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Sample records for disease patients considered

  1. Underrecognized Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus in Thailand: We Must Consider Neuroischemic Foot Ulcers From This Fallout.

    PubMed

    Rerkasem, Kittipan; Kosachunhanun, Natapong; Sony, Kiran; Inpankaew, Nimit; Mani, Raj

    2015-06-01

    A range of prevalence of peripheral artery disease in diabetic patients has been estimated using the measurement of ankle brachial pressure index and clinical features in Asian countries. These data may be underestimates and hence underrecognized, raising questions about the numbers of patients with neuroischemic feet who are also at risk of diabetic foot ulcers. Underrecognition of these lesions may well increase the high levels of chronic wound burden resulting from peripheral artery disease as well as neuroischemic foot lesions. Improved education and training of clinical staff (nurses and family physicians) is required to combat these serious issues.

  2. Biosimilars: what do patients need to consider?

    PubMed Central

    Skingle, Diana

    2015-01-01

    A view from the EULAR Standing Committee of People with Arthritis/Rheumatism in Europe (SCPARE) on some of the issues that patients might wish to consider about biosimilars in shared decision-making discussions with their rheumatologist. The paper also points to the need for more information on biosimilars being made available in lay language. PMID:26535149

  3. Older patient considering treatment for advanced renal disease: protocol for a scoping review of the information available for shared decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, Mai; Jose, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Older adults constitute the largest group of patients on dialysis in most parts of the world. Management of advanced renal disease in the older adult is complex; treatment outcomes and prognosis can be markedly different from younger patients. Clinical teams caring for such patients are often called on to provide information regarding prognosis and outcomes with treatment—particularly, the comparison between having dialysis treatment versus not having dialysis. These discussions can be difficult for clinicians because they have to contend with incomplete or nascent data regarding prognosis and outcomes in this age group. We aim to summarise the currently available information regarding the prognosis and outcomes of advanced renal disease in the older adult by means of a scoping review of the literature. This article discusses our protocol. Methods This scoping review will be undertaken in accordance with the Joanna Briggs Institute's methodology for scoping reviews. A directed search will look for relevant articles in English (within electronic databases and the grey literature), written between 2000 and 2016, which have studied older patients with advanced renal disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m2). After screening by two independent reviewers, selected articles will be analysed using a data charting tool. Reporting will include descriptions, analysis of themes using qualitative software and display of information using charts. Ethics and dissemination This scoping review will analyse previously collected data, and so does not require ethical approval. Results will be disseminated through academic journals, conferences and seminars. We anticipate that our summary of the currently available knowledge regarding the older adult with advanced renal disease will be a repository of information for clinicians in the field. We expect to identify areas of study that are suited to systematic reviews. Our findings can also be

  4. With patient satisfaction under increasing scrutiny, consider patient callbacks.

    PubMed

    2011-07-01

    Under the final rules for Medicare's value-based purchasing program, one-third of the funding that is set aside to reward quality will be based on how patients rate their hospital experience. However, some EDs are already working to maximize patient satisfaction by implementing programs or policies whereby patients who have been discharged are routinely called to make sure their recovery is going well, as well as to intervene if there is an opportunity for service recovery. There are benefits to having ED clinicians make the follow-up calls themselves, but some health care organizations are also reaping benefits by having non-clinicians collect feedback on individual clinicians as well as specific facilities. In addition to potentially boosting quality and customer service, experts say callbacks are useful in curbing malpractice litigation. To avoid pushback among staff, consider beginning a program of patient callbacks by asking clinicians to call back just two patients per shift worked, and to share their experiences with colleagues. For maximum value, experts recommend that patient callbacks be made within one to four days of discharge.

  5. On considering the influence of recovered individuals in disease propagations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, A. L. S.; Monteiro, L. H. A.

    2016-05-01

    Consider diseases transmitted through personal contacts, for which recovery usually confers complete and long-lasting immunity, like some of the common viral infections of childhood. Here, an epidemic model based on differential equations is proposed to evaluate the influence of the recovered (immune) individuals on the spread of such diseases. Indeed, immune individuals can affect the infection rate of susceptible individuals and the recovery rate of sick individuals. The predictive ability of the proposed model is assessed from records concerning the incidence of varicella in three European countries, in a pre-vaccination era.

  6. Considering sex and gender in Alzheimer disease and other dementias

    PubMed Central

    Podcasy, Jessica L.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2016-01-01

    Suffering related to dementia is multifaceted because cognitive and physical functioning slowly deteriorates. Advanced age and sex, two of the most prominent risk factors for dementia, are not modifiable. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, and poor diet modulate susceptibility to dementia in both males and females. The degree to which the resulting health conditions (eg, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) impact dementia risk varies by sex. Depending on the subtype of dementia, the ratio of male to female prevalence differs. For example, females are at greater risk of developing Alzheimer disease dementia, whereas males are at greater risk of developing vascular dementia. This review examines sex and gender differences in the development of dementia with the goal of highlighting factors that require further investigation. Considering sex as a biological variable in dementia research promises to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of these conditions. PMID:28179815

  7. Considering sex and gender in Alzheimer disease and other dementias.

    PubMed

    Podcasy, Jessica L; Epperson, C Neill

    2016-12-01

    Suffering related to dementia is multifaceted because cognitive and physical functioning slowly deteriorates. Advanced age and sex, two of the most prominent risk factors for dementia, are not modifiable. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, and poor diet modulate susceptibility to dementia in both males and females. The degree to which the resulting health conditions (eg, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) impact dementia risk varies by sex. Depending on the subtype of dementia, the ratio of male to female prevalence differs. For example, females are at greater risk of developing Alzheimer disease dementia, whereas males are at greater risk of developing vascular dementia. This review examines sex and gender differences in the development of dementia with the goal of highlighting factors that require further investigation. Considering sex as a biological variable in dementia research promises to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of these conditions.

  8. Colovesical Fistula: Should It Be Considered a Single Disease?

    PubMed Central

    George, Mark L.; Carapeti, Emin A.; Schizas, Alexis M. P.; Williams, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This research was conducted to compare the management and the outcome of patients with colovesical fistulae of different aetiologies. Methods Retrospective data were collected from 2002 to 2012 and analyzed with SPSS ver. 17. Age, gender, aetiology, management, hospital stay, postoperative complications, and mortality were studied and compared among colovesical fistulae of different aetiologies. Results A total of 55 patients, 46 males (84%) and 9 females (16%), with a median age of 65 years (interquartile range [IQR], 48-75 years) were studied. Diverticular disease was the most common benign cause and recto-sigmoid cancer the most common malignancy. Anterior resection and bladder repair were the most frequent operations in benign cases, as was total pelvic exenteration in the malignant group. Multiple intestinal loop involvement and subsequent resection were significantly higher in those with Crohn disease than it was in patients of colovesical fistula due to all other causes collectively (60% vs. 6%, P = 0.006). Patients with malignancy had a higher postoperative complication rate than patients who did not (12 [80%] vs. 7 [32%], P = 0.0005). Pelvic collection (11, 22%) was the most frequent early complication (predominantly in the malignant group) whereas incisional hernia (8, 22%) was the most common late complication, with a predominance in the benign group. The median hospital stay was significantly prolonged in the malignant group (32 days; IQR, 17-70 days vs. 16 days; IQR, 11-25 days; P < 0.001). Conclusion Despite their having similar clinical presentation, colovesical fistulae of various aetiologies differ significantly in management and outcome. PMID:25960973

  9. Coronary Artery Disease: Why We should Consider the Y Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Molina, Elsa; Clarence, Elyse Michele; Ahmady, Farah; Chew, Guat Siew; Charchar, Fadi Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally. In the last few years our understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms that promote CAD in individuals has increased with the advent of the genome era. This complex inflammatory disease has well-defined environmental risk factors. However, in the last 10 years, studies including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have clearly demonstrated a genetic influence on CAD. Recently, studies on the human Y chromosome have also demonstrated that genetic variation within the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) could play a part in determining cardiovascular risk in men, confirming the notion that the increased risk for CAD in men cannot be fully explained through common CAD risk factors. Here, we review the literature about the pathophysiology of CAD, its potential causes and environmental risk factors known so far. Furthermore, we review the genetics of CAD, especially the latest discoveries regarding the implication of the Y chromosome, the most underexplored portion of the human genome to date, highlighting methods and difficulties arising in this research field, and discussing the importance of considering the Y chromosome in CAD research.

  10. Evidence to Consider Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers for the Treatment of Early Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Juan M

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most frequent type of dementia and diagnosed late in the progression of the illness when irreversible brain tissue loss has already occurred. For this reason, treatments have been ineffective. It is imperative to find novel therapies ameliorating modifiable risk factors (hypertension, stroke, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and traumatic brain injury) and effective against early pathogenic mechanisms including alterations in cerebral blood flow leading to poor oxygenation and decreased access to nutrients, impaired glucose metabolism, chronic inflammation, and glutamate excitotoxicity. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) fulfill these requirements. ARBs are directly neuroprotective against early injury factors in neuronal, astrocyte, microglia, and cerebrovascular endothelial cell cultures. ARBs protect cerebral blood flow and reduce injury to the blood brain barrier and neurological and cognitive loss in animal models of brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease. These compounds are clinically effective against major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: hypertension, stroke, chronic kidney disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and ameliorate age-dependent cognitive loss. Controlled studies on hypertensive patients, open trials, case reports, and database meta-analysis indicate significant therapeutic effects of ARBs in Alzheimer's disease. ARBs are safe compounds, widely used to treat cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in humans, and although they reduce hypertension, they do not affect blood pressure in normotensive individuals. Overall, there is sufficient evidence to consider long-term controlled clinical studies with ARBs in patients suffering from established risk factors, in patients with early cognitive loss, or in normal individuals when reliable biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease risk are identified.

  11. Considering Culture in Physician– Patient Communication During Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ge; Burke, Nancy; Somkin, Carol P.; Pasick, Rena

    2010-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in both incidence and stage detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that cultural practices (i.e., communication norms and expectations) influence patients’ and their physicians’ understanding and talk about CRC screening. We examined 44 videotaped observations of clinic visits that included a CRC screening recommendation and transcripts from semistructured interviews that doctors and patients separately completed following the visit. We found that interpersonal relationship themes such as power distance, trust, directness/indirectness, and an ability to listen, as well as personal health beliefs, emerged as affecting patients’ definitions of provider–patient effective communication. In addition, we found that in discordant physician–patient interactions (when each is from a different ethnic group), physicians did not solicit or address cultural barriers to CRC screening and patients did not volunteer culture-related concerns regarding CRC screening. PMID:19363141

  12. [Care for patients with rare diseases].

    PubMed

    Smetsers, Stephanie E; Takkenberg, J J M Hanneke; Bierings, Marc B

    2014-01-01

    A rare disease usually concerns only a handful of patients, but all patients with a rare disease combined represent a significant health burden. Due to limited knowledge and the absence of treatment guidelines, patients with rare diseases usually experience delayed diagnosis and suboptimal treatment. Historically, rare diseases have never been considered a major health problem. However, rare diseases have recently been receiving increased attention. In the Netherlands, a national plan for rare diseases was published in late 2013, with recommendations on how to improve the organisation of healthcare for people with rare diseases. Using the example of the rare disease Fanconi anemia, this paper describes the challenges and opportunities in organising healthcare for rare diseases. Two critical steps in optimising healthcare for rare diseases are developing multidisciplinary healthcare teams and stimulating patient empowerment. Optimal cooperation between patients, patient organisations, multidisciplinary healthcare teams and scientists is of great importance. In this respect, transition to adult healthcare requires special attention.

  13. Considering Governance for Patient Access to E-Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Day, Karen; Wells, Susan

    2015-01-01

    People having access to their medical records could have a transformative improvement effect on healthcare delivery and use. Our research aimed to explore the concerns and attitudes of giving people electronic access to their medical records through patient portals. We conducted 28 semi-structured interviews with 30 people, asking questions about portal design, organisational implications and governance. We report the findings of the governance considerations raised during the interviews. These revealed that (1) there is uncertainty about the possible design and extent of giving people access to their medical records to view/use, (2) existing policies about patient authentication, proxy, and privacy require modification, and (3) existing governance structures and functions require further examination and adjustment. Future research should include more input from patients and health informaticians.

  14. Should Endovascular Therapy Be Considered for Patients With Connective Tissue Disorder?

    PubMed

    Gagné-Loranger, Maude; Voisine, Pierre; Dagenais, François

    2016-01-01

    Because of early diagnosis, strict imaging follow-up, and advances in medical and surgical management, life expectancy of Marfan patients has dramatically improved since the 1970s. Although disease of the root and ascending aorta are more frequent in patients with connective tissue disorders, a subset of patients present with diffuse disease that might involve any portion of the thoracoabdominal aorta. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has gained widespread acceptance for the treatment of different pathologies of the descending aorta. In contrast, TEVAR in patients with connective tissue disorders is associated with a high risk of early and mid-term complications and reinterventions. Currently, a consensus of experts recommend that an open approach should be reserved for use in acceptable risk candidates with connective tissue disorders. TEVAR should be considered solely in patients in a complex repeat surgical setting or in patients judged to have prohibitive open surgical risk. Finally, as a bridge to a definite open repair, TEVAR might be life-saving in patients with connective tissue disorders who present with exsanguination or severe malperfusion. Future developments in stent-graft technology might decrease stent-graft-related complications in patients with connective tissue disorders, although securing a device with radial force in a fragile aorta in the long-term will be challenging.

  15. Patient empowerment: The need to consider it as a measurable patient-reported outcome for chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health policy in the UK and elsewhere is prioritising patient empowerment and patient evaluations of healthcare. Patient reported outcome measures now take centre-stage in implementing strategies to increase patient empowerment. This article argues for consideration of patient empowerment itself as a directly measurable patient reported outcome for chronic conditions, highlights some issues in adopting this approach, and outlines a research agenda to enable healthcare evaluation on the basis of patient empowerment. Discussion Patient empowerment is not a well-defined construct. A range of condition-specific and generic patient empowerment questionnaires have been developed; each captures a different construct e.g. personal control, self-efficacy/self-mastery, and each is informed by a different implicit or explicit theoretical framework. This makes it currently problematic to conduct comparative evaluations of healthcare services on the basis of patient empowerment. A case study (clinical genetics) is used to (1) illustrate that patient empowerment can be a valued healthcare outcome, even if patients do not obtain health status benefits, (2) provide a rationale for conducting work necessary to tighten up the patient empowerment construct (3) provide an exemplar to inform design of interventions to increase patient empowerment in chronic disease. Such initiatives could be evaluated on the basis of measurable changes in patient empowerment, if the construct were properly operationalised as a patient reported outcome measure. To facilitate this, research is needed to develop an appropriate and widely applicable generic theoretical framework of patient empowerment to inform (re)development of a generic measure. This research should include developing consensus between patients, clinicians and policymakers about the content and boundaries of the construct before operationalisation. This article also considers a number of issues for society and for healthcare

  16. Risk for Patient Harm in Canadian Genetic Counseling Practice: It's Time to Consider Regulation.

    PubMed

    Shugar, Andrea L; Quercia, Nada; Trevors, Christopher; Rabideau, Marina M; Ahmed, Sohnee

    2017-02-01

    With the increasing awareness of genetic contributions to disease in Canada, the availability of and demand for genetic testing has soared. Genetic counseling is becoming a recognized and rapidly growing (yet unregulated) health profession in Canada. We hypothesized that the potential risk for harm to the public posed by genetic counseling practice in the province of Ontario is sufficient to consider regulation. The Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHTLC) sets criteria (both primary and secondary) to identify health professional bodies that meet the threshold for regulation in the province. We developed a survey based on the MOHTLC criteria to determine if genetic counselors meet the primary criteria to be considered for health professions regulation in Ontario. We surveyed 120 Ontario genetic counselors about their clinical practice and perceptions of risk for harm to the public. Results indicate that Ontario genetic counselors are highly independent in their clinical practice and are involved in patient care activities, clinical judgement and decision-making that have the potential to harm patients. In particular, cancer genetic counselors were identified as a cohort that practices with relatively high autonomy and low supervision. In summary, our study indicates that genetic counseling practice in Ontario meets the primary criteria to be considered for regulation.

  17. Hereditary chorea - what else to consider when the Huntington's disease genetics test is negative?

    PubMed

    Malek, N; Newman, E J

    2017-01-01

    Chorea, cognitive, behavioural and psychiatric disturbance occur in varying combinations in Huntington's disease (HD). This is often easy to recognise particularly in the presence of an autosomal dominant history. Whilst HD may be the most common aetiology of such a presentation, several HD phenocopies should be considered if genetic testing for HD is negative. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Database from January 1, 1946 up to January 1, 2016, combining the search terms: 'chorea', 'Huntington's disease', 'HDL' and 'phenocopies'. HD phenocopies frequently display additional movement disorders such as myoclonus, dystonia, parkinsonism and tics. Here, we discuss the phenotypes, and investigations of HD-like disorders where the combination of progressive chorea and cognitive impairment is obvious, but HD gene test result is negative. Conditions presenting with sudden onset chorea such as vascular, infectious and autoimmune causes are not the primary focus of our discussion, but we will make a passing reference to these as some of these conditions are potentially treatable. Hereditary forms of chorea are a heterogeneous group of conditions and this number is increasing. While most of these conditions are not curable, molecular genetic testing has enabled many of these disorders to be distinguished from HD. Getting a precise diagnosis may enable patients and their families to better understand the nature of their condition.

  18. [Bioethical reflections on ill-considered care due to an early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Buxó, M Jesús; Casado, María

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease raises important bioethical issues. In the interval between early disease detection and symptom onset, there is a time in which the patient's autonomy, privacy, and dignity may be undermined by certain healthcare measures or by family care and support. These measures may eventually turn patients into an object of care, preventing them from accepting the disease, developing an identity, and rearranging their living spaces. Every effort should be made to ensure that care does not become compassionate harassment or an invasive act, annulling the patient's autonomy, identity, and self-determination.

  19. Salvage Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases: Prognostic Factors to Consider in Patient Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Goldie; Zadeh, Gelareh; Gingras-Hill, Geneviève; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Laperriere, Normand J.; Bernstein, Mark; Jiang, Haiyan; Ménard, Cynthia; Chung, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is offered to patients for recurrent brain metastases after prior brain radiation therapy (RT), but few studies have evaluated the efficacy of salvage SRS or factors to consider in selecting patients for this treatment. This study reports overall survival (OS), intracranial progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) after salvage SRS, and factors associated with outcomes. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective review of patients treated from 2009 to 2011 with salvage SRS after prior brain RT for brain metastases. Survival from salvage SRS and from initial brain metastases diagnosis (IBMD) was calculated. Univariate and multivariable (MVA) analyses included age, performance status, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class, extracranial disease control, and time from initial RT to salvage SRS. Results: There were 106 patients included in the analysis with a median age of 56.9 years (range 32.5-82 years). A median of 2 metastases were treated per patient (range, 1-12) with a median dose of 21 Gy (range, 12-24) prescribed to the 50% isodose. With a median follow-up of 10.5 months (range, 0.1-68.2), LC was 82.8%, 60.1%, and 46.8% at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively. Median PFS was 6.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.9-7.6). Median OS was 11.7 months (95% CI = 8.1-13) from salvage SRS, and 22.1 months from IBMD (95% CI = 18.4-26.8). On MVA, age (P=.01; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07), extracranial disease control (P=.004; HR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.27-0.78), and interval from initial RT to salvage SRS of at least 265 days (P=.001; HR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.47-4.09) were predictive of OS. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that patients can have durable local control and survival after salvage SRS for recurrent brain metastases. In particular, younger patients with controlled extracranial disease and a durable response to initial brain RT are likely to benefit from salvage SRS.

  20. Diagnosing Coronary Artery Disease via Data Mining Algorithms by Considering Laboratory and Echocardiography Features

    PubMed Central

    Alizadehsani, Roohallah; Habibi, Jafar; Alizadeh Sani, Zahra; Mashayekhi, Hoda; Boghrati, Reihane; Ghandeharioun, Asma; Khozeimeh, Fahime; Alizadeh-Sani, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the result of the accumulation of athermanous plaques within the walls of coronary arteries, which supply the myocardium with oxygen and nutrients. CAD leads to heart attacks or strokes and is, thus, one of the most important causes of death worldwide. Angiography, an imaging modality for blood vessels, is currently the most accurate method of diagnosing artery stenosis. However, the disadvantages of this method such as complications, costs, and possible side effects have prompted researchers to investigate alternative solutions. Objectives: The current study aimed to use data analysis, a non-invasive and less costly method, and various data mining algorithms to predict the stenosis of arteries. Among many people who refer to hospitals due to chest pain, a great number of them are normal and as such do not need angiography. The objective of this study was to predict patients who are most probably normal using features with the highest correlations with CAD with a view to obviate angiography costs and complications. Not a substitute for angiography, this method would select high-risk cases that definitely need angiography. Patients and Methods: Different features were measured and collected from potential patients in order to construct a dataset, which was later utilized for model extraction. Most of the proposed methods in the literature have not considered the stenosis of each artery separately, whereas the present study employed laboratory and echocardiographic data to diagnose the stenosis of each artery separately. The data were gathered from 303 random visitors to Rajaie Cardiovascular, Medical and Research Center. Electrocardiographic (ECG) data were studied in our previous works. The goal of this study was, therefore, to seek the accuracy of echocardiographic and laboratory features to predict CAD patients that require angiography. Results: Bagging and C4.5 classification algorithms were drawn upon to analyse the

  1. Drug discovery for Chagas disease should consider Trypanosoma cruzi strain diversity

    PubMed Central

    Zingales, Bianca; Miles, Michael A; Moraes, Carolina B; Luquetti, Alejandro; Guhl, Felipe; Schijman, Alejandro G; Ribeiro, Isabela

    2014-01-01

    This opinion piece presents an approach to standardisation of an important aspect of Chagas disease drug discovery and development: selecting Trypanosoma cruzi strains for in vitro screening. We discuss the rationale for strain selection representing T. cruzi diversity and provide recommendations on the preferred parasite stage for drug discovery, T. cruzi discrete typing units to include in the panel of strains and the number of strains/clones for primary screens and lead compounds. We also consider experimental approaches for in vitro drug assays. The Figure illustrates the current Chagas disease drug-discovery and development landscape. PMID:25317712

  2. Drug discovery for Chagas disease should consider Trypanosoma cruzi strain diversity.

    PubMed

    Zingales, Bianca; Miles, Michael A; Moraes, Carolina B; Luquetti, Alejandro; Guhl, Felipe; Schijman, Alejandro G; Ribeiro, Isabela

    2014-09-01

    This opinion piece presents an approach to standardisation of an important aspect of Chagas disease drug discovery and development: selecting Trypanosoma cruzi strains for in vitro screening. We discuss the rationale for strain selection representing T. cruzi diversity and provide recommendations on the preferred parasite stage for drug discovery, T. cruzi discrete typing units to include in the panel of strains and the number of strains/clones for primary screens and lead compounds. We also consider experimental approaches for in vitro drug assays. The Figure illustrates the current Chagas disease drug-discovery and development landscape.

  3. When to consider liver transplant during the management of chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fox, Rena K

    2014-01-01

    The decision to perform liver transplantation for a particular patient is never the decision of one single individual, although a single individual could preclude transplant as an option if the opportunity for referral is missed. Every physician treating patients with cirrhosis, including primary care physicians and primary gastroenterologists, should watch for the essential turning points at which a patient may become eligible for a transplant referral. Timing of referral could be assessed according to either the type of liver disease or non–disease-specific measures of disease severity. Although the MELD score is an easily accessible and convenient tool it is not as well known as CTP classification, and many cirrhotic patients under long-term management may not be being allocated a MELD score regularly calculated by their primary physicians. Because a slow progression in MELD score may occur without a change in symptoms, reaching the MELD score acceptable for transplant referral may go unrecognized. As generalists face the rising prevalence of NAFLD and the rising prevalence of cirrhosis and HCC from HCV, there will be an increasing need for education in the management of liver disease. It will be necessary for specialists and health care systems to better inform primary care physicians about the recommendations on criteria for transplant referral and the critical windows of opportunity within which they can act. Although there is a recognized knowledge gap that needs to be addressed, once a patient is in medical care, inadequate physician knowledge should never be the cause for late timing or missing the opportunity for referral.

  4. What weight loss treatment options do geriatric patients with overweight and obesity want to consider?

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, M.; Cummins, K.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Since the 1990s, a number of weight loss medications have been removed from the USA and or European market because of adverse events associated with these medications. These medications include fenfluramine (heart valve thickening), sibutramine (cardiovascular risk) and rimonabant (depression). This history may affect a patient's desire to consider weight loss medications as an option for weight management. Objective This descriptive study was designed to observe what treatment options the geriatric patient (age 65 or higher) seeking weight loss would like to consider, as well as the reasons they felt they struggled with overweight or obesity. Methods A questionnaire was given to 102 geriatric patients with overweight or obesity before starting a weight loss programme at a weight management centre. The questionnaire asked the patient why they felt they were overweight or obese and what treatment options they wished to consider. The geriatric patients were matched with younger patients in body mass index and sex. Results The three most common perceptions that geriatric patients felt were causes of their increased weight were ‘lack of exercise’ (76.2%), ‘poor food choices’ (59.4%) and ‘cravings’ (47.5%). When geriatric patients were asked what treatment options they would like to discuss, the four most common options requested were ‘diet and healthy eating’ (67.3%), weight loss medications (57.4%), a request for a ‘metabolic work up’ (55.4%) and ‘exercise’ (53.5%). These responses were no different from their younger cohorts. When geriatric patients with a body mass index of 35 or higher were given bariatric surgery as a treatment option, 21.9% marked it as a treatment option they would like to consider. Conclusions Over half of geriatric patients desired to discuss weight loss medications as a treatment option. Diet and exercise were also of strong interest, which is in line with current weight management guidelines. PMID

  5. Nurse-patient assignment models considering patient acuity metrics and nurses' perceived workload.

    PubMed

    Sir, Mustafa Y; Dundar, Bayram; Barker Steege, Linsey M; Pasupathy, Kalyan S

    2015-06-01

    Patient classification systems (PCSs) are commonly used in nursing units to assess how many nursing care hours are needed to care for patients. These systems then provide staffing and nurse-patient assignment recommendations for a given patient census based on these acuity scores. Our hypothesis is that such systems do not accurately capture workload and we conduct an experiment to test this hypothesis. Specifically, we conducted a survey study to capture nurses' perception of workload in an inpatient unit. Forty five nurses from oncology and surgery units completed the survey and rated the impact of patient acuity indicators on their perceived workload using a six-point Likert scale. These ratings were used to calculate a workload score for an individual nurse given a set of patient acuity indicators. The approach offers optimization models (prescriptive analytics), which use patient acuity indicators from a commercial PCS as well as a survey-based nurse workload score. The models assign patients to nurses in a balanced manner by distributing acuity scores from the PCS and survey-based perceived workload. Numerical results suggest that the proposed nurse-patient assignment models achieve a balanced assignment and lower overall survey-based perceived workload compared to the assignment based solely on acuity scores from the PCS. This results in an improvement of perceived workload that is upwards of five percent.

  6. Would Your Patient Prefer to Be Considered Your Friend? Patient Preferences in Physician Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnezi, Racheli; Bergman, Lisa Carroll; Urowitz, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To understand how patient preferences and perceptions of their relationship with their doctor (as patient, friend, partner, client, consumer, or insured) affects confidence in care provided and participation in health care. Methods. Telephone questionnaire to 2,135 households, representative of the population in Israel. Results. A…

  7. Analysis of serum level of HE4 and CA125 considering selected risk factors among patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Piorkowski, Robert; Slomka, Anna; Kania, Malgorzata; Sawicki, Wlodzimierz; Cendrowski, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study To assess the difference of serum level of HE4 and CA125 among patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer, considering the presence or absence of selected risk factors. Material and methods A retrospective study of 46 patients, whose serum level of HE4 and CA125 level was documented, admitted to our Clinic because of endometrioid endometrial cancer. The statistical difference of both markers was analyzed considering certain risk factors. Results In the examined group of patients there was no significant statistical difference of HE4 and CA125 levels among patients with and without the following risk factors: older age, menopausal status, overweight and obesity, hypertension, diabetes, early menarche, and family history of certain cancers. Similar results were obtained within the subgroup of patients with stage I endometrial cancer. Both HE4 and CA125 were significantly higher in premenopausal patients than in those after menopause in the more advanced stages of the disease. The same results were obtained within group of patients with advanced histological grading G2 and G3. In this group, higher levels of CA125 were observed among patients without hypertension. Among patients with histological grade G1 the serum level of HE4 was higher in the group of patients older than 60 years than it was in younger patients. Conclusions In the examined group of patients serum levels of tumour markers may not be affected by the selected risk factors. Higher HE4 and CA125 levels among premenopausal patients may be an alarming sign of advanced stages and classes of histological grading. PMID:28239284

  8. Prognostic value of intravenous dipyridamole thallium imaging in patients with diabetes mellitus considered for renal transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, A.D.; Garvin, P.J.; Hoff, J.; Marsh, J.; Byers, S.L.; Chaitman, B.R. )

    1990-06-15

    Patients with diabetes and end-stage renal failure are known to have a high risk for cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with renal transplantation. The most efficient method to determine preoperative cardiac risk has not been established. To determine the effectiveness of intravenous dipyridamole thallium imaging in predicting cardiac events, 40 diabetic renal transplant candidates were studied preoperatively in a prospective trial. The study group consisted of 40 patients whose average age was 42 years (range 27 to 64); 34 (85%) were hypertensive and 21 (53%) were cigarette smokers. Cardiac history included chest pain in 6 patients and prior myocardial infarction in 3 patients. Dipyridamole thallium imaging showed reversible defects in 9 patients, fixed defects in 8 patients and normal scans in 23 patients. Dipyridamole thallium imaging was performed using 0.56 mg/kg of dipyridamole infused intravenously over 4 minutes. Cardiac events occurred only in patients with reversible thallium defects, of which there were 6. Of these 6 patients, 3 had cardiac events before transplantation and 3 had them in the early postoperative phase (within 6 weeks of surgery). Of 21 patients who underwent renal transplantation, 3 had cardiac events within 6 weeks of transplantation. The average duration of follow-up was 11 months (range 1 to 21). Thus, dipyridamole thallium imaging is an effective method of identifying renal transplant candidates likely to develop cardiac complications. Routine coronary angiography may not be necessary to screen all renal transplant candidates for coronary artery disease before surgery.

  9. Crohn disease and the gynecologic patient.

    PubMed

    Sides, Cleve; Trinidad, Mari Charisse; Heitlinger, Leo; Anasti, James

    2013-01-01

    Although Crohn disease (CD) is considered an inflammatory bowel disease, extraintestinal gynecologic manifestations are varied, frequent, and oftentimes difficult to manage. Its predilection for young and reproductive-age women makes it an important disease process for the gynecologist to understand, as its complications can have long-term repercussions on the developmental, sexual, reproductive, and psychological health of affected women. Patients may present with a variety of vulvovaginal, perineal, perianal, and urologic complaints. Perianal involvement from an intestinal fistula is the most common skin manifestation seen in CD. Other gynecologic manifestations include metastatic CD and rectovaginal and urovaginal fistulas. Recognition and accurate diagnosis of extraintestinal gynecologic manifestations, as well as a good understanding of the gynecologic effects of chronic disease, are necessary for optimal management. The article provides an overview of CD and highlights the gynecologic considerations in caring for women affected by this disease.

  10. Abnormal Grief: Should We Consider a More Patient-Centered Approach?

    PubMed

    Moayedoddin, Babak; Markowitz, John C

    2015-01-01

    Grief, the psychological reaction to the loss of a significant other, varies complexly in its cause, experience, evolution, and prognosis. Although most bereaved individuals experience a normal grieving process, some develop complicated grief (CG) or major depressive disorder (MDD). The DSM-5, which controversially altered the nosology, recognizes grief-related major depression (GRMD) as a diagnostic subtype if a patient meets MDD criteria two weeks post bereavement. The (DSM-5) tries to distinguish between grief and MDD, but remains a symptom-based, centered approach to grief that is not patient centered. This article reviews grief in its normal and abnormal dimensions. Using an illustrative clinical case in which interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) was employed, we discuss the need for a more patient-centered approach to treating abnormal grief, considering the patient's personal history, perceptions, experiences of bereavement, and interpersonal environment. Clinical studies need to better identify subgroups of individuals susceptible to abnormal grief and to evaluate their response to early interventions.

  11. Computer-aided optimal design of custom scoliosis braces considering clinical and patient evaluations.

    PubMed

    Visser, Daniel; Xue, Deyi; Ronsky, Janet L; Harder, James; Zernicke, Ronald F

    2012-09-01

    Scoliosis causes an abnormal three dimensional curvature of the spine that is often treated by an orthotic device called brace. The objective of this research was to develop a new approach to automatically identify the optimal design of custom-built brace, based on clinical and patient evaluations. In this approach, torso geometry of the scoliosis patient was achieved using a 3-D imaging system that generated a 3-D torso surface model, which was modified using a custom CAD system to design the 3-D brace surface model. Two design parameters, a translational correction factor and a rotational correction factor, were selected to design the brace geometry from the torso geometry. The 3-D digital brace was evaluated by three clinical evaluation measures (imbalance, rib hump and principal axis angle reduction) and one patient evaluation measure (discomfort). A multi-objective optimization method was employed to identify the optimal design parameters considering both clinical and patient evaluations.

  12. Spreading of infectious diseases considering age contact patterns for Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore Y Piontti, Ana; Gomes, Marcelo F. C.; Rossi, Luca; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    The dynamics of infectious diseases strongly depends on the structure of the social contact patterns among individuals. In order to have an accurate estimate of the impact of epidemic outbreaks and which effective control measures to take, we need an appropriate description of these patterns. A simple way to improve the homogeneous mixing assumption is to introduce age contact patterns. Here we follow the approach of Fumanelli et al (PLoS Computational Biology, 8(9):e1002673, 2012) to estimate the age mixing patterns of virtual populations using highly detailed census data for Argentina, Brazil and Mexico. Considering age contact matrices for these countries we study the epidemiological relevant quantities and their relation with the sociodemographic data. Our results show that even for the same country the impact of epidemics outbreaks could be very different when we consider age contact matrices. This results can be explained as a result of a change in the average age of the population in the different regions of the countries. This study also provides the first estimates of contact matrices for Latin American countries.

  13. Transperitoneal Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Should Be Considered in Prostate Cancer Patients with Pelvic Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Plagakis, Sophie; Foreman, Darren; Sutherland, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We highlight two cases of transperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in patients with pelvic kidneys because of congenital development and renal transplant. These uncommon cases present a challenge to the surgeon contemplating surgery because of access and anomalous vascular and ureteral anatomy. We describe the technical considerations that are paramount in effectively completing transperitoneal RARP, and believe it should be considered as a treatment option in men with pelvic kidneys. PMID:27579412

  14. Concluding comments: maximizing good patient care and minimizing potential liability when considering complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Joan; Harrison, Christine; Vohra, Sunita

    2011-11-01

    Our goal for this supplemental issue of Pediatrics was to consider what practitioners, parents, patients, institutions, and policy-makers need to take into account to make good decisions about using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to treat children and to develop guidelines for appropriate use. We began by explaining underlying concepts and principles in ethical, legal, and clinical reasoning and then used case scenarios to explore how they apply and identify gaps that remain in practice and policy. In this concluding article, we review our major findings, summarize our recommendations, and suggest further research. We focus on several key areas: practitioner and patient/parent relationships; decision-making; dispute resolution; standards of practice; hospital/health facility policies; patient safety; education; and research. Ethical principles, standards, and rules applicable when making decisions about conventional care for children apply to decision-making about CAM as well. The same is true of legal reasoning. Although CAM use has seldom led to litigation, general legal principles relied on in cases involving conventional medical care provide the starting point for analysis. Similarly, with respect to clinical decision-making, clinicians are guided by clinical judgment and the best interests of their patient. Whether a therapy is CAM or conventional, clinicians must weigh the relative risks and benefits of therapeutic options and take into account their patient's values, beliefs, and preferences. Consequently, many of our observations apply to conventional and CAM care and to both adult and pediatric patients.

  15. Detection of patients considering observation frequency of continuous and discontinuous adventitious sounds in lung sounds.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Naoki; Yamashita, Masaru; Matsunaga, Shoichi

    2016-08-01

    We propose an improved approach for distinguishing between healthy subjects and patients with pulmonary emphysema by the use of one stochastic acoustic model for continuous adventitious sounds and another for discontinuous adventitious sounds. These models are able to represent the spectral features of the adventitious sounds for the detection of abnormal respiration. However, abnormal respiratory sounds with unclassifiable spectral features are present among the continuous and discontinuous adventitious sounds and mixing noises. These sounds cause difficulties in achieving a highly accurate classification. In this study, the difference in occurrence frequencies between two types of adventitious sounds for each considered auscultation point and inspiration/expiration was considered. This difference, in combination with the confusion tendency of the classifier, was formulated as the validity score of each respiratory sound. The conventional spectral likelihood and the newly formulated validity score were combined to perform detection of abnormal respiration and patients. In the classification of healthy subjects and patients, the proposed approach achieved a higher classification rate (87.7%) than the conventional method (85.2%), demonstrating the statistical superiority (5% level) of the former.

  16. Development of a Decision Aid for Patients with Advanced Heart Failure Considering a Destination Therapy Left Ventricular Assist Device

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jocelyn S.; Matlock, Daniel D.; McIlvennan, Colleen K.; Jenkins, Amy R.; Allen, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Objective We aimed to create decision aids (DAs) for patients considering destination therapy left ventricular assist device (DT LVAD). Background DT LVAD is a major decision for patients with end-stage heart failure. Patients facing decisions with complex tradeoffs may benefit from high-quality decision support resources. Methods Following the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) guidelines and based on a needs assessment with stakeholders, we developed drafts of paper and video DAs. With input from patients, caregivers, and clinicians through alpha testing, we iteratively modified the DAs to ensure acceptability. Results We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 patients, 20 caregivers, and 24 clinicians to assess readability, bias, and usability of the DAs. Stakeholder feedback allowed us to integrate aspects critical to decision-making around highly invasive therapies for life-threatening diseases, including addressing emotion and fear of death, using gain frames for all options that focus on living, highlighting palliative and hospice care, integrating the caregiver role, and utilizing a range of balanced testimonials. After 19 iterative versions of the paper DA and four versions of the video DA, final materials were made available for wider use. Conclusion We developed the first IPDAS-level DAs for DT LVAD. Given the extreme nature of this medical decision, we augmented traditional DA characteristics with non-traditional DA features to address a spectrum of cognitive, automatic, and emotional aspects of end-of-life decision-making. Not only are the DAs important tools for those confronting end-stage heart failure, but the lessons learned will likely inform decision support for other invasive therapies. UNSTRUCTURED ABSTRACT Destination therapy left ventricular assist device (DT LVAD) is a major decision for patients with end-stage heart failure. We aimed to create decision aids (DAs) to support patients and their

  17. Peripartum cardiomyopathy in a patient with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, Takashi; Lee, Souki; Yamashita, Makoto; Sasaki, Yuichi; Kamizono, Yusuke; Imamura, Masakazu; Toyonaga, Koichi; Toda, Hitoshi; Koriyama, Nobuyuki; Tei, Chuwa

    2010-11-05

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare life-threatening cardiomyopathy of unknown etiology that occurs during the peripartum period in previously healthy women. Autoimmune and viral factors have been suggested to be involved in PPCM. Here we describe a patient with Graves' disease, which is one of the organ-specific autoimmune diseases, who developed acute heart failure due to PPCM at 2 weeks after her first delivery. The patient recovered completely with conservative treatment for heart failure. An association between PPCM and Graves' disease has not been reported before. PPCM may be an organ-specific autoimmune disease, so the coexistence of other autoimmune diseases should be considered in PPCM patients.

  18. 137 Hypogammaglobulinemia in a Boy: Consider Also X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gamez, Luisa; Yamazaki, Marco Antonio; Espinosa, Sara; Lugo-Reyes, Saul; Hernandez, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Background X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency presenting with a variety of clinical manifestations, the most common being dysgammaglobulinemia and B-cell lymphoma. The first gene causing XLP, when defective, was termed SH2D1A or SAP for signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein. The absence of SH2D1A leads to an overwhelming and uncontrolled TH1- shifted cytotoxic immune response, which might, at least in part, explain the severe clinical picture. A second gene, XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis), was later identified. Methods An 8 year old Mexican boy was admitted in June 2008 for bronchopneumonia, with no previous history of recurrent or severe infections. He had a family history of a brother deceased at 7 years from fulminate hepatitis, who was diagnosed with agammaglobulinemia. A laboratory evaluation for primary immunodeficiency was made, including serum immunoglobulins: IgG 30 mg/dL, IgA <5 mg/dL IgM 8.6 mg/dL; and flow citometry for lymphocyte subpopulations: CD3+ 2590 mm3 (56%) CD4+ 1004 mm3 (42%), CD8+ 1267 mm3(53%) CD16/56 171mm3 (41%) CD19+ 1493 mm3 (35%). The patient was started on monthly intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIG) therapy. He was admitted in December 2008 with fever and severe abdominal pain; an exploratory laparotomy revealed a rectal-sigmoid tumor. The biopsy reported an atypical Burkitt lymphoma (Immunophenotype “B”: Bcl 2+, CD10+) with surgical margins negative for malignancy. Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy were negative for malignancy. In February 2009, management with chemotherapy was started with the diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma stage III. Patient received 6 courses of chemotherapy with complete response to induction; for consolidation, 4 doses of rituximab were given. PCR amplification and direct automated sequencing by the Sanger method was performed in both genes known to be responsible for XLP in chromosome X. Results A hemizygous splice-site deletion in SAP

  19. Rationalizing Prescribing for Older Patients with Multimorbidity: Considering Time to Benefit

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Holly M.; Min, Lillian C.; Yee, Michael; Varadhan, Ravi; Basran, Jenny; Dale, William; Boyd, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the growing number of older adults with multimorbidity who are prescribed multiple medications, clinicians need to prioritize which medications are most likely to benefit and least likely to harm an individual patient. The concept of time to benefit (TTB) is increasingly discussed in addition to other measures of drug effectiveness in order to understand and contextualize the benefits and harms of a therapy to an individual patient. However, how to glean this information from available evidence is not well established. The lack of such information for clinicians highlights a critical need in the design and reporting of clinical trials to provide information most relevant to decision making for older adults with multimorbidity. We define TTB as the time until a statistically significant benefit is observed in trials of people taking a therapy compared to a control group not taking the therapy. Similarly, time to harm (TTH) is the time until a significantly significant adverse effect is seen in a trial for the treatment group compared to the control group. To determine both TTB and TTH, it is critical that we also clearly define the benefit or harm under consideration. Well-defined benefits or harms are clinically meaningful, measurable outcomes that are desired (or shunned) by patients. In this conceptual review, we illustrate concepts of TTB in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Using published results, we estimate probable TTB for statins with the future goal of using such information to improve prescribing decisions for individual patients. Knowing the relative TTBs and TTHs associated with a patient’s medications could be immensely useful to a clinician in decision-making for their older patients with multimorbidity. We describe the challenges in defining and determining TTB and TTH, and discuss possible ways for analyzing and reporting trial results which would add more information about

  20. [Comorbid autoimmune pathology in patients treated with disease modifying drugs].

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Z A; Sizyakina, L P; Belovolova, R A; Megeryan, V A

    2016-01-01

    Because of intensive growth of the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other autoimmune diseases (AID) during the last years, the comorbidity of MS and AID is not a rarity. In this literature review, the development of comorbid AID in patients with MS is considered to be the probable complication of disease modifying therapy with drugs of different groups. The authors present the own data on the prevalence of comorbid autoimmune pathology in patients with MS treated with disease modifying drugs.

  1. When to consider transfusion therapy for patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Taher, A T; Radwan, A; Viprakasit, V

    2015-01-01

    Non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) refers to all thalassaemia disease phenotypes that do not require regular blood transfusions for survival. Thalassaemia disorders were traditionally concentrated along the tropical belt stretching from sub-Saharan Africa through the Mediterranean region and the Middle East to South and South-East Asia, but global migration has led to increased incidence in North America and Northern Europe. Transfusionists may be familiar with β-thalassaemia major because of the lifelong transfusions needed by these patients. Although patients with NTDT do not require regular transfusions for survival, they may require transfusions in some instances such as pregnancy, infection or growth failure. The complications associated with NTDT can be severe if not properly managed, and many are directly related to chronic anaemia. Awareness of NTDT is important, and this review will outline the factors that should be taken into consideration when deciding whether to initiate and properly plan for transfusion therapy in these patients in terms of transfusion interval and duration of treatment.

  2. Elderly patients and inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Nimmons, Danielle; Limdi, Jimmy K

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing globally. Coupled with an ageing population, the number of older patients with IBD is set to increase. The clinical features and therapeutic options in young and elderly patients are comparable but there are some significant differences. The wide differential diagnosis of IBD in elderly patients may result in a delay in diagnosis. The relative dearth of data specific to elderly IBD patients often resulting from their exclusion from pivotal clinical trials and the lack of consensus guidelines have made clinical decisions somewhat challenging. In addition, age specific concerns such as co-morbidity; loco-motor and cognitive function, poly-pharmacy and its consequences need to be taken into account. In applying modern treatment paradigms to the elderly, the clinician must consider the potential for more pronounced adverse effects in this vulnerable group and set appropriate boundaries maximising benefit and minimising harm. Meanwhile, clinicians need to make personalised decisions but as evidence based as possible in the holistic, considered and optimal management of IBD in elderly patients. In this review we will cover the clinical features and therapeutic options of IBD in the elderly; as well as addressing common questions and challenges posed by its management. PMID:26855812

  3. Ultrasonographic imaging of inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiorean, Liliana; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Braden, Barbara; Cui, Xin-Wu; Buchhorn, Reiner; Chang, Jian-Min; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is one of the most common chronic gastrointestinal diseases in pediatric patients. Choosing the optimal imaging modality for the assessment of gastrointestinal disease in pediatric patients can be challenging. The invasiveness and patient acceptance, the radiation exposure and the quality performance of the diagnostic test need to be considered. By reviewing the literature regarding imaging in inflammatory bowel disease the value of ultrasound in the clinical management of pediatric patients is highlighted. Transabdominal ultrasound is a useful, noninvasive method for the initial diagnosis of IBD in children; it also provides guidance for therapeutic decisions and helps to characterize and predict the course of the disease in individual patients. Ultrasound techniques including color Doppler imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasound are promising imaging tools to determine disease activity and complications. Comparative studies between different imaging methods are needed. PMID:25954096

  4. Thromboembolic disease in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hindi, Nadia; Cordero, Nazaret; Espinosa, Enrique

    2013-05-01

    Thromboembolic events are common among patients with cancer as a consequence of cancer- and treatment-related factors. As these events are the second most frequent cause of death in this population, their prevention and treatment are important. Venous ultrasonography is the technique of choice for diagnosis, with sensitivity and specificity above 95 % in symptomatic thrombosis. Routine prophylaxis is not recommended for ambulatory patients, although it could be useful in selected cases. On the other hand, all inpatients should receive prophylactic therapy unless contraindicated. Therapy of thromboembolic disease is based on anticoagulants. Clinical trials demonstrate that the use of low-weight heparins is associated with a lower incidence of bleeding and recurrent thrombosis as compared with non-fractionated heparin or warfarin. Options for recurrent thrombosis include change to another anticoagulant agent, increasing doses of the same agent and cava filters.

  5. Gallstones in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    With prevalence of 10–20% in adults in developed countries, gallstone disease (GSD) is one of the most prevalent and costly gastrointestinal tract disorders in the world. In addition to gallstone disease, chronic liver disease (CLD) is also an important global public health problem. The reported frequency of gallstone in chronic liver disease tends to be higher. The prevalence of gallstone disease might be related to age, gender, etiology, and severity of liver disease in patients with chronic liver disease. In this review, the aim was to identify the epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment strategies of gallstone disease in chronic liver disease patients. PMID:28251162

  6. The Expert Patient and Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The concept of “expert patient” has been developed in the last two decades to define a patient who has a significant knowledge of his/her disease and treatment in addition to self-management skills. However, this concept has evolved over the last years, and these patients are now considered, not only to be more efficient in the management of their own condition and communicating effectively with health professionals, but to also act as educators for other patients and as resources for the last, provide feedback on care delivery, and be involved in the production and implementation of practice guidelines, as well as in the development and conduct of research initiatives. There are some barriers, however, to the integration of this new contributor to the health care team, and specific requirements need to be considered for an individual to be considered as an expert. This new player has, however, a potentially important role to improve current care, particularly in respiratory health. PMID:27445572

  7. Neurologic Diseases in Special Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Miriam R

    2016-07-01

    Neurologic diseases can have a major impact on functional capacity. Patients with neurologic disease require individualized management considerations depending on the extent of impairment and impact on functional capacity. This article reviews 4 of the more common and significant neurologic diseases (Alzheimer disease, cerebrovascular accident/stroke, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson disease) that are likely to present to a dental office and provides suggestions on the dental management of patients with these conditions.

  8. Recurrent Cholangitis in a Patient with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) and Caroli's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Eiko; Sawa, Naoki; Hoshino, Junichi; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Hayami, Noriko; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Sekine, Akinari; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Imafuku, Aya; Kawada, Masahiro; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Tsunao; Takaichi, Kenmei

    We herein present a rare case of an autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patient with Caroli's disease, a congenital embryonic biliary tree ductal plate abnormality often associated with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. A 76-year-old woman with ADPKD on hemodialysis was admitted to our hospital with recurrent cholangitis and hepatobiliary stones. Caroli's disease was diagnosed according to typical imaging findings of cystic intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and the central dot sign. Hepatobiliary system abnormalities such as Caroli's disease should be considered in febrile ADPKD patients, even in the absence of typical clinical signs or symptoms.

  9. Frequency of rheumatic diseases in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Soy, Mehmet; Guldiken, Sibel; Arikan, Ender; Altun, Betul Ugur; Tugrul, Armagan

    2007-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the frequency of rheumatic diseases in patients suffering from autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD). Sixty-five patients (56 F, 9 M), who were followed by diagnosis of ATD, were questioned and examined for the presence of rheumatic disease. Basic laboratory tests and antithyroid antibodies, antinuclear antibody and rheumatoid factor (RF) levels were also measured by appropriate methods. Various rheumatic diseases were detected in 40 (62%) of patients with ATD. The most frequent rheumatic conditions were fibromyalgia, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, osteoarthritis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia and carpal tunnel syndrome which were detected in 20 (31%), 13 (20%), 10 (15%), 9 (14%) and 8 (12%) of patients, respectively. Autoimmune diseases, except Sjogren's syndrome, which were detected in ten patients with ATD, are as follows-vitiligo: two; autoimmune hepatitis: two; oral lichen planus: one, ulcerative colitis: one, inflammatory arthritis in four patients (two of them had rheumatoid arthritis, one had psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis and one had mixed collagen tissue disease). RF was positive in two patients, one of them had rheumatoid arthritis and FANA was positive in six (9%) patients; all of them had hypothyroidism. The frequency of rheumatic diseases seems to be higher in patients suffering from ATD. Initial evaluation and a regular checking for rheumatic diseases in patients suffering from ATD were recommended.

  10. Auditory Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked. PMID:25401133

  11. Fabry disease: experience of screening dialysis patients for Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Eiji; Saito, Osamu; Akimoto, Tetsu; Asano, Yasushi

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence rate for Fabry disease is conventionally considered to be 1 case in 40,000; however, due to increased screening accuracy, reports now suggest that prevalence is 1 case in 1,500 among male children, and it is likely that the clinical importance of the condition will increase in the future. In dialysis patients to date, prevalence rates are between 0.16 and 1.2 %. Globotriaosylsphingosine (Lyso-GL-3), which is a substrate of α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A), has surfaced as a new biomarker, and is also effective in the determination and monitoring of the effects of enzyme replacement therapy. In terms of genetic abnormalities, the E66Q mutation has recently become a topic of discussion, and although doubts have been expressed over whether or not it is the gene responsible for Fabry disease, there is still a strong possibility that it is a functional genetic polymorphism. At present, the standard treatment for Fabry disease is enzyme replacement therapy, and in order to overcome the problems involved with this, a method of producing recombinant human α-Gal A using methanol-assimilating yeast, and chemical or medicinal chaperone treatment are of current interest. Migalastat hydrochloride is known as a pharmacological chaperone, but is currently in Phase III global clinical trials. Adding saposin B to modified α-N-acetyl galactosaminidase is also under consideration as a treatment method.

  12. Agriculture pest and disease risk maps considering MSG satellite data and land surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques da Silva, J. R.; Damásio, C. V.; Sousa, A. M. O.; Bugalho, L.; Pessanha, L.; Quaresma, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pest risk maps for agricultural use are usually constructed from data obtained from in-situ meteorological weather stations, which are relatively sparsely distributed and are often quite expensive to install and difficult to maintain. This leads to the creation of maps with relatively low spatial resolution, which are very much dependent on interpolation methodologies. Considering that agricultural applications typically require a more detailed scale analysis than has traditionally been available, remote sensing technology can offer better monitoring at increasing spatial and temporal resolutions, thereby, improving pest management results and reducing costs. This article uses ground temperature, or land surface temperature (LST), data distributed by EUMETSAT/LSASAF (with a spatial resolution of 3 × 3 km (nadir resolution) and a revisiting time of 15 min) to generate one of the most commonly used parameters in pest modeling and monitoring: "thermal integral over air temperature (accumulated degree-days)". The results show a clear association between the accumulated LST values over a threshold and the accumulated values computed from meteorological stations over the same threshold (specific to a particular tomato pest). The results are very promising and enable the production of risk maps for agricultural pests with a degree of spatial and temporal detail that is difficult to achieve using in-situ meteorological stations.

  13. Infectious diseases in end-stage liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Aneesh K; Lyon, G Marshall

    2010-09-01

    Patients with chronic liver diseases sustain impairment to immune systems, which worsens over time. These defects in their host defense lead to risks of bacterial infections and increased morbidity. Providers should have heightened surveillance for infectious diseases and suspect one with any acute change in status. Patient history may reveal rare infections and allow initiation of early appropriate therapy. There should be a low threshold for obtaining diagnostic cultures and peritoneal fluid samples and discussing possible causes with an infectious diseases consultant or a microbiology laboratory. These maneuvers will maximize therapy in patients at high risk for death due to infectious disease.

  14. Congenital cardiac disease in childhood x socioeconomic conditions: a relationship to be considered in public health?

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Thayanny Lopes do Vale; Dias, Marly de Jesus Sá; Nina, Rachel Vilela de Abreu Haickel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Congenital heart defects, cardiac malformations that occur in the embryonic period, constitute a serious health problem. They cover a proportion of 8-10 per 1000 live births and contribute to infant mortality. Objective To identify the socioeconomic status of children undergoing cardiac surgery at the Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal do Maranhão, in São Luis, the existence of material elements that contribute to worsening conditions. Methods We conducted a retrospective study with a quantitative approach, descriptive and reflective, from the interviews conducted by the Social Service Social with families of children with heart disease from January 2011 to July 2012. Results A total of 95 interviews, the results reveal that (75.79%) of children have elements that suggest poor socioeconomic conditions. It also shows that only 66.33% lived in brick house, while (31.73%) in mud, adobe and straw houses. With regard to income, it showed that only 4.08% received 1-2 minimum wages, while the remaining (95.9%) with benchmarks oscillating half the minimum wage (27.55%), 1/4 of the minimum wage and (24.48%) and income below 70 dollars per person, featuring extreme poverty. On the social security situation prevailing at children with no ties to 61.22%. With respect to benefits, we found that only (12.24%) of children were in the enjoyment of the Continuous Cash Benefit - CCB. Conclusion Poor socioeconomic conditions listed as major obstacles in meeting the needs, resulting in the maintenance of health conditions and even allowing the aggravation of an existing pathology. PMID:25372921

  15. Physiological responses to psychological challenge under hypnosis in patients considered to have the hyperventilation syndrome: implications for diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, L J; Conway, A; Nixon, P G

    1986-01-01

    Thirty patients who were considered to have the hyperventilation syndrome on clinical grounds (history and observation) were referred for testing: 29 patients completed a forced hyperventilation provocation test, and 28 underwent hypnosis during which time a psychological challenge was introduced which was meaningful to each individual patient. In 19/27 of these patients the PetCO2 fell by an average of 18.2 mmHg and persisted spontaneously for more than three minutes. In 10 normal controls studied in a similar fashion there was an average fall of 5 mmHg. The difference in response between responders and controls/non-responders was highly significant (P less than 0.001). A review of the literature is presented for comparison. It is considered that a psychological challenge under hypnosis may have important implications for diagnosis and therapy in some patients considered to have the hyperventilation syndrome. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:3081708

  16. Nephrolithiasis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in the community

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Dídia Bismara; Moss, Alan C; Schor, Nestor

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been associated with renal stone formation. The objective of this study was to determine prospectively the prevalence of nephrolithiasis in a community-based population of patients with IBD and to analyze factors associated with renal calculus formation. Methods Screening renal ultrasound was performed in a well characterized cohort of patients seen between 2009 and 2012 at an IBD clinic. We enrolled 168 patients, including 93 with Crohn’s disease and 75 with ulcerative colitis. Clinical and phenotypic variables associated with asymptomatic nephrolithiasis were determined. Results Nephrolithiasis was detected in 36 patients with Crohn’s disease and in 28 patients with ulcerative colitis (38% for both). Although none of the patients had been previously hospitalized for symptomatic nephrolithiasis, nine with Crohn’s disease and five with ulcerative colitis had recurrent urinary tract infections or hydronephrosis. In patients with Crohn’s disease, ileocolonic (L3) disease was associated with a greater risk of nephrolithiasis than was ileal (L1) or colonic (L2) disease (odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8–7). Active ulcerative colitis (regardless of severity) represented a significant risk factor for formation of renal calculi (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.1–15, P = 0.02). Conclusion In surgery-naïve patients with IBD in the community, asymptomatic nephrolithiasis is common and should be considered when renal dysfunction or infection is detected. PMID:23935383

  17. Radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Giaj-Levra, Niccolò; Sciascia, Savino; Fiorentino, Alba; Fersino, Sergio; Mazzola, Rosario; Ricchetti, Francesco; Roccatello, Dario; Alongi, Filippo

    2016-03-01

    The decision to offer radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases continues to be challenging. Radiotherapy might trigger the onset of connective tissue diseases by increasing the expression of self-antigens, diminishing regulatory T-cell activity, and activating effectors of innate immunity (dendritic cells) through Toll-like receptor-dependent mechanisms, all of which could potentially lead to breaks of immune tolerance. This potential risk has raised some debate among radiation oncologists about whether patients with connective tissue diseases can tolerate radiation as well as people without connective tissue diseases. Because the number of patients with cancer and connective tissue diseases needing radiotherapy will probably increase due to improvements in medical treatment and longer life expectancy, the issue of interactions between radiotherapy and connective tissue diseases needs to be clearer. In this Review, we discuss available data and evidence for patients with connective tissue diseases treated with radiotherapy.

  18. Addressing cardiovascular disease in patients with renal disease.

    PubMed

    Crook, Errol D; Washington, David O

    2002-01-01

    It is well-established that patients with renal disease are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) death. Despite better understanding of CVD in endstage renal disease (ESRD) patients and more rigid guidelines addressing the major risk factors for CVD in this population, CVD continues to be the number one cause of death in patients with ESRD. Moreover, higher rates of CVD are seen in patients with moderate, and even mild, renal dysfunction and in patients with albuminuria (micro and macroscopic). Few studies with CVD endpoints have included patients with renal disease. There is sufficient evidence to support appropriate blood pressure reduction as having a beneficial effect on CVD morbidity and mortality in patients with renal disease (especially for patients with diabetes). Data supporting the benefit of modification of other CVD risk factors is not as strong, but current recommendations do stress aggressive control of lipids, smoking cessation, and maintenance of adequate nutritional status. Inclusion of patients with renal disease in studies with CVD endpoints is necessary. Until then, it is generally recommended that CVD risk stratification and modification strategies be applied to this high-risk population.

  19. Scalp cooling to prevent alopecia after chemotherapy can be considered safe in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, C J G; van de Poll-Franse, L V; Breed, W P M; Coebergh, J W W; Nortier, J W R

    2013-10-01

    With modern scalp cooling equipment cytotoxic damage of hair root cells can be prevented in half of the patients with cancer at high risk of alopecia. However, traditionally doubt has existed whether scalp cooling might facilitate hiding and disseminating scalp skin metastases and thus decrease survival. We discuss this risk using frequency data on metastases in breast cancer from observational and autopsy studies and the Munich cancer registry. They showed the incidence of scalp skin metastases to be very low and not differ between scalp-cooled (0.04-1%) and non scalp-cooled (0.03-3%) patients with breast cancer and in need of chemotherapy. We found it rather unlikely that the incidence of scalp skin metastases might increase at all after scalp cooling, whereas a very small proportion of patients receiving chemotherapy are at risk to develop metastases at this site. Scalp cooling can thus safely be offered to patients treated with alopecia-inducing chemotherapy.

  20. [Hand replantation: differences in functional outcome considering patient age and sociomedical aspects].

    PubMed

    Reichl, H; Schütz, T; Gabl, M; Angermann, P; Russe, E; Wechselberger, G

    2013-12-01

    By presenting 2 cases of successful hand replantation with similar trauma mechanism, level of amputation and ischaemia time of an 18-year-old female patient and a 48-year-old depressive male patient, the influence of age and sociomedical status on the postoperative outcome is discussed. DASH- (disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand) score and Biometrics E-LINK power and sensitivity measurement were used to evaluate the outcomes.

  1. Sleep in patients with restrictive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Won, Christine H J; Kryger, Meir

    2014-09-01

    Restrictive lung disease leads to ventilatory defects and diffusion impairments. These changes may contribute to abnormal nocturnal pathophysiology, including sleep architecture disruption and impaired ventilation and oxygenation. Patients with restrictive lung disease may suffer significant daytime fatigue and dysfunction. Hypercarbia and hypoxemia during sleep may impact progression of lung disease and related symptoms. Little is known about the impact of treatment of sleep disruption on sleep quality and overall prognosis in restrictive lung disease. This review discusses the pathophysiology of sleep and comorbid sleep disorders in restrictive lung diseases including interstitial lung disease, neuromuscular disease, and obesity hypoventilation syndrome.

  2. Resilience in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lemos, Conceição Maria Martins; Moraes, David William; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2016-01-01

    Background Resilience is a psychosocial factor associated with clinical outcomes in chronic diseases. The relationship between this protective factor and certain diseases, such heart diseases, is still under-explored. Objective The present study sought to investigate the frequency of resilience in individuals with ischemic heart disease. Method This was a cross-sectional study with 133 patients of both genders, aged between 35 and 65 years, treated at Rio Grande do Sul Cardiology Institute - Cardiology University Foundation, with a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease during the study period. Sixty-seven patients had a history of acute myocardial infarction. The individuals were interviewed and evaluated by the Wagnild & Young resilience scale and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Results Eighty-one percent of patients were classified as resilient according to the scale. Conclusion In the sample studied, resilience was identified in high proportion among patients with ischemic heart disease. PMID:26815312

  3. Integrating Patient Concerns into Parkinson's Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Lim, Shen-Yang; Tan, Ai Huey; Fox, Susan H; Evans, Andrew H; Low, Soon Chai

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex motor and non-motor disorder and management is often challenging. In this review, we explore emerging approaches to improve the care of patients, drawing from the literature regarding patient-centred care, patient and caregiver perspectives and priorities, gaps in knowledge among patients and caregivers and the need for accurate information, individual variability in disease manifestations, prognostication of disease course, new developments in health technologies and personalized medicine, specialty care, pharmacological and non-pharmacological management, financial burden, lifestyle and work-related issues, support groups and palliative care.

  4. Cystic fibrosis lung disease in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Vender, Robert L

    2008-04-01

    As the longevity of all patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) continues to increase (median 2005 survival=36.8 years), more adult patients will be receiving their medical care from nonpediatric adult-care providers. Cystic fibrosis remains a fatal disease, with more than 80% of patients dying after the age of 18 years, and most deaths resulting from pulmonary disease. The changing epidemiology requires adult-care providers to become knowledgeable and competent in the clinical management of adults with CF. Physicians must understand the influence of specific genotype on phenotypic disease presentation and severity, the pathogenic factors determining lung disease onset and progression, the impact of comorbid disease factors such as CF-related diabetes and malnutrition upon lung disease severity, and the currently approved or standard accepted therapies used for chronic management of CF lung disease. This knowledge is critical to help alleviate morbidity and improve mortality for the rapidly expanding population of adults with CF.

  5. The Institutionalized Geriatric Patient Considered in a Framework of Developmental Deprivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erber, Joan T.

    1979-01-01

    An overview is presented of several areas of deprivation research (animal, child, young adult) and methods of conceptualizing and measuring deprivation is applied to institutionalized geriatric patients. Suggestions are made for more precise approaches to studying and treating deprivation in this population. (Author/SS)

  6. [Organization of therapeutic aid to patients with hereditary neuromuscular diseases].

    PubMed

    Kalinin, V A; Temin, P A; Arkhipov, B A; Zavadenko, N N

    1989-01-01

    The paper summarizes experience gained for many years by the All-Union Research Methodological Center for Study of Hereditary Neuromuscular Diseases. The specialists of the Center render counselling and therapeutic assistance to patients afflicted with neuromuscular diseases. The counselling and diagnostic services are characterized by the fact that it is based on the activity of a large hospital intended for the treatment of various diseases. The problems which are being solved by the out- and inpatient services of the Center are considered in detail. The advantages of the setting up of the common in- and outpatient complex on the basis of the hospital intended for the treatment of various diseases are described.

  7. Long-term medical management of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: how long and when to consider surgery?

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Jayanthi; Krishnan, Arunkumar

    2012-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a chronic, long standing disease. Spontaneous remission of GERD is rare and conservative management including life style modification measures is unlikely to relieve symptoms. Majority of patients with reflux disease require long-term acid suppressants. Proton pump inhibitors are the choice of drugs in management of these patients. The end point of treatment is not clear. Duration of treatment is individual based. The symptoms may be intermittent or on most days of the week. The treatment is therefore either a short course which may be for 8 to 12 weeks or 6 months, or continuous, intermittent or 'on-demand' basis. The maintenance therapy is with the lowest proton pump inhibitor (PPI) dose necessary for adequate symptom relief. Whether long-term PPI actually alters the natural history of reflux disease other than to reduce the incidence of peptic stricture is not known. Reported adverse effects due to PPI include Clostridium difficile colitis and bacterial gastroenteritis, osteoporosis, and vitamin B12 deficiency. Anti-reflux surgery is indicated for youngsters, those not willing for long-term PPI i.e. for years, large volume refluxers, especially the supine refluxers and bile refluxers.

  8. Management of alcohol misuse in patients with liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jennifer L; Patel, Milan Prakash; McGee, Breann; Liang, Tiebing; Chandler, Kristina; Tayarachakul, Sucharat; O'Connor, Sean; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2017-03-01

    Excessive alcohol use not only causes alcoholic liver disease (ALD) but also increases the risk of liver-related mortality in patients who already have other chronic liver diseases. Screening for alcohol misuse or alcohol use disorder (AUD) among patients with underlying liver disease is essential. This clinical review covers what is known about ALD, the impact of alcohol in patients with underlying liver diseases, current management of alcohol misuse and AUD, and the management of alcohol misuse and AUD specifically in patients with liver diseases. Several treatment options for alcohol misuse and AUD exist such as psychosocial intervention and behavioral and pharmacological therapies. The strategies used in the treatment of alcohol misuse and AUD are still applicable in those who consume alcohol and have underlying liver disease. However, certain medications still need to be carefully used due to potentially worsening already compromised liver function. Screening of ongoing alcohol use in subjects with liver disease is important, and prompt intervention is needed to prevent the associated morbidity and mortality from the detrimental effects of continued alcohol use on underlying liver disease. Considering alcoholism is a complex disease, probably a multidisciplinary approach combining psychotherapy and comprehensive medical care will be the most effective. Future research could focus on identifying additional treatment options for addressing the psychotherapy component since the self-determination and will to quit drinking alcohol can play such a crucial role in promoting abstinence.

  9. Why the oncologist should consider the nutritional status of the elderly cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Bozzetti, Federico

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies show that malnutrition frequently afflicts elderly cancer patients. Malnutrition, (expressed as weight loss, or depletion of some body compartments or alteration of nutritional clinical or biochemical scores) is associated with higher morbidity/mortality, poor quality of life, reduced tolerance to oncologic therapy and poor efficacy of chemotherapy. Recently, sarcopenia, regardless of the presence of weight loss, has been identified as an independent risk factor for chemotherapy toxicity.

  10. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  11. Parallel multicentre randomised trial of a clinical trial question prompt list in patients considering participation in phase 3 cancer treatment trials

    PubMed Central

    Tattersall, Martin H N; Jefford, Michael; Martin, Andrew; Olver, Ian; Thompson, John F; Brown, Richard F; Butow, Phyllis N

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of a clinical trial question prompt list in patients considering enrolment in cancer treatment trials. Setting Tertiary cancer referral hospitals in three state capital cities in Australia. Participants 88 patients with cancer attending three cancer centres in Australia, who were considering enrolment in phase 3 treatment trials, were invited to enrol in an unblinded randomised trial of provision of a clinical trial question prompt list (QPL) before consenting to enrol in the treatment trial. Interventions We developed and pilot tested a targeted QPL for patients with cancer considering clinical trial participation (the clinical trial QPL). Consenting patients were randomised to receive the clinical trial QPL or not before further discussion with their oncologist and/or trial nurse about the treatment trial. Primary and secondary outcomes Questionnaires were completed at baseline and within 3 weeks of deciding on treatment trial participation. Main outcome measure: scores on the Quality of Informed Consent questionnaire (QuIC). Results 88 patients of 130 sought for the study were enrolled (43 males), and 45 received the clinical trial QPL. 49% of trials were chemotherapy interventions for patients with advanced disease, 35% and 16% were surgical adjuvant and radiation adjuvant trials respectively. 70 patients completed all relevant questionnaires. 28 of 43 patients in the control arm compared with 39 of 45 patients receiving the clinical trial QPL completed the QuIC (p=0.0124). There were no significant differences in the QuIC scores between the randomised groups (QuIC part A p=0.08 and QuIC part B p=0.92). There were no differences in patient satisfaction with decisions or in anxiety levels between the randomised groups. Conclusions Use of a question prompt list did not significantly change the QuIC scores in this randomised trial. ANZCTR 12606000214538 prospectively registered 31/5/2006. Trial registration number Results, ACTRN

  12. Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in patients with hypothalamic‐pituitary disease

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, D; Furlong, N J; Wilding, J P H; MacFarlane, I A

    2007-01-01

    Objective Adults with hypothalamic‐pituitary disease have increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, the prevalence of CVD and adequacy of treatment of cardiovascular risk factors (according to current treatment guidelines) was studied in a large group of patients with hypothalamic‐pituitary disease. Study design In 2005, 152 consecutive adult patients with hypothalamic‐pituitary disease attending our neuro‐endocrine centre were clinically examined and blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, type 2 diabetes mellitus, body composition and smoking status were assessed. Results Of the 152 patients, 36.8% had treated hypertension and 28.2% had treated dyslipidaemia. Many of these patients had inadequate BP control (BP >140/85 mm Hg, 44.6%) and undesirable lipid levels (total cholesterol >4.0 mmol/l, 69%). Also, many of the untreated patients had BP and lipid levels which should have been considered for treatment (26 patients (27%) and 83 patients (76%), respectively). Smoking was admitted in 18% of patients. Central adiposity was present in 86% and obesity (body mass index ⩾30) was present in 50%. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent and often inadequately treated in adult patients with hypothalamic‐pituitary disease. Aggressive treatment of these factors is essential to reduce mortality and morbidity from CVD in these patients. PMID:17403957

  13. Considering psychoeducation on structural dissociation for dialectical behavior therapy patients experiencing high-risk dissociative behaviors.

    PubMed

    Shabb, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) programs, particularly for low-functioning individuals at the safety and stabilization phase of therapy, work with a variety of high-risk and often complex cases, with a curriculum consisting primarily of concrete skill acquisition and application. A significant subset of individuals in DBT programs, however, may suffer high-risk dissociative episodes in which skill application may be less available to them, contributing to further destabilization, demoralization, and thoughts of self-inefficacy in treatment. This article evaluates the potential benefits of complementing traditional DBT with psychoeducation on structural dissociation for such patients, acknowledging and addressing some of the concerns that might accompany such a consideration.

  14. Kidney transplantation in patients with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Cybulla, Markus; Walter, Kerstin Nanette; Schwarting, Andreas; Divito, Raffaelle; Feriozzi, Sandro; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere

    2009-04-01

    Little is known about the effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in kidney transplant recipients with Fabry disease. Clinical characteristics of transplant recipients in the Fabry Outcome Survey (FOS) were therefore examined in patients with Fabry disease with or without ERT. Of the 837 European patients in FOS (March 2006), 34 male patients and two female patients had received kidney transplants. Mean age at transplantation was 37.6 +/- 10.9 years, mean time since transplantation was 7.7 +/- 6.4 years, median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 44.4 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and median proteinuria was 296 mg/24 h. Of 27 patients with baseline data, 59% had hypertension, 74% had left ventricular hypertrophy, 22% had cardiac valve disease, 30% had arrhythmia, and 22% had transient ischaemic attacks and 15% stroke. Twenty patients (74%; two female patients, 18 male patients) were receiving ERT with agalsidase alfa. At enrollment or at the start of ERT, median eGFRs were 59 and 35 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (P = 0.05) and median proteinuria levels were 240 and 420 mg/24 h (not significant) in treated and untreated patients respectively. Renal function remained stable in patients receiving ERT. In conclusion, agalsidase alfa is well tolerated in patients with Fabry disease who have undergone renal transplantation.

  15. A Diagnosis to Consider in an Adult Patient with Facial Features and Intellectual Disability: Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek Kiper, Pelin Özlem; Utine, Gülen Eda; Alikaşifoğlu, Mehmet; Boduroğlu, Koray

    2017-01-01

    Williams syndrome (OMIM #194050) is a rare, well-recognized, multisystemic genetic condition affecting approximately 1/7,500 individuals. There are no marked regional differences in the incidence of Williams syndrome. The syndrome is caused by a hemizygous deletion of approximately 28 genes, including ELN on chromosome 7q11.2. Prenatal-onset growth retardation, distinct facial appearance, cardiovascular abnormalities, and unique hypersocial behavior are among the most common clinical features. Here, we report the case of a patient referred to us with distinct facial features and intellectual disability, who was diagnosed with Williams syndrome at the age of 37 years. Our aim is to increase awareness regarding the diagnostic features and complications of this recognizable syndrome among adult health care providers. Williams syndrome is usually diagnosed during infancy or childhood, but in the absence of classical findings, such as cardiovascular anomalies, hypercalcemia, and cognitive impairment, the diagnosis could be delayed. Due to the multisystemic and progressive nature of the syndrome, accurate diagnosis is critical for appropriate care and screening for the associated morbidities that may affect the patient's health and well-being. PMID:28360987

  16. Chronic disease management for patients with respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Elizabeth

    National and international awareness of the heavy burden of chronic disease has led to the development of new strategies for managing care. Elisabeth Bryant explains how self-care, education and support for more patients with complex needs should be built into planned care delivery, and emphasises that the patient is the key member of the care team.

  17. Nursing care of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Szigeti, E

    1988-01-01

    Nursing interventions for each of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, tremors at rest and postural reflex abnormalities, are designed to increase the patient's quality of life by minimizing symptoms. Nurses are responsible for planning patient medication schedules to maximize drug effectiveness. Dietary implications include a low-protein regimen for the patient during the day, eliminating foods high in Vitamin B6, high caloric foods, and soft-solid foods offered at frequent feedings. Constipation is addressed by increasing the patient's fiber and fluid intake and by increasing the patient's mobility. Patient mobility is increased when the patient is taught purposeful activities and to concentrate on the way he walks. Communication is facilitated if the patient takes deep breaths before speaking and uses diaphragmatic speech. A telephone receiver which amplifies the patient's voice is also available. Interventions are good only if the patient chooses to implement them; he is the head of the health team planning his care.

  18. Rare disease policies to improve care for patients in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rodwell, Charlotte; Aymé, Ségolène

    2015-10-01

    Rare diseases are those with a particularly low prevalence; in Europe, diseases are considered to be rare when they affect not more than 5 in 10000 persons in the European Union. The specificities of rare diseases make the area a veritable public health challenge: the limited number of patients and scarcity of knowledge and expertise single rare diseases out as a distinctive domain of high European added-value. The Orphan Medicinal Product Regulation of 1999 was the first European legislative text concerning rare diseases, followed by many initiatives, including recommendations by the Council of Ministers of the European Union in 2009. These initiatives contributed to the development of rare diseases policies at European and national level aimed at improving care for patients with rare diseases. A review of the political framework at European level and in European countries is provided to demonstrate how legislation has created a dynamic that is progressively improving care for patients with rare diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Current Research on the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease)".

  19. Perioperative management of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Katus, Linn; Shtilbans, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, leading to a wide range of disability and medical complications. Managing patients with Parkinson's disease in the perioperative hospital setting can be particularly challenging. Suboptimal management can lead to medical complications, prolonged hospital stays, and delayed recovery. This review aims to address the most important issues related to caring for patients with Parkinson's disease perioperatively who are undergoing emergent or planned general surgery. It also intends to help hospitalists, internists, and other health care providers mitigate potential in-hospital morbidity and prevent prolonged recovery. Challenges in managing patients with Parkinson's disease in the perioperative hospital setting include disruption of medication schedules, "nothing by mouth" status, reduced mobility, and medication interactions and their side effects. Patients with Parkinson's disease are more prone to immobility and developing dysphagia, respiratory dysfunction, urinary retention, and psychiatric symptoms. These issues lead to higher rates of pneumonia, urinary tract infections, deconditioning, and falls compared with patients without Parkinson's disease, as well as prolonged hospital stays and a greater need for post-hospitalization rehabilitation. Steps can be taken to decrease these complications, including minimizing nothing by mouth status duration, using alternative routes of drugs administration when unable to give medications orally, avoiding drug interactions and medications that can worsen parkinsonism, assessing swallowing ability frequently, encouraging incentive spirometry, performing bladder scans, avoiding Foley catheters, and providing aggressive physical therapy. Knowing and anticipating these potential complications allow hospital physicians to mitigate nosocomial morbidity and shorten recovery times and hospital stays.

  20. Fungal infection in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Ruth; Pisa, Diana; Marina, Ana Isabel; Morato, Esperanza; Rábano, Alberto; Carrasco, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that leads to dementia mainly among the elderly. This disease is characterized by the presence in the brain of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles that provoke neuronal cell death, vascular dysfunction, and inflammatory processes. In the present work, we have analyzed the existence of fungal infection in Alzheimer's disease patients. A proteomic analysis provides compelling evidence for the existence of fungal proteins in brain samples from Alzheimer's disease patients. Furthermore, PCR analysis reveals a variety of fungal species in these samples, dependent on the patient and the tissue tested. DNA sequencing demonstrated that several fungal species can be found in brain samples. Together, these results show that fungal macromolecules can be detected in brain from Alzheimer's disease patients. To our knowledge these findings represent the first evidence that fungal infection is detectable in brain samples from Alzheimer's disease patients. The possibility that this may represent a risk factor or may contribute to the etiological cause of Alzheimer's disease is discussed.

  1. Autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Robazzi, Teresa Cristina Martins Vicente; Adan, Luis Fernando Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid function abnormalities and thyroid autoantibodies have been frequently described in patients with rheumatologic autoimmune diseases, such as Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma. Limited data are available regarding the prevalence and clinical characteristics of autoimmune thyroiditis in other rheumatologic disorders, such as rheumatic fever and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus. The authors review the association of endocrine autoimmune and rheumatic autoimmune diseases, assessing various age groups and clinical conditions. The bibliographic survey was conducted through the search for scientific articles indexed in the general health sciences databases, such as Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Medline/PubMed, and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). The following descriptors were used: "rheumatic autoimmune diseases and autoimmune thyroid diseases"; "thyroid disorders and rheumatic diseases"; "thyroiditis and rheumatic diseases"; "autoimmune diseases and thyroid"; and "pediatric rheumatic diseases and autoimmune thyroid diseases". This study showed that, despite contradictory results in the literature, there is a greater prevalence of the association between autoimmune thyroid diseases and rheumatic diseases, highlighting the possibility of common pathogenic mechanisms among them.

  2. [Chronic kidney disease in the elderly patient].

    PubMed

    Mora-Gutiérrez, José María; Slon Roblero, María Fernanda; Castaño Bilbao, Itziar; Izquierdo Bautista, Diana; Arteaga Coloma, Jesús; Martínez Velilla, Nicolás

    2016-05-06

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is widely prevalent worldwide, with a special impact on elderly population. Around half of people aged over 75 meet diagnostic criteria for CKD according to the recent 'Kidney disease improving global outcomes' (KDIGO) 2012 clinical practice guideline on the evaluation and management of CKD. However, geriatric patients have characteristics that may not be addressed by general guidelines. Therefore, it is important to know the natural history of the disease, symptoms, and 'red-flags' that could help in the management of these patients. In this review, a complete approach is presented on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CKD in the geriatric population.

  3. Vaccinating Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Jason; Wasan, Sharmeel

    2016-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not vaccinated at the same rate as general medical patients. IBD places patients at increased risk for developing vaccine-preventable illnesses, and this risk is further exacerbated by immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, gastroenterologists should familiarize themselves with health maintenance measures pertaining to patients with IBD. This article highlights the vaccinations required for patients with IBD, especially those who are immunosuppressed: influenza; pneumococcal pneumonia; hepatitis A and B viruses; human papilloma virus; meningococcal disease; tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis; measles, mumps, and rubella; varicella zoster; and herpes zoster. This article also discusses issues regarding patients with IBD who travel outside of the United States, as well as highlights and provides suggestions for areas of quality improvement that are needed in the field. PMID:27917091

  4. Venous thromboembolic disease in colorectal patients.

    PubMed

    McNally, Michael P; Burns, Christopher J

    2009-02-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease, which includes deep vein thromboses as well as pulmonary emboli, can be a significant complication in the postoperative patient. In particular, colorectal patients often carry a higher risk for venous thromboembolism when compared with patients undergoing other operative procedures. Features unique to colorectal patients are the high incidence of inflammatory bowel disease or malignancy. Typically, these patients will undergo lengthy pelvic procedures, which also contribute to a cumulative risk of venous thrombosis. It is critical that all patients and the proposed operative procedure are appropriately risk stratified. Risk stratification allows for easier implementation of an appropriate prophylactic strategy. There are a wide range of safe and effective mechanical and pharmacologic measures available. The authors provide very specific recommendations, but note that clinical judgment plays a significant role.

  5. Management of Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Chronic Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Barberà, Joan Albert; Blanco, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of chronic pulmonary diseases, especially in advanced disease, and is associated with greater mortality and worse clinical course. Patients with symptoms that exceed those expected by their pulmonary disease should be further evaluated by echocardiography. Confirmatory right heart catheterization is indicated in those conditions where the results of the hemodynamic assessment will determine treatment options. The treatment of choice for patients who are hypoxemic and have pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung disease is long-term oxygen therapy. Conventional vasodilators or drugs approved for pulmonary arterial hypertension are not recommended in patients with mild-to-moderate PH because they may impair gas exchange and because there is a lack of evidence supporting their efficacy. Patients with severe PH should be considered for referral to a center with expertise in PH and lung diseases. Ideally, these patients should be included in randomized controlled trials to determine which patients are more likely to derive benefit and which therapies are most likely to be successful.

  6. Persistent Hypoglycemia in Patient with Hodgkin's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Harold Cinco; Munshi, Lubna Bashir; Sharon, David

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a rare complication of Hodgkin's disease. Several explanations have been postulated but the exact pathophysiology is not well understood. We are presenting a case of newly diagnosed Stage IV Hodgkin's disease that developed persistent and recurrent hypoglycemia despite giving glucagon, repeated 50% dextrose, and D5 and D10 continuous infusion. Hypoglycemia workup showed the C-peptide level to be low. Patient was suspected of having hypoglycemia related to lymphoma and was given a trial of prednisone which resolved the hypoglycemic episodes and made the patient euglycemic for the rest of his hospital stay. The presence of a substance that mimicked the effects of insulin was highly suspected. Several case reports strengthen the hypothesis of an insulin-like growth factor or antibodies secreted by the cancer cells causing hypoglycemia in Hodgkin's disease but none of them have been confirmed. Further investigation is warranted to more clearly define the pathophysiology of persistent hypoglycemia in patients with Hodgkin's disease. PMID:26839722

  7. Current treatments for patients with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Gerald G; Saunders, Amanda Vaughn

    2010-09-01

    There is neither proven effective prevention for Alzheimer disease nor a cure for patients with this disorder. Nevertheless, a spectrum of biopsychosocial therapeutic measures is available for slowing progression of the illness and enhancing quality of life for patients. These measures include a range of educational, psychological, social, and behavioral interventions that remain fundamental to effective care. Also available are a number of pharmacologic treatments, including prescription medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for Alzheimer disease, "off-label" uses of medications to manage target symptoms, and controversial complementary therapies. Physicians must make the earliest possible diagnosis to use these treatments most effectively. Physicians' goals should be to educate patients and their caregivers, to plan long-term care options, to maximally manage concurrent illnesses, to slow and ameliorate the most disabling symptoms, and to preserve effective functioning for as long as possible. The authors review the various current treatments for patients with Alzheimer disease.

  8. [Disease management for chronic heart failure patient].

    PubMed

    Bläuer, Cornelia; Pfister, Otmar; Bächtold, Christa; Junker, Therese; Spirig, Rebecca

    2011-02-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (HF) are limited in their quality of life, have a poor prognosis and face frequent hospitalisations. Patient self-management was shown to improve quality of life, reduce rehospitalisations and costs in patients with chronic HF. Comprehensive disease management programmes are critical to foster patient self-management. The chronic care model developed by the WHO serves as the basis of such programmes. In order to develop self-management skills a needs orientated training concept is mandatory, as patients need both knowledge of the illness and the ability to use the information to make appropriate decisions according to their individual situation. Switzerland has no established system for the care of patients with chronic diseases in particular those with HF. For this reason a group of Swiss experts for HF designed a model for disease management for HF patients in Switzerland. Since 2009 the Swiss Heart Foundation offers an education programme based on this model. The aim of this programme is to offer education and support for practitioners, patients and families. An initial pilot evaluation of the program showed mixed acceptance by practitioners, whereas patient assessed the program as supportive and in line with their requirements.

  9. Multiple pulmonary nodules in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Golpe, Rafael; Mateos, Alfonso; Pérez-Valcárcel, Javier; Lapeña, José A; García-Figueiras, Roberto; Blanco, Joaquín

    2003-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) can be associated with respiratory involvement. Multiple pulmonary nodules are an infrequent finding in patients with CD. When they are found, histology usually shows sterile necrobiotic nodules, which are spherical aggregates of neutrophils, which frequently cavitate. We report a patient with inactive CD treated with mesalazine, who presented with multiple pulmonary nodules. Transthoracic biopsy of one of the nodules disclosed a benign, nongranulomatous inflammatory lymphoid infiltration. The radiographic abnormalities responded well to oral prednisone. Focal, nongranulomatous lymphoid infiltration thus must be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiple pulmonary nodules in patients with CD.

  10. Hepatitis B Serology in Patients with Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Feuchtenberger, Martin; Schäfer, Arne; Philipp Nigg, Axel; Rupert Kraus, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Only limited data are available on the prevalence of hepatitis B in patients with proven rheumatic diseases and thus the risk of reactivation under immunosuppressive therapy. Objective: To analyse hepatitis B serology in patients with rheumatic diseases prior to therapy. Method: In total, 1,338 patient records were analysed for HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb in a cross-sectional, single-centre study between 2011 and 2015 at first presentation. Data acquisition was realized using electronic patient files created during routine care. The main variables considered as predictors for HBV reactivation included (i) the exact type of rheumatic disease and (ii) the therapeutically induced immunosuppression. Results: Overall, 5.9% of patients (n=79) had proven contact with hepatitis B (HBcAb positive), and HBsAb were not detected in 1.3% (n=18). The rate of vaccinated subjects was 7.8%. HBsAg was detected in 3 patients (0.2%). In addition, 70.3% of patients were treated during the course of rheumatologic disease previously or currently with glucocorticoids, 85.2% with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and 20.1% with a biologic agent (e.g., anti-IL-6, anti-TNFalpha, anti-CD20, CTLA4Ig or anti-IL-12/23). Conclusion: Prevalence of hepatitis B serostatus in the analysed rheumatic patients regarding HBs-Ag and HBcAb with or without HBsAb prior to therapy does not differ from the data published for the general population in Germany. However, the rate of hepatitis B vaccinated patients was lower. In general, a significant portion of patients (5.9%) has been exposed to HBV and therefore exhibited an increased risk of reactivation of hepatitis B when undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:27708728

  11. Finite Element Modeling of Balloon Angioplasty by Considering Overstretch of Remnant Non-diseased Tissues in Lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, T. Christian; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2007-06-01

    The paper deals with the modeling of balloon angioplasty by considering the balloon-induced overstretch of remnant non-diseased tissues in atherosclerotic arteries. A stenotic artery is modeled as a heterogenous structure composed of adventitia, media and a model plaque, and residual stresses are considered. The constitutive models are able to capture the anisotropic elastic tissue response in addition to the inelastic phenomena associated with tissue stretches beyond the physiological domain. The inelastic model describes the experimentally-observed changes of the wall during balloon inflation, i.e. non-recoverable deformation, and tissue weakening. The contact of the artery with a balloon catheter is simulated by a point-to-surface strategy. The states of deformations and stresses within the artery before, during and after balloon inflation are computed, compared and discussed. The 3D stress states at physiological loading conditions before and after balloon inflation differ significantly, and even compressive normal stresses may occur in the media after dilation.

  12. Cystathionine Levels in Patients With Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, N.A.; Onkenhout, W.; Kerstens, H.J.; Roos, Raymund A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently a profound depletion of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), the principal enzyme involved in the generation of cysteine from cystathionine, was shown in Huntington disease (HD) patients and several transgenic HD mouse models. We therefore hypothesized that blood and urine cystathionine levels may be increased in HD patients and that this increase might correlate with disease progression. Methods: We measured concentrations of cystathionine as well as 22 other amino acids in fasting plasma and 24-h urine samples of nine early-stage HD patients and nine age, sex, and body mass index matched controls. Results: There were no significant differences in the plasma or urine concentrations of cystathionine or any other amino acid between HD patients and controls. Conclusion: We found no evidence for changes in plasma or urine concentrations of cystathionine in early-stage HD patients. Therefore, cystathionine levels are unlikely to be useful as a state biomarker in HD. PMID:26435880

  13. Psychosocial interventions for patients with chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of patients with chronic diseases will be one of the main challenges of medicine in the future. This paper presents an overview of different origins, mechanism, and symptoms necessary for understanding new and different interventions that include a psychosomatic view. In a psychosomatic therapeutic intervention there are very different targets, such as psychological symptoms, personality traits, attitudes toward disease and life, risk behaviour, and social isolation and as biological targets the change of autonomic imbalance and of the effects of the psycho-endocrinological or psycho-immunological stress responses. And there are also different psychosomatic measures that influence the individual biological, psychological and sociological targets. There is a need to give different answer to different questions in the field of psychosomatic and behavioral medicine. Comparative effectiveness research is an important strategy for solving some methodological issues. What is the target of treatment for different diseases: Symptom reduction, healing, or limiting progression to the worst case - the death of patients. We know that, the patient-physician relationship is important for every medical/therapeutic action for patients with chronic diseases. This volume of BioPsychoSocial Medicine will present four different psychosomatic treatment studies from the clinical field in the sense of phase 2 studies: Reports of patients with obesity, anorexia nervosa, chronic somatoform pain and coronary artery disease were presented PMID:22293471

  14. Should non-disclosures be considered as morally equivalent to lies within the doctor-patient relationship?

    PubMed

    Cox, Caitriona L; Fritz, Zoe

    2016-10-01

    In modern practice, doctors who outright lie to their patients are often condemned, yet those who employ non-lying deceptions tend to be judged less critically. Some areas of non-disclosure have recently been challenged: not telling patients about resuscitation decisions; inadequately informing patients about risks of alternative procedures and withholding information about medical errors. Despite this, there remain many areas of clinical practice where non-disclosures of information are accepted, where lies about such information would not be. Using illustrative hypothetical situations, all based on common clinical practice, we explore the extent to which we should consider other deceptive practices in medicine to be morally equivalent to lying. We suggest that there is no significant moral difference between lying to a patient and intentionally withholding relevant information: non-disclosures could be subjected to Bok's 'Test of Publicity' to assess permissibility in the same way that lies are. The moral equivalence of lying and relevant non-disclosure is particularly compelling when the agent's motivations, and the consequences of the actions (from the patient's perspectives), are the same. We conclude that it is arbitrary to claim that there is anything inherently worse about lying to a patient to mislead them than intentionally deceiving them using other methods, such as euphemism or non-disclosure. We should question our intuition that non-lying deceptive practices in clinical practice are more permissible and should thus subject non-disclosures to the same scrutiny we afford to lies.

  15. Should non-disclosures be considered as morally equivalent to lies within the doctor–patient relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Caitriona L; Fritz, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    In modern practice, doctors who outright lie to their patients are often condemned, yet those who employ non-lying deceptions tend to be judged less critically. Some areas of non-disclosure have recently been challenged: not telling patients about resuscitation decisions; inadequately informing patients about risks of alternative procedures and withholding information about medical errors. Despite this, there remain many areas of clinical practice where non-disclosures of information are accepted, where lies about such information would not be. Using illustrative hypothetical situations, all based on common clinical practice, we explore the extent to which we should consider other deceptive practices in medicine to be morally equivalent to lying. We suggest that there is no significant moral difference between lying to a patient and intentionally withholding relevant information: non-disclosures could be subjected to Bok's ‘Test of Publicity’ to assess permissibility in the same way that lies are. The moral equivalence of lying and relevant non-disclosure is particularly compelling when the agent's motivations, and the consequences of the actions (from the patient's perspectives), are the same. We conclude that it is arbitrary to claim that there is anything inherently worse about lying to a patient to mislead them than intentionally deceiving them using other methods, such as euphemism or non-disclosure. We should question our intuition that non-lying deceptive practices in clinical practice are more permissible and should thus subject non-disclosures to the same scrutiny we afford to lies. PMID:27451425

  16. Approach to the patient with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kevin E

    2015-06-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with motor, nonmotor, and behavioral findings. Imaging technology advances have allowed the characterization of the underlying pathologic changes to the brain and identification of specific lesions in dopaminergic neurons. Although certain imaging techniques allow for detection up to 20 years before the onset of motor symptoms, these advances have yet to produce meaningful treatments to halt the disease or reverse its course. Current treatments are directed at optimizing symptomatic management. Referral to a movement disorder specialist familiar with PD should be considered for providers with limited familiarity in diagnosis or treatment.

  17. Current Opinion on the Role of Neurogenesis in the Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer Disease, Parkinson Disease, and Ischemic Stroke; Considering Neuronal Voiding Function.

    PubMed

    Han, Myung-Hoon; Lee, Eun-Hye; Koh, Seong-Ho

    2016-12-01

    Neurological diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and ischemic stroke have increased in occurrence and become important health issues throughout the world. There is currently no effective therapeutic strategy for addressing neurological deficits after the development of these major neurological disorders. In recent years, it has become accepted that adult neural stem cells located in the subventricular and subgranular zones have the ability to proliferate and differentiate in order to replace lost or damaged neural cells. There have been many limitations in the clinical application of both endogenous and exogenous neurogenesis for neurological disorders. However, many studies have investigated novel mechanisms in neurogenesis and have shown that these limitations can potentially be overcome with appropriate stimulation and various approaches. We will review concepts related to possible therapeutic strategies focused on the perspective of neurogenesis for the treatment of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and ischemic stroke based on current reports.

  18. Current Opinion on the Role of Neurogenesis in the Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer Disease, Parkinson Disease, and Ischemic Stroke; Considering Neuronal Voiding Function

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Hye

    2016-01-01

    Neurological diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and ischemic stroke have increased in occurrence and become important health issues throughout the world. There is currently no effective therapeutic strategy for addressing neurological deficits after the development of these major neurological disorders. In recent years, it has become accepted that adult neural stem cells located in the subventricular and subgranular zones have the ability to proliferate and differentiate in order to replace lost or damaged neural cells. There have been many limitations in the clinical application of both endogenous and exogenous neurogenesis for neurological disorders. However, many studies have investigated novel mechanisms in neurogenesis and have shown that these limitations can potentially be overcome with appropriate stimulation and various approaches. We will review concepts related to possible therapeutic strategies focused on the perspective of neurogenesis for the treatment of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and ischemic stroke based on current reports. PMID:28043116

  19. Conditional disease-free survival among patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Paik, Hyun-June; Lee, Se Kyung; Ryu, Jai Min; Park, Sungmin; Kim, Isaac; Bae, Soo Youn; Yu, Jonghan; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Seok Won; Nam, Seok Jin

    2017-01-01

    Conditional disease-free survival (CDFS) reflects changes over time. Because traditional disease-free survival (DFS) is estimated from the date of diagnosis, it is limited in the ability to predict risk of recurrence in patients who have been disease free. In this study, we determined CDFS of breast cancer patients and estimated the prognostic factors for DFS.We retrospectively reviewed clinical data of 7587 consecutive patients who underwent curative surgery for breast cancer between January 2004 and December 2013 at Samsung Medical Center. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for DFS, which was computed using the Kaplan-Meier method. CDFS rates were based on cumulative DFS estimates.Median follow-up duration was 20.59 months. Three-year DFS was 93.46% at baseline. Three-year CDFS survival estimates for patients who had been disease free for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years after treatment were calculated as 92.84%, 92.37%, 93.03%, 89.41%, and 79.64%, respectively. Three-year CDFS increased continuously each year after 1 year of DFS in hormone receptor (HR)-negative patients but decreased each year in HR-positive patients.In HR-positive patients who are disease free after 3 years, continuous care including surveillance and metastases workup should be considered, although this is not recommended in the current guidelines. On the other hand, the social costs may be reduced in HR-negative patients by extending the surveillance interval. Further studies are needed to identify indicators of DFS prognosis in breast cancer patients.

  20. Periodontal management of patients with cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    2002-08-01

    Periodontists are often called upon to provide periodontal therapy for patients with a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Safe and effective periodontal treatment requires a general understanding of the underlying cardiovascular diseases, their medical management, and necessary modifications to dental/periodontal therapy that may be required. In this informational paper more common cardiovascular disorders will be discussed and dental management considerations briefly described. This paper is intended for the use of periodontists and members of the dental profession.

  1. Exercise for older patients with chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Petrella, R J

    1999-10-01

    Coronary artery disease, hypertension, congestive heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and cognitive disorders become more prevalent as people age. Besides delaying the onset of many of these conditions, regular exercise may improve function and delay disability and morbidity in those who have them. Further, exercise may work synergistically with medication to combat the effects of some chronic diseases. Special adaptations for older patients include lower-intensity exercise (eg, fewer repetitions), low-impact exercise (cycling, exercise while sitting), and modified equipment (smaller weights, special shoes, loose clothing). Unresolved issues include development of optimal strategies for motivating older patients to begin and maintain exercise programs.

  2. The emergence of Parkinson disease among patients with Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Elstein, Deborah; Alcalay, Roy; Zimran, Ari

    2015-03-01

    In the last decade, several lines of evidence have been presented that document the clinical manifestations, genetic associations, and sub-cellular mechanisms of the inter-relatedness of β-glucocerebrosidase mutations and the emergence of Parkinson disease among carriers and patients with Gaucher disease. This review is an attempt to apprise the reader of the recent literature with the caveat that this is an area of intensive exploration that is constantly being updated because of the immediate clinical ramifications but also because of the impact on our understanding of Parkinson disease, and finally because of the unexpected inter-reactions between these entities on the molecular level. It has been an unexpected happenstance that it has been discovered that a rare monogenetic disease has an interface at many points with a neurological disorder of the elderly that has both familial and sporadic forms: to date there is no cure for either of these disorders.

  3. [Cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Abe, Nobuhito; Mori, Etsuro

    2012-04-01

    Parkinson disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting in motor symptoms and cognitive deficits. Neuropsychological studies have suggested that patients with Parkinson disease exhibit a broad range of cognitive deficits even in the early stages of the disease. In this review, we discuss the neuropsychological evidence for cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson disease, outlining the different domains of cognitive disturbance. First, we review previous findings on executive dysfunction, which is associated with a disruption in frontostriatal circuitry mainly driven by dopaminergic dysmodulation. Executive dysfunction is the core symptom in the cognitive deficits in Parkinson disease. Second, we focus on impairment in different domains of memory function, such as short-term and long-term memory. Third, we discuss the pattern of cognitive deficits in visuospatial ability, ranging from basic perceptual processes to rather complex motor skills. Next, we summarize the profile of cognitive deficits in language, although previous findings are mixed and hence this topic is relatively controversial. Finally, we introduce several recent findings on social cognitive deficits, which is a new area of research that has emerged in the past decade. We also discuss the possible neural mechanisms underlying each domain of cognitive deficits in patients with Parkinson disease.

  4. Preserving Patient Privacy When Sharing Same-Disease Data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Xiao-Bai; Motiwalla, Luvai; Li, Wenjun; Zheng, Hua; Franklin, Patricia D

    2016-10-01

    Medical and health data are often collected for studying a specific disease. For such same-disease microdata, a privacy disclosure occurs as long as an individual is known to be in the microdata. Individuals in same-disease microdata are thus subject to higher disclosure risk than those in microdata with different diseases. This important problem has been overlooked in data-privacy research and practice, and no prior study has addressed this problem. In this study, we analyze the disclosure risk for the individuals in same-disease microdata and propose a new metric that is appropriate for measuring disclosure risk in this situation. An efficient algorithm is designed and implemented for anonymizing same-disease data to minimize the disclosure risk while keeping data utility as good as possible. An experimental study was conducted on real patient and population data. Experimental results show that traditional reidentification risk measures underestimate the actual disclosure risk for the individuals in same-disease microdata and demonstrate that the proposed approach is very effective in reducing the actual risk for same-disease data. This study suggests that privacy protection policy and practice for sharing medical and health data should consider not only the individuals' identifying attributes but also the health and disease information contained in the data. It is recommended that data-sharing entities employ a statistical approach, instead of the HIPAA's Safe Harbor policy, when sharing same-disease microdata.

  5. Preserving Patient Privacy When Sharing Same-Disease Data

    PubMed Central

    LIU, XIAOPING; LI, XIAO-BAI; MOTIWALLA, LUVAI; LI, WENJUN; ZHENG, HUA; FRANKLIN, PATRICIA D.

    2016-01-01

    Medical and health data are often collected for studying a specific disease. For such same-disease microdata, a privacy disclosure occurs as long as an individual is known to be in the microdata. Individuals in same-disease microdata are thus subject to higher disclosure risk than those in microdata with different diseases. This important problem has been overlooked in data-privacy research and practice, and no prior study has addressed this problem. In this study, we analyze the disclosure risk for the individuals in same-disease microdata and propose a new metric that is appropriate for measuring disclosure risk in this situation. An efficient algorithm is designed and implemented for anonymizing same-disease data to minimize the disclosure risk while keeping data utility as good as possible. An experimental study was conducted on real patient and population data. Experimental results show that traditional reidentification risk measures underestimate the actual disclosure risk for the individuals in same-disease microdata and demonstrate that the proposed approach is very effective in reducing the actual risk for same-disease data. This study suggests that privacy protection policy and practice for sharing medical and health data should consider not only the individuals’ identifying attributes but also the health and disease information contained in the data. It is recommended that data-sharing entities employ a statistical approach, instead of the HIPAA's Safe Harbor policy, when sharing same-disease microdata. PMID:27867450

  6. Whose informational needs are considered? A comparison between cancer patients and their spouses' perceptions of their own and their partners' knowledge and informational needs.

    PubMed

    Bar-Tal, Yoram; Barnoy, Sivia; Zisser, Bracha

    2005-04-01

    The present study examines information exchange patterns between 98 married couples in Israel where one is a cancer patient and the other is the main caregiver. Specifically, the accuracy of each spouse's perception of the extent of knowledge and the need to receive more disease-related information is examined as a function of the role (patient-caregiver) and gender of the participants. The results showed that women, regardless of their role, were inaccurate in their perception of their husbands' knowledge and motivation to know more. For men, a difference between the roles was found for the perception of their wives' knowledge. As caregivers, they were inaccurate while as patients they were accurate in this estimation. Their perception of their wives' needs to know more was accurate. Moreover, female patients, more than male, relied on their perception of themselves when assessing their spouse's knowledge and informational needs. Thus, it is concluded that female patients were more egocentric and their perception of their spouse's preferences was influenced by their own needs. The results demonstrated that in the context of cancer patients and their spouse as caregivers, neither partner considered the informational needs of his or her spouse.

  7. B cell depletion for autoimmune diseases in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Annette F; Sengler, Claudia; Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin; Gruhn, Bernd; Kranz, A Birgitta; Lehmann, Hartwig; Kleinert, Daniela; Pape, Lars; Girschick, Hermann J; Foeldvari, Ivan; Haffner, Dieter; Haas, Johannes P; Moebius, Dagmar; Foell, Dirk; Peitz, Joachim; Grote, Veit

    2011-01-01

    Data on B cell depletion therapy in severe autoimmune diseases in paediatric patients are very limited. We conducted a retrospective cohort study and recruited patients who were treated with rituximab (RTX) and followed up for at least 6 months through the German societies of paediatric rheumatology and nephrology. The aim was to describe the spectrum of autoimmune disorders for which RTX was used and to describe the applied therapeutic regimens, the observed efficacy, as well as potential immunological side effects. The need to develop standard treatment guidelines for future trials should be discussed. Sixty-five patients were included. Nineteen patients suffered from systemic lupus erythematosus, 13 from vasculitic disorders, 12 from hematological autoimmune diseases, 5 from mixed connective tissue disorders, 4 from juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and 9 had other autoimmune diseases. Adverse, infusion-related events were reported in 12/65 (18%) patients. Considering laboratory and clinical parameters, 13 patients (22%) were in complete remission, 31 (52%) were in partial remission, 6 (10%) were unchanged and 10 (17%) had progressed after 6 months. In 46% of the patients, the steroid dose could be more than halved. IgG, IgM and IgA decreased from normal levels prior to RTX therapy to below normal levels at 6 months in 2/22 (9%), 10/21 (48%), and 4/22 (18%) patients, respectively. Immunoglobulin deficiency or prolonged CD20 depletion was reported in eight patients after an observation period longer than 12 months. RTX therapy led to a perceivable reduction in disease activity. However, long-term immunological alterations may occur in more than 10% of the patients. Guidelines and protocols for off-label therapy are desirable to document reasonable follow-up data. Controlled prospective studies for RTX therapies in children with standardised therapeutic and diagnostic protocols are urgently needed.

  8. [Treatment of venous thromboembolic disease in cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Farge-Bancel, D; Florea, L; Bosquet, L; Debourdeau, P

    2008-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) disease, as defined by the occurrence of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, occurs among 4 to 20% of patients with cancer and is a leading cause of death among these patients. Use of classical anticoagulation to treat VTE in a cancer patient is associated with a higher risk of major bleeding and of VTE recurrence as compared to noncancer patients. Updated comprehensive and systematic review of current data from the medical literature allows to reconsider the classical approach used for anticoagulant treatment in cancer patients and to implement adapted recommendations. In 2008, the use of daily subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for at least three to six months is recommended as first line therapy to treat VTE disease in cancer patients. If LMWH are contra-indicated (renal insufficiency), other therapeutic approaches are warranted, such as use of unfractionated heparin (UFH) with early introduction of anti-vitamin K for at least three months or venous cava filter in case of absolute contra-indications to anticoagulation. VTE prophylaxis in cancer patients relies on the same therapeutic approaches as currently used for noncancer patients at high risk of VTE. The definition of more specific prophylactic approaches for patients with cancer considered at higher risks of VTE, will be the subject of many clinical trials in the forthcoming years.

  9. Tyrosine Metabolism in Patients with Liver Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert J.; Conn, Harold O.

    1967-01-01

    Plasma levels of tyrosine were assayed in the fasting state and after oral administration of either tyrosine (tyrosine tolerance test) or phenylalanine (phenlyalanine conversion test) in normal subjects and in patients with hepatitis, biliary obstruction, or cirrhosis. Fasting tyrosine levels tended to be slightly increased in patients with hepatitis and biliary obstruction and markedly increased in patients with cirrhosis. Tyrosine tolerance tests in patients with cirrhosis were characterized by larger than normal increments in tyrosine levels and by delayed returns toward fasting levels. The results of phenylalanine conversion tests were abnormal in approximately one-half of patients with either hepatitis or biliary obstruction and four-fifths of patients with cirrhosis. Abnormalities were characterized by elevated fasting plasma tyrosine levels, or small and delayed increments in tyrosine levels, or both. Abnormal phenylalanine conversion test results in patients with cirrhosis did not correlate closely with any clinical feature of cirrhosis or with the results of any standard liver function test; there was positive correlation only with abnormal ammonia tolerance, a test of portalsystemic shunting. Tests of tyrosine metabolism do not appear to be useful for routine clinical assessment of liver function. Tyrosine tolerance tests and phenylalanine conversion tests done for purposes of diagnosis of other diseases may yield misleading results in patients with liver disease. PMID:6074004

  10. Voluntary Imitation in Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Bisio, Ambra; Casteran, Matthieu; Ballay, Yves; Manckoundia, Patrick; Mourey, France; Pozzo, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients' behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e., a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person's action and translating this perception into one's own action, was affected in patients with AD. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator.

  11. Osteoporosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Compston, J E; Judd, D; Crawley, E O; Evans, W D; Evans, C; Church, H A; Reid, E M; Rhodes, J

    1987-01-01

    Bone mineral content in spinal trabecular and peripheral cortical bone was measured in 75 unselected patients with small and/or large intestinal inflammatory bowel disease. Osteoporosis, defined as a bone mineral content greater than 2 SD below the age and sex matched normal mean value was present in 23 patients (30.6%). Three amenorrhoeic females aged 34, 38, and 42 years had severe clinical osteoporosis and a further three patients had one or more vertebral crush fractures. Eighteen of the 23 patients with osteoporosis had small intestinal disease with one or more resections and the mean lifetime steroid dose in those with osteoporosis was significantly higher than in those with normal bone mineral content. Bone mineral content in spinal trabecular bone showed significant negative correlations with lifetime steroid dose and serum alkaline phosphatase and a significant positive correlation with serum albumin. Peripheral cortical bone mineral content was positively correlated with body weight, height and body mass index. We conclude that the prevalence of osteoporosis is increased in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, severe clinical osteoporosis developing in some relatively young patients. The pathogenesis of this bone loss is probably multifactorial; steroid therapy is likely to be an important contributory factor. PMID:3583068

  12. Cardiovascular Pharmacogenomics – Implications for Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Larisa H.; Mason, Darius L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Thus, patients with CKD often require treatment with cardiovascular drugs, such as antiplatelet, antihypertensive, anticoagulant, and lipid-lowering agents. There is significant inter-patient variability in response to cardiovascular therapies, which contributes to risk for treatment failure or adverse drug effects. Pharmacogenomics offers the potential to optimize cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and improve outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease, though data in patients with concomitant CKD are limited. The drugs with the most pharmacogenomic evidence are warfarin, clopidogrel, and statins. There are also accumulating data for genetic contributions to β-blocker response. Guidelines are now available to assist with applying pharmacogenetic test results to optimize warfarin dosing, selection of antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention, and prediction of risk for statin-induced myopathy. Clinical data, such as age, body size, and kidney function have long been used to optimize drug prescribing. An increasing number of institutions are also implementing genetic testing to be considered in the context of important clinical factors to further personalize drug therapy for patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:26979147

  13. Development of an online information and support resource for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients considering surgery: perspectives of health care providers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis who are considering spinal surgery face a major decision that requires access to in-depth information and support. Unfortunately, most online resources provide incomplete and inconsistent information and minimal social support. The aim of this study was to develop an online information and support resource for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients considering spinal surgery. Prior to website development, a user-based needs assessment was conducted. The needs assessment involved a total of six focus groups with three stakeholder groups: (1) post-operative AIS patients or surgical candidates (10-18 years) (n = 11), (2) their parents (n = 6) and (3) health care providers (n = 11). This paper reports on the findings from focus groups with health care providers. Methods Focus group methodology was used to invite a range of perspectives and stimulate discussion. During audio-recorded focus groups, an emergent table of website content was presented to participants for assessment of relevance, viability and comprehensiveness in targeting global domains of need. Specifically, effective presentation of content, desired aspects of information and support, and discussions about the value of peer support and the role of health professionals were addressed. Focus group transcripts were then subject to content analysis through a constant comparative review and analysis. Results Two focus groups were held with health care providers, consisting of 5 and 6 members respectively. Clinicians provided their perceptions of the information and support needs of surgical patients and their families and how this information and support should be delivered using internet technology. Health care providers proposed four key suggestions to consider in the development of this online resource: (1) create the website with the target audience in mind; (2) clearly state the purpose of the website and organize website content to support the

  14. Sialadenosis in Patients with Advanced Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Close, John M.; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2009-01-01

    Sialadenosis (sialosis) has been associated most often with alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic cirrhosis, but a number of nutritional deficiencies, diabetes, and bulimia have also been reported to result in sialadenosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sialadenosis in patients with advanced liver disease. Patients in the study group consisted of 300 candidates for liver transplantation. Types of liver disease in subjects with clinical evidence of sialadenosis were compared with diagnoses in cases who had no manifestations of sialadenosis. The data were analyzed for significant association. Sialadenosis was found in 28 of the 300 subjects (9.3%). Among these 28 cases, 11 (39.3%) had alcoholic cirrhosis. The remaining 17 (60.7%) had eight other types of liver disease. There was no significant association between sialadenosis and alcoholic cirrhosis (P = 0.389). These findings suggest that both alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis may lead to the development of sialadenosis. Advanced liver disease is accompanied by multiple nutritional deficiencies which may be exacerbated by alcohol. Similar metabolic abnormalities may occur in patients with diabetes or bulimia. Malnutrition has been associated with autonomic neuropathy, the pathogenic mechanism that has been proposed for sialadenosis. PMID:19644542

  15. Sialadenosis in patients with advanced liver disease.

    PubMed

    Guggenheimer, James; Close, John M; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2009-06-01

    Sialadenosis (sialosis) has been associated most often with alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic cirrhosis, but a number of nutritional deficiencies, diabetes, and bulimia have also been reported to result in sialadenosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sialadenosis in patients with advanced liver disease. Patients in the study group consisted of 300 candidates for liver transplantation. Types of liver disease in subjects with clinical evidence of sialadenosis were compared with diagnoses in cases who had no manifestations of sialadenosis. The data were analyzed for significant association. Sialadenosis was found in 28 of the 300 subjects (9.3%). Among these 28 cases, 11 (39.3%) had alcoholic cirrhosis. The remaining 17 (60.7%) had eight other types of liver disease. There was no significant association between sialadenosis and alcoholic cirrhosis (P = 0.389). These findings suggest that both alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis may lead to the development of sialadenosis. Advanced liver disease is accompanied by multiple nutritional deficiencies which may be exacerbated by alcohol. Similar metabolic abnormalities may occur in patients with diabetes or bulimia. Malnutrition has been associated with autonomic neuropathy, the pathogenic mechanism that has been proposed for sialadenosis.

  16. The Effect of Diagnostic Catheter Angiography on Outcomes of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Being Considered for Endovascular Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Saleem, Muhammad A.; Aytaç, Emrah; Malik, Ahmed A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The risk of catheter-based angiograms alone (non-therapeutic angiogram that does not lead to therapeutic intervention) in acute ischemic stroke patients who are considered for endovascular treatment is not well studied. Methods We compared the rates of neurological deterioration within 24 h; symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) within 30 h; acute kidney injury (AKI) and major non-ICH within five days; and functional independence (defined by modified Rankin scale of 0–2) at three months among subjects who underwent a non-therapeutic catheter-based angiogram with subjects who did not undergo catheter-based angiogram in a multicenter clinical trial. Logistic regression analyses was performed to adjust for age, baseline Alberta stroke program early CT score (ASPECTS) strata (0–7 and 8–10), and baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score strata (≤9, 10–19, and ≥20). Results Compared with subjects who did not undergo any catheter-based angiogram (n = 222), 89 subjects who underwent a non-therapeutic catheter-based angiogram had similar adjusted rates of neurological deterioration [odds ratio (OR) = 1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4–2.3; p = 1] and symptomatic ICH (OR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.1–1.8; p = 0.2). There was no difference in the adjusted rates of AKI, or non-ICH between the two groups. The rate of functional independence at three months was significantly higher among the patients who received a catheter-based angiogram (OR = 2; 95% CI 1.1–3.5; p = 0.016) after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion Non-therapeutic catheter-based angiograms in acute ischemic stroke patients who are being considered for endovascular treatment do not adversely affect patient outcomes. PMID:28243351

  17. Myopathy in patients with Hashimoto's disease.

    PubMed

    Villar, Jaqueline; Finol, Héctor J; Torres, Sonia H; Roschman-González, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland. Patients may present or not a hypothyroid state, and frequently have manifestations of myopathy. The present work was aimed to assess the clinical symptoms and signs of skeletal muscle alterations in HT, describe the muscular pathological changes and relate them to the functional thyroid status and to the autoimmune condition of the patient. Clinical and laboratory studies were performed in ten HT patients and three control subjects (hormonal levels and electromyography). Biopsies from their vastus lateralis of quadriceps femoris muscle were analyzed under light (histochemistry and immunofluorescense) and electron microscopy. All patients showed muscle focal alterations, ranging from moderate to severe atrophy, necrosis, activation of satellite cells, presence of autophagosomes, capillary alterations and macrophage and mast cell infiltration, common to autoimmune diseases. The intensity of clinical signs and symptoms was not related to the morphological muscle findings, the electromyography results, or to the state of the thyroid function. Reactions for immunoglobulin in muscle fibers were positive in 80% of the patients. Fiber type II proportion was increased in all patients, with the exception of those treated with L-thyroxine. In conclusion, autoimmune processes in several of the patients may be associated to the skeletal muscle alterations, independently of the functional state of the thyroid gland; however, fiber II type proportion could have been normalized by L-thyroxine treatment.

  18. Subsequent leukaemia in autoimmune disease patients.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Liu, Xiangdong; Försti, Asta; Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that patients diagnosed with some autoimmune (AI) diseases are at an increased risk of leukaemia but limited data are available on survival. We systematically analysed the risks (standardized incidence ratio, SIR) and survival (hazard ratio, HR) in nine types of leukaemia among 402 462 patients hospitalized for any of 33 AI diseases and compared to persons not hospitalized for AI diseases. Risk for all leukaemia was increased after 13 AI diseases and survival was decreased after six AI diseases. SIRs were increased after all AI diseases for seven types of leukaemia, including SIR 1·69 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1·29-2·19) for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), 1·85 (95% CI: 1·65-2·07) for acute myeloid leukaemia, 1·68 (95% CI: 1·37-2·04) for chronic myeloid leukaemia, 2·20 (95% CI: 1·69-2·81) for 'other myeloid leukaemia', 2·45 (95% 1·99-2·98) for 'other and unspecified leukaemia', 1·81 (95% CI: 1·11-2·81) for monocytic leukaemia, and 1·36 (95% CI: 1·08-1·69) for myelofibrosis. The HRs were increased for four types of leukaemia, most for myelofibrosis (1·74, 95% CI: 1·33-2·29) and ALL (1·42, 95% CI: 1·03-1·95). Some AI diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, were associated with increased SIRs and HRs in many types of leukaemia. The present data showed increases in risk and decreases in survival for many types of leukaemia after various AI diseases. Leukaemia is a rare complication in AI disease but findings about this comorbidity at the time of leukaemia diagnosis may help to optimize the treatment and improve survival.

  19. Development of Patients' Decision Aid for Older Women With Stage I Breast Cancer Considering Radiotherapy After Lumpectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jennifer; D'Alimonte, Laura; Angus, Jan; Paszat, Larry; Metcalfe, Kelly; Whelan, Tim; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Warner, Eiran; Franssen, Edmee; Szumacher, Ewa

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To develop a patient decision aid (PtDA) for older women with Stage I, pathologically node negative, estrogen receptor-positive progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer who are considering adjuvant radiotherapy after lumpectomy and to examine its impact on patients' decision making. Methods and Materials: A PtDA was developed and evaluated in three steps according to the Ottawa Decision Support Framework: (1) needs assessment (n = 16); (2) Pilot I to examine PtDA acceptability (n = 12); and (3) Pilot II, a pretest posttest (n = 38) with older women with estrogen receptor-positive progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer after lumpectomy who were receiving adjuvant radiation therapy. Measures included patients' satisfaction with the PtDA, self-reported decisional conflict, level of distress, treatment-related knowledge, and choice predisposition. Results: The PtDA is a booklet that details each adjuvant treatment option's benefits, risks, and side effects tailored to the patient's clinical profile; includes a values clarification exercise; and includes steps to guide patients towards their decision. On the basis of qualitative comments and satisfaction ratings, all women thought that the PtDA was helpful and informative. In comparison with their baseline scores, patients had a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in decisional conflict (adjusted mean difference [AMD], -7.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], -13.50 to 12.59); increased clarity of the benefits and risks (AMD, -10.86; CI, -20.33 to 21.49); and improved general treatment knowledge (AMD, 8.99; CI, 2.88-10.28) after using the PtDA. General trends were also reported in the patients' choice predisposition scores that suggested potential differences in treatment decision after PtDA use. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that this PtDA may be a helpful educational tool for this group of women. The quality of care for older breast cancer patients may be enhanced by the use of a

  20. Extending palliative care to patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sarah K

    2010-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease have an illness which shortens their life and involves a heavy symptom burden for patient and carer. This article discusses some common palliative care issues pertinent to patients with Parkinson's disease.

  1. Quinoa Well Tolerated in Patients with Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quinoa Well Tolerated in Patients with Celiac Disease Quinoa Well Tolerated in Patients with Celiac Disease FOR ... 263-9000 Bethesda, Maryland (January 21, 2014) – Adding quinoa to the gluten-free diet of patients with ...

  2. Asymmetrical Pedaling Patterns in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Penko, Amanda L.; Hirsch, Joshua R.; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Martin, Philip E.; Blackburn, Gordon; Alberts, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.5 million Americans are affected by Parkinson's disease [1] which includes the symptoms of postural instability and gait dysfunction. Currently, clinical evaluations of postural instability and gait dysfunction consist of a subjective rater assessment of gait patterns using items from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and assessments can be insensitive to the effectiveness of medical interventions. Current research suggests the importance of cycling for Parkinson's disease patients, and while Parkinson's gait has been evaluated in previous studies, little is known about lower extremity control during cycling. The purpose of this study is to examine the lower extremity coordination patterns of Parkinson's patients during cycling. Methods Twenty five participants, ages 44-72, with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated in an exercise test on a cycle ergometer that was equipped with pedal force measurements. Crank torque, crank angle and power produced by right and left leg were measured throughout the test to calculate Symmetry Index at three stages of exercise (20 Watt, 60 Watt, maximum performance). Findings Decreases in Symmetry Index were observed for average power output in Parkinson's patients as workload increased. Maximum power Symmetry Index showed a significant difference in symmetry between performance at both the 20 Watt and 60 Watt stage and the maximal resistance stage. Minimum power Symmetry Index did not show significant differences across the stages of the test. While lower extremity asymmetries were present in Parkinson's patients during pedaling, these asymmetries did not correlate to postural instability and gait dysfunction Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores. Interpretation This pedaling analysis allows for a more sensitive measure of lower extremity function than the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and may help to provide unique insight into current and

  3. Self-Care Among Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yngman-Uhlin, Pia; Hjortswang, Henrik; Riegel, Barbara; Stjernman, Henrik; Hollman Frisman, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease of unknown etiology. The disease occurs early in life and the burden of symptoms is significant. Patients need to perform self-care to handle their symptoms, but knowledge about what kind of self-care patients do is limited and these individuals need to learn how to manage the symptoms that arise. The aim of this study was to explore self-care among patients with IBD. Twenty adult patients with IBD, 25–66 years of age, were interviewed. Data were analyzed by performing a qualitative content analysis. Four categories with 10 subcategories emerged from the analysis of the interviews. The self-care patients perform consists of symptom recognition (subcategories: physiological sensations and psychological sensations), handling of symptoms (subcategories: adapting the diet, using medical treatment, stress management, and using complementary alternative medicine), planning life (subcategories: planning for when to do activities and when to refrain from activities), and seeking new options (subcategories: seeking knowledge and personal contacts). Self-care consists of symptom recognition, handling life through planning, and accommodating the existing situation with the ultimate goal of maintaining well-being. Being one step ahead facilitates living with IBD. A decision to actively participate in care of a chronic illness is a prerequisite for self-care. Healthcare professionals must consider patients' potential for and desire for self-care when giving advice on self-care activities. Doing so may help people better cope with IBD. PMID:26166423

  4. Nonmotor symptoms in patients with Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tie-mei; Yu, Shu-yang; Guo, Peng; Du, Yang; Hu, Yang; Piao, Ying-shan; Zuo, Li-jun; Lian, Teng-hong; Wang, Rui-dan; Yu, Qiu-jin; Jin, Zhao; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Parkinson disease (PD) is usually accompanied by numerous nonmotor symptoms (NMS), such as neuropsychiatric symptoms, sleep disorders, autonomic dysfunctions, and sensory disturbances. However, it is not clear that the factors influencing the occurrence of NMS and its sequence with motor symptoms (MS). We conducted comprehensive assessments of NMS by using 13 scales in 1119 PD patients. A total of 70.8% PD patients present NMS. Olfactory dysfunction tends to occur in PD patients with older age, more severe depression, sleep problems, and autonomic dysfunctions. Older patients are more likely to have olfactory dysfunction before MS than younger patients. Rapid eye movement behavior disorder is more prone to happen in patients with older age, older onset age, more severe depression, sleep problems, and autonomic dysfunctions. Patients with rapid eye movement behavior disorder before MS are older in onset age than after group. Olfactory dysfunction, constipation, rapid eye movement behavior disorder, and depression, as early warning NMSs of PD, connected to each other. There is a clinical heterogeneity that older patients are more likely to have NMS before MS, while younger patients are opposite. PMID:27977578

  5. Oral Hygiene in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Batista, Leonardo M; Portela de Oliveira, Millena Teles; Magalhaes, Wilrama B; Bastos, Poliana Lima

    2015-11-02

    Parkinson's disease is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a multifactorial etiology. The symptoms are characterized by motor disorders - tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability, which hinder oral hygiene. Oral and dental health in Parkinson's disease has been under-documented and findings are conflicting. Moreover, a number of dentists have limited experience regarding the management of these patients. This article reviews literature published within the last fifteen years, to better understand the impact of this disease in oral health. A literature search (MEDLINE and PUBMED), using keywords Parkinson Disease and Oral Hygiene, yielded 27 articles, from which 20 were selected. All of the articles were published in English in the last 15 years.

  6. Dyslipidemia, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-chi; Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the relationship between dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular diseases in patients with diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is associated with complications in the cardiovascular and renal system, and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. Modification of the multifactorial risk factors, in particular dyslipidemia, has been suggested to reduce the rates of diabetes-related complications. Dyslipidemia in diabetes is a condition that includes hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein levels, and increased small and dense low-density lipoprotein particles. This condition is associated with higher cardiovascular risk and mortality in diabetic patients. Current treatment guidelines focus on lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level; multiple trials have confirmed the cardiovascular benefits of treatment with statins. Chronic kidney disease also contributes to dyslipidemia, and dyslipidemia in turn is related to the occurrence and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Different patterns of dyslipidemia are associated with different stages of diabetic nephropathy. Some trials have shown that treatment with statins not only decreased the risk of cardiovascular events, but also delayed the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, studies using statins as the sole treatment of hyperlipidemia in patients on dialysis have not shown benefits with respect to cardiovascular risk. Diabetic patients with nephropathy have a higher risk of cardiovascular events than those without nephropathy. The degree of albuminuria and the reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate are also correlated with the risk of cardiovascular events. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers to reduce albuminuria in diabetic patients has been shown to decrease the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  7. Prediction of individual combined benefit and harm for patients with atrial fibrillation considering warfarin therapy: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guowei; Holbrook, Anne; Delate, Thomas; Witt, Daniel M; Levine, Mitchell AH; Thabane, Lehana

    2015-01-01

    in patient-physician shared decision-making when they are considering warfarin therapy. PMID:26546146

  8. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients with Neuromuscular Disease

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    In neuromuscular disease (NMD) patients with progressive muscle weakness, respiratory muscles are also affected and hypercapnia can increase gradually as the disease progresses. The fundamental respiratory problems NMD patients experience are decreased alveolar ventilation and coughing ability. For these reasons, it is necessary to precisely evaluate pulmonary function to provide the proper inspiratory and expiratory muscle aids in order to maintain adequate respiratory function. As inspiratory muscle weakening progresses, NMD patients experience hypoventilation. At this point, respiratory support by mechanical ventilator should be initiated to relieve respiratory distress symptoms. Patients with adequate bulbar muscle strength and cognitive function who use a non-invasive ventilation aid, via a mouthpiece or a nasal mask, may have their hypercapnia and associated symptoms resolved. For a proper cough assist, it is necessary to provide additional insufflation to patients with inspiratory muscle weakness before using abdominal thrust. Another effective method for managing airway secretions is a device that performs mechanical insufflation-exsufflation. In conclusion, application of non-invasive respiratory aids, taking into consideration characterization of respiratory pathophysiology, have made it possible to maintain a better quality of life in addition to prolonging the life span of patients with NMD. PMID:16807978

  9. Chinese patients with Huntington's disease initially presenting with spinocerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Dong, Y; Sun, Y-M; Liu, Z-J; Ni, W; Shi, S-S; Wu, Z-Y

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have described Huntington's disease (HD) patients with atypical onset of ataxia. Symptoms in these patients can overlap with those of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). We retrospectively examined clinical data for 82 HD probands and found 7 had initially been clinically diagnosed as SCA cases. Clinical features in these patients were further investigated and the number of CAG repeats in the huntingtin (HTT) gene was determined by direct sequencing. Genetic screenings for SCAs in the 7 patients were all negative. By contrast, HTT was heterozygous in each patient. The distribution of CAG number in the 7 patients was statistically the same as that in the other 75 patients. Each of 7 HD patients had presented with atypical onset of ataxia. The mean time from onset to HTT genetic testing was 5.6 ± 5.52 years. Three of the patients developed chorea, but the others did not. Our observations confirm the clinical heterogeneity of HD in Han Chinese. Based on these findings, testing for HTT expansions should be considered for clinically diagnosed SCA patients who test negatively in genetic screening of SCA genes.

  10. Emotional Working Memory in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Satler, Corina; Tomaz, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have assessed whether emotional content affects processes supporting working memory in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Methods We assessed 22 AD patients and 40 elderly controls (EC) with a delayed matching and non-matching to sample task (DMST/DNMST), and a spatial-delayed recognition span task (SRST; unique/varied) using emotional stimuli. Results AD patients showed decreased performance on both tasks compared with EC. With regard to the valence of the stimuli, we did not observe significant performance differences between groups in the DMST/DNMST. However, both groups remembered a larger number of negative than positive or neutral pictures on unique SRST. Conclusion The results suggest that AD patients show a relative preservation of working memory for emotional information, particularly for negative stimuli. PMID:22163239

  11. Immune blood biomarkers of Alzheimer disease patients.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Hripsime; Goldenson, Ben; Tse, Eric; Masoumi, Ava; Porter, Verna; Wiedau-Pazos, Martina; Sayre, James; Ong, Reno; Mahanian, Michelle; Koo, Patrick; Bae, Susan; Micic, Miodrag; Liu, Philip T; Rosenthal, Mark J; Fiala, Milan

    2009-05-29

    Alzheimer disease (AD) patients have an impairment of anti-amyloid-beta (Abeta) innate immunity and a defect in immune gene transcription [Fiala, M., Liu, P.T., Espinosa-Jeffrey, A., Rosenthal, M.J., Bernard, G., Ringman, J.M., Sayre, J., Zhang, L., Zaghi, J., Dejbakhsh, S., Chiang, B., Hui, J., Mahanian, M., Baghaee, A., Hong, P., Cashman, J., 2007b. Innate immunity and transcription of MGAT-III and Toll-like receptors in Alzheimer's disease patients are improved by bisdemethoxycurcumin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, 12849-12854]. Early diagnosis is a cornerstone of preventive approaches to AD. Phospho-tau and Abeta CSF levels are useful markers of neurodegeneration but not of a process leading to neurodegeneration. To detect an early biomarker of AD, we developed a flow cytometric test of Abeta phagocytosis, which was 94% positive (<400 MFI units) in AD patients (mean age+/-SEM 77+2.2 years; mean score+/-SEM 198.6+/-25.5 MFI units) and 60% positive in MCI patients (77+/-5.6 years; 301+/-106 MFI units). Control subjects, active senior university professors, were 100% negative (74.2+/-4.2 years; 1348+/-174 MFI units). The test had a low specificity in older caregivers and older amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We also tested transcriptional regulation of the genes MGAT-III and Toll-like receptor-3 in macrophages. Macrophages of "Type I" patients (a majority of patients) showed gene down regulation at baseline and up regulation by curcuminoids; macrophages of "Type II" patients showed opposite responses. The results of flow cytometric testing suggest that normal Abeta phagocytosis is associated with healthy cognition and lesser risk of AD. The significance of abnormal results in aged persons should be investigated by prospective studies to determine the risk of AD.

  12. PSYCHOSOMATIC ASPECTS IN PATIENTS WITH DERMATOLOGIC DISEASES.

    PubMed

    Tsintsadze, N; Beridze, L; Tsintsadze, N; Krichun, Y; Tsivadze, N; Tsintsadze, M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study was to find out the magnitude of anxiety and depression in our common dermatological patients and its correlation with age, sex. For this purpose, we used Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. The psychometric validity of HADS has been established by validating the questionnaire against the structured psychiatric interviews. A study of anxiety and depression in patients with dermatologic diseases was conducted on the basis of outpatients department in 211 patients with dermatologic diseases; among them were 107 male and 104 female, aged 16 to 75 years. Among them were patients with Acne, Alopecia Areata, Psoriasis, Vitiligo, Neurodermatitis, Scabies, Eczema and Other diseases (Atopic Dermatitis, Chronic Urticaria, Lichen Planus, Herpes Zoster, Melasma, Warts and Etc.). Based on studies of patients reveals that 65.4% of them are anxiety, depression - 56.2%, both anxiety and depression in 24.7%, there figures higher than the dates of other authorizes. As a result of a direct link research risk disorder depressive spectrum with sex, age; in woman anxiety and depression occurs more frequently than men, and anxiety occurs more frequently in young age. Especially there are hight frequencies of manifestation of abuse in patients with Psoriasis (anxiety - 83.3%, depression - 69.4%, both - 38.8%), Eczema (anxiety - 73.3%, depression - 56.6%, both - 26.7%), Acne (anxiety - 78.4%, depression - 54%, both - 21.6%), Vitiligo (anxiety - 66.7%, depression - 60%, both - 33.3%). Our study noticed higher dates of anxiety and depression than the dates of other outhorizes.

  13. Prognosis of patients with carcinoid heart disease after valvular surgery.

    PubMed

    Manoly, Imthiaz; McAnelly, Sarah-Louise; Sriskandarajah, Sanjeevan; McLaughlin, Kenneth Edward

    2014-08-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. We addressed the following question: in patients who are diagnosed with carcinoid heart disease (CHD), do valvular surgeries improve their prognosis? Fifty percent of the patients with clinically diagnosed carcinoid syndrome had cardiac involvement which was present either as valvular dysfunction or as cardiac metastases. These patients often require surgery due to their heightened risk of cardiac disease. Altogether 217 relevant papers were identified as a result of the below-mentioned search, of which 10 papers represented the best evidence to answer the question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses were tabulated. Of the patients who were identified to have carcinoid heart disease in different studies, 193 patients had valve procedure, mainly replacements at tricuspid, mitral and aortic valve positions and either valvuloplasty or replacement at pulmonary valve. Tricuspid and pulmonary valves represented the majority of the excised valves among patients undergoing valvular surgery for CHD. The pathology of carcinoid valve was attributed to the presence of plaque, causing thickening and retraction. Pure regurgitation was the most common finding in all the valves except pulmonary valve which had both stenosis and insufficiency. Thirty-day mortality was 17% (range 1-63%) and long-term survivors were reported to be alive at an average of 58 months (28-80 months) after the valve surgery. The evidence demonstrates that surgical intervention can lead to improved prognosis and reduce the symptoms of heart failure. Postoperative mortality was mainly due to the carcinoid disease itself and not as a complication of the surgery. Therefore, surgery could be considered for symptomatic palliation in carefully selected individuals.

  14. Opioid Drugs in Patients With Liver Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Soleimanpour, Hassan; Safari, Saeid; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Sanaie, Sarvin; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2016-01-01

    Context The liver, one of the most important organs of the body, is known to be responsible for several functions. The functional contribution of the liver to the metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, drugs and toxins, fats and cholesterol and many other biological processes are still unknown. Liver disorders are classified into two types: acute and chronic. Different drugs are used in liver diseases to treat and control pain. Most pain relief medications such as opioids are metabolized via the liver; therefore, the adverse reactions of drugs are probably higher for patients with liver disease. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of opioid drugs on patients with liver disease; therefore, it is necessary to select suitable opioids for such patients. Evidence Acquisition This review was written by referring to research literature including 70 articles and four textbooks published from 1958 to 2015 on various reputable sites. Searches were carried out on the key phrases of narcotic pain relievers (opioids), acute and chronic hepatic failure, opioid adverse drug reactions, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and other similar keywords. References included a variety of research papers (descriptive and analytical), intervention and review articles. Results In patients with liver disease, administration of opioid analgesics should be observed, accurately. As a general rule, lower doses of drugs should be administered at regular intervals based on the signs of drug accumulation. Secondly, the interactions of opioid drugs with different levels of substrates of the P450 cytochrome enzyme should be considered. Conclusions Pain management in patients with liver dysfunction is always challenging to physicians because of the adverse reactions of drugs, especially opioids. Opioids should be used cautiously since they can cause sedation, constipation and sudden encephalopathy effects. Since the clearance of these drugs in patients with hepatic insufficiency is decreased

  15. Foods for patients with celiac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    As a general rule patients with celiac disease must avoid five cereals--wheat rye, triticale, barley and oats. Very sensitive individuals must also avoid two products of these cereals--malt and hydrolyzed vegetable protein. Some less sensitive individuals may be able to tolerate barley and oats in small quantities. All other foods are acceptable, including the cereals corn, rice, buckwheat, millet and sorghum, as well as malt-flavored breakfast cereals. Wine, spirits, beer and ale are also acceptable unless otherwise contraindicated. Monosodium glutamate, other food additives and pharmaceutical preparations are also acceptable. The ingredients of prepackaged processed foods are listed on the labels. Patients with celiac disease must examine labels to ensure that they avoid the harmful cereals. With appropriate precautions they need not be concerned about eating away from home. PMID:7139445

  16. Aquatic therapy for patients with rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    McNeal, R L

    1990-11-01

    Aquatic therapy is justifiably a rapidly expanding, beneficial form of patient treatment. The goals established at the initial and subsequent evaluations usually are met as quickly and as sensibly as possible. Understanding the theory of water techniques is essential in implementing an aquatic therapy program. The success of the program, however, will always depend on the pleasure and benefits achieved by the patients. Remember, rheumatic patients most likely will need to modify their previous daily functioning. Patients need to be aware of the long-term ramifications of the disease process and understand how treatment and care may be altered during various stages of exacerbation and remission. Patient education is critical in ensuring individual responsibility for the changes that must be made when not supervised by a professional. Aquatic therapy is a step in molding a positive lifestyle change for the patient. The patient can be encouraged to be fitness oriented and, at the same time, exercise in a manner that is safe, effective, and biomechanically and physiologically sound. The environment, hopefully, also will be conductive to family and social interaction that ultimately encourages the compliance of long-term exercise programs.

  17. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease in liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christina; Schuchmann, Marcus; Zimmermann, Tim

    2011-02-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a life-threatening complication following solid organ transplantation. Many posttransplant lymphomas develop from the uncontrolled proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B-cells, whereas EBV-negative PTLDs were increasingly recognized within the past decade. Major risk factors for the development of PTLDs after liver transplantation are immunosuppressive therapy and the type of underlying disease: viral hepatitis, autoimmune liver disease, or alcoholic liver cirrhosis contribute to an increased risk for PTLD. Therapeutic regimens include reduction of immunosuppression, the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab, and chemotherapy, as well as new approaches using interferon-α and anti-interleukin-6 antibodies. Despite the different therapeutic regimens, mortality from PTLD remains high. Therefore, it is of major importance to identify patients at risk at an early stage of the disease. In this review, risk factors for PTLD development after liver transplantation, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and therapy are discussed.

  18. [Vaccinations in patients with autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Bühler, Silja; Hatz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals with autoimmune diseases treated with immunosuppressive drugs is increasing steadily. The variety of immunosuppressive drugs and in particular biological therapies is also rising. The autoimmune disease itself as well as the immunosuppressive therapy increases the risk of infection in this population. Particularly the risk of vaccine-preventable infections is elevated. Thus, preventing infections by the means of vaccination is of utmost importance. The Division of Infectious Diseases of the Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zurich, performed a literature search on the topic of vaccinations in patients with autoimmune diseases upon request by the Swiss Federal Commission for Vaccination Issues. Overall, data are scarce. The following main points were retrieved from the literature: Inactivated vaccines are safe, but their immunogenicity may be reduced under immunosuppressive therapy. In addition to the generally recommended basic vaccinations, specific vaccinations, such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccination are indicated in these patient groups. Live vaccines are generally contraindicated under immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, specific exceptions apply. Furthermore, certain time intervals for the administration of live vaccines after pausing or ceasing an immunosuppressive therapy should be respected.

  19. Could Harmonic Scalpel (Ultracision®) be considered the best device in surgical treatment of vulvar cancer of patients with implanted pace-maker? Proposal and rationale

    PubMed Central

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ancona, Emanuele; Quaranta, Michela; Vitagliano, Amerigo; Noventa, Marco; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Ambrosini, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Vulvar cancer (VC) represents about 4% of gynecologic malignancies, its incidence increases with age and peak incidence is found between 70-79 years. In cases of locally advanced disease surgery is often required and radical vulvectomy, with or without mono-bilateral inguino-femoral lymphadenectomy, is standard management. Various devices have been implemented in gynecological surgery in an attempt to minimize or avoid frequent intra/postoperative complications linked to energy use, unfortunately the majority of these devices require monopolar or bipolar energy. Ultracision® represents a unique surgical device capable of performing both cutting and coagulation at different intensities without use of electric energy. The use of Ultracision® in the radical treatment of VC has advantages both in terms of intraoperative and postoperative complications responsible for the reduction of surgical time and blood loss, complete tissue removal according to oncological criteria, diminished desensitization of peripheral areas and reduction of wound complications. These advantages have been widely demonstrated and contribute to making Ultracision® a cost-effective option in the routine treatment of patients affected by vulvar cancer especially when considering its safety in cardiopathic patients with implanted pacemaker. If the impressive results achieved in radical vulvar surgery will be confirmed, scalpel use could be proposed as routine for surgery of the routinely in surgical approach of vulvar and perineal area, in both benign and malignant disease. PMID:26309660

  20. Could Harmonic Scalpel (Ultracision®) be considered the best device in surgical treatment of vulvar cancer of patients with implanted pace-maker? Proposal and rationale.

    PubMed

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ancona, Emanuele; Quaranta, Michela; Vitagliano, Amerigo; Noventa, Marco; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Ambrosini, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Vulvar cancer (VC) represents about 4% of gynecologic malignancies, its incidence increases with age and peak incidence is found between 70-79 years. In cases of locally advanced disease surgery is often required and radical vulvectomy, with or without mono-bilateral inguino-femoral lymphadenectomy, is standard management. Various devices have been implemented in gynecological surgery in an attempt to minimize or avoid frequent intra/postoperative complications linked to energy use, unfortunately the majority of these devices require monopolar or bipolar energy. Ultracision® represents a unique surgical device capable of performing both cutting and coagulation at different intensities without use of electric energy. The use of Ultracision® in the radical treatment of VC has advantages both in terms of intraoperative and postoperative complications responsible for the reduction of surgical time and blood loss, complete tissue removal according to oncological criteria, diminished desensitization of peripheral areas and reduction of wound complications. These advantages have been widely demonstrated and contribute to making Ultracision® a cost-effective option in the routine treatment of patients affected by vulvar cancer especially when considering its safety in cardiopathic patients with implanted pacemaker. If the impressive results achieved in radical vulvar surgery will be confirmed, scalpel use could be proposed as routine for surgery of the routinely in surgical approach of vulvar and perineal area, in both benign and malignant disease.

  1. [Psychopharmacotherapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Cordes, J; Lange-Asschenfeldt, C; Hiemke, C; Kahl, K G

    2012-11-01

    Increased cardiometabolic morbidity and increased overall mortality has been observed in patients with severe mental disorders. Therefore, cardiometabolic safety is an important issue in the treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders, in particular in patients with comorbid cardiometabolic diseases. Frequent adverse side effects include disturbances of lipid and glucose metabolism, body weight changes and alterations of the QTc interval. Dependent on the particular substance used and on factors concerning individual vulnerability, these side effects vary in relative frequency. Therefore, regular monitoring is recommended including ECG. Furthermore, interactions between different medicaments may occur, either leading to enhanced or decreased drug concentrations. Prior to psychopharmacological treatment, proper cardiological treatment is recommended. The management of cardiovascular risks under psychopharmacology requires interdisciplinary cooperation between the cardiologist, general practitioner and psychiatrist.

  2. Is Metabolic Syndrome Considered to Be a Risk Factor for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (Non-Erosive or Erosive Esophagitis)?: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohammad; Ramezani Jolfaie, Nahid; Alipour, Rooya; Zarrati, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Context The incidences of both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have increased in recent years, and it has been suggested that there is a probable association between the two. The aim of this review is to clarify whether or not MetS is a risk factor for the incidence of GERD. Evidence Aquisition We searched the PubMed, ProQuest, Ovid, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases up to February 2015 regarding the relationship between GERD and MetS as found in observational studies. Any studies that evaluated the association between the components of MetS and GERD, as well as any studies examining the association of MetS with Barrett’s esophagus or esophageal carcinoma, were excluded. Results Thirteen studies met the eligibility criteria. The results of nine studies suggested that there was a higher prevalence of MetS among patients with GERD (P < 0.05) and, thus, it could be considered as an independent risk factor for the incidence of GERD. However, in the one study was not observed significant association between GERD and MetS (P = 0.71). Two studies in which the prevalence of GERD was compared between individuals with and without MetS showed a higher prevalence of GERD in patients with MetS (P < 0.05). However, this finding was not observed in a similar study conducted among female participants, which reported that the different types of MetS were not important factors with regard to the prevalence of erosive esophagitis (P = Not significant). Conclusions It can be concluded that MetS may increase the risk of GERD. Consequently, there might be potential benefits to treating the metabolic abnormalities in these patients. PMID:28191340

  3. Pharmacokinetics of isradipine in patients with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Cotting, J; Reichen, J; Kutz, K; Laplanche, R; Nüesch, E

    1990-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist isradipine has been examined in 8 healthy volunteers, 7 patients with non-cirrhotic chronic liver disease (CLD), and 8 patients with biopsy-proven cirrhosis (CIR). Isradipine was simultaneously given orally (12C 5 mg) and i.v. (13C 1 mg). Systemic availability was significantly increased from 17% to 16% in controls and CLD, respectively, to 37% in CIR. The corresponding systemic clearances averaged 1.1, 0.9 and 0.6 l.min-1, the reduction in cirrhotics being significant. Both aminopyrine demethylation capacity, a measure of hepatic microsomal function, and indocyanine green disappearance, a measure of hepatic perfusion, were correlated with the reduction in systemic clearance, and the reduction in oral clearance was correlated with the reciprocal of the serum bile acid concentration. The loss of first-pass extraction should be considered when this calcium antagonist is given perorally in patients with hepatic cirrhosis.

  4. Depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Christine

    2012-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in adults in the United States and worldwide. Depression is a common comorbidity in this population, but often goes undiagnosed in persons with COPD. Because the presence of depression has the potential to negatively impact COPD-related outcomes, it is essential for health care practitioners involved in the care of patients with COPD to diagnose and treat COPD and the associated comorbidities, including depression. Although there is a lack of comprehensive guidelines for treating depression in those with COPD, an algorithm has been proposed to screen and manage depression in these patients. Several questionnaires are available that can be used to assess and assist in diagnosing depression in these patients. Following diagnosis, antidepressant therapy should be considered along with nonpharmacological strategies, such as pulmonary rehabilitation and cognitive behavioral therapy.

  5. Mirror movements in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Donatella; Tiple, Dorina; Suppa, Antonio; Colosimo, Carlo; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Cincotta, Massimo; Defazio, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2008-01-30

    Mirror movements (MM) refer to ipsilateral involuntary movements that appear during voluntary activity in contralateral homologous body regions. This study aimed to compare the frequency and distribution of MM in an unselected sample of 274 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 100 healthy subjects, and to check a possible relationship between MM and parkinsonian features. MM of the hand were scored according to the Woods and Teuber scale. The frequency of MM was lower in PD patients than in healthy subjects (29% vs. 71%, P < 0.0001). The distribution of MM also differed in the two groups being often bilateral in healthy subjects, invariably unilateral in PD patients. When parkinsonian signs were unilateral, MM always manifested on the unaffected side; when parkinsonian signs were bilateral, MM manifested on the less affected side. PD patients manifesting MM scored significantly lower on Hohen and Yahr staging than patients without MM. Likewise, there was a significant inverse correlation between the intensity of MM as rated by the Woods and Teuber score and HY staging (r = -0.16, P < 0.01). The low frequency of MM in PD probably relates to the complex interactions between the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to parkinsonian signs and the mechanisms responsible for movement lateralization.

  6. Role of spleen elastography in patients with chronic liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Giunta, Mariangela; Conte, Dario; Fraquelli, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    The development of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension (PH), one of its major complications, are structural and functional alterations of the liver, occurring in many patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). Actually the progressive deposition of hepatic fibrosis has a key role in the prognosis of CLD patients. The subsequent development of PH leads to its major complications, such as ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding and decompensation. Liver biopsy is still considered the reference standard for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis, whereas the measurement of hepatic vein pressure gradient is the standard to ascertain the presence of PH and upper endoscopy is the method of choice to detect the presence of oesophageal varices. However, several non-invasive tests, including elastographic techniques, are currently used to evaluate the severity of liver disease and predict its prognosis. More recently, the measurement of the spleen stiffness has become particularly attractive to assess, considering the relevant role accomplished by the spleen in splanchnic circulation in the course of liver cirrhosis and in the PH. Moreover, spleen stiffness as compared with liver stiffness better represents the dynamic changes occurring in the advanced stages of cirrhosis and shows higher diagnostic performance in detecting esophageal varices. The aim of this review is to provide an exhaustive overview of the actual role of spleen stiffness measurement as assessed by several elastographic techniques in evaluating both liver disease severity and the development of cirrhosis complications, such as PH and to highlight its potential and possible limitations. PMID:27672283

  7. Analysis of Retinal Peripapillary Segmentation in Early Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Salobrar-Garcia, Elena; Hoyas, Irene; Leal, Mercedes; de Hoz, Rosa; Rojas, Blanca; Ramirez, Ana I.; Salazar, Juan J.; Yubero, Raquel; Gil, Pedro; Triviño, Alberto; Ramirez, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Decreased thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) may reflect retinal neuronal-ganglion cell death. A decrease in the RNFL has been demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) in addition to aging by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Twenty-three mild-AD patients and 28 age-matched control subjects with mean Mini-Mental State Examination 23.3 and 28.2, respectively, with no ocular disease or systemic disorders affecting vision, were considered for study. OCT peripapillary and macular segmentation thickness were examined in the right eye of each patient. Compared to controls, eyes of patients with mild-AD patients showed no statistical difference in peripapillary RNFL thickness (P > 0.05); however, sectors 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, and 11 of the papilla showed thinning, while in sectors 1, 5, 6, 7, and 10 there was thickening. Total macular volume and RNFL thickness of the fovea in all four inner quadrants and in the outer temporal quadrants proved to be significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Despite the fact that peripapillary RNFL thickness did not statistically differ in comparison to control eyes, the increase in peripapillary thickness in our mild-AD patients could correspond to an early neurodegeneration stage and may entail the existence of an inflammatory process that could lead to progressive peripapillary fiber damage. PMID:26557684

  8. Lower Muscle Endurance in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Henning; Aagaard, Niels K.; Jakobsen, Johannes; Dorup, Inge; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease often complain of restricted physical capacity, which could be due to decreased muscle endurance. The aim of this study was to assess the muscular endurance in patients with alcoholic liver disease. In a cross sectional study, 24 patients with alcoholic liver disease and 22 controls were evaluated using…

  9. [Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma in a patient with Crohn disease].

    PubMed

    Fluxá, Daniela; Kronberg, Udo; Lubascher, Jaime; O'Brien, Andrés; Las Heras, Facundo; Ibáñez, Patricio; Quera, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma is an uncommon lesion arising from the peritoneal mesothelium. It is asymptomatic or presents with unspecific symptoms. Imaging techniques may reveal it, however the final diagnosis can only be made by histopathology. Surgery is the only effective treatment considering its high recurrence rate. We report a 19 years old male with Crohn’s disease. Due to persistent abdominal pain, an abdominal magnetic resonance imaging was performed, showing a complex cystic mass in the lower abdomen. The patient underwent surgery and the lesion was completely resected. The pathological study reported a benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma.

  10. Exercise stress echocardiography in patients with valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishal; Newby, David E; Stewart, Ralph A H; Lee, Mildred; Gabriel, Ruvin; Van Pelt, Niels; Kerr, Andrew J

    2015-09-01

    Stress echocardiography is recommended for the assessment of asymptomatic patients with severe valvular heart disease (VHD) when there is discrepancy between symptoms and resting markers of severity. The aim of this study is to determine the prognostic value of exercise stress echocardiography in patients with common valve lesions. One hundred and fifteen patients with VHD (aortic stenosis (n=28); aortic regurgitation (n=35); mitral regurgitation, (n=26); mitral stenosis (n=26)), and age- and sex-matched controls (n=39) with normal ejection fraction underwent exercise stress echocardiography. The primary endpoint was a composite of death or hospitalization for heart failure. Asymptomatic VHD patients had lower exercise capacity than controls and 37% of patients achieved <85% of their predicted metabolic equivalents (METS). There were three deaths and four hospital admissions, and 24 patients underwent surgery during follow-up. An abnormal stress echocardiogram (METS <5, blood pressure rise <20 mmHg, or pulmonary artery pressure post exercise >60 mmHg) was associated with an increased risk of death or hospital admission (14% vs 1%, P<0.0001). The assessment of contractile reserve did not offer additional predictive value. In conclusion, an abnormal stress echocardiogram is associated with death and hospitalization with heart failure at 2 years. Stress echocardiography should be considered as part of the routine follow-up of all asymptomatic patients with VHD.

  11. Blood flow structure in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-05-01

    Blood flow structure was studied by PC integrated video camera with following slide by slide analysis. Volumetric blood flow velocity was supporting on constant level (1 ml/h). Silicone tube of diameter comparable with coronary arteries diameter was used as vessel model. Cell-cell interactions were studied under glucose and anticoagulants influence. Increased adhesiveness of blood cells to tube walls was revealed in patient with coronary heart disease (CHD) compare to practically healthy persons (PHP). In patients with stable angina pectoris of high functional class and patients with AMI shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were predominating in blood flow structure up to microclots formation. Clotting and erythrocytes aggregation increase as response to glucose solution injection, sharply defined in patients with CHD. Heparin injection (10 000 ED) increased linear blood flow velocity both in patients with CHD and PHP. After compare our results with other author's data we can consider that method used in our study is sensible enough to investigate blood flow structure violations in patients with CHD and PHP. Several differences of cell-cell interaction in flow under glucose and anticoagulant influence were found out in patients with CHD and PHP.

  12. Frequency of craniofacial pain in patients with ischemic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Mahin; Rezaei, Rezvan; Baharvand, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Background Referred craniofacial pain of cardiac origin might be the only symptom of ischemic heart accidents. This study aimed to determine the frequency of craniofacial pain in patients with ischemic heart disease. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study was accomplished on 296 patients who met the criteria of having ischemic heart disease. Data regarding demographics, medical history and referred craniofacial pain were recorded in data forms. In addition, patients underwent oral examination to preclude any source of dental origin. Chi-square test, Student’s t-test and backward regression model were used to analyze the data by means of SPSS software version 21. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 296 patients were studied comprising of 211 men (71%) and 85 women (29%) with the mean age of 55.8. Craniofacial pain was experienced by 53 patients out of 296, 35 (66%) of whom were male and 18 (34%) were female. None of the patients experienced craniofacial pain solely. The most common sites of craniofacial pain were occipital and posterior neck (52.8%), head (43.3%), throat and anterior neck (41.5%) respectively. We found no relationship between craniofacial pain of cardiac origin with age, diabetes, hypertension, and family history. On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between hyperlipidemia and smoking with craniofacial pain of cardiac origin. Conclusions Radiating pain to face and head can be expected quite commonly during a cardiac ischemic event. Dental practitioners should be thoroughly aware of this symptomatology to prevent misdirected dental treatment and delay of medical care. Key words:Craniofacial pain, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, referred pain. PMID:28149470

  13. Alexithymia and personality traits of patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    La Barbera, D.; Bonanno, B.; Rumeo, M. V.; Alabastro, V.; Frenda, M.; Massihnia, E.; Morgante, M. C.; Sideli, L.; Craxì, A.; Cappello, M.; Tumminello, M.; Miccichè, S.; Nastri, L.

    2017-01-01

    Psychological factors, specific lifestyles and environmental stressors may influence etiopathogenesis and evolution of chronic diseases. We investigate the association between Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) and psychological dimensions such as personality traits, defence mechanisms, and Alexithymia, i.e. deficits of emotional awareness with inability to give a name to emotional states. We analyzed a survey of 100 patients with IBD and a control group of 66 healthy individuals. The survey involved filling out clinical and anamnestic forms and administering five psychological tests. These were then analyzed by using a network representation of the system by considering it as a bipartite network in which elements of one set are the 166 individuals, while the elements of the other set are the outcome of the survey. We then run an unsupervised community detection algorithm providing a partition of the 166 participants into clusters. That allowed us to determine a statistically significant association between psychological factors and IBD. We find clusters of patients characterized by high neuroticism, alexithymia, impulsivity and severe physical conditions and being of female gender. We therefore hypothesize that in a population of alexithymic patients, females are inclined to develop psychosomatic diseases like IBD while males might eventually develop behavioral disorders. PMID:28150800

  14. Metabolic aspects of adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Milic, Natasa; Di Renzo, Laura; Preveden, Tomislav; Medić-Stojanoska, Milica; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and it encompasses a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis. The mechanisms involved in the occurrence of NAFLD and its progression are probably due to a metabolic profile expressed within the context of a genetic predisposition and is associated with a higher energy intake. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic alterations associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. NAFLD patients have more than one feature of the MS, and now they are considered the hepatic components of the MS. Several scientific advances in understanding the association between NAFLD and MS have identified insulin resistance (IR) as the key aspect in the pathophysiology of both diseases. In the multi parallel hits theory of NAFLD pathogenesis, IR was described to be central in the predisposition of hepatocytes to be susceptible to other multiple pathogenetic factors. The recent knowledge gained from these advances can be applied clinically in the prevention and management of NAFLD and its associated metabolic changes. The present review analyses the current literature and highlights the new evidence on the metabolic aspects in the adult patients with NAFLD. PMID:27610012

  15. Periodontal disease: a covert source of inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Gener; Dumitriu, Horia Traian; Dumitriu, Anca Silvia; Ismail, Fidan Bahtiar

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of atherosclerotic complications (myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden death) is increased in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, especially in haemodialysis patients. Increasing evidence suggests that both in general population and in dialysis patients, systemic inflammation plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic complications. In general population, also, evidence shows that moderate to severe periodontitis can contribute to inflammatory burden by increasing serum CRP levels and may increase the prevalence of atherosclerotic events. Moreover, the results of some new interventional studies reveal that effective phase I periodontal therapy may decrease serum CRP levels, the most important acute phase protein, monitored as a systemic marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction as well, used as an initial predictor of atherosclerotic events. Considering that moderate to severe periodontal diseases have a higher prevalence in CKD and in dialysis population and that periodontal examination is not part of the standard medical assessment, destructive periodontitis might be an ignored source of systemic inflammation in end-stage renal disease patients and may add to the chronic inflammatory status in CKD.

  16. Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-04-01

    The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

  17. [Rheumatoid purpura and Berger's disease in the same patient. 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Cotton, J B; Parchoux, B; Vincent, C; Ladreyt, J P; Rekawek, J

    1991-01-01

    The two patients reported experienced initially typical Henoch Schönlein purpura, and Berger disease some years later. Same cases are described in the literature pleading for the relationship between the two entities; Berger disease may be considered as a symptomatic form of anaphylactoïd purpura.

  18. DIABCARD a smart card for patients with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, R; Hildebrand, C

    1997-01-01

    Within the European Union-sponsored project DIABCARD, the core of a chip-card-based medical information system for patients with chronic diseases, exemplified on diabetes mellitus, has been developed. The long-term goal of the project is to improve the medical record and the quality of care for patients with chronic diseases. The basic idea is to have a portable electronic medical record on a smart card. This will improve the communication between the different healthcare personnel and between different institutions and, at the same time, promote shared care. The DIABCARD chip-card-based medical information system will offer controlled access to the necessary and up-to-date patient record to everyone involved in the patient's treatment, and it will help reduce the constantly rising healthcare expenditure. The system first was implemented in a small version. The system architecture contains hardware, software, and orgware. It considers especially the memory of the chip card, the processor, the data structure, security functions, the operating system on the chip card, the interface between the chip card and the application, and various application areas. The DIABCARD dataset was defined via an information model, which describes the different communication processes, via acknowledged diabetes datasets and medical scenarios. It includes, among others, emergency data, data for quality assurance, and data for blood glucose self-monitoring. The first prototype has been developed, and a pilot was run for 3 months.

  19. General Anesthesia for a Patient With Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kamekura, Nobuhito; Nitta, Yukie; Takuma, Shigeru; Fujisawa, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    We report the successful management of general anesthesia for a patient with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). PMD is one of a group of progressive, degenerative disorders of the cerebral white matter. The typical clinical manifestations of PMD include psychomotor retardation, nystagmus, abnormal muscle tone, seizures, and cognitive impairment. General anesthesia for a patient with PMD may be difficult mainly because of seizures and airway complications related to poor pharyngeal muscle control. In addition, the possibility of exacerbation of spasticity should be considered. A 20-year-old man with PMD required removal of impacted wisdom teeth under general anesthesia. General anesthesia was induced with thiamylal, fentanyl, and desflurane. Anesthesia was maintained with desflurane and continuous intravenous remifentanil under bispectral index and train-of-4 monitoring. Anesthesia lasted 1 hour 20 minutes and was completed uneventfully. Airway complications, seizures, and exacerbation of spasticity did not occur postoperatively. Preoperatively, our patient had no history of epilepsy attacks or aspiration pneumonia, and no clinical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Therefore, exacerbation of spasticity was one of the most likely potential complications. Identification of these associated conditions and evaluation of risk factors during preoperative examination is important for performing safe anesthesia in these patients. PMID:27269667

  20. General Anesthesia for a Patient With Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease.

    PubMed

    Kamekura, Nobuhito; Nitta, Yukie; Takuma, Shigeru; Fujisawa, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    We report the successful management of general anesthesia for a patient with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). PMD is one of a group of progressive, degenerative disorders of the cerebral white matter. The typical clinical manifestations of PMD include psychomotor retardation, nystagmus, abnormal muscle tone, seizures, and cognitive impairment. General anesthesia for a patient with PMD may be difficult mainly because of seizures and airway complications related to poor pharyngeal muscle control. In addition, the possibility of exacerbation of spasticity should be considered. A 20-year-old man with PMD required removal of impacted wisdom teeth under general anesthesia. General anesthesia was induced with thiamylal, fentanyl, and desflurane. Anesthesia was maintained with desflurane and continuous intravenous remifentanil under bispectral index and train-of-4 monitoring. Anesthesia lasted 1 hour 20 minutes and was completed uneventfully. Airway complications, seizures, and exacerbation of spasticity did not occur postoperatively. Preoperatively, our patient had no history of epilepsy attacks or aspiration pneumonia, and no clinical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Therefore, exacerbation of spasticity was one of the most likely potential complications. Identification of these associated conditions and evaluation of risk factors during preoperative examination is important for performing safe anesthesia in these patients.

  1. Outcomes of Bowel Resection in Patients with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Carmichael, Joseph C; Mills, Steven D; Pigazzi, Alessio; Stamos, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    There is limited data regarding outcomes of bowel resection in patients with Crohn's disease. We sought to investigate complications of such patients after bowel resection. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases were used to examine the clinical data of Crohn's patients who underwent bowel resection during 2002 to 2012. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate outcomes of such patients. We sampled a total of 443,950 patients admitted with the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Of these, 20.5 per cent had bowel resection. Among patients who had bowel resection, 51 per cent had small bowel Crohn's disease, 19.4 per cent had large bowel Crohn's disease, and 29.6 per cent had both large and small bowel Crohn's disease. Patients with large bowel disease had higher mortality risk compared with small bowel disease [1.8% vs 1%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.42, P < 0.01]. Risks of postoperative renal failure (AOR: 1.56, P < 0.01) and respiratory failure (AOR: 1.77, P < 0.01) were higher in colonic disease compared with small bowel disease but postoperative enteric fistula was significantly higher in patients with small bowel Crohn's disease (AOR: 1.90, P < 0.01). Of the patients admitted with the diagnosis of Crohn's disease, 20.5 per cent underwent bowel resection during 2002 to 2012. Although colonic disease has a higher mortality risk, small bowel disease has a higher risk of postoperative fistula.

  2. Lumbo-sacral spine disease due to bovine tuberculosis in a patient with concurrent pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nawaid; Srinivasan, Koottalai; Panayi, Jeannette; Moudgil, Harmesh

    2011-12-01

    Lumbo-sacral spinal disease due to bovine tuberculosis (TB) in a patient with concurrent pulmonary disease is rare. We report this unpredicted finding in an immunocompetent patient and discuss the natural history in an area of low prevalence.

  3. Orthodontic approach for patients with severe periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Arun, Tülin; Sayinsu, Korkmaz; Nalbantgil, Didem

    2005-01-01

    Although comprehensive orthodontic treatment cannot preclude the possibility of periodontal disease developing later, it can be a useful part of the overall treatment plan for a patient who already has periodontal involvement. A careful clinical examination must determine the patient's dental health status, including any existing destruction or deficiencies of the teeth and their support, as well as the patient's ability to achieve and maintain good overall oral hygiene. Two major criteria should be considered in the treatment of these patients: (1) the patient should be seen frequently for periodontal maintenance and (2) minimal orthodontic forces should be applied. Segmented archwires could be used for the treatment mechanics. After treatment, splinting of the teeth is necessary both short- and long-term. With this orthodontic approach, both dental esthetics and function improve and can be maintained. A male patient, 50 years of age, with severe periodontal involvement was referred to the authors' clinic, from the periodontal department, for treatment. The mandibular incisors were intruded by using segmental archwires. At the end of treatment, permanent retention was required due to the severe bone loss.

  4. Cost Effectiveness of Free Access to Smoking Cessation Treatment in France Considering the Economic Burden of Smoking-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cadier, Benjamin; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Thomas, Daniel; Chevreul, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Context In France more than 70,000 deaths from diseases related to smoking are recorded each year, and since 2005 prevalence of tobacco has increased. Providing free access to smoking cessation treatment would reduce this burden. The aim of our study was to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of providing free access to cessation treatment taking into account the cost offsets associated with the reduction of the three main diseases related to smoking: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To measure the financial impact of such a measure we also conducted a probabilistic budget impact analysis. Methods and Findings We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov state-transition model that compared free access to cessation treatment to the existing coverage of €50 provided by the French statutory health insurance, taking into account the cost offsets among current French smokers aged 15–75 years. Our results were expressed by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in 2009 Euros per life year gained (LYG) at the lifetime horizon. We estimated a base case scenario and carried out a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis to account for uncertainty. Assuming a participation rate of 7.3%, the ICER value for free access to cessation treatment was €3,868 per LYG in the base case. The variation of parameters provided a range of ICER values from -€736 to €15,715 per LYG. In 99% of cases, the ICER for full coverage was lower than €11,187 per LYG. The probabilistic budget impact analysis showed that the potential cost saving for lung cancer, COPD and CVD ranges from €15 million to €215 million at the five-year horizon for an initial cessation treatment cost of €125 million to €421 million. Conclusion The results suggest that providing medical support to smokers in their attempts to quit is very cost-effective and may even result in cost savings. PMID:26909802

  5. Expression of periodontal interleukin-6 protein is increased across patients with neither periodontal disease nor diabetes, patients with periodontal disease alone and patients with both diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Jonathan H.; Hardy, Douglas Crane; Schuyler, Corinne A.; Slate, Elizabeth H.; Huang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives Epidemiological studies have established that patients with diabetes have an increased prevalence and severity of periodontal disease. Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine, plays a role in the tissue inflammation that characterizes periodontal disease. Our recent study has shown a trend of increase in periodontal IL-6 expression at the mRNA level across patients with neither periodontal disease nor diabetes, patients with periodontal disease alone and patients with both diseases. However, the periodontal IL-6 expression at the protein level in these patients has not been investigated. Material and Methods Periodontal tissue specimens were collected from eight patients without periodontal disease and diabetes (group 1), from 17 patients with periodontal disease alone (group 2) and from 10 patients with both periodontal disease and diabetes (group 3). The frozen sections were prepared from these tissue specimens and IL-6 protein expression was detected and quantified. Results The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test showed that differences in IL-6 protein levels among the three groups were statistically significant (p = 0.035). Nonparametric analysis using Jonckheere-Terpstra test showed a tendency of increase in periodontal IL-6 protein levels across group 1 to group 2 to group 3 (p = 0.006). Parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) on IL-6 protein levels showed that neither age nor gender significantly affected the difference of IL-6 levels among the groups. Conclusion Periodontal IL-6 expression at the protein level is increased across patients with neither periodontal disease nor diabetes, patients with periodontal disease alone, and patients with both diseases. PMID:20682019

  6. Thyroid functional disease: an under-recognized cardiovascular risk factor in kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Connie M.; Brent, Gregory A.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Soldin, Offie P.; Nguyen, Danh; Budoff, Matthew J.; Brunelli, Steven M.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid functional disease, and in particular hypothyroidism, is highly prevalent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In the general population, hypothyroidism is associated with impaired cardiac contractility, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and possibly higher cardiovascular mortality. It has been hypothesized that hypothyroidism is an under-recognized, modifiable risk factor for the enormous burden of cardiovascular disease and death in CKD and ESRD, but this has been difficult to test due to the challenge of accurate thyroid functional assessment in uremia. Low thyroid hormone levels (i.e. triiodothyronine) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular sequelae in CKD and ESRD patients, but these metrics are confounded by malnutrition, inflammation and comorbid states, and hence may signify nonthyroidal illness (i.e. thyroid functional test derangements associated with underlying ill health in the absence of thyroid pathology). Thyrotropin is considered a sensitive and specific thyroid function measure that may more accurately classify hypothyroidism, but few studies have examined the clinical significance of thyrotropin-defined hypothyroidism in CKD and ESRD. Of even greater uncertainty are the risks and benefits of thyroid hormone replacement, which bear a narrow therapeutic-to-toxic window and are frequently prescribed to CKD and ESRD patients. In this review, we discuss mechanisms by which hypothyroidism adversely affects cardiovascular health; examine the prognostic implications of hypothyroidism, thyroid hormone alterations and exogenous thyroid hormone replacement in CKD and ESRD; and identify areas of uncertainty related to the interplay between hypothyroidism, cardiovascular disease and kidney disease requiring further investigation. PMID:24574542

  7. Impact of Nonmotor Symptoms on Disability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde; Carella, Francesco; Soliveri, Paola; Albanese, Alberto; Romito, Luigi M.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease have nonmotor symptoms (NMS) that, although poorly considered, have an impact on their quality of life. In contrast, the effect on disability is not systematically evaluated. Adult patients were consecutively enrolled and administered the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule.…

  8. Usefulness of Endoscopic Indices in Determination of Disease Activity in Patients with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kucharski, Marcin; Karczewski, Jacek; Mańkowska-Wierzbicka, Dorota; Karmelita-Katulska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Iwanik, Katarzyna; Rzymski, Piotr; Grzymisławski, Marian; Linke, Krzysztof; Dobrowolska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Background. Assessment of endoscopic activity of Crohn's disease (CD) is of growing importance both in clinical practice and in clinical trials. The study aimed to assess which of the endoscopic indices used for evaluation of mucosal changes correlates with the currently used clinical indices for determination of disease activity and with the results of histopathological examination. Study. A group of 71 patients with CD and 52 individuals without a diagnosis of GI tract disease as a control group were investigated, considering clinical and histological severity of the disease and the severity of inflammatory changes in the bowel. Evaluation was conducted with the use of clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological indices. Endoscopic indices were then correlated with different clinical and histopathological indices with the aim of finding the strongest correlations. Results and Conclusions. Correlation between the clinical disease activity and the severity of endoscopic lesions in CD was shown in this study to be poor. The results also indicate that the optimal endoscopic index used in the diagnostic stage and in the assessment of treatment effects in CD is Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD). PMID:26997952

  9. Anesthetic considerations in the patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing laparoscopic surgeries.

    PubMed

    Khetarpal, Ranjana; Bali, Kusum; Chatrath, Veena; Bansal, Divya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the various anesthetic options which can be considered for laparoscopic surgeries in the patients with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The literature search was performed in the Google, PubMed, and Medscape using key words "analgesia, anesthesia, general, laparoscopy, lung diseases, obstructive." More than thirty-five free full articles and books published from the year 1994 to 2014 were retrieved and studied. Retrospective data observed from various studies and case reports showed regional anesthesia (RA) to be valid and safer option in the patients who are not good candidates of general anesthesia like patients having obstructive pulmonary diseases. It showed better postoperative patient outcome with respect to safety, efficacy, postoperative pulmonary complications, and analgesia. So depending upon disease severity RA in various forms such as spinal anesthesia, paravertebral block, continuous epidural anesthesia, combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA), and CSEA with bi-level positive airway pressure should be considered.

  10. [Autonomy of the patient with chronic diseases: from passive patient to active patient].

    PubMed

    González Mestre, Assumpció

    2014-01-01

    Due to social, economic and cultural changes, there has been a transformation of Health Services around the world. A new figure has emerged from this: the Active Patient, more responsible, with more information and willing to change his life as a chronic patient. In order to respond to this new situation, several countries have established initiatives such as self-reliance programmes for chronic patients. The aim of this article is to underline the Expert Patient Programme Catalonia(®) and to explain its operation and the results obtained up until now. The purpose of this program is to improve the experience of chronic disease by patients, from meetings in which an expert patient provides his knowledge and experiences to a group of patients with the same disease, with the aim of promoting changes in habits and lifestyles that improve the quality of life and the coexistence of the person with his chronic process.

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome should be considered as a cause of nocturia in younger patients without other voiding symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Takahiro; Fukunaga, Koichi; Nagata, Hirohiko; Haraguchi, Mizuha; Kikuchi, Eiji; Miyajima, Akira; Yamasawa, Wakako; Shirahama, Ryutaro; Narita, Midori; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Asano, Koichiro; Oya, Mototsugu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate urination frequency among patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. Methods: We evaluated 138 men with moderate-to-severe OSAS by using polysomnography. Urination status was assessed at baseline and three months using the International Prostate Symptom Score and Overactive Bladder Symptom Score. Nocturia was defined as ≥2 nighttime urinations and patients were classified into Group A (<50 years old with nocturia), Group B (≥50 years old with nocturia), and Group C (patients without nocturia). OSAS severity and other urinary symptoms were also evaluated. Results: Patients with nocturia exhibited more severe OSAS, compared to patients without nocturia (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]: 52.0 vs. 44.7; p=0.021). Group A had the worst AHI, but did not have additional voiding symptoms, compared to Group B (p<0.001). The number of urinations was significantly correlated with OSAS severity in <50-year-old patients (p=0.013). CPAP reduced the number of urinations in Group A (75% of patients) and Group B (90% of patients). Patients with and without improved nocturia exhibited significant differences in their baseline OSAS severity (AHI: 53.7 vs. 37.3; p=0.042). Conclusions: OSAS severity was associated with the number of urinations in <50-year-old patients. CPAP decreased the nocturia frequency in 85% of patients with nocturia and was most effective in patients with severe AHI. However, additional studies should evaluate voiding volume in order to elucidate the mechanism of nocturia in patients with OSAS. PMID:28255415

  12. Managing patients for zoonotic disease in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Warwick, Clifford; Corning, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Zoonoses involve infections and infestations transmissible from animals to humans. Zoonoses are a major global threat. Exposure to zoonotic pathogens exists in various settings including encroachment on nature; foreign travel; pet keeping; bushmeat consumption; attendance at zoological parks, petting zoos, school ‘animal contact experiences’, wildlife markets, circuses, and domesticated and exotic animal farms. Under-ascertainment is believed to be common and the frequency of some zoonotic disease appears to be increasing. Zoonoses include direct, indirect and aerosolized transmission. Improved awareness of zoonoses in the hospital environment may be important to the growing need for prevention and control. We reviewed relevant literature for the years 2000 to present and identified a significant need for the promotion of awareness and management of zoonoses in the hospital environment. This article provides a new decision-tree, as well as staff and patient guidance on the prevention and control of zoonoses associated with hospitals. PMID:24040497

  13. Technology innovation for patients with kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mitsides, Nicos; Keane, David F; Lindley, Elizabeth; Mitra, Sandip

    2014-01-01

    The loss of kidney function is a life-changing event leading to life-long dependence on healthcare. Around 5000 people are diagnosed with kidney failure every year. Historically, technology in renal medicine has been employed for replacement therapies. Recently, a lot of emphasis has been placed on technologies that aid early identification and prevent progression of kidney disease, while at the same time empowering affected individuals to gain control over their chronic illness. There is a shift in diversity of technology development, driven by collaborative innovation initiatives such the National Institute's for Health Research Healthcare Technology Co-operative for Devices for Dignity. This has seen the emergence of the patient as a key figure in designing technologies that are fit for purpose, while business involvement has ensured uptake and sustainability of these developments. An embodiment of this approach is the first successful Small Business Research Initiative in the field of renal medicine in the UK.

  14. Antinuclear antibody profile in Italian patients with connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Neri, R; Tavoni, A; Cristofani, R; Levanti, C; Sodini, G; d'Ascanio, A; Vitali, C; Ferri, C; Bombardieri, S

    1992-08-01

    In the present work we report data on the specificity of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in a large series of Italian patients suffering from a broad spectrum of connective tissue diseases (CTD), by using a series of homogeneous and validated techniques. The present study confirms, on the one hand, generally accepted concepts, i.e. that certain autoantibodies are strictly associated to certain disease states (such as anti-PCNA and anti-Sm in systemic lupus erythematosus, Jo 1 in polymyositis, and ACA and Scl-70 in scleroderma); the presence of 'marker' antibodies is, however, restricted to a relative minority of CTD patients. The application of a new methodological approach that considers the entire profile of ANA can greatly augment their diagnostic relevance and may provide useful indications for their interpretation, allowing us to establish for the first time the diagnostic usefulness not only of marker autoantibodies but also of certain associations between non-marker autoantibodies. Finally, the application of a more appropriate and powerful statistical tool (multiple correspondence analysis) has further emphasized the clear relationship existing between antibody specificities and certain disease states.

  15. Updated management of chronic kidney disease in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hass, Virginia McCoy

    2014-06-01

    Chronic diseases, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), are the primary threat to global public health in the 21st century. Recently updated guidelines from the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative provide patient care benchmarks that physician assistants can use when caring for patients with diabetes and CKD and developing clinical performance improvement plans.

  16. [The Home Care Doctor Today is "STRIKE" - Considering Care of Terminal Stage Patients with Cancer through a Case Report].

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Miyoko; Yamaoka, Keita; Fujimaki, Yoko; Watanabe, Mutsuko; Hirohara, Masayoshi; Kushida, Kazuki

    2015-12-01

    Although many patients wish to remain in their familiar home environment while undergoing cancer treatment, many obstacles prevent a patient from receiving cancer care at home. With early-stage cancer, the patients may better accept the diagnosis and have a greater will to fight the illness. However as time proceeds, progression or recurrence of cancer may occur, and eventually, proactive treatments will not be available. This progression results in great physical and mental strain on the patients and their family. At all stages of such progression, opportunities exist for a care provider to assist with overcoming potential obstacles by openly communicating with the patients, talking through the patients' experiences, and understanding their feelings. However, on diagnosis, cancer patients must often face the reality that they have very little time left to live. When transiting medical care from their long-trusted hospital to a home care base, a new physician must be selected and other decisions related to their care must be quickly made. Transferring responsibility to a good home care provider can greatly influence a patient's emotional state. This paper reports one such case in which the patients died in their homes with the best comfort and possible outcome.

  17. Integrated health care for patients with motor neurone disease.

    PubMed

    Brewah, Helen

    This article presents the findings from a study trip to Kaiser Permanente (KP), a private healthcare provider in the USA. The aim of the trip was to understand how healthcare integration is managed in KP and how this might help patients in the UK with motor neurone disease (MND). This article makes reference to the American and British healthcare systems, identifying the simple differences between health economies, and their impact on health care, with specific reference to MND. The trip was undertaken as part of the author's ongoing work on how patients with MND rate services delivered by the multidisciplinary team (MDT) in the UK. The author's community matron role involves caring for patients with long-term conditions (LTCs) including long-term neurological conditions (LTNCs). In executing this role and in service delivery to patients with LTNCs, specifically MND, the author noticed a lack of robust integration, highlighting the need to consider and address the various contributory factors. This article presents a literature review and analyses the role of the MDT including specialist neurological professionals in executing duties and in delivering healthcare services to patients diagnosed with MND. The implications for practice are also presented along with areas for practice development.

  18. Approach to patients with refractory coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Ikram; Nasr, Iman; Campling, Hannah; Ciclitira, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is a recognised complication, albeit very rare, of coeliac disease (CD). This condition is described when individuals with CD continue to experience enteropathy and subsequent or ongoing malabsorption despite strict adherence to a diet devoid of gluten for at least 12 months and when all other causes mimicking this condition are excluded. Depending on the T-cell morphology and T-cell receptor (TCR) clonality at the β/γ loci, RCD can be subdivided into type 1 (normal intra-epithelial lymphocyte morphology, polyclonal TCR population) and type 2 (aberrant IELs with clonal TCR). It is important to differentiate between the two types as type 1 has an 80% survival rate and is managed with strict nutritional and pharmacological management. RCD type 2 on the other hand has a 5-year mortality of 50% and can be complicated by ulcerative jejunitis or enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL). Management of RCD type 2 has challenged many experts, and different treatment approaches have been adopted with variable results. Some of these treatments include immunomodulation with azathioprine and steroids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, alemtuzumab (an anti CD-52 monoclonal antibody), and cladribine or fludarabine sometimes with autologous stem cell transplantation. In this article, we summarise the management approach to patients with RCD type 2. PMID:27803799

  19. Huntington's disease: visuomotor disturbance in patients and offspring.

    PubMed Central

    Oepen, G; Mohr, U; Willmes, K; Thoden, U

    1985-01-01

    In 15 patients with Huntington's disease, 17 offspring at risk and 63 healthy controls, visuomotor performances were assessed by quantitative (statistical) and qualitative analysis. The much enlarged error score of the nondominant left hand in patients with Huntington's disease was explained as callosal dyspraxia. Five of the 17 offspring revealed results similar to that of the patients. PMID:3158723

  20. If You Want to Know, Consider Asking: How Likely Is It that Patients Will Hurt Themselves in the Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jillian; Skeem, Jennifer; Manchak, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Although self-harming behavior is a common and costly problem for psychiatric inpatients released from the hospital, standardized tools that assess patients' risk for self-harm are rarely used in clinical settings. In this study of dually diagnosed psychiatric inpatients (N = 147), we assessed the utility of patients' self-perceptions of risk in…

  1. How to predict clinical relapse in inflammatory bowel disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Liverani, Elisa; Scaioli, Eleonora; Digby, Richard John; Bellanova, Matteo; Belluzzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases have a natural course characterized by alternating periods of remission and relapse. Disease flares occur in a random way and are currently unpredictable for the most part. Predictors of benign or unfavourable clinical course are required to facilitate treatment decisions and to avoid overtreatment. The present article provides a literature review of the current evidence on the main clinical, genetic, endoscopic, histologic, serologic and fecal markers to predict aggressiveness of inflammatory bowel disease and discuss their prognostic role, both in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. No single marker seems to be reliable alone as a flare predictor, even in light of promising evidence regarding the role of fecal markers, in particular fecal calprotectin, which has reported good results recently. In order to improve our daily clinical practice, validated prognostic scores should be elaborated, integrating clinical and biological markers of prognosis. Finally, we propose an algorithm considering clinical history and biological markers to intercept patients with high risk of clinical relapse. PMID:26811644

  2. Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography Safety in Chagas Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rassi, Daniela do Carmo; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Furtado, Rogerio Gomes; Turco, Fabio de Paula; Melato, Luciano Henrique; Hotta, Viviane Tiemi; Nunes, Colandy Godoy de Oliveira; Rassi Jr., Luiz; Rassi, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Background A few decades ago, patients with Chagas disease were predominantly rural workers, with a low risk profile for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). As urbanization has increased, they became exposed to the same risk factors for CAD of uninfected individuals. Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) has proven to be an important tool in CAD diagnosis. Despite being a potentially arrhythmogenic method, it is safe for coronary patients without Chagas disease. For Chagas disease patients, however, the indication of DSE in clinical practice is uncertain, because of the arrhythmogenic potential of that heart disease. Objectives To assess DSE safety in Chagas disease patients with clinical suspicion of CAD, as well as the incidence of arrhythmias and adverse events during the exam. Methods Retrospective analysis of a database of patients referred for DSE from May/2012 to February/2015. This study assessed 205 consecutive patients with Chagas disease suspected of having CAD. All of them had their serology for Chagas disease confirmed. Results Their mean age was 64±10 years and most patients were females (65.4%). No patient had significant adverse events, such as acute myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation, asystole, stroke, cardiac rupture and death. Regarding arrhythmias, ventricular extrasystoles occurred in 48% of patients, and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in 7.3%. Conclusion DSE proved to be safe in this population of Chagas disease patients, in which no potentially life-threatening outcome was found. PMID:28099588

  3. International Registry for Patients With Castleman Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-21

    Castleman Disease; Castleman's Disease; Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia; Angiofollicular Lymph Hyperplasia; Angiofollicular Lymph Node Hyperplasia; Angiofollicular Lymphoid Hyperplasia; GLNH; Hyperplasia, Giant Lymph Node; Lymph Node Hyperplasia, Giant

  4. Managing Acute Complications Of Sickle Cell Disease In Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sathyaseelan; Chao, Jennifer H

    2016-11-01

    Sickle cell disease is a chronic hematologic disease with a variety of acute, and often recurring, complications. Vaso-occlusive crisis, a unique but common presentation in sickle cell disease, can be challenging to manage. Acute chest syndrome is the leading cause of death in patients with sickle cell disease, occurring in more than half of patients who are hospitalized with a vaso-occlusive crisis. Uncommon diagnoses in children, such as stroke, priapism, and transient red cell aplasia, occur more frequently in patients with sickle cell disease and necessitate a degree of familiarity with the disease process and its management. Patients with sickle cell trait generally have a benign course, but are also subject to serious complications. This issue provides a current review of evidence-based management of the most common acute complications of sickle cell disease seen in pediatric patients in the emergency department.

  5. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

  6. Perioperative Management of Patients with Connective Tissue Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Susan M.; Figgie, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Diseases of the connective tissue are a varied group of disorders with major musculoskeletal manifestations such as joint pain and loss of function. As a consequence of the accompanying inflammatory joint disease, such patients often require surgery. Due to the protean organ-related consequences of these conditions, patients who suffer from chronic connective tissue disease are a highly challenging population in the perioperative context. This paper reviews the management of such patients in this clinical setting. PMID:22294961

  7. Depression in patients with Parkinson's disease: impact on functioning.

    PubMed

    Stella, Florindo; Banzato, Claudio E M; Barasnevicius Quagliato, Elizabeth M A; Viana, Maura Aparecida

    2008-09-15

    Depression is a frequently observed neuropsychiatric phenomenon in Parkinson's disease (PD) and it has been lately considered as a manifestation of such disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between depression and clinical aspects of PD and to assess the impact of the co-occurrence of such condition on the burden imposed by PD. Fifty outpatients diagnosed with idiopathic PD according to the London Brain Bank criteria were examined. PD was evaluated using Hoehn & Yahr staging (H&Y), United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Schwab & England (S&E) functional capacity evaluation. A semi-structured clinical interview was used. The diagnosis of PD was made by neurologist experts on movement disorders, and the diagnosis of depression was made by a psychiatrist, according to the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Depressive symptoms were additionally measured using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale. The analysis of quantitative data was performed using descriptive statistics, univariate linear regression, T-Student Test and ANOVA. Seventeen (34%) patients were diagnosed as clinically depressed and, when compared to the non-depressed ones, presented the following results: H&Y: 3.2 vs. 2.8; UPDRS total: 75.7 vs. 65.3; S&E: 53.5% vs. 65.8% and PD duration: 114.4 months vs. 125.8 months. Depressed patients showed more advanced staging (H&Y), a more severe global clinical condition (UPDRS) and also a greater decrease in their functional capacity (S&E). These data reinforce the hypothesis that depression is associated to poorer functioning in patients with PD.

  8. [Pregnancy in a patient with mitochondrial disease].

    PubMed

    Racine, A-C; Blanchot, G; Le Vaillant, C; Boog, G

    2004-04-01

    We report a case of a pregnant woman with a mitochondrial disorder affecting the energy-generating pathway of oxidative phosphorylation which was suggested when the patient presented the progressive clinical phenotype of a proximal tubular renal insufficiency, a muscular weakness of extremities, a bilateral optic neuropathy and a brain magnetic resonance imaging suggesting diffuse leucoencephalopathy. Her diagnosis was made on the basis of abnormal mitochondria on a muscle biopsy and of spectrophotometric deficiencies of the complexes I, II+III and IV of the respiratory chain. No specific molecular mutation could be detected. Her pregnancy was complicated by a severe preeclampsia, an insulin requiring gestational diabetes and a worrying renal failure which precipitated the premature delivery by cesarean section at 30 weeks gestation. The clinical course of the female neonate weighing 1030 grams was uneventful. At two Years of age she showed no sign of mitochondrial disease. But the postpartum course of the mother was complicated by seizures and a terminal renal failure leading presently to dialysis, but requiring a kidney transplantation in the near future.

  9. Relationship Between Family Functioning and Mental Health Considering the Mediating Role of Resiliency in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Rai, Alireza; Alikhani, Mostafa; Mohammadi, Samira; Shahebrahimi, Karoon; Janjani, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at describing the mediating role of resiliency in the relationship between family functioning and mental health in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This descriptive research was a correlational study. A total of 225 individuals were chosen by simple random sampling technique from type 2 diabetic patients presented to diabetes care centers in Kermanshah in 2014 in Iran. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the Family Assessment Device (FAD) and the Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) were used to collect the required data. The collected data were analyzed using the Pearson’s correlation test and to study the mediating role of resiliency in family functioning and mental health interaction, the path analysis method was applied. The results showed that there is a relationship between family functioning, resilience and mental health. Resilience plays a mediating role between family functioning and mental health. Therefore, paying attention to resilience in patients may lead to improving mental health in diabetic patients. PMID:25948449

  10. Changes in Semantic Memory in Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingartner, Herbert J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Contrasts changes in semantic memory in elderly normal controls and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients before patients expressed symptoms. Found that controls generated more uncommon exemplars from closed semantic categories (fruits and vegetables) than did AD patients prior to presumed onset of AD. AD patients were just as productive as controls…

  11. Subclinical intestinal inflammation in chronic granulomatous disease patients.

    PubMed

    Broides, Arnon; Sagi, Orli; Pinsk, Vered; Levy, Jacov; Yerushalmi, Baruch

    2016-02-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease is a primary immunodeficiency caused by impaired neutrophil production of reactive oxygen species. Non-infectious colitis is common in chronic granulomatous disease, and high levels of antimicrobial antibodies that are associated with Crohn's disease are common even without colitis. Fecal calprotectin concentration is a marker for intestinal inflammation. We sought to determine whether subclinical intestinal inflammation occurs in asymptomatic chronic granulomatous disease patients. Asymptomatic chronic granulomatous disease patients without overt gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of colitis at the time of enrollment were studied for fecal calprotectin concentration, antibodies associated with Crohn's disease and systemic inflammatory markers. Eight patients were included, aged 54-176 months. In 7/8 (87.5 %) fecal calprotectin concentration was normal (<50) and elevated (137 mg/kg) in only one patient. This patient later developed colitis. In 7/8 (87.5 %) anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody was positive. C-reactive protein, albumin, complete blood count and p-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody were normal in all 8 patients. Subclinical colitis is not evident in most asymptomatic chronic granulomatous disease patients; however, in some patients, fecal calprotectin concentration may be elevated, possibly indicating the presence of subclinical colitis and predicting the occurrence of clinically relevant colitis. Serum anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody concentrations do not seem to correlate with fecal calprotectin concentration in asymptomatic chronic granulomatous disease patients.

  12. Respiratory disease terminology: Discordance between pulmonologists and patients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nishtha; Singh, Sheetu; Jain, Nirmal Kumar; Singh, Virendra

    2017-01-01

    Context: A number of local dialects and languages exist in India, which leads to a single disease being addressed by a number of names which may overlap with other disease names also. This creates misunderstanding and is a hindrance to effective patient–doctor communication. Aims: The paper aims to find out how effectively the name of the respiratory disease is communicated to the patient. The terminology used by patients to describe their disease was also noted at limited level. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in the form of parallel cross-sectional surveys, among pulmonologists and patients. Methods: Among the members of the Indian Chest Society and those attending the National Conference on Pulmonary Diseases (NAPCON-2015), 1028 pulmonologists participated in the online survey which was the first part of the study. The term used to address the common respiratory disease was inquired in the survey. To find the response of patients, a questionnaire was given to the patients attending four respiratory disease clinics of a city. They were inquired about the name of respiratory disease they were suffering from. Results: Pneumonia was the disease which was communicated with exact terminology by 898 (87.4%) doctors to their patients. In contrast, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was communicated with precise terminology by only 171 (16.6%) doctors. Pulmonary tuberculosis was exactly told by 708 (69%), asthma by 731 (71.1%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by 593 (57.7%) doctors. However, only 17.6% of the 1122 patients participating in the survey had a knowledge of the name of disease they were suffering from. Conclusions: The exact terminology of the common respiratory diseases is not effectively used by many doctors and most of the patients. The study identifies an important gap in patient–doctor communication, and therefore, highlights the need of effective patient education. PMID:28144053

  13. High frequency of helicobacter negative gastritis in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Halme, L; Kärkkäinen, P; Rautelin, H; Kosunen, T U; Sipponen, P

    1996-01-01

    The frequency of gastric Crohn's disease has been considered low. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with Crohn's disease. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed on 62 consecutive patients suffering from ileocolonic Crohn's disease. Biopsy specimens from the antrum and corpus were processed for both histological and bacteriological examinations. H pylori antibodies of IgG and IgA classes were measured in serum samples by enzyme immunoassay. Six patients (9.7%) were infected with H pylori, as shown by histology, and in five of them the infection was also verified by serology. Twenty one patients (32%) had chronic H pylori negative gastritis (negative by both histology and serology) and one of them also had atrophy in the antrum and corpus. Granulomas were found in four patients. The characteristic appearance of H pylori negative gastritis was focal and mostly mild inflammation resembling the inflammatory changes seen in the gut in Crohn's disease. Patients with H pylori negative chronic gastritis had a significantly more active disease in their gut than those with normal gastric mucosa (p < 0.01). It is concluded that H pylori positive gastritis is rare, while H pylori negative gastritis is relatively common in patients with Crohn's disease. H pylori negative 'Crohn's gastritis' seems to be associated with active Crohn's disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8675090

  14. Genomic imbalances in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Verbitsky, Miguel; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Fasel, David A.; Levy, Brynn; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Wuttke, Matthias; Abraham, Alison G.; Kaskel, Frederick; Köttgen, Anna; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.; Wong, Craig S.; Gharavi, Ali G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND. There is frequent uncertainty in the identification of specific etiologies of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Recent studies indicate that chromosomal microarrays can identify rare genomic imbalances that can clarify the etiology of neurodevelopmental and cardiac disorders in children; however, the contribution of unsuspected genomic imbalance to the incidence of pediatric CKD is unknown. METHODS. We performed chromosomal microarrays to detect genomic imbalances in children enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) prospective cohort study, a longitudinal prospective multiethnic observational study of North American children with mild to moderate CKD. Patients with clinically detectable syndromic disease were excluded from evaluation. We compared 419 unrelated children enrolled in CKiD to multiethnic cohorts of 21,575 children and adults that had undergone microarray genotyping for studies unrelated to CKD. RESULTS. We identified diagnostic copy number disorders in 31 children with CKD (7.4% of the cohort). We detected 10 known pathogenic genomic disorders, including the 17q12 deletion HNF1 homeobox B (HNF1B) and triple X syndromes in 19 of 419 unrelated CKiD cases as compared with 98 of 21,575 control individuals (OR 10.8, P = 6.1 × 10–20). In an additional 12 CKiD cases, we identified 12 likely pathogenic genomic imbalances that would be considered reportable in a clinical setting. These genomic imbalances were evenly distributed among patients diagnosed with congenital and noncongenital forms of CKD. In the vast majority of these cases, the genomic lesion was unsuspected based on the clinical assessment and either reclassified the disease or provided information that might have triggered additional clinical care, such as evaluation for metabolic or neuropsychiatric disease. CONCLUSION. A substantial proportion of children with CKD have an unsuspected genomic imbalance, suggesting genomic disorders as a risk factor for

  15. [Clozapine for the treatment of psychosis in 3 elderly patients with Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Diraoui, S; van Melick, E J M; Jansen, P A F

    2004-11-27

    Three patients with Parkinson's disease developed psychosis. None of the three showed any other somatic cause for the psychosis except the Parkinson's disease. The first patient, a 73-year-old male, was initially treated with olanzapine and rivastigmine, without any effect. While treating the second patient, a 75-year-old male who had been suffering from Parkinson's disease for years, the Parkinson medication was first reduced and later on olanzapine and rivastigmine were prescribed, without a lasting effect on the psychotic symptoms. In the third patient, an 85-year-old male, medication reduction was unsuccessful. Finally, all three were treated effectively with clozapine. Psychosis in Parkinson's disease is a serious disorder that is often difficult to treat. In most cases, antipsychotic medication is needed. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine is effective without aggravation of the motor symptoms. Despite the side effects, such as the risk of agranulocytosis, drowsiness and weight gain, clozapine should be considered as a possible treatment.

  16. Intensive care of the adult patient with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Allan, Catherine K

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of congenital heart disease in the adult population has increased out of proportion to that of the pediatric population as survival has improved, and adult congenital heart disease patients make up a growing percentage of pediatric and adult cardiac intensive care unit admissions. These patients often develop complex multiorgan system disease as a result of long-standing altered cardiac physiology, and many require reoperation during adulthood. Practitioners who care for these patients in the cardiac intensive care unit must have a strong working knowledge of the pathophysiology of complex congenital heart disease, and a full team of specialists must be available to assist in the care of these patients. This chapter will review some of the common multiorgan system effects of long-standing congenital heart disease (eg, renal and hepatic dysfunction, coagulation abnormalities, arrhythmias) as well as some of the unique cardiopulmonary physiology of this patient population.

  17. Factors contributing to malnutrition in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung R; Chung, Sun J; Yoo, Sung-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Our objective in this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and to identify clinical, psychosocial, and nutritional factors contributing to malnutrition in Korean patients with Parkinson's disease. We used a descriptive, cross-sectional study design. Of 102 enrolled patients, 26 (25.5%) were malnourished and 27 (26.5%) were at risk of malnutrition based on Mini-Nutritional Assessment scores. Malnutrition was related to activity of daily living score, Hoehn and Yahr stage, duration of levodopa therapy, Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger's Anxiety Inventory scores, body weight, body weight at onset of Parkinson's disease, and body mass index. On multiple logistic regression analysis, anxiety score, duration of levodopa therapy, body weight at onset of Parkinson's disease, and loss of body weight were significant factors predicting malnutrition in Parkinson's disease patients. Therefore, nutritional assessment, including psychological evaluation, is required for Parkinson's disease patients to facilitate interdisciplinary nutritional intervention for malnourished patients.

  18. Periodontal disease in diabetic patients - clinical and histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Corlan Puşcu, Dorina; Ciuluvică, Radu Constantin; Anghel, Andreea; Mălăescu, Gheorghe Dan; Ciursaş, Adina Nicoleta; Popa, Gabriel Valeriu; Agop Forna, Doriana; Busuioc, Cristina Jana; Siloşi, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most frequent diseases affecting people all over the world. The relation between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus raised the interest both of dentists and doctors treating metabolic diseases, as the two conditions influence one another. In our study, we analyzed a number of 75 patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease that presented to the medical consultory for conditions of the dental maxillary system. The clinical study showed that periodontal disease and diabetes may affect young adults as well, still this pathological association more frequently appears after the age of 50. The disease was identified especially in the women living in urban area. The clinical examination of the dental maxillary system identified the presence of gingival ulcerations, dental calculus, gingival bleeding, radicular leftovers with anfractuous margins, fixed prostheses with an inappropriate cervical adjustment. Of the systemic diseases associated to periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, there was observed that 66.66% of the patients also suffered from cardiovascular diseases (high blood pressure, ischemic cardiopathy, heart failure), and 37.33% suffered from obesity. The histopathological and immunohistochemical tests highlighted the presence of an inflammatory chronic, intense reaction, mainly formed of lymphocytes, plasmocytes, macrophages and granulocytes, heterogeneously disseminated and alteration of the structure of marginal and superficial periodontium. The inflammatory reaction in the patients with periodontal disease and diabetes was more intense than in the patients with periodontal disease without diabetes.

  19. Non-surgical periodontal management in scleroderma disease patients.

    PubMed

    Laforgia, A; Corsalini, M; Stefanachi, G; Tafuri, S; Ballini, A; Pettini, F; Di Venere, D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the periodontal status of people with scleroderma and their response to non-surgical treatment protocol aimed at controlling the evolution of the disease. The response to non-surgical periodontal treatment was tested on patients belonging to a scleroderma group and a control group: the data show an improvement of the periodontal conditions of all these patients in response to treatment. When compared on the same diagram, a slight remission of the periodontal disease was obtained in both scleroderma and healthy patients. This highlights the benefit to soft tissues produced by non-surgical periodontal treatment also in patients affected by systemic diseases.

  20. Hormones and arterial stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Ozkan; Kircelli, Fatih; Voroneanu, Luminita; Covic, Adrian; Ok, Ercan

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease constitutes the major cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Arterial stiffness is an important contributor to the occurrence and progression of cardiovascular disease. Various risk factors, including altered hormone levels, have been suggested to be associated with arterial stiffness. Based on the background that chronic kidney disease predisposes individuals to a wide range of hormonal changes, we herein review the available data on the association between arterial stiffness and hormones in patients with chronic kidney disease and summarize the data for the general population.

  1. Two adolescent patients with coexistent Graves' disease and Moyamoya disease in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Chong Kun; Kim, Su Yung

    2014-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular condition that results in the narrowing of the vessels of the circle of Willis and collateral vessel formation at the base of the brain. Although relationships between Graves' disease and cerebrovascular accidents in Moyamoya disease are obscure, the coexistence of the two diseases is noteworthy. Moyamoya disease has been rarely reported in adolescent patients with thyrotoxicosis. Recently, we encountered two adolescent Korean patients with Moyamoya disease associated with Graves' disease who presented with episodic right-sided hemiparesis and syncope. These two girls who had Graves' disease had no history of other diseases or head trauma. A thyroid function test revealed a euthyroid state and a high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody titer at that time. The patients were diagnosed with Moyamoya disease based on brain magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral four-vessel angiography. The patients underwent cranial revascularization by encephalo-duroarterio-synangiosis as soon as a diagnosis was made, which resulted in successful symptom resolution. They fared well and had no additional neurological symptoms as of their last follow-up visits. Here, we report these two cases of confirmed Moyamoya disease complicated by Graves' disease with a review of the literature, and discuss the possible association between the two diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first report in South Korea on Moyamoya disease associated with Graves' disease in adolescents with a euthyroid. PMID:25076974

  2. Scintigraphic perfusion patterns in patients with diffuse lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, G.E.; Sullivan, D.C.; Gottschalk, A.; Putman, C.E.

    1982-04-01

    Perfusion scintigrams of 55 patients with radiographic evidence of diffuse lung disease were reviewed. Thirty-nine had acute and/or chronic changes caused by congestive heart failure, and 16 had diffuse reticulonodular disease. A normal or near-normal perfusion pattern was seen in 40/55 (73%), and this finding was equally common in the two groups. The authors conclude that perfusion scintigraphy is useful in excluding pulmonary embolism in patients with radiographic evidence of diffuse, symmetrical lung disease.

  3. Patient Perspectives on Deep Brain Stimulation Clinical Research in Early Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Heusinkveld, Lauren; Hacker, Mallory; Turchan, Maxim; Bollig, Madelyn; Tamargo, Christina; Fisher, William; McLaughlin, Lauren; Martig, Adria; Charles, David

    2017-01-01

    The FDA has approved a multicenter, double-blind, Phase III, pivotal trial testing deep brain stimulation (DBS) in 280 people with very early stage Parkinson's disease (PD; IDE#G050016). In partnership with The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research, we conducted a survey to investigate motivating factors, barriers, and gender differences among potentially eligible patients for participation in a trial testing DBS in early PD compared to standard medical treatment. The majority of survey respondents (72%) indicated they would consider learning more about participating. Early PD patients are therefore likely to consider enrolling in trials of invasive therapies that may slow symptom progression and help future patients.

  4. Treatment of patients with minimal stage IIIA Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Powlis, W.D.; Mauch, P.; Goffman, T.; Goodman, R.L.

    1987-10-01

    Treatment recommendations for patients with upper abdominal Stage IIIA Hodgkin's (III1A) disease have varied widely. The current study reports on a combined institutional retrospective review of 85 patients with surgically staged III1A Hodgkin's disease. Twenty-two patients received combined modality therapy (CMT), 36 patients were treated initially with total nodal irradiation (TNI), and 27 with mantle and para-aortic radiotherapy (MPA). Patients treated with CMT had an actuarial 8-year freedom from relapse (FFR) of 96% as compared to a FFR of 51% in TNI treated patients (p = 0.002), and a FFR of 54% in MPA treated patients (p = 0.004). Of the 11 relapses in MPA treated patients, 7 had a component of their failure in the untreated pelvic or inguinal nodes. The patients treated with CMT had an 8-year actuarial survival of 100% as compared to 79% in TNI treated patients (p = 0.055) and 78% in patients treated with MPA (p = 0.025). Histology and the number of splenic nodules were the most important prognostic variables. Patients with MC/LD histology and greater than or equal to 5 splenic nodules have a high risk of relapse (10/13) when treated with radiation alone (TNI or MPA). We recommend CMT for this group of patients. Patients with NS/LP histology and 1-4 splenic nodules represent a favorable subset of Stage III1A patients. Only 4/21 patients have relapsed and all 21 patients are currently alive without disease regardless of treatment. We currently feel that patients with Stage III1A Hodgkin's disease with NS/LP histology and splenic disease limited to 1-4 nodules are good candidates for MPA as an alternative to TNI or CMT.

  5. Comparison of quality of life in patients with peripheral arterial disease caused by atherosclerosis obliterans or Buerger’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Karakoyun, Rojbin; Köksoy, Cüneyt; Şener, Zeynep; Gündüz, Umut; Karakaş, Barış; Karakoyun, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Buerger’s disease and atherosclerosis obliterans (ASO) are two peripheral arterial diseases (PAD) that are frequently encountered. The aim of this study was to compare quality of life (QOL) in patients with Buerger’s disease and ASO. Methods We prospectively followed 86 patients who were admitted to our hospital due to ASO or Buerger’s disease. Their ischaemia was evaluated according to the clinical category chronic limb ischaemia at the time of hospital admission and at six and 12 months. The QOL was measured at the time of hospital admission and at six and 12 months with the Short Form Health Status Survey (SF-36) and Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VASCUQOL). Results A total of 86 patients with ASO or Buerger’s disease (47 and 39, respectively) were included in the study. Pain parameters from both SF-36 and VASCUQOL scores were lower in patients with Buerger’s disease at the time of hospital admission and at six months. The impairment in QOL was found to be proportional to the extent of chronic limb ischaemia. Conversely, when patients with critical limb ischaemia were evaluated, no difference was observed between those with ASO or Buerger’s disease in terms of QOL. Amputations were found to have a negative effect on quality of life. Conclusion Buerger’s disease had a more pronounced negative effect on QOL than ASO, particularly in terms of pain score. When critical limb ischaemia was considered, ASO and Buerger’s disease impaired quality of life at the same rate. PMID:25000442

  6. ["On professions considered as a cause of disease" (1849) by Enrico de Betta. The first Italian modern discussion on diseases and work].

    PubMed

    Carnevale, F; Baldasseroni, A

    2013-01-01

    The doctoral dissertation in Pavia in 1849 by Enrico de Betta is presented as a well-constructed, comprehensive and modern discussion of diseases ascribable to work. 150 years after Ramazzini's treatise, Enrico de Betta, through an updated knowledge of contemporary literature especially French and German, refreshed and renewed the knowledge inherited from Ramazzini in the light of the changes introduced with the beginnings of industrial hygiene and the first steps taken in occupational epidemiology. In the introduction to the text and accompanying notes, the authors offer an interpretation of the significance of overcoming the main Ramazzinian paradigms. This takes into account the current debate, especially in the French cultural sphere, on the meaning of autonomy and complementarity of the various disciplines that are the foundations of the protection and promotion of the health conditions of the working classes. It is suggested therefore that a simplistic view of Ramazzini as the unique 'father" of modern occupational health and safety at work needs to be abandoned. The work of de Betta does not seem to have had much success in Italy. The debate and interventions on the relationship between diseases and work still had to wait half a century to produce effects, but this took place in a very different context, that of Giolitti's era.

  7. Small bowel imaging in managing Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Albert, Jörg G

    2012-01-01

    The small bowel is essential to sustain alimentation and small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) may severely limit its function. Small bowel imaging is a crucial element in diagnosing small bowel CD, and treatment control with imaging is increasingly used to optimize the patients outcome. Thereby, capsule endoscopy, Balloon-assisted enteroscopy, and Magnetic resonance imaging have become key players to manage CD patients. In this review, role of small bowel imaging is detailed discussed for use in diagnosing and managing Crohn's disease patients.

  8. How Patients View Probiotics: Findings from a Multicenter Study of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, MaryBeth; Brinich, Margaret A.; Geller, Gail; Harrison, Krista; Highland, Janelle; James, Katherine; Marshall, Patricia; McCormick, Jennifer B.; Tilburt, Jon; Achkar, Jean-Paul; Farrell, Ruth M.; Sharp, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have access to a growing number of probiotic products marketed to improve digestive health. It is unclear how patients make decisions about probiotics and what role they expect their gastroenterologists to play as they consider using probiotics. Understanding patients’ knowledge, attitudes and expectations of probiotics may help gastroenterologists engage patients in collaborative discussions about probiotics. Study Focus groups were conducted with patients with IBD and IBS at the Cleveland Clinic, Mayo Clinic and Johns Hopkins University. Inductive analytic methods were utilized to identify common themes and draw interpretations from focus group narratives. Results One hundred thirty-six patients participated in 22 focus groups between March and August 2009. Patients viewed probiotics as an appealing alternative to pharmaceutical drugs and understood probiotics as a more “natural,” low-risk therapeutic option. Many patients were hesitant to use them without consulting their gastroenterologists. Patients would weigh the risks and benefits of probiotics, their disease severity and satisfaction with current treatments when considering probiotic use. Conclusions Patients are interested in probiotics but have many unanswered questions about their use. Our findings suggest that patients with IBD and IBS will look to gastroenterologists and other clinicians as trustworthy advisors regarding the utility of probiotics as an alternative or supplement to pharmaceutical drugs. Gastroenterologists and other clinicians who care for patients with these diseases should be prepared to discuss the potential benefits and risks of probiotics and assist patients in making informed decisions about their use. PMID:21716123

  9. High serum soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Sari, Funda; Inci, Ayca; Dolu, Suleyman; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Cetinkaya, Ramazan; Ersoy, Fettah Fevzi

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to determine fibroblast growth factor-23 and soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. A total of 76 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and 32 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23 and soluble α-Klotho levels were measured with ELISA kits. Parathyroid hormone, phosphate, calcium, creatinine, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels, urinary protein to creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate were also measured or calculated. Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease had significantly higher serum parathyroid hormone (p<0.001), fibroblast growth factor-23 (p<0.001), soluble α-Klotho levels (p=0.001) and lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels (p<0.001) as compared with healthy volunteers. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23, soluble α-Klotho and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were similar in all five chronic kidney disease stages of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (p>0.05). Fibroblast growth factor-23 (r=-0.251, p=0.034) and soluble α-Klotho levels (r=-0.251, p=0.034) were found to be negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. This study shows increased fibroblast growth factor-23 levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease which is in harmony with the general trend in patients with chronic kidney disease of other aetiologies, but, unlike them, also a significant increase in serum soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease suggesting an aberrant production or a decreased clearance of α-Klotho molecule. Considering the unique increases in erythropoietin levels due to erythropoietin production in renal cysts, we assume, patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease may potentially have different soluble α-Klotho production/clearance characteristics than the patients with other parenchymal renal diseases.

  10. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stojceva-Taneva, Olivera; Otovic, Natasa Eftimovska; Taneva, Borjanka

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) became a new epidemic of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal failure as a result of the diabetes epidemic worldwide. AIM: The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of CKD in the Republic of Macedonia and its association with diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a part of a study conducted in 2006 in terms of screening for early detection of kidney disease. It was a cross-sectional study based on a random sample of patients aged > 20, consecutively consulting their primary physician for any cause. Fifty physicians throughout the country were included in the study. A total of 2637 patients have been analyzed based on integrity data. GFR was estimated using corrected values of serum creatinine and calculating kidney function by the Cockroft & Gault formula, adjusted for body surface using the Gehan & George formula. Patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min were considered as having CKD. Blood pressure, body weight, height, serum creatinine, glucose, hemoglobin, hematocrit, urinalysis and medical history for presence of cardiovascular diseases or diabetes were also assessed. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 45.97 ± 16.55 SD and 17.97% were older than 60. Regarding gender, 44.14% were males. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 13.9%. Subjects with CKD (eGFR less than 60 ml/min) were 7.53% of the total. Subjects aged 60 or above, had 20 times higher risk of having CKD (eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2). Out of the total group of subjects, 13.9% had diabetes mellitus and they had 3.13 times higher risk of having CKD stage 3-5 (eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) when compared to non-diabetics. The results showed that diabetes was significantly more associated with lower eGFR (less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) in younger subjects (age less than 60) compared to older ones (odds ratio 3

  11. Disease management programs for CKD patients: the potential and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Michael V

    2009-03-01

    Disease management describes the use of a number of approaches to identify and treat patients with chronic health conditions, especially those that are expensive to treat. Disease management programs have grown rapidly in the United States in the past several years. These programs have been established for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but some have been discontinued because of the high cost of the program. Disease management programs for CKD face unique challenges. Identification of patients with CKD is hampered by incomplete use of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for CKD by physicians and the less than universal use of estimated glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine measurements to identify patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). CKD affects multiple organ systems. Thus, a comprehensive disease management program will need to manage each of these aspects of CKD. These multiple interventions likely will make a CKD disease management program more costly than similar disease management programs designed for patients with diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, or other chronic diseases. The lack of data that can be used to develop effective disease management programs in CKD makes it difficult to determine goals for the management of each organ system affected by CKD. Finally, long periods of observation will be needed to determine whether a particular disease management program is effective in not only improving patient outcomes, but also decreasing both resource use and health care dollars. This long-term observation period is contrary to how most disease management contracts are written, which usually are based on meeting goals during a 1- to 3-year period. Until these challenges are resolved, it likely will be difficult to maintain effective disease management programs for CKD.

  12. Plexiform neurofibroma of the submandibular gland in patient with von Recklinghausen's disease

    PubMed Central

    Bisher, Hassan Al; Kant, Ravi; Aldamati, Ahmed; Badar, Aysha Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Plexiform neurofibroma of the submandibular gland is an extremely rare tumor. Herein, we report a case of plexiform neurofibroma in a patient with a von Recklinghausen's disease (NF-1) who presented with a submandibular mass mimicking a submandibular gland tumor. Complete surgical excision provides the best treatment and final diagnosis. A neurofibroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis for submandibular mass. PMID:21464877

  13. Carnitine metabolism in patients with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Krähenbühl, S; Reichen, J

    1997-01-01

    Carnitine metabolism was studied in 79 patients with chronic liver disease, including 22 patients with noncirrhotic liver disease and 57 patients with different types of cirrhosis (22 patients with hepatitis B- or C-associated cirrhosis, 15 patients with alcohol-induced cirrhosis, 15 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis [PBC], and 5 patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis), and compared with 28 control subjects. In comparison with control subjects, patients with noncirrhotic liver disease showed no change in the plasma carnitine pool, whereas patients with cirrhosis had a 29% increase in the long-chain acylcarnitine concentration. Analysis of subgroups of patients with cirrhosis showed that patients with alcohol-induced cirrhosis had an increase in the total plasma carnitine concentration (67.8 +/- 29.5 vs. 55.2 +/- 9.9 micromol/L in control subjects), resulting from increases in both the short-chain and long-chain acylcarnitine concentration. In this group of patients, the acylcarnitine concentrations showed a close correlation with the total carnitine concentration, and the total carnitine concentration with the serum bilirubin concentration. Urinary excretion of carnitine was not different between patients with noncirrhotic or cirrhotic liver disease and control patients. However, patients with PBC showed an increased urinary excretion of total carnitine (52.5 +/- 40.0 vs. 28.0 +/- 16.7 micromol carnitine/mmol creatinine), resulting from an increase in the fractional excretion of both free carnitine and short-chain acylcarnitine. The current studies show that patients with cirrhosis are normally not carnitine deficient. Patients with alcohol-induced cirrhosis have increased plasma carnitine concentrations, which may result from increased carnitine biosynthesis because of increased skeletal muscle protein turnover. The increase in the fractional carnitine excretion in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis may result from competition of bile acids and

  14. Survival Analysis of Patients with End Stage Renal Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, J. D.; Gayo, W. S.; Bautista, L. A.; Baccay, E. B.

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides a survival analysis of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) under Kaplan-Meier Estimates and Weibull Distribution. The data were obtained from the records of V. L. MakabaliMemorial Hospital with respect to time t (patient's age), covariates such as developed secondary disease (Pulmonary Congestion and Cardiovascular Disease), gender, and the event of interest: the death of ESRD patients. Survival and hazard rates were estimated using NCSS for Weibull Distribution and SPSS for Kaplan-Meier Estimates. These lead to the same conclusion that hazard rate increases and survival rate decreases of ESRD patient diagnosed with Pulmonary Congestion, Cardiovascular Disease and both diseases with respect to time. It also shows that female patients have a greater risk of death compared to males. The probability risk was given the equation R = 1 — e-H(t) where e-H(t) is the survival function, H(t) the cumulative hazard function which was created using Cox-Regression.

  15. Coronary artery disease in patients with cerebrovascular disease: a prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Rokey, R.; Rolak, L.A.; Harati, Y.; Kutka, N.; Verani, M.S.

    1984-07-01

    Coronary artery disease is the cause of death in most patients who have transient ischemic attacks or stroke. Evaluation for this condition is not routinely performed in such patients, and no prospective studies have been reported. We prospectively examined 50 consecutive patients with transient ischemic attacks or mild stroke to determine the prevalence and importance of coronary artery disease. All patients were examined by a cardiologist and underwent both exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy and exercise radionuclide ventriculography. Sixteen patients were suspected to have coronary artery disease on the basis of clinical evaluation. In 15 of these the was confirmed by the nuclear scans. The remaining 34 patients had no clinical evidence of heart disease, yet 14 had abnormal cardiac scans. Twenty of 22 patients with abnormal scans who underwent cardiac catheterization had significant coronary artery disease or a cardiomyopathy. The discovery of heart disease altered clinical management in 13 patients. Overall, 29 of 50 patients had significant coronary artery disease, compared with a 7% prevalence of the condition in other patients of similar age at the same institution.

  16. Addressing challenges and needs in patient education targeting hardly reached patients with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Varming, Annemarie Reinhardt; Torenholt, Rikke; Møller, Birgitte Lund; Vestergaard, Susanne; Engelund, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Some patients do not benefit from participation in patient education due to reasons related to disease burden, literacy, and socioeconomic challenges. In this communication, we address more specifically both the challenges that these hardly reached patients face in relation to patient education programs and the challenges educators face when conducting patient education with hardly reached patients. We define principles for the format and content of dialogue tools to better support this patient group within the population of individuals with diabetes.

  17. Addressing challenges and needs in patient education targeting hardly reached patients with chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Varming, Annemarie Reinhardt; Torenholt, Rikke; Møller, Birgitte Lund; Vestergaard, Susanne; Engelund, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Some patients do not benefit from participation in patient education due to reasons related to disease burden, literacy, and socioeconomic challenges. In this communication, we address more specifically both the challenges that these hardly reached patients face in relation to patient education programs and the challenges educators face when conducting patient education with hardly reached patients. We define principles for the format and content of dialogue tools to better support this patient group within the population of individuals with diabetes. PMID:25729695

  18. Thrombophilic Risk Factors in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Ayten; Senturk, Omer; Aygun, Cem; Celebi, Altay; Caglayan, Cigdem; Hulagu, Sadettin

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have an increased risk for thromboembolism. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of thrombophilic risk factors in IBD patients and to assess the associations of these factors with disease activity. Methods Forty-eight patients with IBD (24 ulcerative colitis, 24 Crohn’s disease) and 40 matched healthy control individuals were enrolled. In addition to routine biochemical analysis, fasting blood samples were studied for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, protein-C, protein-S, antithrombin III, factor VII, factor VIII, D-dimer, vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine. Results Levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, D-dimer and the number of platelets were significantly higher in patients with IBD. When compared to control group, in patients with Crohn’s disease serum homocystein levels were significantly higher (p = 0.025) while serum folic acid levels were significantly lower (p < 0.019). Levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, protein C, factor VIII, total homocystein and the number of platelets were found to be significantly higher in Crohn’s disease patients who were in active period of the disease. Conclusions Thrombophilic defects are multifactorial and might be frequently seen in IBD patients. They might contribute to thrombotic complications of this disease. PMID:27942288

  19. Factors associated with HCV risk practices in methadone-maintained patients: the importance of considering the couple in prevention interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One important public health issue associated with opioid use today is the risk of hepatitis C (HCV) infection. Although methadone maintenance may help to decrease HCV-related risk practices, HCV risk behaviors persist and are strongly associated with specific substance use patterns, mental status and social context. The ANRS-Methaville study gave us the opportunity to better disentangle the different relationships between these various factors and HCV risk practices. Methods The ANRS-Methaville multisite randomized trial was designed to assess the feasibility of initiating methadone in primary care by comparing it with methadone initiation in specialized centers. This study recruited 195 participants initiating methadone maintenance and followed up for 12 months. Longitudinal data from this trial was used to acquire a greater understanding of HCV risk practices and their pattern of correlates in this population. We selected 176 patients who had data on HCV risk practices at M0 and M12, accounting for 312 visits. HCV risk practices were defined as follows: sharing needles or syringes, sharing drug paraphernalia, getting a tattoo or having a piercing in a non-professional context, sharing toiletry items. To identify factors associated with HCV risk practices, we performed a mixed logistic regression analysis. Results HCV risk practices were reported by 19% and 15% of participants at baseline and M12, respectively. After adjustment for age, cocaine use and alcohol dependence as well as suicidal risk, living in a couple with a non-drug user and in a couple with a drug user were both independent predictors of HCV risk practices (OR[CI95%] = 4.16 [1.42-12.12]; OR[CI95%] = 9.85 [3.13-31.06], respectively). Conclusions Identifying individuals at risk of HCV transmission during methadone treatment such as stimulant users, alcohol dependent individuals, and those at suicidal risk is necessary to optimize response to treatment. Innovative prevention

  20. Splenectomy for hematologic disease. The UCLA experience with 306 patients.

    PubMed

    Musser, G; Lazar, G; Hocking, W; Busuttil, R W

    1984-07-01

    Between 1956 and 1981, 306 splenectomies for hematologic diseases were performed at the UCLA Medical Center. Of these operations, more than 75% were performed for therapeutic reasons to control anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, or painful symptoms of splenomegaly. Of the 65 patients who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, 77% showed an excellent response, and of the 39 patients who had hereditary spherocytosis, 90% responded. Other diseases with predictably good response rates were autoimmune hemolytic anemias, Felty's syndrome, and hairy cell leukemia. Forty patients with Hodgkin's disease had splenectomies for diagnostic purposes the last 10 years. The overall morbidity and mortality were 24% and 6%, respectively, the most common complications being pneumonia, wound infections, and local postoperative bleeding, and the most common cause of death being sepsis. The review supports the thesis that in carefully selected patients, therapeutic splenectomy can have desirable palliative effects and that diagnostic splenectomy has a sufficiently low risk to warrant its consideration in patients with Hodgkin's disease.

  1. How do disease perception, treatment features, and dermatologist–patient relationship impact on patients assuming topical treatment? An Italian survey

    PubMed Central

    Burroni, Anna Graziella; Fassino, Mariella; Torti, Antonio; Visentin, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Background Psoriasis largely affects daily activities and social interactions and has a strong impact on patients’ quality of life. Psoriatic patients have different attitudes toward their condition. Topical medications are essential for the treatment of psoriasis, but the majority of patients do not adhere to these therapies. Objective The history of treatment success or failure seems to influence patient attitude toward topical therapy. Therefore, it is important to understand the psychological, experiential, and motivational aspects that could be critical for treatment adherence, and to describe the different attitudes toward topical treatment. Furthermore, the physician–patient relationship and the willingness to trust the dermatologist may have a substantial role in encouraging or discouraging patients’ attitudes toward topical therapy. Methods A survey was designed to collect aspects that could be relevant to understanding different patient attitudes toward psoriasis and its treatments. A total of 495 self-administered questionnaires compiled by psoriatic patients were analyzed from 20 Italian specialized hospital centers in order to provide a nationwide picture. Results Psoriatic patients have different perceptions and experiences in relation to their condition: half of them consider psoriasis as a disease, while the other half consider psoriasis as a disorder or a nuisance. Topical therapy is the most widely used treatment, even though it is not considered the most effective one and often perceived to be cosmetic. The main findings are: 1) inadequate patient education about this disease, 2) lack of information about topical treatment, and 3) lack of results within the expected time frame. Furthermore, physicians need to build a good relationship with psoriatic patients in order to motivate them, to trust in their care, and to adhere to treatment. Conclusion This survey adds new and important details about daily life and well-being and the needs of

  2. Phellinus tropicalis Abscesses in a Patient with Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Manish; Resnick, Elena; Hui, Yiqun; Maglione, Paul J.; Mehta, Harshna; Kattan, Jacob; Bouvier, Nicole M.; LaBombardi, Vincent; Victor, Tanya R.; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD), caused by genetic defects in components of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase pathway, leads to recurrent life-threatening bacterial and invasive fungal infections. While a number of unique pathogens have been associated with this disease, the causative organisms may be difficult to identify. Here, we present a 24 year old male with known X-linked CGD who concurrently developed a cervical abscess and an abscess in the subcutaneous tissues of the right hip, both of which were surgically drained. Cultures failed to identify any organisms. He was treated empirically with ertapenem but the hip abscess recurred at the original site and in contiguous dependent areas in the posterior thigh and knee. A filamentous organism was observed microscopically, initially considered a contaminant, but on culture yielded a mold growth, identified as Phellinus tropicalis (synonym: Inonotus tropicalis) based on phenotypic and molecular methods. This is the third case report of human infection with P. tropicalis, all in subjects with CGD. The patient was treated with voriconazole with resolution of his symptoms. PMID:24310980

  3. Improving LASSO performance for Grey Leaf Spot disease resistance prediction based on genotypic data by considering all possible two-way SNP interactions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rinkal; Caraviello, Daniel; Qian, Wei

    2012-05-01

    Disease resistance prediction using genotypic data has been widely pursued in animal as well as plant research, mostly in cases where genotypic data can be readily available for a large number of subjects. With the evolution of SNP marker genotyping technology and the consequent cost reduction for genotyping thousands of SNP markers, significant research effort is being undertaken in the statistics and machine learning community to perform efficient analysis of these multidimensional datasets. For large plant breeding programs, besides identifying biomarkers associated with disease resistance, developing accurate predictive models of the phenotype based on the genotype alone is one of the most relevant scientific goals, as it allows for efficient selection without having to grow and phenotype every individual. While the importance of interactions for understanding diseases has been shown in many studies, the majority of the existing methods are limited by considering each biomarker as an independent variable, completely ignoring complex interactions among biomarkers. In this study, logistic regression p-value, Pearson correlation and mutual information were calculated for all two-way SNP interactions with respect to the Grey Leaf Spot (GLS) disease resistance phenotype. These interactions were subsequently ranked based on these measures and the performance of the LASSO algorithm for GLS disease resistance prediction was then shown to be maximized by adding the top 10 000 two-way interactions from the logistic regression p-value based rank. The logistic regression p-value based rank also led to an error rate of more than 3 percentual points lower than not adding any interaction and more than 3.5 percentual points lower than adding interactions chosen at random.

  4. Screening for celiac disease, by endomysial antibodies, in patients with unexplained articular manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ghozzi, Mariam; Sakly, Wahiba; Mankaï, Amani; Bouajina, Elyes; Bahri, Fethi; Nouira, Rafiaa; Kechrid, Chedia; Ghedira, Ibtissem

    2014-05-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune systemic disease characterized by not only gastrointestinal but also extraintestinal manifestations. The aim of our study was to do a serological screening for CD, by IgA endomysial antibodies (EmA), in patients with unexplained articular manifestations. Two hundred and eleven patients suffering from arthritis or arthralgia without evident cause were studied. EmA were determined by indirect immunofluorescence on human umbilical cord. Two thousand and five hundred blood donors served as control group. Out of 211 patients, 5 had EmA (2.37 %). The frequency of EmA in our patients was significantly higher than in the control group (2.37 vs. 0.28 %, p < 0.01). All patients with positive EmA were female. EmA were significantly more frequent in female patients than in female healthy subjects (3 vs. 0.4 %, p < 0.01). Medical records revealed: diarrhea (one patient), short size (one patient), anemia (three patients), weight loss (two patients) spontaneous abortion (three patients), secondary amenorrhea (one patient), early menopause (one patient) and early baby death (one patient). Biochemical analysis showed decreased level of calcium (one patient), vitamin D (one patient) and cholesterol (one patient). Unexplained liver cytolysis was observed in two patients. Radiological examination showed demineralization of two hands in one patient. Bone osteodensitometry done in one patient out of five revealed lumbar osteopenia. The articular manifestations of the five patients did not respond to corticosteroid treatment. CD must be considered among the differential diagnosis in a patient with arthritis or arthralgia.

  5. Erectile dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ophuis, A.J.M. Oude; Nijeholt, A.A.B. Lycklama à

    2006-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a highly prevalent disease, especially in cardiovascular-compromised men. Many of the well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also risk factors for erectile dysfunction. A correlation between erectile dysfunction and endothelial dysfunction is well established. It is postulated that erectile dysfunction with an arteriovascular aetiology can predate and be an indicator of potential coronary artery disease. In this paper we will attempt to increase awareness among cardiologists for the predictive value of erectile dysfunction for future cardiovascular disease in order to optimise cardiovascular risk management. The treatment of erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular interactions is also discussed in detail. ImagesFigure 1AFigure 1B PMID:25696612

  6. Analysis of the concentration of vitamin E in erythrocytes of patients with celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Szaflarska-Popławska, Anna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Hozyasz, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Consumption of gluten proteins leads to an enteropathy characterised by lymphocytic infiltration of mucous membrane, crypts hypertrophy, and atrophy of villi. Enteropathy leads to disturbances in the immune system as well as secondary deficiency of vitamin E. Aim Analysis of the concentration of vitamin E in erythrocytes of patients with celiac disease. Material and methods Three experimental groups were distinguished among 77 patients with histologically confirmed celiac disease (mean age: 17 years): those who strictly respected gluten-free diet (group I, n = 48), patients breaking dietary recommendations (group II, n = 22), and those with newly diagnosed disease (group III, n = 7). Additionally, a control group consisting of healthy individuals with negative serological markers of celiac disease was formed (group IV, n = 20). Vitamin E concentration was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector. Results Significantly lower average concentration of vitamin E was demonstrated in erythrocytes in all examined groups of patients with celiac disease compared to the control group. Among the patients with celiac disease, the highest average concentration of vitamin E in erythrocytes was observed in the group who respected the gluten-free diet, a little lower in patients who violated dietary recommendations, and lowest among patients with newly diagnosed disease. These relationships, however, were not statistically significant. Conclusions Patients with celiac disease are at risk of vitamin E deficiency irrespective of their diet. Vitamin supplementation should be considered in their case, especially immediately after diagnosis of the disease and in case of breaking a gluten-free diet regime. PMID:28053684

  7. Clostridium difficile infection in a patient with Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chien-Hui; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Ni, Yen-Hsuan

    2012-06-01

    Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder, which is rare in pediatric patients. The definite etiology and mechanism to induce an acute exacerbation of Crohn disease remains mostly unknown. The authors report on a 14-year-old girl with Crohn disease who has acute gastrointestinal symptoms caused by toxin A-producing Clostridium difficile, which mimicked a flare-up of Crohn disease. There was no preceding antibiotic prescription before the episode. The disease activity did not improve after steroid treatment, which is unusual for Crohn disease. However, all symptoms were dramatically relieved after eradication of C difficile, and led to a symptom-free period for more than 3 years. This case report aims to address the unusual presentation of a usual pathogen, C difficile, in a pediatric patient with Crohn disease.

  8. Development of Hodgkin's disease in a patient with leprosy.

    PubMed

    Weshler, Z; Leviatan, A; Gordon, R; Kopolovic, J

    1978-01-01

    We present a patient with leprosy who developed Hodgkin's disease of the nodular sclerosing type. There are two previous reports describing the combination of leprosy and Hodgkin's disease in a single patient [3, 9]. Hodgkin's disease was diagnosed 14 months after the complete disappearance of mycobacterium leprae from the skin lesions, under treatment with DDS (diamino-diphenyl-sulfone). Hodgkin's disease was treated by irradiation and chemotherapy. Obstructive jaundice developed which resolved under treatment by irradiation of the hilar area of the liver, chemotherapy and hormones. During two years of immuno-suppressive therapy, without DDS, no exacerbation of the leprosy occurred.

  9. Designing patient-centric applications for chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Gil-Herrera, Eleazar; Yalcin, Ali; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Barnes, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease are the leading causes of disability and death in the developed world. Technological interventions such as mobile applications have the ability to facilitate and motivate patients in chronic disease management, but these types of interventions present considerable design challenges. The primary objective of this paper is to present the challenges arising from the design and implementation of software applications aiming to assist patients in chronic disease management. We also outline preliminary results regarding a self-management application currently under development targeting young adults suffering from type 1 diabetes.

  10. Clinical aspects of Alzheimer's disease in black and white patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hargrave, R.; Stoeklin, M.; Haan, M.; Reed, B.

    1998-01-01

    This article examines the association between ethnicity and psychiatric symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Data from a cross-sectional study of patients evaluated at nine California Department of Health Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers (ADDTCs) were used. Using the ADDTC patient database, sociodemographic and clinical variables in 207 black patients and 1818 white patients with probable and possible Alzheimer's disease were compared. Logistic and linear regression analysis indicated the following results: 1) black patients had fewer years of education and more often had hypertension, 2) black patients reported shorter duration of illness at the time of initial diagnosis of dementia, 3) black patients had lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher Blessed Roth Dementia Rating Scale scores at the time of initial diagnosis, and 4) black patients more frequently reported insomnia and less frequently reported anxiety. Additional studies are needed to validate these findings and to generate hypotheses about the role of cardiovascular disease and pathophysiology of psychiatric symptoms in ethnic populations with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:9510621

  11. Nosocomial Infections among Pediatric Patients with Neoplastic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Oberdorfer, Peninnah; Pongwilairat, Natthida; Washington, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases are more likely to develop nosocomial infections (NIs). NIs may prolong their hospital stay, and increase morbidity and mortality. Objectives. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the incidence of NIs, (2) sites of NIs, (3) causal organisms, and (4) outcomes of NIs among pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases. Methods. This study was a prospective cohort study of pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases who were admitted to the Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand. Results. A total of 707 pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases were admitted. Forty-six episodes of NIs in 30 patients were reported (6.5 NIs/100 admission episodes and 7 NIs/1000 days of hospitalization). Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia had the highest number of NIs (41.3%). The most common causal organisms were gram-negative bacteria (47.1%). Patients who had undergone invasive procedures were more likely to develop NIs than those who had not (P < .05). The mortality rate of patients with NIs was 19.6%. Conclusion. Pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases are more likely to develop NIs after having undergone invasive procedures. Pediatricians should be aware of this and strictly follow infection control guidelines in order to reduce morbidity and mortality rates related to NIs. PMID:20049342

  12. Nosocomial Infections among Pediatric Patients with Neoplastic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Oberdorfer, Peninnah; Pongwilairat, Natthida; Washington, Charles H

    2009-01-01

    Background. Pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases are more likely to develop nosocomial infections (NIs). NIs may prolong their hospital stay, and increase morbidity and mortality. Objectives. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the incidence of NIs, (2) sites of NIs, (3) causal organisms, and (4) outcomes of NIs among pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases. Methods. This study was a prospective cohort study of pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases who were admitted to the Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand. Results. A total of 707 pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases were admitted. Forty-six episodes of NIs in 30 patients were reported (6.5 NIs/100 admission episodes and 7 NIs/1000 days of hospitalization). Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia had the highest number of NIs (41.3%). The most common causal organisms were gram-negative bacteria (47.1%). Patients who had undergone invasive procedures were more likely to develop NIs than those who had not (P < .05). The mortality rate of patients with NIs was 19.6%. Conclusion. Pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases are more likely to develop NIs after having undergone invasive procedures. Pediatricians should be aware of this and strictly follow infection control guidelines in order to reduce morbidity and mortality rates related to NIs.

  13. Music as a memory enhancer in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Stern, Nicholas R; Budson, Andrew E; Ally, Brandon A

    2010-08-01

    Musical mnemonics have a long and diverse history of popular use. In addition, music processing in general is often considered spared by the neurodegenerative effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research examining these two phenomena is limited, and no work to our knowledge has explored the effectiveness of musical mnemonics in AD. The present study sought to investigate the effect of music at encoding on the subsequent recognition of associated verbal information. Lyrics of unfamiliar children's songs were presented bimodally at encoding, and visual stimuli were accompanied by either a sung or a spoken recording. Patients with AD demonstrated better recognition accuracy for the sung lyrics than the spoken lyrics, while healthy older adults showed no significant difference between the two conditions. We propose two possible explanations for these findings: first, that the brain areas subserving music processing may be preferentially spared by AD, allowing a more holistic encoding that facilitates recognition, and second, that music heightens arousal in patients with AD, allowing better attention and improved memory.

  14. Neuropsychological findings in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease.

    PubMed

    Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gagliano, Antonella; Calarese, Tiziana; Magaudda, Adriana; Striano, Pasquale; Cortese, Lara; Cedro, Clemente; Laguitton, Virgilie; Bramanti, Placido; Carbonaro, Marilena; Albachiara, Addolorata; Fragassi, Nina; Italiano, Domenico; Sessa, Edoardo; Coppola, Antonietta; Genton, Pierre

    2009-03-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify if patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) have adequate cognitive functioning and to delineate their neuropsychological profile. We evaluated 20 patients with ULD and 20 healthy, matched controls. Mean age of the patients was 35 years, and mean duration of disease, 22 years. Patients underwent a neuropsychological battery exploring intelligence, executive functions, visuospatial and verbal memory, depression, and anxiety. Eleven of 20 subjects with ULD had mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Compared with controls, patients with ULD had lower scores on all short-term memory and executive function tasks. Linear regression analysis disclosed significant associations between impaired performance on some memory tests and duration of disease and between severity of myoclonus and performance on most executive function tests. In conclusion, most patients with ULD seem to be impaired with respect to cognitive abilities. Longitudinal prospective studies are needed to confirm and further expand our findings.

  15. The large spectrum of renal disease in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo, Sheila; Pascual, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy (DN) among diabetic patients seems to be overestimated. Recent studies with renal biopsies show that the incidence of non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN) among diabetic patients is higher than expected. Renal impairment of diabetic patients is frequently attributed to DN without meeting the KDOQI criteria or performing renal biopsy to exclude NDN. In this editorial, we update the spectrum of renal disease in diabetic patients and the impact on diagnosis, prognosis and therapy.

  16. Rare disease patients in China anticipate the sunlight of legislation.

    PubMed

    Gao, J J; Song, P P; Tang, W

    2013-06-01

    It is estimated that there are over ten million rare disease patients in China currently. Due to a lack of effective drugs and reimbursement regulations for medical expenses the diseases bring most patients enormous physical suffering and psychological despair. Past experience in other countries such as the United States, Japan, and the European Union have shown that legislation is the critical step to improve the miserable situation of rare disease patients. Laws and regulations for rare diseases in these countries prescribe a series of incentives for research and development of orphan drugs which turn out to obviously allow these drugs to flourish. Legislation has also established a drug reimbursement system to reduce the medical burden of the patients. These measures effectively protect the rights and interests of patients with rare diseases. In China, legislation for rare diseases has begun to attract the attention of authorities. It is anticipated that relevant laws and regulations will be established as early as possible to provide safeguards for rare disease patients in China.

  17. Thyroid gland diseases in adult patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Vondra, K; Vrbikova, J; Dvorakova, K

    2005-12-01

    This review concerns the relation between most frequent thyroid gland diseases and diabetes mellitus in adult patients. Special attention is paid to autoimmune thyroiditis, Graves' disease, thyroid autoimmunity in pregnant diabetic women, and iodine metabolism. We focused on mechanisms leading to coexistence of both endocrine disorders, and on distinctions in the prevalence, diagnosis, clinical course and treatment of thyroid diseases in diabetic patients. The prevalence of thyroid diseases in diabetic patients is 2-3 times higher than in nondiabetic subjects; it raises with age, and is strongly influenced by female gender and autoimmune diabetes. Clinical relevance of thyroid diseases, especially in diabetic patients, significantly increases if it is associated with deteriorated function, which always cause a number problems with metabolic compensation of diabetes. Most serious consequences are increased frequency of hypoglycaemia in hypothyroidism and development of potentially life-threatening ketoacidosis in thyrotoxicosis. In spite of that, little attention is paid to the diagnosis of thyroid diseases in diabetics, as they are diagnosed in only about half of the patients. At the end, we provide recommendations for the thyroid disease screening and diagnosis in patients with diabetes mellitus based on our experience.

  18. Hemorheological Alteration in Patients Clinically Diagnosed with Chronic Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Jang, Bohyun; Han, Ji Won; Sung, Pil Soo; Jang, Jeong Won; Bae, Si Hyun; Choi, Jong Young; Cho, Young I; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2016-12-01

    Since liver function is changed by chronic liver diseases, chronic liver disease can lead to different hemorheological alterations during the course of the progression. This study aims to compare alterations in whole blood viscosity in patients with chronic liver disease, focusing on the gender effect. Chronic liver diseases were classified into three categories by patient's history, serologic markers, and radiologic findings: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 63), chronic viral hepatitis B and C (n = 50), and liver cirrhosis (LC) (n = 35). Whole blood viscosity was measured by automated scanning capillary tube viscometer, while liver stiffness was measured by transient elastography using FibroScan®. Both systolic and diastolic whole blood viscosities were significantly lower in patients with LC than NAFLD and chronic viral hepatitis (P < 0.001) in male patients, but not in female patients. In correlation analysis, there were inverse relationships between both systolic and diastolic whole blood viscosity and liver stiffness (systolic: r = -0.25, diastolic: r = -0.22). Whole blood viscosity was significantly lower in male patients with LC than NAFLD or chronic viral hepatitis. Our data suggest that whole blood viscosity test can become a useful tool for classifying chronic liver disease and determining the prognosis for different types of chronic liver diseases.

  19. Clinical Analysis of Algerian Patients with Pompe Disease

    PubMed Central

    Medjroubi, M.; Froissart, R.; Taghane, N.; Sifi, K.; Benhabiles, A.; Lemai, S.; Semra, S.; Benmekhebi, H.; Bouderda, Z.; Abadi, N.; Hamri, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pompe's disease is a metabolic myopathy caused by a deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA), also called acid maltase, an enzyme that degrades lysosomal glycogen. The clinical presentation of Pompe's disease is variable with respect to the age of onset and rate of disease progression. Patients with onset of symptoms in early infancy (infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD)) typically exhibit rapidly progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and marked muscle weakness. Most of them die within the first year of life from cardiac and/or respiratory failure. In the majority of cases of Pompe's disease, onset of symptoms occurs after infancy, ranging widely from the first to sixth decade of life (late-onset Pompe's disease or LOPD). Progression of the disease is relentless and patients eventually progress to loss of ambulation and death due to respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical presentation of 6 patients (3 with EOPD and the other 3 with LOPD) of 5 families from the East of Algeria. All our patients were diagnosed as having Pompe's disease based on biochemical confirmations of GAA deficiency by dried blood spots (DBS) and GAA gene mutations were analyzed in all patients who consented (n = 4). Our results are similar to other ethnic groups. PMID:28265479

  20. Burden of Disease: The Psychosocial Impact of Rosacea on a Patient's Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Tu T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rosacea is a chronic skin disorder that adversely affects patients' quality of life. Current studies focus on the therapies that treat the clinical signs and symptoms of rosacea, but the impact of this disease on patients' emotional health and quality of life is often overlooked. Objectives To describe the disease burden of rosacea and the psychosocial implications on patients' quality of life and to review the current understanding of the disease and the available therapies. Discussion The facial skin manifestations of rosacea have significant implications on patients' well-being and social and emotional health. The 4 clinical subtypes of this disease include erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular, and patients may present with more than 1 subtype. Patients with rosacea have reported a negative burden of their disease, such as low self-esteem, low self-confidence, and decreased social interactions. Improvement of the clinical symptoms of rosacea improves the patient's emotional well-being and quality of life. Several topical medications and 1 oral medication have been approved for the treatment of rosacea. Although current therapies do not cure the disease and do not treat the facial erythema associated with it, they do treat the papules and pustules associated with this condition. Proper management of the signs and symptoms of rosacea has been shown to improve patients' quality of life. Conclusion The self-perception of disease severity varies among patients with rosacea, so physicians should carefully consider each patient's concerns when prescribing a treatment regimen. Although no cure exists, effective treatment options aid in the management of signs and symptoms of rosacea. New therapies that treat the broad range of rosacea symptoms are needed. PMID:24991368

  1. Emergency care necessity for sickle cell disease patients at Rio de Janeiro State Coordinating Blood Bank

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Mario Sant'Anna; de Matos, Haroldo José; Fidlarczyk, Delaine

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies, in particular sickle cell disease, is the most prevalent group of genetically transmitted diseases in the Brazilian population and should thus be treated as a public health problem. Many of these patients frequently present with complications and require emergency care at the blood bank Coordinator in Rio de Janeiro. This study was developed with the aim of characterizing the emergency assistance required by sickle cell disease patients registered in the blood bank from January 2007 to December 2008. A retrospective study of medical records was made of 78, mostly children, patients from the date of their registration until December 2009. Most attendances (63.7%) were not considered emergency care. The use of specialized services for cases that do not require this level of complexity may saturate the capacity of these centers. However, delay of intervention for complications due to the transportation of patients to specialist centers may lead to deterioration in the clinical condition. PMID:23284258

  2. Management of patients with hepatitis C infection and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Bunchorntavakul, Chalermrat; Maneerattanaporn, Monthira; Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya

    2015-02-27

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with more rapid liver disease progression and reduced renal graft and patients' survival following kidney transplantation. Evaluations and management of HCV in patients with renal disease are challenging. The pharmacokinetics of interferons (IFN), ribavirin (RBV) and some direct acting antiviral (DAA), such as sofosbuvir, are altered in patients with ESRD. With dose adjustment and careful monitoring, treatment of HCV in patients with ESRD can be associated with sustained virological response (SVR) rates nearly comparable to that of patients with normal renal function. DAA-based regimens, especially the IFN-free and RBV-free regimens, are theoretically preferred for patients with ESRD and KT in order to increase SVR rates and to reduce treatment side effects. However, based on the data for pharmacokinetics, dosing safety and efficacy of DAA for patients with severe renal impairment are lacking. This review will be focused on the evaluations, available pharmacologic data, and management of HCV in patients with severe renal impairment, patients who underwent KT, and those who suffered from HCV-related renal disease, according to the available treatment options, including DAA.

  3. Raynaud's disease: patient education as a primary nursing intervention.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, M W; All, A C

    1996-06-01

    The terms Raynaud's disease and Raynaud's phenomenon are often used interchangeably to identify two distinct disease states that initially appear with similar symptoms but then have very different sequelae. Triggered primarily by cold weather, both conditions commonly result in a vasospastic response predominantly observed in the fingers and toes. A review of the relevant health care literature indicates that there is little, if any, information available on Raynaud's disease that would be of particular and specific interest to the nursing profession. So that they can provide appropriate patient teaching, nurses need to be familiar with the precipitating factors, signs and symptoms, evaluation methods, and treatments of Raynaud's disease. This article focuses specifically on Raynaud's disease, which affects many women but relatively few men. A historic perspective on this disease state is provided, and postulated pathophysiologic mechanisms for the onset of this condition are addressed. The patient who is experiencing symptoms of this disease may have complaints of pain and numbness particularly in the fingers. The nurse's primary role is patient education so that the onset of symptoms associated with this disease can be identified and minimized. A discussion of nursing implications with a focus on teaching is provided. A case study is presented of a patient with Raynaud's disease, which will serve to highlight and expound on key information provided throughout the text of this article.

  4. [Pregnancy in patients with underlying renal disease].

    PubMed

    Golshayan, D; Mathieu, C; Burnier, M

    2007-03-07

    Pregnancy has generally been regarded as very high risk in women with chronic renal insufficiency. In this review, we describe the physiologic changes in systemic and renal haemodynamics during pregnancy, as well as the nature and severity of possible maternal and foetal complications in the setting of underlying renal disease. The risks are proportional to the degree of functional renal impairment, the presence or not of proteinuria and/or arterial hypertension at the time of conception, and are related to the type of underlying nephropathy or systemic disease in the mother. Furthermore, if the renal disease has been diagnosed before pregnancy, a better planning of the moment of conception, as well as a tight follow-up, allow for a better maternal and obstetrical outcome.

  5. Thyroid Disease in the Older Patient

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the normal range. Symptoms and signs of angina pectoris and heart failure must be treated in tandem ... replacement more quickly. In patients who experience increased angina pectoris, symptoms of congestive heart failure, or mental changes ...

  6. Disposition of nitrendipine in patients with chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Zilly, W; Rämsch, K D; Gothe, M

    1988-01-01

    Metabolism of nitrendipine occurs principally in the liver. Therefore, an alteration of pharmacokinetics has to be discussed in patients with hepatic impairment. To evaluate steady-state plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics, a low dose of nitrendipine (5 mg/day for 3 weeks) was administered orally to patients with different chronic liver diseases (fatty liver, n = 3; chronic hepatitis, n = 2; and cirrhosis of the liver, n = 5). Nitrendipine plasma concentrations were analyzed by using a gas-liquid chromatography procedure. Twenty-two days after beginning the study, steady-state plasma concentrations were lower than 1.0 microgram/L in one patient without liver disease and in seven patients with chronic liver diseases, in contrast to three patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (5.5, 1.3, and 2.9 micrograms/L). The maximum concentration (Cmax) was 2.3 micrograms/L in the patient without liver disease and 8.3 +/- 3.9 micrograms/L in the hepatic patients. The elimination half-life was prolonged in three of five patients with cirrhosis of the liver (35, 67, and 43 h), whereas in the other patients the half-life was in a normal range (4.2-21.3 h). The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was enhanced in three patients with liver cirrhosis (387, 69, and 126 h/micrograms/L); in the other seven hepatic patients, results were normal (35-49 h/micrograms/L). There were no alterations observed in any patient in blood pressure and laboratory data. Oral administration of a low dose of nitrendipine resulted in slightly enhanced steady state plasma concentrations only in patients with advanced cirrhosis of the liver. The half-life, AUC, and bioavailability also seem to be altered only in a more severe state of liver disease.

  7. Patient specific Parkinson's disease detection for adaptive deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Ameer; Zamani, Majid; Bayford, Richard; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Continuous deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients results in side effects and shortening of the pacemaker battery life. This can be remedied using adaptive stimulation. To achieve adaptive DBS, patient customized PD detection is required due to the inconsistency associated with biomarkers across patients and time. This paper proposes the use of patient specific feature extraction together with adaptive support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to create a patient customized detector for PD. The patient specific feature extraction is obtained using the extrema of the ratio between the PD and non-PD spectra bands of each patient as features, while the adaptive SVM classifier adjusts its decision boundary until a suitable model is obtained. This yields individualised features and classifier pairs for each patient. Datasets containing local field potentials of PD patients were used to validate the method. Six of the nine patient datasets tested achieved a classification accuracy greater than 98%. The adaptive detector is suitable for realization on chip.

  8. Role of Myeloperoxidase in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kisic, Bojana; Miric, Dijana; Dragojevic, Ilija; Rasic, Julijana; Popovic, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. Patients with CKD have a number of disorders in the organism, and the presence of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in these patients is the subject of numerous studies. Chronic inflammation joined with oxidative stress contributes to the development of numerous complications: accelerated atherosclerosis process and cardiovascular disease, emergence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, development of malnutrition, anaemia, hyperparathyroidism, and so forth, affecting the prognosis and quality of life of patients with CKD. In this review we presented the potential role of the myeloperoxidase enzyme in the production of reactive/chlorinating intermediates and their role in oxidative damage to biomolecules in the body of patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. In addition, we discussed the role of modified lipoprotein particles under the influence of prooxidant MPO intermediates in the development of endothelial changes and cardiovascular complications in renal failure. PMID:27127544

  9. Fractal dynamics of body motion in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Masaki; Akay, Metin; Tamura, Toshiyo; Higashi, Yuji; Fujimoto, Toshiro

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, we assess the complexity (fractal measure) of body motion during walking in patients with Parkinson's disease. The body motion of 11 patients with Parkinson's disease and 10 healthy elderly subjects was recorded using a triaxial accelerometry technique. A triaxial accelerometer was attached to the lumbar region. An assessment of the complexity of body motion was made using a maximum-likelihood-estimator-based fractal analysis method. Our data suggest that the fractal measures of the body motion of patients with Parkinson's disease are higher than those of healthy elderly subjects. These results were statistically different in the X (anteroposterior), Y (lateral) and Z (vertical) directions of body motion between patients with Parkinson's disease and the healthy elderly subjects (p < 0.01 in X and Z directions and p < 0.05 in Y direction). The complexity (fractal measure) of body motion can be useful to assess and monitor the output from the motor system during walking in clinical practice.

  10. Premovement facilitation of corticospinal excitability in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Notani, Masaru; Iwata, Akira; Minamida, Fumiko; Abe, Kazuo

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the abnormality of premovement facilitation in patients with Parkinson's disease. Seven patients with Parkinson's disease and seven healthy subjects participated in this study. The subjects attempted abduction of the index finger in response to a visual start cue, and motor-evoked potentials were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle before movement onset. The rate of premovement facilitation in patients with Parkinson's disease was slower than that in healthy subjects. Additionally, the rate of premovement facilitation as a function of delay from the start cue was positively correlated with the reaction time. These findings indicate that premovement facilitation is abnormal in patients with Parkinson's disease. This abnormality may be partially related to akinesia.

  11. Interdisciplinary Management of Patient with Advanced Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Kochar, Gagan Deep; Jayan, B; Chopra, S S; Mechery, Reenesh; Goel, Manish; Verma, Munish

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the interdisciplinary management of an adult patient with advanced periodontal disease. Treatment involved orthodontic and periodontal management. Good esthetic results and dental relationships were achieved by the treatment.

  12. Discussing sexuality with patients in a motor neurone disease clinic.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Rachael; Botell, Rachel

    Sexual relationships remain an important aspect of life for people living with motor neurone disease. This article explores the use of the Extended-PLISSIT model when discussing relationships and sexual function with patients and their partners in a motor neurone disease clinic. The model provides a structured approach to assist discussions with patients as well as promoting reflection and exchange of knowledge in the multidisciplinary team. It is a useful model when addressing issues that are sometimes difficult to discuss.

  13. [Palliative care of patients with terminal obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    von Plessen, Christian; Nielsen, Thyge L; Steffensen, Ida E; Larsen, Shuruk Al-Halwai; Taudorf, Ebbe

    2011-10-17

    Terminal chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and advanced cancer have similar prognosis and symptom burden. However, palliative care of patients with terminal COPD has been neglected in Denmark. We describe the symptoms of terminal COPD and suggest criteria for defining the palliative phase of the disease. Furthermore we discuss the prognostic and ethical challenges for patients, their families and their caregivers. Finally, we summarize the current evidence for palliative treatment of dyspnoea and ways to evaluate response to treatment.

  14. Risk Factors for the Development and Progression of Atlantoaxial Subluxation in Surgically Treated Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients, Considering the Time Interval between Rheumatoid Arthritis Diagnosis and Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Na, Min-Kyun; Bak, Koang-Hum; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Ryu, Je Il; Han, Myung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic disease that can affect the cervical spine, especially the atlantoaxial region. The present study evaluated the risk factors for atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) development and progression in patients who have undergone surgical treatment. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the data of 62 patients with RA and surgically treated AAS between 2002 and 2015. Additionally, we identified 62 patients as controls using propensity score matching of sex and age among 12667 RA patients from a rheumatology registry between 2007 and 2015. We extracted patient data, including sex, age at diagnosis, age at surgery, disease duration, radiographic hand joint changes, and history of methotrexate use, and laboratory data, including presence of rheumatoid factor and the C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Results The mean patient age at diagnosis was 38.0 years. The mean time interval between RA diagnosis and AAS surgery was 13.6±7.0 years. The risk factors for surgically treated AAS development were the serum CRP level (p=0.005) and radiographic hand joint erosion (p=0.009). The risk factors for AAS progression were a short time interval between RA diagnosis and radiographic hand joint erosion (p<0.001) and young age at RA diagnosis (p=0.04). Conclusion The CRP level at RA diagnosis and a short time interval between RA diagnosis and radiographic hand joint erosion might be risk factors for surgically treated AAS development in RA patients. Additionally, a short time interval between RA diagnosis and radiographic hand joint erosion and young age at RA diagnosis might be risk factors for AAS progression. PMID:27847572

  15. Social Media Use in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling; Reich, Jason; Groshek, Jacob; Farraye, Francis A

    2016-05-01

    Patients with chronic illnesses such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) have been more keen to utilize the Internet and in particular, social media to obtain patient educational information in recent years. It is important for the gastroenterologist to be aware of these modalities and how they might affect information exchange and ultimately, disease management. This article addresses the current prevalence of social media use, advent of mobile health applications, social media usage in patients with chronic conditions, usage amongst providers, and most notably, the usage and preferences in IBD patients. Over the last decade there has been an increasing desire from patients to receive educational material about their disease through social media. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of IBD-related information on social media. Given the disparity of information available on the Internet, we remark on the quality of this information and stress the need for further research to assess the validity of IBD information posted on social media.

  16. Hemorheological Alteration in Patients Clinically Diagnosed with Chronic Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Since liver function is changed by chronic liver diseases, chronic liver disease can lead to different hemorheological alterations during the course of the progression. This study aims to compare alterations in whole blood viscosity in patients with chronic liver disease, focusing on the gender effect. Chronic liver diseases were classified into three categories by patient’s history, serologic markers, and radiologic findings: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 63), chronic viral hepatitis B and C (n = 50), and liver cirrhosis (LC) (n = 35). Whole blood viscosity was measured by automated scanning capillary tube viscometer, while liver stiffness was measured by transient elastography using FibroScan®. Both systolic and diastolic whole blood viscosities were significantly lower in patients with LC than NAFLD and chronic viral hepatitis (P < 0.001) in male patients, but not in female patients. In correlation analysis, there were inverse relationships between both systolic and diastolic whole blood viscosity and liver stiffness (systolic: r = −0.25, diastolic: r = −0.22). Whole blood viscosity was significantly lower in male patients with LC than NAFLD or chronic viral hepatitis. Our data suggest that whole blood viscosity test can become a useful tool for classifying chronic liver disease and determining the prognosis for different types of chronic liver diseases. PMID:27822933

  17. Aggregation of red blood cells in patients with Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Adar, Tomer; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Elstein, Deborah; Zimran, Ari; Berliner, Shlomo; Yedgar, Saul; Barshtein, Gershon

    2006-08-01

    Gaucher disease is associated with increased red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, but the pathophysiological significance of this phenomenon and its correlation with disease manifestations are unclear. RBC aggregation was evaluated in 43 patients with Gaucher disease and 53 healthy controls. Dynamic RBC aggregation was examined in a narrow-gap flow chamber at varying shear stress. Compared with the controls, RBC aggregation in Gaucher disease was increased by 25%. Comparison of RBC aggregation in autologous plasma and in dextran (500 kDa) showed an increase both in plasma-dependent (extrinsic) and -independent (intrinsic) RBC aggregation. Subgroup analysis revealed that increased RBC aggregation was limited to patients with an intact spleen. RBC aggregation in patients did not correlate with plasma fibrinogen concentration, disease severity, enzyme replacement therapy or genotype. We conclude that RBC aggregation is increased in patients with Gaucher disease and an intact spleen, possibly reflecting the accumulation of glucocerebroside and other substances in the plasma and RBC membranes of these patients. Our results do not support a role for RBC aggregation in the pathogenesis of vascular complications of Gaucher disease.

  18. Clostridium Difficile Infection Worsen Outcome of Hospitalized Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Lin, Qian-Yun; Fei, Jia-Xi; Zhang, Yan; Lin, Min-Yi; Jiang, Shuang-Hong; Wang, Pu; Chen, Ye

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has increased rapidly over the past several decades in North America and Europe. However, the exact global epidemiology remains unclear because of insufficient data from developing countries. A total of 646 hospitalized adult IBD patients were enrolled; and their fresh stool specimens were obtained and used for Clostridium difficile detection. The incidence of CDI in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients (12.7%) was significantly lower than that in Ulcerative disease (UC) patients (19.3%). Among the toxin types, A+B+ strain was the most common. Length of stay, hospitalization frequency and bowel surgery rate were significantly higher in the CDI than in the non-CDI group in CD or UC patients. More patients in CDI-CD group were still in active and even clinical moderate or severe CD stage than non-CDI-CD group after 2 years of following-up. Fistula, antibiotics and infliximab usage likely increased the CDI rate in CD patients, Infliximab treatment was considered a risk factor in UC patients. CDI is an exacerbating public health issue that may influence IBD course, increase expenditures, and delay the remission of IBD patients. IBD patients with CDI require urgent attention. PMID:27417996

  19. Autonomic function assessment in Parkinson's disease patients using the kernel method and entrainment techniques.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmed K

    2007-01-01

    The experimental procedure of lowering and raising a leg while the subject is in the supine position is considered to stimulate and entrain the autonomic nervous system of fifteen untreated patients with Parkinson's disease and fifteen age and sex matched control subjects. The assessment of autonomic function for each group is achieved using an algorithm based on Volterra kernel estimation. By applying this algorithm and considering the process of lowering and raising a leg as stimulus input and the Heart Rate Variability signal (HRV) as output for system identification, a mathematical model is expressed as integral equations. The integral equations are considered and fixed for control subjects and Parkinson's disease patients so that the identification method reduced to the determination of the values within the integral called kernels, resulting in an integral equations whose input-output behavior is nearly identical to that of the system in both healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease patients. The model for each group contains the linear part (first order kernel) and quadratic part (second order kernel). A difference equation model was employed to represent the system for both control subjects and patients with Parkinson's disease. The results show significant difference in first order kernel(impulse response) and second order kernel (mesh diagram) for each group. Using first order kernel and second order kernel, it is possible to assess autonomic function qualitatively and quantitatively in both groups.

  20. Pregnancy in end-stage renal disease patients on dialysis: how to achieve a successful delivery.

    PubMed

    Manisco, Gianfranco; Potì', Marcello; Maggiulli, Giuseppe; Di Tullio, Massimo; Losappio, Vincenzo; Vernaglione, Luigi

    2015-06-01

    Pregnancy in women with chronic kidney disease has always been considered as a challenging event both for the mother and the fetus. Over the years, several improvements have been achieved in the outcome of pregnant chronic renal patients with increasing rates of successful deliveries. To date, evidence suggests that the stage of renal failure is the main predictive factor of worsening residual kidney function and complications in pregnant women. Moreover, the possibility of success of the pregnancy depends on adequate depurative and pharmacological strategies in patients with end-stage renal disease. In this paper, we propose a review of the current literature about this topic presenting our experience as well.

  1. Pregnancy in end-stage renal disease patients on dialysis: how to achieve a successful delivery

    PubMed Central

    Manisco, Gianfranco; Potì’, Marcello; Maggiulli, Giuseppe; Di Tullio, Massimo; Losappio, Vincenzo; Vernaglione, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy in women with chronic kidney disease has always been considered as a challenging event both for the mother and the fetus. Over the years, several improvements have been achieved in the outcome of pregnant chronic renal patients with increasing rates of successful deliveries. To date, evidence suggests that the stage of renal failure is the main predictive factor of worsening residual kidney function and complications in pregnant women. Moreover, the possibility of success of the pregnancy depends on adequate depurative and pharmacological strategies in patients with end-stage renal disease. In this paper, we propose a review of the current literature about this topic presenting our experience as well. PMID:26034591

  2. Steven Johnson syndrome in a patient with Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, N; Periyasamy, P; Kamaruddin, N

    2009-09-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a pathological condition associated with excessive cortisol production, the commonest etiology being Cushing's disease. Corticosteroids in high doses have been used in the management of Steven Johnson Syndrome (SJS) with favourable outcome. We describe a patient with Cushing's disease who developed SJS, one week after taking sperulina a product from sea-weed while waiting for transphenoidal surgery.

  3. Medical management of the patient with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mask, A G

    2000-06-01

    Cigarette smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and periodontal disease have been established as major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Dentists and physicians should work aggressively to educate periodontitis patients about this relationship in an effort to improve the quality of health and contribute to their long-term survival. Blood pressure should be checked at the initial dental visit and at each subsequent visit in patients whose blood pressure is found to be high and/or has a history of hypertension. Dental and medical assistants should receive in-service training to assure competency in measuring blood pressures. All staff should be certified in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Emergency protocol procedures should be in writing and rehearsed regularly. Patients should take their blood pressure medication as usual on the day of the dental procedure. It is helpful for the patients to bring all medications to the office for review at the time of the dental procedure. Good communication should be established between the dentist and physician to maximize good dental and physical health. Because the patient with periodontal disease is at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, a standardized form should be developed for the convenient exchange of vital information, including but not limited to: blood pressure, medications, allergies, medical conditions and pertinent highlights of dental procedures. Minimize stress in patients with coronary artery disease. This includes providing solid local anesthesia, avoidance of intravascular medication injections, and encouraging relaxation techniques. Antibiotic prophylaxis is indicated in patients with valvular heart disease but does not guarantee the prevention of endocarditis. These patients should be alerted to monitor any symptoms such as fever, chills or shortness of breath. It has also been documented that toothbrushing, flossing and home plaque removers can cause transient bacteremia in

  4. Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients with Blount Disease or Blount-Like Deformity.

    PubMed

    Natoli, Roman M; Nypaver, Chrissy M; Schiff, Adam P; Hopkinson, William J; Rees, Harold W

    2016-01-01

    Blount disease is associated with complex deformity of the proximal tibia, and some patients will develop knee osteoarthritis. Five patients (eight knees) with Blount disease or Blount-like deformity underwent total knee arthroplasty. Mean proximal tibial metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle was 20.75°. Each patient had substantial posteromedial tibial bony defects and six knees required extensive medial releases. Two knees required increased constraint at index procedure. One patient has undergone bilateral revision surgery with rotating hinge prostheses. Mean WOMAC scores were 13.5 and Knee Society scores were 212.5 at average 75.2 month follow-up. Despite technical challenges, patients with these deformities can have successful outcomes after total knee arthroplasty. Surgeons should be prepared to address posteromedial tibial bony defects and consider constrained arthroplasty at the index procedure.

  5. [Neuroimaging for patients with Alzheimer disease in routine practice].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    In routine practice neuroimaging has been applied as an adjunct technique for early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in routine practice. Of the several neuroimaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been commonly used in Japan; further software programs are used to aid statistical analysis of the imaging results. For example voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer disease (VSRAD) for MRI and easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS) are used for the analysis of MRI and SPECT. In the early stage of Alzheimer disease, specific findings of regional atrophy and perfusion reduction are observed in some areas. In the posterior cingulate gyrus precuneus and parietal cortex, perfusion reduction was more frequently observed than atrophy. On the other hand, in the medial temporal structures, perfusion reduction was less frequently observed than atrophy. Perfusion reduction in the the posterior cingulate gyrus precuneus and in the parietal cortex was more prominent in the case of patients with early-onset Alzheimer disease than in the case of patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease. Further, atrophy in the medial temporal structures was more prominent in the case of patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease than in the case of those with early-onset Alzheimer disease. These findings are helpful for differentiating of Alzheimer disease from other diseases characterized by dementia.

  6. Measurement of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Sandilands, Euan A; Dhaun, Neeraj; Dear, James W; Webb, David J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality as a result of kidney failure and cardiovascular disease. Accurate assessment of kidney function is important in the clinical setting as a screening tool and for monitoring disease progression and guiding prognosis. In clinical research, the development of new methods to measure kidney function accurately is important in the search for new therapeutic targets and the discovery of novel biomarkers to aid early identification of kidney injury. This review considers different methods for measuring kidney function and their contribution to the improvement of detection, monitoring and treatment of chronic kidney disease. PMID:23802624

  7. Measurement of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Sandilands, Euan A; Dhaun, Neeraj; Dear, James W; Webb, David J

    2013-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality as a result of kidney failure and cardiovascular disease. Accurate assessment of kidney function is important in the clinical setting as a screening tool and for monitoring disease progression and guiding prognosis. In clinical research, the development of new methods to measure kidney function accurately is important in the search for new therapeutic targets and the discovery of novel biomarkers to aid early identification of kidney injury. This review considers different methods for measuring kidney function and their contribution to the improvement of detection, monitoring and treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  8. Anxiety in Patients with Cardiac Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    J. Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy . Circulation. 1999;99:2192-2217. 32...admission, use of various therapies in the emergency department, and pain level. None of these variables interacted with country to affect anxiety. There was...fraction < 30%; 2) have undergone evaluation of HF and optimization of medical therapy , and have not been referred for heart transplantation; 3) no history

  9. Stress Ulcer Disease in the Burned Patient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    association of acute upper gastrointestinal tract disease with burn injury was noted as early as 1823 by both Cumin |l| and Swan [2|. but was largely...recommend intragastric irrigation with warm saline [42] and/or selective arterial injec- tion of vasoactive agents such as posterior pituitary extract [43... Cumin , W.: Cases of severe burn, with dissections and remarks. Edinburgh Medical Journal 7^:337, 1823 2. Swan. J.: Practical observations: case of a

  10. Patterns of cortical thinning in nondemented Parkinson's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Uribe, Carme; Segura, Barbara; Baggio, Hugo Cesar; Abos, Alexandra; Marti, Maria Jose; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Bargallo, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Clinical variability in the Parkinson's disease phenotype suggests the existence of disease subtypes. We investigated whether distinct anatomical patterns of atrophy can be identified in Parkinson's disease using a hypothesis‐free, data‐driven approach based on cortical thickness data. Methods T1‐weighted 3‐tesla MRI and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment were performed in a sample of 88 nondemented Parkinson's disease patients and 31 healthy controls. We performed a hierarchical cluster analysis of imaging data using Ward's linkage method. A general linear model with cortical thickness data was used to compare clustering groups. Results We observed 3 patterns of cortical thinning in patients when compared with healthy controls. Pattern 1 (n = 30, 34.09%) consisted of cortical atrophy in bilateral precentral gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, cuneus, posterior cingulate, and parahippocampal gyrus. These patients showed worse cognitive performance when compared with controls and the other 2 patterns. Pattern 2 (n = 29, 32.95%) consisted of cortical atrophy involving occipital and frontal as well as superior parietal areas and included patients with younger age at onset. Finally, in pattern 3 (n = 29, 32.95%), there was no detectable cortical thinning. Patients in the 3 patterns did not differ in disease duration, motor severity, dopaminergic medication doses, or presence of mild cognitive impairment. Conclusions Three cortical atrophy subtypes were identified in nondemented Parkinson's disease patients: (1) parieto‐temporal pattern of atrophy with worse cognitive performance, (2) occipital and frontal cortical atrophy and younger disease onset, and (3) patients without detectable cortical atrophy. These findings may help identify prognosis markers in Parkinson's disease. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement

  11. Nocardia infections among immunomodulated inflammatory bowel disease patients: A review

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Cândida; Rocha-Pereira, Nuno; Sarmento, António; Magro, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Human nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia spp., an ubiquitous soil-borne bacteria, is a rare granulomatous disease close related to immune dysfunctions. Clinically can occur as an acute life-threatening disease, with lung, brain and skin being commonly affected. The infection was classically diagnosed in HIV infected persons, organ transplanted recipients and long term corticosteroid treated patients. Currently the widespread use of immunomodulators and immunossupressors in the treatment of inflammatory diseases changed this scenario. Our purpose is to review all published cases of nocardiosis in immunomodulated patients due to inflammatory diseases and describe clinical and laboratory findings. We reviewed the literature concerning human cases of nocardiosis published between 1980 and 2014 in peer reviewed journals. Eleven cases of nocardiosis associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) prescription (9 related with infliximab and 2 with adalimumab) were identified; 7 patients had inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 4 had rheumatological conditions; nocardia infection presented as cutaneous involvement in 3 patients, lung disease in 4 patients, hepatic in one and disseminated disease in 3 patients. From the 10 cases described in IBD patients 7 were associated with anti-TNF and 3 with steroids and azathioprine. In conclusion, nocardiosis requires high levels of clinical suspicion and experience of laboratory staff, in order to establish a timely diagnosis and by doing so avoid worst outcomes. Treatment for long periods tailored by the susceptibility of the isolated species whenever possible is essential. The safety of restarting immunomodulators or anti-TNF after the disease or the value of prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole is still debated. PMID:26074688

  12. Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with Graves' disease in a male patient.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuji; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Koeda, Norihiko; Kakisaka, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Akiko; Takikawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), which predominantly affects women, has been associated with various autoimmune diseases. Although hypothyroidism accompanying PBC is well documented, the concomitance of PBC and hyperthyroidism is rare. Herein, we report the case of a 62-year-old man who was diagnosed with PBC several years after the development of Graves' disease. This is the first case of a male patient developing PBC with Graves' disease. Both serum alanine aminotransferase levels and serum thyroid hormone levels were normalized after the administration of thiamazole for Graves' disease. However, the cholestatic liver enzyme abnormalities continued, indicating that the PBC was actualized by the administration of thiamazole. After starting ursodeoxycholic acid treatment, cholestatic liver enzyme abnormalities improved. Taken together, when a cholestatic pattern of liver enzymes is observed during follow-up for Graves' disease, an association between Graves' disease and PBC should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  13. Limited Knowledge of Acetaminophen in Patients with Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saab, Sammy; Konyn, Peter G.; Viramontes, Matthew R.; Jimenez, Melissa A.; Grotts, Jonathan F.; Hamidzadah, Wally; Dang, Veronica P.; Esmailzadeh, Negin L.; Choi, Gina; Durazo, Francisco A.; El-Kabany, Mohamed M.; Han, Steven-Huy B.; Tong, Myron J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Unintentional acetaminophen overdose remains the leading cause of acute liver failure in the United States. Patients with underlying liver disease are at higher risk of poor outcomes from acetaminophen overdose. Limited knowledge of acetaminophen may be a preventable contributor to elevated rates of overdose and thus acute liver failure. The purpose of this study is to assess knowledge of acetaminophen dosing and presence of acetaminophen in common combination products in patients with liver disease. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with liver disease at the Pfleger Liver Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles between June 2015 and August 2016. Patients completed a demographic questionnaire and an acetaminophen knowledge survey. Additional information was obtained from the medical record. Results: Of 401 patients with liver disease, 30 (15.7%) were able to correctly identify that people without liver disease can safely take up to 4 g/day of acetaminophen. The majority of patients (79.9%–86.8%) did not know that Norco® (hydrocone/acetaminophen), Vicodin® (hydrocone/acetaminophen) and Percocet® (oxycodone/acetaminophen) contained acetaminophen. Only 45.3% of the patients knew that Tylenol® #3 contained acetaminophen. Conclusions: We conclude that patients with liver disease have critically low levels of knowledge of acetaminophen, putting them at risk both of acetaminophen overdose, as well as undermedication, and inadequate management of chronic pain. We recommend an increase in education efforts regarding acetaminophen dosage and its safety in the setting of liver disease. Increasing education for those at risk of low acetaminophen knowledge is essential to minimizing acetaminophen overdose rates and optimizing pain management. PMID:28097095

  14. Assessing the Executive Function Deficits of Patients with Parkinsons Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, William; Moberg, Paul; Duda, John; Stern, Matthew; Weintraub, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of the Tower of London-Drexel (TOL DX ) in assessing the executive deficits associated with Parkinsons disease (PD). We sought to determine whether the TOL DX would differentiate between (a) patients with PD and healthy control participants (HCP), (b) demented and nondemented patients, and (c)…

  15. Learning Style Preferences of Elderly Coronary Artery Disease Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theis, Saundra L.; Merritt, Sharon L.

    1992-01-01

    The Patient Learning Styles Questionnaire derived from Canfield and administered to 134 elderly coronary artery disease patients revealed the following order of learning preferences: structure, iconics, listening, direct experience, reading, achievement, affiliation, and eminence. Level of education significantly influenced preferred learning…

  16. Utility of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography on biliopancreatic diseases in patients with Billroth II-reconstructed stomach

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Yuji; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Mikata, Rintaro; Sugiyama, Harutoshi; Yasui, Shin; Miyazaki, Masaru; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    AIM To examine the utility of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) on biliopancreatic diseases in the patients with Billroth II-reconstructed stomach. METHODS For 26 cases of biliopancreatic diseases in patients with Billroth II-reconstructed stomach, ERCP was conducted using a straight-view scope or a retrograde oblique-viewing endoscope. All the cases were patients aiming at selective insertion into the bile duct. One patient aimed at diagnosis, and 25 patients aimed at treatment. The cases in which the endoscope reached the duodenal papilla and anastomosis, and insertion into the bile duct became possible, were considered successful. RESULTS The rate of reaching the duodenal papilla and anastomosis was 84.7% (22/26 patients). Among the cases without reaching the duodenal papilla and anastomosis, there were 2 in which the endoscope did not pass due to tumor-induced duodenal infiltration. In 1 case, the fiber did not reach the duodenal papilla due to long afferent loop. The success rate of insertion into the bile duct in patients in which the endoscope reached the duodenal papilla and anastomosis was 90.9% (20/22 patients), and the success rate of procedures including treatment was 86.3% (19/22 patients). After treatment, mild cholangitis was observed in 1 patient (4.5%, 1/22 patients) but relieved conservatively. No other accidental symptom was observed. CONCLUSION It was considered that the ERCP for biliopancreatic diseases in patients with Billroth II-reconstructed stomach will become a less invasive, safe and useful examination and treatment approach. PMID:28360974

  17. Collapsing glomerulopathy in a patient with mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Rifkin, S I; Gutta, H; Nair, R; McFarren, C; Wheeler, D E

    2011-02-01

    Collapsing glomerulopathy (CG) is a distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by glomerular capillary collapse, podocyte proliferation, diffuse mesangial sclerosis, and podocyte maturation arrest. Initially noted primarily in HIV infected patients, a number of other diseases have now been associated with CG. Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a disease with overlapping features of systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, and polymyositis. It was originally thought that renal involvement was a rare complication of MCTD. However, over the years, it has become clearer that renal involvement, although not always clinically apparent, is frequent. In this report we present a patient with MCTD who developed CG.

  18. Gait in SWEDDs patients: comparison with Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Mian, Omar S; Schneider, Susanne A; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Bhatia, Kailash P; Day, Brian L

    2011-06-01

    Patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease on clinical grounds who subsequently turn out to have normal dopamine transporter imaging have been referred to as SWEDDs (scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficits). Despite having clinical features similar to those of Parkinson's disease, these patients seem to have different pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment requirements. In this study we determined the similarities and differences in the gaits of SWEDDs and Parkinson's disease patients to investigate whether walking patterns can distinguish these entities. We used 3-D motion capture to analyze the gaits of 11 SWEDDs patients (who had unilateral or asymmetric upper limb tremor with a rest component), 12 tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease patients, and 13 healthy control participants. In common with Parkinson's disease patients, SWEDDs patients had a slow gait mainly because of a small stride length, as well as a reduced arm swing. However, several abnormal features of posture and gait in Parkinson's disease were normal in SWEDDs. Thus, SWEDDs patients had normal trunk and elbow posture, normal stride length variability, and normal bilateral step-phase coordination, all of which were abnormal in Parkinson's disease patients. We also searched for signs of ataxic movements during normal and tandem walking, but found no evidence that ataxic gait was a general feature in SWEDDs. These findings could aid the clinician in identification of potential tremulous SWEDDs cases. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Online Patient Education for Chronic Disease Management: Consumer Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Than; Hassan, Naffisah Mohd; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Probst, Yasmine

    2016-04-01

    Patient education plays an important role in chronic disease management. The aim of this study is to identify patients' preferences in regard to the design features of effective online patient education (OPE) and the benefits. A review of the existing literature was conducted in order to identify the benefits of OPE and its essential design features. These design features were empirically tested by conducting survey with patients and caregivers. Reliability analysis, construct validity and regression analysis were performed for data analysis. The results identified patient-tailored information, interactivity, content credibility, clear presentation of content, use of multimedia and interpretability as the essential design features of online patient education websites for chronic disease management.

  20. Effects of Beraprost Sodium on Subjective Symptoms in Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hang Seob; Choi, Woo Jin; Sung, Il Hoon; Lee, Ho Seong; Chung, Hyung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the effects of Beraprost sodium (Berasil) on subjective leg symptoms in patients with peripheral arterial disease caused by diabetes mellitus. Methods Ninety-four diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease were treated with Beraprost in a fixed-dose, prospective, multicenter, cohort study. Beraprost (40 µg) was administered orally 3 times daily (120 µg/day) for 12 weeks. We developed a new disease-specific symptom questionnaire, which evaluated the effect of peripheral arterial disease on leg discomfort in daily life and assessed therapeutic responses to treatment. Patients were asked for their subjective assessment of symptoms on a written questionnaire before treatment and after 12 weeks of therapy. Results There was significant improvement in all estimated subjective symptoms (burning, coldness, edema, exertional pain, stabbing, and paresthesias) in the lower extremities at 12 weeks (p < 0.001). There were 18 patients with neuropathy in whom significant improvement was noted for 6 subjective symptoms at 12 weeks (p < 0.05). Adverse events considered to be drug-related were observed in 4 patients (4.3%), all of which were mild and resolved with discontinuation of the medication. Conclusions Beraprost is effective as a treatment for improving various subjective symptoms in the lower extremities, such as burning, coldness, edema, exertional pain, stabbing, and paresthesias, in diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease. PMID:23730480

  1. Mitochondrial disease patients' perception of dietary supplements' use.

    PubMed

    Karaa, Amel; Kriger, Joshua; Grier, Johnston; Holbert, Amy; Thompson, John L P; Parikh, Sumit; Hirano, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Surveys of mitochondrial disease physicians conducted through the Mitochondrial Medicine Society have shown that virtually all providers recommend a variety of dietary supplements as treatments to their patients in an effort to enhance energy production and reduce oxidative stress. In this survey, we asked patients and their parents about their experiences taking these dietary supplements for mitochondrial disease. The survey was disseminated through the North American Mitochondrial Disease Consortium (NAMDC) and the Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) registries and gathered 162 responses. The study ascertained each patient's mitochondrial disease diagnosis, dietary supplements used, adjunct therapy, and effects of the supplements on symptoms and health. Regardless of the specific underlying mitochondrial disease, the majority of the survey respondents stated they are or have been on dietary supplements. Most patients take more than four supplements primarily coenzyme Q10, l-carnitine, and riboflavin. The majority of patients taking supplements reported health benefits from the supplements. The onset of perceived benefits was between 2weeks to 3months of initiating intake. Supplements seem to be safe, with only 28% of patients experiencing mild side-effects and only 5.6% discontinuing their intake due to intolerance. Only 9% of patients had insurance coverage for their supplements and when paying out of pocket, 95% of them spend up to $500/month. Despite the use of concomitant therapies (prescribed medications, physical therapy, diet changes and other), 45.5% of patients think that dietary supplements are the only intervention improving their symptoms. Some limitations of this study include the retrospective collection of data probably associated with substantial recall bias, lack of longitudinal follow up to document pre- and post-supplement clinical status and second hand reports by parents for children which may reflect parents' subjective

  2. Serum lipoproteins of patients with glycogen storage disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, E L; Chibisov, I V; Karmansky, I M; Tabolin, V A; Chistova, L V; Leontiev, A F

    1980-03-14

    Seventeen patients with different types of glycogen storage disease (GSD) were under observation. The type of the disease was defined from glucaemic and lactotaemic curves obtained in glucose, galactose and adrenaline tolerance tests and by biochemical analysis of liver biopsy specimens. Seven patients were found to have Type I; five patients, Type III; one patient, Type VI; and four patients, the Type IX (or X) of GSD. The serum lipoprotein (LP) content was determined in all patients using analytical ultracentrifugation. Hyperlipoproteinaemia (HLP) was found in virtually all patients. Patients with Type I of GSD were found to have Types 2b and 4 of HLP; and patients with Type III of GSD, 2b Type of HLP. 2a Type of HLP was diagnosed in patients with GSD of VI and IX (X) Types. Patients with Type III GSD, in contrast to those with GSD of other types, had enhanced levels of Sf 12-20 LP. The levels of Sf 100-400 and Sf 20-100 LP were greatly increased only in patients with Type I GSD.

  3. [Drug metabolism in patients with liver disease (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Richter, E; Epping, J; Fuchshofen-Röckel, M; Heusler, H; Zilly, W

    1980-10-01

    Patients with acute hepatitis and patients with compensated or decompensated cirrhosis of the liver have a decreased plasma clearance of hexobarbital. This however could not been demonstrated in patients with intra- or extrahepatic cholestasis and patients with primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver. The plasma clearance of methohexital, - a high clearance drug - is not changed in the same way. Also there is no evidence as yet, that patients with liver disease and without a collateral portal circulation do have an increased bioavailability of oral high clearance drugs.

  4. Evaluation of an automated connective tissue disease screening assay in Korean patients with systemic rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seri; Yang, Heeyoung; Hwang, Hyunyong

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utilities of the automated connective tissues disease screening assay, CTD screen, in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases. A total of 1093 serum samples were assayed using CTD screen and indirect immunofluorescent (IIF) methods. Among them, 162 were diagnosed with systemic rheumatic disease, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and mixed connective tissue disease (MCT). The remaining 931 with non-systemic rheumatic disease were assigned to the control group. The median ratios of CTD screen tests were significantly higher in the systemic rheumatic disease group than in the control group. The positive likelihood ratios of the CTD screen were higher than those of IIF in patients with total rheumatic diseases (4.1 vs. 1.6), including SLE (24.3 vs. 10.7). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC-AUCs) of the CTD screen for discriminating total rheumatic diseases, RA, SLE, and MCT from controls were 0.68, 0.56, 0.92 and 0.80, respectively. The ROC-AUCs of the combinations with IIF were significantly higher in patients with total rheumatic diseases (0.72) and MCT (0.85) than in those of the CTD screen alone. Multivariate analysis indicated that both the CTD screen and IIF were independent variables for predicting systemic rheumatic disease. CTD screen alone and in combination with IIF were a valuable diagnostic tool for predicting systemic rheumatic diseases, particularly for SLE. PMID:28273146

  5. Evaluation of an automated connective tissue disease screening assay in Korean patients with systemic rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seri; Yang, Heeyoung; Hwang, Hyunyong

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utilities of the automated connective tissues disease screening assay, CTD screen, in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases. A total of 1093 serum samples were assayed using CTD screen and indirect immunofluorescent (IIF) methods. Among them, 162 were diagnosed with systemic rheumatic disease, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and mixed connective tissue disease (MCT). The remaining 931 with non-systemic rheumatic disease were assigned to the control group. The median ratios of CTD screen tests were significantly higher in the systemic rheumatic disease group than in the control group. The positive likelihood ratios of the CTD screen were higher than those of IIF in patients with total rheumatic diseases (4.1 vs. 1.6), including SLE (24.3 vs. 10.7). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC-AUCs) of the CTD screen for discriminating total rheumatic diseases, RA, SLE, and MCT from controls were 0.68, 0.56, 0.92 and 0.80, respectively. The ROC-AUCs of the combinations with IIF were significantly higher in patients with total rheumatic diseases (0.72) and MCT (0.85) than in those of the CTD screen alone. Multivariate analysis indicated that both the CTD screen and IIF were independent variables for predicting systemic rheumatic disease. CTD screen alone and in combination with IIF were a valuable diagnostic tool for predicting systemic rheumatic diseases, particularly for SLE.

  6. Cancer of the small intestine in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Daijiro; Futami, Kitaro; Kojima, Daibo; Futatsuki, Ryo; Ishibashi, Yukiko; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yano, Yutaka; Takatsu, Noritaka; Hirai, Fumihito; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Iwashita, Akinori

    2013-07-01

    Due to an increase in the number of long-term cases of Crohn's disease, the risk of combined cancer in these patients has been assessed in numerous articles. Most of these reports have involved patients with cancer of the large intestine, while cases of cancer of the small intestine combined with Crohn's disease are very rare. We experienced two cases of cancer of the small intestine combined with Crohn's disease. In both cases, the patients had suffered from Crohn's disease for over 10 years and a second operation was performed after a long period without treatment following the first operation, which had achieved a favorable outcome. In both cases of combined cancer, the patients experienced ileus; however, it was difficult to discern this from ileus due to the presence of Crohn's disease. Therefore, making a definitive diagnosis of combined cancer was not possible before surgery, and the definitive diagnosis was obtained based on an intraoperative pathological diagnosis. It is thought that tumor markers transition in a manner parallel to the progression of cancer, providing a clue for cancer diagnosis. In patients with Crohn's disease, there is a pressing need to establish a method for diagnosing cancer of the small intestine at an early stage.

  7. Laser in situ keratomileusis in patients with collagen vascular disease: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Rachel G; Moshirfar, Majid; Edmonds, Jason N; Christiansen, Steven M; Behunin, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations regarding laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery in patients with collagen vascular diseases (CVD) and assess whether these patients make appropriate candidates for laser vision correction, and offer treatment recommendations based on identified clinical data. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Medline, and Ovid to identify all existing studies of LASIK in patients with collagen vascular diseases. The search was conducted without date limitations. Keywords used for the search included MeSH terms: laser in situ keratomileusis, LASIK, refractive surgery, ocular surgery, and cataract surgery connected by “and” with the following MeSH and natural-language terms: collagen vascular disease, rheumatic disease, systemic disease, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren’s syndrome, seronegative spondyloarthropathy, HLA B27, ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis. The abstracts for all studies meeting initial search criteria were reviewed; relevant studies were included. No prospective studies were found; however, four retrospective case studies were identified that examined LASIK surgery in patients with CVD. Several case reports were also identified in similar fashion. Results The FDA considers CVD a relative contraindication to LASIK surgery, due largely to the ocular complications associated with disease in the CVD spectrum. However, recent studies of LASIK in patients with CVD indicate LASIK may be safe for patients with very well-controlled systemic disease, minimal ocular manifestations, and no clinical signs or history of dry-eye symptoms. Conclusion LASIK surgery may be safe in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus and the seronegative spondyloarthropathies if stringent preoperative criteria are met. Evidence suggests patients with Sjögren’s syndrome are not

  8. Visual dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease and essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Štenc Bradvica, Ivanka; Bradvica, Mario; Matić, Suzana; Reisz-Majić, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the Pelli-Robson and Ishihara diagnostic methods in differing Parkinson's disease from essential tremor compared to DaTSCAN (dopamine transporter scan) findings. The intention was to investigate whether visual dysfunction appears in the early state of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we included patients with the symptomatology of parkinsonism lasting between 6 and 12 months. The study included 164 patients of which 59 (36.0%) suffered from Parkinson's disease, 51 (31.1%) from essential tremor, and 54 (32.9%) healthy patients which presented the control group. The specificity of Pelli-Robson test in confirming Parkinson's disease was 53% and the sensitivity 81.4%. The specificity of Ishihara test in confirming Parkinson's disease was 88.2%, and sensitivity 55.9%. We found that the colour and contrast dysfunction are present as the earliest symptoms of Parkinson's disease. In this study the Pelli-Robson test is highly sensitive and the Ishihara tables are highly specific in the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, but neither of these methods fulfils the criteria for the validity of a test. We suggest performing both of these methods to evaluate which patients are indicated for DaTSCAN.

  9. Sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Maria Rita Teixeira; Campos, Lorenza Nogueira; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are still highly prevalent worldwide and represent an important public health problem. Psychiatric patients are at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases but there are scarce published studies with representative data of this population. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among patients with mental illnesses under care in a national representative sample in Brazil (n=2145). More than one quarter of the sample (25.8%) reported a lifetime history of sexually transmitted disease. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with a lifetime sexually transmitted disease history were older, had history of homelessness, used more alcohol and illicit drugs, suffered violence, perceived themselves to be at greater risk for HIV and had high risk sexual behavioral: practised unprotected sex, started sexual life earlier, had more than ten sexual partners, exchanged money and/or drugs for sex and had a partner that refused to use condom. Our findings indicate a high prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil, and emphasize the need for implementing sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs in psychiatric settings, including screening, treatment, and behavioral modification interventions.

  10. [Patient-centred care in rare diseases. A patient organisations' perspective].

    PubMed

    Reimann, A; Bend, J; Dembski, B

    2007-12-01

    Patients living with rare diseases have special common needs. Although the 5,000-6,000 rare diseases are very different, many patients share the experience of a time-consuming and sometimes frustrating journey towards diagnosis, the lack of established standards of care and foremost the search for competent physicians. Because of their complexity, rare diseases mostly demand an interdisciplinary and cross-sectional medical care. The model of the "patient-centred health-care value chain" explains how primary (prevention, diagnosis, treatment) and secondary activities (exchange of information, quality management, identification of unmet needs, research and development) contribute to the patient benefit applying a holistic approach. This model thereby prevents an isolated view from the perspective of single health-care providers. A survey to which 21 German patient-organisations in the rare-disease field contributed, was performed to obtain insight into preferred medical care concepts and preferences in the way that care is provided. The results clearly suggest that the patient organisations have a clear view on how disease-specific care should be delivered; however, in reality those preferences seem to be met to a minor extent in Germany at present. According to patient organisations, rare-disease patient care should always be a patient- centred, interdisciplinary and holistic effort. The solidaric health-care system in Germany provides an excellent basis for this kind of medical care. However, a new patient- rather than system-oriented approach is needed to make it work in reality.

  11. [Invasive mould disease in haematological patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mould infections (IMI) are a persistent problem with high morbidity and mortality rates among patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Management of IMI in this setting has become increasingly complex with the advent of new antifungal agents and diagnostic tests, which have resulted in different therapeutic strategies (prophylactic, empirical, pre-emptive, and directed). A proper assessment of the individual risk for IMI appears to be critical in order to use the best prophylactic and therapeutic approach and increase the survival rates. Among the available antifungal drugs, the most frequently used in the hematologic patient are fluconazole, mould-active azoles (itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole), candins (anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin), and lipid formulations of amphotericin B. Specific recommendations for their use, and criteria for selecting the antifungal agents are discussed in this paper.

  12. Memantine-associated hyperkalaemia in a patient with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuo; Yamada, Hidetaka; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2013-09-01

    Memantine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist that may improve cognitive functions in patients with Alzheimer's disease. It is predominantly excreted unchanged via the kidneys, and patients with decreased creatinine clearance must be treated with lower doses of memantine. However, it is unclear whether memantine itself can lead to renal dysfunction and/or hyperkalaemia. We report a patient with renal impairment and hyperkalaemia possibly associated with memantine administration.

  13. Graves' disease in a dialysis dependent chronic renal failure patient

    PubMed Central

    Nair, C. G.; Jacob, P.; Menon, R.; Babu, M. J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone level may be altered in chronic renal failure patients. Low levels of thyroxine protect the body from excess protein loss by minimizing catabolism. Hyperthyroidism is rarely encountered in end-stage dialysis dependent patients. Less than 10 well-documented cases of Graves' disease (GD) are reported in literature so far. We report a case of GD in a patient on dialysis. PMID:25484538

  14. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for sickle cell disease. A study of patients' decisions.

    PubMed

    van Besien, K; Koshy, M; Anderson-Shaw, L; Talishy, N; Dorn, L; Devine, S; Yassine, M; Kodish, E

    2001-09-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is increasingly considered as a curative though risky treatment option for adults with sickle cell disease. Little is known about attitudes of adult patients and their health care providers regarding the risks and benefits of transplantation. A survey of 100 patients and their health care providers was undertaken. Assessment of risk was by a reference gamble paradigm. Comparison was made of the characteristics of those accepting substantial risk vs those not accepting risk, as well as assessment of agreement on risks recommended by health care providers and accepted by patients. Sixty-three of 100 patients were willing to accept some short-term risk of mortality in exchange for the certainty of cure. Fifteen patients were willing to accept more than 35% mortality risk. No differences in patient or disease-related variables were identified between those accepting risk and those not accepting risk. There was no agreement between the recommendations of health care providers and the risk accepted by patients. A substantial proportion of adults with sickle cell disease are interested in curative treatment, at the expense of considerable risk. The decision to accept risk is influenced by individual patient values that cannot be easily quantified and that do not correlate with the assessment of the health care provider. Given the substantial interest in curative therapy, education about and consultation for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in sickle cell patients should be encouraged.

  15. Bilateral impacted femoral neck fracture in a renal disease patient.

    PubMed

    Devkota, Pramod; Ahmad, Shiraz

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous bilateral femoral neck facture in a renal disease patient is not common. We report a case of 47-year-old female patient with chronic renal failure and on regular hemodialysis for the past 5 years who sustained bilateral impacted femoral neck fracture without history of trauma and injury and refused any surgical intervention. The patient was mobilised on wheel chair one year after the fractures. The cause of the fracture and the literature review of the bilateral femoral neck fracture in renal disease are discussed.

  16. Microbial Dysbiosis in Pediatric Patients with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Day, Andrew S.; Huinao, Karina D.; Leach, Steven T.; Lemberg, Daniel A.; Dowd, Scot E.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial dysbiosis has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD); however, many studies of gut microbial communities have been confounded by environmental and patient-related factors. In this study, the microbial flora of fecal samples from 19 children newly diagnosed with CD and 21 age-matched controls were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing to determine differences in the microbial composition between CD patients and controls. Analysis of the microbial composition of specific bacterial groups revealed that Firmicutes percentages were significantly lower in CD patients than in controls and that this was due largely to changes in the class Clostridia. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria percentages were higher and significantly higher in CD patients than in controls, respectively. Both the detection frequencies of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes correlated (positively and negatively, respectively) with the calculated pediatric Crohn's disease activity index scores of patients. Upon further analysis, differences in the microbial compositions of patients with mild disease and moderate to severe disease were identified. Our findings indicate that a combination of different bacterial species or a dynamic interplay between individual species is important for disease and is consistent with the dysbiosis hypothesis of CD. PMID:22837318

  17. Helping Patients Cope with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Professional Developmen AFIT. Wright-Patterson AFB OH I6. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side it necessary and Identify by block number) 2). ABSTRAc r (Continue...on reverse lde if neceaary, and Identity by block numbei.) ATTACHED .... I I 7 1473 EDITION OF I NOV6 5sS OBSOLETE UNCLASS 84 09 13.03 1 SECURITY...IBD because of life threatening 4q .,.-"- 5 complications. Surgery may include bowel resection, colostomy or ileostomy. Tbough considered a cure for

  18. Management of "refractory" skin disease in patients with lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Callen, Jeffrey P

    2005-10-01

    Skin disease in patients with lupus erythematosus can be subdivided into two broad categories-those lesions that, when biopsied, demonstrate an interface dermatitis and those that do not demonstrate an interface dermatitis. The skin lesions that are represented by the interface dermatitis include discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE), and acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Many patients with these cutaneous lesions can be managed with "standard" therapies, including sunscreens, protective clothing and behavioral alteration, and topical corticosteroids with or without an oral antimalarial agent. These standard therapies are often not used appropriately, resulting in a situation in which the patient is felt to have refractory disease. This chapter discusses these therapies and defines what is meant by refractory disease and how the author approaches these patients.

  19. Biomarkers of connective tissue disease in patients with intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Yurt, Alaattin; Vardar, Enver; Selçuki, Mehmet; Ertürk, Ali Riza; Ozbek, Gülriz; Atçi, Burak

    2010-09-01

    Connective tissue defects may play a significant role in the development of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Multiorgan connective tissue disorders may, therefore, indicate a risk of IA development. We investigated biomarkers of connective tissue disease in patients with IAs. A series of 62 patients with IAs was studied by physical examination, echocardiography, ultrasound examination of the kidneys and abdomen, and microscopic examination of skin tissue (temporal area) and superficial temporal artery taken at operation. Patients with IAs had a higher incidence of biomarkers of systemic connective tissue disease than controls and identification of these markers may be important for screening for IAs. Microscopic investigation of biopsies of the skin and superficial temporal artery from patients and their relatives may become valuable for clinical diagnosis, identification of people at risk and basic studies of the pathogenesis of this vascular disease.

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid proteome of patients with acute Lyme disease

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Robert P.; Pasternack, Mark S.; Elias, Susan; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Shukla, Anil; Gilmore, Edward C.; McCarthy, Carol; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Warren, H. Shaw

    2012-01-01

    During acute Lyme disease, bacteria can disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to the development of meningitis and other neurologic symptoms. Here we have analyzed pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allowing a deep view into the proteome for patients diagnosed with early-disseminated Lyme disease and CSF inflammation. Additionally, we analyzed individual patient samples and quantified differences in protein abundance employing label-free quantitative mass spectrometry based methods. We identified 108 proteins that differ significantly in abundance in patients with acute Lyme disease from controls. Comparison between infected patients and control subjects revealed differences in proteins in the CSF associated with cell death localized to brain synapses and others that likely originate from brain parenchyma. PMID:22900834

  1. Renal and testicular agenesis in a patient with Darier's disease.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, L Y; Wortsman, J; McConnachie, P

    1985-05-01

    Darier's disease is a familial disorder of the skin that has been associated with corneal, bone, pulmonary, and urogenital abnormalities. This report describes a novel urogenital anomaly, namely renal and testicular agenesis, in a patient with Darier's disease. Detailed study of the kindred demonstrated an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance for Darier's disease and also revealed the presence of autoimmune thyroiditis in several family members. Thyroid involvement ranged from isolated goiter to hypothyroidism. Tissue typing for HLA-A, B, C, and DR antigens did not reveal a specific haplotype common to all the carriers of the cutaneous or thyroid disorder. It is concluded that patients with Darier's disease should be carefully evaluated for the occurrence of systemic diseases, especially urogenital abnormalities and thyroid disorders.

  2. Low Serum Hepcidin in Patients with Autoimmune Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lyberopoulou, Aggeliki; Chachami, Georgia; Gatselis, Nikolaos K; Kyratzopoulou, Eleni; Saitis, Asterios; Gabeta, Stella; Eliades, Petros; Paraskeva, Efrosini; Zachou, Kalliopi; Koukoulis, George K; Mamalaki, Avgi; Dalekos, George N; Simos, George

    2015-01-01

    Hepcidin, a liver hormone, is important for both innate immunity and iron metabolism regulation. As dysfunction of the hepcidin pathway may contribute to liver pathology, we analysed liver hepcidin mRNA and serum hepcidin in patients with chronic liver diseases. Hepcidin mRNA levels were determined in liver biopsies obtained from 126 patients with HCV (n = 21), HBV (n = 23), autoimmune cholestatic disease (primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis; PBC/PSC; n = 34), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH; n = 16) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; n = 32). Sera sampled on the biopsy day from the same patients were investigated for serum hepcidin levels. Hepatic hepcidin mRNA levels correlated positively with ferritin and negatively with serum γ-GT levels. However, no correlation was found between serum hepcidin and either ferritin or liver hepcidin mRNA. Both serum hepcidin and the serum hepcidin/ferritin ratio were significantly lower in AIH and PBC/PSC patients' sera compared to HBV, HCV or NAFLD (P<0.001 for each comparison) and correlated negatively with serum ALP levels. PBC/PSC and AIH patients maintained low serum hepcidin during the course of their two-year long treatment. In summary, parallel determination of liver hepcidin mRNA and serum hepcidin in patients with chronic liver diseases shows that circulating hepcidin and its respective ratio to ferritin are significantly diminished in patients with autoimmune liver diseases. These novel findings, once confirmed by follow-up studies involving bigger size and better-matched disease subgroups, should be taken into consideration during diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune liver diseases.

  3. Management of Alcohol Dependence in Patients with Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Addolorato, Giovanni; Mirijello, Antonio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence represents a chronic and relapsing disease affecting nearly 10% of the general population both in the United States and in Europe, with a widespread burden of morbidity and mortality. Alcohol dependence represents the most common cause of liver damage in the Western Countries. Although alcoholic liver disease is associated primarily with heavy drinking, continued alcohol consumption, even in low doses after the onset of liver disease, increases the risk of severe consequences, including mortality. Consequently the ideal treatment of patients affected by alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease should aim at achieving long-term total alcohol abstinence and preventing relapse. The aim of the present review is to provide an update on the management of alcohol dependence in patients with alcoholic liver disease. Increasing evidences suggests the usefulness of psychosocial interventions and medications combined in order to reduce alcohol intake, promote abstinence and prevent relapse in alcohol dependent patients. Disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate have been approved for this indication; gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is approved in Italy and Austria. However, these drugs have not been tested in patients with advanced liver disease. Amongst other emerging pharmacotherapies for alcoholism, topiramate, ondansetron, and baclofen seem the most promising ones. Both topiramate and ondansetron hold a safe profile in alcoholic patients; however, none of them has been tested in alcoholic patients with advanced liver disease. To date, baclofen represents the only anti-craving medication formally tested in a randomized clinical trial in alcoholic patients affected by liver cirrhosis, although additional confirmatory studies are warranted. PMID:23456576

  4. Social support: a key variable for health promotion and chronic disease management in Hispanic patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Alyssa T; Andrade, Regina E; Middleton, Kimberly R; Wallen, Gwenyth R

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases, including rheumatic diseases, can cause immense physical and psychosocial burden for patients. Many Hispanics suffering with arthritis face activity limitations. Social support, or the functional content of relationships, may be important to consider when examining treatment and outcomes for Hispanic individuals. Participants were recruited from an urban community health center (CHC) as part of a larger health behavior study. A cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods analysis was conducted to explore the role of social support in the sample. Only Hispanic/Latino patients (n = 46) were included in this analysis. Interviews were conducted in both English and Spanish. The majority of the sample (87%) perceived some presence of social support in their lives. The two most commonly cited types of social support were emotional and instrumental. The two most common sources of social support were family members other than spouses (52.2%) and spouses (32.6%). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly correlated with the number of perceived sources of support. The presence or absence and the role of social support in supporting optimal health outcomes should be considered for Hispanics with chronic rheumatic diseases. Involving family members and spouses in the plan of care for this population could facilitate health promotion and chronic disease management.

  5. Xeroderma pigmentosum and other diseases of human premature aging and DNA repair: molecules to patients.

    PubMed

    Niedernhofer, Laura J; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Sander, Miriam; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2011-01-01

    A workshop(1) to share, consider and discuss the latest developments in understanding xeroderma pigmentosum and other human diseases caused by defects in nucleotide excision repair (NER) of DNA damage was held on September 21-24, 2010 in Virginia. It was attended by approximately 100 researchers and clinicians, as well as several patients and representatives of patient support groups. This was the third in a series of workshops with similar design and goals: to emphasize discussion and interaction among participants as well as open exchange of information and ideas. The participation of patients, their parents and physicians was an important feature of this and the preceding two workshops. Topics discussed included the natural history and clinical features of the diseases, clinical and laboratory diagnosis of these rare diseases, therapeutic strategies, mouse models of neurodegeneration, molecular analysis of accelerated aging, impact of transcriptional defects and mitochondrial dysfunction on neurodegeneration, and biochemical insights into mechanisms of NER and base excision repair.

  6. Xeroderma pigmentosum and other diseases of human premature aging and DNA repair: Molecules to patients

    PubMed Central

    Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Sander, Miriam; Kraemer, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    A workshop1 to share, consider and discuss the latest developments in understanding xeroderma pigmentosum and other human diseases caused by defects in nucleotide excision repair (NER) of DNA damage was held on September 21–24, 2010 in Virginia. It was attended by approximately 100 researchers and clinicians, as well as several patients and representatives of patient support groups. This was the third in a series of workshops with similar design and goals: to emphasize discussion and interaction among participants as well as open exchange of information and ideas. The participation of patients, their parents and physicians was an important feature of this and the preceding two workshops. Topics discussed included the natural history and clinical features of the diseases, clinical and laboratory diagnosis of these rare diseases, therapeutic strategies, mouse models of neurodegeneration, molecular analysis of accelerated aging, impact of transcriptional defects and mitochondrial dysfunction on neurodegeneration, and biochemical insights into mechanisms of NER and base excision repair. PMID:21708183

  7. Automated Peritoneal Dialysis is Suitable for Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Ren, Hong; Xie, Jingyuan; Huang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Chen, Nan

    2015-01-01

    A female patient with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) was treated with automated peritoneal dialysis when she reached end-stage renal disease. The patient has been doing very well on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) for almost 6 years without peritonitis or abdominal hernias. Intra-abdominal pressures are lower in the supine position than in an erect or sitting position. Larger volumes of dialysate are better tolerated while the patient is supine, as during nocturnal APD. Therefore, APD is an option of the renal replacement therapy for patients with PKD.

  8. Abdominal wall abscesses in patients with Crohn's disease: clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, David; Keidar, Andrei; Gutman, Mordechai; Zissin, Rivka

    2006-03-01

    Abdominal wall abscess due to Crohn's Disease used to be one of the definitive indications for operative treatment. The advent of interventional radiology, the accessibility to percutaneous drainage, and the availability of new medications raised the possibility of nonoperative treatment of this condition. The clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of 13 patients with abdominal wall abscesses secondary to Crohn's Disease were retrospectively reviewed. During a 10-year period (1993-2003), 13 patients with abdominal wall abscess were treated. Five patients had an anterolateral abdominal wall abscess and eight had a posterior abscess (psoas). In 11 patients, 17 drainage procedures were performed: 12 percutaneous and 5 operative. Despite initial adequate drainage and resolution of the abscess, all 13 patients eventually needed resection of the offending bowel segment, which was undertaken in 12 patients. The mean time between abscess presentation and definitive operation was 2 months. Percutaneous drainage is an attractive option in most cases of abdominal abscesses. However, in Crohn's Disease patients with an abdominal wall abscess, we found a high failure rate despite initial adequate drainage. We suggest that surgical resection of the diseased bowel segment should be the definitive therapy.

  9. Vaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rahier, Jean-François; Moutschen, Michel; Van Gompel, Alfons; Van Ranst, Marc; Louis, Edouard; Segaert, Siegfried; Masson, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) such as RA, IBD or psoriasis, are at increased risk of infection, partially because of the disease itself, but mostly because of treatment with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive drugs. In spite of their elevated risk for vaccine-preventable disease, vaccination coverage in IMID patients is surprisingly low. This review summarizes current literature data on vaccine safety and efficacy in IMID patients treated with immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory drugs and formulates best-practice recommendations on vaccination in this population. Especially in the current era of biological therapies, including TNF-blocking agents, special consideration should be given to vaccination strategies in IMID patients. Clinical evidence indicates that immunization of IMID patients does not increase clinical or laboratory parameters of disease activity. Live vaccines are contraindicated in immunocompromized individuals, but non-live vaccines can safely be given. Although the reduced quality of the immune response in patients under immunotherapy may have a negative impact on vaccination efficacy in this population, adequate humoral response to vaccination in IMID patients has been demonstrated for hepatitis B, influenza and pneumococcal vaccination. Vaccination status is best checked and updated before the start of immunomodulatory therapy: live vaccines are not contraindicated at that time and inactivated vaccines elicit an optimal immune response in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:20591834

  10. Disease Awareness and Management Behavior of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Questionnaire Survey of 313 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Bok; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hye Sung; Lee, Kyung Ho; Park, Young Min; Lee, Jun Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) should be relatively well informed about the disorder to control their condition and prevent flare-ups. Thus far, there is no accurate information about the disease awareness levels and therapeutic behavior of AD patients. Objective To collect data on patients' knowledge about AD and their behavior in relation to seeking information about the disease and its treatment. Methods We performed a questionnaire survey on the disease awareness and self-management behavior of AD patients. A total of 313 patients and parents of patients with AD who had visited the The Catholic University of Korea, Catholic Medical Center between November 2011 and October 2012 were recruited. We compared the percentage of correct answers from all collected questionnaires according to the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients. Results Although dermatologists were the most frequent disease information sources and treatment providers for the AD patients, a significant proportion of participants obtained information from the Internet, which carries a huge amount of false medical information. A considerable number of participants perceived false online information as genuine, especially concerning complementary and alternative medicine treatments of AD, and the adverse effects of steroids. Some questions on AD knowledge had significantly different answers according to sex, marriage status, educational level, type of residence and living area, disease duration, disease severity, and treatment history with dermatologists. Conclusion Dermatologists should pay more attention to correcting the common misunderstandings about AD to reduce unnecessary social/economic losses and improve treatment compliance. PMID:25673930

  11. Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Cano, Daniel Sánchez; Robles, Concepción López; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Fernández, Raquel Ríos; Ruiz, Manuela Expósito; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Ortego Centeno, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are associated with lower bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Sclerostin has a pivotal role in bone metabolism. Available data on circulating sclerostin levels in healthy subjects are limited, whereas those in SAD patients are absent. Our objective was to determine circulating sclerostin concentrations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and to analyze the factors associated with sclerostin concentrations. In this cross-sectional case-control study, serum sclerostin levels were measured in 38 SLE patients, 20 CD patients, 8 SSc patients and 20 healthy controls using a sclerostin ELISA. The mean values of the sclerostin (95% confidence interval) were 35.36 pmol l(-1) (12-101) in patients and 33.92 pmol l(-1) (2.31-100) in control subjects. The mean sclerostin value was 36.4 pmol l(-1) (22.1-48.5) in SLE patients, 26.7 pmol l(-1) (17.3-36.3) in CD patients and 51.8 pmol l(-1) (26.5-77.1) in SSc patients (P=0.001). Serum sclerostin levels were positively correlated with age (P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) and lumbar spine Z-score (P=0.001) and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.001). Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect sclerostin levels. Sclerostin levels seem to have a heterogeneous pattern in different autoimmune diseases. SLE and SSc patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding sclerostin levels. The CD group had significantly lower values compared with SSc patients. Factors associated with sclerostin levels in autoimmune diseases seem to be the same than in the general population.

  12. Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Cano, Daniel Sánchez; Robles, Concepción López; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Fernández, Raquel Ríos; Ruiz, Manuela Expósito; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Centeno, Norberto Ortego

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are associated with lower bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Sclerostin has a pivotal role in bone metabolism. Available data on circulating sclerostin levels in healthy subjects are limited, whereas those in SAD patients are absent. Our objective was to determine circulating sclerostin concentrations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and to analyze the factors associated with sclerostin concentrations. In this cross-sectional case–control study, serum sclerostin levels were measured in 38 SLE patients, 20 CD patients, 8 SSc patients and 20 healthy controls using a sclerostin ELISA. The mean values of the sclerostin (95% confidence interval) were 35.36 pmol l−1 (12–101) in patients and 33.92 pmol l−1 (2.31–100) in control subjects. The mean sclerostin value was 36.4 pmol l−1 (22.1–48.5) in SLE patients, 26.7 pmol l−1 (17.3–36.3) in CD patients and 51.8 pmol l−1 (26.5–77.1) in SSc patients (P=0.001). Serum sclerostin levels were positively correlated with age (P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) and lumbar spine Z-score (P=0.001) and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.001). Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect sclerostin levels. Sclerostin levels seem to have a heterogeneous pattern in different autoimmune diseases. SLE and SSc patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding sclerostin levels. The CD group had significantly lower values compared with SSc patients. Factors associated with sclerostin levels in autoimmune diseases seem to be the same than in the general population. PMID:26909149

  13. Obstetrician/gynecologist care considerations: practice changes in disease management with an aging patient population.

    PubMed

    Raglan, Greta; Lawrence, Hal; Schulkin, Jay

    2014-03-01

    Demographic changes across the country are leading to an increased proportion of older Americans. This shift will likely lead to changes in the patient population seen by obstetrician/gynecologists, and practices may need to adapt to the needs of older women. This article looks at mental health, sexual health, bone loss, cardiovascular disease and cancer as areas in which obstetrician/gynecologists may experience changes with the increasing age of patients. While this is by no means a comprehensive list of changing areas of practice, it offers a guide for reflecting on the future of obstetrician/gynecologists training, and the importance of considering the needs of older patients in practice.

  14. Nonpharmacological treatments for patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Vries, Nienke M; Ebersbach, Georg

    2015-09-15

    Since 2013, a number of studies have enhanced the literature and have guided clinicians on viable treatment interventions outside of pharmacotherapy and surgery. Thirty-three randomized controlled trials and one large observational study on exercise and physiotherapy were published in this period. Four randomized controlled trials focused on dance interventions, eight on treatment of cognition and behavior, two on occupational therapy, and two on speech and language therapy (the latter two specifically addressed dysphagia). Three randomized controlled trials focused on multidisciplinary care models, one study on telemedicine, and four studies on alternative interventions, including music therapy and mindfulness. These studies attest to the marked interest in these therapeutic approaches and the increasing evidence base that places nonpharmacological treatments firmly within the integrated repertoire of treatment options in Parkinson's disease.

  15. [Enteric microflora in inflammatory bowel disease patients].

    PubMed

    Rahmouni, Oumaira; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Desreumaux, Pierre; Neut, Christel

    2016-11-01

    During the last years, the importance of a well equilibrated intestinal microbiota (eubiosis) has become more and more obvious in human health. Dysbiosis is now a well-recognized feature associated with IBD (inflammatory bowel disease). Rupture of the normal microbiota can occur through different mechanisms: (1) by a typical Western diet rich in fat and low in fiber, (2) by an acute disruption of the microbiota (by an acute gastroenteritis or by intake of antibiotics) or (3) by a combination of event in early childhood avoiding the establishment of eubiosis (the hygiene hypothesis). Risk factors for IBD are stated for each disruption mechanism. Dysbiosis can also induce colonization by several pathobionts able to aggravate inflammation. Among the potential candidates in IBD, most attention has been paid on AIEC during the last years.

  16. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  17. Myocardial performance and perfusion during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease caused by Kawasaki disease

    SciTech Connect

    Paridon, S.M.; Ross, R.D.; Kuhns, L.R.; Pinsky, W.W. )

    1990-01-01

    For a study of the natural history of coronary artery lesions after Kawasaki disease and their effect on myocardial blood flow reserve with exercise, five such patients underwent exercise testing on a bicycle. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, and electrocardiograms were monitored continuously. Thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed for all patients. One patient stopped exercise before exhaustion of cardiovascular reserve but had no evidence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Four patients terminated exercise because of exhaustion of cardiovascular reserve; one had normal cardiovascular reserve and thallium scintiscans, but the remaining patients had diminished cardiovascular reserve. Thallium scintigrams showed myocardial ischemia in two and infarction in one. No patient had exercise-induced electrocardiographic changes. These results indicate that patients with residual coronary artery lesions after Kawasaki disease frequently have reduced cardiovascular reserve during exercise. The addition of thallium scintigraphy and metabolic measurements to exercise testing improved the detection of exercise-induced abnormalities of myocardial perfusion.

  18. Vitamin D deficiency in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jane

    2016-08-11

    There are over 300 000 people in the UK affected by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Though vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with IBD, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance regarding vitamin D supplementation does not address the needs of patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. However, there is growing evidence that vitamin D plays an important role in the management of IBD. Nurses caring for patients with IBD should have an understanding of the causes and consequences of vitamin D deficiency in this patient group. This article looks at the role vitamin D plays in the body and the challenges of treating deficiency. Consideration is given to diet, sun exposure and supplementation as possible treatments and acknowledges the limitations of treatments for patients with IBD. With a lack of clear national guidance, it is hoped that raising awareness of these issues will inform nursing practice and ensure a holistic approach to care.

  19. Careful counseling is required for patients with pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Neinstein, L S; Katz, B

    1984-11-01

    Patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, and other pulmonary diseases require careful family planning counseling. The asmatic patient should be given a birth control method that does not affect the disease or interfere with asthma medications. Oral contraceptives (OCs) are not contraindicated in asthmatic patients, although they may produce rhinitis symptoms. It is possible that the antiinflammatory action of steroids taken by asthmatics may decrease IUD effectiveness. Pregnancy can be a significant risk for patients with cystic fibrosis. In terms of contraception, there is concern that progesterone may cause bronchial mucus to thicken. Methods such as foam, the diaphragm, and condoms are preferred. An IUD can be offered to the patient who must avoid pregnancy due to poor cardiopulmonary status. It should be noted that pulmonary exacerbations of asthma and cystic fibrosis could potentially be confused with a pulmonary embolism.

  20. [Disease management system in patients with chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Scardi, Sabino; Humar, Franco; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Mazzone, Carmine; Giansante, Carlo; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2007-02-01

    Healthcare managers are more and more interested in the role of general practitioners (GP) in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Continuing adjustments of the health organization are the old/new challenge in improving patient care. The European Society of Cardiology guidelines recommend a disease-management program for heart failure (HF); moreover, observational studies and randomized controlled trials have reported better patient outcomes if patients are in charge of cardiologists rather than GPs or other physicians. Patients with chronic HF are often very old and affected by multiple comorbid conditions, by themselves associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, too many patients receive neither a correct diagnosis nor treatment until advanced disease occurs. New treatment approaches, some of them requiring the expertise of well-trained cardiologists, are ongoing to improve the clinical outcomes. The optimal management of patients with HF needs teamwork, i.e. GPs, cardiologists, nurses and caregivers, since a multidisciplinary program, only, can embody the best answer for outpatients with chronic HF. Currently, the Cardiovascular Center in Trieste is performing an experimental trial, so far never attempted before, in treating patients with chronic HF using a thorough approach with the full involvement of local cardiologists, GPs and nurses. Such approach is, at the same time, as well a challenge as an opportunity: a challenge because conventional clinical habits must be changed; an opportunity because patients can benefit from a proper whole care-group, aimed at prolonging life and reducing morbidity and symptoms.

  1. Weak central coherence in patients with Alzheimer's disease(•).

    PubMed

    Mårdh, Selina

    2013-03-15

    Central coherence refers to the ability to interpret details of information into a whole. To date, the concept of central coherence is mainly used in research of autism, Asperger's syndrome and recently in the research on eating disorders. The main purpose of the present study was to examine central coherence in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Nine Alzheimer's disease patients and ten age- and gender-matched control subjects, who differed significantly in neurological assessment, were shown a picture of a fire. Compared to control subjects, the Alzheimer's disease patients described the picture in a fragmented way by mentioning details and separate objects without perceiving the context of the fire. In conclusion, patients with Alzheimer's disease are at the weak end of central coherence, and hence suffer from a fragmented view of their surroundings. The findings have important clinical implications for the understanding of patients with Alzheimer's diseaseand also for the possibility of caregivers to meet the Alzheimer's disease individual in an appropriate way in the everyday care.

  2. Illness perception patterns in patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Kunschitz, E; Friedrich, O; Schöppl, Ch; Maitz, J; Sipötz, J

    2016-12-23

    The purpose of this study is to identify patterns of illness perception in patients with angiografically verified Coronary Artery Disease. A total of 166 patients (age: 64.4 ± 12.1, 80.7% male) were recruited after angiography. Cluster analysis on the items of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire was used to identify patterns of illness perception. The resulting groups were characterized with regard to Quality of Life (MacNew), anxiety and depression (GAD-7 and PHQ-9) and resilience (RS-13). The analysis revealed 4 distinct groups differing with regard to the items covering the perception of the physical and emotional impact of disease. Stronger perceptions in these domains were associated with lower Health Related Quality of Life and higher levels of emotional distress. Group 1 (33.1%) reported the strongest perceptions of the physical and emotional impact of disease and expressed low treatment control, high chronic timeline and significantly higher levels of depression than the other groups. Group 2 (27.7%) was characterized by more moderate perceptions of the emotional and physical impact of disease together with low scores on illness coherence and chronic timeline. Groups 3 (25.3%) and 4 (13.9%) reported smaller physical and emotional impact of illness but differed in chronic timeline. Our results correspond largely to recent findings in patients with other chronic diseases. Further research is needed to explore if stratification of patients according patterns of illness perception can help to inform patient-physician communication strategies.

  3. The prevalence of autoimmune disease in patients with esophageal achalasia.

    PubMed

    Booy, J D; Takata, J; Tomlinson, G; Urbach, D R

    2012-04-01

    Achalasia is a rare disease of the esophagus that has an unknown etiology. Genetic, infectious, and autoimmune mechanisms have each been proposed. Autoimmune diseases often occur in association with one another, either within a single individual or in a family. There have been separate case reports of patients with both achalasia and one or more autoimmune diseases, but no study has yet determined the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in the achalasia population. This paper aims to compare the prevalence of autoimmune disease in patients with esophageal achalasia to the general population. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 193 achalasia patients who received treatment at Toronto's University Health Network between January 2000 and May 2010 to identify other autoimmune diseases and a number of control conditions. We determined the general population prevalence of autoimmune diseases from published epidemiological studies. The achalasia sample was, on average, 10-15 years older and had slightly more men than the control populations. Compared to the general population, patients with achalasia were 5.4 times more likely to have type I diabetes mellitus (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-19), 8.5 times as likely to have hypothyroidism (95% CI 5.0-14), 37 times as likely to have Sjögren's syndrome (95% CI 1.9-205), 43 times as likely to have systemic lupus erythematosus (95% CI 12-154), and 259 times as likely to have uveitis (95% CI 13-1438). Overall, patients with achalasia were 3.6 times more likely to suffer from any autoimmune condition (95% CI 2.5-5.3). Our findings are consistent with the impression that achalasia's etiology has an autoimmune component. Further research is needed to more conclusively define achalasia as an autoimmune disease.

  4. Clinical outcomes of kidney transplants on patients with end-stage renal disease secondary to lupus nephritis, polycystic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Ríos, John Fredy; Builes-Rodriguez, Sheila Alexandra; Restrepo-Correa, Ricardo Cesar; Aristizabal-Alzate, Arbey; Ocampo-Kohn, Catalina; Serna-Campuzano, Angélica; Cardona-Díaz, Natalia; Giraldo-Ramirez, Nelson Darío; Zuluaga-Valencia, Gustavo Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with lupus nephritis could progress to end-stage renal disease (10-22%); hence, kidney transplants should be considered as the treatment of choice for these patients. Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcomes after kidney transplants in patients with chronic kidney diseases secondary to lupus nephritis, polycystic kidney disease and diabetes nephropathy at Pablo Tobon Uribe Hospital. Methods: A descriptive and retrospective study performed at one kidney transplant center between 2005 and 2013. Results: A total of 136 patients, 27 with lupus nephritis (19.9%), 31 with polycystic kidney disease (22.8%) and 78 with diabetes nephropathy (57.4%), were included in the study. The graft survivals after one, three and five years were 96.3%, 82.5% and 82.5% for lupus nephritis; 90%, 86% and 76.5% for polycystic kidney disease and 91.7%, 80.3% and 67.9% for diabetes nephropathy, respectively, with no significant differences (p= 0.488); the rate of lupus nephritis recurrence was 0.94%/person-year. The etiology of lupus vs diabetes vs polycystic disease was not a risk factor for a decreased time of graft survival (Hazard ratio: 1.43; 95% CI: 0.52-3.93). Conclusion: Kidney transplant patients with end stage renal disease secondary to lupus nephritis has similar graft and patient survival success rates to patients with other kidney diseases. The complication rate and risk of recurrence for lupus nephritis are low. Kidney transplants should be considered as the treatment of choice for patients with end stage renal disease secondary to lupus nephritis. PMID:27226665

  5. Familiar music as an enhancer of self-consciousness in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Anlló, Eva M; Díaz, Juan Poveda; Gil, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of familiar music on self-consciousness (SC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). For this purpose, two AD groups of 20 patients matched by age, educational level, gender, illness duration, and cognitive state were assessed using an SC questionnaire before and after music intervention. The SC questionnaire measured several aspects: personal identity, anosognosia, affective state, body representation, prospective memory, introspection and moral judgments. One AD group received familiar music stimulation and another AD group unfamiliar music stimulation over three months. The AD patients who received a familiar music intervention showed a stabilization or improvement in aspects of SC. By contrast, control AD group showed a deterioration of most of the SC aspects after unfamiliar music stimulation, except the SC aspects of body representation and affective state. Familiar music stimulation could be considered as an enhancer of SC in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Altered Esophageal Mucosal Structure in Patients with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Sánchez, María Inés; Nachman, Fabio D.; Fuxman, Claudia; Iantorno, Guido; Hwang, Hui Jer; Ditaranto, Andrés; Costa, Florencia; Longarini, Gabriela; Wang, Xuan Yu; Huang, Xianxi; Vázquez, Horacio; Moreno, María L.; Niveloni, Sonia; Bercik, Premysl; Smecuol, Edgardo; Mazure, Roberto; Bilder, Claudio; Mauriño, Eduardo C.; Verdu, Elena F.; Bai, Julio C.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Reflux symptoms (RS) are common in patients with celiac disease (CD), a chronic enteropathy that affects primarily the small intestine. We evaluated mucosal integrity and motility of the lower esophagus as mechanisms contributing to RS generation in patients with CD. Methods. We enrolled newly diagnosed CD patients with and without RS, nonceliac patients with classical reflux disease (GERD), and controls (without RS). Endoscopic biopsies from the distal esophagus were assessed for dilated intercellular space (DIS) by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Tight junction (TJ) mRNA proteins expression for zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-2 and claudin-3 (CLDN-2; CLDN-3) was determined using qRT-PCR. Results. DIS scores were higher in patients with active CD than in controls, but similar to GERD patients. The altered DIS was found even in CD patients without RS and normalized after one year of a gluten-free diet. CD patients with and without RS had lower expression of ZO-1 than controls. The expression of CLDN-2 and CLDN-3 was similar in CD and GERD patients. Conclusions. Our study shows that patients with active CD have altered esophageal mucosal integrity, independently of the presence of RS. The altered expression of ZO-1 may underlie loss of TJ integrity in the esophageal mucosa and may contribute to RS generation. PMID:27446827

  7. Normal cardiovascular reflex testing in patients with parkin disease.

    PubMed

    Del Sorbo, Francesca; Elia, Antonio E; De Joanna, Gabriella; Romito, Luigi M; Garavaglia, Barbara; Albanese, Alberto

    2007-03-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate cardiovascular autonomic function in patients with parkin disease. Ten patients with a genetically confirmed diagnosis were compared to 11 healthy controls. Symptoms related to autonomic dysfunction were collected by structured interviews. Cardiovascular autonomic reflex function was evaluated using a standard battery of eight tests. Autonomic tests included the study of sympathetic function through the analysis of blood pressure responses to head-up tilt, standing, isometric hand grip, cold pressor, mental arithmetic, Valsalva maneuver (Valsalva overshoot), and the study of parasympathetic function through the analysis of heart rate responses to deep breathing, hyperventilation, and Valsalva ratio. Seven out of 10 patients reported symptoms involving different aspects of autonomic function, while 5 out of 11 controls reported symptoms related exclusively to orthostatic dizziness and constipation. Symptoms related to bladder dysfunction were the most frequent autonomic abnormality occurring in six patients, followed by orthostatic dizziness and dry mouth (in four patients each). Constipation occurred in three patients, sialorrhea in two, and erectile dysfunction, dry eye, and warm intolerance in one each. Cardiovascular reflex testing revealed no difference between patients and controls in quantitative assessment of both sympathetic and parasympathetic functions, except for diastolic blood pressure after isometric hand grip that did not increase normally in parkin patients compared to controls (P = 0.007). These data show that cardiovascular dysautonomia is not associated to the parkin phenotype, whereas urinary complaints are more frequently reported by parkin patients than by controls. Urinary dysautonomia warrants further investigation in patients with parkin disease.

  8. Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy in Patient with Crohn's Disease: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sung-Min; Park, Ki Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Numerous causes of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) have been reported. Commonly, secondary osteoarthropathy accompanies pulmonary diseases such as carcinoma of the lung, pleural tumors, lung abscesses, and bronchiectasis. However, HOA in inflammatory bowel disease is a rare complication. There are only a few reports of secondary HOA with Crohn's disease. Our purpose was to report another case of HOA in Crohn's disease. We describe a case of a 27-year-old man with underlying Crohn's disease presenting with 2 years of pain in multiple joints. Radiographic findings suggested HOA in extremities. We performed a conservative treatment including medication and rehabilitations. The patient's symptoms were much improved at the latest follow-up. Although numerous studies on HOA have been published, the pathogenesis of HOA is still unclear. Various treatment modalities were recommended but further studies to uncover the pathogenesis of HOA with Crohn's disease and to establish a treatment modality are needed. PMID:25025001

  9. Motor Sequence Learning Performance in Parkinson's Disease Patients Depends on the Stage of Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Marianne A.; Meier, Beat; Zaugg, Sabine Weber; Kaelin-Lang, Alain

    2011-01-01

    It is still unclear, whether patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are impaired in the incidental learning of different motor sequences in short succession, although such a deficit might greatly impact their daily life. The aim of this study was thus to clarify the relation between disease parameters of PD and incidental motor learning of two…

  10. Cerebral hemodynamics and endothelial function in patients with Fabry disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cerebral vasculopathy have been described in Fabry disease, in which altered cerebral blood flow, vascular remodelling or impairment of endothelial function could be involved. Our study aims to evaluate these three possibilities in a group of Fabry patients, and compare it to healthy controls. Methods Cerebral hemodynamics, vascular remodelling and systemic endothelial function were investigated in 10 Fabry patients and compared to data from 17 healthy controls. Transcranial Doppler was used to study blood flow velocity of intracranial arteries and cerebral vasomotor reactivity. For the study of vascular remodelling and endothelial function, intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries, flow-mediated dilation in brachial artery and serum levels of soluble VCAM-1, TNF-α, high-sensitive CRP and IL-6 were measured. Differences between groups were evaluated using appropriate tests. Results No relevant differences were observed in cerebral hemodynamic parameters, intima-media thickness or flow-mediated dilation. There was a trend for low serum levels of IL-6 and high serum levels of TNF-α and high-sensitive CRP in Fabry patients; plasma concentrations of soluble VCAM-1 were significantly higher in Fabry disease patients than in healthy volunteers (p = 0.02). Conclusions In our sample, we did not find relevant alterations of cerebral hemodynamics in Fabry disease patients. Increased levels of plasmatic endothelial biomarkers seem to be the most important feature indicative of possible vascular dysfunction in Fabry disease patients. PMID:24207059

  11. Palliative care for patients with end-stage liver disease.

    PubMed

    Larson, Anne M

    2015-05-01

    Liver disease results in over four million physician visits and over 750,000 hospitalizations per year in the USA. Those with chronic liver disease frequently progress to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease (ESLD), and death. Patients with ESLD experience numerous complications, including muscle cramps, confusion (hepatic encephalopathy), protein calorie malnutrition, muscle wasting, fluid overload (ascites, edema), bleeding (esophagogastric variceal hemorrhage), infection (spontaneous bacterial peritonitis), fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Despite significant improvements in palliation of these complications, patients still suffer reduced quality of life and must confront the fact that their disease will often inexorably progress to death. Liver transplantation is a valid option in this setting, increasing the duration of survival and palliating many of the symptoms. However, many patients die waiting for an organ or are not candidates for transplantation due to comorbid illness. Others receive a transplant but succumb to complications of the transplant itself. Patients and families must struggle with simultaneously hoping for a cure while facing a life-threatening illness. Ideally, the combination of palliative care with life-sustaining therapy can maximize the patients' quality and quantity of life. If it becomes clear that life-sustaining therapy is no longer an option, these patients are then already in a system to help them with end-of-life care.

  12. Rationale for Using Social Media to Collect Patient-Reported Outcomes in Patients with Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Kt; Harris, Merissa; Khavari, Nasim; Khosla, Chaitan

    2014-02-01

    Patients with celiac disease (CD) are increasingly interconnected through social media, exchanging patient experiences and health-tracking information between individuals through various web-based platforms. Social media represents potentially unique communication interface between gastroenterologists and active social media users - especially young adults and adolescents with celiac disease-regarding adherence to the strict gluten-free diet, gastrointestinal symptoms, and meaningful discussion about disease management. Yet, various social media platforms may be underutilized for research purposes to collect patient-reported outcomes data. In this commentary, we summarize the scientific rationale and potential for future growth of social media in patient-reported outcomes research, focusing on college freshmen with celiac disease as a case study and provide overview of the methodological approach. Finally, we discuss how social media may impact patient care in the future through increasing mobile technology use.

  13. Anesthetic considerations in the patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing laparoscopic surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Khetarpal, Ranjana; Bali, Kusum; Chatrath, Veena; Bansal, Divya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the various anesthetic options which can be considered for laparoscopic surgeries in the patients with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The literature search was performed in the Google, PubMed, and Medscape using key words “analgesia, anesthesia, general, laparoscopy, lung diseases, obstructive.” More than thirty-five free full articles and books published from the year 1994 to 2014 were retrieved and studied. Retrospective data observed from various studies and case reports showed regional anesthesia (RA) to be valid and safer option in the patients who are not good candidates of general anesthesia like patients having obstructive pulmonary diseases. It showed better postoperative patient outcome with respect to safety, efficacy, postoperative pulmonary complications, and analgesia. So depending upon disease severity RA in various forms such as spinal anesthesia, paravertebral block, continuous epidural anesthesia, combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA), and CSEA with bi-level positive airway pressure should be considered. PMID:26957682

  14. The Wired Patient: Patterns of Electronic Patient Portal Use Among Patients With Cardiac Disease or Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Jonathan P; Shah, Nirav R; Stewart, Walter F

    2015-01-01

    Background As providers develop an electronic health record–based infrastructure, patients are increasingly using Web portals to access their health information and participate electronically in the health care process. Little is known about how such portals are actually used. Objective In this paper, our goal was to describe the types and patterns of portal users in an integrated delivery system. Methods We analyzed 12 months of data from Web server log files on 2282 patients using a Web-based portal to their electronic health record (EHR). We obtained data for patients with cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes who had a Geisinger Clinic primary care provider and were registered “MyGeisinger” Web portal users. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to longitudinal data to profile users based on their frequency, intensity, and consistency of use. User types were characterized by basic demographic data from the EHR. Results We identified eight distinct portal user groups. The two largest groups (41.98%, 948/2258 and 24.84%, 561/2258) logged into the portal infrequently but had markedly different levels of engagement with their medical record. Other distinct groups were characterized by tracking biometric measures (10.54%, 238/2258), sending electronic messages to their provider (9.25%, 209/2258), preparing for an office visit (5.98%, 135/2258), and tracking laboratory results (4.16%, 94/2258). Conclusions There are naturally occurring groups of EHR Web portal users within a population of adult primary care patients with chronic conditions. More than half of the patient cohort exhibited distinct patterns of portal use linked to key features. These patterns of portal access and interaction provide insight into opportunities for electronic patient engagement strategies. PMID:25707036

  15. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in Swedish patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Annelie; Löfberg, Robert; Sternby, Berit; Eriksson, Anders; Almer, Sven; Befrits, Ragnar; Fossum, Bjöörn; Karlén, Per; Broström, Olle; Tysk, Curt

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an increasing interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in patients with chronic diseases, including those with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients may turn to CAM when conventional therapies are inadequate or associated with side effects for symptomatic relief or to regain control over their disease. The objectives were to explore CAM use and perceived effects in IBD patients in comparison with a control group. Methods A cross-sectional, multicenter, controlled study was carried out. IBD patients were invited from 12 IBD clinics in Sweden. Controls were selected randomly from a residence registry. A study-specific questionnaire was used for data collection. Results Overall, 48.3% of patients with IBD had used some kind of CAM during the past year compared with 53.5% in controls (P=0.025, adjusted for age, sex, geographic residence, and diet). The most frequently used CAM among IBD patients was massage (21.3%), versus controls (31.4%) (adjusted P=0.0003). The second most used CAM was natural products, 18.7% in IBD patients versus 22.3% of the controls (unadjusted P=0.018). In all, 83.1% of the patients experienced positive effects from CAM and 14.4% experienced negative effects. Conclusion Overall, 48.3% of Swedish IBD patients used some kind of CAM and controls used CAM significantly more. Natural products were used by one-fifth of the patients and even more by controls. This is notable from a patient safety perspective considering the possible risks of interactions with conventional medication. In all, 40% of the patients reported adverse events from conventional medicine. Patients experienced predominantly positive effects from CAM, and so did controls. PMID:27472271

  16. Cardiovascular disease relates to intestinal uptake of p-cresol in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) associates with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. PCS concentrations are determined by intestinal uptake of p-cresol, human metabolism to PCS and renal clearance. Whether intestinal uptake of p-cresol itself is directly associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with renal dysfunction has not been studied to date. Methods We performed a prospective study in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 1 – 5 (NCT00441623). Intestinal uptake of p-cresol, under steady state conditions, was estimated from 24 h urinary excretion of PCS. Primary endpoint was time to first cardiovascular event, i.e., cardiac death, myocardial infarction/ischemia, ventricular arrhythmia, cardiovascular surgery, ischemic stroke or symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. Statistical analysis was done using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard analyses. Results In a cohort of 200 patients, median 24 h urinary excretion of PCS amounted to 457.47 μmol (IQR 252.68 – 697.17). After a median follow-up of 52 months, 25 patients reached the primary endpoint (tertile 1/2/3: 5/6/14 events, log rank P 0.037). Higher urinary excretion of PCS was directly associated with cardiovascular events (univariate hazard ratio per 100 μmol increase: 1.112, P 0.002). In multivariate analysis, urinary excretion of PCS remained a predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of eGFR (hazard ratio 1.120, P 0.002). Conclusions In patients with chronic kidney disease, intestinal uptake of p-cresol associates with cardiovascular disease independent of renal function. The intestinal generation and absorption of p-cresol may be therapeutic targets to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in patients with renal dysfunction. PMID:24912660

  17. Hepatitis C virus antibodies in patients with liver disease. The western Cape experience.

    PubMed

    Robson, S C; du Toit, J M; Brice, E A; Bird, A R; Brink, N S

    1991-09-21

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a recently characterised non-A, non-B hepatitis (NANBH) agent, which appears to be important in both parenteral and sporadic NANBH. HCV infection has been associated with the development of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatoma. Groups of patients in the western Cape with chronic liver disease and hepatoma were screened for antibodies to HCV and the results were confirmed by standard neutralisation tests. Three of 19 patients with cirrhosis secondary to alcohol abuse or classic auto-immune chronic active hepatitis were considered to have antibodies to HCV at initial screening. All of these were false-positive results. Five of 20 patients with presumptive chronic NANBH were considered possibly to have antibodies to HCV. Only 1 patient with post-transfusional NANBH was confirmed to have specific HCV antibodies. Two of 30 patients with hepatoma had specific anti-HCV antibodies in contrast to 11 others with serum HBsAg positivity. One hundred blood transfusion donors and 25 antenatal patients were tested concurrently and shown to be negative for anti-HCV. Specific antibodies to HCV were present in very few patients with cirrhosis, presumptive NANBH and hepatoma tested in this local survey. False-positive reactions appeared to occur at a higher rate than true-positive results.

  18. Complex partial status epilepticus in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Montserrat G; Vega, Juan; Santamarta, Elena; Caminal, Luis

    2013-09-06

    Few cases of Crohn's disease complicated with meningitis and epidural abscess have been described in literature. We present a case of a 42-year-old former smoker female patient diagnosed with Crohn's disease in September 1995 (with severe nutritional problems). On 20 February 2012, she was admitted due to a probable sepsis (without any previous treatment). After several days she developed a confusion syndrome (probable Wernicke's disease). On 5 March 2012, the patient presented with a febrile episode of 39 ° C. Two days later, the patient presented aphasia and paraparesis, and 3 days later she presented a complex partial status epilepticus. A lumbar puncture was performed and showed 131 leucocytes (63% granulocytes) and proteins 296.3. The abdominopelvic CT scan revealed a presacral collection that seem to extend cranially towards the lumbosacral spine. The lumbar MRI confirmed the lumbar epidural abscess secondary to the fistulisation of the presacral abscess.

  19. Endocrine Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease the alterations of the endocrine system may arise from several causes. The kidney is the site of degradation as well as synthesis of many different hormones. Moreover, a number of concomitant pathological conditions such as inflammation, metabolic acidosis and malnutrition may participate in the pathogenesis of endocrine abnormalities in this group of patients. The most pronounced endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease are the deficiencies of: calcitriol, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor and, erythropoietin (EPO). Additionally accumulation of several hormones, such as: prolactin, growth hormone and insulin frequently also occur. The clinical consequences of the abovementioned endocrine abnormalities are among others: anemia, infertility and bone diseases.

  20. Mycobacterium abscessus Lung Disease in a Patient with Kartagener Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Song, Won Jun; Jun, Ji Eun; Ryu, Duck Hyun; Lee, Ji Eun; Jeong, Ho Jung; Jeong, Suk Hyeon; Kang, Hyung Koo; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Hyun; Chon, Hae Ri; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Dohun; Kim, Jhingook; Koh, Won-Jung

    2014-09-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is characterized by the congenital impairment of mucociliary clearance. When accompanied by situs inversus, chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis, PCD is known as Kartagener syndrome. The main consequence of impaired ciliary function is a reduced mucus clearance from the lungs, and susceptibility to chronic respiratory infections due to opportunistic pathogens, including nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). There has been no report of NTM lung disease combined with Kartagener syndrome in Korea. Here, we report an adult patient with Kartagener syndrome complicated with Mycobacterium abscessus lung disease. A 37-year-old female presented to our hospital with chronic cough and sputum. She was ultimately diagnosed with M. abscessus lung disease and Kartagener syndrome. M. abscessus was repeatedly isolated from sputum specimens collected from the patient, despite prolonged antibiotic treatment. The patient's condition improved and negative sputum culture conversion was achieved after sequential bilateral pulmonary resection.

  1. Post-bleaching sensitivity in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Guacyra M; Guedes, Verónica L; Luna, Maria do R Ml; Carneiro-Jr, Américo M; Stegun, Roberto C

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a monogenic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. This study analyzed the effectiveness of bleaching and tooth sensitivity after in-office bleaching in patients with SCD. Forty volunteers were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 patients each (five with the SCD and five healthy controls) and treated using in-office bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and different light activation protocols. No statistically significant difference was observed with relation to presence of tooth sensitivity, with or without use of a source of light for peroxide activation, and all bleaching therapies were effective, regardless of the technique employed and the presence/absence of sickle cell disease. The data showed that in-office dental bleaching is a viable alternative for improvement of oral esthetics for patients with SCD.

  2. Arterial Stiffness Is Significantly Associated With Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Namba, Takayuki; Masaki, Nobuyuki; Matsuo, Yuki; Sato, Atsushi; Kimura, Toyokazu; Horii, Shunpei; Yasuda, Risako; Yada, Hirotaka; Kawamura, Akio; Takase, Bonpei; Adachi, Takeshi

    2016-12-02

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is considered the main cause of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There have been few reports on the correlation between LV diastolic dysfunction and arterial stiffness in patients with clinical cardiovascular disease.This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 patients (67 men, 33 women; mean age, 70 years). All participants were diagnosed with cardiovascular disease. A total of 89 (89%) patients had coronary artery disease or HF. Patients with reduced EF and valvular disease were excluded. Arterial stiffness was assessed by the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), and LV diastolic dysfunction was estimated using echocardiography. The patients were divided into two groups based on the median value of CAVI. In all patients the ratio of early diastolic transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e') was significantly higher in the high CAVI group than in the low CAVI group (15.5 ± 6.4 versus 12.5 ± 2.9, P = 0.003). In the HF subgroup, E/e' was also significantly higher in the high CAVI group than in the low CAVI group (17.2 ± 5.9 versus 13.0 ± 3.1, P = 0.026). In univariate regression analysis, CAVI was significantly associated with E/e' in all patients (β = 0.28, P = 0.004) and in HF patients (β = 0.4, P = 0.028). Also in multivariate analysis, CAVI remained as an independent predictive factor of E/e' (β = 0.252, P = 0.037).A high CAVI was independently associated with LV diastolic dysfunction in patients with clinical cardiovascular disease. These results suggested that arterial stiffness contributed to the development of LV diastolic dysfunction.

  3. Study of animal-borne infections in the mucosas of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and population-based controls.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Charles N; Nayar, Gopi; Hamel, Andre; Blanchard, James F

    2003-11-01

    Crohn's disease may be triggered by an infection, and it is plausible to consider that such an infection may be animal borne and ingested with our food. There has been considerable interest in the past in determining whether Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. avium) might be the etiologic agent in Crohn's disease since it causes a disease in cattle that is similar to Crohn's disease in humans. We aimed to determine if there was an association between Crohn's disease and infection with M. avium or other zoonotic agents and compared the findings with those for patients with ulcerative colitis, unaffected siblings of Crohn's disease patients, or population-based controls without inflammatory bowel disease. Patients under age 50 years with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, unaffected siblings of patients, or healthy controls drawn from a population-based age- and gender-matched registry were enrolled in a study in which subjects submitted to a questionnaire survey and venipuncture. A nested cohort underwent colonoscopy plus biopsy. Samples were batched and submitted to PCR for the detection of M. avium and other zoonotic agents known to cause predominately intestinal disease in cattle, sheep, or swine. Only one patient with ulcerative colitis, no patients with Crohn's disease, and none of the sibling controls were positive for M. avium, whereas 6 of 19 healthy controls were positive for M. avium. Since the control subjects were significantly older than the case patients, we studied another 11 patients with inflammatory bowel disease who were older than age 50 years, and another single subject with ulcerative colitis was positive for M. avium. One other subject older than age 50 years with ulcerative colitis was positive for circovirus, a swine-borne agent of infection. In conclusion, by performing PCR with mucosal samples from patients with Crohn's disease and controls, no association between Crohn's disease and infection with M. avium or any of the

  4. Wisdom teeth extraction in a patient with moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Seto, Mika; Aoyagi, Naoko; Koga, Sayo; Kikuta, Toshihiro

    2013-12-01

    Moyamoya disease is a rare neurovascular disorder that involves constriction of certain arteries in the brain. In patients with moyamoya disease, it is very important to prevent cerebral ischemic attacks and intracerebral bleeding caused by fluctuating blood pressure and increased respiration. A 40-year-old woman with moyamoya disease was scheduled for extraction of her right upper and lower impacted wisdom teeth. Her lower impacted wisdom tooth was situated close to the inferior alveolar nerve. We decided to continue her oral antiplatelet therapy and planned intravenous sedation with analgesic agents administered approximately five minutes prior to extraction of the root of the mandibular wisdom tooth. Oral analgesic medications were regularly administered postoperatively to alleviate pain and anxiety. During the perioperative period, no cerebrovascular event occurred, and the wisdom teeth were successfully extracted as per the planned procedure. It is thought that the perioperative risks of wisdom tooth extraction in patients with moyamoya disease can be minimized with the use of our protocols.

  5. Identification of mutations in Colombian patients affected with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Alfredo; Mateus, Heidi Eliana; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Palacios, Maria Fernanda; Ospina, Sandra Yaneth; Pasqualim, Gabriela; da Silveira Matte, Ursula; Giugliani, Roberto

    2015-12-15

    Fabry Disease (FD) is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid catabolism, caused by a deficiency of the lisosomal α-galactosidase A (AGAL). The disorder leads to a vascular disease secondary to the involvement of kidney, heart and the central nervous system. The mutation analysis is a valuable tool for diagnosis and genetic counseling. Although more than 600 mutations have been identified, most mutations are private. Our objective was to describe the analysis of nine Colombian patients with Fabry disease by automated sequencing of the seven exons of the GLA gene. Two novel mutations were identified in two patients affected with the classical subtype of FD, in addition to other 6 mutations previously reported. The present study confirms the heterogeneity of mutations in Fabry disease and the importance of molecular analysis for genetic counseling, female heterozygotes detection as well as therapeutic decisions.

  6. Risk of Periodontal Diseases in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have reported an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontal diseases. However, a large-scale population-based cohort study was previously absent from the literature. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of periodontal diseases in patients with COPD in a nationwide population. From the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 22,332 patients with COPD who were newly diagnosed during 2000 to 2010. For each case, two individuals without COPD were randomly selected and frequency matched by age, sex, and diagnosis year. Both groups were followed up till the end of 2011. The overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.19-fold greater in the COPD group than in the comparison group (32.2 vs 26.4 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–1.24). Compared with non-COPD patients, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD increased with the number of emergency room visits (from 1.14 [95% CI 1.10–1.19] to 5.09 [95% CI 4.53–5.72]) and admissions (from 1.15 [95% CI 1.10–1.20] to 3.17 [95% CI 2.81–3.57]). In addition, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD treated with inhaled corticosteroids (1.22, 95% CI 1.11–1.34) and systemic corticosteroids (1.15, 95% CI 1.07–1.23) were significantly higher than those of patients not treated with corticosteroids. Patient with COPD are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases than the general population. Our results also support that the risk of periodontal diseases is proportional to COPD control. In addition, patients who receive corticosteroid treatment are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases. PMID:26579813

  7. Clinical characteristics of sleep disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhi-Juan; Liu, Chan-Chan; Ji, Su-Qiong; Yang, Qing-Mei; Ye, Hong-Xiang; Han, Hai-Yan; Xue, Zheng

    2017-02-01

    In order to investigate the sleep quality and influencing factors in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 201 PD patients were enrolled and underwent extensive clinical evaluations. Subjective sleep evaluation was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). It was found that poor sleep quality (77.11%) and excessive daytime sleepiness (32.34%) were commonly seen in PD patients and positively correlated with disease severity. Then 70 out of the 201 PD patients and 70 age- and sex-matched controls underwent a polysomnographic recording. The parameters were compared between PD group and control group and the influencing factors of sleep in PD patients were analyzed. The results showed that sleep efficiency (SE) was significantly decreased (P<0.01), and sleep latency (SL) and the arousal index (AI) were increased (P<0.05) in the PD group as compared with those in the control group. SE and total sleep time (TST) were positively correlated with the Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stage. There was significant difference in the extent of hypopnea and hypoxemia between the PD group and the control group (P<0.05). Our results indicate that PD patients have an overall poor sleep quality and a high prevalence of sleep disorder, which may be correlated with the disease severity. Respiratory function and oxygen supply are also affected to a certain degree in PD patients.

  8. [Cognitive plasticity in Alzheimer's disease patients receiving cognitive stimulation programs].

    PubMed

    Zamarrón Cassinello, Ma Dolores; Tárraga Mestre, Luis; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2008-08-01

    The main purpose of this article is to examine whether cognitive plasticity increases after cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease patients. Twenty six patients participated in this study, all of them diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease, 17 of them received a cognitive training program during 6 months, and the other 9 were assigned to the control group. Participants were assigned to experimental or control conditions for clinical reasons. In order to assess cognitive plasticity, all patients were assessed before and after treatment with three subtests from the "Bateria de Evaluación de Potencial de Aprendizaje en Demencias" [Assessment Battery of Learning Potential in Dementia] (BEPAD). After treatment, Alzheimer's disease patients improved their performance in all the tasks assessing cognitive plasticity: viso-spatial memory, audio-verbal memory and verbal fluency. However, the cognitive plasticity scores of the patients in the control group decreased. In conclusion, this study showed that cognitive stimulation programs can improve cognitive functioning in mildly demented patients, and patients who do not receive any cognitive interventions may reduce their cognitive functioning.

  9. Oropharynx in patients with cerebrovascular disease: evaluation with videofluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, M Y; Ott, D J; Peele, V N; Gelfand, D W

    1990-09-01

    Forty-six patients with cerebrovascular disease underwent videofluoroscopic examination of the oropharynx to assess location and severity of swallowing dysfunction with use of boluses of various consistencies. Low- and high-viscosity barium suspensions, a barium paste, and a paste-coated cookie were used; not all patients were given all materials. Thirty-nine patients had abnormalities of both oral and pharyngeal function. Two patients had oral dysfunction only, and five had pharyngeal abnormalities only. Mild swallowing difficulties occurred in 18 patients (39%), moderate dysfunction in 23 (50%), and severe dysfunction in five (11%). Thirty-one patients had pharyngeal stasis, which was symmetric in 25 patients (81%), right-sided in three, and left-sided in three. Asymmetric stasis did not correlate to the site of cerebrovascular disease. Twenty-four episodes of aspiration occurred, half of them with the low-viscosity barium suspension. Thus, video-fluoroscopy can be used to define the location and severity of oropharyngeal abnormalities, which is critical for feeding recommendations. The abnormalities present, however, were not useful in predicting the type of cerebrovascular disease.

  10. Assessment of global disease activity in RA patients monitored in the METEOR database: the patient's versus the rheumatologist's opinion.

    PubMed

    Gvozdenović, Emilia; Koevoets, Rosanne; Wolterbeek, Ron; van der Heijde, Désirée; Huizinga, Tom W J; Allaart, Cornelia F; Landewé, Robert B M

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the patient's (PtGDA) and physician's (PhGDA) assessment of global disease activity and to identify factors that might influence these differences as well as factors that may influence the patient's and the physician's scores separately. Anonymous data were used from 2,117 Dutch patients included in the Measurement of efficacy of Treatment in the Era of Rheumatology database. PtGDA and PhGDA were scored independently on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) with 0 and 100 as extremes. The agreement, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), was calculated and a Bland-Altman plot was created to visualize the differences between PtGDA and PhGDA. Linear mixed model analysis was used to model PtGDA and PhGDA. Logistic repeated measurements were used to model the difference in PtGDA and PhGDA (PtGDA > PhGDA versus PtGDA ≤ PhGDA). Gender patient, gender physician, age, swollen joint count (SJC), tender joint count, VAS pain, disease duration, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were considered as possible determinants in both models. Mean (standard deviation) age was 57 (15) years and 67 % of the patients were female. Agreement between PtGDA and PhGDA was moderate (ICC, 0.57). Patients scored on average 11 units higher (worse) than rheumatologists (95 % limits of agreement, -25.2 to 47.6). Patient's perception of pain (VAS) was positively associated with a PtGDA being higher than PhGDA. Similarly, ESR and swollen joint counts were positively associated with a PtGDA being lower or equal to the PhGDA. Patients rate global disease activity consistently higher than their rheumatologists. Patients base their judgment primarily on the level of pain, physicians on the level of SJC and ESR.

  11. Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Vendramini, L.C.; Nishiura, J.L.; Baxmann, A.C.; Heilberg, I.P.

    2012-01-01

    Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years) and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years). The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134 mg/day), and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471 mg/day), the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake. PMID:22801417

  12. [Hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular risk profile in ischemic heart disease and acid peptic disease comorbidity patients].

    PubMed

    Zharkova, A V; Orlovs'kyĭ, V F

    2014-01-01

    Present article is devoted to the study of the clinic features of ischemic heart desease associated with acid peptic disease. It was shown the more evident increase of myocardial infarction risk in associated pathology patients. Such results have to be caused by the special risk factor. As such factor we desided to study the hyperhomosysteinemia. During research there were discovered that the lowest vitamin B12 serum level and the highest homocysteine serum level have been registrated in associated pathology (ischemic heart disease and acid peptic disease according to long-term proton pump inhibitor use) patients. It was shown evident correlation between that changes and dyslipidemia.

  13. Actigraphy monitoring of symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weidong; Kwak, Shin; Li, Fuzhong; Wu, Chunlan; Chen, Yiyun; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Cai, Dingfang

    2013-07-02

    Although the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) is the "gold-standard" tool in assessing the severity of symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), not all activity-related disease symptoms can be accurately captured by the well-established clinical rating scale. Using an alternative approach, this study examined the level of physical activity measured by actigraphy over time and whether change in physical activity was associated with disease severity assessed by UPDRS. We used a longitudinal design in which physical activity and disease severity were assessed repeatedly during a 4-month interval, over a 3-year observational period, in a sample of 61 patients with idiopathic PD and a control group of 32 neurologically intact individuals. Physical activity data during awake-time were analyzed using the power-law exponent (PLE) method. Correlational relationships between changes in maxima values of PLE and scores of total UPDRS, UPDRS-part II (Activities of Daily Living), and UPDRS-part III (Motor Examination) in patients with PD were examined. Results show an increase in maxima values of PLE and the UPDRS total score in PD patients and that there is a positive association between changes in maxima values and total UPDRS score (r=0.746, p=0.032), UPDRS-part II score (r=0.687, p=0.027), and UPDRS-part III score (r=0.893, p=0.018). There was no significant change in the level of physical activity over time for the controls. Findings from this study indicate that change in physical activity, as captured by actigraphy, is associated with increased severity in patients' clinical symptoms of PD over time. Thus, these data suggest that, when used in conjunction with the conventional UPDRS measure, an actigraphic measure of physical activity may provide clinicians an adjunct measurement approach to monitor patients' activity-based disease progression or responses to treatment in outpatient clinic settings.

  14. Coronary calcification in patients with end-stage renal disease: a novel endocrine disorder?

    PubMed

    Efstratiadis, Georgios; Koskinas, Konstantinos; Pagourelias, Efstathios

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular mortality is significantly increased among patients with end-stage renal disease. The commonly observed vascular calcification in such patients has been considered as one of the causative factors. In patients undergoing dialysis, the incidence of coronary artery calcification is 2-5 times higher compared to patients with normal renal function and angiographically demonstrated coronary artery disease. Moreover, epidemiological studies have revealed a significant correlation of the extent of coronary artery calcification with the severity of underlying atherosclerotic lesions. Vascular calcification was initially considered as a passive process of hydroxyapatite deposition due to elevated plasma concentrations of calcium and phosphate. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of evidence that vascular calcification is an actively regulated and cell-mediated process. This phenomenon includes phenotypic alterations of vascular smooth muscle cells mainly resulting from an imbalance between promoters (such as increased Ca x P product) and inhibitors (fetuin-A, GLA protein, osteoprotegerin) of mineral deposition. With regard to the therapeutic approach, despite the evident effectiveness of both traditional and innovative remedies in the management of metabolic and electrolytic abnormalities of patients with end-stage renal disease, an individualized intervention based on etiopathogenesis is really required.

  15. Patients' knowledge of heart disease in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Philip; Garraway, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Interviews with 400 consecutive patients attending a general practice sought their knowledge of the signs and symptoms of an acute heart attack, what action they would take for such an event, and their understanding of the predisposing factors contributing to heart disease. The survey revealed poor recognition of the relevant signs and symptoms of an acute heart attack and lack of knowledge of some of the main predisposing factors associated with heart disease. PMID:618352

  16. Mobile Monitoring Framework to Design Parameterized and Personalized m-Health Applications According to the Patient's Diseases.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Vladimir; Hervas, Ramon; Fontecha, Jesus; Bravo, Jose

    2015-10-01

    The development of personalized mobile monitoring applications is a complex work. Currently, the most of applications for patients monitoring through mobile devices, is not developed considering the particular characteristics of each patient, but these applications have been developed taking into account a general behavior depending on the diseases instead of the own patients. The diseases manifest different symptoms depending on the patient situation. Mary and John (hypothetic patients) have diabetes, but the same measurement of glucose for each one affects their health in a different way. This paper describes a framework that allows the development of mobile applications, personalized for each patient, in such a way that even if they have the same disease, the application will respond to the individual needs of each patient.

  17. [Clinical associations between retinal vascular diseases and cardiovascular diseases in patients with systemic atheromatosis].

    PubMed

    Stefănescu-Dima, Alin; Bătăiosu, Constantin; Sas, Teodor; Puianu, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted on a sample of 48 patients examined within 3 months. Of these, 27 patients were recruited by ophtalmologic criteria and 21 recruited by cardiologic criteria, 25% of these patients coming for routine check. They were investigated by ophthalmic examination, cardiological examination, imaging and laboratory examination. Testing has shown a strong link between cardiovascular disease and the eye of the patients investigated. The study demonstrated the need for interdisciplinary consultation for patients with vascular complaints in the carotid territory and a close correlation between the vascular and ophthalmologic pathology at this level.

  18. Management of retinal vascular diseases: a patient-centric approach.

    PubMed

    Brand, C S

    2012-04-01

    Retinal vascular diseases are a leading cause of blindness in the Western world. Advancement in the clinical management of these diseases has been fast-paced, with new treatments becoming available as well as license extensions of existing treatments. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in certain retinal vascular diseases, including wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular oedema (DMO), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Treatment of wet AMD and visual impairment due to either DMO or macular oedema secondary to RVO with an anti-VEGF on an as needed basis, rather than a fixed schedule, allows an individualised treatment approach; providing treatment when patients are most likely to benefit from it, while minimising the number of unnecessary intravitreal injections. Thus, an individualised treatment regimen reduces the chances of over-treatment and under-treatment, optimising both the risk/benefit profile of the treatment and the efficient use of NHS resource. Streamlining of treatment for patients with wet AMD and visual impairment due to either DMO or macular oedema secondary to RVO, by using one treatment with similar posology across all three diseases, may help to minimise burden of clinic capacity and complexity and hence optimise patient outcomes. Informed treatment decisions and efficient clinic throughput are important for optimal patient outcomes in the fast-changing field of retinal vascular diseases.

  19. The Patient Education Program for Huntington's Disease (PEP-HD).

    PubMed

    A'Campo, Laura E I; Spliethoff-Kamminga, Noëlle G A; Roos, Raymund A C

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the Patient Education Program for Huntington's disease is to improve quality of life for patients and caregivers, to educate and train them in order to develop coping strategies to deal with psychosocial stressors. The program was derived from a standardized evidence-based program for Parkinson's disease. This pilot study assessed the feasibility of the program in Huntington's disease. Forty manifest patients with 28 caregivers and 19 premanifest carriers with 14 partners participated. Assessments for depression and anxiety, psychosocial burden, need for help, quality of life, coping, behavioral, motor and cognitive status were performed. After program completion, significant improvement of behavioral symptoms and anxiety was found for manifest HD patients, and they used a less passive coping style and more social support. Their caregivers reported less psychosocial burden. Premanifest carriers and their partners improved their coping by seeking social support more often. This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of the program in Huntington's disease, especially in the manifest stage of the disease. Further research to assess the effectiveness of the program seems warranted.

  20. Sense of Coherence in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Opheim, Randi; Fagermoen, May Solveig; Jelsness-Jørgensen, Lars-Petter; Bernklev, Tomm; Moum, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Sense of coherence (SOC) is a health-promoting concept reflecting a person's view of life and response to stressful situations and may be of importance in coping with chronic illness. The aim of this study was to explore associations between SOC and sociodemographic, disease-related, and personal characteristics in a sample of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods. Measures included sociodemographic and disease-related data, the Sense of Coherence Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS-5). Results. In total, 428 IBD patients had evaluable questionnaires (response rate 93%). The overall mean SOC total score was 66.25 (SD 11.47) and with no statistically significant difference between patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and patients with Crohn's disease (CD). In the multivariate analyses, higher GSE scores were significantly associated with higher SOC scores and higher FSS-5 scores were significantly associated with lower SOC scores in both UC and CD. Conclusion. GSE and FSS-5 contributed more to the variance in SOC than sociodemographic and disease-related variables. Longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the value of SOC as a predictor of disability, medication adherence, coping behavior, and health-related quality of life. PMID:24527028

  1. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care.

    PubMed

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care.

  2. Increase risk of allergic diseases in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Pin; Kuo, Chun-Nan; Kuo, Li-Na; Wang, Yao-Tung; Perng, Wuu-Tsun; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Wei, James Cheng-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Th2 and Th17 cells are both associated with developing ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and asthma. Th2 cells are also associated with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis (AD). The prevalence of such allergic diseases in AS patients is unknown. In this study, we intended to study the risk of allergic diseases in a 10-year follow-up population of newly diagnosed patients with AS. We used a nationwide 10-year population-based database retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005) in Taiwan. The study cohort comprised 857 patients with AS who had at least 1 claim of inpatient admission or at least 2 claims of ambulatory visit. The comparison cohort consisted of 4285 randomly selected subjects matched with AS group at a ratio of 5:1. We used Cox proportional-hazards regression to determine the 10-year disease-free survival rates after adjusting for potentially confounding factors. The AS patients had a 1.31 times greater risk of developing asthma within 10 years of diagnosis when compared with non-AS age- and sex-matched subjects, after adjusting for other risk factors (95% confidence interval = 1.00–1.75). But the difference was not significantly different. The AS patients also had a 1.46 times and a 1.22 times greater risk of developing allergic rhinitis and AD significantly. AS patients also had a lower allergic disease-free survival rate compared to non-AS group. Our results showed that patients with AS had a higher risk of developing allergic diseases later in life. PMID:27828843

  3. Making oats safer for patients with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Dickey, William

    2008-06-01

    (Table is included in full-text article). Studies suggest that oats can be tolerated in the gluten-free diet by a majority of patients with coeliac disease. Concerns remain, however, about the possibility of contamination of commercially available oat products by wheat, barley and rye. The R5 ELISA allows the identification and quantification of wheat, barley and rye prolamins, and has demonstrated significant contamination in a range of products. If patients with coeliac disease are to take oats, it is important that those consumed are free of contamination. This assay should allow the identification of safe oat products.

  4. Blink reflex in dyskinetic and nondyskinetic patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, L M; Chacon, J; Madrazo, J; Chaparro, P; Vadillo, J

    1989-01-01

    An electrophysiological study of the blink Reflex was undertaken in 40 dyskinetic and 20 nondyskinetic patients with Parkinson's disease, who were matched for age, stage of disease, duration of illness and amount and nature of antiparkinsonian medication. We found that latencies of R2 responses (both ipsilateral and contralateral) were prolonged in the dyskinetic group compared to the nondyskinetic group. Moreover, the late response was more easily inhibited by conditioning stimulation in dyskinetic patients. This behavior of late response in dyskinetic parkinsonians may be attributed to the reinstatement of dopaminergic suppressive control over the segmental multisynaptic systems belonging to the reflex.

  5. Transient dynamics in motor control of patients with Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuter, Anne; Labrie, Christiane; Vasilakos, Konstantinon

    1991-10-01

    Experimental observations of movement disorders including tremor and voluntary microdisplacements recorded in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) during a simple visuomotor tracking task are analyzed. The performance of patients with PD having a very large amplitude tremor is characterized either by the intermittent appearance of transient dynamics or by the presence of sudden transitions in the amplitude or frequency of the signal. The need to develop new tools to characterize changes in dynamics (i.e., transitions) and to redefine neurological degeneration, such as Parkinson's disease, in terms of qualitative changes in oscillatory behaviors is emphasized.

  6. Anaesthesia for patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Duggappa, Devika Rani; Rao, G Venkateswara; Kannan, Sudheesh

    2015-01-01

    The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has become a disease of public health importance. Among the various risk factors, smoking remains the main culprit. In addition to airway obstruction, the presence of intrinsic positive end expiratory pressure, respiratory muscle dysfunction contributes to the symptoms of the patient. Perioperative management of these patients includes identification of modifiable risk factors and their optimisation. Use of regional anaesthesia alone or in combination with general anaesthesia improves pulmonary functions and reduces the incidence of post-operative pulmonary complications. PMID:26556916

  7. Clinical Presentation and Patient Evaluation in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vaishali; Sanyal, Arun J; Sterling, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a diagnosis of exclusion. Most patients are asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally. Most patients remain undiagnosed. A high index of suspicion and serologic work-up to rule out alternative causes of liver disease is required. In NALFD, fibrosis correlates with outcomes, including mortality. To diagnose, assess severity, and monitor fibrosis, 2 noninvasive methods can be used. However, noninvasive tests are more helpful at extremes of fibrosis: excluding it or diagnosing advanced fibrosis. Liver biopsy is usually reserved for cases whereby noninvasive tests fail to accurately determine the degree of fibrosis or the diagnosis is unclear.

  8. Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome of Patients with Acute Lyme Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Robert P.; Pasternack, Mark S.; Elias, Susan; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Gilmore, Edward C.; McCarthy, Carol; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-10-05

    Acute Lyme disease results from transmission of and infection by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi following a tick bite. During acute infection, bacteria can disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to the development of Lyme meningitis. Here we have analyzed pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allowing for a deep view into the proteome for a cohort of patients with early-disseminated Lyme disease and CSF inflammation leading to the identification of proteins that reflect host responses, which are distinct for subjects with acute Lyme disease. Additionally, we analyzed individual patient samples and quantified changes in protein abundance employing label-free quantitative mass spectrometry based methods. The measured changes in protein abundances reflect the impact of acute Lyme disease on the CNS as presented in CSF. We have identified 89 proteins that differ significantly in abundance in patients with acute Lyme disease. A number of the differentially abundant proteins have been found to be localized to brain synapse and thus constitute important leads for better understanding of the neurological consequence of disseminated Lyme disease.

  9. Littoral Cell Angioma in a Patient with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Björnsson, Bergthor; Ignatova, Simone; Sandström, Per; Ekstedt, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Littoral cell angioma is a rare vascular tumor of the spleen. The pathogenesis is unknown but the lesion is associated with several malignancies and immunological disorders. The diagnosis requires histopathological examination. The malignant potential of this lesion is unknown, which is why splenectomy is recommend for all cases. Symptomatic cases generally suffer from hypersplenism and pyrexia. A previously healthy 20-year-old female was diagnosed with colonic Crohn's disease; as part of the work-up a magnetic resonance enterography was performed which showed multiple signal changes of the spleen. The patient reported chronic abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant, malaise, and fever. The unknown splenic lesions prompted a laparoscopic splenectomy; pathology revealed a littoral cell angioma. The abdominal pain and malaise remitted but the fever persisted one year despite adequate treatment of the patient's Crohn's disease. Littoral cell angioma is associated with immune-dysregulation including Crohn's disease with several reported cases. Signs and symptoms of hypersplenism and splenic lesions on imaging should raise suspicion of littoral cell angioma in patients with Crohn's disease. Magnetic resonance enterography to assess disease severity in Crohn's disease may provide an opportunity to study the prevalence and natural history of this rare splenic tumor. PMID:25705528

  10. Extrahepatic Autoimmune Diseases in Patients with Autoimmune Liver Diseases: A Phenomenon Neglected by Gastroenterologists

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Baoru

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs) often coexist with other extrahepatic autoimmune diseases (EHAIDs). The spectrum of EHAIDs in patients with AILDs is similar, whereas the incidence is different. Notably, autoimmune thyroid disease and Sjogren's syndrome are the most common EHAIDs. Associated extrahepatic diseases may predate the appearance of AILDs or coincide with their onset. More frequently, they may appear during the course and even occur years after the diagnosis of AILDs. Importantly, associated EHAIDs may influence the natural course and prognosis of AILDs. To date, a definite pathophysiological pathway which contributes to the coexistence of AILDs and EHAIDs is still lacking. The current view of autoimmunity clustering involves a common susceptibility genetic background which applies to related pathologies. Herein, we review the current published researches regarding EHAIDs in patients with AILDs, particularly in relation to their clinical impact and pathophysiology. In managing patients with AILDs, gastroenterologists should be aware of the possibly associated EHAIDs to ensure a prompt diagnosis and better outcome. PMID:28191014

  11. Development of Kawasaki disease in a patient with PFAPA.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Takahito; Takada, Hidetoshi; Nagatomo, Yusaku; Nanishi, Etsuro; Nagata, Hazumu; Yamamura, Kenichiro; Doi, Takehiko; Ikeda, Kazuyuki; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-12-01

    Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis syndrome (PFAPA) is one of the autoinflammatory diseases of unknown etiology characterized by regularly recurrent fever episodes with attacks lasting 3-6 days every 3-8 weeks associated with at least one of the three cardinal clinical signs: aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis. Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited systemic vasculitis that occurs predominantly in infants and young children. In most KD patients, i.v. immunoglobulin leads to a rapid amelioration of clinical symptoms and significantly decreases the risk of coronary artery aneurysms. Although the etiology of KD is still unknown, it was reported that innate immunity was activated in the patients. Described herein is a patient with PFAPA who developed KD. This is the first report of KD development in a PFAPA patient. The association between KD and PFAPA may represent a genetic predisposition to dysregulated innate immune response.

  12. Jumping to conclusions in untreated patients with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende Costa, Flavio Henrique; Averbeck, Bruno; O'Sullivan, Sean S.; Vincent, Maurice Borges; Rosso, Ana Lucia; Lees, Andrew J.; Djamshidian, Atbin

    2016-01-01

    Background Jumping to conclusions due to impulsivity has been shown to be a sensitive marker for dopamine dysregulation and addictive behaviour patterns in treated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). It is unknown whether drug naïve PD patients, who have never received dopaminergic therapy also have deficits in information sampling. Methods Twenty five de novo PD patients and twenty matched healthy controls were recruited and tested on the beads task, which is a validated information sampling task to assess reflection impulsivity and a temporal discounting questionnaire. Results Patients gathered significantly less information and made more irrational choices than matched controls. There was, however, no group difference on the temporal discounting questionnaire. Conclusions Poor information sampling and irrational decision making may be an inherent component of the neuropsychological deficit in Parkinson's disease. These findings suggest that underlying impulsivity detected by a metric task is common in de novo PD. PMID:26956927

  13. Increasing Patient Activation Could Improve Outcomes for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shawn L; Siegel, Corey A

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex disease process that often requires the integration of skills from various health care providers to adequately meet the needs of patients with IBD. The medical and surgical treatment options for IBD have become more complicated and are frequently a source of angst for both the patient and provider. However, it has become more important than ever to engage patients in navigating the treatment algorithm. Although novel in the IBD world, the concept of patients' becoming more active and effective managers of their care has been well studied in other disease processes such as diabetes mellitus and mental illness. This idea of patient activation refers to a patient understanding his or her role in the care process and having the skill sets and self-reliance necessary to manage his or her own health care. Over the past decade, evidence supporting the role of patient activation in chronic illness has grown, revealing improved health outcomes, enhanced patient experiences, and lower overall costs. Patient activation can be measured, and interventions have been shown to improve levels of activation over time and influence outcomes. A focus on patient activation is very appropriate for patients with IBD because this may potentially serve as a tool for IBD providers to not only improve patient outcomes and experience but also reduce health care costs.

  14. Adrenal medullary transplantation to the caudate nucleus in Parkinson's disease. Initial clinical results in 18 patients.

    PubMed

    Allen, G S; Burns, R S; Tulipan, N B; Parker, R A

    1989-05-01

    Results from a pilot study of adrenal medullary autotransplantation for Parkinson's disease are presented. Eighteen patients were studied; 12 were followed up for 1 year, and 6 were followed up for 6 months. Four of 12 patients showed distinct improvement in the signs and symptoms of their disease, as assessed using the Columbia Rating Scale, at 1 year; none showed distinct deterioration. The 6 patients who were followed up for only 6 months were an average of 20 years older and generally more severely affected. None distinctly improved. Morbidity was considered to be minor and transient among the first 12 patients, while 4 of the last 6 patients experienced alteration in mental status lasting as long as several months. This problem has led us to conclude that older patients with preexisting cognitive impairment should not be included in future studies until the benefits are more clearly established. However, we believe that the distinct and persistent improvement seen in some of the younger patients warrants the initiation of a well-designed, randomized, and controlled trial of adrenal medullary autotransplantation for the purpose of confirming these results and assessing the effect of the procedure on the natural progression of Parkinson's disease.

  15. Simultaneous surgery in patients with both cardiac and noncardiac diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Xiao, Feng; Wang, Jin; Song, Bo; Li, Xi-Hui; Li, Jian; He, Zhi-Song; Zhang, Huan; Yin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the possibility and feasibility of simultaneous cardiac and noncardiac surgery. Methods From August 2000 to March 2015, 64 patients suffering from cardiac and noncardiac diseases have been treated by simultaneous surgeries. Results Two patients died after operations in hospital; thus, the hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. One patient with coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and a recurrence of bladder cancer accepted emergency simultaneous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), bladder cystectomy, and ureterostomy. He died of acute cerebral infarction complicated with multiple organ failure on the 153rd day after operation. The other patient with chronic constrictive pericarditis and right lung cancer underwent pericardial stripping and right lung lower lobectomy, which resulted in multiple organ failure, and the patient died on the tenth day postoperatively. The remaining 62 patients recovered and were discharged. The total operative morbidity was 17.2%: postoperative hemorrhage (n, % [1, 1.6%]), pulmonary infection and hypoxemia (2, 3.1%), hemorrhage of upper digestive tract (1, 1.6%), incisional infection (3, 4.7%), subphrenic abscess (1, 1.6%), and postoperative acute renal failure and hemofiltration (3, 4.7%). Of the 62 patients discharged, 61 patients were followed up. Eleven patients died with 10 months to 10 years during the follow-up. The mean survival time is 116.2±12.4 months. The cumulative survival rate is 50.8%. Conclusion Simultaneous surgeries in patients suffering from both cardiac and noncardiac benign or malignant diseases are safe and possible with satisfactory short-term and long-term survival. PMID:27486311

  16. Functional capacity of Brazilian patients with Parkinson's disease (PD): relationship between clinical characteristics and disease severity.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Fabio A; Rinaldi, Natalia M; Santos, Paulo Cezar R; Lirani-Silva, Ellen; Vitório, Rodrigo; Teixeira-Arroyo, Cláudia; Stella, Florindo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa B

    2012-01-01

    The present study had three objectives: (a) to characterize the functional capacity of patients with PD, (b) to assess the relationship between the physical fitness components of functional capacity with clinical characteristics and disease severity, and (c) to compare the physical fitness components of functional capacity with clinical characteristics according to disease severity. The study included 54 patients with idiopathic PD who were distributed into two groups according to PD severity: unilateral group (n=35); and bilateral group (n=19). All patients underwent psychiatric assessment by means of the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) staging of PD, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D, respectively), and The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The physical fitness components of functional capacity were evaluated over a 2-day period, using recommendations by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regressions were calculated to test the correlation between functional capacity and clinical characteristics, and to predict clinical scores from physical performance, respectively. Clinical variables and physical component data were compared between groups using analysis of variance to determine the effects of disease severity. Patients with advanced disease showed low levels of functional capacity. Interestingly, patients with good functional capacity in one of the physical fitness components also showed good capacities in the other components. Disease severity is a major factor affecting functional capacity and clinical characteristics. Medical providers should take disease severity into consideration when prescribing physical activity for PD patients, since the relationship between functional capacity and clinical characteristics is dependent on disease severity.

  17. Metformin therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Duong, J K; Roberts, D M; Furlong, T J; Kumar, S S; Greenfield, J R; Kirkpatrick, C M; Graham, G G; Williams, K M; Day, R O

    2012-10-01

    Metformin therapy is limited in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to the potential risk of lactic acidosis. This open-label observational study investigated metformin and lactate concentrations in patients with CKD (n = 22; creatinine clearances 15-40 ml/min) and in two dialysed patients. Patients were prescribed a range of metformin doses (250-2000 mg daily) and metformin concentrations were compared with data from healthy subjects (scaled to 1500 mg twice daily). A subset of patients (n = 7) was controlled on low doses of metformin (250 or 500 mg daily). No correlation between metformin and lactate concentrations was observed. Three patients had high lactate concentrations (>2.7 mmol/l) and two had high metformin concentrations (3-5 mg/l), but none had any symptoms of lactic acidosis. Reducing metformin dosage and monitoring metformin concentrations will allow the safe use of metformin in CKD, provided that renal function is stable.

  18. Ocular inflammatory disease in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica: A case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Faez, Sepideh; Lobo, Ann-Marie; Unizony, Sebastian H; Stone, John H; Papaliodis, George N; Sobrin, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Scleritis and uveitis are potentially blinding conditions that can be associated with systemic inflammatory diseases. Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common rheumatic disorder of the elderly of uncertain etiology. Although there are a few published reports of scleritis and uveitis in PMR patients, the association of PMR to ocular inflammation has not been well established. The aim of this study is to report a series of PMR patients with scleritis and/or uveitis and review the prior published reports of this potential association. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of patients with PMR and scleritis or uveitis who were examined in the Ocular Immunology Service of Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. We also performed a systematic literature search (PubMed; January 1990 until January 2014) to identify earlier published reports. Seven PMR patients with ocular inflammatory disease (OID) were included in our study: two with scleritis, three with anterior uveitis, and two with panuveitis. The onset of PMR preceded the occurrence of OID in six patients, and in one patient uveitis developed 2 months prior to PMR. Five patients demonstrated a temporal association between flares of PMR and OID. In four patients, OID flares developed during tapering of systemic prednisone prescribed for PMR. Four of the five patients who had relapsing PMR had recurrent or persistent uveitis over the course of follow-up. PMR may be associated with both scleritis and uveitis and should be considered as a possible underlying cause of OID.

  19. Differences in HLA antigens between patients with mixed connective tissue disease and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Ruuska, P; Hämeenkorpi, R; Forsberg, S; Julkunen, H; Mäkitalo, R; Ilonen, J; Tiilikainen, A

    1992-01-01

    Patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD, n = 32) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n = 60) were typed for HLA-A, B, C, Dw, and DR antigens. All patients with SLE fulfilled at least four criteria of SLE and the patients with MCTD met the criteria proposed by Alarcon-Segovia (1989). The presence of antibodies to Sm was not considered as an exclusion for MCTD. In the patients with SLE, Dw3, DR3, and the associated B8 and A1 antigens were increased, whereas in the patients with MCTD an increased frequency of Dw4 was found (45 v 18% in controls v 14% in SLE). Of the subtypes of DR4, Dw4 was present in all but one of the DR4 positive patients. The frequency of DR4 in patients with MCTD (52%) differed significantly from that of controls (28%). The strong association of MCTD to one DR4 subtype was further seen in the significantly increased frequency of the B15, DR4 combination. Thus the genetic background seems to be different in patients with MCTD from that in patients with SLE. This could partly explain the clinical differences between these diseases. PMID:1540038

  20. Impact of Perceived Stigma on Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patient Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Tiffany H.; Keefer, Laurie; Leonhard, Christoph; Nealon-Woods, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Background Perceived stigma has been linked to disease outcome in several chronic illnesses. Stigmatization of illness often leads to increased psychological distress and poorer quality of life. While body stigma has been identified as a specific inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patient concern, no study to date has systematically investigated the presence of stigma in IBD or its effects on disease course and management. Methods Participants were recruited online and through the Illinois chapter of the Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America. A screening measure was used to identify an established IBD diagnosis. Patients completed the Perceived Stigma Scale in IBS, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Rating Form of IBD Patient Concerns. Results A total of 211 patients (156 CD, 55 UC) with a confirmed diagnosis for a minimum of 6 months completed the study. Eighty-four percent of participants reported perceived stigma. Hierarchical regression demonstrated that perceived stigma accounted for 10%–22% of the variance in health-related quality of life scores, 4%–16% for psychological distress, 5% for medication adherence, 19% for self-esteem, and 8% for self-efficacy. Effect sizes were small, but comparable with more traditionally evaluated patient variables. Conclusions The majority of IBD patients report some perceived stigmatization. These results suggest that perceived stigma is a significant predictor of poorer outcomes in patients with IBD when controlling for illness and demographic variables. Perceived stigma is a potentially important psychosocial factor in IBD patient care and warrants further investigation. PMID:19180581

  1. Safety of rasagiline in elderly patients with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Goetz, C G; Schwid, S R; Eberly, S W; Oakes, D; Shoulson, I

    2006-05-09

    The authors examined age effects on adverse events from two randomized, controlled trials of rasagiline, comparing younger (younger than 70 years) and older (70 years and older) subjects. Older patients were more prone to serious adverse effects than younger patients, but there was no statistical interaction between age and rasagiline exposure. This absence of an age-rasagiline interaction suggests that rasagiline does not require special safety precautions for elderly subjects with Parkinson disease.

  2. Periodontal and coronary heart disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Berent, Robert; Auer, Johann; Schmid, Peter; Krennmair, Gerald; Crouse, Stephen F; Green, John S; Sinzinger, Helmut; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal inflammation has been implicated in atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Coronary angiography (CA) is used in the assessment of CHD; only a few studies have evaluated periodontal disease (PD) and angiographic measures of coronary atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CHD and PD. In this prospective epidemiologic study, 466 patients underwent CA and were assessed for PD. All patients underwent physical, laboratory, cardiac, and dental examination including dental x-rays. Periodontal disease and coronary angiograms were evaluated blindly by a dentist and 2 cardiologists, respectively. A coronary stenosis greater than 50% was ruled as CHD. Periodontal disease was defined and measured with the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN); and if at least 2 sextants (segments dividing mandible and maxilla into 6) were recorded as having CPITN of at least 3 (signifying that sextant had periodontal pocket depth ≥ 3.5 mm), the patient was coded as having PD. Three-hundred forty-nine patients (74.9%) had CHD assessed by CA The CHD patients had PD in 55.6% vs 41.9% in the non-CHD patients (P < .01). The CPITN scores were significantly higher in patients with vs without CHD, 2.43 vs 2.16, respectively (P = .023). After adjusting for age, sex, and risk factors for atherosclerosis with additional inclusion of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PD remained significantly related to CHD (odds ratio = 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.1). Other predictors for CHD were male sex, age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes. Our results demonstrate an increased odds ratio for angiographically determined CHD in patients with PD and that CHD and PD may cluster in particular groups of a population. Our data indicate that PD represents a potentially modifiable risk factor that is both preventable and treatable with predictable treatments that pose negligible risk.

  3. Genetics of cardiac disease in the small animal patient.

    PubMed

    Meurs, Kathryn M

    2010-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that many forms of congenital and acquired cardiovascular disease in small animal patients are of familial origin. The large number of familial diseases in domestic purebred animals is thought to be associated with the desire to breed related animals to maintain a specific appearance and the selection of animals from a small group of popular founders (founder effect). Clinicians can use knowledge that a particular trait or disease may be inherited to provide guidance to owners and animal breeders to reduce the frequency of the trait. Even if the molecular cause is not known, identification of a pattern of inheritance and information on clinical screening can be useful for a breeder trying to make breeding decisions. Common forms of inheritance for veterinary diseases include autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, X-linked recessive, and polygenic. These genetic traits and their possible involvement in cardiac disease in small animals are discussed in this article.

  4. [Nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Brunori, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The population of patients with chronic kidney disease is aging, and approximately 50% of those starting renal replacement therapy are older than 65 years. Aging poses challenges to maintaining the nutritional status of these patients. As patients get older, purchasing and preparing food may become difficult if the patient is not supported by relatives or social workers. In addition, appetite may decrease as a result of depression. Furthermore, intercurrent illnesses may become more frequent, leading to changes in nutrient requirements. Mobility and cognitive function often decline in elderly patients and the combination of these factors may result in malnutrition. Since malnutrition has been demonstrated to impact on survival in dialysis patients of all ages, appropriate attention to nutritional status and its management is essential in the elderly patient, both in the predialysis phase and on dialysis. This article reviews the issues associated with the maintenance of good nutrition in elderly patients and describes the potential causes of malnutrition. It also reviews the nutrient requirements of older dialysis patients (which differ somewhat from those of younger patients) as well as the assessment of their nutritional status. Finally, recommendations for the management of nutrition in the elderly patient are discussed.

  5. Evaluating the Risks of High Altitude Travel in Chronic Liver Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Luks, Andrew M; Swenson, Erik R

    2015-06-01

    Luks, Andrew M., and Erik R. Swenson. Clinician's Corner: Evaluating the risks of high altitude travel in chronic liver disease patients. High Alt Med Biol 16:80-88, 2015.--With improvements in the quality of health care, people with chronic medical conditions are experiencing better quality of life and increasingly participating in a wider array of activities, including travel to high altitude. Whenever people with chronic diseases travel to this environment, it is important to consider whether the physiologic responses to hypobaric hypoxia will interact with the underlying medical condition such that the risk of acute altitude illness is increased or the medical condition itself may worsen. This review considers these questions as they pertain to patients with chronic liver disease. While the limited available evidence suggests there is no evidence of liver injury or dysfunction in normal individuals traveling as high as 5000 m, there is reason to suspect that two groups of cirrhosis patients are at increased risk for problems, hepatopulmonary syndrome patients, who are at risk for severe hypoxemia following ascent, and portopulmonary hypertension patients who may be at risk for high altitude pulmonary edema and acute right ventricular dysfunction. While liver transplant patients may tolerate high altitude exposure without difficulty, no information is available regarding the risks of long-term residence at altitude with chronic liver disease. All travelers with cirrhosis require careful pre-travel evaluation to identify conditions that might predispose to problems at altitude and develop risk mitigation strategies for these issues. Patients also require detailed counseling about recognition, prevention, and treatment of acute altitude illness and may require different medication regimens to prevent or treat altitude illness than used in healthy individuals.

  6. Risk factors for osteoporosis in inflammatory bowel disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Carla Andrade; Lyra, Andre Castro; Rocha, Raquel; Santana, Genoile Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit higher risk for bone loss than the general population. The chronic inflammation causes a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD), which leads to osteopenia and osteoporosis. This article reviewed each risk factor for osteoporosis in IBD patients. Inflammation is one of the factors that contribute to osteoporosis in IBD patients, and the main system that is involved in bone loss is likely RANK/RANKL/osteoprotegerin. Smoking is a risk factor for bone loss and fractures, and many mechanisms have been proposed to explain this loss. Body composition also interferes in bone metabolism and increasing muscle mass may positively affect BMD. IBD patients frequently use corticosteroids, which stimulates osteoclastogenesis. IBD patients are also associated with vitamin D deficiency, which contributes to bone loss. However, infliximab therapy is associated with improvements in bone metabolism, but it is not clear whether the effects are because of inflammation improvement or infliximab use. Ulcerative colitis patients with proctocolectomy and ileal pouches and Crohn’s disease patients with ostomy are also at risk for bone loss, and these patients should be closely monitored. PMID:26600979

  7. Hepatic disease in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Lodenyo, Hudson; Segal, Issy

    2004-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is now the leading cause of death in the world. Liver involvement in opportunistic infections and neoplasms affecting patients with human immunodeficiency disease syndrome are common. Many of these patients also take many medicines and toxins that are potentially harmful to the liver. This is an overview on the aetiology and possible diagnostic guide to determine liver involvement in patients with HIV infection. A literature review was performed on major published series on the liver and HIV infection between 1985 and 1999, both years inclusive. Data and opinions from 5 general reviews and 31 original articles from MEDLINE on liver disease in patients with HIV infection regarding aetiology, pathology, presentation and patient evaluation are summarised. The liver is frequently affected in patients with AIDS. The majority of the patients have hepatomegaly and abnormal liver enzymes secondary to involvement with opportunities infections, AIDS associated neoplasms and drug therapy. Most of the infections reach the liver by lymphohaematogeneous spread from other sites in the body. Methodical approach in patient evaluation is therefore essential for prompt diagnosis and treatment to minimise morbidity and early mortality.

  8. Hepatitis B virus infection in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Permin, H; Aldershvile, J; Nielsen, J O

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty-nine patients with different rheumatic diseases were investigated for serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. An increased prevalence of anti-HBs was found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The total prevalence of HBV markers in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica, temporal arteritis, juvenile and adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic sclerosis was not significantly different from age-matched controls. Remarkably, 6 patients were HBsAg-positive of whom 3 had RA (4%). Two patients with RA were "healthy' HBsAg carriers. The third patient had circulating HBeAg as well and had shown progression from acute hepatitis to cirrhosis during the time of observation. Three of 18 patients with polyarteritis nodosa were HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive, and all 3 were young men. Clinical improvement was seen in one of these patients and was associated with seroconversion from HBeAg to anti-HBe. Our data do not support the theory that HBV is an aetiological factor in rheumatic diseases except in some cases of polyarteritis nodosa. PMID:6127059

  9. Pneumococci Can Persistently Colonize Adult Patients with Chronic Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Domenech, A.; Balsalobre, L.; Marti, S.; Calatayud, L.; De la Campa, A. G.; Brueggemann, A. B.; Liñares, J.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae plays an important role in causing acute exacerbations in patients with chronic respiratory disease. However, few data are available regarding pneumococcal persistence in adult patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Fifty pneumococci recovered from sputum samples (1995 to 2010) from 13 adult patients with ≥3 episodes of acute exacerbation or pneumonia, with the same serotype and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern, were studied. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) loci, penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes (pbp2x, pbp1a, pbp2b), and the quinolone-resistant determining regions (QRDRs) of parC, parE, and gyrA were PCR amplified and sequenced. The average time between the first and last episode was 582 days (standard deviation [SD], ±362). All but two patients received multiple courses of β-lactam treatment, and all persistent strains were resistant to penicillin; however, the PBP sequences were stable over time apart from one variable nucleotide in pbp2x, observed among pneumococci isolated from three patients. In contrast, 7/11 patients treated with fluoroquinolones had fluoroquinolone-resistant pneumococci. In three patients, the initially fluoroquinolone-susceptible strain developed resistance after fluoroquinolone therapy, and in the remaining four patients, the persistent strain was fluoroquinolone resistant from the first episode. QRDR changes involved in fluoroquinolone resistance were frequently observed in persistent strains after fluoroquinolone treatment; however, the PBP sequences and MLST genotypes of these strains were stable over time. PMID:23052300

  10. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Neuropeptide Expression in Patients with Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    van Wamelen, Daniel J.; Aziz, N. Ahmad; Anink, Jasper J.; van Steenhoven, Robin; Angeloni, Debora; Fraschini, Franco; Jockers, Ralf; Roos, Raymund A. C.; Swaab, Dick F.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To study whether sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) arise from dysfunction of the body's master clock, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Design: Postmortem cohort study. Patients: Eight patients with HD and eight control subjects matched for sex, age, clock time and month of death, postmortem delay, and fixation time of paraffin-embedded hypothalamic tissue. Measurements and Results: Using postmortem paraffin-embedded tissue, we assessed the functional integrity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in patients with HD and control subjects by determining the expression of two major regulatory neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and arginine vasopressin. Additionally, we studied melatonin 1 and 2 receptor expression. Compared with control subjects, the suprachiasmatic nucleus contained 85% fewer neurons immunoreactive for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and 33% fewer neurons for arginine vasopressin in patients with HD (P = 0.002 and P = 0.027). The total amount of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and arginine vasopressin messenger RNA was unchanged. No change was observed in the number of melatonin 1 or 2 receptor immunoreactive neurons. Conclusions: These findings indicate posttranscriptional neuropeptide changes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of patients with HD, and suggest that sleep and circadian rhythm disorders in these patients may at least partly arise from suprachiasmatic nucleus dysfunction. Citation: van Wamelen DJ; Aziz NA; Anink JJ; van Steenhoven R; Angeloni D; Fraschini F; Jockers R; Roos RAC; Swaab DF. Suprachiasmatic nucleus neuropeptide expression in patients with Huntington's disease. SLEEP 2013;36(1):117–125. PMID:23288978

  11. Inflammatory bowel diseases activity in patients undergoing pelvic radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Seisen, Thomas; Klotz, Caroline; Mazeron, Renaud; Maroun, Pierre; Petit, Claire; Deutsch, Eric; Bossi, Alberto; Haie-Meder, Christine; Chargari, Cyrus; Blanchard, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Background Few studies with contradictory results have been published on the safety of pelvic radiation therapy (RT) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods From 1989 to 2015, a single center retrospective analysis was performed including all IBD patients who received pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT) for a pelvic malignancy. Treatment characteristics, IBD activity and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were examined. Results Overall, 28 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) (n=13) or ulcerative colitis (n=15) were included in the present study. Median follow-up time after irradiation was 5.9 years. Regarding IBD activity, only one and two patients experienced a severe episode within and after 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Grade 3/4 acute GI toxicity occurred in 3 (11%) patients, whereas one (3.6%) patient experienced late grade 3/4 GI toxicity. Only patients with rectal IBD location (P=0.016) or low body mass index (BMI) (P=0.012) experienced more severe IBD activity within or after 6 months following RT, respectively. Conclusions We report an acceptable tolerance of RT in IBD patients with pelvic malignancies. Specifically, a low risk of uncontrolled flare-up was observed. PMID:28280621

  12. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: treatment options for patients with refractory disease.

    PubMed

    Motta, Marina; Wierda, William G; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2009-09-01

    Patients with purine analogue-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have short survival and limited treatment options. Defining the best salvage strategies for this population is challenging, because limited data are available from clinical trials, and because studies have enrolled mixed populations (patients with recurrent and refractory disease or patients with refractory disease and Richter transformation). Moreover, patients with refractory CLL have a high incidence of unfavorable molecular and clinical features, such as high-risk genomic profiles, unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes, expression of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70, and bulky lymphadenopathies. These patients are also severely immunosuppressed because of the underlying disease and the treatments received, and experience a high rate of infectious complications that pose an additional difficulty in selecting treatment. Despite these challenges, in parallel with better characterizations of the biologic features of refractory CLL, the number of available treatment modalities for this population has increased. Several chemoimmunotherapy combinations have been developed, and novel agents with a different mechanism of action are being investigated in clinical trials. Furthermore, allogeneic stem cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens is a therapeutic strategy that is increasingly offered to patients with refractory CLL.

  13. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in HIV-infected patients in Uzbekistan].

    PubMed

    Nurtaev, Kh S; Badalova, N S; Zalialieva, M V; Osipova, S O

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases were diagnosed in 100 HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease (its asymptomatic form, persistent generalized lymphoadenopathy, pre-AIDS, and AIDS) (Group 1), 100 Tashkent residents (Group 2), and 349 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, allergic dermatoses, and skin depigmentation foci (Group 3). The HIV-infected patients were found to have virtually all parasites, such as Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Chilomastix mesnili, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Endolimax nana, Blastocystis hominis, Enlerobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, detectable in the population of Tashkent. The highest infestation with intestinal protozoa, including nonpathogenic amoebas and helmninths, was found in Groups 1 and 3. However, in all the forms of HIV infection, the infestation with E. histolytical/dispar was 10 times greater than that in Groups 2 and 3 (1% and 0.8%, respectively). G. lamblia was detected in 16, 21, and 45.2% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In all the HIV-infected patients, the content of CD8 lymphocytes was increased, but that of CD20 lymphocytes was normal. Parasites were detectable with different levels of CD4 lymphocytes, but C. parvum was found only if its count was > 200/ml. In the HIV-infected patients, the hyperproduction of IgE was caused mainly by helminths rather than protozoa. In these patients, the increased level of IgE was also noted in the absence of parasites.

  14. A system to monitor tremors in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bermeo, A; Bravo, M; Huerta, M; Soto, A

    2016-08-01

    In this work the design and development of a system to monitor tremors in patients with Parkinson's disease based on Arduino open-source prototyping platform is presented. For processing data tremors acquired by the sensor device we have developed an Android application which allows an evaluation of the state of PD patients based on three types of tests that are in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale recommended by the Movement Disorder Society (MDS-UPDRS); the tests performed in the application are: postural tremor of the hands, kinetic tremors of the hands and resting tremor amplitude. The results of PD Patients showed that despite receiving medication to minimize symptoms of their disease, patients have a considerable tremor amplitude, which affects the normal development of their daily activities. In addition, the spectral analysis of the tremors shows that two of the patients were correctly diagnosed with PD while the third patient showed spectral characteristics which led us to suggest to the treating physician reconsider the diagnosis.

  15. Relationship between disease activity and infection in patients with spondyloarthropathies

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, A; Pacheco-Tena, C; Vazquez-Mellado, J; Burgos-Vargas, R

    2004-01-01

    Methods: A cross sectional study of 95 non-selected patients with SpA (62 men; mean age 26.4 years), who were examined for signs and symptoms of infection and their association with disease activity. 52 had ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 32 undifferentiated SpA (uSpA), 6 chronic reactive arthritis (ReA), and 5 psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Categorical data were analysed by χ2 or Fisher's tests. Results: 53 (56%) patients had infections: 41 (43%) upper respiratory tract (URT), 34 (36%) enteric, and 20 (21%) genitourinary infections. More infections occurred in HLA-B27 positive patients as a whole (39 v 5; p = 0.003) and in uSpA (12 v 2; p = 0.005). In AS and uSpA, infections occurred in ∼50%. 30/39 (77%) patients with active disease (group A) and 23/56 (41%) (group B) (p = 0.001) had infection. There were more enteric infections in group A (47%; p<0.001) and more URT infections in group B (52%; p = NS). 22/30 (73%) patients attributed disease activity to infection. Conclusion: Enteric, and less commonly, URT infections in Mexican patients with SpA, particularly those who were HLA-B27 positive, seem to have a role in the active phase of AS and uSpA. PMID:15361397

  16. Prevalence of systemic diseases among patients requesting dental consultation in the public and private systems

    PubMed Central

    Garea-Gorís, Rafael; Fernández-Varela, Marta; Tomás-Carmona, Inmaculada; Diniz-Freitas, Marcio; Limeres-Posse, Jacobo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and aetiology of systemic disease among patients requesting dental treatment in public and private practice. Study Design: A retrospective analysis was performed of the medical histories of 2000 patients requesting dental treatment during the year 2009. One thousand patients came from the Fontiñas Primary Care Oral and Dental Health Unit of the Galician Health Service (SERGAS), Spain, and the other thousand from a private clinic; both clinics were situated in Santiago de Compostela, La Coruña, Spain. The data collected were the following: demographic data (age and sex), presence or absence of systemic diseases and the nosologic categories, and drug history (type and number of drugs). Results: The prevalence of systemic disease was significantly higher among patients seen in the public system (35.2% in the public system versus 28.1% in the private system; p= 0.003). The differences between the two systems were more marked when considering patients aged under 65 years, particularly with respect to rheumatic and endocrine-metabolic (diabetes) disorders. The prevalence of patients receiving polypharmacy (>4 drugs/day) was significantly higher among patients seen in the public system (5.7% in the public system versus 2.7% in the private system; p= 0.009). Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of medical disorders and of patients receiving polypharmacy among individuals requesting dental care, particularly in the public health system. Dentists must have adequate training in medical disease and must be fully integrated into primary care health teams in order to prevent or adequately resolve complications. Key words: Dentistry, medical history, systemic disease, polypharmacy. PMID:22157672

  17. Cerebral ischemia and asymptomatic coronary artery disease: a prospective study of 83 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Di Pasquale, G.; Andreoli, A.; Pinelli, G.; Grazi, P.; Manini, G.; Tognetti, F.; Testa, C.

    1986-11-01

    A prospective cardiologic evaluation was performed in 83 consecutive patients with transient cerebral ischemia or mild stroke and without symptoms or electrocardiographic signs of ischemic heart disease. Patients were studied with an electrocardiographic exercise test; a positive test was followed by exercise Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy. Results were compared to those obtained in a group of 83 age and sex-matched healthy subjects submitted to the same study protocol. Asymptomatic coronary artery disease was detected in 28% of cerebrovascular patients with adequate electrocardiographic exercise test. A scintigraphic perfusion defect of variable extension was found in 19 of them. In the control group the electrocardiographic exercise test was positive in only 6% (p less than 0.01). Our results support the concept that: asymptomatic ischemic heart disease is often associated with cerebrovascular disease; therefore cerebral ischemic attacks may be a marker of coronary artery disease, an active investigation of the heart should be considered in cerebrovascular patients in order to plan optimal, comprehensive management.

  18. T-Helper Cytokine Profiles in Patients with Kawasaki Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Bum; Kim, Young Hyun; Hyun, Myung Chul; Kim, Yeo Hyang; Kim, Hee Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Kawasaki disease is an acute systemic vasculitis of which pathogenesis suspected is caused by immune dysregulation. The goal of this study is to evaluate the activation pattern of T helper cell type 1 (Th1) and T helper cell type 2 (Th2) in patients with Kawasaki disease. Subjects and Methods Prospective study of 60 patients (male 36, female 24) with diagnosis of Kawasaki disease were enrolled. One hundred and eighty blood samples from these patients were collected according to the different clinical stages {before initial intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), 5 days after initial IVIG, 2 months after initial IVIG}. The plasma level of Th1 cytokines; interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) & interleukin (IL)-2 and Th2 cytokines; IL-4 & IL-10 were measured by enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay. Results In all patients, the plasma level of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2) and Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) were markedly elevated during the acute stage of Kawasaki disease. Since then, the plasma level of all these cytokines decreased significantly along with the process of clinical stages. Regardless of the existence of coronary artery lesion or no response to initial IVIG treatment, there were no significant differences between them. Conclusion These data suggest that both Th1 and Th2 cells may be activated simultaneously during the acute stage of Kawasaki disease. Further studies are therefore required to establish the difference of activation pattern of T helper cells between Kawasaki disease and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:26617655

  19. The impact of Parkinson disease on patients' sexuality and relationship.

    PubMed

    Buhmann, C; Dogac, S; Vettorazzi, E; Hidding, U; Gerloff, C; Jürgens, T P

    2016-11-16

    This study aimed at examining the impact of Parkinson disease (PD) on patients' sexuality and relationship and to evaluate gender-specific differences. Using a standardized questionnaire on sexual functioning in chronic diseases (SFCE), the impact of PD diagnosis on 38 domains of sexuality before and since PD diagnosis was evaluated retrospectively in 53 consecutive patients in a relationship. Changes in self-assessed ratings on a four-point Likert scale were determined for all patients. In addition, gender-specific differences and the influence of age, depression (BDI-II), medication, disease severity and disease duration on domains of the SFCE were calculated. The importance of non-sexual relational aspects, such as talking about feelings or tenderness increased for both genders after PD diagnosis, especially in women. Sexual function, such as frequency of intercourse, sexual arousal, subjective abnormal sexual fantasies or sexual satisfaction deteriorated in both genders, especially in men. Some sexual aspects improved in women but worsened in men after PD diagnosis. This includes frequency of orgasm dysfunction, fear not to fulfill sexual expectations of the partner, avoidance of sexual acts, withdrawal from relationship, increase of thoughts about divorce, or increase of dissatisfaction with sexuality and relationship. With age, thoughts about divorce declined. With disease duration, frequency of tenderness with the partner increased. Depression unexpectedly correlated with higher frequency of intercourse. Dopaminergic dosage influenced stability of the relationship negatively. PD influences patients' sexuality negatively, independently of age, disease duration or disease severity and men show greater sexual dysfunction and impairment of their sexual relationship than women.

  20. Sickle Cell Disease: quality of life in patients with hemoglobin SS and SC disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sônia Aparecida dos Santos; Brener, Stela; Cardoso, Clareci Silva; Proietti, Anna Bárbara de Freitas Carneiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sickle cell disease comprises chronic, genetically determined disorders, presenting significant morbidity and high prevalence in Brazil. The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of life of sickle cell disease patients (hemoglobin SS and SC) and their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Methods Data was collected from clinical records and semi-structured interviews consisting of clinical questionnaires and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief questionnaire. Results Interviews were conducted with 400 patients, aged between 18 and 72, treated in the Fundação HEMOMINAS in Belo Horizonte. The participants predominantly had sickle cell disease hemoglobin SS variant (65.5%), were female (61.8%), single (55.3), with up to 8 years of schooling (49.6%), and self-defined as mulattos (50%). Pain crises, hospitalizations, blood transfusions, and other morbidities of sickle cell disease had a significant impact on the quality of life of these patients. Conclusion Within this group, the social profile was that of low income and unemployed with sickle cell disease considered to be a significant impediment to finding a job. Evaluating quality of life as a determining factor of health is essential for the creation of specific policies and measures, appropriate for the specific characteristics and social context of sickle cell disease. PMID:24255615

  1. Therapeutic effects of exercise training in patients with pediatric rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Gualano, Bruno; Pinto, Ana Lúcia de Sá; Perondi, Maria Beatriz; Roschel, Hamilton; Sallum, Adriana Maluf Elias; Hayashi, Ana Paula Tanaka; Solis, Marina Yazigi; Silva, Clóvis Artur

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades, the role of exercise training in rheumatic diseases has been largely explored. Currently, physical activity is well known to benefit patients with osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, idiopathic inflammatory myopathy, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, exercise training has been considered a valuable tool for treating rheumatic patients. The therapeutic effects of exercise training have also been investigated in pediatric rheumatic diseases. Collectively, studies have revealed the therapeutic potential of exercise in juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile dermatomyositis, juvenile fibromyalgia and other causes of chronic pain. The aim of this review is to familiarize the pediatric rheumatologist with the exercise science field; discuss the potential benefits of exercise training in pediatric rheumatic diseases, emphasize both research and clinical perspectives of this promising field; and propose practical models of pre-participation examinations and contraindications to exercise.

  2. Juvenile fibromyalgia in an adolescent patient with sickle cell disease presenting with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ramprakash, Stalin; Fishman, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile fibromyalgia in children with sickle cell disease has not been reported in the literature. We report an adolescent patient with sickle cell whose pain symptoms progressed from having recurrent acute sickle cell pain crisis episodes to a chronic pain syndrome over several years. He was eventually diagnosed with juvenile fibromyalgia based on the clinical history and myofascial tender points and his pain symptoms responded better to multidisciplinary strategies for chronic fibromyalgia pain. Chronic pain in sickle cell disease is an area of poor research, and in addition there is inconsistency in the definition of chronic pain in sickle cell disease. Central sensitisation to pain is shown to occur after recurrent painful stimuli in a genetically vulnerable individual. In a chronic pain condition such as fibromyalgia central sensitisation is thought to play a key role. Fibromyalgia should be considered as one of the main differential diagnosis in any sickle cell patient with chronic pain.

  3. Vaccination of patients with auto-immune inflammatory rheumatic diseases requires careful benefit-risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bijl, M; Agmon-Levin, N; Dayer, J-M; Israeli, E; Gatto, M; Shoenfeld, Y

    2012-06-01

    Will vaccination raise the incidence of autoimmune diseases, what is the impact of increasingly crowded vaccination schedules, the vaccination in age groups and the risk of coincidental temporal association? All these issues are still under debate. However, for the time being, to avoid confusion in the medical community and the media, we have to adhere to guidelines established consensually by experts while ensuring a strict surveillance and reporting possible side effects. Recommendation for vaccination in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) based on the currently available evidence and expert opinion were recently formulated by an EULAR task force. Major recommendations for AIIRD include: i) vaccination should ideally be administered during stable disease; ii) influenza vaccination and pneumococcal vaccination should be strongly considered; iii) vaccination can be administered during the use of DMARDs and TNF-inhibitors, but before starting rituximab; iv) live attenuated vaccines should be avoided whenever possible in immunosuppressed patients; v) BCG vaccination is not recommended.

  4. D-penicillamine-induced ANA (+) ANCA (+) vasculitis in pediatric patients with Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonhee; Lee, Sang Taek; Cho, Heeyeon

    2016-05-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are associated with systemic vasculitis. The pathophysiology of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) has not been clearly proven, and drug-induced ANCA-associated vasculitis has been reported. Wilson's disease is an inborn error of copper metabolism caused by a mutation in the copper transporting gene ATP7B, and traditional treatment is based on copper chelation with agents such as D-penicillamine. There have been rare reports that prolonged D-penicillamine therapy might cause adverse renal events such as membranous nephropathy and minimal change disease, but it is questionable if D-penicillamine induces ANCA-associated vasculitis. We describe 2 patients with Wilson's disease treated with D-penicillamine who presented with ANCA (+) vasculitis and renal involvement. The 2 patients also showed positive results for antinuclear antibody (ANA). Their kidney biopsy findings were compatible with crescentic/necrotizing glomerulonephritis, pauci-immune type. After diagnosis of AAV, D-penicillamine was stopped. Patients were then treated with plasmapheresis and immunosuppressants, including methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous cyclophosphamide. One patient progressed to end-stage renal disease and the other showed persistent proteinuria. These cases suggest that D-penicillamine may induce ANA (+) ANCA (+) vasculitis with severe renal involvement in pediatric patients, and plasmapheresis combined with immunosuppressant should be considered.

  5. Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery in the treatment of patients with Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Freidberg, S R

    1989-08-01

    Transsphenoidal adenomectomy is the treatment of choice for patients with Cushing's disease. The combination of high serum and urinary cortisol and high plasma ACTH point to a nonadrenal source for Cushing's syndrome. It is important to rule out an ectopic source of ACTH production. Imaging of the sella with MRI and CT and sampling petrosal sinus blood for ACTH measurement should allow differentiation between the two conditions. For younger patients, every effort should be made to preserve the normal gland. If in the younger patient the adenoma cannot be clearly demonstrated, it is appropriate to remove the central portion of the gland, as advocated by Hardy. Should hypercortisolism persist, radiation therapy to the sella should be considered before attempting total hypophysectomy. In the woman past childbearing age, a total hypophysectomy can readily be considered if a sharply demarcated adenoma is not found. In fact, we counsel our older patients before operation that a total hypophysectomy is a possibility. For the patient with an aggressive tumor that is not cured by pituitary operation, radiation therapy must be considered. If it is not possible to wait for the therapeutic effect of radiation, adrenal suppression with aminoglutethimide, metyrapone, or ketoconazole is indicated. Adrenalectomy may be considered.

  6. [Odd stories of patients suffering from Menière's disease].

    PubMed

    Guyot, J-P

    2012-10-03

    The cause of Meniere's disease is unknown. The postmortem examination of the temporal bone reveals an "endolymphatic hydrops" of the inner ear. Classically, patients describe episodes of vertigo, fluctuations of hearing and tinnitus. But some report "strange stories" that deserve doctor's attention. This article explains why their history (as those suffering from any other vestibular disorder) is often particular, to recall the few knowledge of the disease, how the endolymphatic hydrops was considered as the cause of the disorder, while it is rather an epiphenomenon, and to show how one can believe, wrongly, that a therapy is efficient after a study that seems however at first correctly performed.

  7. Refractory bleeding from intestinal angiodysplasias successfully treated with danazol in three patients with von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Botero, Juliana Perez; Pruthi, Rajiv K

    2013-12-01

    von Willebrand disease (VWD) is associated with development of gastrointestinal (GI) vascular malformations that lead to chronic GI bleeding. Conventional management, including von Willebrand factor concentrate replacement and endoscopic ablation or bowel resection, does not consistently reduce hemorrhage. We describe three patients with VWD for whom conventional management failed to control GI bleeding. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with VWD and GI bleeding. After patients began treatment with danazol, we observed long-term reductions in GI bleeding and packed red blood cell transfusion requirements. One patient had severe liver toxicity and was found to have concomitant primary biliary cirrhosis. Danazol use may be considered in patients with VWD and GI bleeding due to angiodysplasia that otherwise fails to respond to conventional treatment; the primary aim of treatment is to reduce transfusion dependence. The benefits are variable and possibly transient. Monitoring for toxicity is important when this treatment is pursued.

  8. Olfactory dysfunction in persian patients suffering from parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Soltanzadeh, Akbar; Shams, Mehdi; Noorolahi, Hamid; Ghorbani, Askar

    2011-01-01

    Background Looking in literature reveals that aging is accompanied by olfactory dysfunction and hyposmia/anosmia is a common manifestation in some neurodegenerative disorders. Olfactory dysfunction is regarded as non-motor manifestations of Parkinson disease (PD). The main goal of this study was to examine the extent of olfactory dysfunction in Persian PD patients. Methods We used seven types of odors including rosewater, mint, lemon, garlic which were produced by Barij Essence Company in Iran. Additionally, coffee and vinegar were used. Subjects had to distinguish and name between seven previously named odors, stimuli were administered to each nostril separately. Results Totally, 92 patients and 40 controls were recruited. The mean (standard deviation) (SD) age patients was 64.88 (11.30) versus 61.05 (7.93) in controls. The male: female ratio in patients was 50:42 versus 22:18 in control group. Also, mean UPDRS score (SD) in patients was 24.42 (5.08) and the disease duration (SD) was 3.72 (3.53). Regarding the number of truly detected odors, there were a significant higher number of correct identified odors in control group in comparison with the PD patients. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between number of correct diagnosed smells and UPDRS (Pearson Correlation= -0.27, P = 0.009); conversely, no significant correlation between the duration of Parkinson disease and number of correct diagnosed smells (P > 0.05). Conclusion Smelling dysfunction is a major problem in Persian PD patients and it requires vigilant investigation for the cause of olfactory dysfunction exclusively in elder group and looking for possible PD disease. PMID:24250835

  9. Personal Health Records for Patients with Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rozenblum, R.; Park, A.; Dunn, M.; Bates, D.W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Personal health records (PHRs) connected to a physician’s electronic health record system hold substantial promise for supporting and engaging patients with chronic disease. Objectives: To explore how U.S. health care organizations are currently utilizing PHRs for chronic disease populations. Methods A mixed methods study including semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire was conducted. A purposive sample was developed of health care organizations which were recognized as exemplars for PHRs and were high performers in national patient satisfaction surveys (H-CAHPS or CAHPS). Within each organization, participants were health IT leaders or those managing high-risk or chronic disease populations. Results Interviews were conducted with 30 informants and completed questionnaires were received from 16 organizations (84% response rate). Most PHRs allowed patients to access health records and educational material, message their provider, renew prescriptions and request appointments. Patient generated data was increasingly being sought and combined with messaging, resulted in greater understanding of patient health and functioning outside of the clinic visit. However for chronic disease populations, there was little targeted involvement in PHR design and few tools to help interpret and manage their conditions beyond those offered for all. The PHR was largely uncoupled from high risk population management interventions and no clear framework for future PHR development emerged. Conclusion This technology is currently underutilized and represents a major opportunity given the potential benefits of patient engagement and shared decision making. A coherent patient-centric PHR design and evaluation strategy is required to realize its potential and maximize this natural hub for multidisciplinary care co-ordination. PMID:25024758

  10. Surgery for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the Morbidly Obese Patient.

    PubMed

    Duke, Meredith C; Farrell, Timothy M

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has mirrored the increase in obesity, and GERD is now recognized as an obesity-related comorbidity. There is growing evidence that obesity, specifically central obesity, is associated with the complications of chronic reflux, including erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. While fundoplication is effective in creating a competent gastroesophageal junction and controlling reflux in most patients, it is less effective in morbidly obese patients. In these patients a bariatric operation has the ability to correct both the obesity and the abnormal reflux. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the preferred procedure.

  11. Development of Parkinson's disease in patients with blepharospasm.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Federico; Scorticati, María Clara; Folgar, Silvia; Gatto, Emilia

    2004-09-01

    The liability to develop parkinsonian symptoms was evaluated in 105 outpatients with idiopathic blepharospasm (IBS; 54 cases) or IBS associated to oromandibular dystonia (Meige's syndrome; 51 cases) mean age 70.3 +/- 9.6 years, and compared with an age- and sex-matched population. Eleven patients developed Parkinson's disease in the blepharospasm group, whereas only 2 of 105 patients were affected in the control group. Our results suggest that patients with IBS either isolated or associated with oromandibular dystonia are more prone to develop parkinsonian symptoms.

  12. Noninvasive ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive airway disease.

    PubMed

    Khilnani, Gopi C; Banga, Amit

    2008-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) as an important tool for management of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several well conducted studies in the recent years have established its role in the initial, as well as later management of these patients. However, some grey areas remain. Moreover, data is emerging on the role of long term nocturnal NIV use in patients with very severe stable COPD. This review summarizes the evidence supporting the use of NIV in various stages of COPD, discuss the merits as well as demerits of this novel ventilatory strategy and highlight the grey areas in the current body of knowledge.

  13. [Mini-invasive operations in patients with vessels diseases].

    PubMed

    Kalinin, A A; Kutyrev, O E; Sakharov, A B; Patlachuk, M V; Aldoshina, V V; Ter-Akopian, A V; Nosenko, E M; Kriuchkova, O V

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid operations combining open and endovascular surgeries are used in cardio-vascular surgery for the last 10-15 years. It leads to decrease complications frequency and mortality in case of pronounced comorbidities and severe heart, aorta and its branches disease. Authors have experience in performing of 10 hybrid surgeries and 7 aneurysms endoprosthesis of abdominal aorta. All operated patients had severe comorbidities which significantly increase risk of open surgery. These comorbidities were contraindication for open surgery in patients with abdominal aorta aneurysm. Thanks to introduction into practice hybrid operations and aorta aneurysms endoprosthesis the authors decreased complications frequency and avoided deaths in operated patients.

  14. Patient access to complex chronic disease records on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Access to medical records on the Internet has been reported to be acceptable and popular with patients, although most published evaluations have been of primary care or office-based practice. We tested the feasibility and acceptability of making unscreened results and data from a complex chronic disease pathway (renal medicine) available to patients over the Internet in a project involving more than half of renal units in the UK. Methods Content and presentation of the Renal PatientView (RPV) system was developed with patient groups. It was designed to receive information from multiple local information systems and to require minimal extra work in units. After piloting in 4 centres in 2005 it was made available more widely. Opinions were sought from both patients who enrolled and from those who did not in a paper survey, and from staff in an electronic survey. Anonymous data on enrolments and usage were extracted from the webserver. Results By mid 2011 over 17,000 patients from 47 of the 75 renal units in the UK had registered. Users had a wide age range (<10 to >90 yrs) but were younger and had more years of education than non-users. They were enthusiastic about the concept, found it easy to use, and 80% felt it gave them a better understanding of their disease. The most common reason for not enrolling was being unaware of the system. A minority of patients had security concerns, and these were reduced after enrolling. Staff responses were also strongly positive. They reported that it aided patient concordance and disease management, and increased the quality of consultations with a neutral effect on consultation length. Neither patient nor staff responses suggested that RPV led to an overall increase in patient anxiety or to an increased burden on renal units beyond the time required to enrol each patient. Conclusions Patient Internet access to secondary care records concerning a complex chronic disease is feasible and popular, providing an increased

  15. Reconciling Healthcare Professional and Patient Perspectives in the Development of Disease Activity and Response Criteria in Connective Tissue Disease Related Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Saketkoo, LA; Mittoo, S; Frankel, S; LeSage, D; Sarver, C; Phillips, K; Strand, V; Matteson, EL

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD), including connective tissue disease (CTD) related and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), carry a high morbidity and mortality. Great efforts are underway to develop and investigate meaningful treatments in the context of clinical trials. However, these efforts have been challenged by the lack of validated outcome measures and inconsistent use of measures in the context of clinical trials. This lack of consensus has fragmented effective use of investigative in CTD-ILD and IPF with a history of resultant difficulties in agency approval of treatment interventions. Patient perspective in determination of domains and outcome measures in CTD-ILD and IPF, prior to this effort, has never occurred. These efforts demonstrate unequivocally the value and impact of patient involvement on core set development. Regarding CTD-ILD, this is the first OMERACT working group to directly address a manifestation/co-morbidity of a rheumatic disease (ILD) as well as a disease not considered rheumatic (IPF). The OMERACT 11 proceedings of the CTD-ILD Working Group describe the forward and lateral process to include both the medical and patient perspectives in the urgently needed identification of a core set of preliminary domains and outcome measures in CTD-ILD and IPF. PMID:24488412

  16. Treating patients with peripheral arterial disease and claudication.

    PubMed

    Treat-Jacobson, Diane; Walsh, M Eileen

    2003-03-01

    The vascular nurse plays an important role in the treatment of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), a prevalent atherosclerotic occlusive disease that affects approximately 8 to 12 million people in the United States. Approximately 4 to 5 million individuals with PAD experience claudication, the exercise-induced ischemic pain in the lower extremities that is relieved upon rest. Both PAD and claudication are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, limitations in functional capacity, and a decreased quality of life. Despite its prevalence, PAD is often undiagnosed and, therefore, increases the risk for cardiovascular ischemic events, disease progression, functional disability, amputation, and death. Risk factors for PAD and claudication are similar to those for other atherosclerotic diseases, including age, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Effective treatment to normalize these risk factors can reduce disease progression and the incidence of cardiovascular ischemic events. Claudication symptoms can be improved most effectively through exercise training, which may be used in conjunction with medications specifically indicated to improve these symptoms. Vascular nurses, practicing in a multitude of inpatient and outpatient settings, can assist patients with risk-factor modifications and behavioral changes to help them stop smoking, maintain glycemic control, normalize high blood pressure and lipid levels, and ensure initiation of lifelong antiplatelet therapy and participation in exercise rehabilitation programs, thus, promoting positive outcomes for patients with claudication.

  17. Epidemiology of acute infections among patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Lorien S; Go, Alan S

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of this review were (1) to review recent literature on the rates, risk factors, and outcomes of infections in patients who had chronic kidney disease (CKD) and did or did not require renal replacement therapy; (2) to review literature on the efficacy and use of selected vaccines for patients with CKD; and (3) to outline a research framework for examining key issues regarding infections in patients with CKD. Infection-related hospitalizations contribute substantially to excess morbidity and mortality in patients with ESRD, and infection is the second leading cause of death in this population. Patients who have CKD and do not require renal replacement therapy seem to be at higher risk for infection compared with patients without CKD; however, data about patients who have CKD and do not require dialysis therapy are very limited. Numerous factors potentially predispose patients with CKD to infection: advanced age, presence of coexisting illnesses, vaccine hyporesponsiveness, immunosuppressive therapy, uremia, dialysis access, and the dialysis procedure. Targeted vaccination seems to have variable efficacy in the setting of CKD and is generally underused in this population. In conclusion, infection is a primary issue when caring for patients who receive maintenance dialysis. Very limited data exist about the rates, risk factors, and outcomes of infection in patients who have CKD and do not require dialysis. Future research is needed to delineate accurately the epidemiology of infections in these populations and to develop effective preventive strategies across the spectrum of CKD severity.

  18. Investigation of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gerontoukou, Evangelia-Ioanna; Michaelidoy, Sofia; Rekleiti, Maria; Saridi, Maria; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2015-01-01

    The health of an individual depends on both his/her physical and psychological condition. In recent years it has been observed that chronic patients have frequently an affected psycho-emotional state. The purpose of this study is to investigate anxiety and depression in patients with chronic diseases and the correlation of the results with daily physical activity levels and individual health levels, as well comorbidity. This study included patients with chronic diseases that were treated in a local general hospital or were visiting often outpatient clinics of the same hospital due to their condition. The sample in this particular study included 204 patients; 118 of them were women and 86 men. From the total sample that participated in our research, 118 (57.8%) were females and the majority of the participants were secondary/basic education graduates (67%), married (71%), living in urban areas (53%). Hypertension was the most frequent chronic disease in our sample, followed by hypercholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus. Comparing the occurrence of depression and anxiety symptoms in both questionnaires in relation to the expected frequency in the general population, significant levels of depression and anxiety symptoms were recorded. Taking into consideration the findings of this research, anxiety and depression symptoms can have profound effects regarding the control of chronic diseases, the patients’ quality of life and their general health. PMID:26973961

  19. Investigational medications for treatment of patients with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Potter, Pamela E

    2010-09-01

    Development of effective treatments for patients with Alzheimer disease has been challenging. Currently approved treatments include acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine hydrochloride. To investigate treatments in development for patients with Alzheimer disease, the author conducted a review of the literature. New approaches for treatment or prevention focus on several general areas, including cholinergic receptor agonists, drugs to decrease β-amyloid and tau levels, antiinflammatory agents, drugs to increase nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels, and substances to reduce cell death or promote cellular regeneration. The author focuses on medications currently in clinical trials. Cholinergic agents include orthostatic and allosteric muscarinic M1 agonists and nicotinic receptor agonists. Investigational agents that target β-amyloid include vaccines, antibodies, and inhibitors of β-amyloid production. Anti-inflammatory agents, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the natural product curcumin, and the tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor etanercept, have also been studied. Some drugs currently approved for other uses may also show promise for treatment of patients with Alzheimer disease. Results of clinical trials with many of these investigational drugs have been disappointing, perhaps because of their use with patients in advanced stages of Alzheimer disease. Effective treatment may need to begin earlier-before neurodegeneration becomes severe enough for symptoms to appear.

  20. [Problems connected with sexual activity in patients with heart disease].

    PubMed

    Rembek, Magdalena; Tylkowski, Michał; Piestrzeniewicz, Katarzyna; Goch, Jan Henryk

    2007-08-01

    The paper presents some basic data on sexual activity in patients with heart disease. The most typical problems of people with stable angina or after myocardial infarction connected with sexual intercourse have been presented. Modulation of risk of heart attack during sexual activity and main problems of sexual dysfunction after acute coronary syndromes have been described.

  1. Sexual Concerns of Male Spouses of Female Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litz, Brett T.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents case study which highlights attendant cognitive changes that occur in Alzheimer's patient, presenting caregiver with challenges to couple's sexual functioning. Describes man who reported erectile dysfunction directly stemming from stressful changes that had occurred in his relationship to his wife who had Alzheimer's disease. General…

  2. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  3. Ofuji's disease in an immunocompetent patient successfully treated with dapsone

    PubMed Central

    Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan; Manne, Sindhura; Panicker, Vinitha Varghese; Eapen, Malini

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis or Ofuji's disease is a non-infectious eosinophilic infiltration of hair follicles, which usually presents with itchy papules and pustules in a circinate configuration. We report this case of an immunocompetent patient with erythematous papules and plaques without macropustules diagnosed as eosinophilic pustular folliculitis—a rarely reported entity outside Japan. He was successfully treated with oral dapsone. PMID:27730038

  4. [Skin diseases in hemodialysis and kidney transplant patients].

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Clarissa Morais Busatto; Gussão, Bruna Calvi; de Matos, Jorge Paulo Strogoff; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo; Pinto, Jane Marcy Neffá

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the world is facing an escalate in the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Databases containing information about patients in end stage renal disease (ESRD), especially in the United States, were the sources of initial information about it. Brazil has the third largest population on dialysis in the world, and there are about 680 dialysis centers, spread across all units of the federation in the present, providing treatment to an estimated population of almost 90,000 patients. Cutaneous involvement in the chronic renal failure is characterized by a number of manifestations, which may be related to three processes: the primary renal disease, the uremic state, or the therapeutic measures used in their handling. The skin changes in these two classes of patients, dialysis and transplant recipients, have been the subject of several studies. n recent years, however, great progress has been achieved in these two therapeutic modalities, which may have changed not only the type of the dermatologic disorders associated with these two conditions, but also their intensity or frequency. This article aims to yield an update as to the topic skin diseases in hemodialysis and kidney transplant patients.

  5. Strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently accompanied by multimorbidities in affected patients. Even though the majority of these comorbidities are also related to advanced age and cigarette smoke, also COPD itself has significant impact on insurgence, or worsening of these conditions. As a consequence, COPD is regarded as a complex disease with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary involvement. According to current guidelines for the management of COPD patients, the comprehensive treatment of this condition should target respiratory symptoms as well as comorbidities. Cardiovascular disease is one of the most frequent comorbidities in COPD patients and there are several strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in COPD patients. These include smoking cessation, pharmacologic prevention of cardiovascular disease, and the treatment of COPD. Beta-blockers for the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been traditionally limited in COPD patients, albeit current evidence supporting their efficacy and safety in these patients. With regard to COPD medications, corticosteroids are generally not recommended, except for exacerbations, while long-acting beta2-agonists have demonstrated an acceptable profile of cardiovascular safety. Long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilators, in particular tiotropium in the mist inhaler formulation, have been associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events and mortality. Data on this issue remain, however, controversial. Glycopyrronium, a recently introduced anticholinergic, demonstrated. a rapid and sustained relief of respiratory symptoms with a favorable safety profile and no increase in cardiovascular risk, in monotherapy and in combination with a long-acting beta2-agonist in a comprehensive trial program indicating a valid option for COPD patients with CV comorbidities.

  6. Avoidable 30-Day Readmissions Among Patients With Stroke and Other Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nahab, Fadi; Takesaka, Jennifer; Mailyan, Eugene; Judd, Lilith; Culler, Steven; Webb, Adam; Frankel, Michael; Choi, Dennis; Helmers, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are limited data on factors associated with 30-day readmissions and the frequency of avoidable readmissions among patients with stroke and other cerebrovascular disease. Methods: University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) database records were used to identify patients discharged with a diagnosis of stroke or other cerebrovascular disease at a university hospital from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 and readmitted within 30 days to the index hospital. Logistic regression models were used to identify patient and clinical characteristics associated with 30-day readmission. Two neurologists performed chart reviews on readmissions to identify avoidable cases. Results: Of 2706 patients discharged during the study period, 174 patients had 178 readmissions (6.4%) within 30 days. The only factor associated with 30-day readmission was the index length of stay >10 days (vs <5 days; odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% CI [1.4, 3.7]). Of 174 patients readmitted within 30 days (median time to readmission 10 days), 92 (53%) were considered avoidable readmissions including 38 (41%) readmitted for elective procedures within 30 days of discharge, 27 (29%) readmitted after inadequate outpatient care coordination, 15 (16%) readmitted after incomplete initial evaluations, 8 (9%) readmitted due to delayed palliative care consultation, and 4 (4%) readmitted after being discharged with inadequate discharge instructions. Only 5% of the readmitted patients had outpatient follow-up recommended within 1 week. Conclusions: More than half of the 30-day readmissions were considered avoidable. Coordinated timing of elective procedures and earlier outpatient follow-up may prevent the majority of avoidable readmissions among patients with stroke and other cerebrovascular disease. PMID:23983857

  7. Vertebral artery dissection in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Takuma; Yamashiro, Kazuo; Tanaka, Ryota; Hirano, Kazuoki; Shimada, Yoshiaki; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited renal cystic disease, and it is associated with various extrarenal manifestations, including vascular complications, such as intracranial aneurysms, and aortic root dilatation and aneurysms. However, intracranial arterial dissection has rarely been reported. We herein report the cases of 2 patients with ADPKD who developed a vertebral artery (VA) dissection. Dissection was also observed on the other side of the VA and in the internal carotid artery in the first and second patient, respectively. Both patients also had a history of hypertension, which is frequently accompanied by ADPKD, and their serum creatinine levels were normal. Our report supports the importance of considering ADPKD as one of the possible pathogenic factors in arterial dissection.

  8. Serum Procalcitonin for Differentiating Bacterial Infection from Disease Flares in Patients with Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Kowoon; Lim, Mie-Jin; Kwon, Seong-Ryul; Yoon, Jiyeol

    2011-01-01

    Early differentiation between bacterial infections and disease flares in autoimmune disease patients is important due to different treatments. Seventy-nine autoimmune disease patients with symptoms suggestive of infections or disease flares were collected by retrospective chart review. The patients were later classified into two groups, disease flare and infection. C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels were measured. The CRP and PCT levels were higher in the infection group than the disease flare group (CRP,11.96 mg/dL ± 9.60 vs 6.42 mg/dL ± 7.01, P = 0.003; PCT, 2.44 ng/mL ± 6.55 vs 0.09 ng/mL ± 0.09, P < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC; 95% confidence interval) for CRP and PCT was 0.70 (0.58-0.82) and 0.84 (0.75-0.93), which showed a significant difference (P < 0.05). The predicted AUC for the CRP and PCT levels combined was 0.83, which was not significantly different compared to the PCT level alone (P = 0.80). The best cut-off value for CRP was 7.18 mg/dL, with a sensitivity of 71.9% and a specificity of 68.1%. The best cut-off value for PCT was 0.09 ng/mL, with a sensitivity of 81.3% and a specificity of 78.7%. The PCT level had better sensitivity and specificity compared to the CRP level in distinguishing between bacterial infections and disease flares in autoimmune disease patients. The CRP level has no additive value when combined with the PCT level when differentiating bacterial infections from disease flares. PMID:21935268

  9. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT patterns of extranodal involvement in patients with Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Even-Sapir, Einat; Lievshitz, Genady; Perry, Chava; Herishanu, Yair; Lerman, Hedva; Metser, Ur

    2007-07-01

    Lymphoma may originate in extranodal sites. Extranodal lymphoma may also be secondary to and accompany nodal disease. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) imaging has an essential role in the staging of lymphoma, in monitoring the response to therapy, and in detection of recurrence. The introduction of 18F-FDG PET/CT hybrid imaging allows for accurate localization of disease and may be specifically beneficial for the detection of unexpected extranodal sites of disease or exclusion of disease in the presence of nonspecific extranodal CT findings. Accurate staging and localization often dictate the appropriate treatment strategy in patients with lymphoma. Therefore, at any stage in the course of the disease, the potential presence of extranodal disease should be considered when interpreting 18F-FDG PET/CT studies in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease.

  10. Cannabis arteritis: ever more important to consider.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rui Pedro; Resende, Cristina Isabel Pinho; Vieira, Ana Paula; Brito, Celeste

    2017-03-13

    Cannabis arteritis (CA) is a major and underdiagnosed cause of peripheral arterial disease in young patients. A 34-year-old man, daily smoker of 20 cigarettes and two cannabis cigarettes for 14 years, presented with a necrotic plaque of left hallux for 3 weeks. The Doppler ultrasound and angiography were compatible with severe Buerger's disease. Submitted to a revascularisation procedure and hypocoagulation with rivaroxaban. He had ceased smoking but maintained consumption of cannabis. Owing to the persistence of distal necrosis, amputation of the hallux was performed with good evolution. CA is a subtype of Buerger's disease. It is poorly known but increasingly prevalent and manifests in cannabis users regardless of tobacco use. The drug is considered at least a cofactor of the arteriopathy. The most effective treatment is cessation of consumption. Being cannabis one of the most consumed drugs, its mandatory to ask about its use in all young patients with arteriopathy.

  11. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  12. [Problems in medical care for patients with cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Maksimova, T M; Lushkina, N P; Ogryzko, E V

    2012-01-01

    Despite showing that cardiovascular disease mortality in Russia is declining evaluation of medical care for cardiovascular patients, using different information sources, revealed a lot of problems in this field need it's solving. Together with modernization of medical services it is urgently necessary to transform the medical education, including post graduate, information support for medical professionals in field of modern medical technologies, using in countries with low mortality rates, creation the conditions for regular updating professional knowledge. It is necessary to reconsider formal criteria for medical care evaluation, especially taking into account co morbidity of cardiovascular diseases. Our data illustrate that social disparities influence on outcomes of diseases and so for further decreasing mortality rates and increasing the life expectancy adequate treatment must be provide for all patients independently of their material wellbeing.

  13. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.

    2013-05-06

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  14. Oral Disease Burden in Northern Manhattan Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lalla, Evanthia; Park, David B.; Papapanou, Panos N.; Lamster, Ira B.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the association between diabetes mellitus and oral disease in a low-socioeconomic-status urban population. Methods. Dental records of 150 adults with diabetes and 150 nondiabetic controls from the dental clinic at Columbia University in Northern Manhattan matched by age and gender were studied. Results. There was a 50% increase in alveolar bone loss in diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic controls. Diabetes, increasing age, male gender, and use of tobacco products had a statistically significant effect on bone loss. Conclusions. Our findings provide evidence that diabetes is an added risk for oral disease in this low-income, underserved population of Northern Manhattan. Oral disease prevention and treatment programs may need to be part of the standards of continuing care for patients with diabetes PMID:15117696

  15. Oral Disease Burden in Northern Manhattan Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lalla, Evanthia; Park, David B.; Papapanou, Panos N.; Lamster, Ira B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the association between diabetes mellitus and oral disease in a low-socioeconomic-status urban population. Methods. Dental records of 150 adults with diabetes and 150 nondiabetic controls from the dental clinic at Columbia University in Northern Manhattan matched by age and gender were studied. Results. There was a 50% increase in alveolar bone loss in diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic controls. Diabetes, increasing age, male gender, and use of tobacco products had a statistically significant effect on bone loss. Conclusions. Our findings provide evidence that diabetes is an added risk for oral disease in this low-income, underserved population of Northern Manhattan. Oral disease prevention and treatment programs may need to be part of the standards of continuing care for patients with diabetes PMID:18687631

  16. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Environmental Protection Agency Urge Commonwealth of Puerto Rico to Consider Aerial Spraying as Part of Integrated Mosquito Control to Reduce Zika-Associated Birth Defects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA News Release: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Environmental Protection Agency Urge Commonwealth of Puerto Rico to Consider Aerial Spraying as Part of Integrated Mosquito Control to Reduce Zika-Associated Birth Defects

  17. Role of Salmonella enterica exposure in Chilean Crohn's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Pizarro, Daniela P; Palavecino, Christian E; Espinoza, Abner; Sebastián, Valentina P; Alvarado, Juan C; Ibañez, Patricio; Quintana, Carlos; Díaz, Orlando; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between exposure to Salmonella enterica (SE) and Crohn’s disease (CD) and its clinical implications in Chilean patients. METHODS: Ninety-four unrelated Chilean CD patients from CAREI (Active Cohort Registry of Inflammatory Bowel Disease) presenting to a single inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) unit of a University Hospital were prospectively included in this study. A complete clinical evaluation, including smoking history, was performed at the initial visit, and all the important data of clinical evolution of CD were obtained. Blood samples from these CD patients and 88 healthy sex- and age-matched control subjects were analyzed for exposure to SE and for their NOD2/CARD15 gene status using the presence of anti-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide antibodies [immunoglobulin-G type (IgG)] and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. We also evaluated exposure to SE in 90 sex- and age-matched patients without CD, but with known smoking status (30 smokers, 30 non-smokers, and 30 former smokers). RESULTS: CD patients comprised 54 females and 40 males, aged 35.5 ± 15.2 years at diagnosis with a mean follow-up of 9.0 ± 6.8 years. CD was inflammatory in 59 patients (62.7%), stricturing in 24 (25.5%) and penetrating in 15 (15.5%). Thirty cases (31.9%) had lesions in the ileum, 29 (30.8%) had ileocolonic lesions, 32 (34.0%) had colonic lesions and 23 (24.4%) had perianal disease. Sixteen CD patients (17%) were exposed to SE compared to 15 (17%) of 88 healthy control subjects (P = 0.8). Thirty-one CD patients (32.9%) were smokers, and 7 (7.4%) were former smokers at diagnosis. In the group exposed to SE, 10 of 16 patients (62.5%) were active smokers compared to 21 of 78 patients (26.9%) in the unexposed group (P = 0.01). On the other hand, 10 of 31 smoking patients (32%) were exposed to SE compared to 5 of 56 nonsmoking patients (9%), and one of the seven former smokers (14%) (P = 0.01). In the group of 90 patients without CD, but whose

  18. HFE Genotyping in Patients with Elevated Serum Iron Indices and Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Andreia Silva; de Araújo, Thiago Ferreira; Abrantes-Lemos, Clarice Pires; Deguti, Marta Mitiko; Cançado, Eduardo Luiz Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Iron abnormalities in chronic liver disease may be the result of genetic diseases or secondary factors. The present study aimed to identify subjects with HFE-HH in order to describe the frequency of clinical manifestations, identify risk factors for iron elevation, and compare the iron profile of HFE-HH to other genotypes in liver disease patients. A total of 108 individuals with hepatic disease, transferrin saturation (TS) > 45%, and serum ferritin (SF) > 350 ng/mL were tested for HFE mutations. Two groups were characterized: C282Y/C282Y or C282Y/H63D genotypes (n = 16) were the HFE hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE-HH) group; and C282Y and H63D single heterozygotes, the H63D/H63D genotype, and wild-type were considered group 2 (n = 92). Nonalcoholic liver disease, alcoholism, and chronic hepatitis C were detected more frequently in group 2, whereas arthropathy, hepatocarcinoma, diabetes, and osteoporosis rates were significantly higher in the HFE-HH group. TS > 82%, SF > 2685 ng/mL, and serum iron > 178 μg/dL were the cutoffs for diagnosis of HFE-HH in patients with liver disease. Thus, in non-Caucasian populations with chronic liver disease, HFE-HH diagnosis is more predictable in those with iron levels higher than those proposed in current guidelines for the general population. PMID:25654085

  19. Uncontrolled chronic disease: patient non-compliance or clinical mismanagement?

    PubMed

    Javors, Jonathan R; Bramble, Judith E

    2003-01-01

    A study group of 30 individuals was randomly chosen from 1,379 beneficiaries predicted to be at risk for health care complications at a large, Midwest, industrial company currently experiencing increased health care costs. All 30 individuals had one or more chronic illness, primarily diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or asthma. Through analysis of medical records, a self-reporting health risk assessment survey, and personal contact with both patients and clinicians, each study individual was assessed as to whether his disease(s) was under control, the individual was compliant with his treatment protocol, and whether the supervising clinician was following nationally accepted standards of care. Fewer than 50% of the individuals in the study group had their chronic illness(es) under control. Those individuals whose treatment adhered to national guidelines were significantly more likely to have their disease under control (p < 0.001). For this study, patient compliance was high and unrelated to whether their disease was under control. Behavioral (external) barriers were most often cited as the reason a clinical practitioner did not follow the appropriate national standard of care. Most clinicians were aware of and familiar with the guidelines; a few either did not agree with or misunderstood the guidelines. The results of this study suggest that changing clinical practice behaviors to better ensure compliance to national standards of care may make a substantial difference in chronic disease control.

  20. Immune defects in active mycobacterial diseases in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs).

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-I; Huang, Jing-Long; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Jaing, Tang-Her; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2011-12-01

    Natural human immunity to the mycobacteria group, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) or nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), and/or Salmonella species, relies on the functional IL-12/23-IFN-γ integrity of macrophages (monocyte/dendritic cell) connecting to T lymphocyte/NK cells. Patients with severe forms of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) have more profound immune defects involving this impaired circuit in patients with severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) including complete DiGeorge syndrome, X-linked hyper IgM syndrome (HIGM) (CD40L mutation), CD40 deficiency, immunodeficiency with or without anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (NEMO and IKBA mutations), chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and hyper IgE recurrent infection syndromes (HIES). The patients with severe PIDs have broader diverse infections rather than mycobacterial infections. In contrast, patients with an isolated inborn error of the IL-12/23-IFN-γ pathway are exclusively prone to low-virulence mycobacterial infections and nontyphoid salmonella infections, known as Mendelian susceptibility to the mycobacterial disease (MSMD) phenotype. Restricted defective molecules in the circuit, including IFN-γR1, IFN-γR2, IL-12p40, IL-12R-β1, STAT-1, NEMO, IKBA and the recently discovered CYBB responsible for autophagocytic vacuole and proteolysis, and interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) for dendritic cell immunodeficiency, have been identified in around 60% of patients with the MSMD phenotype. Among all of the patients with PIDs referred for investigation since 1985, we have identified four cases with the specific defect (IFNRG1 for three and IL12RB for one), presenting as both BCG-induced diseases and NTM infections, in addition to some patients with SCID, HIGM, CGD and HIES. Furthermore, manifestations in patients with autoantibodies to IFN-γ (autoAbs-IFN-γ), which is categorized as an anticytokine autoantibody syndrome, can resemble the relatively persistent

  1. Temporal movement control in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Teasdale, N; Phillips, J; Stelmach, G E

    1990-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been reported to be unable to modify their movement velocity to adapt to changing environmental demands. For example, when movement amplitude is varied, PD patients usually exhibit a nearly constant peak velocity, whereas elderly subjects show an increase of their peak velocity with increased amplitude. The experiment examined the ability of PD patients to vary the duration of their movement (four different percentages of their maximum) under conditions where temporal, but not spatial, control was emphasised. PD patients had longer movement times than control subjects, but were able to vary the duration of their movement with comparable temporal accuracy to that of elderly subjects. For both groups, the agonist EMG activity increased with decreased movement duration. For the PD patients, the number of agonist bursts increased with increased movement duration. PMID:2266367

  2. MEG evaluation of Parkinson's diseased patients after external magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Anninos, P; Adamopoulos, A; Kotini, A; Tsagas, N; Tamiolakis, D; Prassopoulos, P

    2007-03-01

    Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings of Parkinson's diseased (PD) patients were obtained using a whole-head 122-channel magnetometer and analyzed with Fourier statistical analysis. External transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the order of pico Tesla was applied on the above patients with proper field characteristics (magnetic amplitude : 1-7.5 pT, frequency : the alpha-rhythm of the patient: 8-13 Hz) which were obtained prior to TMS. The MEG recordings after the application of TMS showed a rapid attenuation of the high abnormal activity followed by an increase of the low frequency components toward the patients' alpha-rhythm. The patients responded to the TMS with a feeling of relaxation and partial or complete disappearance of tremor, muscular ache and levodopa induced dyskinesias as well as rapid reversed visuospatial impairment, which were followed by a corresponding improvement and normalization of the MEG.

  3. Pain management in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Phuong-Chi T.; Toscano, Edgar; Pham, Phuong-Mai T.; Pham, Phuong-Anh T.; Pham, Son V.; Pham, Phuong-Thu T.

    2009-01-01

    Pain has been reported to be a common problem in the general population and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Although similar data for pre-ESRD patients are lacking, we recently reported that the prevalence of pain is also very high (>70%) among pre-ESRD patients at a Los Angeles County tertiary referral centre. The high prevalence of pain in the CKD population is particularly concerning because pain has been shown to be associated with poor quality of life. Of greater concern, poor quality of life, at least in dialysis patients, has been shown to be associated with poor survival. We herein discuss the pathophysiology of common pain conditions, review a commonly accepted approach to the management of pain in the general population, and discuss analgesic-induced renal complications and therapeutic issues specific for patients with reduced renal function. PMID:25949305

  4. Multiple Spinal Revision Surgery in a Patient with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Malla, Hridayesh Pratap; Kim, Min Ki; Kim, Tae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients frequently have several spinal deformities leading to postural instabilities including camptocormia, myopathy-induced postural deformity, Pisa syndrome, and progressive degeneration, all of which adversely affect daily life activities. To improve these postural deformities and relieve the related neurologic symptoms, patients often undergo spinal instrumentation surgery. Due to progressive degenerative changes related to PD itself and other complicating factors, patients and surgeons are faced with instrument failure-related complications, which can ultimately result in multiple revision surgeries yielding various postoperative complications and morbidities. Here, we report a representative case of a 70-year-old PD patient with flat back syndrome who had undergone several revision surgeries, including anterior and posterior decompression and fusion for a lumbosacral spinal deformity. The patient ultimately benefitted from a relatively short segment fixation and corrective fusion surgery. PMID:27847583

  5. [Self-Management in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease].

    PubMed

    Chiou, Chou-Ping; Lu, Yung-Chuan; Hung, Shih-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients typically self-manage their disease-care program. Self-management requires the investment of considerable time and energy in health management and in following the multifaceted CKD treatment regimen. CKD, a progressive disease, is classified into five stages that correspond to the five stages of decline in kidney function, as measured using the glomerular filtration rate (GRF). Each of these stages requires that a patient modify his / her lifestyle and shoulder the responsibility for day-to-day health management tasks. Key to promoting self-management is the partnership and collaboration between healthcare providers and patients. Tasks in this partnership include patient assessment and communication, regimen adherence, emotional management, negotiation of care plans, and the enhancement of self-efficacy, with the aims of creating positive changes in behavior, promoting correct symptoms interpretation and reporting, and promoting the appropriate use of resources. Nurses may help patients maneuver this initially frightening and sometimes difficult terrain with strategies that are tailored to each CKD stage.

  6. Voluntary Imitation in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bisio, Ambra; Casteran, Matthieu; Ballay, Yves; Manckoundia, Patrick; Mourey, France; Pozzo, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although Alzheimer’s disease (AD) primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e., a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with AD. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator. PMID:27014056

  7. Ileal function in patients with untreated adult coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Silk, D B; Kumar, P J; Webb, J P; Lane, A E; Clark, M L; Dawson, A M

    1975-01-01

    A double-lumen perfusion technique has been used to investigate jejunal and ileal absorption of glucose, water, and electrolytes in a group of patients with untreated adult coeliac disease. Correct positioning of the tube was confirmed by measuring the differential jejunal and ileal handling of bicarbonate. Eight control subjects and eight patients with coeliac disease were perfused with an isotonic electrolyte solution containing 50 mM glucose and 25 mM bicarbonate. The group of coeliac patients had impaired jejunal absorption of glucose (P less than 0.001), water (P less than 0.01), sodium (P less than 0.02), and chloride (P greater than 0.05) compared with the control group. In contrast the group of coeliac patients had normal ileal glucose and water absorption and increased ileal sodium (P greater than 0.01) and chloride (P greater than 0.05) absorption compared with the controls. Evidence for ileal adaptation was found in three individual patients who had absorptive values outside 2SD of the normal mean. The results indicate that the distal small intestine in coeliac disease has the ability to adopt to the damage and loss of absorptive capacity in the proximal small intestine. PMID:1132801

  8. [Screening and management of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Kraiem, Sondos; Abassi, Chedly; Annabi, Nizar; Smaali, Ibtissem; Issaa, Inès; Wali, Mouin; Malou, Monia; Hannachi, Sofiane; Longo, Selma; Battikh, Kaies; Slimane, Mohamed Lotfi

    2006-10-01

    Diabetes represents as independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and the prognosis in term of survival rates is worse for diabetic patients who have CAD with report to those with CAD but no diabetes. The coronary artery disease in diabetes has specificities and, in particular, more extensive atherosclerosis. Diabetic patients are also more frequently asymptomatic. Due to the extreme complexity of ischemic vascular disease in patients with diabetes, an optimal therapeutic strategy is based on the correction of elevated blood glucose and lipid levels, of blood pressure, of platelet and coagulation abnormalities. Diabetic patients benefit from secondary prevention by drug therapy(aspirin, lipid lowering with statines, beta blocker and ACE inhibitors) to the same extent as, or more than, non-diabetic patients. Both percutaneous and surgical myocardial revascularization have been proved equally effective for CAD treatment in diabetes. A recent randomized trial has shown a significantly improved outcome after surgical revascularization. But, the effects of drug-eluting stents, which dramatically decrease the incidence of re-stenosis, seem promising.

  9. Ocular microtremor in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Bolger, C.; Bojanic, S.; Sheahan, N.; Coakley, D.; Malone, J.

    1999-01-01

    Abnormalities in the oculomotor control mechanism of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease are well recognised. In this study the effect of Parkinson's disease on tonic output from oculomotor nuclei was studied by using oculomicrotremor as an index of such output. Oculomicrotremor readings were taken from 22 parkinsonian patients and 22 normal healthy volunteers using the piezoelectric strain gauge technique. There was a slower overall tremor frequency, baseline, and burst frequency in the parkinsonian group. There was also a significant increase in the duration of baseline, with a decrease in the number of bursts a second and a decrease in average duration of bursts in the patient group compared with the normal group. One patient, whose medication was withdrawn, showed a marked decrease in mean frequency and baseline frequency with a decrease in number of bursts and increase in baseline duration compared with readings taken when treatment recommenced. These results suggest that variables measured in oculomicrotremor are altered compared with normal subjects, reflecting altered tonic output from oculomotor nuclei in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

 PMID:10201430

  10. Patients with Parkinson's disease can employ a predictive motor strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Day, B L; Dick, J P; Marsden, C D

    1984-01-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that predictive motor behaviour is abnormal in Parkinson's disease. In the first experiment elbow movements were performed to track a moving spot on an oscilloscope screen. The performance of 12 patients with Parkinson's disease and eight age-matched control subjects was measured when tracking a repeated pattern under two conditions. In the first condition subjects were not aware of the repetitive nature of the tracking task whilst in the second condition they were. For both groups tracking error and tracking lag were less when aware of the repetition. In the second experiment wrist movements were studied. Five age-matched controls were compared with five patients, studied on and off drugs. In this experiment the performance tracking a repeated pattern was compared to that tracking unpredictable patterns. Tracking lags were reduced to very low values (less than 20 ms) in response to the repeated pattern for both groups. This was true even when the patients were relatively immobile off drugs. We conclude that patients with Parkinson's disease are capable of predictive motor behaviour although such a strategy does not always confer as great an advantage in reducing tracking error in patients compared with control subjects. PMID:6512550

  11. Patient optimization for surgery relating to Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kamal V; Darakhshan, Amir A; Griffin, Nyree; Williams, Andrew B; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Irving, Peter M

    2016-12-01

    The majority of patients with Crohn's disease require abdominal surgery during their lifetime, some of whom will require multiple operations. Postoperative complications are seen more frequently in patients requiring abdominal surgery for Crohn's disease than in patients requiring abdominal surgery for other conditions. In this article, we review the evidence supporting preoperative optimization, discussing strategies that potentially improve surgical outcomes and reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality. We discuss the roles of adequate cross-sectional imaging, nutritional optimization, appropriate adjustments of medical therapy, management of preoperative abscesses and phlegmons, smoking cessation and thromboembolic prophylaxis. We also review operation-related factors, and discuss their potential implications with respect to postoperative complications. Overall, the literature suggests that preoperative management has a major effect on postoperative outcomes.

  12. Bone sarcomas in Paget disease: a study of 85 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Botet, J.F.; Yeh, S.D.J.

    1984-09-01

    This is a comprehensive review of 85 patients who had bone sarcoma associated with Paget disease and who were seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1927 and 1982. There was an almost equal distribution of tumors in the axial and the appendicular skeletons. The pelvis, humerus, femur, and skull were the tumor sites in 80% of cases. The tumors were bulky large soft tissue masses. Lytic lesions were more common than sclerotic lesions. Methylene diphosphonate scans of the bone often showed a cold area that was associated with marked increase in uptake on the gallium scan. Angiography, which was performed in 13 patients, was useful, but CT was much more helpful in showing the soft tissue mass as well as the extent of bony disease. Only three patients in this study survived for five years.

  13. Low prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in patients with autoimmune diseases in a Chinese patient population.

    PubMed

    Sui, M; Wu, R; Hu, X; Zhang, H; Jiang, J; Yang, Y; Niu, J

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis B is a very common communicable disease in China but the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients with autoimmune diseases is unknown. We retrospectively investigated the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in patients with HBV infection. The medical records of 4060 patients with autoimmune or nonautoimmune diseases were reviewed. A positive test result for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was used to indicate the presence of HBV infection. Autoimmune diseases included autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and ulcerative colitis. Nonautoimmune conditions included inguinal hernia, appendicitis and pregnant or postpartum women. The proportion of autoimmune disease patients who were HBsAg positive (2.24%) was significantly lower than that of nonautoimmune disease patients who were HBsAg positive (4.58%; P = 0.0014). Regarding hepatic autoimmune diseases, the positivity rates for HBsAg in autoimmune hepatitis patients (0.83%) and primary biliary cirrhosis patients (1.02%) were both significantly lower than in nonautoimmune patients (4.58%; P = 0.006 and 0.004, respectively). Patients with hepatic autoimmune disease were significantly less likely to be HBsAg positive (0.93%) than patients with non-hepatic autoimmune disease (3.99%; P = 0.002). Patients with autoimmune diseases, especially those with hepatic autoimmune disease, may more efficiently clear HBV than patients with nonautoimmune diseases.

  14. [Point of note in the treatment of osteoporotic patients complicated with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Masaaki

    2016-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease causes secondary hyperparathyroidism due to an accumulation of phosphate in the circulation, resulting in the development of CKD-mineral bone disease(MBD), which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and fracture. Increase of bone fracture in CKD might be explained by phosphate overload, increased oxidative stress, malnutrition, and the increased risk of fall due to sarcopenia. It is recently emphasized that the overtreatment of osteoporosis might induce the development of adynamic bone disease by calcium overload and/or oversuppression of bone turnover, which might stimulate ectopic calcification including vessel wall. Considering for the high prevalence of CKD in elderly osteoporotic women, we should be careful to avoid the induction of calcium/phosphate overload and over-suppression of bone turnover when we treat osteoporosis for such patients.

  15. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with a codon 210 mutation: first pathological observation in a Japanese patient.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Yasutaka; Satoh, Chika; Mito, Yasunori; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    2014-01-01

    We herein report a case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) with a V210I mutation and discuss the pathological findings. The patient's clinical course was quite similar to that of patients with sporadic CJD. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed a high signal intensity in the basal ganglia and cerebral cortices. Pathologically, spongiform degeneration of neurons and their processes with reactive astrocytosis was observed. Prion protein immunostaining revealed diffuse positive and plaque-type patterns. Only one Japanese case of CJD with this type of mutation has been reported to date, but without any pathological examination results. Therefore, this report is considered to be highly significant for understanding CJD.

  16. Analysis of the immune system of multiple myeloma patients achieving long-term disease control by multidimensional flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pessoa de Magalhães, Roberto J; Vidriales, María-Belén; Paiva, Bruno; Fernandez-Gimenez, Carlos; García-Sanz, Ramón; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Gutierrez, Norma C; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Blanco, Juan F; Hernández, Jose; de las Heras, Natalia; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Roig, Monica; Costa, Elaine Sobral; Ocio, Enrique M; Perez-Andres, Martin; Maiolino, Angelo; Nucci, Marcio; De La Rubia, Javier; Lahuerta, Juan-Jose; San-Miguel, Jesús F; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma remains largely incurable. However, a few patients experience more than 10 years of relapse-free survival and can be considered as operationally cured. Interestingly, long-term disease control in multiple myeloma is not restricted to patients with a complete response, since some patients revert to having a profile of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We compared the distribution of multiple compartments of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control (n=28), patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (n=23), patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (n=23), and age-matched healthy adults (n=10). Similarly to the patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and symptomatic multiple myeloma, patients with long-term disease control showed an expansion of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells and natural killer cells. However, the numbers of bone marrow T-regulatory cells were lower in patients with long-term disease control than in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma. It is noteworthy that B cells were depleted in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, but recovered in both the bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with long-term disease control, due to an increase in normal bone marrow B-cell precursors and plasma cells, as well as pre-germinal center peripheral blood B cells. The number of bone marrow dendritic cells and tissue macrophages differed significantly between patients with long-term disease control and those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, with a trend to cell count recovering in the former group of patients towards levels similar to those found in healthy adults. In summary, our results indicate that multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control have a constellation of unique immune changes

  17. Patients' knowledge of risk and protective factors for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Wartak, Siddharth A; Friderici, Jennifer; Lotfi, Amir; Verma, Ashish; Kleppel, Reva; Naglieri-Prescod, Deborah; Rothberg, Michael B

    2011-05-15

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. The American Heart Association has proposed improving overall cardiovascular health by promoting 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health, including health behaviors (not smoking, regular exercise, and healthy diet) and health factors (ideal body mass index, cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood glucose). The patients' knowledge of these 7 components is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional survey of patients at 4 primary care and 1 cardiology clinic. The survey measured demographic data, personal behaviors/health factors, cardiovascular disease history, and knowledge about these 7 components. A multivariate model was developed to assess patient characteristics associated with high knowledge scores. Of the 2,200 surveys distributed, 1,702 (77%) were returned with sufficient responses for analysis. Of these, 49% correctly identified heart disease as the leading cause of death, and 37% (95% confidence interval [CI] 35% to 39%) correctly identified all 7 components. The average respondent identified 4.9 components (95% CI 4.7 to 5.0). The lowest recognition rates were for exercise (57%), fruit/vegetable consumption (58%), and diabetes (63%). In a multivariate model, knowledge of all 7 components was positively associated with high school education or greater (odds ratio 2.43, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.52) and white ethnicity (odds ratio 1.78, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.50), and negatively associated with attending an urban neighborhood clinic (odds ratio 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.82). In conclusion, just >1/3 of patients could identify all 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health. Educational efforts should target patients in low socioeconomic strata and focus on improving knowledge about healthy diet and regular exercise. Although patients with diabetes were more likely than those without diabetes to recognize their risk, 1 in 5 were not aware that diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  18. Autoimmune disease and multiple autoantibodies in 42 patients with RASopathies.

    PubMed

    Quaio, Caio R D C; Carvalho, Jozélio F; da Silva, Clovis A; Bueno, Cleonice; Brasil, Amanda S; Pereira, Alexandre C; Jorge, Alexander A L; Malaquias, Alexsandra C; Kim, Chong A; Bertola, Débora R

    2012-05-01

    The association of RASopathies [Noonan syndrome (NS) and Noonan-related syndromes] and autoimmune disorders has been reported sporadically. However, a concomitant evaluation of autoimmune diseases and an assessment of multiple autoantibodies in a large population of patients with molecularly confirmed RASopathy have not been performed. The clinical and laboratory features were analyzed in 42 RASopathy patients, the majority of whom had NS and five individuals had Noonan-related disorders. The following autoantibodies were measured: Anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-double stranded DNA, anti-SS-A/Ro, anti-SS-B/La, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-Scl-70, anti-Jo-1, anti-ribosomal P, IgG and IgM anticardiolipin (aCL), thyroid, anti-smooth muscle, anti-endomysial (AE), anti-liver cytosolic protein type 1 (LC1), anti-parietal cell (APC), anti-mitochondrial (AM) antibodies, anti-liver-kidney microsome type 1 antibodies (LKM-1), and lupus anticoagulant. Six patients (14%) fulfilled the clinical criteria for autoimmune diseases [systemic lupus erythematous, polyendocrinopathy (autoimmune thyroiditis and celiac disease), primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS), autoimmune hepatitis, vitiligo, and autoimmune thyroiditis]. Autoimmune antibodies were observed in 52% of the patients. Remarkably, three (7%) of the patients had specific gastrointestinal and liver autoantibodies without clinical findings. Autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies were frequently present in patients with RASopathies. Until a final conclusion of the real incidence of autoimmunity in Rasopathy is drawn, the physicians should be alerted to the possibility of this association and the need for a fast diagnosis, proper referral to a specialist and ultimately, adequate treatment.

  19. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Patients with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Patrícia; Zen, Tatiana Diehl; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; da Silva, Juliane Nascimento; Koshiyama, Dayane Bohn; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2013-01-01

    Background Chromosomal abnormalities (CAs) are an important cause of congenital heart disease (CHD). Objective Determine the frequency, types and clinical characteristics of CAs identified in a sample of prospective and consecutive patients with CHD. Method Our sample consisted of patients with CHD evaluated during their first hospitalization in a cardiac intensive care unit of a pediatric referral hospital in Southern Brazil. All patients underwent clinical and cytogenetic assessment through high-resolution karyotype. CHDs were classified according to Botto et al. Chi-square, Fisher exact test and odds ratio were used in the statistical analysis (p < 0.05). Results Our sample consisted of 298 patients, 53.4% males, with age ranging from 1 day to 14 years. CAs were observed in 50 patients (16.8%), and 49 of them were syndromic. As for the CAs, 44 (88%) were numeric (40 patients with +21, 2 with +18, 1 with triple X and one with 45,X) and 6 (12%) structural [2 patients with der(14,21), +21, 1 with i(21q), 1 with dup(17p), 1 with del(6p) and 1 with add(18p)]. The group of CHDs more often associated with CAs was atrioventricular septal defect. Conclusions CAs detected through karyotyping are frequent in patients with CHD. Thus, professionals, especially those working in Pediatric Cardiology Services, must be aware of the implications that performing the karyotype can bring to the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis and for genetic counseling of patients and families. PMID:24145389

  20. Depression and major depressive disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Mayumi; Tanaka, Teruaki; Nakagawa, Shin; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2010-01-15

    The prevalence of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) varies greatly. In this study, we investigated major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms without MDD in patients with PD. The psychopathological characteristics of depressive symptoms were assessed by a psychiatric interview. A total of 105 Japanese patients with PD without dementia were included. The Japanese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) with a cutoff score of 13/14 was used to screen for depression. Using a structured interview, a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation of patients with BDI-II scores >13 (high BDI patients) was completed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR. Forty patients (38%) had a BDI-II >13, but 29 did not show any depressed mood. Five cases met the criteria for MDD (three current, two past) and one patient was diagnosed with minor depressive disorder. A slight depressed mood that was associated with worrying about PD was seen in 6 of 34 patients without any depressive disorder and fluctuated with aggravation of PD symptoms in two of these patients. For the diagnosis of MDD, the number of positive items from the DSM-IV-TR definition of MDD is most important and useful for differentiating MDD and non-MDD. The low-prevalence rate of MDD in our patient population suggests that PD may be a psychological stressor for MDD, but does not necessarily induce MDD.

  1. Management of gouty arthritis in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, Abdul A; Elkhalili, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a comorbid condition that affects, based on recent estimates, between 47% and 54% of patients with gouty arthritis. However, data from randomized controlled trials in patients with gouty arthritis and CKD are limited, and current gouty arthritis treatment guidelines do not address the challenges associated with managing this patient population. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine are recommended first-line treatments for acute gouty arthritis attacks. However, in patients with CKD, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not recommended because their use can exacerbate or cause acute kidney injury. Also, colchicine toxicity is increased in patients with CKD, and dosage reduction is required based on level of kidney function. Allopurinol, febuxostat, and pegloticase are all effective treatments for controlling elevated uric acid levels after the treatment of an acute attack. However, in patients with CKD, required allopurinol dosage reductions may limit efficacy; pegloticase requires further investigation in this population, and febuxostat has not been studied in patients with creatinine clearance<30 mL/min. This article reviews the risks and benefits associated with currently available pharmacologic agents for the management of acute and chronic gouty arthritis including urate-lowering therapy in patients with CKD. Challenges specific to primary care providers are addressed, including guidance to help them decide when to collaborate with, or refer patients to, rheumatology and nephrology specialists based on the severity of gout and CKD.

  2. Hyperglycemia effect on coronary disease in patients with metabolic syndrome evaluated by intracoronary ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Bonamichi, Beatriz Dal Santo Francisco; Parente, Erika Bezerra; Campos, Ana Carolina Noronha; Cury, Adriano Namo; Salles, João Eduardo Nunes

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by dyslipidemia, central obesity, hypertension and hyperglycemia. However, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may or may not be present in metabolic syndrome. MS and T2DM are considered important cardiovascular risk factors, but the role of hyperglycemia in coronary disease is still contested in the literature. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the effect of hyperglycemia on the severity of coronary disease in MS patients, with or without T2DM, submitted to coronary angiography (CA) and intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS). Materials and methods This is a cross sectional, observational study with 100 MS patients (50% with T2DM), 60% male. All of the patients had been referred for CA procedures. The obstruction was considered severe when stenosis was greater than 70% and moderate if it was between 50–69%. Patients detected with a moderate obstruction by CA were indicated to IVUS. A minimal luminal area of less than 4mm2 detected by IVUS was also considered severe. IDF criteria were used to define Metabolic Syndrome and T2DM diagnosis was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Student’s t-test and Pearson Chi-square were used for statistical analysis, considering p < 0.05 statistically significant. Results and discussion The majority of T2DM patients presented severe arterial lesions (74% vs 22%, p<0.001). Using CA procedure, 12% of T2DM had moderate obstructions, compared to 38% of the non-diabetic group (p< 0.05). 8% of patients with moderate lesions by CA were diagnosed with a luminal area less than 4mm2 using IVUS. This luminal area was significantly smaller in the T2DM group than in the control group (3.8mm2 ± 2.42. vs 4.6mm2 ± 2.58, p = 0.03). Conclusion Patients with MS and T2DM submitted to angiography and IVUS, had more severe coronary lesions compared to MS patients without diabetes. This finding suggests that beyond insulin resistance that is present in MS, hyperglycemia may

  3. Treatment and Patient Reported Outcome in Children with Hirschsprung Disease and Concomitant Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hasserius, Johan; Hedbys, Josefine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is reported to be associated with Hirschsprung disease (HD). The aim was to evaluate any differences between children with HD with and without CHD, respectively, with regard to patient characteristics, medical care, and patient reported bowel function. Method. This is a retrospective chart study and a cross-sectional long-term follow-up of patients older than 4 years old, including all children with HD operated on with transanal endorectal pull-through (TERPT) at a tertiary center of pediatric surgery. Information about patient characteristics, diagnostics, surgery, and medical care was compiled. At long-term follow-up, bowel function was assessed by Bowel Function Score. Results. Included were 53 HD-patients, 13 with CHD and 40 without CHD. Children with CHD more commonly presented with failure to thrive; 4 (23%) compared to those without CHD (0%) (p < 0.01). In the long-term follow-up, including 32 patients (6 with CHD), constipation was more commonly reported by children with CHD 5 (83%) than by children without CHD 4 (27%) (p = 0.01). No differences were shown in the other parameters such as fecal control and incontinence. Conclusion. HD-patients with CHD more commonly presented with failure to thrive and more frequently reported constipation than HD-patients without CHD. The findings indicate that HD-patients with CHD might need special consideration in their initial care and long-term follow-up. PMID:28373976

  4. Cancer Risk in Patients With Inflammatory Systemic Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kuang-Hui; Kuo, Chang-Fu; Huang, Lu Hsiang; Huang, Wen-Kuan; See, Lai-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether inflammation is related to cancer development, and whether the incidence of cancer is increased and occurs in a site-specific manner in patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs). This study included a nationwide dynamic cohort of patients with various newly diagnosed SARDs from 1997 to 2010 with follow-up until 2012. This study included 75,123 patients with SARDs. During 562,870 person-years of follow-up, 2844 patients developed cancer. Between 1997 and 2010, the highest number of newly diagnosed SARDs cases were rheumatoid arthritis (n = 35,182), followed by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n = 15,623), Sjögren syndrome (n = 11,998), Kawasaki disease (n = 3469), inflammatory bowel disease (n = 2853), scleroderma (n = 1814), Behçet disease (n = 1620), dermatomyositis (n = 1119), polymyositis (n = 811), and vasculitis other than Kawasaki disease (n = 644). A significant standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of overall cancer was observed for patients with SLE (1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28–1.56), Sjögren syndrome (1.19; 95% CI, 1.08–1.30), scleroderma (1.27; 95% CI, 1.02–1.59), dermatomyositis (4.79; 95% CI, 4.01–5.73), polymyositis (1.47; 95% CI, 1.05–2.06), vasculitis excluding Kawasaki disease (1.75; 95% CI, 1.20–2.55), and Kawasaki disease (2.88; 95% CI, 1.60–5.20). Overall, patients with most SARDs had a significantly higher risk of inflammation-associated site-specific cancers and hematologic malignancies. This study confirms that autoimmunity is associated with site-specific and hematological malignancies and provides clinical evidence of an association between inflammation and subsequent site-specific cancer development. These findings support the importance of inflammation in site-specific organ system carcinogenesis. PMID:27149461

  5. [The antropology of disease and the diseased: perceptions and life strategies adopted by tuberculosis patients].

    PubMed

    Bertolli Filho, C

    The article examines how tuberculosis patients who were exiled to sanitarium-cities in the state of Sao Paulo reacted to the social representations assigned to them not only by the public at large but by medical workers as well. By evaluating memoirs and related documents from the perspective of the anthropology of disease and the diseased, it was possible to identify the network of signifieds created by the afflicted community.

  6. Vaccination of the immune-compromised patients with focus on patients with autoimmune-inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Bijl, M; Kallenberg, C G M; van Assen, S

    2011-01-01

    Among immunocompromised patients morbidity and mortality due to vaccine-preventable infections is high. Although vaccination seems indicated, controversy exists about which vaccines should be offered, at what moment, and to whom. Guidelines are needed as the number of immunocompromised individuals increases due to the wider use of immunosuppressive drugs and, in particular, because since the introduction of biological agents, the spectrum of immunosuppressive drugs is rapidly expanding. In this review we will highlight controversies about vaccination in immunocompromised patients and will discuss indications for the several vaccines available to prevent infectious diseases with the focus on patients with autoimmune-inflammatory diseases.

  7. Magnetic resonance enterography or video capsule endoscopy – what do Crohn’s disease patients prefer?

    PubMed Central

    Lahat, Adi; Kopylov, Uri; Amitai, Marianne M; Neuman, Sandra; Levhar, Nina; Yablecovitch, Doron; Avidan, Benjamin; Yanai, Henit; Dotan, Iris; Chowers, Yehuda; Weiss, Batya; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Eliakim, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite differences in the information obtained by capsule endoscopy (CE) and magnetic resonance enterography (MRE), one of these modalities is usually needed when evaluating disease activity. There are no data on patients’ preference that would help guide the choice between these two modalities in these instances. Aim To compare patients’ tolerance and preference to MRE versus CE. Patients and methods Patients with known small bowel Crohn’s disease (CD) in clinical remission (Crohn’s disease activity index [CDAI] <150) or with mild symptoms (CDAI <220) were prospectively recruited. All patients underwent MRE followed by CE. Patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire addressing specific points regarding inconvenience during the preparation for the procedures, the procedures, and postprocedures. Side effects and procedure preference were addressed. Questionnaires were included for analysis only when more than 95% of the items were addressed. Results Fifty-six patients fulfilled inclusion criteria. Pre-exam discomfort, during-exam discomfort, nausea, vomiting, bloating, and abdominal pain were all significantly more prominent in MRE as compared to CE (P<0.0001, P<0.0001, P<0.0001, P=0.009, P=0.0002, P<0.0001, respectively). MRE was perceived as a more difficult procedure (P<0.0001). Furthermore, MRE was associated with a specific adverse event – claustrophobia. Seventy-eight percent of patients (44 patients) preferred to repeat CE as compared to 22% (P<0.0001) who preferred MRE. Conclusion CE was better tolerated by CD patients compared to MRE