowledge related to dengue, Chagas disease, and rickettsiosis among rural first-contact physicians of Yucatan. A survey was applied to 90 first-contact physicians from rural clinics of Yucatan, which included 32 items related to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of dengue, rickettsiosis, and Chagas disease. Answers were analyzed by central tendency statistics. Differences were observed among every category, however; diagnosis and therapeutics showed the lower values. Globally, 62.5% of respondents showed moderate knowledge, 37.5% poor knowledge, and 0% adequate knowledge. Results suggest that a strong campaign for a continuous diffusion of knowledge regarding these diseases is needed. In regions with high prevalence of these kinds of diseases, like Yucatan, the impact of these results on the epidemiological burden of these diseases must be evaluated.

  2. Patients' knowledge of risk and protective factors for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Wartak, Siddharth A; Friderici, Jennifer; Lotfi, Amir; Verma, Ashish; Kleppel, Reva; Naglieri-Prescod, Deborah; Rothberg, Michael B

    2011-05-15

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. The American Heart Association has proposed improving overall cardiovascular health by promoting 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health, including health behaviors (not smoking, regular exercise, and healthy diet) and health factors (ideal body mass index, cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood glucose). The patients' knowledge of these 7 components is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional survey of patients at 4 primary care and 1 cardiology clinic. The survey measured demographic data, personal behaviors/health factors, cardiovascular disease history, and knowledge about these 7 components. A multivariate model was developed to assess patient characteristics associated with high knowledge scores. Of the 2,200 surveys distributed, 1,702 (77%) were returned with sufficient responses for analysis. Of these, 49% correctly identified heart disease as the leading cause of death, and 37% (95% confidence interval [CI] 35% to 39%) correctly identified all 7 components. The average respondent identified 4.9 components (95% CI 4.7 to 5.0). The lowest recognition rates were for exercise (57%), fruit/vegetable consumption (58%), and diabetes (63%). In a multivariate model, knowledge of all 7 components was positively associated with high school education or greater (odds ratio 2.43, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.52) and white ethnicity (odds ratio 1.78, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.50), and negatively associated with attending an urban neighborhood clinic (odds ratio 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.82). In conclusion, just >1/3 of patients could identify all 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health. Educational efforts should target patients in low socioeconomic strata and focus on improving knowledge about healthy diet and regular exercise. Although patients with diabetes were more likely than those without diabetes to recognize their risk, 1 in 5 were not aware that diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  3. [Current therapeutic options for Peyronie's disease].

    PubMed

    Hauptmann, A; Diemer, T; Weidner, W

    2013-10-01

    Peyronie's disease is a heterogeneous disorder with typical symptoms of plaque formation, penile pain, deviation, penile shortening and erectile dysfunction. The etiology is unknown. Repetitive microtraumatic lesions with the formation of inelastic scar tissue at the level of the tunica albuginea are discussed as a trigger mechanism for a questionable genetic disposition. A non-surgical therapy based on a clear pathophysiology does not exist although several conservative treatment regimes are practiced. In the stable stage of the disease surgical therapy of penile angulation is the most frequent operation. Depending on the deviation angle, penile length and erectile dysfunction, different types of straightening surgery can be offered. This article provides an overview of conservative management and commonly used surgical techniques.

  4. Current status of orphan disease drug development.

    PubMed

    Thoene, J G

    1994-04-01

    The Orphan Drug Act has successfully stimulated the production of many orphan products for a number of orphan diseases. The success of its exclusive marketing provision in bringing otherwise unprofitable products to market has attracted the attention of manufacturers who use this provision to gain a monopoly for products with much larger annual sales than were contemplated by the original legislation. Corrective legislation to close this loophole is being prepared for introduction to Congress.

  5. Disease Compass- a navigation system for disease knowledge based on ontology and linked data techniques.

    PubMed

    Kozaki, Kouji; Yamagata, Yuki; Mizoguchi, Riichiro; Imai, Takeshi; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2017-06-19

    Medical ontologies are expected to contribute to the effective use of medical information resources that store considerable amount of data. In this study, we focused on disease ontology because the complicated mechanisms of diseases are related to concepts across various medical domains. The authors developed a River Flow Model (RFM) of diseases, which captures diseases as the causal chains of abnormal states. It represents causes of diseases, disease progression, and downstream consequences of diseases, which is compliant with the intuition of medical experts. In this paper, we discuss a fact repository for causal chains of disease based on the disease ontology. It could be a valuable knowledge base for advanced medical information systems. We developed the fact repository for causal chains of diseases based on our disease ontology and abnormality ontology. This section summarizes these two ontologies. It is developed as linked data so that information scientists can access it using SPARQL queries through an Resource Description Framework (RDF) model for causal chain of diseases. We designed the RDF model as an implementation of the RFM for the fact repository based on the ontological definitions of the RFM. 1554 diseases and 7080 abnormal states in six major clinical areas, which are extracted from the disease ontology, are published as linked data (RDF) with SPARQL endpoint (accessible API). Furthermore, the authors developed Disease Compass, a navigation system for disease knowledge. Disease Compass can browse the causal chains of a disease and obtain related information, including abnormal states, through two web services that provide general information from linked data, such as DBpedia, and 3D anatomical images. Disease Compass can provide a complete picture of disease-associated processes in such a way that fits with a clinician's understanding of diseases. Therefore, it supports user exploration of disease knowledge with access to pertinent information

  6. Current management of urethral stricture disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Broadly defined, urethral strictures are narrowing of the urethral lumen that is surrounded by corpus spongiosum, i.e., urethral meatus through the bulbar urethra. Urethral stenosis is narrowing of the posterior urethra, i.e., membranous urethra through bladder neck/prostate junction, which is not enveloped by corpus spongiosum. The disease has significant quality of life ramifications because many times younger patients are affected by this compared to many other urological diseases. Methods: A review of the scientific literature concerning urethral stricture, stenosis, treatment, and outcomes was performed using Medline and PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health). Abstracts from scientific meetings were included in this review. Results: There is level 3 evidence regarding the etiology and epidemiology of urethral strictures, stenoses, and pelvic fracture urethral injuries. Outcomes data from literature regarding intervention for urethral stricture are largely limited to level 3 evidence and expert opinion. There is a single level 1 study comparing urethral dilation and direct vision internal urethrotomy. Urethroplasty outcomes data are limited to level 3 case series. Conclusions: Progress is being made toward consistent terminology, and nomenclature which will, in turn, help to standardize treatment within the field of urology. Treatment for urethral stricture and stenosis remains inconsistent between reconstructive and nonreconstructive urologists due to varying treatment algorithms and approaches to disease management. Tissue engineering appears to be future for reconstructive urethral surgery with reports demonstrating feasibility in the use of different tissue substitutes and grafts. PMID:26941491

  7. Isocyanates and respiratory disease: current status

    SciTech Connect

    Musk, A.W.; Peters, J.M.; Wegman, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the known respiratory effects of isocyanates. There is good evidence to indicate that isocyanates: cause chemical bronchitis/pneumonitis; are potent pulmonary sensitizers capable of causing isocyanate asthma; cause nonspecific airways disease, including chronic bronchitis; can induce a general asthmatic state; and can cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Similar dose-response relationships are seen for both acute and chronic effects. There are plants operating in which exposures are well controlled and in which no respiratory effects can be detected. Suggestions are provided for preplacement assessment and periodic surveillance for workers exposed to these compounds.114 references.

  8. Knowledge of current dietary guidelines and food choice by college students: better eaters have higher knowledge of dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Kolodinsky, Jane; Harvey-Berino, Jean Ruth; Berlin, Linda; Johnson, Rachel K; Reynolds, Travis William

    2007-08-01

    College students enrolled in university dining plans are exposed daily to a food environment characterized by foods high in energy, fats, and added sugars, and low in nutrient density. Their decisions about what to eat are currently made in an environment where no nutrition labeling is required. To fill the gap in current literature regarding whether or not increased nutrition knowledge of dietary guidance actually translates into positive behavior, this cross-sectional study investigated self-reported eating patterns of 200 college students. An Internet-based survey was used to identify how closely respondents followed the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, and whether their eating patterns were related to their knowledge of dietary guidance. It was observed that, for fruit, dairy, protein, and whole grains, increased knowledge is related to increased likelihood of meeting dietary guidelines. Moreover, when asked about individual food choices, nutrition knowledge was related to making more healthful choices in every case. Ultimately, increased knowledge of dietary guidance appears to be positively related to more healthful eating patterns. This suggests that guidelines such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, in conjunction with effective public-awareness campaigns, may be a useful mechanism for promoting change in what foods consumers choose to eat.

  9. Current Approach to Dry Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Valim, Valéria; Trevisani, Virginia Fernandes Moça; de Sousa, Jacqueline Martins; Vilela, Verônica Silva; Belfort, Rubens

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that causes tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. The prevalence of dry eye in the world population ranges from 6 to 34 %. It is more common in those aged over 50, and affects mainly women. Since the introduction of the Schirmer's test in 1903, other tests have been developed to evaluate dry eye, such as biomicroscopy, the tear film breakup time (BUT), vital dyes (lissamine green and rose bengal), fluorescein, leaf fern test, corneal sensitivity test, conjunctiva impression cytology, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and tear osmolarity measurement. Although there is no gold standard, it is advisable to combine at least two tests. Strategies for treating DED have recently been modified and include patient education, tear substitute, corticosteroids, secretagogues, fatty acids, immunomodulators, occlusion of lacrimal puncta surgery and, tarsorrhaphy. Biological therapy and new topical immunomodulators such as tacrolimus, tofacitinib and IL-1 receptor inhibitor are being tested. In this review, the evaluation tests for dry eye are compared and the main studies on treatment are presented, with emphasis on studies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. The authors propose an approach for the management of dry eye.

  10. [Knowledge and impact on disease management by asthmatic patients].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Jeorge Wagner da Conceição; Silva, Anderson Aquiles; Oliveira, Flávia Márcia

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is a disorder characterized by obstruction episodes of the respiratory tract. A qualitative study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of the asthmatic patients and its impact on disease management. The sample size formed by 30 asthmatic patients was directed by the research question and analytical requirements. The data was collected at Emergency Department Attendance of Health System located at Coronel Fabriciano, Ipatinga and Timóteo. Interviews were performed during the months of June and July 2005. The results showed that the knowledge of the asthmatic patients was regular or insufficient to prevent asthmatic crisis. The knowledge was associated to the individuals experience through the contact with risk factors. Then, is important to designed asthma education and prevention program.

  11. Anosognosia, autobiographical memory and self knowledge in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Morris, Robin G; Mograbi, Daniel C

    2013-06-01

    This article explores the relationship between lack of awareness of neuropsychological deficit, also termed anosognosia, and loss of self knowledge in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, it considers the hypothesis that anosognosia in AD can in part be explained by a loss of mnemonic ability in which knowledge about self-ability is degraded. To ground this hypothesis, we review evidence suggesting failure to update personal knowledge concerning task efficacy, loss of recollection with relative amplification of semanticization processes and loss of an updated representation of the self. We present a theoretical formulation as to how the features of memory impairment in AD may contribute to anosognosia, incorporating these notions in a reformulation of the Cognitive Awareness Model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing an AI knowledge-base for asymptomatic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Babic, A; Mathiesen, U; Hedin, K; Bodemar, G; Wigertz, O

    1998-01-01

    Discovering not yet seen knowledge from clinical data is of importance in the field of asymptomatic liver diseases. Avoidance of liver biopsy which is used as the ultimate confirmation of diagnosis by making the decision based on relevant laboratory findings only, would be considered an essential support. The system based on Quinlan's ID3 algorithm was simple and efficient in extracting the sought knowledge. Basic principles of applying the AI systems are therefore described and complemented with medical evaluation. Some of the diagnostic rules were found to be useful as decision algorithms i.e. they could be directly applied in clinical work and made a part of the knowledge-base of the Liver Guide, an automated decision support system.

  13. Knowledge insufficient: the management of haemoglobin SC disease.

    PubMed

    Pecker, Lydia H; Schaefer, Beverly A; Luchtman-Jones, Lori

    2017-02-01

    Although haemoglobin SC (HbSC) accounts for 30% of sickle cell disease (SCD) in the United States and United Kingdom, evidence-based guidelines for genotype specific management are lacking. The unique pathology of HbSC disease is complex, characterized by erythrocyte dehydration, intracellular sickling and increased blood viscosity. The evaluation and treatment of patients with HbSC is largely inferred from studies of SCD consisting mostly of haemoglobin SS (HbSS) patients. These studies are underpowered to allow definitive conclusions about HbSC. We review the pathophysiology of HbSC disease, including known and potential differences between HbSS and HbSC, and highlight knowledge gaps in HbSC disease management. Clinical and translational research is needed to develop targeted treatments and to validate management recommendations for efficacy, safety and impact on quality of life for people with HbSC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The relationship between chiropractor required and current level of business knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ciolfi, Michael Anthony; Kasen, Patsy Anne

    2017-01-01

    Chiropractors frequently practice within health care systems requiring the business acumen of an entrepreneur. However, some chiropractors do not know the relationship between the level of business knowledge required for practice success and their current level of business knowledge. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between chiropractors' perceived level of business knowledge required and their perceived level of current business knowledge. Two hundred and seventy-four participants completed an online survey (Health Care Training and Education Needs Survey) which included eight key business items. Participants rated the level of perceived business knowledge required (Part I) and their current perceived level of knowledge (Part II) for the same eight items. Data was collected from November 27, 2013 to December 18, 2013. Data were analyzed using Spearman's ranked correlation to determine the statistically significant relationships for the perceived level of knowledge required and the perceived current level of knowledge for each of the paired eight items from Parts I and II of the survey. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests were performed to determine the statistical difference between the paired items. The results of Spearman's correlation testing indicated a statistically significant (p < 0.01) positive correlation for the perceived level of knowledge required and perceived current level of knowledge for six variables: (a) organizational behavior, (b) strategic management, (c) marketing, (d) legal and ethical, (e) managerial decisions, and (f) operations. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks testing indicated a significant difference for three paired items: strategic management; marketing and; legal and ethical. The results suggest that relationships exist for the majority of business items (6 of 8) however a statistically difference was demonstrated in only three of the paired business items. The implications of this study for social change include

  15. Lexical knowledge sources for cartography and GIS - development, current status and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Wolf Günther

    2016-12-01

    Lexical knowledge sources are indispensable for research, education and general information. The transition of the reference works to the digital world has been a gradual one. This paper discusses the basic principles and structure of knowledge presentation, as well as user access and knowledge acquisition with specific consideration of contributions in German. The ideal reference works of the future should be interactive, optimally adapted to the user, reliable, current and quotable.

  16. Current applications of lasers in heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Garrett; Chan, Ming C.; Mason, Dean T.

    1993-03-01

    Although the laser has been in existence for abut 30 years, its application in heart disease has only been examined in the past decade. Much attention has been given its exciting potential in treating coronary artery disease. Transmitted through a catheter comprised of one or more thin optical fibers which can be threaded nonsurgically into the coronary artery, the laser can ablate atherosclerotic plaque that obstructs the artery and diminishes blood flow to the myocardium. In clinical studies, the laser can treat some obstructive lesions that are not suitable for balloon angioplasty (i.e., long and diffuse lesions, very tight stenoses, ostial lesions, calcified lesions). In patients who failed balloon angioplasty due to severe dissection or abrupt closure, the laser may seal up the dissections and restore antegrade blood flow. In addition, the laser may have other applications and treatment modalities that are still under investigation. It may ablate ectopic ventricular foci, or terminate supraventricular tachyrhythmia by destroying the heart's abnormal conduction pathways. It can cut the hypertrophied septum that is associated with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, or create a channel in the atrial septum as a palliative procedure in newborns with transposition of the great vessels. It may provide a wider orifice for blood flow within the heart in infants with pulmonary outflow obstruction and in adults with aortic valvular stenosis. It is also capable of fusing small thin-walled blood vessels together. Further, a more intriguing possibility is its use to bore several tiny channels in the myocardium to allow oxygenated blood from within the ventricular chamber to perfuse the ischemic heart tissue.

  17. [Cat scratch disease: still current zoonosis].

    PubMed

    Hozáková, L; Rožnovský, L; Bílková Fránková, H

    2014-03-01

    A retrospective evaluation of a group of patients which is focused on clinical picture, serological diagnosis, therapy and familial occurrence of the disease. Cat scratch disease (CSD) was considered within the scope of a differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy. Serological diagnosis was based on detection of antibodies against Bartonella henselae by indirect immunofluorescence, where the level of IgG antibodies of at least 1 : 256 or any positive level of IgM antibodies were considered positive for CSD. If a histological examination was conducted, the suspicion of CSD was supported by finding granulomatous inflammation. Macrolides were used for treatment in both children and adults. In addition to macrolides, doxycycline was used in adults. From 2004 to 2013, a total of 27 patients aged 7-73 years were diagnosed with CSD at the Clinic of Infectious Medicine, University Hospital in Ostrava. None of them suffered from immunodeficiency detected earlier. Diagnostic extirpation of a lymph node was performed in 5 patients diagnosed with granulomatous inflammation. Lymph node syndrome was observed in all patients, with cervical, inguinal and axillary nodes being most frequently affected. However, two patients had supraclavicular nodes affected and a 52-year-old woman had unusual swelling of lymphatic tissue in the scapular region with skin lesions. Lymph node syndrome accompanied by encephalopathy was observed in one 50-year-old patient. Positive IgM antibodies were detected in only 8 patients. There were two cases of familial occurrence affecting 2 and 3 family members. Antibiotic therapy with full resolution of clinical findings was successful in 24 patients, including the patient with encephalopathy. In spite of the antibiotic treatment, three patients developed lymph node colliquation requiring surgical intervention. Atypical lymph node localization in 3 patients, encephalopathy in 1 patient, positive levels of IgM antibodies in 8 only patients, delayed antibodies

  18. Current and Emerging Therapy for Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Makharia, Govind K.

    2014-01-01

    At present, strict and lifelong gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment for celiac disease. Even small amounts of gluten (50 mg/day) can be immunogenic; therefore all food and food items and drugs that contain gluten and its derivatives must be eliminated completely from the diet. While prescribing gluten-free diet is easy; the key to the success is the dietary counseling by a nutrition specialist and maintenance of adherence to GFD by the patient. In recent times, a number of targets to halt the process of immunological injury have been explored to find out alternative treatment for celiac disease. These targets include exploration of ancient wheat if they are less immunogenic, intra-luminal digestion of gluten using prolylendopeptidases, pretreatment of whole gluten with bacterial-derived peptidase before ingestion; prevention of passage of immunogenic peptides through the tight junctions such as zonulin antagonists, Blocking of HLA-DQ2 to prevent binding of immunogenic peptides, inhibition of transglutaminase 2, immune-modulation, and induction of tolerance to gluten using gluten tolerizing vaccines, use of gluten-sequestering polymers, use of anti-inflammatory drugs (glucocorticoids, budesonides) and anti-cytokines such as anti TNF-α, and anti-interleukin-15. While many of these targets are still in the pre-clinical phase, some of them including zonulin antagonist and endopeptidases have already reached phase II and phase III clinical trials. Furthermore, while these targets appear very exciting; they at best are likely to be used as adjunctive therapy rather than a complete replacement for gluten-free diet. PMID:25705619

  19. Current and emerging therapy for celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Makharia, Govind K

    2014-01-01

    At present, strict and lifelong gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment for celiac disease. Even small amounts of gluten (50 mg/day) can be immunogenic; therefore all food and food items and drugs that contain gluten and its derivatives must be eliminated completely from the diet. While prescribing gluten-free diet is easy; the key to the success is the dietary counseling by a nutrition specialist and maintenance of adherence to GFD by the patient. In recent times, a number of targets to halt the process of immunological injury have been explored to find out alternative treatment for celiac disease. These targets include exploration of ancient wheat if they are less immunogenic, intra-luminal digestion of gluten using prolylendopeptidases, pretreatment of whole gluten with bacterial-derived peptidase before ingestion; prevention of passage of immunogenic peptides through the tight junctions such as zonulin antagonists, Blocking of HLA-DQ2 to prevent binding of immunogenic peptides, inhibition of transglutaminase 2, immune-modulation, and induction of tolerance to gluten using gluten tolerizing vaccines, use of gluten-sequestering polymers, use of anti-inflammatory drugs (glucocorticoids, budesonides) and anti-cytokines such as anti TNF-α, and anti-interleukin-15. While many of these targets are still in the pre-clinical phase, some of them including zonulin antagonist and endopeptidases have already reached phase II and phase III clinical trials. Furthermore, while these targets appear very exciting; they at best are likely to be used as adjunctive therapy rather than a complete replacement for gluten-free diet.

  20. Identification of the Competencies, Knowledge, and Skills Needed by School Nutrition Assistants in the Current Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.; Cater, Jerry B.; Federico, Holly A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Study objectives were to identify the functional areas, competencies, knowledge, and skills needed by effective school nutrition (SN) assistants in the current SN environment, and determine at what point the SN assistant should be able to know/perform the knowledge/skill statement, at time of hire or after training. Methods: In…

  1. Identification of the Competencies, Knowledge, and Skills Needed by School Nutrition Assistants in the Current Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.; Cater, Jerry B.; Federico, Holly A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Study objectives were to identify the functional areas, competencies, knowledge, and skills needed by effective school nutrition (SN) assistants in the current SN environment, and determine at what point the SN assistant should be able to know/perform the knowledge/skill statement, at time of hire or after training. Methods: In…

  2. Current surgical management of severe peyronie's disease.

    PubMed

    Perovic, Sava V; Djinovic, Rados P

    2010-11-01

    To report the principles of penile resculpturing of different deformities caused by M. Peyronie: restoration of penile length, girth and shape with or without penile prosthesis implantation. In the period between February 2007 and March 2009, we performed grafting surgery for M. Peyronie in 98 patients aged between 24 and 72 years (mean 52 years). Penile deformities were diferent: dorsal curvature in 54 (55%), lateral in 7 (7%), ventral in 11 (11%), and combined curvature in 21 (21%) associated corporal narrowing was present in 24 patients (24%). Four (4%) patients presented isolated penile shortening without other deformity. Isolated diffuse corporal narrowing without shortening was found in two (2%) patients. Severity of curvature ranges from 60 to 90 degrees, mean 72. Thirty one (31%) patients had associated ED. Surgical options for severe Peyronie's disease were: single grafting in 26 pts (26%), complex grafting including circular tunical incision in 36 pts (36%), and in patients with ED the same procedures combined with penile prosthesis implantation (37 pts, 38%). Surgical correction was based on measurement of the tunical defect and precise calculation of graft size and shape. Penile straightening and lengthening was achieved by equalizing of shortened penile side/s with the longest one (convex) and grafting. Penile width is reestablished with additional longitudinal incision/s and grafting; graft width is determined by measurement of difference in circumference between normal and narrowed part of the corpora. We used Intexen LP (AMS) as a grafting material in all cases. The mean follow-up was 15 months (6-25). Mean penile length gain without prosthesis was 2.8cm (1.5-4.2) and with prosthesis 3.2cm (2-4.5cm). Insuficient straightening was in 5 patients (>15 degree) where Neuro Vascular Bundle (NVB) was limiting factor. Twenty four patients reported hypoesthesia and reduced orgasmic sensitivity that recovered spontaneously after 3-6 months. De-novo ED

  3. The effect of the Weekly Reader on children's knowledge of current events.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, C H; Hofstetter, C R; Lapp, D; Flood, J

    2000-06-01

    Analyses of data drawn from 2,331 urban and suburban elementary students ages 8 to 12 in Chicago, Houston, Boston, and San Francisco suggest that children who have higher reading levels and greater exposure to current events through communication media (television, newspapers, newsmagazines, discussions) have more knowledge and greater understanding of current events within classrooms, as measured by a 29-item current events knowledge test. Children in lower elementary classrooms (Grades 2 and 3) with the Weekly Reader periodical present appeared to have higher levels of current events knowledge, even after controlling for key classroom variables. The effect of the Weekly Reader is less for children in upper elementary classrooms (Grades 4 through 6) because they tend to receive more current events information from other communication materials.

  4. Racial differences in knowledge and beliefs about Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Connell, Cathleen M; Scott Roberts, J; McLaughlin, Sara J; Akinleye, Dapo

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a growing public health problem that disproportionately affects racial and ethnic minorities, including African Americans. Given that the perceptions of illness can influence response to treatment options and coping with disease burden, we examined differences between African Americans and whites with regard to their attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge about AD. A total of 301 participants (mean age = 57 y; 80% female; 47% African American) were surveyed by telephone, with overrepresentation of caregivers and first-degree relatives of people with AD (62% of sample). After controlling for potentially confounding covariates, the 2 groups differed in terms of the following: (1) their knowledge about the disease (eg, recognizing that AD is not a part of normal aging); (2) concern about AD (eg, worry about developing the disease); (3) beliefs about putative causes of AD (eg, stress); and 4) beliefs about the effectiveness of various options for reducing risk of and treating AD (eg, physical activity). Findings suggest that AD outreach and education efforts may do well to take into account divergent illness perceptions across racial and ethnic groups. Further research is needed to confirm these findings in more representative samples and to identify factors that explain these racial differences.

  5. Integrated Knowledge Based Expert System for Disease Diagnosis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbaiy, Nureize; Sulaiman, Shafiza Eliza; Hassan, Norlida; Afizah Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    The role and importance of healthcare systems to improve quality of life and social welfare in a society have been well recognized. Attention should be given to raise awareness and implementing appropriate measures to improve health care. Therefore, a computer based system is developed to serve as an alternative for people to self-diagnose their health status based on given symptoms. This strategy should be emphasized so that people can utilize the information correctly as a reference to enjoy healthier life. Hence, a Web-based Community Center for Healthcare Diagnosis system is developed based on expert system technique. Expert system reasoning technique is employed in the system to enable information about treatment and prevention of the diseases based on given symptoms. At present, three diseases are included which are arthritis, thalassemia and pneumococcal. Sets of rule and fact are managed in the knowledge based system. Web based technology is used as a platform to disseminate the information to users in order for them to optimize the information appropriately. This system will benefit people who wish to increase health awareness and seek expert knowledge on the diseases by performing self-diagnosis for early disease detection.

  6. Quadricuspid aortic valves in Syrian hamsters and their formation according to current knowledge on valvulogenesis.

    PubMed

    López-García, Alejandro; Carmen Fernández, M; Durán, Ana Carmen; Sans-Coma, Valentín; Fernández, Borja

    2015-02-01

    Occurrence of quadricuspid aortic valves has been reported in humans, in nine dogs and in a greater white-toothed shrew. Moreover, two cases of developing aortic valves with four anticipated leaflets have been described in Syrian hamster embryos. Currently, however, no case of quadricuspid aortic valve in adult hamsters has been recorded. The aim here is to present four adults of this rodent species, two of them with unequivocally quadricuspid aortic valves and the other two with quadricuspid-like aortic valves. The four anomalous aortic valves were detected among 4,190 Syrian hamsters examined in our laboratory, representing an incidence of 0.09%. None of the affected hamsters showed apparent signs of disease. The present findings are considered on the light of current empirical knowledge about the morphogenesis of quadricuspid and bicuspid aortic and pulmonary valves. Quadricuspid aortic valves result from the partition of one of the normal mesenchymal cushions which normally give rise to normal (tricuspid) valves, while quadricuspid-like valves might be the product of a combined mechanism of fusion and partition of the cushions at the onset of the valvulogenesis. The presence of aortic valves with four leaflets in ancient mammalian lineages such as insectivors and rodents suggest that quadricuspid aortic valves, although showing almost certainly a low incidence, may be widespread among the different groups of mammals, including domestic animals.

  7. Knowledge of cholesterol levels and targets in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Susan; Lichtman, Judith H; Amatruda, Joan M; Smith, Grace L; Mattera, Jennifer A; Roumanis, Sarah A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which patients are aware of nationally-recommended cholesterol and lipid subfraction targets. The authors interviewed 738 patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease to assess their knowledge of their low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol levels as well as corresponding national targets. Only 8%, 8%, and 43% of patients could recall their low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol values, respectively. Only 5%, 2%, and 50% could correctly name targets for these values. Knowledge of cholesterol targets was particularly poor among women, nonwhites, and patients without any college education. Patients with multiple cardiac risk factors and patients with a previous history of cardiovascular disease were no more knowledgeable about their cholesterol targets than those without these conditions. These findings suggest that current cholesterol education efforts appear inadequate, particularly for women, nonwhites, and patients without any college education.

  8. Psychology's Role in the Assessment of Erectile Dysfunction: Historical Precedents, Current Knowledge, and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Mark D.; Carey, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role of the psychologist in the evaluation of erectile dysfunction. Reviews current diagnostic criteria and provides a historical overview of the topic. Summarizes current epidemiologic knowledge, including data on prevalence and research on cognitive, affective, dydactic, and lifestyle etiologic risk factors. Discusses assessment…

  9. Natural Products in Caries Research: Current (Limited) Knowledge, Challenges and Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, J.-G; Rosalen, P.L.; Falsetta, M.L.; Koo, H.

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Virulent biofilms firmly attached to tooth surfaces are prime biological factors associated with this disease. The formation of an exopolysaccharide-rich biofilm matrix, acidification of the milieu and persistent low pH at the tooth-biofilm interface are major controlling virulence factors that modulate dental caries pathogenesis. Each one offers a selective therapeutic target for prevention. Although fluoride, delivered in various modalities, remains the mainstay for the prevention of caries, additional approaches are required to enhance its effectiveness. Available antiplaque approaches are based on the use of broad-spectrum microbicidal agents, e.g. chlorhexidine. Natural products offer a rich source of structurally diverse substances with a wide range of biological activities, which could be useful for the development of alternative or adjunctive anticaries therapies. However, it is a challenging approach owing to complex chemistry and isolation procedures to derive active compounds from natural products. Furthermore, most of the studies have been focused on the general inhibitory effects on glucan synthesis as well as on bacterial metabolism and growth, often employing methods that do not address the pathophysiological aspects of the disease (e.g. bacteria in biofilms) and the length of exposure/retention in the mouth. Thus, the true value of natural products in caries prevention and/or their exact mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Nevertheless, natural substances potentially active against virulent properties of cariogenic organisms have been identified. This review focuses on gaps in the current knowledge and presents a model for investigating the use of natural products in anticaries chemotherapy. PMID:21576957

  10. Parasitic kidney disease: milestones in the evolution of our knowledge.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, Rashad S

    2013-03-01

    Of the 342 parasites that infect humans, 20 are associated with kidney disease, yet of these, only schistosomes, plasmodia, filariae, and leishmanias are held responsible for significant clinical or epidemiologic impact. Reviewing the evolution of human knowledge for these parasites discloses a lot of similarities regarding their discovery, patterns of kidney injury, and pathogenic mechanisms. From a historical perspective, our relevant information may be classified into 4 phases: (1) disease documentation in ancient and medieval scripts as far back as 2000-3000 bce; (2) discovery of the parasites, their life cycles, and clinical correlates by European clinicians working in African and Asian colonies during the second half of the 19th century; (3) discovery and characterization of the renal manifestations of monoparasitic infections during the second half of the 20th century; and (4) recognition of the confounding effects of coinfection with bacteria, viruses, or other parasites. The spectrum of respective kidney diseases extends all the way from acute kidney injury to glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis, urologic disorders, and malignancy. Discovery of the common immunopathogenetic host response to parasitic infections has provided a knowledge core that explains the similarities, diversities, and interactions with regard to kidney injury.

  11. Evaluation of the current knowledge limitations in breast cancer research: a gap analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Alastair; Brennan, Keith; Cox, Angela; Gee, Julia; Harcourt, Diana; Harris, Adrian; Harvie, Michelle; Holen, Ingunn; Howell, Anthony; Nicholson, Robert; Steel, Michael; Streuli, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background A gap analysis was conducted to determine which areas of breast cancer research, if targeted by researchers and funding bodies, could produce the greatest impact on patients. Methods Fifty-six Breast Cancer Campaign grant holders and prominent UK breast cancer researchers participated in a gap analysis of current breast cancer research. Before, during and following the meeting, groups in seven key research areas participated in cycles of presentation, literature review and discussion. Summary papers were prepared by each group and collated into this position paper highlighting the research gaps, with recommendations for action. Results Gaps were identified in all seven themes. General barriers to progress were lack of financial and practical resources, and poor collaboration between disciplines. Critical gaps in each theme included: (1) genetics (knowledge of genetic changes, their effects and interactions); (2) initiation of breast cancer (how developmental signalling pathways cause ductal elongation and branching at the cellular level and influence stem cell dynamics, and how their disruption initiates tumour formation); (3) progression of breast cancer (deciphering the intracellular and extracellular regulators of early progression, tumour growth, angiogenesis and metastasis); (4) therapies and targets (understanding who develops advanced disease); (5) disease markers (incorporating intelligent trial design into all studies to ensure new treatments are tested in patient groups stratified using biomarkers); (6) prevention (strategies to prevent oestrogen-receptor negative tumours and the long-term effects of chemoprevention for oestrogen-receptor positive tumours); (7) psychosocial aspects of cancer (the use of appropriate psychosocial interventions, and the personal impact of all stages of the disease among patients from a range of ethnic and demographic backgrounds). Conclusion Through recommendations to address these gaps with future research, the

  12. Current Treatment Options for Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Szeto, Jennifer Y.Y.; Lewis, Simon J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the two most common neurodegenerative disorders encountered in clinical practice. Whilst dementia has long been synonymous with AD, it is becoming more widely accepted as part of the clinical spectrum in PD (PDD). Neuropsychiatric complications, including psychosis, mood and anxiety disorders, and sleep disorders also frequently co-exist with cognitive dysfunctions in AD and PDD patients. The incidence of such symptoms is often a significant source of disability, and may aggravate pre-existing cognitive deficits. Management of AD and PDD involves both pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. Although research on pharmacological therapies for AD and PDD has so far had some success in terms of developing symptomatic treatments, the benefits are often marginal and non-sustained. These shortcomings have led to the investigation of non-pharmacological and novel treatments for both AD and PD. Furthermore, in light of the diverse constellation of other neuropsychiatric, physical, and behavioural symptoms that often occur in AD and PD, consideration needs to be given to the potential side effects of pharmacological treatments where improving one symptom may lead to the worsening of another, rendering the clinical management of these patients challenging. Therefore, the present article will critically review the evidence for both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for cognitive impairment in AD and PD patients. Treatment options for other concomitant neuropsychiatric and behavioural symptoms, as well as novel treatment strategies will also be discussed. PMID:26644155

  13. [Differentiated thyroid cancer: an ancient disease with new knowledge].

    PubMed

    Granados García, Martín; León Takahashi, Alberto Mitsuo; Guerrero Huerta, Francisco Javier; Taissoun Aslan, Zaki Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and its incidence appears to be rising rapidly with a good prognosis. However, the involvement of different medical specialties has changed the focus of treatment and triggered a number of controversies. In the absence of controlled trials, the guidelines for treatment are founded on prognostic factors for survival and local control, the effects of the treatments, and comorbidities. Recently, the major advances in the field of genetics and molecular biology have been applied in the treatment of iodine refractory disease, and the use of tracers and recombinant hormones have succeeded in improving adjuvant treatment. Based on this information, we present this review with the aim of updating the knowledge of an ancient disease.

  14. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Current concepts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G H; Salter, R B

    1987-10-01

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is a common, controversial pediatric hip disorder. It is currently accepted that the disorder represents idiopathic avascular necrosis (osteonecrosis) of the capital femoral epiphysis. Treatment by conservative or surgical containment is recommended primarily for older children with extensive femoral head involvement. The results of containment treatment indicate improved results over the natural history of the disease process.

  15. Development of a questionnaire to measure heart disease risk knowledge in people with diabetes: the Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie; Lacey, Kimberly; Chyun, Deborah; Abbott, Gina

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes a paper and pencil questionnaire that measures heart disease risk knowledge in people with diabetes. The Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire (HDFQ) is a 25-item questionnaire that was developed to tap into respondents' knowledge of major risk factors for the development of CHD. Approximately half of these items specifically address diabetes-related CHD risk factors. Based on extensive pilot data, the current study analyzed responses from 524 people with diabetes to assess the psychometric properties. The HDFQ is readable to an average 13-year old and imposes little burden. It shows good content and face validity. It demonstrates adequate internal consistency, with Kuder-Richardson-20 formula = 0.77 and good item-total correlations. Item analysis showed a desirable range in P-values. In discriminant function analyses, HDFQ scores differentiated respondents by knowledge of their own cardiovascular health, use of lipid lowering medications, health insurance status, and educational attainment, thus indicating good criterion related validity. This measure of heart disease risk knowledge is brief, understandable to respondents, and easy to administer and score. Its potential for use in research and practice is discussed. Future research should establish norms as well as investigate its test-retest reliability and predictive validity.

  16. ADO: a disease ontology representing the domain knowledge specific to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Ashutosh; Younesi, Erfan; Gündel, Michaela; Müller, Bernd; Heneka, Michael T; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Biomedical ontologies offer the capability to structure and represent domain-specific knowledge semantically. Disease-specific ontologies can facilitate knowledge exchange across multiple disciplines, and ontology-driven mining approaches can generate great value for modeling disease mechanisms. However, in the case of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, there is a lack of formal representation of the relevant knowledge domain. Alzheimer's disease ontology (ADO) is constructed in accordance to the ontology building life cycle. The Protégé OWL editor was used as a tool for building ADO in Ontology Web Language format. ADO was developed with the purpose of containing information relevant to four main biological views-preclinical, clinical, etiological, and molecular/cellular mechanisms-and was enriched by adding synonyms and references. Validation of the lexicalized ontology by means of named entity recognition-based methods showed a satisfactory performance (F score = 72%). In addition to structural and functional evaluation, a clinical expert in the field performed a manual evaluation and curation of ADO. Through integration of ADO into an information retrieval environment, we show that the ontology supports semantic search in scientific text. The usefulness of ADO is authenticated by dedicated use case scenarios. Development of ADO as an open ADO is a first attempt to organize information related to Alzheimer's disease in a formalized, structured manner. We demonstrate that ADO is able to capture both established and scattered knowledge existing in scientific text. Copyright © 2014 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Current knowledge in the anatomy of the human anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Bicer, Elcil Kaya; Lustig, Sebastien; Servien, Elvire; Selmi, Tarik Ait Si; Neyret, Philippe

    2010-08-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most frequently studied structures of the musculoskeletal system and continues to stimulate debate and challenges among researchers and surgeons. The ultimate goal of anatomic reconstruction surgery is to restore the native anatomy as much as possible. However, this requires thorough knowledge of its anatomy. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge of the anatomy of ACL along with its macrostructural and ultrastructural properties.

  18. Tiger Beetles' (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) pupal stage: current state of knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Roza, André S; Mermudes, José R M

    2017-01-26

    The tiger beetles (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) include about 2,822 species and 120 genera around the world. They are one of the most widely studied families of Coleoptera. However, the knowledge about their immature stages is incipient and usually restricted to the larval stages. Pupal characteristics have been among the most ignored aspects of tiger beetle biology. Here we compile and update the current knowledge of tiger beetle pupae.

  19. Mycobacterium bovis infection in the lion (Panthera leo): Current knowledge, conundrums and research challenges.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, Ignatius M; van Helden, Paul D; Millar, Robert P

    2015-06-12

    Mycobacterium bovis has global public-health and socio-economic significance and can infect a wide range of species including the lion (Panthera leo) resulting in tuberculosis. Lions are classified as vulnerable under the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and have experienced a 30% population decline in the past two decades. However, no attempt has been made to collate and critically evaluate the available knowledge of M. bovis infections in lions and potential effects on population. In this review we set out to redress this. Arguments suggesting that ingestion of infected prey animals are the main route of infection for lions have not been scientifically proven and research is needed into other possible sources and routes of infection. The paucity of knowledge on host susceptibility, transmission directions and therefore host status, manifestation of pathology, and epidemiology of the disease in lions also needs to be addressed. Advances have been made in diagnosing the presence of M. bovis in lions. However, these diagnostic tests are unable to differentiate between exposure, presence of infection, or stage of disease. Furthermore, there are contradictory reports on the effects of M. bovis on lion populations with more data needed on disease dynamics versus the lion population's reproductive dynamics. Knowledge on disease effects on the lion reproduction and how additional stressors such as drought or co-morbidities may interact with tuberculosis is also lacking. Filling these knowledge gaps will contribute to the understanding of mycobacterial infections and disease in captive and wild lions and assist in lion conservation endeavours.

  20. Influence of Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields on the Circadian System: Current Stage of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Żak, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    One of the side effects of each electrical device work is the electromagnetic field generated near its workplace. All organisms, including humans, are exposed daily to the influence of different types of this field, characterized by various physical parameters. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the effects of an electromagnetic field on the physiological and pathological processes occurring in cells, tissues, and organs. Numerous epidemiological and experimental data suggest that the extremely low frequency magnetic field generated by electrical transmission lines and electrically powered devices and the high frequencies electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic devices have a potentially negative impact on the circadian system. On the other hand, several studies have found no influence of these fields on chronobiological parameters. According to the current state of knowledge, some previously proposed hypotheses, including one concerning the key role of melatonin secretion disruption in pathogenesis of electromagnetic field induced diseases, need to be revised. This paper reviews the data on the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol rhythms—two major markers of the circadian system as well as on sleep. It also provides the basic information about the nature, classification, parameters, and sources of these fields. PMID:25136557

  1. Adult-onset autoimmune diabetes: current knowledge and implications for management.

    PubMed

    Buzzetti, Raffaella; Zampetti, Simona; Maddaloni, Ernesto

    2017-09-08

    Adult-onset autoimmune diabetes is a heterogeneous disease that is characterized by a reduced genetic load, a less intensive autoimmune process and a mild metabolic decompensation at onset compared with young-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The majority of patients with adult-onset autoimmune diabetes do not require insulin treatment for at least 6 months after diagnosis. Such patients are defined as having latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), which is distinct from classic adult-onset T1DM. The extensive heterogeneity of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes is apparent beyond the distinction between classic adult-onset T1DM and LADA. LADA is characterized by genetic, phenotypic and humoral heterogeneity, encompassing different degrees of insulin resistance and autoimmunity; this heterogeneity is probably a result of different pathological mechanisms, which have implications for treatment. The existence of heterogeneous phenotypes in LADA makes it difficult to establish an a priori treatment algorithm, and therefore, a personalized medicine approach is required. In this Review, we discuss the current understanding and gaps in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology and clinical features of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes and highlight the similarities and differences with classic T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Influence of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on the circadian system: current stage of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Lewczuk, Bogdan; Redlarski, Grzegorz; Zak, Arkadiusz; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara; Krawczuk, Marek

    2014-01-01

    One of the side effects of each electrical device work is the electromagnetic field generated near its workplace. All organisms, including humans, are exposed daily to the influence of different types of this field, characterized by various physical parameters. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the effects of an electromagnetic field on the physiological and pathological processes occurring in cells, tissues, and organs. Numerous epidemiological and experimental data suggest that the extremely low frequency magnetic field generated by electrical transmission lines and electrically powered devices and the high frequencies electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic devices have a potentially negative impact on the circadian system. On the other hand, several studies have found no influence of these fields on chronobiological parameters. According to the current state of knowledge, some previously proposed hypotheses, including one concerning the key role of melatonin secretion disruption in pathogenesis of electromagnetic field induced diseases, need to be revised. This paper reviews the data on the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol rhythms-two major markers of the circadian system as well as on sleep. It also provides the basic information about the nature, classification, parameters, and sources of these fields.

  3. The effects of strontium on bone mineral: A review on current knowledge and microanalytical approaches.

    PubMed

    Querido, William; Rossi, Andre L; Farina, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The interest in effects of strontium (Sr) on bone has greatly increased in the last decade due to the development of the promising drug strontium ranelate. This drug is used for treating osteoporosis, a major bone disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women. The novelty of strontium ranelate compared to other treatments for osteoporosis is its unique effect on bone: it simultaneously promotes bone formation by osteoblasts and inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts. Besides affecting bone cells, treatment with strontium ranelate also has a direct effect on the mineralized bone matrix. Due to the chemical similarities between Sr and Ca, a topic that has long been of particular interest is the incorporation of Sr into bones replacing Ca from the mineral phase, which is composed by carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Several groups have analyzed the mineral produced during treatment; however, most analysis were done with relatively large samples containing numerous nanocrystals, resulting thus on data that represents an average of many crystalline domains. The nanoscale analysis of the bone apatite crystals containing Sr has only been described in a few studies. In this study, we review the current knowledge on the effects of Sr on bone mineral and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used in the field. In particular, we focus on the great potential that advanced microscopy and microanalytical techniques may have on the detailed analysis of the nanostructure and composition of bone apatite nanocrystals produced during treatment with strontium ranelate.

  4. Poverty and health disparities for American Indian and Alaska Native children: current knowledge and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Sarche, Michelle; Spicer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This report explores the current state of knowledge regarding inequalities and their effect on American Indian and Alaska Native children, underscoring gaps in our current knowledge and the opportunities for early intervention to begin to address persistent challenges in young American Indian and Alaska Native children's development. This overview documents demographic, social, health, and health care disparities as they affect American Indian and Alaska Native children, the persistent cultural strengths that must form the basis for any conscientious intervention effort, and the exciting possibilities for early childhood interventions.

  5. Poverty and Health Disparities for American Indian and Alaska Native Children: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Sarche, Michelle; Spicer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This report explores the current state of knowledge regarding inequalities and their effect on American Indian and Alaska Native children, underscoring gaps in our current knowledge and the opportunities for early intervention to begin to address persistent challenges in young American Indian and Alaska Native children’s development. This overview documents demographic, social, health, and health care disparities as they affect American Indian and Alaska Native children, the persistent cultural strengths that must form the basis for any conscientious intervention effort, and the exciting possibilities for early childhood interventions. PMID:18579879

  6. Antigen-based immunotherapy for autoimmune disease: current status

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Darren Lowell; Ponda, Punita

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are common chronic disorders that not only have a major impact on the quality of life but are also potentially life-threatening. Treatment modalities that are currently favored have conferred significant clinical benefits, but they may have considerable side effects. An optimal treatment strategy for autoimmune disease would specifically target disease-associated antigens and limit systemic side effects. Similar to allergen-specific immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis, antigen-specific immunotherapy for autoimmune disease aims to induce immune deviation and promote tolerance to specific antigens. In this review, we present the current status of studies and clinical trials in both human and animal hosts that use antigen-based immunotherapy for autoimmune disease. PMID:27471707

  7. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors of Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease (CASHD) among a sample in India.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Omar; Gupta, Vineet; Dhawan, Naveen; Streja, Leanne; Shin, John S; Ku, Melvin; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Verma, Sanjay

    2009-02-04

    The prevalence of Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease (CASHD) is increasing in India. Several modifiable risk factors contribute directly to this disease burden. Public knowledge of such risk factors among the urban Indian population is largely unknown. This investigation attempts to quantify knowledge of modifiable risk factors of CASHD as sampled among an Indian population at a large metropolitan hospital. A hospital-based, cross sectional study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), a major tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. Participants (n = 217) recruited from patient waiting areas in the emergency room were provided with standardized questionnaires to assess their knowledge of modifiable risk factors of CASHD. The risk factors specifically included smoking, hypertension, elevated cholesterol levels, diabetes mellitus and obesity. Identifying 3 or less risk factors was regarded as a poor knowledge level, whereas identifying 4 or more risk factors was regarded as a good knowledge level. A multiple logistic regression model was used to isolate independent demographic markers predictive of a participant's level of knowledge. 41% of the sample surveyed had a good level of knowledge. 68%, 72%, 73% and 57% of the population identified smoking, obesity, hypertension, and high cholesterol correctly, respectively. 30% identified diabetes mellitus as a modifiable risk factor of CASHD. In multiple logistic regression analysis independent demographic predictors of a good knowledge level with a statistically significant (p < 0.05) adjusted odds ratio (aOR) were: routine exercise of moderate intensity, aOR 8.41 (compared to infrequent or no exercise), no history of smoking, aOR 8.25, and former smokers, aOR 48.28 (compared to current smokers). Although statistically insignificant, a trend towards a good knowledge level was associated with higher levels of education. An Indian population in a hospital setting shows a lack of knowledge

  8. Integrative Therapies and Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: The Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Misra, Sanghamitra M

    2014-08-25

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) primarily describes two distinct chronic conditions with unknown etiology, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). UC is limited to the colon, while CD may involve any portion of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus. These diseases exhibit a pattern of relapse and remission, and the disease processes are often painful and debilitating. Due to the chronic nature of IBD and the negative side effects of many of the conventional therapies, many patients and their families turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for symptom relief. This article focuses on the current available evidence behind CAM/integrative therapies for IBD.

  9. The current status of primary prevention in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Pater, Cornel

    2001-01-01

    During the second part of the twentieth century, research advances caused a substantial decline in the rate of coronary heart disease. The decline lasted from the mid-1960s until the early 1990s and occurred primarily in Western countries. However, an unfavourable trend in coronary heart disease related mortality has gradually developed during the 1990s, with cardiovascular diseases anticipated to remain the main cause of overall mortality for the foreseeable future. The present paper aims at analyzing the current status of the main determinants of population-wide coronary heart disease prevention.

  10. Integrative Therapies and Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: The Current Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sanghamitra M.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) primarily describes two distinct chronic conditions with unknown etiology, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). UC is limited to the colon, while CD may involve any portion of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus. These diseases exhibit a pattern of relapse and remission, and the disease processes are often painful and debilitating. Due to the chronic nature of IBD and the negative side effects of many of the conventional therapies, many patients and their families turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for symptom relief. This article focuses on the current available evidence behind CAM/integrative therapies for IBD. PMID:27417473

  11. [Tuberculosis patient disease knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions: the impact of individualized counseling].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shiau-Jiun; Lu, Po-Liang; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Pan, Hui-Juan; Feng, Ming-Chu

    2011-12-01

    The Taiwan government currently promotes a case management approach to tuberculosis (TB) treatment to address the growing number of TB and multiple drug-resistant TB cases in Taiwan. The approach aims to improve medical follow-up and monitor quality of care. The efficacy of this case management approach has yet to be evaluated. The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of individualized case manager counseling on TB patient disease knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intention. This study employed a one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design. Participants first answered an initial questionnaire survey including three structured scales that addressed, respectively, the facets of disease knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intention. TB case managers then delivered two- stage counseling to participants based on assessed individual needs and outstanding issues identified in questionnaire answers. A second questionnaire survey was administered 30~42 days after the intervention. Data on a total of 96 TB patients were collected. Key study findings were (1) individualized counseling significantly improved TB patient disease knowledge (p < .001) and (2) TB patient attitudes correlated significantly and positively with behavior intention (p < .001). Individualized counseling provided during the early stages of TB helps elevate patient awareness of the importance of treatment, enhances compliance and increases the cure rate.

  12. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of urban Gujarati type 2 diabetics: Prevalence and impact on disease control.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Jayesh Dalpatbhai; Sheth, Nidhi Shaileshbhai; Shah, Chinmay J; Mehta, Hemant B

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is the modern epidemic wherein patient care needs multiple approaches, education, and self-awareness being one of them. There are some knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) studies from India but very few relating it with disease control. We tried to study KAP of treated type 2 diabetics and its correlation with glycemic control. Cross-sectional KAP study. We formulated KAP questionnaires in the form of KAP - 10 points for each and total 30. We recruited 200 type 2 diabetics (96 males, 104 females) treated by MD physicians with known current glycemic status. They were asked KAP questionnaires one to one by a direct interview in local language and results were associated with various factors and glycemic control. KAP score on was average 19 out of 30 in type 2 diabetics having mean age 58 years, mean duration 9 years. KAP score was unaffected by gender, occupation, duration of disease but significantly affected by current age, and education level. Only 40% patients had good glycemic control who scored better KAP than poor glycemic. There was positive correlation between KAP score and glycemic control, with significance for only glycosylated hemoglobin and not fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar. Physician treated type 2 diabetics of our region had moderate KAP score, affected by age, education which suggested to affect glycemic control. Lacunae in knowledge regarding incurability of disease, attitudes toward complication, self-care, and good practices like walking, enriching knowledge need improvement so as an optimum glycemic control.

  13. [Case management for school students with chronic disease: the current situation and future direction].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Hsia; Chen, I-Ju; Yu, Shu

    2005-04-01

    This paper aims to investigate the importance of management of chronic illness in schools epidemiological data. By examining the current state of such management, we found that school nurses, family members, mentors and school administrators lack sufficient knowledge to conduct effective case management for students with chronic diseases. This paper seeks to indicate principles for the conduct of case management of chronic disease in Taiwan. Incorporating practices, regulations, information systems, policy, and evaluation systems, recommendations are made with the hope that a well-planned system of case management of chronic disease can be established in schools to further enhance the quality of health care and life generally for school children.

  14. Integration of behavioral health and primary care: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Mark E; Kanzler, Kathryn E; Aikens, James E; Goodie, Jeffrey L

    2017-02-01

    Integrated behavioral health in primary care has spread rapidly over the past three decades, although significant questions remain unanswered regarding best practices in clinical, financial and operational worlds. Two key models have emerged over time: care management and Primary Care Behavioral Health. Research to date has been promising; however, there is a significant need for more sophisticated multi-level scientific methodologies to fill in the gaps in current knowledge of integrated primary care. In this paper, we summarize current scientific knowledge about integrated primary care and critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of this knowledge base, focusing on clinical, financial and operational factors. Finally, we recommended priorities for future research, dissemination, real-world implementation, and health policy implications.

  15. Fabry disease: a review of current management strategies.

    PubMed

    Mehta, A; Beck, M; Eyskens, F; Feliciani, C; Kantola, I; Ramaswami, U; Rolfs, A; Rivera, A; Waldek, S; Germain, D P

    2010-09-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked inherited condition due to the absence or reduction of alpha-galactosidase activity in lysosomes, that results in accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and related neutral glycosphingolipids. Manifestations of Fabry disease include serious and progressive impairment of renal and cardiac function. In addition, patients experience pain, gastrointestinal disturbance, transient ischaemic attacks and strokes. Additional effects on the skin, eyes, ears, lungs and bones are often seen. The first symptoms of classic Fabry disease usually appear in childhood. Despite being X-linked, females can suffer the same severity of symptoms as males, and life expectancy is reduced in both females and males. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) can stabilize the progression of the disease. The rarity of the classic form of Fabry disease, however, means that there is a need to improve the knowledge and understanding that the majority of physicians have concerning Fabry disease, in order to avoid misdiagnosis and/or delayed diagnosis. This review aims to raise awareness of the signs and symptoms of Fabry disease; to provide a general diagnostic algorithm and to give an overview of the effects of ERT and concomitant treatments. We highlight a need to develop comprehensive international guidelines to optimize ERT and adjunctive therapy in patients with Fabry disease, including females and children.

  16. Human Disease Insight: An integrated knowledge-based platform for disease-gene-drug information.

    PubMed

    Tasleem, Munazzah; Ishrat, Romana; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-01-01

    The scope of the Human Disease Insight (HDI) database is not limited to researchers or physicians as it also provides basic information to non-professionals and creates disease awareness, thereby reducing the chances of patient suffering due to ignorance. HDI is a knowledge-based resource providing information on human diseases to both scientists and the general public. Here, our mission is to provide a comprehensive human disease database containing most of the available useful information, with extensive cross-referencing. HDI is a knowledge management system that acts as a central hub to access information about human diseases and associated drugs and genes. In addition, HDI contains well-classified bioinformatics tools with helpful descriptions. These integrated bioinformatics tools enable researchers to annotate disease-specific genes and perform protein analysis, search for biomarkers and identify potential vaccine candidates. Eventually, these tools will facilitate the analysis of disease-associated data. The HDI provides two types of search capabilities and includes provisions for downloading, uploading and searching disease/gene/drug-related information. The logistical design of the HDI allows for regular updating. The database is designed to work best with Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome and is freely accessible at http://humandiseaseinsight.com.

  17. Encouraging Civic Knowledge and Engagement: Exploring Current Events through a Psychological Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Debbie; Baugh, Stacey-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Engagement with political, social, and civil issues is a fundamental component of an educated population, but civic knowledge and engagement are decreasing among adolescents and young adults. A Psychology in Current Events class sought to increase this engagement and key skills such as critical thinking. A one-group pretest-posttest…

  18. Metacognitive Strategy Knowledge: Comparison of Former Reading Recovery Children and Their Current Classmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to explore the nature of elementary school children's metacognitive knowledge of strategies appropriate for before, during, and after reading; and (b) to determine whether children who had participated in Reading Recovery instruction in the first grade had similar understandings as their current third-…

  19. Child Abuse: Current Knowledge and Future Needs for Research. Matrix No. 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberger, Eli H.; Newberger, Carolyn Moore

    At the beginning of this paper what is known about the effects of maltreatment on children is described. From that discussion, a general impression of the nature and quality of current knowledge emerges, with a focus on theoretical and methodological implications. It is concluded that reports on the physical, social, emotional, and…

  20. Fire and aquatic ecosystems of the Western USA: current knowledge and key questions.

    Treesearch

    P.A. Bisson; B.E. Rieman; C. Luce; P.F. Hessburg; D.C. Lee; J.L. Kershner; G.H. Reeves; R.E. Gresswell

    2003-01-01

    Understanding of the effects of wildland fire and fire management on aquatic and riparian ecosystems is an evolving field, with many questions still to be resolved. Limitations of current knowledge, and the certainty that fire management will continue, underscore the need to summarize available information. Integrating fire and fuels management with aquatic ecosystem...

  1. Gesture comprehension, knowledge and production in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, M; Rénier, J; Anicet, L; Pasquier, F; Mackowiak-Cordoliani, M A

    2012-07-01

      Although apraxia is a typical consequence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the profile of apraxic impairments is still subject to debate. Here, we analysed apraxia components in patients with AD with mild-to-moderate or moderately severe dementia.   Thirty-one patients were included. We first evaluated simple gestures, that is, the imitation of finger and hand configurations, symbolic gestures (recognition, production on verbal command and imitation), pantomimes (recognition, production on verbal command, imitation and production with the object), general knowledge and complex gestures (tool-object association, function-tool association, production of complex actions and knowledge about action sequences). Tests for dementia (Mini Mental State Examination and the Dementia Rating Scale), language disorders, visual agnosia and executive function were also administered.   Compared with controls, patients showed significant difficulties (P ≤ 0.01) in subtests relating to simple gestures (except for the recognition and imitation of symbolic gestures). General knowledge about tools, objects and action sequences was less severely impaired. Performance was frequently correlated with the severity of dementia. Multiple-case analyses revealed that (i) the frequency of apraxia depended on the definition used, (ii) ideomotor apraxia was more frequent than ideational apraxia, (iii) conceptual difficulties were slightly more frequent than production difficulties in the early stage of AD and (iv) difficulties in gesture recognition were frequent (especially for pantomimes).   Patients with AD can clearly show gesture apraxia from the mild-moderate stage of dementia onwards. Recognition and imitation disorders are relatively frequent (especially for pantomimes). We did not find conceptual difficulties to be the main problem in early-stage AD. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  2. Altered brain response for semantic knowledge in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wierenga, Christina E; Stricker, Nikki H; McCauley, Ashley; Simmons, Alan; Jak, Amy J; Chang, Yu-Ling; Nation, Daniel A; Bangen, Katherine J; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W

    2011-02-01

    Word retrieval deficits are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are thought to reflect a degradation of semantic memory. Yet, the nature of semantic deterioration in AD and the underlying neural correlates of these semantic memory changes remain largely unknown. We examined the semantic memory impairment in AD by investigating the neural correlates of category knowledge (e.g., living vs. nonliving) and featural processing (global vs. local visual information). During event-related fMRI, 10 adults diagnosed with mild AD and 22 cognitively normal (CN) older adults named aloud items from three categories for which processing of specific visual features has previously been dissociated from categorical features. Results showed widespread group differences in the categorical representation of semantic knowledge in several language-related brain areas. For example, the right inferior frontal gyrus showed selective brain response for nonliving items in the CN group but living items in the AD group. Additionally, the AD group showed increased brain response for word retrieval irrespective of category in Broca's homologue in the right hemisphere and rostral cingulate cortex bilaterally, which suggests greater recruitment of frontally mediated neural compensatory mechanisms in the face of semantic alteration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ocular Disease, Knowledge, and Technology Applications in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Threatt, Jennifer; Williamson, Jennifer Faye; Huynh, Kyle; Davis, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 25.8 million children and adults in the United States, approximately 8.3% of the population, have diabetes. Diabetes prevalence varies by race and ethnicity. African Americans have the highest prevalence (12.6%), followed closely by Hispanics (11.8%), Asian Americans (8.4%), and Whites (7.1%). The purpose of this article is to discuss the ocular complications of diabetes, the cultural and racial differences in diabetes knowledge, and the role of telemedicine as a means to reach the undeserved who are at risk of complications. Information on the pathophysiology of ocular disease in patients with diabetes and the role of telemedicine in diabetes care was derived from a literature review. National Institutes of Health (NIH) on-line resources were queried to present data on the racial and cultural understandings of diabetes and diabetes-related complications. The microvascular ocular complications of diabetes are discussed for retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma and ocular surface disease. Racial and cultural differences in knowledge of recommended self-care practices are presented. These differences in part, may explain health disparities and the increased risk of diabetes and its complications in rural minority communities. Finally, advances in telemedicine technology are discussed that show improvements in metabolic control and cardiovascular risk in adults with type 2 diabetes. Improving provider and patient understanding of diabetes complications may improve management and self care practices that are important for diabetes control. Telemedicine may improve access to diabetes specialists and may improve self-management education and diabetes control particularly in rural and underserved communities. PMID:23531956

  4. Crohn's disease: a review of treatment options and current research.

    PubMed

    Bandzar, Sean; Gupta, Shabnam; Platt, Manu O

    2013-01-01

    Crohn's disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects nearly 1.4 million Americans. The etiology of Crohn's disease is not completely understood, however, research has suggested a genetic link. There is currently no known cure for Crohn's disease and, as a result, most government-funded research is being conducted to increase the quality of life of afflicted patients (i.e. reducing chronic inflammation and alleviating growth impairment in pediatric patients). A number of treatment options are available including an alpha-4 integrin inhibitor and several TNF-alpha inhibitors. Furthermore, research is being conducted on several alternative treatment options to help understand exactly which cellular mechanisms (i.e. inducing apoptosis in leukocytes) are required for clinical efficacy. This review seeks to chronicle the current available treatment options for patients affected by Crohn's disease to aid in understanding potential cellular mechanistic requirements for an efficacious drug, and shed light on potential options for future treatment.

  5. Developing genomic knowledge bases and databases to support clinical management: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Huser, Vojtech; Sincan, Murat; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Personalized medicine, the ability to tailor diagnostic and treatment decisions for individual patients, is seen as the evolution of modern medicine. We characterize here the informatics resources available today or envisioned in the near future that can support clinical interpretation of genomic test results. We assume a clinical sequencing scenario (germline whole-exome sequencing) in which a clinical specialist, such as an endocrinologist, needs to tailor patient management decisions within his or her specialty (targeted findings) but relies on a genetic counselor to interpret off-target incidental findings. We characterize the genomic input data and list various types of knowledge bases that provide genomic knowledge for generating clinical decision support. We highlight the need for patient-level databases with detailed lifelong phenotype content in addition to genotype data and provide a list of recommendations for personalized medicine knowledge bases and databases. We conclude that no single knowledge base can currently support all aspects of personalized recommendations and that consolidation of several current resources into larger, more dynamic and collaborative knowledge bases may offer a future path forward.

  6. Developing genomic knowledge bases and databases to support clinical management: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Huser, Vojtech; Sincan, Murat; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Personalized medicine, the ability to tailor diagnostic and treatment decisions for individual patients, is seen as the evolution of modern medicine. We characterize here the informatics resources available today or envisioned in the near future that can support clinical interpretation of genomic test results. We assume a clinical sequencing scenario (germline whole-exome sequencing) in which a clinical specialist, such as an endocrinologist, needs to tailor patient management decisions within his or her specialty (targeted findings) but relies on a genetic counselor to interpret off-target incidental findings. We characterize the genomic input data and list various types of knowledge bases that provide genomic knowledge for generating clinical decision support. We highlight the need for patient-level databases with detailed lifelong phenotype content in addition to genotype data and provide a list of recommendations for personalized medicine knowledge bases and databases. We conclude that no single knowledge base can currently support all aspects of personalized recommendations and that consolidation of several current resources into larger, more dynamic and collaborative knowledge bases may offer a future path forward. PMID:25276091

  7. [Cystinosis--an orphan disease. Pathogenesis and current treatment].

    PubMed

    Zachwieja, Jacek

    2006-01-01

    Cystinosis belongs to, so called, orphan diseases. It is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by defective transport of the amino acid cystine out of lysosomes. The stored cystine is poorly soluble and crystallizes within the lysosomes of many cell types, leading to widespread tissue and organ damage. Patients with the infantile nephropathic form of cystinosis (the most common and the most severe) develop symptoms early on in life and renal failure by late childhood. The current opinion about pathogenesis and treatment of the disease is described.

  8. Febrile Seizures and Febrile Seizure Syndromes: An Updated Overview of Old and Current Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Khair, Abdulhafeez M.; Elmagrabi, Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common paroxysmal episode during childhood, affecting up to one in 10 children. They are a major cause of emergency facility visits and a source of family distress and anxiety. Their etiology and pathophysiological pathways are being understood better over time; however, there is still more to learn. Genetic predisposition is thought to be a major contributor. Febrile seizures have been historically classified as benign; however, many emerging febrile seizure syndromes behave differently. The way in which human knowledge has evolved over the years in regard to febrile seizures has not been dealt with in depth in the current literature, up to our current knowledge. This review serves as a documentary of how scientists have explored febrile seizures, elaborating on the journey of knowledge as far as etiology, clinical features, approach, and treatment strategies are concerned. Although this review cannot cover all clinical aspects related to febrile seizures at the textbook level, we believe it can function as a quick summary of the past and current sources of knowledge for all varieties of febrile seizure types and syndromes. PMID:26697219

  9. Febrile Seizures and Febrile Seizure Syndromes: An Updated Overview of Old and Current Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Khair, Abdulhafeez M; Elmagrabi, Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common paroxysmal episode during childhood, affecting up to one in 10 children. They are a major cause of emergency facility visits and a source of family distress and anxiety. Their etiology and pathophysiological pathways are being understood better over time; however, there is still more to learn. Genetic predisposition is thought to be a major contributor. Febrile seizures have been historically classified as benign; however, many emerging febrile seizure syndromes behave differently. The way in which human knowledge has evolved over the years in regard to febrile seizures has not been dealt with in depth in the current literature, up to our current knowledge. This review serves as a documentary of how scientists have explored febrile seizures, elaborating on the journey of knowledge as far as etiology, clinical features, approach, and treatment strategies are concerned. Although this review cannot cover all clinical aspects related to febrile seizures at the textbook level, we believe it can function as a quick summary of the past and current sources of knowledge for all varieties of febrile seizure types and syndromes.

  10. [Chronic kidney disease : What is currently available for treatment?

    PubMed

    Fleig, S; Patecki, M; Schmitt, R

    2016-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease is common in the general population with an estimated prevalence of roughly 2 million in Germany. Typically, chronic kidney disease is progressive and in the terminal stage the patients require dialysis or kidney transplantation. In many cases the disease remains silent for a long time but early stages are already associated with increasing morbidity and mortality. Therefore early detection is very important. In recent years several new concepts have been introduced that might help to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease or improve the accompanying risks. Here, we want to provide a nephrologist's perspective on the current guidelines for the treatment and prevention of chronic kidney disease. We summarize which diagnostic approaches are useful for general practitioners and we take a pragmatic look at the existing opportunities for combating renal functional decline. We also shed light on established measures to minimize the risk of comorbidities.

  11. Nanomedicines for renal disease: current status and future applications

    PubMed Central

    Kamaly, Nazila; He, John C.; Ausiello, Dennis A.; Farokhzad, Omid C.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic, alongside research efforts in tissue regeneration and organ-on-a-chip investigations, are likely to provide novel solutions to treat kidney diseases. Our understanding of renal anatomy and of how the biological and physicochemical properties of nanomedicines (the combination of a nanocarrier and a drug) influence their interactions with renal tissues has improved dramatically. Tailoring of nanomedicines in terms of kidney retention and binding to key membranes and cell populations associated with renal diseases is now possible and greatly enhances their localization, tolerability, and efficacy. This Review outlines nanomedicine characteristics central to improved targeting of renal cells and highlights the prospects, challenges, and opportunities of nanotechnology-mediated therapies for renal diseases. PMID:27795549

  12. Women's knowledge about heart disease: Differences among ethnic and cultural groups in the Israeli Women's Health in Midlife Study.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Tzvia; Benyamini, Yael; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2016-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to assess levels of knowledge about risk factors for heart disease among midlife Israeli women, and to evaluate the relationship of knowledge to personal risk factors and vulnerability to heart disease. Face-to-face interviews with women aged 45-64 years were conducted during 2004-2006 within three population groups: long-term Jewish residents (LTR), immigrants from the former Soviet Union, and Arab women. The survey instrument included six knowledge statements relating to: the risk after menopause, family history, elevated cholesterol level, diabetes, obesity, and warning signs of a heart attack. The findings showed wide disparities in knowledge by educational level and between immigrants and LTR, after taking into account personal risk factors and education. Personal risk factors were not significantly related to the knowledge items, except for personal history of cardiovascular disease, which was associated with knowledge about "warning signs of a heart attack" and "family history." Women who perceived themselves as more vulnerable to heart disease were more likely to identify several risk factors correctly. These findings stress the need to increase knowledge about heart disease, especially among less educated and minority women, and to emphasize the risk of patients' personal status by health providers.

  13. The modulating effect of bacterial volatiles on plant growth: current knowledge and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Aurélien; Weisskopf, Laure

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria interact with plants in many different ways. In recent years, bacterial production of volatiles has emerged as a novel process by which bacteria modulate plant growth. Exposure to the volatiles produced by certain bacterial strains has been shown to lead to up to 5-fold increased plant biomass or to plant death. Despite these drastic growth alterations, the elucidation of the molecules responsible, of the mechanism of perception by the plant and of the specific metabolic changes induced in planta is still in its infancy. This review summarizes the current knowledge and highlights future lines of research that should increase our knowledge of the volatile-mediated dialogue between bacteria and plants.

  14. Measuring practical knowledge among prospective and current teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, E A

    2001-10-01

    Research on teaching and teacher research has a long history. However, in the field of the education of deaf and hard of hearing students, this research is limited. The study addresses one particular area of research on teaching and teacher research: practical knowledge of teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students. Practical knowledge is defined as how educators think about their classroom practice. By means of a survey designed and tested by the researcher, four hierarchical groups (beginning education students, graduating education students, novice teachers, and experienced teachers) in the education of deaf and hard of hearing students were surveyed on their practical knowledge. Practical knowledge codified as images, rules of practice, and practical principles. Results were measured to demonstrate for categories and characteristics of practical knowledge storage among prospective and current teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students. The instrument was designed as an assessment tool to measure aspects of this knowledge, apply it to levels of pedagogical expertise, and expand research in this area.

  15. Knowledge and experiences of Chagas disease in Bolivian women living in Spain: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Blasco-Hernández, Teresa; Miguel, Lucía García-San; Navaza, Bárbara; Navarro, Miriam; Benito, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Background In Europe, Spain has the highest number of people with Chagas disease (CD). Bolivian migrants account for 81% of the reported cases. One of the priorities in controlling the disease is prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Despite under-diagnosis in Spain being estimated at 90%, there are currently few studies that explore the social and cultural dimensions of this disease. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and experiences of Bolivian women with CD, in order to generate a useful understanding for the design and implementation of public health initiatives. Design Qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews, triangular groups, and field notes. Participants Fourteen Bolivian women with CD living in Madrid. Results The participants were aware that the disease was transmitted through the vector, that it could be asymptomatic, and that it could also be associated with sudden death by heart failure. They opined that the treatment as such could not cure the disease but only slow it down. There was a sense of indifference along with a lack of understanding of the risk of contracting the disease. Participants who presented with symptoms, or those with relatives suffering from the disease, were concerned about fatalities, cardiac problems, and possible vertical transmission. There was also a fear of being rejected by others. The disease was described as something that affected a large number of people but only showed up in a few cases and that too after many years. There was a widespread assumption that it was better not to know because doing so, allows the disease to take hold. Conclusions Disease risk perception was very low in Bolivian women living in Madrid. This factor, together with the fear of being screened, may be contributing to the current rate of under-diagnosis. PMID:26976265

  16. Knowledge and experiences of Chagas disease in Bolivian women living in Spain: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Blasco-Hernández, Teresa; García-San Miguel, Lucía; Navaza, Bárbara; Navarro, Miriam; Benito, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, Spain has the highest number of people with Chagas disease (CD). Bolivian migrants account for 81% of the reported cases. One of the priorities in controlling the disease is prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Despite under-diagnosis in Spain being estimated at 90%, there are currently few studies that explore the social and cultural dimensions of this disease. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and experiences of Bolivian women with CD, in order to generate a useful understanding for the design and implementation of public health initiatives. Qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews, triangular groups, and field notes. Fourteen Bolivian women with CD living in Madrid. The participants were aware that the disease was transmitted through the vector, that it could be asymptomatic, and that it could also be associated with sudden death by heart failure. They opined that the treatment as such could not cure the disease but only slow it down. There was a sense of indifference along with a lack of understanding of the risk of contracting the disease. Participants who presented with symptoms, or those with relatives suffering from the disease, were concerned about fatalities, cardiac problems, and possible vertical transmission. There was also a fear of being rejected by others. The disease was described as something that affected a large number of people but only showed up in a few cases and that too after many years. There was a widespread assumption that it was better not to know because doing so, allows the disease to take hold. Disease risk perception was very low in Bolivian women living in Madrid. This factor, together with the fear of being screened, may be contributing to the current rate of under-diagnosis.

  17. Knowledge about Aging and Alzheimer Disease: A Comparison of Professional Caregivers and Noncaregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Tiana B.; See, Sheree Kwong

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed professional caregivers of persons with Alzheimer disease (AD) and non-caregivers' knowledge about aging and AD. Participants completed modified versions of the Alzheimer Disease Knowledge Test and the multiple-choice version of the Facts on Aging Quiz #1. Overall, knowledge levels about AD and aging were low. Caregivers were…

  18. Knowledge about Aging and Alzheimer Disease: A Comparison of Professional Caregivers and Noncaregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Tiana B.; See, Sheree Kwong

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed professional caregivers of persons with Alzheimer disease (AD) and non-caregivers' knowledge about aging and AD. Participants completed modified versions of the Alzheimer Disease Knowledge Test and the multiple-choice version of the Facts on Aging Quiz #1. Overall, knowledge levels about AD and aging were low. Caregivers were…

  19. [Current and future medical treatment of Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Lemper, J C

    2005-09-01

    The current treatment of Alzheimer's disease (MA) is based on a symptomatic pharmacological therapy of the cognitive decline and the behavioural disturbances. Progress towards understanding the cellular and molecular alterations responsible for the disease promise therapeutic strategies based upon the pathological processes. Corrections of dysregulations of the brain's neurotransmitters (cholinergic deficit and glutamatergic overstimulation) bring significant but modest therapeutic improvement. The pivotal role of the proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in neuronal death suggests pharmacological inhibition of the secretases; amyloid antiaggregant therapies are possible, vaccination against AB wil need new immunisation protocols, Anti-inflammatory drugs and antioxydant agents as calcium channel blockers could help against the neurotoxic cascade of Abeta, some cholesterol-lowering drugs could enhance its clearance. This article reviews the available data on current pharmacological treatments, and the future possible strategies that could modify the evolution, or prevent Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Pharmacological treatment for Alzheimer's disease: current approaches and future strategies.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ling-Yun; Chiu, Ming-Jang

    2010-12-01

    More than a decade after the first approval of the use of acetylcholine esterase inhibitor on patients with Alzheimer's disease, we still not have a single treatment or combination therapy that can effectively stop or reverse the relentless progression of such neurodegenerative disease. Recently therapeutics targeting amyloid hypothesis have undergone scrutiny by many clinical trials. These include gamma secretase inhibitor for reducing beta amyloid formation, agents for preventing aggregation of amyloid oligomers, and immunotherapy for enhancing clearance of amyloid and plaque. Therapies targeting hyperphosphorylated tau is another promising mechanism to be tackled with. Other agents enforcing mitochondria functions, enhancing serotonin receptors, modulating advanced glycation end products, and neurotrophic factors, as well as other therapies are also emerging. We review current treatments and therapeutic strategies already undergone different stage of clinical trails in this report. We propose that therapeutics of various combination composed of symptomatic treatments and disease modifying therapies will become standard regimens of AD treatment with much better efficacy than current approaches.

  1. Fabry disease - current treatment and new drug development.

    PubMed

    Motabar, Omid; Sidransky, Ellen; Goldin, Ehud; Zheng, Wei

    2010-07-23

    Fabry disease is a rare inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by a partial or complete deficiency of α-galactosidase A (GLA), resulting in the storage of excess cellular glycosphingolipids. Enzyme replacement therapy is available for the treatment of Fabry disease, but it is a costly, intravenous treatment. Alternative therapeutic approaches, including small molecule chaperone therapy, are currently being explored. High throughput screening (HTS) technologies can be utilized to discover other small molecule compounds, including non-inhibitory chaperones, enzyme activators, molecules that reduce GLA substrate, and molecules that activate GLA gene promoters. This review outlines the current therapeutic approaches, emerging treatment strategies, and the process of drug discovery and development for Fabry disease.

  2. Current Status of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine in Lung Biology and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Lung diseases remain a significant and devastating cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In contrast to many other major diseases, lung diseases notably chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), including both asthma and emphysema, are increasing in prevalence and COPD is expected to become the 3rd leading cause of disease mortality worldwide by 2020. New therapeutic options are desperately needed. A rapidly growing number of investigations of stem cells and cell therapies in lung biology and diseases as well as in ex vivo lung bioengineering have offered exciting new avenues for advancing knowledge of lung biology as well as providing novel potential therapeutic approaches for lung diseases. These initial observations have led to a growing exploration of endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells in clinical trials of pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with other clinical investigations planned. Ex vivo bioengineering of the trachea, larynx, diaphragm, and the lung itself with both biosynthetic constructs as well as decellularized tissues have been utilized to explore engineering both airway and vascular systems of the lung. Lung is thus a ripe organ for a variety of cell therapy and regenerative medicine approaches. Current state-of-the-art progress for each of the above areas will be presented as will discussion of current considerations for cell therapy based clinical trials in lung diseases. PMID:23959715

  3. Key tasks in healthcare marketing: assessing importance and current level of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kennett, Pamela A; Henson, Steve W; Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J

    2005-01-01

    When examining the healthcare industry, the need for continuing education in internal functions (i.e., HR management) has been documented. However, equally important to success in the healthcare industry are external functions such as marketing. In an expansion of research on internally focused functions, we report findings from an exploratory study designed to examine the perceptions of executives about managerial skill needs in the externally focused area of marketing. Specifically, we examine eight key tasks in marketing and ask executives to rate the level of knowledge required for each and then to assess current, or actual, levels of knowledge in the field. Findings suggest that pricing strategy, product strategy, and segmentation and targeting were the tasks that require the most knowledge for healthcare marketers, and that they do, in fact, perceive various gaps in all of the areas examined. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  4. Current management of peripheral vascular disease: where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Saha, Sibu P; Whayne, Thomas F; Mukherjee, Debabrata P

    2011-04-01

    The presence of peripheral vascular disease along with coronary heart disease are the two components of generalized atherosclerosis. The risk of having one when the other is present is extremely high. There are four parts to consider in peripheral vascular disease management and these are prevention, plaque stabilization, percutaneous intervention and surgery. Each part has its place but no one would argue that prevention is best when risk is recognized and treated. Classic risk factors and the available diagnostic methods are discussed. Treatment of risk factors is presented with reduction of the low density lipoproteins as the established gold standard during the current era. Procedures of percutaneous vascular intervention with their procedural indications are presented and their advantages and disadvantages discussed. Surgical indications are presented with special indication due to major claudication, rest pain, or tissue loss. Prognosis is also considered and this prognosis is worse in more proximal peripheral vascular disease. Association with other diseases is an important part of prognosis, with the latter especially made worse by the presence of diabetes mellitus. Surprisingly, the long-term prognosis of peripheral vascular disease is worse than that of coronary heart disease. These patients have a significant increase of cardiovascular risk factors and of comorbidities. It has been shown that these patients are undertreated in spite of their high cardiovascular risk. It is mandatory that they receive the same intensive treatment of risk factors as that given to coronary heart disease patients.

  5. Adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases: attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and values.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L S; Rozmus, C; Edmisson, K

    1999-06-01

    This study described rural adolescents' attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and values with regard to sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Rotter's Social Learning Theory (1954) provided the theoretical framework for this descriptive, correlational design. The convenience sample consisted of 170 students from one rural high school. Consistent with past studies, results included the following: participants had more correct than incorrect knowledge related to sexual intercourse and STDs; the majority had positive attitudes toward condom use and believed it was OK for peers to have sex with a "steady;" the value of an exciting life correlated positively with attitudes toward sex; knowledge of sexual intercourse correlated positively with attitudes toward condom use; and the value health correlated positively with knowledge of sex and attitudes toward condom use, and negatively with attitudes toward sex. The findings in this study suggest the need for ongoing research with adolescents in the area of sexuality and STDs. Additionally, the findings support past studies, which revealed that knowledge of sexual intercourse and STDs has little impact on attitudes toward sexual intercourse. With the serious nature of some of the undesired consequences of adolescent sexual behavior, current and accurate information on this population is needed to assist health educators in developing interventions in this area.

  6. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative

  7. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Current Practices of Canadian Physiotherapists in Preventing and Managing Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Doehring, Karly; Durno, Scott; Pakenham, Catherine; DePaul, Vincent G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the knowledge, attitudes, and current practices of Canadian physiotherapists in preventing and managing diabetes. Methods: Members of the Canadian Physiotherapy Association were recruited by email to participate in a Web-based survey. The survey contained 40 items in four domains: demographics and education, attitudes and beliefs, current practices, and knowledge of diabetes. A descriptive analysis was completed for all the response variables from the survey. Results: A total of 401 physiotherapists from 10 provinces and 2 territories participated. Respondents were most confident in providing education about exercise and had decreasing confidence in providing education about managing secondary complications, weight management, blood sugar control, and nutrition, respectively. Only 32.4% of participants offered diabetes management counselling, citing lack of training. Knowledge was generally good, except for activity guidelines. Conclusions: A significant proportion of physiotherapists lack confidence in providing key aspects of care to patients with diabetes. Gaps in clinical practice and knowledge of activity guidelines were also observed. This study highlights the need to review entry-level physiotherapy training and to develop continuing educational opportunities in this area. PMID:27909380

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Current Practices of Canadian Physiotherapists in Preventing and Managing Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Doehring, Karly; Durno, Scott; Pakenham, Catherine; Versi, Bashir; DePaul, Vincent G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the knowledge, attitudes, and current practices of Canadian physiotherapists in preventing and managing diabetes. Methods: Members of the Canadian Physiotherapy Association were recruited by email to participate in a Web-based survey. The survey contained 40 items in four domains: demographics and education, attitudes and beliefs, current practices, and knowledge of diabetes. A descriptive analysis was completed for all the response variables from the survey. Results: A total of 401 physiotherapists from 10 provinces and 2 territories participated. Respondents were most confident in providing education about exercise and had decreasing confidence in providing education about managing secondary complications, weight management, blood sugar control, and nutrition, respectively. Only 32.4% of participants offered diabetes management counselling, citing lack of training. Knowledge was generally good, except for activity guidelines. Conclusions: A significant proportion of physiotherapists lack confidence in providing key aspects of care to patients with diabetes. Gaps in clinical practice and knowledge of activity guidelines were also observed. This study highlights the need to review entry-level physiotherapy training and to develop continuing educational opportunities in this area.

  9. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE TOWARD DISEASE AND PRACTICE SURVEY ON DIABETES IN GARDABANI DISTRICT.

    PubMed

    Kajaia, M; Butsashvili, M; Gulbiani, L; Khatiashvili, Kh; Mindeli, K; Osepaishvili, N; Gordeladze, K; Kobaek, A; Kamkamidze, G

    2016-09-01

    In 2014-2016, the Georgia Red Cross Society (GRCS) implemented a project to improve diabetes prevention, detection and care in rural Georgia, namely in the Gardabani district. The KAP survey was conducted to determine current levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding diabetes among the general population in the Gardabani district. We compared current findings with baseline results from a 2014 survey to identify trends. A cross sectional study design with multi-stage random sampling was used to select participants. Data were collected at households through face-to-face individual interviews using a specially designed questionnaire. In total, 716 individuals were surveyed, the majority of whom (98.9%) were aware of diabetes. Most respondents (85.3%) believed that diabetes can be prevented and correctly identified measures of diabetes prevention. Compared to the previous survey, the level of knowledge regarding risk factors, symptoms and complication of diabetes had improved significantly. Knowledge of diabetes prevention correlated positively with individuals having a higher education level (62.6% vs. 50.8%; p=0.05), higher family income (62.2% vs. 53.5%; p=0.03) and residing in rural settlements (58.6% vs. 25%; p<0.001). Knowledge of diabetes management was significantly associated with type of residence (rural 50.3% vs. urban 28.4%; p<0.001) and family income (high family income 52.3% vs. low family income 45.5%; p=0.05). Respondents identifying GRCS as a source of information tended to have a higher awareness of diabetes prevention and management. Knowledge of diabetes has significantly improved among the general population of the Garabani district from 2014 to 2016. The development and implementation of similar public health programs to increase the level of awareness and knowledge about diabetes is required in other parts of Georgia to improve control and management of the disease throughout the country.

  10. Newcastle disease virus: current status and our understanding.

    PubMed

    Ganar, Ketan; Das, Moushumee; Sinha, Sugandha; Kumar, Sachin

    2014-05-12

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the highly pathogenic viral diseases of avian species. ND is economically significant because of the huge mortality and morbidity associated with it. The disease is endemic in many third world countries where agriculture serves as the primary source of national income. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and is well characterized member among the avian paramyxovirus serotypes. In recent years, NDV has lured the virologists not only because of its pathogenic potential, but also for its oncolytic activity and its use as a vaccine vector for both humans and animals. The NDV based recombinant vaccine offers a pertinent choice for the construction of live attenuated vaccine due to its modular nature of transcription, minimum recombination frequency, and lack of DNA phase during replication. Our current understanding about the NDV biology is expanding rapidly because of the availability of modern molecular biology tools and high-throughput complete genome sequencing.

  11. Countering neurodegeneration by reducing the activity of the insulin/IGF signaling pathway: current knowledge and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Human neurodegenerative maladies share two common key features: a mechanistic link to the accumulation and deposition of aberrantly aggregated proteins and late onset. These similarities among otherwise unrelated disorders suggest that the aging process plays an active role in enabling the emergence of these diseases late in life. Invertebrate-based studies have shown that the manipulation of aging by the reduction of the Insulin/IGF signaling (IIS), a prominent aging regulatory pathway, protects model organisms from neurodegeneration-linked toxic protein aggregation. Recent studies have also indicated that the counter proteotoxic effect of IIS reduction is conserved from worms to mice as reduced IGF-1 signaling protected Alzheimer's-model mice from the disease-like behavioral impairments, pathological phenotypes and premature death typical to these model animals. In this article I review the current knowledge on the protective mechanisms that are suppressed by the IIS and discuss the future therapeutic potential of IIS reduction as a treatment for neurodegenerative disorders.

  12. Knowledge Mapping for Climate Change and Food- and Waterborne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Semenza, Jan C.; Höuser, Christoph; Herbst, Susanne; Rechenburg, Andrea; Suk, Jonathan E.; Frechen, Tobias; Kistemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The authors extracted from the PubMed and ScienceDirect bibliographic databases all articles published between 1998 and 2009 that were relevant to climate change and food- and waterborne diseases. Any material within each article that provided information about a relevant pathogen and its relationship with climate and climate change was summarized as a key fact, entered into a relational knowledge base, and tagged with the terminology (predefined terms) used in the field. These terms were organized, quantified, and mapped according to predefined hierarchical categories. For noncholera Vibrio sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., data on climatic and environmental influences (52% and 49% of the total number of key facts, respectively) pertained to specific weather phenomena (as opposed to climate change phenomena) and environmental determinants, whereas information on the potential effects of food-related determinants that might be related to climate or climate change were virtually absent. This proportion was lower for the other pathogens studied (Campylobacter sp. 40%, Salmonella sp. 27%, Norovirus 25%, Listeria sp. 8%), but they all displayed a distinct concentration of information on general food-and water-related determinants or effects, albeit with little detail. Almost no information was available concerning the potential effects of changes in climatic variables on the pathogens evaluated, such as changes in air or water temperature, precipitation, humidity, UV radiation, wind, cloud coverage, sunshine hours, or seasonality. Frequency profiles revealed an abundance of data on weather and food-specific determinants, but also exposed extensive data deficiencies, particularly with regard to the potential effects of climate change on the pathogens evaluated. A reprioritization of public health research is warranted to ensure that funding is dedicated to explicitly studying the effects of changes in climate variables on food- and waterborne diseases. PMID:24771989

  13. Knowledge Mapping for Climate Change and Food- and Waterborne Diseases.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Jan C; Höuser, Christoph; Herbst, Susanne; Rechenburg, Andrea; Suk, Jonathan E; Frechen, Tobias; Kistemann, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    The authors extracted from the PubMed and ScienceDirect bibliographic databases all articles published between 1998 and 2009 that were relevant to climate change and food- and waterborne diseases. Any material within each article that provided information about a relevant pathogen and its relationship with climate and climate change was summarized as a key fact, entered into a relational knowledge base, and tagged with the terminology (predefined terms) used in the field. These terms were organized, quantified, and mapped according to predefined hierarchical categories. For noncholera Vibrio sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., data on climatic and environmental influences (52% and 49% of the total number of key facts, respectively) pertained to specific weather phenomena (as opposed to climate change phenomena) and environmental determinants, whereas information on the potential effects of food-related determinants that might be related to climate or climate change were virtually absent. This proportion was lower for the other pathogens studied (Campylobacter sp. 40%, Salmonella sp. 27%, Norovirus 25%, Listeria sp. 8%), but they all displayed a distinct concentration of information on general food-and water-related determinants or effects, albeit with little detail. Almost no information was available concerning the potential effects of changes in climatic variables on the pathogens evaluated, such as changes in air or water temperature, precipitation, humidity, UV radiation, wind, cloud coverage, sunshine hours, or seasonality. Frequency profiles revealed an abundance of data on weather and food-specific determinants, but also exposed extensive data deficiencies, particularly with regard to the potential effects of climate change on the pathogens evaluated. A reprioritization of public health research is warranted to ensure that funding is dedicated to explicitly studying the effects of changes in climate variables on food- and waterborne diseases.

  14. A Review and Current Perspective on Wilson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Mallikarjun; Sheth, Keyur A.; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh C.; Devarbhavi, Harshad

    2013-01-01

    Wilson disease is a rare, inherited autosomal recessive disease of copper metabolism and may be more common where consanguinity is prevalent. Much has been known about the disease after it was first described by Kinnier Wilson as ‘progressive lenticular degeneration in 1912. Over 500 mutations of the ATP7B gene has been identified with no clear genotype to phenotype correlation. Loss of ATP7B function leads various grades of reduced biliary excretion of copper and reduced incorporation of copper into ceruloplasmin; accumulation and toxicity of copper in the liver, brain and other tissues results in liver toxicity and other myriad manifestations of the disease. The clinical features may vary from asymptomatic state to chronic liver disease, acute liver failure, neuropsychiatric manifestations and hemolytic anemia. Diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical sign's, biochemical features, histologic findings and mutation analysis of ATP7B gene. Subtle geographical differences exist with a disproportionate proportion of children presenting with acute liver failure. A high index of suspicion is needed for an early diagnosis. Ratios of biochemical indices for early diagnosis need validation across geographical regions and may not be particularly applicable in children. Better biomarkers or the need for tests for early detection of ALF persists. Drugs used in the treatment of Wilson disease include copper chelating agents such as d-Penicillamine, trientine and zinc salt. Untreated Wilson disease uniformly leads to death from liver disease or severe neurological disability. Early recognition and treatment has excellent prognosis. Liver transplantation is indicated in acute liver failure and end stage liver disease. Family screening in order to detect the disorder in the first-degree relatives is warranted. This review provides an overview of different aspects of Wilson disease including geographical differences in presentations and clinical management and the

  15. [Current Trend of Drug Development for Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)].

    PubMed

    Kita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    EBOLA hemorrhagic fever, a typical emerging infectious disease, began in December 2013 in the southern part of Guinea, and killed more than 11000 people by the end of June, 2015. In addition to emerging/re-emerging diseases and the 3 major infectious diseases i.e. HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have recently become important tropical diseases of the poor. It is remarkable that Japan succeeded in the eradication of malaria and other tropical diseases, which include lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis. However, despite these achievements, it is important to sustain our efforts when we consider global health. This review highlights the significance of elimination and/or control of NTDs, and then introduces the current situation of drug development activities in Japan, which are aimed towards combating tropical infectious diseases. They include studies on a novel drug target, the "mitochondrial NADH-fumarate reductase system (Fumarate respiration)" composed of complex I, rhodoquinone and complex II, which plays an important role in the anaerobic energy metabolism of many helminths such as Ascaris suum. An additional interesting finding highlighted herein is that ascofuranone, a recently developed anti-African trypanosome drug, shows specific inhibition of fumarate respiration in Echinococcus multilocularis mitochondria.

  16. Search for biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: current status.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Benjamin L

    2013-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a condition principally defined by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The main trigger, inhalation of noxious gases or particles (usually smoke) leads to complex pathology, including inflammation of the large and small airways, and destruction of the lung parenchyma. Overlap in pathophysiology with other chronic airways diseases leads to challenges in differential diagnosis, and furthermore, periodic exacerbations of disease symptoms also increase the complexity of the disease diagnosis and prediction of outcome. There is recognized need for biomarkers to aid in the determination of disease diagnosis, progression and response to intervention. This review describes the current status of biomarker identification in COPD. Biomarkers of disease can take many forms other than the classical protein in serum, and their utility is dependent upon the clinical question to be addressed. No single protein marker has been adopted for routine clinical use to date. This review addresses the key issues around biomarker identification and utility in both stable and exacerbating COPD. Biomarker identification in COPD is still a developing field, with increasing interest in patient phenotyping probably reflecting the challenges of biomarker development in a complex disease.

  17. Concise review: current status of stem cells and regenerative medicine in lung biology and diseases.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Lung diseases remain a significant and devastating cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In contrast to many other major diseases, lung diseases notably chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs), including both asthma and emphysema, are increasing in prevalence and COPD is expected to become the third leading cause of disease mortality worldwide by 2020. New therapeutic options are desperately needed. A rapidly growing number of investigations of stem cells and cell therapies in lung biology and diseases as well as in ex vivo lung bioengineering have offered exciting new avenues for advancing knowledge of lung biology as well as providing novel potential therapeutic approaches for lung diseases. These initial observations have led to a growing exploration of endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells in clinical trials of pulmonary hypertension and COPD with other clinical investigations planned. Ex vivo bioengineering of the trachea, larynx, diaphragm, and the lung itself with both biosynthetic constructs as well as decellularized tissues have been used to explore engineering both airway and vascular systems of the lung. Lung is thus a ripe organ for a variety of cell therapy and regenerative medicine approaches. Current state-of-the-art progress for each of the above areas will be presented as will discussion of current considerations for cell therapy-based clinical trials in lung diseases.

  18. Current Progress in Therapeutic Gene Editing for Monogenic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Versha; Moore, Marc; Yáñez-Muñoz, Rafael J

    2016-01-01

    Programmable nucleases allow defined alterations in the genome with ease-of-use, efficiency, and specificity. Their availability has led to accurate and widespread genome engineering, with multiple applications in basic research, biotechnology, and therapy. With regard to human gene therapy, nuclease-based gene editing has facilitated development of a broad range of therapeutic strategies based on both nonhomologous end joining and homology-dependent repair. This review discusses current progress in nuclease-based therapeutic applications for a subset of inherited monogenic diseases including cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, diseases of the bone marrow, and hemophilia and highlights associated challenges and future prospects. PMID:26765770

  19. Current Progress in Therapeutic Gene Editing for Monogenic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Versha; Moore, Marc; Yáñez-Muñoz, Rafael J

    2016-03-01

    Programmable nucleases allow defined alterations in the genome with ease-of-use, efficiency, and specificity. Their availability has led to accurate and widespread genome engineering, with multiple applications in basic research, biotechnology, and therapy. With regard to human gene therapy, nuclease-based gene editing has facilitated development of a broad range of therapeutic strategies based on both nonhomologous end joining and homology-dependent repair. This review discusses current progress in nuclease-based therapeutic applications for a subset of inherited monogenic diseases including cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, diseases of the bone marrow, and hemophilia and highlights associated challenges and future prospects.

  20. Cardiovascular diseases in China: Current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Ge, Junbo

    2015-03-01

    Despite revolutionary advancement in medicine over the past century, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death and disability in the world. Likewise, the morbidity and mortality of CVD in China are increasing persistently, although the government has taken an active part in the prevention and control of CVD. Here we present an overview regarding the current CVD status in China with respect to various disease phenotypes, as well as the anticipated future trend in accordance with the dynamics and distribution of pathogenesis in Chinese actual situations.

  1. Knowledge of the Disease, Perceived Social Support, and Cognitive Appraisals in Women with Urinary Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Szymona-Pałkowska, Katarzyna; Janowski, Konrad; Pedrycz, Agnieszka; Mucha, Dariusz; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Siermontowski, Piotr; Adamczuk, Jolanta; Sapalska, Marta; Mucha, Dawid; Kraczkowski, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Social support and knowledge of the disease have been shown to facilitate adaptation to a chronic disease. However, the adaptation process is not fully understood. We hypothesized that these factors can contribute to better adaptation to the disease through their impact on disease-related cognitive appraisal. To analyze the links between social support and the knowledge of the disease, on one hand, and disease-related appraisals, on the other hand, one hundred fifty-eight women with stress UI, aged 32 to 79, took part in the study. Questionnaire measures of knowledge of UI, social support, and disease-related appraisals were used in the study. The level of knowledge correlated significantly negatively with the appraisal of the disease as Harm. The global level of social support correlated significantly positively with three disease-related appraisals: Profit, Challenge, and Value. Four subgroups of patients with different constellations of social support and knowledge of the disease were identified in cluster analysis and were demonstrated to differ significantly on four disease-related appraisals: Profit, Challenge, Harm, and Value. Different cognitive appraisals of UI may be specifically related to social support and knowledge of the disease, with social support affective positive disease-related appraisals, and the knowledge affecting the appraisal of Harm.

  2. Knowledge of the Disease, Perceived Social Support, and Cognitive Appraisals in Women with Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Szymona-Pałkowska, Katarzyna; Janowski, Konrad; Pedrycz, Agnieszka; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Siermontowski, Piotr; Adamczuk, Jolanta; Sapalska, Marta; Mucha, Dawid; Kraczkowski, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Social support and knowledge of the disease have been shown to facilitate adaptation to a chronic disease. However, the adaptation process is not fully understood. We hypothesized that these factors can contribute to better adaptation to the disease through their impact on disease-related cognitive appraisal. To analyze the links between social support and the knowledge of the disease, on one hand, and disease-related appraisals, on the other hand, one hundred fifty-eight women with stress UI, aged 32 to 79, took part in the study. Questionnaire measures of knowledge of UI, social support, and disease-related appraisals were used in the study. The level of knowledge correlated significantly negatively with the appraisal of the disease as Harm. The global level of social support correlated significantly positively with three disease-related appraisals: Profit, Challenge, and Value. Four subgroups of patients with different constellations of social support and knowledge of the disease were identified in cluster analysis and were demonstrated to differ significantly on four disease-related appraisals: Profit, Challenge, Harm, and Value. Different cognitive appraisals of UI may be specifically related to social support and knowledge of the disease, with social support affective positive disease-related appraisals, and the knowledge affecting the appraisal of Harm. PMID:28097132

  3. Visual imagery processing and knowledge of famous names in Alzheimer's disease and MCI.

    PubMed

    Borg, Céline; Thomas-Antérion, Catherine; Bogey, Soline; Davier, Karine; Laurent, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    The study of memory for famous people and visual imagery retrieval was investigated in patients in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in the prodromal stage of AD, so-called Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Fifteen patients with AD (MMSE > or = 23), 15 patients with amnestic MCI (a-MCI) and 15 normal controls (NC) performed a famous names test designed to evaluate the semantic and distinctive physical features knowledge of famous persons. Results indicated that patients with AD and a-MCI generated significantly less physical features and semantic biographical knowledge about famous persons than did normal control participants. Additionally, significant differences were observed between a-MCI and AD patients in all tasks. The present findings confirm recent studies reporting semantic memory impairment in MCI. Moreover, the current findings show that mental imagery is lowered in a-MCI and AD and is likely related to the early semantic impairment.

  4. Current Topics in Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    UMEMURA, Atsushi; OYAMA, Genko; SHIMO, Yasushi; NAKAJIMA, Madoka; NAKAJIMA, Asuka; JO, Takayuki; SEKIMOTO, Satoko; ITO, Masanobu; MITSUHASHI, Takumi; HATTORI, Nobutaka; ARAI, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    There is a long history of surgical treatment for Parkinson disease (PD). After pioneering trials and errors, the current primary surgical treatment for PD is deep brain stimulation (DBS). DBS is a promising treatment option for patients with medically refractory PD. However, there are still many problems and controversies associated with DBS. In this review, we discuss current issues in DBS for PD, including patient selection, clinical outcomes, complications, target selection, long-term outcomes, management of axial symptoms, timing of surgery, surgical procedures, cost-effectiveness, and new technology. PMID:27349658

  5. Update on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs: Knowledge gaps for improved disease control.

    PubMed

    Maes, D; Sibila, M; Kuhnert, P; Segalés, J; Haesebrouck, F; Pieters, M

    2017-08-23

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, a chronic respiratory disease in pigs. Infections occur worldwide and cause major economic losses to the pig industry. The present paper reviews the current knowledge on M. hyopneumoniae infections, with emphasis on identification and analysis of knowledge gaps for optimizing control of the disease. Close contact between infected and susceptible pigs is the main route of M. hyopneumoniae transmission. Management and housing conditions predisposing for infection or disease are known, but further research is needed to better understand M. hyopneumoniae transmission patterns in modern pig production systems, and to assess the importance of the breeding population for downstream disease control. The organism is primarily found on the mucosal surface of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. Different adhesins and lipoproteins are involved in the adherence process. However, a clear picture of the virulence and pathogenicity of M. hyopneumoniae is still missing. The role of glycerol metabolism, myoinositol metabolism and the Mycoplasma Ig binding protein-Mycoplasma Ig protease system should be further investigated for their contribution to virulence. The destruction of the mucociliary apparatus, together with modulating the immune response, enhances the susceptibility of infected pigs to secondary pathogens. Clinical signs and severity of lesions depend on different factors, such as management, environmental conditions and likely also M. hyopneumoniae strain. The potential impact of strain variability on disease severity is not well defined. Diagnostics could be improved by developing tests that may detect virulent strains, by improving sampling in live animals and by designing ELISAs allowing discrimination between infected and vaccinated pigs. The currently available vaccines are often cost-efficient, but the ongoing research on developing new vaccines that confer protective

  6. [Current Status of Translational Research on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease].

    PubMed

    Jeong, In Du; Park, Moo In

    2016-09-25

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the incidence of some of its complications have risen strikingly over the last few decades. With the increase in our understanding of the pathophysiology of GERD along with the development of proton pump inhibitors, the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to GERD have changed dramatically over the past decade. However, GERD still poses a problem to many clinicians since the spectrum of the disease has evolved to encompass more challenging presentations such as refractory GERD and extra-esophageal manifestations. The aim of this article is to provide a review of available current translational research on GERD. This review includes acid pocket, ambulatory pH monitoring, impedance pH monitoring, mucosa impedance, and high resolution manometry. This article discusses current translational research on GERD.

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease imaging: Current practice and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kilcoyne, Aoife; Kaplan, Jess L; Gee, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of imaging in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including detection of extraluminal complications and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD, assessment of disease activity and treatment response, and discrimination of inflammatory from fibrotic strictures. IBD is a chronic idiopathic disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract that is comprised of two separate, but related intestinal disorders; Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The paper discusses, in detail the pros and cons of the different IBD imaging modalities that need to be considered in order to optimize the imaging and clinical evaluation of patients with IBD. Historically, IBD evaluation of the bowel has included imaging to assess the portions of the small bowel that are inaccessible to optical endoscopic visualization. This traditionally was performed using barium fluoroscopic techniques; however, cross-sectional imaging techniques (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) are being increasingly utilized for IBD evaluation because they can simultaneously assess mural and extramural IBD manifestations. Recent advances in imaging technology, that continue to improve the ability of imaging to noninvasively follow disease activity and treatment response, are also discussed. This review article summarizes the current imaging approach in inflammatory bowel disease as well as the role of emerging imaging modalities. PMID:26811637

  8. Skin Wound Healing: An Update on the Current Knowledge and Concepts.

    PubMed

    Sorg, Heiko; Tilkorn, Daniel J; Hager, Stephan; Hauser, Jörg; Mirastschijski, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    repair have been delineated in part, many underlying pathophysiological processes are still unknown. The purpose of the following update on skin wound healing is to focus on the different phases and to brief the reader on the current knowledge and new insights. Skin wound healing is a complex process, which is dependent on many cell types and mediators interacting in a highly sophisticated temporal sequence. Although some interactions during the healing process are crucial, redundancy is high and other cells or mediators can adopt functions or signaling without major complications. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Current Status of Therapy in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    McNear, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has now spread worldwide. With increase in weight, there is an increase in dysregulated energy metabolism ultimately leading to dysfunction of multiple organ systems recognized as the metabolic syndrome. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease worldwide, and is thought to be the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. It is a nondiscriminating disease affecting both children and adults and no socioeconomic class is spared. There is a well-defined increase in both liver-related and all-cause mortality. Current projections foresee a continued worsening in prevalence, especially with the increased rate of childhood obesity. Prevention would be the ultimate goal, but with continued trends in obesity, therapeutic options are needed to manage this chronic liver disease and prevent its complications of cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Therapies will need to be affordable, tolerable, and safe to be useful on such a large scale. This article will discuss some of the basic understanding of NAFLD, as well as review the currently tested therapies, some novel therapies, and potential future therapeutic options. PMID:21180532

  10. Perception of ischaemic heart disease, knowledge of and attitude to reduction of its risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ansa, V O; Oyo-Ita, A; Essien, O E

    2007-07-01

    To assess the perception of ischaemic heart disease (heart attack) as a cause of mortality and determine the current knowledge of its risk factors as well as the level of adoption of preventive strategies among Nigerians working in a tertiary institution. Cross-sectional study. University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria. Five hundred randomly selected University workers both senior and junior staff. Assessment of the awareness of ischaemic heart disease as a cause of morbidity and mortality, knowledge of risk factors and degree of adoption of lifestyle modification strategies. Only 136 (27.7%) of respondents considered ischaemic heart disease (heart attack) as the leading cause of death in their environment while 201 (40.2%) thought it was hypertension. Smoking was readily identified by 70.6% as a risk factor, excessive alcohol use by 52.8% and 41.6% of respondents identified obesity. Sedentary life-style and oral contraceptive use were least identified with only 16.6% and 6.4% of respondents respectively identifying them. This knowledge was significantly influenced by the educational status and cadre of the subjects. The senior staff who were also better educated demonstrated more knowledge. Two point two percent of respondents were smokers and smoked ten sticks of cigarettes or less per day. All expressed willingness to stop. One hundred and fifty eight admitted taking alcohol, most taking less than ten units a week and of these, only 64 were willing to quit. Fifty three point four percent (29.2% of senior and 24.2% of junior undertook some exercise while only 45.6% checked their body weights regularly. Only 25% of all the respondents visited the hospital or clinic for routine medical check-up. No statistically significant difference was found between the senior/better educated and the junior/less educated members of staff in the adoption of these life style modification measures. Sixty four point four percent got medical information from doctors and other health

  11. Assessment of knowledge and awareness among radiology personnel regarding current computed tomography technology and radiation dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bradley, D. A.; Bahruddin, N. A.; Ang, W. C.; Salehhon, N.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness among 120 radiology personnel working in 7 public hospitals in Johor, Malaysia, concerning Computed Tomography (CT) technology and radiation doses based on a set of questionnaires. Subjects were divided into two groups (Medical profession (Med, n=32) and Allied health profession (AH, n=88). The questionnaires are addressed: (1) demographic data (2) relative radiation dose and (3) knowledge of current CT technology. One-third of respondents from both groups were able to estimate relative radiation dose for routine CT examinations. 68% of the allied health profession personnel knew of the Malaysia regulations entitled ‘Basic Safety Standard (BSS) 2010’, although notably 80% of them had previously attended a radiation protection course. No significant difference (p < 0.05) in mean scores of CT technology knowledge detected between the two groups, with the medical professions producing a mean score of (26.7 ± 2.7) and the allied health professions a mean score of (25.2 ± 4.3). This study points to considerable variation among the respondents concerning their understanding of knowledge and awareness of risks of radiation and CT optimization techniques.

  12. Cat scratch disease: U.S. clinicians' experience and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C A; Moore, A R; Perea, A E; Mead, P S

    2017-07-14

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a zoonotic infection caused primarily by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. An estimated 12,000 outpatients and 500 inpatients are diagnosed with CSD annually, yet little is known regarding clinician experience with and treatment of CSD in the United States. Questions assessing clinical burden, treatment and prevention of CSD were posed to 3,011 primary care providers (family practitioners, internists, paediatricians and nurse practitioners) during 2014-2015 as part of the annual nationwide DocStyles survey. Among the clinicians surveyed, 37.2% indicated that they had diagnosed at least one patient with CSD in the prior year. Clinicians in the Pacific and Southern regions were more likely to have diagnosed CSD, as were clinicians who saw paediatric patients, regardless of specialty. When presented with a question regarding treatment of uncomplicated CSD, only 12.5% of clinicians chose the recommended treatment option of analgesics and monitoring, while 71.4% selected antibiotics and 13.4% selected lymph node aspiration. In a scenario concerning CSD prevention in immunosuppressed patients, 80.6% of clinicians chose some form of precaution, but less than one-third chose the recommended option of counseling patients to treat their cats for fleas and avoid rough play with their cats. Results from this study indicate that a substantial proportion of U.S. clinicians have diagnosed CSD within the past year. Although published guidelines exist for treatment and prevention of CSD, these findings suggest that knowledge gaps remain. Therefore, targeted educational efforts about CSD may benefit primary care providers. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Current status of PET imaging in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Gennaro; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2016-06-01

    To review the developments of recent decades and the current status of PET molecular imaging in Huntington's disease (HD). A systematic review of PET studies in HD was performed. The MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane and Scopus databases were searched for articles in all languages published up to 19 August 2015 using the major medical subject heading "Huntington Disease" combined with text and key words "Huntington Disease", "Neuroimaging" and "PET". Only peer-reviewed, primary research studies in HD patients and premanifest HD carriers, and studies in which clinical features were described in association with PET neuroimaging results, were included in this review. Reviews, case reports and nonhuman studies were excluded. A total of 54 PET studies were identified and analysed in this review. Brain metabolism ([(18)F]FDG and [(15)O]H2O), presynaptic ([(18)F]fluorodopa, [(11)C]β-CIT and [(11)C]DTBZ) and postsynaptic ([(11)C]SCH22390, [(11)C]FLB457 and [(11)C]raclopride) dopaminergic function, phosphodiesterases ([(18)F]JNJ42259152, [(18)F]MNI-659 and [(11)C]IMA107), and adenosine ([(18)F]CPFPX), cannabinoid ([(18)F]MK-9470), opioid ([(11)C]diprenorphine) and GABA ([(11)C]flumazenil) receptors were evaluated as potential biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and for assessing the development and efficacy of novel disease-modifying drugs in premanifest HD carriers and HD patients. PET studies evaluating brain restoration and neuroprotection were also identified and described in detail. Brain metabolism, postsynaptic dopaminergic function and phosphodiesterase 10A levels were proven to be powerful in assessing disease progression. However, no single technique may be currently considered an optimal biomarker and an integrative multimodal imaging approach combining different techniques should be developed for monitoring potential neuroprotective and preventive treatment in HD.

  14. Investigating self-efficacy, disease knowledge and adherence to treatment in adolescents with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Faint, Nicholas R; Staton, Janelle M; Stick, Stephen M; Foster, Juliet M; Schultz, André

    2017-05-01

    Patient adherence is integral to the effectiveness of prescribed treatment, and is associated with beneficial disease outcomes, yet in adolescents with cystic fibrosis, adherence is often sub-optimal. Multiple factors may contribute to treatment adherence, including disease knowledge and self-efficacy. In adolescents with cystic fibrosis: (i) to compare the disease knowledge of adolescents and their parents before transition to adult care; (ii) to determine the relationship between disease knowledge (adolescent, parent) and adherence; and (iii) to evaluate self-efficacy and its association with disease knowledge and adherence. Adolescents with cystic fibrosis and their parents were recruited from a tertiary children's hospital. Disease knowledge and self-efficacy was assessed using the Knowledge of Disease Management-CF and General Self-Efficacy Scales respectively. Using pharmacy records, medication possession ratio was calculated to measure treatment adherence in the preceding year. Thirty-nine adolescent (aged 12-17 (median 14) years) and parent pairs were recruited. Adherence to hypertonic saline, but not other medications, was significantly associated with disease knowledge in adolescents (r (2)  = 0.40, P = 0.029). Mean (SD) adolescent self-efficacy was 30.8 (4.0), and not associated with disease knowledge or adherence. Mean (SD) disease knowledge was less in adolescents than parents (55 (16)% and 72 (14)% respectively, P < 0.001). Disease knowledge is sub-optimal in adolescents with cystic fibrosis, even in the 2 years immediately before transition to adult care. Given that adherence with some treatments has been associated with disease knowledge our results suggest the need for educational interventions in adolescents with cystic fibrosis to optimise self-management and health outcomes. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Current state of knowledge on child-to-mother violence: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michel; Jackson, Debra; Mannix, Judy; Wilkes, Lesley; Lines, Karin

    Child-to-mother violence is a common aspect of family violence, and presents nurses and health workers with continuing challenges. Though noted in the literature as early as the 1950's, this phenomenon remains poorly understood. A number of reasons for the lack of research scrutiny are proposed, the most compelling being that child-to-mother violence has been framed within the discourse of juvenile delinquency rather than family violence. Thus, unlike other forms of family violence, it has escaped close examination by health and welfare workers. A literature review was conducted to examine current knowledge of child-to-mother violence. Study of the literature reveals only partial understandings of this neglected aspect of family pathology. Directions for research to address these gaps in knowledge are drawn from the findings of this literature review.

  16. Current practice patterns and knowledge among gynecologic surgeons of InterStim® programming after implantation.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Deslyn T G; Gaskins, Jeremy T; Frazier, LaTisha; Francis, Sean L; Kinman, Casey L; Meriwether, Kate V

    2017-10-03

    The objective of this study was to describe surgeons' current practices in InterStim® programming after initial implantation and their knowledge of programming parameters. We hypothesized that surgeons performing their own reprogramming would have increased knowledge. We administered a written survey to attendees at the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons Scientific Meeting and analyzed those on which surgeons indicated they offer InterStim® care. The survey queried surgeon characteristics, experience with InterStim® implantation and programming, and clinical opinions regarding reprogramming and tested six knowledge-based questions about programming parameters. Correct response to all six questions was the primary outcome. One hundred and thirty-five of 407 (33%) attendees returned the survey, of which 99 met inclusion criteria. Most respondents (88 of 99; 89%) were between 36 and 60 years, 27 (73%) were women, 76 (77%) practiced in a university setting, and 76 (77%) were trained in Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery (FPMRS). Surgeons who had InterStim® programming training were more likely to perform their own programming [15/46 (32%) vs 6/47 (13%), p = 0.03]. Most answered all knowledge-based questions correctly (62/90, 69%); no surgeon characteristics were significantly associated with this outcome. Most surgeons cited patient comfort (71/80, 89%) and symptom relief (64/80, 80%) as important factors when reprogramming, but no prevalent themes emerged on how and why surgeons change certain programming parameters. Surgeons who had formal InterStim® programming training are more likely to perform programming themselves. No surgeon characteristic was associated with improved programming knowledge. We found that surgeons prioritize patient comfort and symptoms when deciding to reprogram.

  17. Rapidly expanding knowledge on the role of the gut microbiome in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Cénit, M C; Matzaraki, V; Tigchelaar, E F; Zhernakova, A

    2014-10-01

    The human gut is colonized by a wide diversity of micro-organisms, which are now known to play a key role in the human host by regulating metabolic functions and immune homeostasis. Many studies have indicated that the genomes of our gut microbiota, known as the gut microbiome or our "other genome" could play an important role in immune-related, complex diseases, and growing evidence supports a causal role for gut microbiota in regulating predisposition to diseases. A comprehensive analysis of the human gut microbiome is thus important to unravel the exact mechanisms by which the gut microbiota are involved in health and disease. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technology, along with the development of metagenomics and bioinformatics tools, have provided opportunities to characterize the microbial communities. Furthermore, studies using germ-free animals have shed light on how the gut microbiota are involved in autoimmunity. In this review we describe the different approaches used to characterize the human microbiome, review current knowledge about the gut microbiome, and discuss the role of gut microbiota in immune homeostasis and autoimmunity. Finally, we indicate how this knowledge could be used to improve human health by manipulating the gut microbiota. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: From Genome to Function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Degree of Disease Knowledge in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Multi-center Prospective Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, In Du; Park, Moo In; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Beom Jin; Kim, Sang Wook; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Sung, Hye Young; Oh, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Patient education has been shown to be beneficial in several diseases. To properly educate patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), it is necessary to understand how much they already know about their disease. However, no study has examined the degree of disease knowledge in Korean patients with GERD. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the degree of knowledge in such patients. Methods This multicenter prospective study was conducted from January 2014 to January 2015. A total of 746 patients (mean age, 52 years; 57.6% female) were enrolled from 7 hospitals in Korea. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of GERD and ability to properly complete a survey. Degree of disease knowledge was assessed using the translated, validated Korean Urnes questionnaire, which consists of 22 items related to GERD. Results Mean percentage of correct answers was 46.3% and mean GERD knowledge score was 9.6. Degree of knowledge (mean percentage of correct answers) regarding etiology, prognosis, and treatment of GERD were 49.5%, 36.7%, and 37.5%, respectively. Degree of disease knowledge differed significantly according to age (P < 0.001), education (P < 0.001), income (P = 0.028), and occupation (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, using multiple logistic regression, the higher knowledge score group tended to have higher education and professional occupation. Conclusions The surveyed Korean patients had relatively low disease knowledge, suggesting that a GERD educational program may be beneficial in Korea. Formulation of a program is underway. PMID:28478662

  19. [Leptospirosis in French Guiana and the Guiana shield: Current knowledge in 2016].

    PubMed

    Epelboin, L; Bourhy, P; Le Turnier, P; Schaub, R; Mosnier, E; Berlioz-Arthaud, A; Reynaud, Y; Nacher, M; De Thoisy, B; Carles, G; Richard-Hansen, C; Demar, M; Picardeau, M; Djossou, F

    2017-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Whether the distribution is worldwide, the hot and humid climate of the tropics is particularly conducive to its expansion. In most French overseas departments and territories, leptospirosis is considered as a public health problem. In French Guiana, a French department located in the northeastern part of the Amazon rainforest, it is supposed to be rare. The objective of this review was to make an inventory of the knowledge on human and animal leptospirosis in French Guiana and neighboring countries. A comprehensive search was conducted through the indexed and informal medical literature in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese. Thus, respectively ten and four publications were identified on human and animal leptospirosis in French Guiana, published between 1940 and 1995 in the form of case reports or case series. The publications concerning this disease in the other countries of the Guiana Shield, eastern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and Brazilian state of Amapá, also scarce or nonexistent. However recent data from the French National Centre of leptospirosis showed a recent and sudden increase in the number of cases in the department, probably partly due to the development of diagnostic tools such as Elisa IgM serology. It is likely that leptospirosis is a neglected disease in the region, due to the lack of diagnostic tools readily available, the lack of knowledge of the local clinicians on this disease and the existence of many other pathogens with similar clinical presentation such as malaria, arboviruses and Q fever and Amazonian toxoplasmosis. The establishment of more large-scale studies on animal and human leptospirosis is necessary and urgent to know the true burden of this disease in our region.

  20. Dietary fibre in Europe: current state of knowledge on definitions, sources, recommendations, intakes and relationships to health.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Alison M; Champ, Martine M-J; Cloran, Susan J; Fleith, Mathilde; van Lieshout, Lilou; Mejborn, Heddie; Burley, Victoria J

    2017-07-05

    Research into the analysis, physical properties and health effects of dietary fibre has continued steadily over the last 40-50 years. From the knowledge gained, countries have developed guidelines for their populations on the optimal amount of fibre to be consumed each day. Food composition tables from many countries now contain values for the dietary fibre content of foods, and, from these, combined with dietary surveys, population intakes have been determined. The present review assessed the uniformity of the analytical methods used, health claims permitted, recommendations and intakes, particularly from national surveys across Europe and around the world. It also assessed current knowledge on health effects of dietary fibre and related the impact of different fibre types on health. The overall intent was to be able to provide more detailed guidance on the types of fibre which should be consumed for good health, rather than simply a total intake figure, the current situation. Analysis of data indicated a fair degree of uniformity in the definition of dietary fibre, the method used for analysis, the recommended amount to be consumed and a growing literature on effects on digestive health and disease risk. However, national dietary survey data showed that intakes do not reach recommendations and very few countries provide guidance on the types of fibre that are preferable to achieve recommended intakes. Research gaps were identified and ideas suggested to provide information for more detailed advice to the public about specific food sources that should be consumed to achieve health benefits.

  1. Comparative ecophysiology of active zoobenthic filter feeding, essence of current knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Larsen, P. S.

    2000-12-01

    The present contribution gives an overview of current knowledge of a comprehensive and steadily growing research field. The first section deals with water pumping and particle retention mechanisms in ciliary and muscular filter feeders. The second section examines the biological filter pumps in order to assess adaptation to the environment. Filter-feeding benthic invertebrates have evolved filter pumps to solve common basic problems. This has led to a large degree of similarity between otherwise distant standing species, which makes comparative studies interesting and important. The present review of zoobenthic filter feeding aims at accentuating such recognition.

  2. Transcranial direct current stimulation in post stroke aphasia and primary progressive aphasia: Current knowledge and future clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Rajani; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Tippett, Donna C

    2016-06-13

    The application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in chronic post stroke aphasia is documented in a substantial literature, and there is some new evidence that tDCS can augment favorable language outcomes in primary progressive aphasia. Anodal tDCS is most often applied to the left hemisphere language areas to increase cortical excitability (increase the threshold of activation) and cathodal tDCS is most often applied to the right hemisphere homotopic areas to inhibit over activation in contralesional right homologues of language areas. Outcomes usually are based on neuropsychological and language test performance, following a medical model which emphasizes impairment of function, rather than a model which emphasizes functional communication. In this paper, we review current literature of tDCS as it is being used as a research tool, and discuss future implementation of tDCS as an adjuvant treatment to behavioral speech-language pathology intervention. We review literature describing non-invasive brain stimulation, the mechanism of tDCS, and studies of tDCS in aphasia and neurodegenerative disorders. We discuss future clinical applications. tDCS is a promising adjunct to traditional speech-language pathology intervention to address speech-language deficits after stroke and in the neurodegenerative disease, primary progressive aphasia. Limited data are available regarding how performance on these types of specific tasks translates to functional communication outcomes.

  3. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Post Stroke Aphasia and Primary Progressive Aphasia: Current Knowledge and Future Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Rajani; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Tippett, Donna C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in chronic post stroke aphasia is documented in a substantial literature, and there is some new evidence that tDCS can augment favorable language outcomes in primary progressive aphasia. Anodal tDCS is most often applied to the left hemisphere language areas to increase cortical excitability (increase the threshold of activation) and cathodal tDCS is most often applied to the right hemisphere homotopic areas to inhibit over activation in contralesional right homologues of language areas. Outcomes usually are based on neuropsychological and language test performance, following a medical model which emphasizes impairment of function, rather than a model which emphasizes functional communication. OBJECTIVE In this paper, we review current literature of tDCS as it is being used as a research tool, and discuss future implementation of tDCS as an adjuvant treatment to behavioral speech-language pathology intervention. METHODS We review literature describing non-invasive brain stimulation, the mechanism of tDCS, and studies of tDCS in aphasia and neurodegenerative disorders. We discuss future clinical applications. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS tDCS is a promising adjunct to traditional speech-language pathology intervention to address speech-language deficits after stroke and in the neurodegenerative disease, primary progressive aphasia. Limited data are available regarding how performance on these types of specific tasks translates to functional communication outcomes. PMID:27314871

  4. Gene therapy in Parkinson's disease: rationale and current status.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li Rebekah; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A

    2010-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder, typified by the progressive loss of substantia nigra pars compacta dopamine neurons and the consequent decrease in the neurotransmitter dopamine. Patients exhibit a range of clinical symptoms, with the most common affecting motor function and including resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, bradykinesia and postural instability. Current pharmacological interventions are palliative and largely aimed at increasing dopamine levels through increased production and/or inhibition of metabolism of this key neurotransmitter. The gold standard for treatment of both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease is the peripheral administration of the dopamine precursor, levodopa. However, many patients gradually develop levodopa-induced dyskinesias and motor fluctuations. In addition, dopamine enhancement therapies are most useful when a portion of the nigrostriatal pathway is intact. Consequently, as the number of substantia nigra dopamine neurons and striatal projections decrease, these treatments become less efficacious. Current translational research is focused on the development of novel disease-modifying therapies, including those utilizing gene therapeutic approaches. Herein we present an overview of current gene therapy clinical trials for Parkinson's disease. Employing either recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (rAAV2) or lentivirus vectors, these clinical trials are focused on three overarching approaches: augmentation of dopamine levels via increased neurotransmitter production; modulation of the neuronal phenotype; and neuroprotection. The first two therapies discussed in this article focus on increasing dopamine production via direct delivery of genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis (amino acid decarboxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase and GTP [guanosine triphosphate] cyclohydrolase 1). In an attempt to bypass the degenerating nigrostriatal pathway, a third clinical trial

  5. Therapies for Parkinson's diseases: alternatives to current pharmacological interventions.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Dong, Jie; Cheng, Cheng; Le, Weidong

    2016-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder caused by the selective and progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although PD has been heavily researched, the precise etiology and pathogenesis for PD are still inconclusive. Consequently, current pharmacological treatments for PD are largely symptomatic rather than preventive and there is still no cure for this disease nowadays. Moreover, nonmotor symptoms caused by intrinsic PD pathology or side effects induced by currently used pharmacological interventions are gaining increasing attention and urgently need to be treated due to their influence on quality of life. As ancient traditional healing systems, Tai Chi, Yoga, acupuncture and natural products have long been considered as complementary or alternative therapeutic options for PD. Recently, several newly developed non-pharmacological therapeutic strategies, including deep brain stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, near-infrared light, gene therapy and cell replacement therapy, have also been suggested to give benefits to relieve parkinsonian symptoms. This review will summarize and update the therapeutic potential and the most recent research progresses of these traditional and modern therapeutic options and highlight their clinical meaning for the therapy of not only PD but also other neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. A review of current knowledge of the complement system and the therapeutic opportunities in inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, M

    2006-01-01

    The complement activation system, a key component of the innate immune system, protects the host from microorganisms such as bacteria, and other foreign threats including abnormal cells. However, it is also double-edged in that it can have negative effects in the host; excessive complement activation damages the host and can even kill in anaphylactic shock and septic shock. Regulation of the complement system is a useful strategy to control inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a common inflammatory disease worldwide. Many medicines are developed to control inflammation, including recently developed biological response modifiers such as anti-TNF and IL-6 agents. Nevertheless, in some patients disease remains difficult to control because of complications, side effects and tolerance of medicines. In inflammatory arthritis, including rheumatoid arthritis, there is abundant evidence implicating complement activation in humans and animal models. Therefore, anti-complement agents might be beneficial as part of clinical treatment. However, at present, there are still no applicable agents for therapeutic regulation of excessive complement activation in chronic disease. Novel agents in development might be useful as a strategy to control complement activation. Here I describe recent knowledge of the complement system in inflammatory arthritis, the recent developments in anti-complement agents and their considerable potential for the future.

  7. Prevention Trials in Alzheimer's Disease: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Over the past 20 years, both pharmacological and lifestyle interventions have been studied for AD prevention, but the overall results have been disappointing. The majority of disappointing results have raised questions and great challenges for the future of AD prevention trials. Ongoing advances in the knowledge of pathogenesis, in the identification of novel targets, in improved outcome measures, and in identification and validation of biomarkers may lead to effective strategies for AD prevention. In this paper, we review the selection of participants and interventions, trial design, outcome assessments, and promising biomarkers in prevention trials, and summarize the lessons learned from completed trials and perspectives from ongoing trials in AD prevention. Selection of optimal participants and interventions, coupled with more refined outcomes and more efficient trial design, may have the capacity to deliver a new era of preventive discovery in this challenging area.

  8. Current concepts and future prospects for Alzheimer disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Heppner, Frank L; Gandy, Sam; McLaurin, JoAnne

    2004-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia worldwide and is characterized by the progressive accumulation of the 42-residue amyloid beta protein (A beta) in brain regions serving memory and cognition. Only a few years ago, the proposition that AD may be amenable to any kind of therapy would have met with considerable skepticism. Yet, recent, exciting developments appear to suggest that immunizing against A beta may bear some potential for arresting or even curing AD. However, a clinical trial of vaccination with synthetic human A beta in AD patients was halted because of the development of meningoencephalitis in some patients. Further studies aimed at elucidating the mechanism of A beta clearance upon A beta immunization are needed. Such knowledge might facilitate the design of specific vaccination regimens, allowing exclusive targeting of A beta plaques without inducing detrimental side effects.

  9. Knowledge of Ebola virus disease among a university population: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Salman, Muhammad; Shehzadi, Naureen; Hussain, Khalid; Saleem, Fahad; Khan, Muhammad Tanveer; Asif, Nauman; Yousaf, Maria; Rafique, Maham; Bedar, Rushda; Tariq, Sonia; AbuBakar, Usman; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar

    2017-02-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of a Pakistani university population (students and employees) regarding Ebola virus disease. A total of 2,200 individuals were approached and 1,647 were enrolled in the study. We observed that the vast majority of study participants (91.8%) had inadequate knowledge of Ebola virus disease (knowledge score ≤ 12). Our findings highlight the need to increase the knowledge of Ebola virus disease by using multidimensional approach involving awareness campaigns, print, electronic, and social media. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Current drug therapy and pharmaceutical challenges for Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, José; Davies, Carolina; Simonazzi, Analía; Real, Juan Pablo; Palma, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    One of the most significant health problems in the American continent in terms of human health, and socioeconomic impact is Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Infection was originally transmitted by reduviid insects, congenitally from mother to fetus, and by oral ingestion in sylvatic/rural environments, but blood transfusions, organ transplants, laboratory accidents, and sharing of contaminated syringes also contribute to modern day transmission. Likewise, Chagas disease used to be endemic from Northern Mexico to Argentina, but migrations have earned it global. The parasite has a complex life cycle, infecting different species, and invading a variety of cells - including muscle and nerve cells of the heart and gastrointestinal tract - in the mammalian host. Human infection outcome is a potentially fatal cardiomyopathy, and gastrointestinal tract lesions. In absence of a vaccine, vector control and treatment of patients are the only tools to control the disease. Unfortunately, the only drugs now available for Chagas' disease, Nifurtimox and Benznidazole, are relatively toxic for adult patients, and require prolonged administration. Benznidazole is the first choice for Chagas disease treatment due to its lower side effects than Nifurtimox. However, different strategies are being sought to overcome Benznidazole's toxicity including shorter or intermittent administration schedules-either alone or in combination with other drugs. In addition, a long list of compounds has shown trypanocidal activity, ranging from natural products to specially designed molecules, re-purposing drugs commercialized to treat other maladies, and homeopathy. In the present review, we will briefly summarize the upturns of current treatment of Chagas disease, discuss the increment on research and scientific publications about this topic, and give an overview of the state-of-the-art research aiming to produce an alternative medication to treat T. cruzi infection.

  11. College Students' Ageist Behavior: The Role of Aging Knowledge and Perceived Vulnerability to Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Metzger, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the associations among perceived vulnerability to disease, aging knowledge, and ageism (positive and negative) in a sample of undergraduate students enrolled in a human development course (N = 649; M age = 19.94 years, SD = 2.84 years). Perceived vulnerability to disease and aging knowledge were associated with…

  12. College Students' Ageist Behavior: The Role of Aging Knowledge and Perceived Vulnerability to Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Metzger, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the associations among perceived vulnerability to disease, aging knowledge, and ageism (positive and negative) in a sample of undergraduate students enrolled in a human development course (N = 649; M age = 19.94 years, SD = 2.84 years). Perceived vulnerability to disease and aging knowledge were associated with…

  13. Sexual chemoecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Current knowledge and implications for vector control programs.

    PubMed

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of medical and veterinary importance, due to their ability to transmit many pathogens and parasites. Renewed interest has been recently devoted to the potential of sterile insect technique (SIT) for mosquito suppression. However, the success of the SIT is mostly dependent on the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with the wild ones in the field. Nevertheless, little is known on the sexual chemical ecology of mosquitoes, with special reference to the role of chemical signals in males. We reviewed the current knowledge on mosquito sexual chemical ecology and other key cues affecting courtship and mating behavior. The information available on the aggregation and sex pheromones in mosquito males is rather limited. To the best of our knowledge, the components of the aggregation pheromone stimulating swarming mechanisms have been fully characterized only for Aedes aegypti, while evidence for aggregation pheromones in other mosquito species remains elusive. Further research on this issue is needed, as well as to dissect the relative importance of visual (with special reference to swarming landmarks), vibrational, olfactory and tactile cues perceived during swarming and mate. On the other hand, more knowledge is available for cuticular hydrocarbons, which modulate mating behavior in several species of economic importance. These compounds, coupled with volatile aggregation components, have potential interest for the development of monitoring and trapping systems. In addition, the analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons are essential for discrimination between closely related mosquito species and/or populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a critical review of current knowledge and contemporary debates.

    PubMed

    Braun, Virginia

    2010-07-01

    Female genital cosmetic surgery procedures have gained popularity in the West in recent years. Marketing by surgeons promotes the surgeries, but professional organizations have started to question the promotion and practice of these procedures. Despite some surgeon claims of drastic transformations of psychological, emotional, and sexual life associated with the surgery, little reliable evidence of such effects exists. This article achieves two objectives. First, reviewing the published academic work on the topic, it identifies the current state of knowledge around female genital cosmetic procedures, as well as limitations in our knowledge. Second, examining a body of critical scholarship that raises sociological and psychological concerns not typically addressed in medical literature, it summarizes broader issues and debates. Overall, the article demonstrates a paucity of scientific knowledge and highlights a pressing need to consider the broader ramifications of surgical practices. "Today we have a whole society held in thrall to the drastic plastic of labial rejuvenation."( 1 ) "At the present time, the field of female cosmetic genital surgery is like the old Wild, Wild West: wide open and unregulated"( 2 ).

  15. Current and future therapies for inherited cholestatic liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    van der Woerd, Wendy L; Houwen, Roderick HJ; van de Graaf, Stan FJ

    2017-01-01

    Familial intrahepatic cholestasis (FIC) comprises a group of rare cholestatic liver diseases associated with canalicular transport defects resulting predominantly from mutations in ATP8B1, ABCB11 and ABCB4. Phenotypes range from benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC), associated with recurrent cholestatic attacks, to progressive FIC (PFIC). Patients often suffer from severe pruritus and eventually progressive cholestasis results in liver failure. Currently, first-line treatment includes ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with ABCB4 deficiency (PFIC3) and partial biliary diversion in patients with ATP8B1 or ABCB11 deficiency (PFIC1 and PFIC2). When treatment fails, liver transplantation is needed which is associated with complications like rejection, post-transplant hepatic steatosis and recurrence of disease. Therefore, the need for more and better therapies for this group of chronic diseases remains. Here, we discuss new symptomatic treatment options like total biliary diversion, pharmacological diversion of bile acids and hepatocyte transplantation. Furthermore, we focus on emerging mutation-targeted therapeutic strategies, providing an outlook for future personalized treatment for inherited cholestatic liver diseases. PMID:28223721

  16. The current status of bone scintigraphy in malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Dasgeb, Bahar; Mulligan, Michael H; Kim, Chun K

    2007-12-01

    For the past few decades, planar bone scintigraphy has been the most frequently performed imaging study in the evaluation of metastatic bone disease. Although scintigraphic findings alone are often nonspecific for skeletal pathologies, this technique reportedly has an exquisite sensitivity. However, recently accumulated data on the efficacy of positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose and fluorine-18 sodium fluoride as well as magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating skeletal metastatic disease now indicate that conventional planar bone scintigraphy is not very sensitive in the detection of metastatic bone lesions in selected malignancies. Nevertheless, bone scintigraphy still remains the primary imaging modality for evaluation of metastatic bone disease owing mainly to its cost effectiveness and wide availability. In addition, recently introduced hybrid imaging systems combining single-photon emission computed tomography and spiral computed tomography, although not widely available yet, increase considerably both the sensitivity and specificity of bone scintigraphy. This article focuses primarily on the current role of bone scintigraphy and its strengths and weaknesses in assessing different types of malignant diseases relative to other imaging modalities in selected malignancies.

  17. Alzheimer's disease genetics current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a genetically complex disease whose pathogenesis is largely influenced by genetic factors. Three decades of intensive research have yielded four established AD genes (APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, APOE), and hundreds of potential susceptibility loci, none of which has been unequivocally shown to modify disease risk using conventional methodologies. The results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are now adding to an already vast and complicated body of data. To facilitate the evaluation and interpretation of these findings, we have recently created a database for genetic association studies in AD ("AlzGene"; available at http://www.alzgene.org). In addition to systematically screening and summarizing the scientific literature for eligible studies, AlzGene provides the results of allele-based meta-analyses for all polymorphisms with sufficient genotype data. Currently, these meta-analyses highlight over 20 different potential AD genes, several of which were originally implicated by a GWAS. First follow-up analyses in a large collection of over 1300 AD families reveal that-in addition to APOE-genetic variants in ACE, CHRNB2, GAB2, and TF show the most consistent risk effects across a wide range of independent samples and study designs. The chapter highlights these and other promising findings from the recent AD genetics literature and provides an overview of the powerful new tools aiding researchers today to unravel the genetic underpinnings of this devastating disease.

  18. Current and Prospective Methods for Plant Disease Detection

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yi; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P.

    2015-01-01

    Food losses due to crop infections from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi are persistent issues in agriculture for centuries across the globe. In order to minimize the disease induced damage in crops during growth, harvest and postharvest processing, as well as to maximize productivity and ensure agricultural sustainability, advanced disease detection and prevention in crops are imperative. This paper reviews the direct and indirect disease identification methods currently used in agriculture. Laboratory-based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence (IF), fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry (FCM) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are some of the direct detection methods. Indirect methods include thermography, fluorescence imaging and hyperspectral techniques. Finally, the review also provides a comprehensive overview of biosensors based on highly selective bio-recognition elements such as enzyme, antibody, DNA/RNA and bacteriophage as a new tool for the early identification of crop diseases. PMID:26287253

  19. Birdshot chorioretinopathy: current knowledge and new concepts in pathophysiology, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment.

    PubMed

    Minos, Evangelos; Barry, Robert J; Southworth, Sue; Folkard, Annie; Murray, Philip I; Duker, Jay S; Keane, Pearse A; Denniston, Alastair K

    2016-05-12

    Birdshot chorioretinopathy (BCR) is a rare form of chronic, bilateral, posterior uveitis with a distinctive clinical phenotype, and a strong association with HLA-A29. It predominantly affects people in middle age. Given its rarity, patients often encounter delays in diagnosis leading to delays in adequate treatment, and thus risking significant visual loss. Recent advances have helped increase our understanding of the underlying autoimmune mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis, and new diagnostic approaches such as multimodality imaging have improved our ability to both diagnose and monitor disease activity. Whilst traditional immunosuppressants may be effective in BCR, increased understanding of immune pathways is enabling development of newer treatment modalities, offering the potential for targeted modulation of immune mediators. In this review, we will discuss current understanding of BCR and explore recent developments in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of this disease. Synonyms for BCR: Birdshot chorioretinopathy, Birdshot retinochoroiditis, Birdshot retino-choroidopathy, Vitiliginous choroiditis. Orphanet number: ORPHA179 OMIM: 605808.

  20. Current Pharmacological Management in Juvenile Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Lisa; Santini, Helen; O'Donovan, Kirsty L; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Barker, Roger A; Rakowicz, Maria; Landwehrmeyer, G. Bernhard; Quarrell, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Background: The clinical presentation of Juvenile Huntington’s Disease (JHD) can be very different from adult-onset HD with little evidence to guide symptomatic management. Aim: To survey the current use of pharmacological treatments for JHD. Methods: Patients were identified through the HD Association, Hospital Doctors and the European Huntington’s Disease Network REGISTRY study. Results: The most commonly prescribed agents were anti-psychotics (24/45), anti-depressants (17/45) and anti-parkinsonian medications (15/45). 5 patients were taking more than 8 medications. Conclusions: The most commonly prescribed group of medication was the anti-psychotic. Many patients were on multiple therapies, highlighting the need to rationalise medications. PMID:22474619

  1. Zika virus disease: a current review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Atif, Muhammad; Azeem, Muhammad; Sarwar, Muhammad Rehan; Bashir, Arslan

    2016-12-01

    The massive pandemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading through South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and possibly the USA. It is the most recent of four surprising appearances of imperative arthropod-borne viral illnesses in the Western Hemisphere over the preceding 20 years. The objective of this narrative review is to summarize the existing knowledge about the epidemiology, transmission, clinical manifestations, complications, replication, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment and prevention of ZIKV infection. We used electronic databases to identify relevant published data regarding ZIKV in BOOLEAN and MeSH searches. This review concludes that the ZIKV predominantly circulates in arboreal mosquitoes (e.g., Aedes africanus) and wild primates. It rarely causes severe infection in humans, even in extremely enzootic regions. Currently, we do not have any efficacious drugs against ZIKV infection. However, there are virus-specific therapeutic targets, which may lead to the development of targeted anti-ZIKV drugs.

  2. Elicitors as alternative strategy to pesticides in grapevine? Current knowledge on their mode of action from controlled conditions to vineyard.

    PubMed

    Delaunois, Bertrand; Farace, Giovanni; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2014-04-01

    Development and optimisation of alternative strategies to reduce the use of classic chemical inputs for protection against diseases in vineyard is becoming a necessity. Among these strategies, one of the most promising consists in the stimulation and/or potentiation of the grapevine defence responses by the means of elicitors. Elicitors are highly diverse molecules both in nature and origins. This review aims at providing an overview of the current knowledge on these molecules and will highlight their potential efficacy from the laboratory in controlled conditions to vineyards. Recent findings and concepts (especially on plant innate immunity) and the new terminology (microbe-associated molecular patterns, effectors, etc.) are also discussed in this context. Other objectives of this review are to highlight the difficulty of transferring elicitors use and results from the controlled conditions to the vineyard, to determine their practical and effective use in viticulture and to propose ideas for improving their efficacy in non-controlled conditions.

  3. Associations among perceived and objective disease knowledge and satisfaction with physician communication in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Julie A. Wright; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Eden, Svetlana K.; Shintani, Ayumi K.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Cavanaugh, Kerri L.

    2013-01-01

    It is likely that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a limited understanding of their illness. Here we studied the relationships between objective and perceived knowledge in CKD using the Kidney Disease Knowledge Survey and the Perceived Kidney Disease Knowledge Survey. We quantified perceived and objective knowledge in 399 patients at all stages of non-dialysis dependent CKD. Demographically, the patient median age was 58 years, 47% were women, 77% had stages 3-5 CKD, and 83% were Caucasians. The overall median score of the perceived knowledge survey was 2.56 (range: 1-4), and this new measure exhibited excellent reliability and construct validity. In unadjusted analysis, perceived knowledge was associated with patient characteristics defined a priori, including objective knowledge and patient satisfaction with physician communication. In adjusted analysis, older age, male gender, and limited health literacy were associated with lower perceived knowledge. Additional analysis revealed that perceived knowledge was associated with significantly higher odds (2.13), and objective knowledge with lower odds (0.91), of patient satisfaction with physician communication. Thus, our results present a mechanism to evaluate distinct forms of patient kidney knowledge, and identify specific opportunities for education tailored to patients with CKD. PMID:21832984

  4. The Immunology of Neuromyelitis Optica-Current Knowledge, Clinical Implications, Controversies and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jasiak-Zatonska, Michalina; Kalinowska-Lyszczarz, Alicja; Michalak, Slawomir; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2016-03-02

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with typical clinical manifestations of optic neuritis and acute transverse myelitis attacks. Previously believed to be a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is now considered an independent disorder which needs to be differentiated from MS. The discovery of autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgGs) changed our understanding of NMO immunopathogenesis and revolutionized the diagnostic process. AQP4-IgG is currently regarded as a specific biomarker of NMO and NMO spectrum disorders (NMOsd) and a key factor in its pathogenesis. Nevertheless, AQP4-IgG seronegativity in 10%-25% of NMO patients suggests that there are several other factors involved in NMO immunopathogenesis, i.e., autoantibodies against aquaporin-1 (AQP1-Abs) and antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgGs). This manuscript reviews current knowledge about NMO immunopathogenesis, pointing out the controversial issues and showing potential directions for future research. Further efforts should be made to broaden our knowledge of NMO immunology which could have important implications for clinical practice, including the use of potential novel biomarkers to facilitate an early and accurate diagnosis, and modern treatment strategies improving long-term outcome of NMO patients.

  5. The Immunology of Neuromyelitis Optica—Current Knowledge, Clinical Implications, Controversies and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Jasiak-Zatonska, Michalina; Kalinowska-Lyszczarz, Alicja; Michalak, Slawomir; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with typical clinical manifestations of optic neuritis and acute transverse myelitis attacks. Previously believed to be a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is now considered an independent disorder which needs to be differentiated from MS. The discovery of autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgGs) changed our understanding of NMO immunopathogenesis and revolutionized the diagnostic process. AQP4-IgG is currently regarded as a specific biomarker of NMO and NMO spectrum disorders (NMOsd) and a key factor in its pathogenesis. Nevertheless, AQP4-IgG seronegativity in 10%–25% of NMO patients suggests that there are several other factors involved in NMO immunopathogenesis, i.e., autoantibodies against aquaporin-1 (AQP1-Abs) and antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgGs). This manuscript reviews current knowledge about NMO immunopathogenesis, pointing out the controversial issues and showing potential directions for future research. Further efforts should be made to broaden our knowledge of NMO immunology which could have important implications for clinical practice, including the use of potential novel biomarkers to facilitate an early and accurate diagnosis, and modern treatment strategies improving long-term outcome of NMO patients. PMID:26950113

  6. Biological Determinants Linking Infant Weight Gain and Child Obesity: Current Knowledge and Future Directions12

    PubMed Central

    Young, Bridget E.; Johnson, Susan L.; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions. Excessive weight gain in infancy is associated with persistence of elevated weight status and later obesity. In this review, we make the case that weight gain in the first 6 mo is especially predictive of later obesity risk due to the metabolic programming that can occur early postpartum. The current state of knowledge regarding the biological determinants of excess infant weight gain is reviewed, with particular focus on infant feeding choice. Potential mechanisms by which different feeding approaches may program the metabolic profile of the infant, causing the link between early weight gain and later obesity are proposed. These mechanisms are likely highly complex and involve synergistic interactions between endocrine effects and factors that alter the inflammatory and oxidative stress status of the infant. Gaps in current knowledge are highlighted. These include a lack of data describing 1) what type of infant body fat distribution may impart risk and 2) how maternal metabolic dysfunction (obesity and/or diabetes) may affect milk composition and exert downstream effects on infant metabolism. Improved understanding and management of these early postnatal determinants of childhood obesity may have great impact on reducing its prevalence. PMID:22983846

  7. Biological determinants linking infant weight gain and child obesity: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Young, Bridget E; Johnson, Susan L; Krebs, Nancy F

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions. Excessive weight gain in infancy is associated with persistence of elevated weight status and later obesity. In this review, we make the case that weight gain in the first 6 mo is especially predictive of later obesity risk due to the metabolic programming that can occur early postpartum. The current state of knowledge regarding the biological determinants of excess infant weight gain is reviewed, with particular focus on infant feeding choice. Potential mechanisms by which different feeding approaches may program the metabolic profile of the infant, causing the link between early weight gain and later obesity are proposed. These mechanisms are likely highly complex and involve synergistic interactions between endocrine effects and factors that alter the inflammatory and oxidative stress status of the infant. Gaps in current knowledge are highlighted. These include a lack of data describing 1) what type of infant body fat distribution may impart risk and 2) how maternal metabolic dysfunction (obesity and/or diabetes) may affect milk composition and exert downstream effects on infant metabolism. Improved understanding and management of these early postnatal determinants of childhood obesity may have great impact on reducing its prevalence.

  8. Current knowledge on the genetics of autism and propositions for future research.

    PubMed

    Bourgeron, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by problems in social communication, as well as by the presence of restricted interests, stereotyped and repetitive behaviours. In the last 40years, genetic studies have provided crucial information on the causes of ASD and its diversity. In this article, I will first review the current knowledge on the genetics of ASD and then suggest three propositions to foster research in this field. Twin and familial studies estimated the heritability of ASD to be 50%. While most of the inherited part of ASD is captured by common variants, our current knowledge on the genetics of ASD comes almost exclusively from the identification of highly penetrant de novo mutations through candidate gene or whole exome/genome sequencing studies. Approximately 10% of patients with ASD, especially those with intellectual disability, are carriers of de novo copy-number (CNV) or single nucleotide variants (SNV) affecting clinically relevant genes for ASD. Given the function of these genes, it was hypothesized that abnormal synaptic plasticity and failure of neuronal/synaptic homeostasis could increase the risk of ASD. In addition to these discoveries, three propositions coming from institutions, researchers and/or communities of patients and families can be made to foster research on ASD: (i) to use more dimensional and quantitative data than diagnostic categories; (ii) to increase data sharing and research on genetic and brain diversity in human populations; (iii) to involve patients and relatives as participants for research. Hopefully, this knowledge will lead to a better diagnosis, care and integration of individuals with ASD.

  9. Fertility preservation in cancer survivors: a national survey of oncologists' current knowledge, practice and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Adams, E; Hill, E; Watson, E

    2013-01-01

    Background: Around 1 in 10 of all cancer cases occur in adults of reproductive age. Cancer and its treatments can cause long-term effects, such as loss of fertility, which can lead to poor emotional adjustment. Unmet information needs are associated with higher levels of anxiety. US research suggests that many oncologists do not discuss fertility. Very little research exists about fertility information provision in the United Kingdom. This study aimed to explore current knowledge, practice and attitudes among oncologists in the United Kingdom regarding fertility preservation in patients of child-bearing age. Methods: A national online survey of 100 oncologists conducted online via medeconnect, a company which has exclusive access to the doctors.net.uk membership of GMC registered doctors. Results: Oncologists saw fertility preservation (FP) as mainly a women's issue, and yet only felt knowledgeable about sperm storage, not other methods of FP; 87% expressed a need for more information. Most reported discussing the impact of treatment on fertility with patients, but only 38% reported routinely providing patients with written information, and 1/3 reported they did not usually refer patients who had questions about fertility to a specialist fertility service. Twenty-three per cent had never consulted any FP guidelines. The main barriers to initiating discussions about FP were lack of time, lack of knowledge, perceived poor success rates of FP options, poor patient prognosis and, to a lesser extent, if the patient already had children, was single, or could not afford FP treatment. Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest a deficiency in UK oncologist's knowledge about FP options and highlights that the provision of information to patients about FP may be sub-optimal. Oncologists may benefit from further education, and further research is required to establish if patients perceive a need for further information about FP options. PMID:23579214

  10. Automatically extracting cancer disease characteristics from pathology reports into a Disease Knowledge Representation Model.

    PubMed

    Coden, Anni; Savova, Guergana; Sominsky, Igor; Tanenblatt, Michael; Masanz, James; Schuler, Karin; Cooper, James; Guan, Wei; de Groen, Piet C

    2009-10-01

    We introduce an extensible and modifiable knowledge representation model to represent cancer disease characteristics in a comparable and consistent fashion. We describe a system, MedTAS/P which automatically instantiates the knowledge representation model from free-text pathology reports. MedTAS/P is based on an open-source framework and its components use natural language processing principles, machine learning and rules to discover and populate elements of the model. To validate the model and measure the accuracy of MedTAS/P, we developed a gold-standard corpus of manually annotated colon cancer pathology reports. MedTAS/P achieves F1-scores of 0.97-1.0 for instantiating classes in the knowledge representation model such as histologies or anatomical sites, and F1-scores of 0.82-0.93 for primary tumors or lymph nodes, which require the extractions of relations. An F1-score of 0.65 is reported for metastatic tumors, a lower score predominantly due to a very small number of instances in the training and test sets.

  11. Genetic therapy for vein bypass graft disease: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Simosa, Hector F; Conte, Michael S

    2004-01-01

    Although continued progress in endovascular technology holds promise for less invasive approaches to arterial diseases, surgical bypass grafting remains the mainstay of therapy for patients with advanced coronary and peripheral ischemia. In the United States, nearly 400,000 coronary and 100,000 lower extremity bypass procedures are performed annually. The autogenous vein, particularly the greater saphenous vein, has proven to be a durable and versatile arterial substitute, with secondary patency rates at 5 years of 70 to 80% in the extremity. However, vein graft failure is a common occurrence that incurs significant morbidity and mortality, and, to date, pharmacologic approaches to prolong vein graft patency have produced limited results. Dramatic advances in genetics, coupled with a rapidly expanding knowledge of the molecular basis of vascular diseases, have set the stage for genetic interventions. The attraction of a genetic approach to vein graft failure is based on the notion that the tissue at risk is readily accessible to the clinician prior to the onset of the pathologic process and the premise that genetic reprogramming of cells in the wall of the vein can lead to an improved healing response. Although the pathophysiology of vein graft failure is incompletely understood, numerous relevant molecular targets have been elucidated. Interventions designed to influence cell proliferation, thrombosis, inflammation, and matrix remodeling at the genetic level have been described, and many have been tested in animal models. Both gene delivery and gene blockade strategies have been investigated, with the latter reaching the stage of advanced clinical trials.

  12. Burden of Circulatory System Diseases and Ignored Barriers of Knowledge Translation

    PubMed Central

    Ghafouri, Hamed-Basir; Saravani, Shahzad; Shokraneh, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Circulatory system disease raise third highest disability-adjusted life years among Iranians and ischemic cardiac diseases are main causes for such burden. Despite available evidences on risk factors of the disease, no effective intervention was implemented to control and prevent the disease. This paper non-systematically reviews available literature on the problem, solutions, and barriers of implementation of knowledge translation in Iran. It seems that there are ignored factors such as cultural and motivational issues in knowledge translation interventions but there are hopes for implementation of started projects and preparation of students as next generation of knowledge transferors. PMID:24250994

  13. Network-based prediction and knowledge mining of disease genes.

    PubMed

    Carson, Matthew B; Lu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, high-throughput protein interaction identification methods have generated a large amount of data. When combined with the results from other in vivo and in vitro experiments, a complex set of relationships between biological molecules emerges. The growing popularity of network analysis and data mining has allowed researchers to recognize indirect connections between these molecules. Due to the interdependent nature of network entities, evaluating proteins in this context can reveal relationships that may not otherwise be evident. We examined the human protein interaction network as it relates to human illness using the Disease Ontology. After calculating several topological metrics, we trained an alternating decision tree (ADTree) classifier to identify disease-associated proteins. Using a bootstrapping method, we created a tree to highlight conserved characteristics shared by many of these proteins. Subsequently, we reviewed a set of non-disease-associated proteins that were misclassified by the algorithm with high confidence and searched for evidence of a disease relationship. Our classifier was able to predict disease-related genes with 79% area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), which indicates the tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity and is a good predictor of how a classifier will perform on future data sets. We found that a combination of several network characteristics including degree centrality, disease neighbor ratio, eccentricity, and neighborhood connectivity help to distinguish between disease- and non-disease-related proteins. Furthermore, the ADTree allowed us to understand which combinations of strongly predictive attributes contributed most to protein-disease classification. In our post-processing evaluation, we found several examples of potential novel disease-related proteins and corresponding literature evidence. In addition, we showed that first- and second-order neighbors in the PPI network

  14. Network-based prediction and knowledge mining of disease genes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent years, high-throughput protein interaction identification methods have generated a large amount of data. When combined with the results from other in vivo and in vitro experiments, a complex set of relationships between biological molecules emerges. The growing popularity of network analysis and data mining has allowed researchers to recognize indirect connections between these molecules. Due to the interdependent nature of network entities, evaluating proteins in this context can reveal relationships that may not otherwise be evident. Methods We examined the human protein interaction network as it relates to human illness using the Disease Ontology. After calculating several topological metrics, we trained an alternating decision tree (ADTree) classifier to identify disease-associated proteins. Using a bootstrapping method, we created a tree to highlight conserved characteristics shared by many of these proteins. Subsequently, we reviewed a set of non-disease-associated proteins that were misclassified by the algorithm with high confidence and searched for evidence of a disease relationship. Results Our classifier was able to predict disease-related genes with 79% area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), which indicates the tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity and is a good predictor of how a classifier will perform on future data sets. We found that a combination of several network characteristics including degree centrality, disease neighbor ratio, eccentricity, and neighborhood connectivity help to distinguish between disease- and non-disease-related proteins. Furthermore, the ADTree allowed us to understand which combinations of strongly predictive attributes contributed most to protein-disease classification. In our post-processing evaluation, we found several examples of potential novel disease-related proteins and corresponding literature evidence. In addition, we showed that first- and second

  15. PHB in Cardiovascular and Other Diseases: Present Knowledge and Implications.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kumar, Dinesh; Sarma, Pranjal; Tangutur, Anjana Devi; Bhadra, Manika Pal

    2016-08-24

    Prohibitin (PHB) is overtly conserved evolutionarily and ubiquitously expressed protein with pleiotropic functions in diverse cellular compartments. However, regulation and function of these proteins in different cells, tissues and in various diseases is different as evidenced by expression of these proteins which is found to be reduced in heart diseases, kidney diseases, lung disease, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis but this protein is highly expressed in diverse cancer diseases. The mechanism by which this protein acts at the molecular level in different subcellular localizations or in different cells or tissues in different conditions (diseases or normal) has remained poorly understood. There are several studies reported to understand and decipher PHB's role in diseases and/or cancers of ovary, lung, stomach, thyroid, liver, blood, prostrate, gastric, esophagus, glioma, breast, bladder etc where PHB is shown to act through mechanisms by acting as oncogene, tumor suppressor, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, induction of angiogenesis, autophagy etc. Since cardiovascular disease (CVD) may lead to heart failure and disability worldwide, this review mainly focuses on the functional role and regulatory mechanism of PHB at the molecular level in CVD or impairments to understand and elucidate its direct/indirect involvement in cellular protection of cardiac cells/tissue or in disease progression.

  16. Current management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most frequent cause of genetic renal disease affecting approximately 4 to 7 million individuals worldwide and accounting for 7%-15% of patients on renal replacement therapy, is a systemic disorder mainly involving the kidney but cysts can also occur in other organs such as the liver, pancreas, arachnoid membrane and seminal vesicles. Though computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were similar in evaluating 81% of cystic lesions of the kidney, MRI may depict septa, wall thickening or enhancement leading to upgrade in cyst classification that can affect management. A screening strategy for intracranial aneurysms would provide 1.0 additional year of life without neurological disability to a 20-year-old patient with ADPKD and reduce the financial impact on society of the disease. Current treatment strategies include reducing: cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, cell proliferation and fluid secretion. Several randomised clinical trials (RCT) including mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, somatostatin analogues and a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist have been performed to study the effect of diverse drugs on growth of renal and hepatic cysts, and on deterioration of renal function. Prophylactic native nephrectomy is indicated in patients with a history of cyst infection or recurrent haemorrhage or to those in whom space must be made to implant the graft. The absence of large RCT on various aspects of the disease and its treatment leaves considerable uncertainty and ambiguity in many aspects of ADPKD patient care as it relates to end stage renal disease (ESRD). The outlook of patients with ADPKD is improving and is in fact much better than that for patients in ESRD due to other causes. This review highlights the need for well-structured RCTs as a first step towards trying newer interventions so as to develop updated clinical management guidelines. PMID:26380198

  17. Disease awareness and knowledge in caregivers of children who had surgery for cystic hydatid disease in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Maria M; Taramona, Claudia; Saire-Mendoza, Mardeli; Guevara, Carlos; Garcia, Héctor H

    2010-12-01

    Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is a common cause of lung and liver disease worldwide. Despite Peru being highly endemic, information about the level of knowledge is scarce and poor. A telephone survey was applied to assess the knowledge in the caregivers of patients treated for CHD at a paediatric hospital at Lima, Peru. Of the 26 contacted families, only 5 (20%) answered correctly all seven questions. A higher education degree was associated with correct answers (P = 0.002). Most respondents (17, 65%) incorrectly identified the etiologic agent and mode of transmission. Lact of knowledge is likely a major contributor to maintain the endemicity of disease in Peru.

  18. Current Challenges in Glioblastoma: Intratumour Heterogeneity, Residual Disease, and Models to Predict Disease Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Hayley P; Greenslade, Mark; Powell, Ben; Spiteri, Inmaculada; Sottoriva, Andrea; Kurian, Kathreena M

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor, and despite the availability of chemotherapy and radiotherapy to combat the disease, overall survival remains low with a high incidence of tumor recurrence. Technological advances are continually improving our understanding of the disease, and in particular, our knowledge of clonal evolution, intratumor heterogeneity, and possible reservoirs of residual disease. These may inform how we approach clinical treatment and recurrence in GB. Mathematical modeling (including neural networks) and strategies such as multiple sampling during tumor resection and genetic analysis of circulating cancer cells, may be of great future benefit to help predict the nature of residual disease and resistance to standard and molecular therapies in GB.

  19. Current Challenges in Glioblastoma: Intratumour Heterogeneity, Residual Disease, and Models to Predict Disease Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Hayley P.; Greenslade, Mark; Powell, Ben; Spiteri, Inmaculada; Sottoriva, Andrea; Kurian, Kathreena M.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor, and despite the availability of chemotherapy and radiotherapy to combat the disease, overall survival remains low with a high incidence of tumor recurrence. Technological advances are continually improving our understanding of the disease, and in particular, our knowledge of clonal evolution, intratumor heterogeneity, and possible reservoirs of residual disease. These may inform how we approach clinical treatment and recurrence in GB. Mathematical modeling (including neural networks) and strategies such as multiple sampling during tumor resection and genetic analysis of circulating cancer cells, may be of great future benefit to help predict the nature of residual disease and resistance to standard and molecular therapies in GB. PMID:26636033

  20. Current trends in pharmacy benefit designs: a threat to disease management in chronic complex diseases.

    PubMed

    Owens, Gary; Emons, Matthew F; Christian-Herman, Jennifer; Lawless, Grant

    2007-04-01

    With a focus on those patients who are candidates for treatment with biologic agents, we review the impact that current pharmacy benefit trends have on patients with chronic complex diseases and how they affect opportunities for disease management in this unique patient population. Dramatic increases in health care costs have led to a variety of strategies to manage cost. Many of these strategies either limit access to care or increase the patient's responsibility for choosing and paying for care, especially for medications. These strategies have a disproportionate impact on patients with chronic complex diseases, particularly those who require the use of biologic medications. A fundamental prerequisite of disease management has been coverage of disease-modifying therapies. If current pharmacy benefit trends continue, unintended consequences will likely occur including lost opportunities for disease management. Current pharmacy benefit trends could adversely impact disease management, particularly for patients requiring the use of biologic agents. Health plans should consider innovative benefit designs that reflect an appropriate level of cost sharing across all key stake-holders, ensuring appropriate access to needed therapies. Additional research is needed to clarify the value of newer approaches to therapies or benefit design changes.

  1. Current Research Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Folch, Jaume; Petrov, Dmitry; Ettcheto, Miren; Abad, Sonia; Sánchez-López, Elena; García, M. Luisa; Olloquequi, Jordi; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Auladell, Carme; Camins, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) currently presents one of the biggest healthcare issues in the developed countries. There is no effective treatment capable of slowing down disease progression. In recent years the main focus of research on novel pharmacotherapies was based on the amyloidogenic hypothesis of AD, which posits that the beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide is chiefly responsible for cognitive impairment and neuronal death. The goal of such treatments is (a) to reduce Aβ production through the inhibition of β and γ secretase enzymes and (b) to promote dissolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques. However, this approach has proven to be only modestly effective. Recent studies suggest an alternative strategy centred on the inhibition of the downstream Aβ signalling, particularly at the synapse. Aβ oligomers may cause aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation postsynaptically by forming complexes with the cell-surface prion protein (PrPC). PrPC is enriched at the neuronal postsynaptic density, where it interacts with Fyn tyrosine kinase. Fyn activation occurs when Aβ is bound to PrPC-Fyn complex. Fyn causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Fyn kinase blockers masitinib and saracatinib have proven to be efficacious in treating AD symptoms in experimental mouse models of the disease. PMID:26881137

  2. Current Research Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment.

    PubMed

    Folch, Jaume; Petrov, Dmitry; Ettcheto, Miren; Abad, Sonia; Sánchez-López, Elena; García, M Luisa; Olloquequi, Jordi; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Auladell, Carme; Camins, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) currently presents one of the biggest healthcare issues in the developed countries. There is no effective treatment capable of slowing down disease progression. In recent years the main focus of research on novel pharmacotherapies was based on the amyloidogenic hypothesis of AD, which posits that the beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide is chiefly responsible for cognitive impairment and neuronal death. The goal of such treatments is (a) to reduce Aβ production through the inhibition of β and γ secretase enzymes and (b) to promote dissolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques. However, this approach has proven to be only modestly effective. Recent studies suggest an alternative strategy centred on the inhibition of the downstream Aβ signalling, particularly at the synapse. Aβ oligomers may cause aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation postsynaptically by forming complexes with the cell-surface prion protein (PrPC). PrPC is enriched at the neuronal postsynaptic density, where it interacts with Fyn tyrosine kinase. Fyn activation occurs when Aβ is bound to PrPC-Fyn complex. Fyn causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Fyn kinase blockers masitinib and saracatinib have proven to be efficacious in treating AD symptoms in experimental mouse models of the disease.

  3. Arsenic methylation, urinary arsenic metabolites and human diseases: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic can cause cancerous and non-cancerous human diseases. Inorganic arsenic from drinking water is the most common source of human exposure. Pentavalent arsenate can be reduced to trivalent arsenite in the blood, which is taken up mainly in the liver and metabolized by a sequence of reduction and oxidative methylation. A proportion of the inorganic arsenicals together with methylated metabolites are excreted in urine. Analyses of the urinary arsenic profile can give a hint to the methylation capacity of exposed individuals. All studies evaluating the association between urinary arsenic profiles and human diseases nowadays measure mainly the inorganic arsenate and arsenite and the two organic forms of methylated metabolites: the pentavalent form of monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV). A review of the current literature suggests that reduced methylation capacity with increased MMAV percentage, decreased DMAV percentage, or decreased DMAV/MMAV is associated with skin lesions, skin cancer, bladder cancer, peripheral vascular disease, muscle cramps and structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes obtained from exposed subjects. The detection of the recently identified more toxic trivalent forms of methylated metabolites in urine awaits further confirmation.

  4. Targets for Current Pharmacological Therapy in Cholesterol Gallstone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Di Ciaula, Agostino; Wang, David Q.-H.; Wang, Helen H.; Bonfrate, Leonilde; Portincasa, Piero

    2010-01-01

    Summary Gallstone disease is a frequent condition throughout the world and cholesterol stones are the most frequent form in western countries. Current standard treatment of symptomatic gallstone subjects remains laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The selection of patients amenable for non-surgical, medical therapy is of key importance: a careful analysis should consider the natural history of the disease and the overall costs of therapy. Only patients with mild symptoms and small, uncalcified cholesterol gallstones in a functioning gallbladder with a patent cystic duct will be considered for oral litholysis by the hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) hopefully leading to cholesterol desaturation of bile and progressive stone dissolution. Recent studies have raised the possibility that cholesterol-lowering agents which inhibit hepatic cholesterol synthesis (statins) or intestinal cholesterol absorption (ezetimibe), or drugs acting on specific nuclear receptors involved in cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis may offer, alone or in combination, additional medical therapeutic tools for treating cholesterol gallstones. Recent perspectives on medical treatment of cholesterol gallstone disease will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:20478485

  5. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: The microbiome of the horse hindgut: History and current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Julliand, V; Grimm, P

    2016-06-01

    In the early 1990s, the equine hindgut microbial ecosystem looked like a "black box." Its vital role in hydrolyzing and fermenting fiber, thus providing energy to the host, was recognized. Although there was a critical lack of information on the hindgut microbes, their role in preventing intestinal diseases was suggested. Traditionally, the microbes of the horse hindgut were studied using culture-dependent techniques. More recently, culture-independent methods have been used and provided further insight. This review presents the history and updated knowledge regarding the microbes that live inside the different intestinal ecosystems and which collective genomes compose the hindgut microbiome. In the first section, the quantification and diversity are described for each microbial community as well as the implication of plant fiber degradation and their crucial role for an herbivore host. The microbial communities are presented in chronological order of discovery: due to their large size, protozoa were brought to light as early as 1843 in the horse cecum; in 1897, bacteria were described in the horse intestine; as early as 1910, monoflagellated eukaryotic organisms resembling protozoa were observed in the horse cecum; since then, they have been identified to be zoospores of anaerobic fungi; in 1970, bacteriophage-like particles were recognized in the cecum and colon of pony and horse; and finally, in 1996, archaea were identified in the horse cecum. The second section discusses the variations that can occur between digestive segments or between individuals. The representativeness of the fecal microbiota to the hindgut one is debated, especially as the majority of recent studies conducted on the horse hindgut are in fact focused on the feces, rather than the cecum or colon. Also, the representation of microbiota between individuals is questioned. It has long been suggested in the literature that some ponies or horses that were more susceptible to intestinal diseases

  6. Survival in extreme environments - on the current knowledge of adaptations in tardigrades.

    PubMed

    Møbjerg, N; Halberg, K A; Jørgensen, A; Persson, D; Bjørn, M; Ramløv, H; Kristensen, R M

    2011-07-01

    Tardigrades are microscopic animals found worldwide in aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystems. They belong to the invertebrate superclade Ecdysozoa, as do the two major invertebrate model organisms: Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. We present a brief description of the tardigrades and highlight species that are currently used as models for physiological and molecular investigations. Tardigrades are uniquely adapted to a range of environmental extremes. Cryptobiosis, currently referred to as a reversible ametabolic state induced by e.g. desiccation, is common especially among limno-terrestrial species. It has been shown that the entry and exit of cryptobiosis may involve synthesis of bioprotectants in the form of selective carbohydrates and proteins as well as high levels of antioxidant enzymes and other free radical scavengers. However, at present a general scheme of mechanisms explaining this phenomenon is lacking. Importantly, recent research has shown that tardigrades even in their active states may be extremely tolerant to environmental stress, handling extreme levels of ionizing radiation, large fluctuation in external salinity and avoiding freezing by supercooling to below -20 °C, presumably relying on efficient DNA repair mechanisms and osmoregulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on adaptations found among tardigrades, and presents new data on tardigrade cell numbers and osmoregulation.

  7. [Translational research in gestational diabetes mellitus and mild gestational hyperglycemia: current knowledge and our experience].

    PubMed

    Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Piculo, Fernanda; Marini, Gabriela; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Barbosa, Angélica Pascon

    2013-10-01

    Maternal diabetes constitutes an unfavorable environment for fetal-placental and embryonic development. It is has important repercussion in modern obstetrics, since it is associated to an increased risk of neonatal and maternal morbidity, and it still is a significant medical challenge. The increased occurrence of diabetes worldwide, the increase in diabetes type 2 in women at reproductive age and the crossed generation of intrauterine programming for diabetes type 2 are the bases for the growing interest in utilization of diabetic experimental samples, with the aim to acquire knowledge about the mechanisms that induce development alterations in gestational diabetes. Several studies have shown the benefits of diabetes prevention, with interventions in lifestyle, metabolic improvement and control of cardiovascular risk factors to substantially prevent the complications of this devastating disease. Despite these findings, the recent revolution in the scientific knowledge, and the infinite number of new therapies for diabetes, there is still a large gap between what was learned through research and what is really done in public, clinical and community health. The negative economic impact of this complacency in people, families, and national economies is alarming. It is expected that translational research in the binomial diabetes and pregnancy are implemented in centers of excellence, in both basic and applied research, and complemented by multicenter clinical studies, conducted in a pragmatic way to increase the level of scientific evidence with more reliable diagnostic and propaedeutic resources.

  8. [Development of knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on prevention and control of occupational diseases].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Feng, Yuchao; Wang, Min; Su, Yiwei; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Zhi; Tang, Shihao

    2015-04-01

    To develop the knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for occupational groups, and to provide a convenient and effective tool for the survey of knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the prevention and control of occupational diseases in occupational groups and the evaluation of intervention effect. The initial questionnaire which was evaluated by the experts was used to carry out a pre-survey in Guangzhou, China. The survey results were statistically analyzed by t test, identification index method, correlation analysis, and Cronbach's a coefficient method. And then the questionnaire was further modified, and the content of the questionnaire was determined finally. After modification, there were 18 items on knowledge, 16 items on attitude, and 12 items on behavior in the "Knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for enterprise managers"; there were 19 items on knowledge, 10 items on attitude, and 11 items on behavior in the "Knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for workers". The knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for occupational groups is developed successfully, and it is a convenient and effective tool for the survey of knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the prevention and control of occupational diseases in occupational groups and the evaluation of intervention effect.

  9. Current treatment for Alzheimer disease and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Tariot, Pierre N; Federoff, Howard J

    2003-01-01

    A cascade of pathophysiological events is triggered in Alzheimer disease (AD) that ultimately involves common cellular signaling pathways and leads to cellular and network dysfunction, failure of neurotransmission, cell death, and a common clinical outcome. The process is asynchronous, meaning that viable neurons remain as targets for therapy even in the diseased state, and each stage of the cascade affords the possibility for therapeutic intervention. Cholinesterase inhibitors are the only available treatment in the United States for patients with mild to moderate AD, helping maintain cognitive and functional abilities in most patients and conferring beneficial behavioral effects in some. Memantine is an NMDA receptor antagonist that has recently been approved in Europe for treatment of moderately severe to severe AD and is under investigation in the United States. Its mechanism of action may include enhanced neurotransmission in several systems as well as antiexcitotoxic effects. There are data regarding the effectiveness of the combination of memantine with cholinesterase inhibitors that will be useful for the practicing clinician. Other agents have shown some benefit in clinical trials, including the antioxidants vitamin E, selegiline, and Ginkgo biloba extracts, although the weight of evidence regarding their effects is not sufficient to define clinical practice. Potential future therapies currently are in development that target multiple aspects of the illness cascade, including aberrant inflammation, neurotrophic function, and processing of beta amyloid and tau proteins. These newer approaches hold promise for disease modification but are as yet unproven. Whether or not disease-modifying or preventive therapies become a reality, clinicians will be faced with AD patients who require treatment at all stages of illness for the indefinite future. Cholinergic and emerging noncholinergic medications will likely prevail as the standards of treatment for years to

  10. Knowledge of medical law amongst doctors of internal diseases.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Justyna; Zajdel, Radosław; Kuna, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    In Poland, 95% of medical personnel had not received legal education before they completed their studies. Having been given these facts, we have started questioning legal awareness of people providing medical services. The study aimed at evaluating the knowledge of allergists and pulmonologists. The group consisting of 328 allergists and/or pulmonologist completed the questionnaire. The participants possess the best knowledge in providing information to patients about their health status (CV1). Sixty nine % of responders replied correctly, and the difference was significant (p < 0.001) in comparison with next aspect referring to the principles of providing medical services following guidelines created by think-tanks and also possibilities to take autonomous decisions by physicians (CV2). The correct answers in relation to CV2 were given by 57% of responders. The third compared aspect was physicians' awareness of patients' right to giving a consent or refusal before undertaking the medical procedure CV3. Only 55% of physicians gave correct answers and the difference was significant compared to CV1 (p < 0.001) as well as CV2 (p < 0.05). Younger doctors showed to have better knowledge than their older colleagues (p < 0.05). Working in urban workplaces proved to be more associated with better knowledge than in rural ones (p < 0.05). Insufficient knowledge results in a low quality of provided services and puts the doctors at risk of being liable. The rates indicate that doctors are not aware of the fact that only legal regulations are binding, while standards not published by the Minister of Health are not legally valid. Half of the respondents have the wrong belief that the opinions expressed by experts make the doctor feel exempt from liability. Probably there are specialities, like occupational medicine which are specially linked with awareness of valid legal rules.

  11. Social Stigma and Knowledge of Tuberculosis and HIV among Patients with Both Diseases in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jittimanee, Sirinapha X.; Nateniyom, Sriprapa; Kittikraisak, Wanitchaya; Burapat, Channawong; Akksilp, Somsak; Chumpathat, Nopphanath; Sirinak, Chawin; Sattayawuthipong, Wanchai; Varma, Jay K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Disease-related stigma and knowledge are believed to be associated with patients' willingness to seek treatment and adherence to treatment. HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) presents unique challenges, because TB and HIV are both medically complex and stigmatizing diseases. In Thailand, we assessed knowledge and beliefs about these diseases among HIV-infected TB patients. Methods We prospectively interviewed and examined HIV-infected TB patients from three provinces and one national referral hospital in Thailand from 2005–2006. At the beginning of TB treatment, we asked patients standardized questions about TB stigma, TB knowledge, and HIV knowledge. Responses were grouped into scores; scores equal to or greater than the median score of study population were considered high. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with scores. Results Of 769 patients enrolled, 500 (65%) reported high TB stigma, 177 (23%) low TB knowledge, and 379 (49%) low HIV knowledge. Patients reporting high TB stigma were more likely to have taken antibiotics before TB treatment, to have first visited a traditional healer or private provider, to not know that monogamy can reduce the risk of acquiring HIV infection, and to have been hospitalized at enrollment. Patients with low TB knowledge were more likely to have severe TB disease, to be hospitalized at enrollment, to be treated at the national infectious diseases referral hospital, and to have low HIV knowledge. Patients with low HIV knowledge were more likely to know a TB patient and to have low TB knowledge. Discussion We found that stigma and low disease-specific knowledge were common among HIV-infected TB patients and associated with similar factors. Further research is needed to determine whether reducing stigma and increasing TB and HIV knowledge among the general community and patients reduces diagnostic delay and improves patient outcomes. PMID:19626120

  12. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  13. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  14. Care of the transgender patient: a survey of gynecologists' current knowledge and practice.

    PubMed

    Unger, Cécile A

    2015-02-01

    Medical school and residency curricula are lacking in content on the care of the transgender patient. As a result, many providers do not have enough experience and knowledge to adequately care for this patient population. The aim of this study was to assess gynecologists' preferences and knowledge base with regard to transgender healthcare. This was a cross-sectional survey of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) providers. An anonymous survey was sent via electronic mail to nine academic OBGYN departments across the United States. Survey questions were designed to assess provider experience and practice environment, education about transgender health practices, personal experience with transgender patients, and knowledge base regarding current recommendations for the care of gender minority patients. Of the 352 providers who received the survey, 141 responded, for a 40.1% response rate. Of the respondents, 61.7% (87 of 141) were generalist OBGYNs, and 86% (117 of 136) practiced in an academic institution; 80% (113 of 141) did not receive training in residency on the care of transgender patients. Time in practice was not associated with having learned about transgender care. Only 35.3% and 29% were comfortable caring for male-to-female and female-to-male transsexual patients, respectively; and, 88.7% and 80.4% were willing to perform screening Pap smears on female-to-male transsexual patients and routine breast examinations on male-to-female patients, respectively. Eighty-two of 138 providers (59.4%) did not know the recommendations for breast cancer screening in male-to-female patients. Efforts should be made to educate trainees on the important aspects of transgender care, and comprehensive guidelines should be published for practicing providers.

  15. A critical review of the current knowledge regarding the biological impact of nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Endes, C; Camarero-Espinosa, S; Mueller, S; Foster, E J; Petri-Fink, A; Rothen-Rutishauser, B; Weder, C; Clift, M J D

    2016-12-01

    Several forms of nanocellulose, notably cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrillated cellulose, exhibit attractive property matrices and are potentially useful for a large number of industrial applications. These include the paper and cardboard industry, use as reinforcing filler in polymer composites, basis for low-density foams, additive in adhesives and paints, as well as a wide variety of food, hygiene, cosmetic, and medical products. Although the commercial exploitation of nanocellulose has already commenced, little is known as to the potential biological impact of nanocellulose, particularly in its raw form. This review provides a comprehensive and critical review of the current state of knowledge of nanocellulose in this format. Overall, the data seems to suggest that when investigated under realistic doses and exposure scenarios, nanocellulose has a limited associated toxic potential, albeit certain forms of nanocellulose can be associated with more hazardous biological behavior due to their specific physical characteristics.

  16. Antibiotic prophylaxis in open inguinal hernia repair: a literature review and summary of current knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Makarewicz, Wojciech; Ropel, Jerzy; Bobowicz, Maciej; Kąkol, Michał; Śmietański, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    More than 1 million inguinal hernia repairs are performed in Europe and the US annually. Although antibiotic prophylaxis is not required in clean, elective procedures, the routine use of implants (90% of inguinal hernia repairs are performed with mesh) makes the topic controversial. The European Hernia Society does not recommend routine antibiotic prophylaxis for elective inguinal hernia repairs. However, the latest randomized controlled trial, published by Mazaki et al., indicates that the use of prophylaxis is effective for the prevention of surgical site infection. Unnecessary prophylaxis contributes to the development of bacterial resistance and significantly increases healthcare costs. This review documents clinical trials on inguinal hernia repairs with mesh and summarizes the current knowledge. It also tries to solve certain problems, namely: what constitutes a real risk factor, late-onset infection, and how the “surgical environment” impacts on the need to use antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:27829934

  17. ['I'm worthless' and other forms of self-criticism: Current knowledge and therapeutic interventions].

    PubMed

    Maillard, Pauline; Kramer, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    Self-criticism is considered as a harsh or punitive evaluation of the self. It is omnipresent in culture, in daily life as well as in psychotherapy. Self-criticism can lead to question oneself but can also open new perspectives and guide us. However, it can become excessive, rigid, and might turn out to be deleterious. This present article focuses on the concept of self-criticism in clinical psychology and psychotherapy and aims to review current knowledge about this topic. First, its definition and the reasons for its development in individuals will be presented. Second, a description of the links between self-criticism and psychopathology will be made, in particular regarding depression. Finally, the third part of this article will be dedicated to the therapeutic interventions that can reduce self-criticism.

  18. Physiological Reactivity to Psychological Stress in Human Pregnancy: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine reactivity to acute stress are important predictors of health outcomes in non-pregnant populations. Greater magnitude and duration of physiological responses have been associated with increased risk of hypertensive disorders and diabetes, greater susceptibility to infectious illnesses, suppression of cell-mediated immunity as well as risk for depression and anxiety disorders. Stress reactivity during pregnancy has unique implications for maternal health, birth outcomes, and fetal development. However, as compared to the larger literature, our understanding of the predictors and consequences of exaggerated stress reactivity in pregnancy is limited. This paper reviews the current state of this literature with an emphasis on gaps in knowledge and future directions. PMID:22800930

  19. Bordetella holmesii infection: current knowledge and a vision for future research.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Laure F; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M

    2015-08-01

    Bordetella holmesii is a recently recognized Gram-negative bacterium causing both pertussis-like respiratory symptoms and invasive infections, such as bacteremia, pneumonia, meningitis, arthritis, pericarditis and endocarditis. Few data are available on its epidemiological characteristics, mostly related to respiratory infections. However, these are frequently misdiagnosed as a Bordetella pertussis infection as most diagnostic tests routinely used are not species-specific, thus biasing the epidemiological studies of both strains, as well as the efficacy studies on pertussis vaccination. There is no accepted agreement on treatment and it remains unknown if antimicrobial prophylaxis is indicated in certain clinical settings. We review here the current knowledge on B. holmesii and the need for further research.

  20. Genetic Vulnerability as a Distal Risk Factor for Suicidal Behaviour: Historical Perspective and Current Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Andriessen, Karl; Videtic-Paska, Alja

    2015-09-01

    Suicide is a multidimensional problem. Observations of family history of suicide suggest the existence of a genetic vulnerability to suicidal behaviour. Starting with a historical perspective, the article reviews current knowledge of a genetic vulnerability to suicidal behaviour, distinct from the genetic vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, focused on clinical and population-based studies, and findings from recent molecular genetics association studies. The review includes peer-reviewed research articles and review papers from the professional literature in English language, retrieved from PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO. The research literature confirms a existence of a genetic vulnerability to suicidal behaviour. Even though the results of individual studies are difficult to compare, genetic influences could explain up to half of the variance of the occurrence of suicide. Genetic vulnerability could be a distal risk factor for suicide, which helps us to understand the occurrence of suicide among vulnerable people. Ethical implications of such vulnerability are highlighted.

  1. Individualized risk for statin-induced myopathy: current knowledge, emerging challenges and potential solutions.

    PubMed

    Feng, QiPing; Wilke, Russell A; Baye, Tesfaye M

    2012-04-01

    Skeletal muscle toxicity is the primary adverse effect of statins. In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the genetic and nongenetic determinants of risk for statin induced myopathy. Many genetic factors were initially identified through candidate gene association studies limited to pharmacokinetic (PK) targets. Through genome-wide association studies, it has become clear that SLCO1B1 is among the strongest PK predictors of myopathy risk. Genome-wide association studies have also expanded our understanding of pharmacodynamic candidate genes, including RYR2. It is anticipated that deep resequencing efforts will define new loci with rare variants that also contribute, and sophisticated computational approaches will be needed to characterize gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Beyond environment, race is a critical covariate, and its influence is only partly explained by geographic differences in the frequency of known pharmacodynamic and PK variants. As such, admixture analyses will be essential for a full understanding of statin-induced myopathy.

  2. Chemical and molecular factors in irritable bowel syndrome: current knowledge, challenges, and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Oduyebo, Ibironke; Halawi, Houssam

    2016-11-01

    Several chemical and molecular factors in the intestine are reported to be altered and to have a potentially significant role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), particularly in IBS with diarrhea. These include bile acids; short-chain fatty acids; mucosal barrier proteins; mast cell products such as histamine, proteases, and tryptase; enteroendocrine cell products; and mucosal mRNAs, proteins, and microRNAs. This article reviews the current knowledge and unanswered questions in the pathobiology of the chemical and molecular factors in IBS. Evidence continues to point to significant roles in pathogenesis of these chemical and molecular mechanisms, which may therefore constitute potential targets for future research and therapy. However, it is still necessary to address the interaction between these factors in the gut and to appraise how they may influence hypervigilance in the central nervous system in patients with IBS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. The visual parietal areas in the macaque monkey: current structural knowledge and ignorance.

    PubMed

    Cavada, C

    2001-07-01

    Classic and current parcellations of the posterior parietal cortex are reviewed. Whereas earlier studies relied on subjective observation of cortical cytoarchitecture, present parcellations are mostly based on connectional and physiological criteria. These criteria have led to the identification of five areas in the intraparietal sulcus with alleged visual function: VIP, MIP, PIP, AIP, and LIP. Other visual parietal areas are 7a, in the lateral parietal surface, and, in the medial parietal wall, 7m, and V6A. Present knowledge of the dimensions, boundaries, and connections of the various visual parietal areas is uneven: whereas LIP, 7a, and 7m have been extensively explored in anatomical and physiological studies, only scant information is available for most of the intraparietal areas. It is suggested that future studies address the anatomical and functional parcellation of the posterior parietal cortex using manifold objective means of study that allow comparison by independent researchers.

  4. Current Knowledge and Practice of Pediatric Providers in Umbilical Cord Blood Banking.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Amy E; Fonstad, Rachel; Spellman, Stephen; Tullius, Zoe; Chaudhury, Sonali

    2017-03-01

    More than 35 000 umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplants have been performed worldwide, prompting the development of private and public banks to collect and store UCB cells. We hypothesized that pediatricians, who are uniquely poised to discuss UCB banking (UCBB) during prenatal or sibling visits, rarely do so. Through distribution of a 26-question electronic survey to general and subspecialty pediatric providers, we assessed baseline knowledge and conversations about UCBB. A total of 473 providers completed the survey; only 22% of physicians ever discussed UCBB with expectant parents. The majority responded that autologous UCB transplants were indicated in malignant (73%) and nonmalignant (61%) conditions; however, these are rare indications. Providers practicing >10 years were more likely to address UCBB ( P ≤ .001), whereas younger and female general pediatric providers were significantly less likely ( P < .001). Overall, pediatric providers rarely speak to families about UCBB, and we believe that they can be better informed to its current clinical utility.

  5. Current knowledge on reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Alten, F; Eter, N

    2015-06-01

    Drusen are focal deposits of extracellular material located between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane and represent the major phenotypic characteristic of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Due to evolving imaging techniques and recent histological studies, reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) have received increasing attention and have been recently identified as an additional phenotypic entity in AMD. In contrast to conventional drusen, RPD proved to be located internal to the RPE. In the past few years, numerous studies collected new findings on RPD related to their pathogenesis, imaging properties and impact on retinal function. While most former natural history studies as well as interventional studies in early AMD did not include imaging RPD beyond colour fundus photography, this phenotype must be included in every future large-scale study on AMD. This review summarises the current knowledge on RPD.

  6. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S K; Adjeroud, M; Bellwood, D R; Berumen, M L; Booth, D; Bozec, Y-Marie; Chabanet, P; Cheal, A; Cinner, J; Depczynski, M; Feary, D A; Gagliano, M; Graham, N A J; Halford, A R; Halpern, B S; Harborne, A R; Hoey, A S; Holbrook, S J; Jones, G P; Kulbiki, M; Letourneur, Y; De Loma, T L; McClanahan, T; McCormick, M I; Meekan, M G; Mumby, P J; Munday, P L; Ohman, M C; Pratchett, M S; Riegl, B; Sano, M; Schmitt, R J; Syms, C

    2010-03-15

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that, if addressed, would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. Thirty-three scientists provided 155 questions, and 32 scientists scored these questions in terms of: (i) identifying a knowledge gap, (ii) achievability, (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats, and (iv) priority. Forty-two per cent of the questions related to habitat associations and community dynamics of fish, reflecting the established effects and immediate concern relating to climate-induced coral loss and habitat degradation. However, there were also questions on fish demographics, physiology, behaviour and management, all of which could be potentially affected by climate change. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background, scientists scored questions from different topics similarly, suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Presented here are the 53 highest-scoring unique questions. These questions should act as a guide for future research, providing a basis for better assessment and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities.

  7. Root System Architecture and Abiotic Stress Tolerance: Current Knowledge in Root and Tuber Crops

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. A.; Gemenet, Dorcus C.; Villordon, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The challenge to produce more food for a rising global population on diminishing agricultural land is complicated by the effects of climate change on agricultural productivity. Although great progress has been made in crop improvement, so far most efforts have targeted above-ground traits. Roots are essential for plant adaptation and productivity, but are less studied due to the difficulty of observing them during the plant life cycle. Root system architecture (RSA), made up of structural features like root length, spread, number, and length of lateral roots, among others, exhibits great plasticity in response to environmental changes, and could be critical to developing crops with more efficient roots. Much of the research on root traits has thus far focused on the most common cereal crops and model plants. As cereal yields have reached their yield potential in some regions, understanding their root system may help overcome these plateaus. However, root and tuber crops (RTCs) such as potato, sweetpotato, cassava, and yam may hold more potential for providing food security in the future, and knowledge of their root system additionally focuses directly on the edible portion. Root-trait modeling for multiple stress scenarios, together with high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping techniques, robust databases, and data analytical pipelines, may provide a valuable base for a truly inclusive ‘green revolution.’ In the current review, we discuss RSA with special reference to RTCs, and how knowledge on genetics of RSA can be manipulated to improve their tolerance to abiotic stresses. PMID:27847508

  8. The Enigmatic Role of RUNX1 in Female-Related Cancers: Current Knowledge & Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Riggio, Alessandra I; Blyth, Karen

    2017-03-17

    Historically associated with the aetiology of human leukaemia, the RUNX1 gene has in recent years reared its head in an assortment of epithelial cancers. This review discusses the state-of-the-art knowledge of the enigmatic role played by RUNX1 in female-related cancers of the breast, the uterus and the ovary. The weight of evidence accumulated so far is indicative of a very context-dependent role, as either an oncogene or a tumour suppressor. This is corroborated by high-throughput sequencing endeavours which report different genetic alterations affecting the gene, including amplification, deep deletion and mutations. Herein, we attempt to dissect that contextual role by firstly giving an overview of what is currently known about RUNX1 function in these specific tumour types, and secondly by delving into connections between this transcription factor and the physiology of these female tissues. In doing so, RUNX1 emerges not only as a gene involved in female sex development, but also as a crucial mediator of female hormone signalling. In view of RUNX1 now being listed as a driver gene, we believe that greater knowledge of the mechanisms underlying its functional dualism in epithelial cancers is worthy of further investigation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Root System Architecture and Abiotic Stress Tolerance: Current Knowledge in Root and Tuber Crops.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Gemenet, Dorcus C; Villordon, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The challenge to produce more food for a rising global population on diminishing agricultural land is complicated by the effects of climate change on agricultural productivity. Although great progress has been made in crop improvement, so far most efforts have targeted above-ground traits. Roots are essential for plant adaptation and productivity, but are less studied due to the difficulty of observing them during the plant life cycle. Root system architecture (RSA), made up of structural features like root length, spread, number, and length of lateral roots, among others, exhibits great plasticity in response to environmental changes, and could be critical to developing crops with more efficient roots. Much of the research on root traits has thus far focused on the most common cereal crops and model plants. As cereal yields have reached their yield potential in some regions, understanding their root system may help overcome these plateaus. However, root and tuber crops (RTCs) such as potato, sweetpotato, cassava, and yam may hold more potential for providing food security in the future, and knowledge of their root system additionally focuses directly on the edible portion. Root-trait modeling for multiple stress scenarios, together with high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping techniques, robust databases, and data analytical pipelines, may provide a valuable base for a truly inclusive 'green revolution.' In the current review, we discuss RSA with special reference to RTCs, and how knowledge on genetics of RSA can be manipulated to improve their tolerance to abiotic stresses.

  10. The Gastric Microbiome and Its Influence on Gastric Carcinogenesis: Current Knowledge and Ongoing Research.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Powell, Sarah Ellen; Betel, Doron; Shah, Manish A

    2017-06-01

    Gastric malignancies are a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. At least 2 microbial species are currently linked to carcinogenesis and the development of cancer within the human stomach. These include the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and the Epstein-Barr virus. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that within the human gastrointestinal tract it is not only pathogenic microbes that impact human health but also the corresponding autochthonous microbial communities. This article reviews the gastrointestinal microbiome as it relates primarily to mechanisms of disease and carcinogenesis within the upper gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. AB56. Current medical therapy for peyronie’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ki Hak

    2014-01-01

    Peyronie disease (PD) is characterized as a fibrous, inelastic lesion of the tunica albuginea. It is thought to result from trauma or microtrauma to the erect penis in genetically susceptible individuals, though the mechanism of disease has not been fully elucidated. The lesion can be painful in some individuals, and can also result in erection deformities making intromission difficult or impossible. Treatment options are chosen based upon disease severity, patient preference, and surgeon’s training. Options include oral medications, intralesional injection therapy, plication procedures, incision and grafting, and placement of a penile prosthesis with or without manual modeling or other ancillary straightening techniques. Numerous nonsurgical treatment options have been utilized since PD was first descriptively named in 1743. Despite various reports in the literature of deformity stabilization and/or reduction outcomes, recent guidelines indicate that the available evidence shows generally no significant benefit from oral therapies for reducing penile deformity. However, the standard of care still involves an initial trial of either oral or intralesional treatment at first presentation. An accepted goal of medical therapy is to shorten the acute phase of PD in order to stabilize the plaque or diminish disease progression. Oral agents could be considered non-invasive relative to surgery, though for the purposes of this review we have considered them to be minimally invasive, since these agents do have effects subsequent to entering the body. Oral, systemic treatment agents include vitamin E, Potaba, tamoxifen, carnitine, colchicine, and phosphodiesterase (PDE) manipulators, such as pentoxifylline and PDE5 inhibitors. Iontophoresis, with application of verapamil or combined verapamil and dexamethasone, is believed to enhance transcutaneous absorption of the drugs through direct electrophoresis, electro-osmosis, or enhanced diffusion using surface-delivered heat or

  12. Current status of thrombolysis for peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Ouriel, Kenneth

    2002-11-01

    Acute peripheral arterial occlusion occurs as a result of thrombosis or embolism. A reduction in the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease accounts for a shift in the frequency of embolic to thrombotic occlusions. Also, a dramatic increase in the number of lower extremity arterial bypass graft procedures explains the predominance of graft occlusions in most recent series of patients with acute limb ischemia. While open surgical procedures remain the gold standard in the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusion, thrombolytic agents have been employed as an alternative to primary surgical revascularization in patients with acute limb ischemia. Systemic administration of thrombolytic agents, while effective for small coronary artery clots, fails to achieve dissolution of the large peripheral arterial thrombi. Catheter-directed administration of the agents directly into the occlusive thrombus is the only means of effecting early recanalization. Prior to 1999, urokinase was the sole agent used in North America for peripheral arterial indications, but the loss of the agent from the marketplace forced clinicians to turn to alternate agents, specifically alteplase and reteplase. Interest in the use of platelet glycoprotein inhibitors and mechanical thrombectomy devices also rose, coincident with the loss of urokinase from the marketplace. Most clinicians welcome the predicted return of urokinase to the marketplace. New investigative trials should be organized and executed to answer some of the remaining questions related to thrombolytic treatment of peripheral arterial disease. Foremost in this regard remains the question of which patients are best treated with percutaneous thrombolytic techniques and which are best treated with primary operative intervention. Ultimately, however, the thrombolytic agents are but one tool in the armamentarium of the vascular practitioner. This review is directed at providing the practicing clinician with the basic fund of knowledge

  13. Current knowledge and future research directions in treatment-related second primary malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Schaapveld, Michael; Ramadan, Safaa; Hodgson, David C.; Radford, John; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, 17–19% of all new primary malignancies occur in survivors of cancer, causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Research has shown that cancer treatments are important contributors to second malignant neoplasm (SMN) risk. In this paper we summarise current knowledge with regard to treatment-related SMNs and provide recommendations for future research. We address the risks associated with radiotherapy and systemic treatments, modifying factors of treatment-related risks (genetic susceptibility, lifestyle) and the potential benefits of screening and interventions. Research priorities were identified during a workshop at the 2014 Cancer Survivorship Summit organised by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Recently, both systemic cancer treatments and radiotherapy approaches have evolved rapidly, with the carcinogenic potential of new treatments being unknown. Also, little knowledge is available about modifying factors of treatment-associated risk, such as genetic variants and lifestyle. Therefore, large prospective studies with biobanking, high quality treatment data (radiation dose–volume, cumulative drug doses), and data on other cancer risk factors are needed. International collaboration will be essential to have adequate statistical power for such investigations. While screening for SMNs is included in several follow-up guidelines for cancer survivors, its effectiveness in this special population has not been demonstrated. Research into the pathogenesis, tumour characteristics and survival of SMNs is essential, as well as the development of interventions to reduce SMN-related morbidity and mortality. Prediction models for SMN risk are needed to inform initial treatment decisions, balancing chances of cure and SMNs and to identify high-risk subgroups of survivors eligible for screening. PMID:26217162

  14. Current knowledge in lentil genomics and its application for crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shiv; Rajendran, Karthika; Kumar, Jitendra; Hamwieh, Aladdin; Baum, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Most of the lentil growing countries face a certain set of abiotic and biotic stresses causing substantial reduction in crop growth, yield, and production. Until-to date, lentil breeders have used conventional plant breeding techniques of selection-recombination-selection cycle to develop improved cultivars.These techniques have been successful in mainstreaming some of the easy-to-manage monogenic traits. However, in case of complex quantitative traits, these conventional techniques are less precise. As most of the economic traits are complex, quantitative, and often influenced by environments and genotype–environment interaction, the genetic improvement of these traits becomes difficult. Genomics assisted breeding is relatively powerful and fast approach to develop high yielding varieties more suitable to adverse environmental conditions. New tools such as molecular markers and bioinformatics are expected to generate new knowledge and improve our understanding on the genetics of complex traits. In the past, the limited availability of genomic resources in lentil could not allow breeders to employ these tools in mainstream breeding program.The recent application of the next generation sequencing and genotyping by sequencing technologies has facilitated to speed up the lentil genome sequencing project and large discovery of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Currently, several linkage maps have been developed in lentil through the use of expressed sequenced tag (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) and SNP markers.These maps have emerged as useful genomic resources to identify quantitative trait loci imparting tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in lentil. In this review, the current knowledge on available genomic resources and its application in lentil breeding program are discussed. PMID:25755659

  15. Stress, steroids, and "ojas": neuroendocrine mechanisms and current promise of ancient approaches to disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Walton, K G; Pugh, N D

    1995-01-01

    Recent research on causes of disease and aging has increasingly supported the importance of stress. One theory of the relationship between stress and disease is based on the concept of homeostasis, a term coined by Cannon over 50 years ago to signify those states and mechanisms responsible for the "staying power of the body". Bernard, Cannon, Selye and other leading researchers held that full, normal function of the self-regulating or homeostatic power of the body maintains the balanced, integrated condition we recognize as health. Failures in this capacity, such as those produced by frequent stressful experiences, can result in disease or death. Theories of health and disease surprisingly similar to this have existed since ancient times, and in widely different cultures. This review discusses both the fundamental elements of these theories and the current neuroendocrine research supporting their validity and immediate relevance. The connections between ancient and modern knowledge described herein were made possible largely by the work of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, a scholar and teacher of the ancient vedic tradition of India. A key part of Ayurveda that has been obscure to modern science is the substance "ojas", which the classical texts say maintains balance of the physiology. In this article, specific steroids or steroid classes are proposed as likely candidates for both the "ordinary" and the "superior" types of ojas described in Ayurveda. Current evidence for the functions of these steroids, as well as their role in stress, disease and the maintenance of health, is reviewed. The knowledge of Ayurveda, as recently brought to light by Maharishi, includes methods for recovering and maintaining optimal function of steroidal systems. Such effects may help mediate the improvements in health and increased longevity attributed to Ayurveda and other ancient methods.

  16. Disease Ontology 2015 update: An expanded and updated database of human diseases for linking biomedical knowledge through disease data

    DOE PAGES

    Kibbe, Warren A.; Arze, Cesar; Felix, Victor; ...

    2014-10-27

    The current version of the Human Disease Ontology (DO) (http://www.disease-ontology.org) database expands the utility of the ontology for the examination and comparison of genetic variation, phenotype, protein, drug and epitope data through the lens of human disease. DO is a biomedical resource of standardized common and rare disease concepts with stable identifiers organized by disease etiology. The content of DO has had 192 revisions since 2012, including the addition of 760 terms. Thirty-two percent of all terms now include definitions. DO has expanded the number and diversity of research communities and community members by 50+ during the past two years.more » These community members actively submit term requests, coordinate biomedical resource disease representation and provide expert curation guidance. Since the DO 2012 NAR paper, there have been hundreds of term requests and a steady increase in the number of DO listserv members, twitter followers and DO website usage. DO is moving to a multi-editor model utilizing Protégé to curate DO in web ontology language. In conclusion, this will enable closer collaboration with the Human Phenotype Ontology, EBI's Ontology Working Group, Mouse Genome Informatics and the Monarch Initiative among others, and enhance DO's current asserted view and multiple inferred views through reasoning.« less

  17. Disease Ontology 2015 update: An expanded and updated database of human diseases for linking biomedical knowledge through disease data

    SciTech Connect

    Kibbe, Warren A.; Arze, Cesar; Felix, Victor; Mitraka, Elvira; Bolton, Evan; Fu, Gang; Mungall, Christopher J.; Binder, Janos X.; Malone, James; Vasant, Drashtti; Parkinson, Helen; Schriml, Lynn M.

    2014-10-27

    The current version of the Human Disease Ontology (DO) (http://www.disease-ontology.org) database expands the utility of the ontology for the examination and comparison of genetic variation, phenotype, protein, drug and epitope data through the lens of human disease. DO is a biomedical resource of standardized common and rare disease concepts with stable identifiers organized by disease etiology. The content of DO has had 192 revisions since 2012, including the addition of 760 terms. Thirty-two percent of all terms now include definitions. DO has expanded the number and diversity of research communities and community members by 50+ during the past two years. These community members actively submit term requests, coordinate biomedical resource disease representation and provide expert curation guidance. Since the DO 2012 NAR paper, there have been hundreds of term requests and a steady increase in the number of DO listserv members, twitter followers and DO website usage. DO is moving to a multi-editor model utilizing Protégé to curate DO in web ontology language. In conclusion, this will enable closer collaboration with the Human Phenotype Ontology, EBI's Ontology Working Group, Mouse Genome Informatics and the Monarch Initiative among others, and enhance DO's current asserted view and multiple inferred views through reasoning.

  18. Disease Ontology 2015 update: an expanded and updated database of human diseases for linking biomedical knowledge through disease data.

    PubMed

    Kibbe, Warren A; Arze, Cesar; Felix, Victor; Mitraka, Elvira; Bolton, Evan; Fu, Gang; Mungall, Christopher J; Binder, Janos X; Malone, James; Vasant, Drashtti; Parkinson, Helen; Schriml, Lynn M

    2015-01-01

    The current version of the Human Disease Ontology (DO) (http://www.disease-ontology.org) database expands the utility of the ontology for the examination and comparison of genetic variation, phenotype, protein, drug and epitope data through the lens of human disease. DO is a biomedical resource of standardized common and rare disease concepts with stable identifiers organized by disease etiology. The content of DO has had 192 revisions since 2012, including the addition of 760 terms. Thirty-two percent of all terms now include definitions. DO has expanded the number and diversity of research communities and community members by 50+ during the past two years. These community members actively submit term requests, coordinate biomedical resource disease representation and provide expert curation guidance. Since the DO 2012 NAR paper, there have been hundreds of term requests and a steady increase in the number of DO listserv members, twitter followers and DO website usage. DO is moving to a multi-editor model utilizing Protégé to curate DO in web ontology language. This will enable closer collaboration with the Human Phenotype Ontology, EBI's Ontology Working Group, Mouse Genome Informatics and the Monarch Initiative among others, and enhance DO's current asserted view and multiple inferred views through reasoning.

  19. Disease Ontology 2015 update: an expanded and updated database of human diseases for linking biomedical knowledge through disease data

    PubMed Central

    Kibbe, Warren A.; Arze, Cesar; Felix, Victor; Mitraka, Elvira; Bolton, Evan; Fu, Gang; Mungall, Christopher J.; Binder, Janos X.; Malone, James; Vasant, Drashtti; Parkinson, Helen; Schriml, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    The current version of the Human Disease Ontology (DO) (http://www.disease-ontology.org) database expands the utility of the ontology for the examination and comparison of genetic variation, phenotype, protein, drug and epitope data through the lens of human disease. DO is a biomedical resource of standardized common and rare disease concepts with stable identifiers organized by disease etiology. The content of DO has had 192 revisions since 2012, including the addition of 760 terms. Thirty-two percent of all terms now include definitions. DO has expanded the number and diversity of research communities and community members by 50+ during the past two years. These community members actively submit term requests, coordinate biomedical resource disease representation and provide expert curation guidance. Since the DO 2012 NAR paper, there have been hundreds of term requests and a steady increase in the number of DO listserv members, twitter followers and DO website usage. DO is moving to a multi-editor model utilizing Protégé to curate DO in web ontology language. This will enable closer collaboration with the Human Phenotype Ontology, EBI's Ontology Working Group, Mouse Genome Informatics and the Monarch Initiative among others, and enhance DO's current asserted view and multiple inferred views through reasoning. PMID:25348409

  20. Comparison of coping strategy and disease knowledge in dyads of parents and their adolescent with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sunhee; Choi, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with congenital heart disease adopt their illness as a part of their lives using their own knowledge and coping strategies. Those who use task-oriented coping strategies, such as relying on education to obtain sufficient disease-related knowledge, demonstrate much higher resilience. However, most health providers tend to provide information about congenital heart disease mainly to the parents instead of the child, and many parents tend to be uncomfortable talking about the disease with their child. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare adolescent patients' and their parents' coping strategies and knowledge of congenital heart disease. A descriptive and exploratory study design was used. After approval of the institutional review board was obtained, 40 adolescents with congenital heart disease and their parents were recruited from a congenital heart clinic between October 2012 and February 2013. We assessed the coping strategies and disease-related knowledge of both the adolescent patients and their parents. The knowledge level of adolescent patients and their parents had significant gaps between categories, and parents presented with significantly higher knowledge than their adolescents did (P < .01). Parents reported significantly higher mean scores on task-oriented and emotion-oriented coping than their adolescents did (P < .001). In addition, both adolescents and parents of a religious background reported significantly higher scores on emotion-oriented coping than did those who did not report a religion (P < .05). It is essential for healthcare providers to understand the ways in which adolescents and their parents cope with stress as well as the degree of their knowledge to better explicate the process of adaptation to the illness. Therefore, it is critical to develop effective structured and continuous intervention programs not only for adolescent patients and but also for their parents to enhance coping and knowledge of lifelong

  1. Training Older Adults about Alzheimer's Disease--Impact on Knowledge and Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scerri, Anthony; Scerri, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Although the impact of Alzheimer's disease training programs directed to informal and formal caregivers has been extensively studied, programs for older adults who do not have the disease are relatively few. Moreover, increased knowledge increases fear of the disease, even though there is little empirical evidence to support this. This study…

  2. Training Older Adults about Alzheimer's Disease--Impact on Knowledge and Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scerri, Anthony; Scerri, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Although the impact of Alzheimer's disease training programs directed to informal and formal caregivers has been extensively studied, programs for older adults who do not have the disease are relatively few. Moreover, increased knowledge increases fear of the disease, even though there is little empirical evidence to support this. This study…

  3. Q Fever: Current State of Knowledge and Perspectives of Research of a Neglected Zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Czaplicki, Guy; Mainil, Jacques; Guattéo, Raphaël; Saegerman, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Q fever is an ubiquitous zoonosis caused by an resistant intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. In certain areas, Q fever can be a severe public health problem, and awareness of the disease must be promoted worldwide. Nevertheless, knowledge of Coxiella burnetii remains limited to this day. Its resistant (intracellular and environmental) and infectious properties have been poorly investigated. Further understanding of the interactions between the infected host and the bacteria is necessary. Domestic ruminants are considered as the main reservoir of bacteria. Infected animals shed highly infectious organisms in milk, feces, urine, vaginal mucus, and, very importantly, birth products. Inhalation is the main route of infection. Frequently asymptomatic in humans and animals, Q fever can cause acute or chronic infections. Financial consequences of infection can be dramatic at herd level. Vaccination with inactive whole-cell bacteria has been performed and proved effective in humans and animals. However, inactive whole-cell vaccines present several defects. Recombinant vaccines have been developed in experimental conditions and have great potential for the future. Q fever is a challenging disease for scientists as significant further investigations are necessary. Great research opportunities are available to reach a better understanding and thus a better prevention and control of the infection. PMID:22194752

  4. Current knowledge related to intelligence and thinking with implications for the development and use of case studies.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge regarding intelligence and thinking, and relates this knowledge to learning to diagnose human responses and to select health outcomes and nursing interventions. Knowledge from relevant literature sources was summarized. The provision of high-quality nursing care requires use of critical thinking with three elements of nursing care: nursing diagnosis, health outcomes, and nursing interventions. Metacognition (thinking about thinking) should be used with knowledge of the subject matter and repeated practice in using the knowledge. Because there are limited clinical opportunities to practice using metacognition and knowledge of these nursing care elements, case studies can be used to foster nurses' expertise. Simulations of clinical cases are needed that illustrate application of the nursing knowledge represented in NANDA International, Nursing Outcomes Classification, and Nursing Interventions Classification. The International Journal of Nursing Terminologies and Classifications will promote the dispersion of case studies as a means of facilitating the implementation and use of nursing languages and classifications.

  5. Current options for treatment of chronic coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Prapas, Sotirios N.; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Sakkas, Antonios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    The primary issues must be discussed regarding the decision making of treating a patient with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), are the appropriateness of revascularization and the method which will be applied. The criteria will be the symptoms, the evidence of ischemia and the anatomical complexity of the coronary bed. Main indications are persistence of symptoms, despite oral medical treatment and the prognosis of any intervention. The prognosis is based on left ventricular function, on the number of coronary arteries with significant stenosis and the ischemic burden. For patients with symptoms and no evidence of ischemia, there is no benefit from revascularization. If ischemia is proven, revascularization is beneficial. If revascularization is decided, the next important issue must be taken under consideration is the choice of the appropriate method to be applied, surgical or interventional approach. Current treatment options will be presented. PMID:24672695

  6. Current Evidence and Insights about Genetics in Thoracic Aorta Disease

    PubMed Central

    Muneretto, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also sporadic forms have been found to be potentially associated with genetic disorders, as highlighted by the analysis of rare variants and expression of specific microRNAs. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive review of the role of genetic causes in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms, by analyzing in detail the current evidence of genetic alterations in syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehler-Danlos, familial or sporadic forms, or forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve. PMID:24453931

  7. Current evidence and insights about genetics in thoracic aorta disease.

    PubMed

    Bisleri, Gianluigi; Bagozzi, Lorenzo; Muneretto, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also sporadic forms have been found to be potentially associated with genetic disorders, as highlighted by the analysis of rare variants and expression of specific microRNAs. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive review of the role of genetic causes in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms, by analyzing in detail the current evidence of genetic alterations in syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehler-Danlos, familial or sporadic forms, or forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve.

  8. [Current and future diagnostic strategies in venous thromboembolic disease].

    PubMed

    Gabriel Botella, F; Labiós Gómez, M; Brasó Aznar, J V; Llavador Ros, G; Bort Martí, J

    1999-08-01

    Thromboembolic disease (TD), which includes deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is the most common acute cardiovascular condition after ischemic cardiopathy and stroke. It is often difficult to diagnose, as it is well-known that half of PE episodes appear are recognized while the patient is still alive and which appear in 30-40% of symptomatic patients. Nonetheless, there are two well-differentiated phases in the diagnosis of TD: the suspicion, and the diagnosis. The first is very important, and is within the competence of any physician. The second can be ratified when carrying out specific tests. We have developed successive steps in the two phases of diagnosis, we critically review the distinct parts currently implicated in the strategic diagnosis of TD. Finally, we analyze the new diagnostic techniques to substitute, possibly, angiography in many cases, and perhaps to include ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) pulmonary gammagraphy, once become generally available.

  9. Current view from Alzheimer disease to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Arif; Qazi, Aamer M; Sheikh, Ishfaq A; Manan, Abdul; Shaheen, Sumaira; Qazi, Mahmood H; Chaudhary, Adeel G; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Asif, Muhammad; Alqahtani, Mohammed H; Iqbal, Zafar; Shaik, Munvar M; Gan, Siew H; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2014-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that leads to memory problems. It has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus at both the molecular and biochemical level. Pancreatic cells have molecular similarities to the brain at the transcriptomic and proteomic levels. Several genes have been reported to be responsible for both AD and diabetes. Currently, no proper treatment is available but various therapeutic approaches are utilized worldwide for the management of these disorders and may be nanoparticles and herbal treatment of Bacopa monnieri will make promise for the treatment of AD in future. The formation of amyloids in neurons and the formation of amylin in pancreatic cells are potential links between these two disorders, which can be silent killers.

  10. Pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer's disease: current and future trends.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Werner J; Darvesh, Altaf S

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its related dementia has shown an alarming rise in the global population. Although considerable efforts have been made to develop effective therapeutic agents for AD therapy, drug development has not met significant clinical success. Current pharmacotherapy of AD is limited to cholinesterase inhibitors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine. Considerable research is underway to develop newer agents for the management of AD. Since amyloid-β (Aβ) has been implicated in AD pathogenesis, the use of β secretase inhibitors as well as immunotherapy against Aβ has been investigated. A considerable effort has been spent investigating the therapeutic potential of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents, several of natural products and dietary origin, in AD treatment. Numerous drug targets have also been investigated for AD treatment and a modest drug pipeline is available. Despite these efforts, drug development for AD has proved extremely difficult and most clinical trials have afforded disappointing results.

  11. Health literacy and disease-specific knowledge of caregivers for children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Carden, Marcus A; Newlin, Jennifer; Smith, Wally; Sisler, India

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to measure the health literacy (HL) and disease-specific knowledge (DSK) of caregivers for children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and relate them to their child's health care utilization. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of caregiver-child dyads attending an urban pediatric sickle cell clinic. Caregivers were administered the Shortened Test of Functional Health Literacy (S-TOFHLA) and a locally developed DSK questionnaire. Retrospective review of the child's electronic medical record (EMR) was performed to determine annual emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. A total of 142 caregiver-child dyads were recruited for the study. Less than 5% of caregivers had limited HL, with less education (P =.03) and primary language other than English (P =.04) being the only risk factors. Although caregiver HL was not associated with ED visits or hospitalizations, surprisingly DSK was. Caregivers with higher DSK scores had children with higher annual rates of ED utilization (P =.002) and hospitalizations (P =.001), and these children were also more likely to be classified as high ED utilizers (≥4 visits per year; P =.01). Further, caregiver adherence to medication and clinic visits was associated with their child's age (P =.01). Although HL and DSK are both constructs that measure basic health understanding, they differently affect caregivers' ability to navigate and understand the health care system of children with chronic illnesses. This study suggests that the DSK/health care utilization relationship may be a more important measure than HL for programs following children with sickle cell disease and could also have applications in other pediatric chronic diseases.

  12. What Is the Current Level of Asthma Knowledge in Elementary, Middle, and High School Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teacher asthma knowledge based on three areas including (a) the level of teacher asthma knowledge in the Maury County Public School System, (b) the level of teacher asthma knowledge based on five demographic factors, and (c) the level of teacher asthma knowledge in the Maury County Public School System compared with teacher…

  13. What Is the Current Level of Asthma Knowledge in Elementary, Middle, and High School Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teacher asthma knowledge based on three areas including (a) the level of teacher asthma knowledge in the Maury County Public School System, (b) the level of teacher asthma knowledge based on five demographic factors, and (c) the level of teacher asthma knowledge in the Maury County Public School System compared with teacher…

  14. Developing a Knowledge Management Framework to Assist With Current USMC Information Management Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL September 2010 Author: Petrus R. Johnson Approved by...13 E. KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNOLOGY .......................................................15 1. Knowledge Creation...Information Management Plan IPDS IDEA Program Data System IT Information Technology KCO Knowledge Centric Organization KM Knowledge

  15. [Current level of information about sickle cell disease among medical students at Brussels, Belgium].

    PubMed

    Aloni, M N; Kumumangi, J M; Malemba-Ilunga, J J; Usungo, F U; Nzuka, S K N; Lapu, B S; Ekila, M B; Kittel, F

    2014-02-01

    The increasing prevalence of sickle cell disease (SCD) is an important issue in Belgium due to migrations from high prevalence areas. It has become the most common genetic disease in Belgium. The impact is important in terms of health service delivery, especially since Belgian physicians have little experience with the disease. This study was designed to determine the current level of knowledge about SCD among medical students at the Louvain's Catholic University, Brussels. This study was part of a larger cross-sectional and descriptive study carried out at the Louvain's Catholic University in December 2010. Data were collected from medical students using self-administered structured questionnaires. In this study, 152 students were enrolled. All respondents had heard about SCD, the majority during their medical school curriculum. All students (100%) thought SCD is an African disease. A majority recognized that SCD is a serious illness and that it is linked with malaria. Anemia was the most frequently cited symptoms (98.0%) followed by splenomegaly (77.5%). Only 51% reported pain as a symptom. A majority knew they would have patients with the disease in their future career but only 2.3% of students considered specializing in the field of SCD. Using criteria for scoring information delivery, awareness about SCD was among the lowest in Belgium. For Belgian medical students, SCD is an exotic disease. Too little information about SCD is delivered. Continuing medical education about SCD can be recommended for medical students in Belgium. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Knowledge, attitude, and practices with respect to disease surveillance among urban private practitioners in Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Phalkey, Revati K; Kroll, Mareike; Dutta, Sayani; Shukla, Sharvari; Butsch, Carsten; Bharucha, Erach; Kraas, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Participation of private practitioners in routine disease surveillance in India is minimal despite the fact that they account for over 70% of the primary healthcare provision. We aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of private practitioners in the city of Pune toward disease surveillance. Our goal was to identify what barriers and facilitators determine their participation in current and future surveillance efforts. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 258 practitioners (response rate 86%). Data were processed using SPSS™ Inc., Chicago, IL, USA, version 17.0.1. Knowledge regarding surveillance, although limited, was better among allopathy practitioners. Surveillance practices did not differ significantly between allopathy and alternate medicine practitioners. Multivariable logistic regression suggested practicing allopathy [odds ratio (OR) 3.125, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.234-7.915, p=0.016] and availability of a computer (OR 3.670, 95% CI 1.237-10.889, p=0.019) as significant determinants and the presence of a laboratory (OR 3.792, 95% CI 0.998-14.557, p=0.052) as a marginal determinant of the practitioner's willingness to participate in routine disease surveillance systems. Lack of time (137, 55%) was identified as the main barrier at the individual level alongside inadequately trained subordinate staff (14, 6%). Main extrinsic barriers included lack of cooperation between government and the private sector (27, 11%) and legal issues involved in reporting data (15, 6%). There was a general agreement among respondents (239, 94%) that current surveillance efforts need strengthening. Over a third suggested that availability of detailed information and training about surveillance processes (70, 33%) would facilitate reporting. The high response rate and the practitioners' willingness to participate in a proposed pilot non-communicable disease surveillance system indicate that there is a general interest from the private

  17. Knowledge, attitude, and practices with respect to disease surveillance among urban private practitioners in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Phalkey, Revati K.; Kroll, Mareike; Dutta, Sayani; Shukla, Sharvari; Butsch, Carsten; Bharucha, Erach; Kraas, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation of private practitioners in routine disease surveillance in India is minimal despite the fact that they account for over 70% of the primary healthcare provision. We aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of private practitioners in the city of Pune toward disease surveillance. Our goal was to identify what barriers and facilitators determine their participation in current and future surveillance efforts. Design A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 258 practitioners (response rate 86%). Data were processed using SPSS™ Inc., Chicago, IL, USA, version 17.0.1. Results Knowledge regarding surveillance, although limited, was better among allopathy practitioners. Surveillance practices did not differ significantly between allopathy and alternate medicine practitioners. Multivariable logistic regression suggested practicing allopathy [odds ratio (OR) 3.125, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.234–7.915, p=0.016] and availability of a computer (OR 3.670, 95% CI 1.237–10.889, p=0.019) as significant determinants and the presence of a laboratory (OR 3.792, 95% CI 0.998–14.557, p=0.052) as a marginal determinant of the practitioner's willingness to participate in routine disease surveillance systems. Lack of time (137, 55%) was identified as the main barrier at the individual level alongside inadequately trained subordinate staff (14, 6%). Main extrinsic barriers included lack of cooperation between government and the private sector (27, 11%) and legal issues involved in reporting data (15, 6%). There was a general agreement among respondents (239, 94%) that current surveillance efforts need strengthening. Over a third suggested that availability of detailed information and training about surveillance processes (70, 33%) would facilitate reporting. Conclusions The high response rate and the practitioners’ willingness to participate in a proposed pilot non-communicable disease surveillance system indicate that

  18. Drugs in Alzheimer's disease Dementia: An overview of current pharmacological management and future directions.

    PubMed

    Eleti, Saigeet

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's dementia is one of the most significant health burdens of the modern age in both industrialised and non-industrialised nations as it is a major cause of morbidity and functional impairment in the elderly. Currently there are no cures for progressive dementias, including Alzheimer's disease, and no treatments that would modify their progress. Intervention involves pharmacological treatment to temporarily relieve the symptoms, including three cholinesterase inhibitors and a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, and the efficacy of these is widely debated. While our understanding of the underlying pathology of Alzheimer's continues to grow, we have yet to fully elucidate the mechanisms that drive neuronal loss in this condition. Any truly disease-modifying treatment must be developed to target these pathological pathways. An extensive analysis of the available literature is presented here, including a number of trials, meta-analyses and reviews, with the aim of assessing current management, establishing best practice and summarising the future of dementia care. The efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors remains controversial due to uncertainty over what change is considered clinically significant. Any derived benefit seems to be independent of dementia severity and donepezil is the most cost-effective for Alzheimer's dementia. Memantine potentially influences the underlying pathological processes in Alzheimer's disease and may be more effective in moderate to severe Alzheimer's dementia. The role of combination therapy remains uncertain. Future therapies are aimed at modulating the disease process by using chemical agents to inhibit amyloid and tau deposition. None have been approved clinically. Current pharmacological therapy for Alzheimer's dementia is very limited and primarily aims at achieving symptom control. A major limitation is our lack of knowledge of the underlying pathology and it is only by better understanding the disease process that we can

  19. Assessing Exposure and Health Consequences of Chemicals in Drinking Water: Current State of Knowledge and Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Kogevinas, Manolis; Cordier, Sylvaine; Templeton, Michael R.; Vermeulen, Roel; Nuckols, John R.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Levallois, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Safe drinking water is essential for well-being. Although microbiological contamination remains the largest cause of water-related morbidity and mortality globally, chemicals in water supplies may also cause disease, and evidence of the human health consequences is limited or lacking for many of them. Objectives: We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge, identify gaps in understanding, and provide recommendations for epidemiological research relating to chemicals occurring in drinking water. Discussion: Assessing exposure and the health consequences of chemicals in drinking water is challenging. Exposures are typically at low concentrations, measurements in water are frequently insufficient, chemicals are present in mixtures, exposure periods are usually long, multiple exposure routes may be involved, and valid biomarkers reflecting the relevant exposure period are scarce. In addition, the magnitude of the relative risks tends to be small. Conclusions: Research should include well-designed epidemiological studies covering regions with contrasting contaminant levels and sufficient sample size; comprehensive evaluation of contaminant occurrence in combination with bioassays integrating the effect of complex mixtures; sufficient numbers of measurements in water to evaluate geographical and temporal variability; detailed information on personal habits resulting in exposure (e.g., ingestion, showering, swimming, diet); collection of biological samples to measure relevant biomarkers; and advanced statistical models to estimate exposure and relative risks, considering methods to address measurement error. Last, the incorporation of molecular markers of early biological effects and genetic susceptibility is essential to understand the mechanisms of action. There is a particular knowledge gap and need to evaluate human exposure and the risks of a wide range of emerging contaminants. Citation: Villanueva CM, Kogevinas M, Cordier S, Templeton MR, Vermeulen R

  20. Assessing exposure and health consequences of chemicals in drinking water: current state of knowledge and research needs.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Cristina M; Kogevinas, Manolis; Cordier, Sylvaine; Templeton, Michael R; Vermeulen, Roel; Nuckols, John R; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Levallois, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Safe drinking water is essential for well-being. Although microbiological contamination remains the largest cause of water-related morbidity and mortality globally, chemicals in water supplies may also cause disease, and evidence of the human health consequences is limited or lacking for many of them. We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge, identify gaps in understanding, and provide recommendations for epidemiological research relating to chemicals occurring in drinking water. Assessing exposure and the health consequences of chemicals in drinking water is challenging. Exposures are typically at low concentrations, measurements in water are frequently insufficient, chemicals are present in mixtures, exposure periods are usually long, multiple exposure routes may be involved, and valid biomarkers reflecting the relevant exposure period are scarce. In addition, the magnitude of the relative risks tends to be small. Research should include well-designed epidemiological studies covering regions with contrasting contaminant levels and sufficient sample size; comprehensive evaluation of contaminant occurrence in combination with bioassays integrating the effect of complex mixtures; sufficient numbers of measurements in water to evaluate geographical and temporal variability; detailed information on personal habits resulting in exposure (e.g., ingestion, showering, swimming, diet); collection of biological samples to measure relevant biomarkers; and advanced statistical models to estimate exposure and relative risks, considering methods to address measurement error. Last, the incorporation of molecular markers of early biological effects and genetic susceptibility is essential to understand the mechanisms of action. There is a particular knowledge gap and need to evaluate human exposure and the risks of a wide range of emerging contaminants. Villanueva CM, Kogevinas M, Cordier S, Templeton MR, Vermeulen R, Nuckols JR, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Levallois P. 2014. Assessing

  1. Current discussions of DDREF, cataracts, circulatory diseases and dose limits.

    PubMed

    Müller, Wolfgang-Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Although more than a century of radiation research has provided a lot of insight into radiation risk, there are still fields that need clarification. This is particularly true for the low dose range, meaning doses up to ∼100 mSv. One can detect biological effects in that dose range, but it is unclear whether these biological effects like mutations or chromosomal aberrations translate into health effects like cancer, cataracts or circulatory diseases. Thus, for radiation protection purposes, assumptions have to made that must be reappraised on the basis of new findings from time to time. Affected by new insights are currently the DDREF (dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor), cataracts and circulatory diseases. If the new findings are very convincing, dose limits have to be changed at short notice. If there are only weak indications, stability of the radiation protection system is more important than changing limits all the time. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Ocular Behçet disease: current therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Evereklioglu, Cem

    2011-11-01

    To alert physician to timely recognition and current treatment of recurrent hypopyon iridocyclitis or panuveitis in ocular Behçet disease (OBD). Interferon-α, rituximab, intravitreal triamcinolone, and biological response modifiers by tumor necrosis factor inhibitors such as infliximab and adalimumab are being used increasingly for the treatment of severe sight-threatening ocular inflammation including retinal vasculitis and cystoid macular edema (CME). Biological agents offer tremendous potential in the treatment of OBD. Given that OBD predominantly afflicts the younger adults in their most productive years, dermatologist, rheumatologist, internist, or general practitioners supervising patients with oculo-articulo-oromucocutaneous syndromes should be aware of systemic Behçet disease. Early recognition of ocular involvement is important and such patients should strongly be instructed to visit immediately an ophthalmologist, as uveitis management differs from extraocular involvements with high ocular morbidity from sight-threatening complications due to relapsing inflammatory attacks in the posterior segment of the eye. A single infliximab infusion should be considered for the control of acute panuveitis, whereas repeated long-term infliximab infusions were proved to be more effective in reducing the number of episodes in refractory uveoretinitis with faster regression and complete remission of CME.

  3. Nontyphoidal salmonella disease: Current status of vaccine research and development.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Sharon M; MacLennan, Calman A; Simon, Raphael; Martin, Laura B; Khan, M Imran

    2016-06-03

    Among more than 2500 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) serovars, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis account for approximately fifty percent of all human isolates of NTS reported globally. The global incidence of NTS gastroenteritis in 2010 was estimated to be 93 million cases, approximately 80 million of which were contracted via food-borne transmission. It is estimated that 155,000 deaths resulted from NTS in 2010. NTS also causes severe, extra-intestinal, invasive bacteremia, referred to as invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. iNTS disease usually presents as a febrile illness, frequently without gastrointestinal symptoms, in both adults and children. Symptoms of iNTS are similar to malaria, often including fever (>90%) and splenomegaly (>40%). The underlying reasons for the high rates of iNTS disease in Africa are still being elucidated. Evidence from animal and human studies supports the feasibility of developing a safe and effective vaccine against iNTS. Both antibodies and complement can kill Salmonella species in vitro. Proof-of-principle studies in animal models have demonstrated efficacy for live attenuated and subunit vaccines that target the O-antigens, flagellin proteins, and other outer membrane proteins of serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. More recently, a novel delivery strategy for NTS vaccines has been developed: the Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) technology which presents surface polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins in their native conformation. GMMA technology is self-adjuvanting, as it delivers multiple pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules. GMMA may be particularly relevant for low- and middle-income countries as it has the potential for high immunologic potency at a low cost and involves a relatively simple production process without the need for complex conjugation. Several vaccines for the predominant NTS serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, are

  4. Antineuronal antibodies against neurotransmitter receptors and synaptic proteins in schizophrenia: current knowledge and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Johann; Schiltz, Kolja; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    When Eugen Bleuler coined the term 'schizophrenia' he believed that various causes of illness may underlie this disease. Currently, neurodevelopmental abnormalities and consecutive impairments in dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission are considered as major causes of schizophrenia. However, there are various indications for involvement of immune processes, at least in subgroups of patients. Circulating antineuronal antibodies provide a promising link between the well-described disturbances in neurotransmission and the immune hypothesis of schizophrenia. This review summarizes important studies that have examined the role of glutamate, dopamine, acetylcholine and serotonin receptor autoantibodies, and other antineuronal antibodies against synaptic proteins in the serum of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Currently, it is not known whether the presence of antineuronal antibodies in blood should be considered as a causal or disease-modulating factor in schizophrenia. Due to emerging evidence regarding the important role of the blood-brain barrier, combined testing of serum and cerebrospinal fluid is likely to be more appropriate to answer this question than pure serum analyses. We suggest implementation of such testing in first-onset and treatment-resistant patients as part of the diagnostic process. In addition, future clinical trials should evaluate if immunotherapy (e.g. cortisone pulse therapy, intravenous immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis, rituximab, or cyclophosphamide) is helpful in cases with a neuroinflammatory component.

  5. Current Pharmaceutical Treatments and Alternative Therapies of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Cui, Yanhua; Li, Song; Le, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Over the decades, pharmaceutical treatments, particularly dopaminergic (DAergic) drugs have been considered as the main therapy against motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is proposed that DAergic drugs in combination with other medications, such as monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors, catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors, anticholinergics and other newly developed non-DAergic drugs can make a better control of motor symptoms or alleviate levodopa-induced motor complications. Moreover, non-motor symptoms of PD, such as cognitive, neuropsychiatric, sleep, autonomic and sensory disturbances caused by intrinsic PD pathology or drug-induced side effects, are gaining increasing attention and urgently need to be taken care of due to their impact on quality of life. Currently, neuroprotective therapies have been investigated extensively in pre-clinical studies, and some of them have been subjected to clinical trials. Furthermore, non-pharmaceutical treatments, including deep brain stimulation (DBS), gene therapy, cell replacement therapy and some complementary managements, such as Tai chi, Yoga, traditional herbs and molecular targeted therapies have also been considered as effective alternative therapies to classical pharmaceutics. This review will provide us updated information regarding the current drugs and non-drugs therapies for PD.

  6. Current status of peroral cholangioscopy in biliary tract diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ghersi, Stefania; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Bassi, Marco; Fabbri, Carlo; Cennamo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Peroral cholangioscopy (POC) is an important tool for the management of a selected group of biliary diseases. Because of its direct visualization, POC allows targeted diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. POC can be performed using a dedicated cholangioscope that is advanced through the accessory channel of a duodenoscope or via the insertion of a small-diameter endoscope directly into the bile duct. POC was first described in the 1970s, but the use of earlier generation devices was substantially limited by the cumbersome equipment setup and high repair costs. For nearly ten years, several technical improvements, including the single-operator system, high-quality images, the development of dedicated accessories and the increased size of the working channel, have led to increased diagnostic accuracy, thus assisting in the differentiation of benign and malignant intraductal lesions, targeting biopsies and the precise delineation of intraductal tumor spread before surgery. Furthermore, lithotripsy of difficult bile duct stones, ablative therapies for biliary malignancies and direct biliary drainage can be performed under POC control. Recent developments of new types of conventional POCs allow feasible, safe and effective procedures at reasonable costs. In the current review, we provide an updated overview of POC, focusing our attention on the main current clinical applications and on areas for future research. PMID:25992189

  7. Current Pharmaceutical Treatments and Alternative Therapies of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Cui, Yanhua; Li, Song; Le, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Over the decades, pharmaceutical treatments, particularly dopaminergic (DAergic) drugs have been considered as the main therapy against motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is proposed that DAergic drugs in combination with other medications, such as monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors, catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors, anticholinergics and other newly developed non-DAergic drugs can make a better control of motor symptoms or alleviate levodopa-induced motor complications. Moreover, non-motor symptoms of PD, such as cognitive, neuropsychiatric, sleep, autonomic and sensory disturbances caused by intrinsic PD pathology or drug-induced side effects, are gaining increasing attention and urgently need to be taken care of due to their impact on quality of life. Currently, neuroprotective therapies have been investigated extensively in pre-clinical studies, and some of them have been subjected to clinical trials. Furthermore, non-pharmaceutical treatments, including deep brain stimulation (DBS), gene therapy, cell replacement therapy and some complementary managements, such as Tai chi, Yoga, traditional herbs and molecular targeted therapies have also been considered as effective alternative therapies to classical pharmaceutics. This review will provide us updated information regarding the current drugs and non-drugs therapies for PD. PMID:26585523

  8. Animal behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Hong, Zhen; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Chao, Dongman; Fenoy, Albert J; Villarreal, Sebastian J; Onoe, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is traditionally classified as a movement disorder. Patients typically suffer from many motor dysfunctions. Presently, clinicians and scientists recognize that many non-motor symptoms are associated with PD. There is an increasing interest in both motor and non-motor symptoms in clinical studies on PD patients and laboratory research on animal models that imitate the pathophysiologic features and symptoms of PD patients. Therefore, appropriate behavioral assessments are extremely crucial for correctly understanding the mechanisms of PD and accurately evaluating the efficacy and safety of novel therapies. This article systematically reviews the behavioral assessments, for both motor and non-motor symptoms, in various animal models involved in current PD research. We addressed the strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral tests and their appropriate applications. Moreover, we discussed potential mechanisms behind these behavioral tests and cautioned readers against potential experimental bias. Since most of the behavioral assessments currently used for non-motor symptoms are not particularly designed for animals with PD, it is of the utmost importance to greatly improve experimental design and evaluation in PD research with animal models. Indeed, it is essential to develop specific assessments for non-motor symptoms in PD animals based on their characteristics. We concluded with a prospective view for behavioral assessments with real-time assessment with mobile internet and wearable device in future PD research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beer Polyphenols and Menopause: Effects and Mechanisms-A Review of Current Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Ramírez, Berner Andrée; M Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa; Estruch, Ramon; Sasot, Gemma; Doménech, Monica; Tresserra-Rimbau, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Beer is one of the most frequently consumed fermented beverages in the world, and it has been part of the human diet for thousands of years. Scientific evidence obtained from the development of new techniques of food analysis over the last two decades suggests that polyphenol intake derived from moderate beer consumption may play a positive role in different health outcomes including osteoporosis and cardiovascular risk and the relief of vasomotor symptoms, which are commonly experienced during menopause and are an important reason why women seek medical care during this period; here, we review the current knowledge regarding moderate beer consumption and its possible effects on menopausal symptoms. The effect of polyphenol intake on vasomotor symptoms in menopause may be driven by the direct interaction of the phenolic compounds present in beer, such as 8-prenylnaringenin, 6-prenylnaringenin, and isoxanthohumol, with intracellular estrogen receptors that leads to the modulation of gene expression, increase in sex hormone plasma concentrations, and thus modulation of physiological hormone imbalance in menopausal women. Since traditional hormone replacement therapies increase health risks, alternative, safer treatment options are needed to alleviate menopausal symptoms in women. The present work aims to review the current data on this subject.

  10. Beer Polyphenols and Menopause: Effects and Mechanisms—A Review of Current Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Ramírez, Berner Andrée; M. Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa; Estruch, Ramon; Sasot, Gemma; Doménech, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Beer is one of the most frequently consumed fermented beverages in the world, and it has been part of the human diet for thousands of years. Scientific evidence obtained from the development of new techniques of food analysis over the last two decades suggests that polyphenol intake derived from moderate beer consumption may play a positive role in different health outcomes including osteoporosis and cardiovascular risk and the relief of vasomotor symptoms, which are commonly experienced during menopause and are an important reason why women seek medical care during this period; here, we review the current knowledge regarding moderate beer consumption and its possible effects on menopausal symptoms. The effect of polyphenol intake on vasomotor symptoms in menopause may be driven by the direct interaction of the phenolic compounds present in beer, such as 8-prenylnaringenin, 6-prenylnaringenin, and isoxanthohumol, with intracellular estrogen receptors that leads to the modulation of gene expression, increase in sex hormone plasma concentrations, and thus modulation of physiological hormone imbalance in menopausal women. Since traditional hormone replacement therapies increase health risks, alternative, safer treatment options are needed to alleviate menopausal symptoms in women. The present work aims to review the current data on this subject. PMID:28904736

  11. Current knowledge on isobutanol production with Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2011-01-01

    Due to steadily rising crude oil prices great efforts have been made to develop designer bugs for the fermentative production of higher alcohols, such as 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-Methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol), which all possess quality characteristics comparable to traditional oil based fuels. The common metabolic engineering approach uses the last two steps of the Ehrlich pathway, catalyzed by 2-ketoacid decarboxylase and an alcohol dehydrogenase converting the branched chain 2-ketoacids of L-isoleucine, L-leucine and L-valine into the respective alcohols. This strategy was successfully used to engineer well suited and industrially employed bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of higher alcohols. Among these alcohols, isobutanol is currently the most promising one regarding final titer and yield. This article summarizes the current knowledge and achievements on isobutanol production with E. coli, B. subtilis and C. glutamicum regarding the metabolic engineering approaches and process conditions. PMID:22008938

  12. Current knowledge on isobutanol production with Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Blombach, Bastian; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2011-01-01

    Due to steadily rising crude oil prices great efforts have been made to develop designer bugs for the fermentative production of higher alcohols, such as 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-Methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol), which all possess quality characteristics comparable to traditional oil based fuels. The common metabolic engineering approach uses the last two steps of the Ehrlich pathway, catalyzed by 2-ketoacid decarboxylase and an alcohol dehydrogenase converting the branched chain 2-ketoacids of L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine into the respective alcohols. This strategy was successfully used to engineer well suited and industrially employed bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of higher alcohols. Among these alcohols, isobutanol is currently the most promising one regarding final titer and yield. This article summarizes the current knowledge and achievements on isobutanol production with E. coli, B. subtilis and C. glutamicum regarding the metabolic engineering approaches and process conditions.

  13. Assessing the bioaccumulation potential of ionizable organic compounds: Current knowledge and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Armitage, James M; Erickson, Russell J; Luckenbach, Till; Ng, Carla A; Prosser, Ryan S; Arnot, Jon A; Schirmer, Kristin; Nichols, John W

    2016-11-07

    The objective of the present study was to review the current knowledge regarding the bioaccumulation potential of ionizable organic compounds (IOCs), with a focus on the availability of empirical data for fish. Aspects of the bioaccumulation potential of IOCs in fish that can be characterized relatively well include the pH dependence of gill uptake and elimination, uptake in the gut, and sorption to phospholipids (membrane-water partitioning). Key challenges include the lack of empirical data for biotransformation and binding in plasma. Fish possess a diverse array of proteins that may transport IOCs across cell membranes. Except in a few cases, however, the significance of this transport for uptake and accumulation of environmental contaminants is unknown. Two case studies are presented. The first describes modeled effects of pH and biotransformation on the bioconcentration of organic acids and bases, while the second employs an updated model to investigate factors responsible for accumulation of perfluorinated alkyl acids. The perfluorinated alkyl acid case study is notable insofar as it illustrates the likely importance of membrane transporters in the kidney and highlights the potential value of read-across approaches. Recognizing the current need to perform bioaccumulation hazard assessments and ecological and exposure risk assessment for IOCs, the authors provide a tiered strategy that progresses (as needed) from conservative assumptions (models and associated data) to more sophisticated models requiring chemical-specific information. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-16. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. B-group vitamin production by lactic acid bacteria--current knowledge and potential applications.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, J G; Laiño, J E; del Valle, M Juarez; Vannini, V; van Sinderen, D; Taranto, M P; de Valdez, G Font; de Giori, G Savoy; Sesma, F

    2011-12-01

    Although most vitamins are present in a variety of foods, human vitamin deficiencies still occur in many countries, mainly because of malnutrition not only as a result of insufficient food intake but also because of unbalanced diets. Even though most lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are auxotrophic for several vitamins, it is now known that certain strains have the capability to synthesize water-soluble vitamins such as those included in the B-group (folates, riboflavin and vitamin B(12) amongst others). This review article will show the current knowledge of vitamin biosynthesis by LAB and show how the proper selection of starter cultures and probiotic strains could be useful in preventing clinical and subclinical vitamin deficiencies. Here, several examples will be presented where vitamin-producing LAB led to the elaboration of novel fermented foods with increased and bioavailable vitamins. In addition, the use of genetic engineering strategies to increase vitamin production or to create novel vitamin-producing strains will also be discussed. This review will show that the use of vitamin-producing LAB could be a cost-effective alternative to current vitamin fortification programmes and be useful in the elaboration of novel vitamin-enriched products. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Cardiovascular disease mortality in the Americas: current trends and disparities.

    PubMed

    de Fatima Marinho de Souza, Maria; Gawryszewski, Vilma Pinheiro; Orduñez, Pedro; Sanhueza, Antonio; Espinal, Marcos A

    2012-08-01

    To describe the current situation and trends in mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Americas and explore their association with economic indicators. This time series study analysed mortality data from 21 countries in the region of the Americas from 2000 to the latest available year. Age-adjusted death rates, annual variation in death rates. Regression analysis was used to estimate the annual variation and the association between age-adjusted rates and country income. Currently, CVD comprised 33.7% of all deaths in the Americas. Rates were higher in Guyana (292/100 000), Trinidad and Tobago (289/100 000) and Venezuela (246/100 000), and lower in Canada (108/100 000), Puerto Rico (121/100 000) and Chile (125/100 000). Male rates were higher than female rates in all countries. The trend analysis showed that CVD death rates in the Americas declined -19% overall (-20% among women and -18% among men). Most countries had a significant annual decline, except Guatemala, Guyana, Suriname, Paraguay and Panama. The largest annual declines were observed in Canada (-4.8%), the USA (-3.9%) and Puerto Rico (-3.6%). Minor declines were in Mexico (-0.8%) and Cuba (-1.1%). Compared with high-income countries the difference between the median of death rates in lower middle-income countries was 56.7% higher and between upper middle-income countries was 20.6% higher. CVD death rates have been decreasing in most countries in the Americas. Considerable disparities still remain in the current rates and trends.

  16. Current pharmacotherapy and putative disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Akanksha; Piplani, Poonam

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system correlated with the progressive loss of cognition and memory. β-Amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and the deficiency in cholinergic neurotransmission constitute the major hallmarks of the AD. Two major hypotheses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD namely the cholinergic hypothesis which ascribed the clinical features of dementia to the deficit cholinergic neurotransmission and the amyloid cascade hypothesis which emphasized on the deposition of insoluble peptides formed due to the faulty cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Current pharmacotherapy includes mainly the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist which offer symptomatic therapy and does not address the underlying cause of the disease. The disease-modifying therapy has garnered a lot of research interest for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for AD. β and γ-Secretase constitute attractive targets that are focussed in the disease-modifying approach. Potentiation of α-secretase also seems to be a promising approach towards the development of an effective anti-Alzheimer therapy. Additionally, the ameliorative agents that prevent aggregation of amyloid peptide and also the ones that modulate inflammation and oxidative damage associated with the disease are focussed upon. Development in the area of the vaccines is in progress to combat the characteristic hallmarks of the disease. Use of cholesterol-lowering agents also is a fruitful strategy for the alleviation of the disease as a close association between the cholesterol and AD has been cited. The present review underlines the major therapeutic strategies for AD with focus on the new developments that are on their way to amend the current therapeutic scenario of the disease.

  17. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: current views on genetics and mechanisms of disease

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, S A; Letarte, M

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by epistaxis, telangiectases, and multiorgan vascular dysplasia. The two major types of disease, HHT1 and HHT2, are caused by mutations in the ENG (endoglin) and ACVRL1 genes, respectively. The corresponding endoglin and ALK‐1 proteins are specific endothelial receptors of the transforming growth factor β superfamily essential for maintaining vascular integrity. Many mutations have been identified in ENG and ACVRL1 genes and support the haploinsufficiency model for HHT. Two more genes have recently been implicated in HHT: MADH4 mutated in a combined syndrome of juvenile polyposis and HHT (JPHT), and an unidentified HHT3 gene linked to chromosome 5. Current knowledge on the genetics of HHT is summarised, including the pathways that link the genes responsible for HHT and the potential mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:15879500

  18. Oral Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: Current Pathogenesis, Therapy, and Research

    PubMed Central

    Mays, JW; Fassil, H; Edwards, DA; Pavletic, SZ; Bassim, CW

    2012-01-01

    Optimal management of complex autoimmune diseases requires a multidisciplinary medical team including dentists to care for lesions of the oral cavity. In this review, we discuss the presentation, prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of oral manifestations in chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (cGVHD) which is a major late complication in patients treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We assess current general knowledge of systemic and oral cGVHD, and present general treatment recommendations based on literature review and our clinical experience. Additionally, we review areas where the understanding of oral cGVHD could be improved by further research, and address tools with which to accomplish the long-term goal of providing better health and quality-of-life to patients with cGVHD. PMID:23107104

  19. Demographic and traditional knowledge perspectives on the current status of Canadian polar bear subpopulations.

    PubMed

    York, Jordan; Dowsley, Martha; Cornwell, Adam; Kuc, Miroslaw; Taylor, Mitchell

    2016-05-01

    Subpopulation growth rates and the probability of decline at current harvest levels were determined for 13 subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) that are within or shared with Canada based on mark-recapture estimates of population numbers and vital rates, and harvest statistics using population viability analyses (PVA). Aboriginal traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) on subpopulation trend agreed with the seven stable/increasing results and one of the declining results, but disagreed with PVA status of five other declining subpopulations. The decline in the Baffin Bay subpopulation appeared to be due to over-reporting of harvested numbers from outside Canada. The remaining four disputed subpopulations (Southern Beaufort Sea, Northern Beaufort Sea, Southern Hudson Bay, and Western Hudson Bay) were all incompletely mark-recapture (M-R) sampled, which may have biased their survival and subpopulation estimates. Three of the four incompletely sampled subpopulations were PVA identified as nonviable (i.e., declining even with zero harvest mortality). TEK disagreement was nonrandom with respect to M-R sampling protocols. Cluster analysis also grouped subpopulations with ambiguous demographic and harvest rate estimates separately from those with apparently reliable demographic estimates based on PVA probability of decline and unharvested subpopulation growth rate criteria. We suggest that the correspondence between TEK and scientific results can be used to improve the reliability of information on natural systems and thus improve resource management. Considering both TEK and scientific information, we suggest that the current status of Canadian polar bear subpopulations in 2013 was 12 stable/increasing and one declining (Kane Basin). We do not find support for the perspective that polar bears within or shared with Canada are currently in any sort of climate crisis. We suggest that monitoring the impacts of climate change (including sea ice decline) on polar bear

  20. Current Status and Future Prospects to Achieve Foot-and-Mouth Disease Eradication in South America.

    PubMed

    Clavijo, A; Sanchez-Vazquez, M J; Buzanovsky, L P; Martini, M; Pompei, J C; Cosivi, O

    2017-02-01

    South America has a favourable position with respect to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) compared with other FMD-affected regions due to the elimination of endemic clinical presentation of the disease. South America has reached the final stage of control and aims to eradicate the disease in the region under the provisions of the Hemispheric Program for the Eradication of FMD 2011-2020 (PHEFA). This programme aims at bringing eradication to completion, thereby eliminating the pool of foot-and-mouth disease genotypes active in South America. This plan includes a regional political agreement that provides strategies and technical guidelines for the eradication of foot-and-mouth disease from South America. It incorporates knowledge and experience regarding the disease's history and its connection with the different production systems, animal movement and trade. The Pan American Foot and Mouth Disease Center has led the control and eradication programmes, providing the framework for designing national and subregional programmes that have led to significant progress in controlling the disease in South America. The current situation is the result of several factors, including the proper implementation of a national control programmes, good veterinary infrastructure in most countries and public-private participation in the process of eradicating the disease. Notwithstanding the favourable health status, there are significant challenges for the goal of eradication. At this stage, South American countries should enhance their surveillance strategies particularly through the use of target or risk-based surveys that contribute to increase the degree of sensitivity in the search for viral circulation in the context of absence of clinical occurrence of FMD.

  1. Knowledge of Natural Kinds in Semantic Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Katy; Smith, Edward E.; Grossman, Murray

    2008-01-01

    We examined the semantic impairment for natural kinds in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and semantic dementia (SD) using an inductive reasoning paradigm. To learn about the relationships between natural kind exemplars and how these are distinguished from manufactured artifacts, subjects judged the strength of arguments such as…

  2. Knowledge of Natural Kinds in Semantic Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Katy; Smith, Edward E.; Grossman, Murray

    2008-01-01

    We examined the semantic impairment for natural kinds in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and semantic dementia (SD) using an inductive reasoning paradigm. To learn about the relationships between natural kind exemplars and how these are distinguished from manufactured artifacts, subjects judged the strength of arguments such as…

  3. Coral-associated bacterial assemblages: current knowledge and the potential for climate-driven impacts.

    PubMed

    Mouchka, Morgan E; Hewson, Ian; Harvell, C Drew

    2010-10-01

    The importance of associations between microorganisms and their invertebrate hosts is becoming increasingly apparent. An emerging field, driven by the necessity to understand the microbial relationships that both maximize coral health and cause coral disease, is the study of coral-bacteria interactions. In this article, we review our current understanding of the diversity, specificity, development, and functions of coral-associated bacteria. We also summarize what is known regarding the role of coral microbiota in the health and disease of coral. We conduct a meta-analysis to determine whether the presence of unique taxa correlates with the state of coral health (i.e. healthy, diseased or bleached), as well as whether coral reef habitats harbor clusters of distinct taxa. We find that healthy and bleached corals harbor similar dominant taxa, although bleached corals had higher proportions of Vibrio and Acidobacteria. Diseased corals generally had more Rhodobacter, Clostridia, and Cyanobacteria sequences, and fewer Oceanospirillum sequences. We caution, however, that while 16S rRNA is useful for microbial species identification, it is a poor predictor of habitat or lifestyle, and care should be taken in interpretation of 16S rRNA surveys to identify potential pathogens amongst complex coral-microbial assemblages. Finally, we highlight evidence that coral-bacterial assemblages could be sensitive to the effects of climatic change. We suggest that the relationship between coral and their bacterial associates represents a valuable model that can be applied to the broader discipline of invertebrate-microbial interactions. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  4. Interaction of memory systems during acquisition of tool knowledge and skills in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shumita; Park, Norman W; Roy, Eric A; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that different aspects of tool knowledge are mediated by different memory systems. It is believed that tool attributes (e.g., function, color) are represented as declarative memory while skill learning is supported by procedural memory. It has been proposed that other aspects (e.g., skilled tool use) may rely on an interaction of both declarative and procedural memory. However, the specific form of procedural memory underlying skilled tool use and the nature of interaction between declarative and procedural memory systems remain unclear. In the current study, individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls were trained over 2 sessions, 3 weeks apart, to use a set of novel complex tools. They were also tested on their ability to recall tool attributes as well as their ability to demonstrate grasp and use of the tools to command. Results showed that, compared to controls, participants with PD showed intact motor skill acquisition and tool use to command within sessions, but failed to retain performance across sessions. In contrast, people with PD showed equivalent recall of tool attributes and tool grasping relative to controls, both within and across sessions. Current findings demonstrate that the frontal-striatal network, compromised in PD, mediates long-term retention of motor skills. Intact initial skill learning raises the possibility of compensation from declarative memory for frontal-striatal dysfunction. Lastly, skilled tool use appears to rely on both memory systems which may reflect a cooperative interaction between the two systems. Current findings regarding memory representations of tool knowledge and skill learning may have important implications for delivery of rehabilitation programs for individuals with PD.

  5. Effects of alternating current stimulation on the healthy and diseased brain

    PubMed Central

    Abd Hamid, Aini Ismafairus; Gall, Carolin; Speck, Oliver; Antal, Andrea; Sabel, Bernhard A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive and neurological dysfunctions can severely impact a patient's daily activities. In addition to medical treatment, non-invasive transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been proposed as a therapeutic technique to improve the functional state of the brain. Although during the last years tACS was applied in numerous studies to improve motor, somatosensory, visual and higher order cognitive functions, our knowledge is still limited regarding the mechanisms as to which type of ACS can affect cortical functions and altered neuronal oscillations seem to be the key mechanism. Because alternating current send pulses to the brain at predetermined frequencies, the online- and after-effects of ACS strongly depend on the stimulation parameters so that “optimal” ACS paradigms could be achieved. This is of interest not only for neuroscience research but also for clinical practice. In this study, we summarize recent findings on ACS-effects under both normal conditions and in brain diseases. PMID:26578858

  6. [Patient education in heart failure improves disease-related knowledge and behavior during cardiac rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Glatz, Johannes; Muschalla, B; Karger, G

    2014-06-01

    Heart failure is one of the most common und costly chronic diseases. Patient education is an important part of heart failure therapy. Rehabilitation aims to improve self-management abilities and the course of the disease. A structured heart failure education program was established to create knowledge about the disease and to implement a disease friendly behavior. The effectiveness was tested in a randomized controlled design. Patients were cluster randomized -assigned to an intervention group or a control group at the beginning of a rehabilitation. Both received a rehabilitation specifically geared to heart-failure-patients. The intervention group received additionally the education program, the control group a single lecture on the disease. At the end of rehabilitation and 6 months later the knowledge and integrity of the recommended self-tests have been checked. In addition the disease severity and pharmacotherapy were determined. Both groups showed improvements in disease status. Participants of the education program had a sustained higher knowledge, were better adjusted to medication after 6 months and documented their self-tests more frequently. Regardless to the education intervention an improvement of the disease status occurs during cardiac rehabilitation. The effective single components are still unclear. The evaluated education program leads specifically to an improved disease-related knowledge and improved self-management skills. Due to these results it seems useful to include cardiac rehabilitation in heart failure disease-management programs - a specific heart failure education program should be integrated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Attitude and knowledge of family medicine practitioners towards the association between periodontal disease and obesity.

    PubMed

    Akram, Z; Abduljabbar, T; Hanif, A; Khan, A; Vohra, F

    2017-05-01

    To assess the attitude and knowledge of family medicine practitioners (FMPs) towards the association between periodontal disease and obesity. A cross-sectional study was performed and a 13-item survey questionnaire was given to FMPs practicing in 12 different teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. The questions were aimed at exploring the knowledge of FMP's regarding the association of obesity and periodontal disease and their attitude towards the association of obesity and periodontal disease. Chi-square and Spearman co-efficient were conducted to compare subgroups and correlate factors with the knowledge score of FMPs. A total of 314 questionnaires were completed (response rate = 92%). Median age of participants was 41 years and 57% were females. Almost 61% of FMPs answered all the knowledge questions correctly and 64% reported moderate understanding of the association between periodontal health and obesity. Nearly 73% FMPs inquired from obese patients regarding the periodontal disease and more than half (58%) refer patients to a dentist for evaluation. More than half of FMPs perform periodontal disease screening. Nearly all FMPs considered informing obese patients regarding periodontal disease as one of their roles. FMP's play an important role in the early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of periodontal conditions in obese patients. More than two thirds of FMPs showed good knowledge of the association of obesity and periodontal disease. The attitudes of FMPs towards assessing and referring obese patients at a risk of having periodontal disease were reassuring.

  8. Cardiovascular Disease Could be Contained based on Currently Available Data!

    PubMed Central

    Ofodile, Okom Nkili F.C.

    2006-01-01

    Largely due to better control of infectious diseases and significant advances in biomedical research, life expectancy worldwide has increased dramatically in the last three decades. However, as the average age of the population has risen, the inc