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Sample records for disease rating scale

  1. Comparative assessment of clinical rating scales in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Volpert, Hanna M; Pfeiffenberger, Jan; Gröner, Jan B; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Gotthardt, Daniel N; Schäfer, Mark; Weiss, Karl Heinz; Weiler, Markus

    2017-07-21

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism resulting in multifaceted neurological, hepatic, and psychiatric symptoms. The objective of the study was to comparatively assess two clinical rating scales for WD, the Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale (UWDRS) and the Global Assessment Scale for Wilson's disease (GAS for WD), and to test the feasibility of the patient reported part of the UWDRS neurological subscale (termed the "minimal UWDRS"). In this prospective, monocentric, cross-sectional study, 65 patients (median age 35 [range: 15-62] years; 33 female, 32 male) with treated WD were scored according to the two rating scales. The UWDRS neurological subscore correlated with the GAS for WD Tier 2 score (r = 0.80; p < 0.001). Correlations of the UWDRS hepatic subscore and the GAS for WD Tier 1 score with both the Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (r = 0.44/r = 0.28; p < 0.001/p = 0.027) and the Child-Pugh score (r = 0.32/r = 0.12; p = 0.015/p = 0.376) were weak. The "minimal UWDRS" score significantly correlated with the UWDRS total score (r = 0.86), the UWDRS neurological subscore (r = 0.89), and the GAS for WD Tier 2 score (r = 0.86). The UWDRS neurological and psychiatric subscales and the GAS for WD Tier 2 score are valuable tools for the clinical assessment of WD patients. The "minimal UWDRS" is a practical prescreening tool outside scientific trials.

  2. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS): status and recommendations.

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    The Movement Disorder Society Task Force for Rating Scales for Parkinson's Disease prepared a critique of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Strengths of the UPDRS include its wide utilization, its application across the clinical spectrum of PD, its nearly comprehensive coverage of motor symptoms, and its clinimetric properties, including reliability and validity. Weaknesses include several ambiguities in the written text, inadequate instructions for raters, some metric flaws, and the absence of screening questions on several important non-motor aspects of PD. The Task Force recommends that the MDS sponsor the development of a new version of the UPDRS and encourage efforts to establish its clinimetric properties, especially addressing the need to define a Minimal Clinically Relevant Difference and a Minimal Clinically Relevant Incremental Difference, as well as testing its correlation with the current UPDRS. If developed, the new scale should be culturally unbiased and be tested in different racial, gender, and age-groups. Future goals should include the definition of UPDRS scores with confidence intervals that correlate with clinically pertinent designations, "minimal," "mild," "moderate," and "severe" PD. Whereas the presence of non-motor components of PD can be identified with screening questions, a new version of the UPDRS should include an official appendix that includes other, more detailed, and optionally used scales to determine severity of these impairments.

  3. Relationship between manual dexterity and the unified parkinson's disease rating scale-motor exam.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sujin; Song, Chiang-Soon

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between manual dexterity and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam as a clinical tool for quantifying upper extremity function in persons with Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two persons with idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated in this study. This study measured two clinical outcomes, the box-and-block test and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam, to investigate the relationships between manual dexterity and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam. [Results] The box-and-block test on the more affected side was positive relationship with the box-and-block test on the less affected side. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-motor exam score had a negative correlation with the box-and-block test results for both sides. [Conclusion] A positive association was noted between manual dexterity and motor function in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. The results of this study suggest that the box-and-block test and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam are good clinical measures that quantify upper extremity function and are necessary for the accurate evaluation of patients and to plan intervention strategies.

  4. Relationship between manual dexterity and the unified parkinson’s disease rating scale-motor exam

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sujin; Song, Chiang-Soon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between manual dexterity and the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam as a clinical tool for quantifying upper extremity function in persons with Parkinson’s disease. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two persons with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease participated in this study. This study measured two clinical outcomes, the box-and-block test and the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam, to investigate the relationships between manual dexterity and the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam. [Results] The box-and-block test on the more affected side was positive relationship with the box-and-block test on the less affected side. The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale-motor exam score had a negative correlation with the box-and-block test results for both sides. [Conclusion] A positive association was noted between manual dexterity and motor function in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. The results of this study suggest that the box-and-block test and the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam are good clinical measures that quantify upper extremity function and are necessary for the accurate evaluation of patients and to plan intervention strategies. PMID:28174461

  5. Rating scales for behavioral symptoms in Huntington's disease: Critique and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Tiago A; van Duijn, Erik; Davis, Aileen M; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Busse, Monica; Anderson, Karen E; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Mahlknecht, Philipp; Tumas, Vitor; Sampaio, Cristina; Goetz, Chris G; Cubo, Esther; Stebbins, Glenn T; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral symptoms are an important feature of Huntington's disease and contribute to impairment in quality of life. The Movement Disorder Society commissioned the assessment of the clinimetric properties of rating scales in Huntington's disease to make recommendations regarding their use, following previously used standardized criteria. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify the scales used to assess behavioral symptoms in Huntington's disease. For the purpose of this review, 7 behavioral domains were deemed significant in Huntington's disease: irritability, anxiety, depression, apathy, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, psychosis, and suicidal ideation. We included a total of 27 behavioral rating scales, 19 of which were of a single behavioral domain and the remaining 8 scales included multiple behavioral domains. Three rating scales were classified as "recommended" exclusively for screening purposes: the Irritability Scale for irritability, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for depression. There were no "recommended" scales for other purposes such as diagnosis, severity, or change in time or to treatment. The main challenges identified for assessment of behavioral symptoms in Huntington's disease are the co-occurrence of multiple behavioral symptoms, the particular features of a behavioral symptom in Huntington's disease, and the need to address stage- and disease-specific features, including cognitive impairment and lack of insight. The committee concluded that there is a need to further validate currently available behavioral rating scales in Huntington's disease to address gaps in scale validation for specific behavioral domains and purpose of use. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Calibration of unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores to Movement Disorder Society-unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Tilley, Barbara C

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop formulas to convert the UPDRS to Movement Disorder Society (MDS)-UPDRS scores. The MDS-UPDRS is a revision of the UPDRS with sound clinimetric properties. Reliable formulas to recalculate UPDRS scores into MDS-UPDRS equivalents are pivotal to the practical transition and definitive adoption of the MDS-UPDRS. UPDRS and MDS-UPDRS scores were collected on 875 PD patients. A developmental sample was used to regress UPDRS scores on corresponding MDS-UPDRS scores based on three H & Y groupings (I/II, III, and IV/V). Regression weighting factors and intercept terms provided formulas for UPDRS conversions to be tested in a validation sample. Concordance between the true MDS-UPDRS Part scores and those derived from the formulas was compared using Bland-Altman's plots and Lin's concordance coefficient (LCC). Significant concordance between UPDRS-estimated MDS-UPDRS scores was achieved for Parts II (Motor Experiences of Daily Living) (LCC = 0.93) and III (Motor Examination) (LCC = 0.97). The formulas resulted in mean differences between the true MDS-UPDRS and estimated MDS-UPDRS scores of less than 1 point for both Parts II and III. Concordance was not achieved for Parts I and IV (Non-motor Experiences of Daily Living and Complications of Therapy). Formulas allow archival UPDRS Parts II and III individual patient data to be accurately transferred to MDS-UPDRS scores. Because Part I collects data on much more extensive information than the UPDRS, and because Part IV is structured differently in the two versions, old ratings for these parts cannot be converted. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Anxiety rating scales in Parkinson's disease: a critical review updating recent literature.

    PubMed

    Dissanayaka, Nadeeka N W; Torbey, Elizabeth; Pachana, Nancy A

    2015-11-01

    Assessing anxiety in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been a recent focus, and a number of studies have extensively investigated the validity of anxiety rating scales in PD. The present review aims to provide an overview of anxiety scales widely used and/or validated in PD, and to highlight recommendations for future research required in this area. A literature search was performed using terms such as Parkinson* disease, psychiatric, depress*, anxiety, assessment, scales, and valid* in PsycInfo, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. Validation studies and reviews focussed on assessment of anxiety in PD were included. The literature search identified nine anxiety rating scales. The new Parkinson's Anxiety Scale (PAS) showed good psychometric properties. Having a simple design appropriate for older adults and items focussed on cognitive anxiety, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) also appeared promising for use in PD. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) did not demonstrate satisfactory psychometric characteristics when used in PD, while other scales had limited or no evidence of validity or reliability to infer judgments. PAS and GAI are can be recommended for use in PD without dementia. Usefulness of these scales to assess anxiety in dementia should be examined in the future. Moreover, the complex symptomatology of anxiety relating to "off" PD medication states were not addressed in these scales. Further research is required to develop an anxiety scale tailored for PD.

  8. Rating scales and questionnaires for assessment of sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease: what they inform about?

    PubMed

    Zea-Sevilla, María Ascensión; Martínez-Martín, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    Sleep disorders are very prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include a diversity of disturbances. Rating scales and questionnaires are widely used to assess the presence and severity of the sleep disorders. The objective is to review rating scales and questionnaires used for assessment of sleep disorders in PD. To this purpose, a description and update of the sleep scales reviewed by the ad hoc Movement Disorder Society task force (MDS-TF) and other sleep disorder assessments was performed. Two specific (Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale and Scales for Outcomes in PD Sleep) and two generic scales (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were "Recommended" by the MDS-TF as they were used in PD patients, by researchers others than their developers and properly validated. Two other generic scales (Inappropriate Sleep Composite Score and Stanford Sleepiness Scale), "Suggested" due to incomplete validation, are also reviewed. Other instruments included in this review are three comprehensive PD-specific instruments for assessing multiple domains in addition to sleep problems (e.g., Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire, Non-Motor Symptoms Scale, MDS-UPDRS), and three generic instruments focused on particular disturbances (e.g., International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale, REM behavioral disorders questionnaires), although these latter lack formal validation in PD populations. The "Recommended" instruments cover satisfactorily the needs for screening and evaluation of the nocturnal sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness in PD patients. It would be convenient to validate or complete the validation in PD populations of those instruments that cannot be recommended due to the lack of information on their clinimetric attributes.

  9. Clinical rating scales.

    PubMed

    Relja, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), rating scales are used to assess the degree of disease-related disability and to titrate long-term treatment to each phase of the disease. Recognition of non-motor symptoms required modification of existing widely used scales to integrate non-motor elements. In addition, new scales have been developed for the assessment of non-motor symptoms. In this article, assessment of PD patients will be discussed, particularly for non-motor symptoms such as pain and fatigue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The scaling of contact rates with population density for the infectious disease models.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Nigmatulina, Karima; Eckhoff, Philip

    2013-08-01

    Contact rates and patterns among individuals in a geographic area drive transmission of directly-transmitted pathogens, making it essential to understand and estimate contacts for simulation of disease dynamics. Under the uniform mixing assumption, one of two mechanisms is typically used to describe the relation between contact rate and population density: density-dependent or frequency-dependent. Based on existing evidence of population threshold and human mobility patterns, we formulated a spatial contact model to describe the appropriate form of transmission with initial growth at low density and saturation at higher density. We show that the two mechanisms are extreme cases that do not capture real population movement across all scales. Empirical data of human and wildlife diseases indicate that a nonlinear function may work better when looking at the full spectrum of densities. This estimation can be applied to large areas with population mixing in general activities. For crowds with unusually large densities (e.g., transportation terminals, stadiums, or mass gatherings), the lack of organized social contact structure deviates the physical contacts towards a special case of the spatial contact model - the dynamics of kinetic gas molecule collision. In this case, an ideal gas model with van der Waals correction fits well; existing movement observation data and the contact rate between individuals is estimated using kinetic theory. A complete picture of contact rate scaling with population density may help clarify the definition of transmission rates in heterogeneous, large-scale spatial systems.

  11. Correlation between the Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson's Disease rating scale (MDS-UPDRS) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease rating scale (UPDRS) during L-dopa acute challenge.

    PubMed

    Merello, Marcelo; Gerschcovich, Eliana Roldan; Ballesteros, Diego; Cerquetti, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    While Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson's Disease rating scale (MDS-UPDRS) validation has been exhaustive; performance evaluation to detect acute changes arising after administration of a single dose of L-dopa has yet to be explored. To determine the correlation between UPDRS and MDS-UPDRS during the acute challenge with Ldopa and the MDS-UPDRS equivalent to 30% cutoff score of UPDRS for defining responsiveness, 64 patients were assessed. Consecutive assessments were performed immediately before and after administration of a single dose of L-dopa/carbidopa 250/25 mg using the motor section of the UPDRS and the MDS-UPDRS. Good diagnostic accuracy, consistent with published findings of high correlation between scales was observed. Area under the curve (AUC) was 0.99 (CI = 0.97-1.00, P < 0.001) and maximum Youden index (Y = 0.905) corresponded to a cutoff of 24.5%. In conclusion we have found an excellent correlation between UPDRS and MDS-UPDRS and that the 30% of variation in UPDRS score used for predicting sustained long term L-dopa response was equivalent to 24% in MDS-UPDRS.

  12. Depression rating scales in Parkinson's disease: A critical review updating recent literature.

    PubMed

    Torbey, Elizabeth; Pachana, Nancy A; Dissanayaka, Nadeeka N W

    2015-09-15

    Depression is a prominent non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Assessing depression in PD remains a challenge due to the overlap of somatic symptoms between depression and PD. Other neuropsychiatric manifestations associated with PD, such as cognitive decline, also complicate assessment of depression. Therefore it is critical to investigate the validity of depression rating scales for use in PD. This will allow evaluation of observer- and self-report instruments to be administered in neurologically ill geriatric populations such as PD, and identification of appropriate scales to use in cognitively challenged PD patients. The present review includes all studies examining the validity of depression rating scales in PD. It discusses the usefulness of 13 depression rating scales in PD. The clinician-rated and widely used HAMD-17 and the self-report GDS scales are recommended for screening and measuring severity of depression in PD. The GDS-15 may be a preferred choice due to its brevity and ease of use design for older adults. Other valid and reliable instruments to use in PD include self-rated scales, such as the HADS-D, HDI, and the BDI, and the observer-report, MADRS. The CSDD displayed satisfactory validity and reliability for identification of PD patients with and without dementia. The PHQ-2, PHQ-10, SDS, CES-D, UPDRS-Depression item, IDS-SR, and IDS-C each showed some evidence of validity or reliability, however further research on the psychometric properties of these scales when used in a PD population are required.

  13. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale as a predictor of peak aerobic capacity and ambulatory function.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Frederick M; Katzel, Leslie I; Sorkin, John D; Macko, Richard F; Shulman, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) is a widely applied index of disease severity. Our objective was to assess the utility of UPDRS for predicting peak aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and ambulatory function. Participants (n = 70) underwent evaluation for UPDRS (Total and Motor ratings), VO2 peak, 6-minute walk distance (6MW), and 30-foot self-selected walking speed (SSWS). Using regression, we determined the extent to which the Total and Motor UPDRS scores predicted each functional capacity measure after adjusting for age and sex. We also tested whether adding the Hoehn and Yahr scale (H-Y) to the model changed predictive power of the UPDRS. Adjusted for age and sex, both the Total UPDRS and Motor UPDRS subscale failed to predict VO2 peak. The Total UPDRS did weakly predict 6MW and SSWS (both p < 0.05), but the Motor UPDRS subscale did not predict these ambulatory function tests. After adding H-Y to the model, Total UPDRS was no longer an independent predictor of 6MW but remained a predictor of SSWS. We conclude that Total and Motor UPDRS rating scales do not predict VO2 peak, but that a weak relationship exists between Total UPDRS and measures of ambulatory function.

  14. Borg scale is valid for ratings of perceived exertion for individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Penko, Amanda L; Barkley, Jacob E; Koop, Mandy Miller; Alberts, Jay L

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that has traditionally been treated with anti-parkinsonian medication. There is increasing evidence that exercise is beneficial to those with PD, therefore, it is necessary to validate a measure of exertion that can be implemented across exercise settings that may not have the capability to actively monitor heart rate. The aim of this project was to determine the validity of the Borg RPE scale in individuals with PD undergoing a maximal progressive cycling exercise test. Thirty-eight males and females (58.5 ± 8.1 yrs) with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic PD, Hoehn and Yahr stage II-III, completed a maximal exercise test. Heart rate was monitored continuously, with RPE being recorded during the last minute of each stage of the test. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between RPE and continuous heart rate monitoring. A significant, positive correlation was present between RPE and heart rate and RPE and workload, r = 0.61 and r = 0.77 respectively. A separate mixed effects model regression analyses indicated that RPE was a significant predictor of heart rate (p < 0.001) and workload (p < 0.001). The results of a mixed effect models that RPE scores indicated that RPE values at commonly prescribed workout intensities were not associated with age, gender, or disease severity (p>0.05). Significant, positive correlation between RPE and HR indicates that the Borg category ratio scale may be used in individuals with Parkinson's disease in which formal exercise testing may not be available.

  15. [Rapid Disability Rating Scale-2 in Alzheimer's disease: NORMACODEM project data].

    PubMed

    Monllau, A; Aguilar, M; Peña-Casanova, J; Böhm, P; Blesa, R; Sol, J M; Hernández, G

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the Rapid Disability Rating Scale-2 (RDRS-2) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Test retest reliability, internal consistency, data of discriminant validity of the scale, correlations with other functional and cognitive measures were analyzed. 451 subjects were assessed: 254 healthy controls, 86 with cognitive impairment but no dementia (CIND) and 111 subjects diagnosed of AD. Total and subscales scores of the RDRS-2 were obtained. The total score is the sum of three subscales: activities of daily living, disability, and special problems. To establish its correlation with other functional scales and cognitive instruments, the following tools were applied: Blessed Dementia Rating Scale (BDRS), Interview for the Deterioration of Daily Living in Dementia (IDDD), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). lineal multivariate regression analysis. Crossvalidation. ROC curves. Intraclass coefficient. Cronbach's alpha and Pearson's Correlation coefficient. RDRS-2 scores by group were the following (mean and SD): Controls (18.95; 1.64), CIND (20.61; 2.88), and AD (28.96; 9.07). Results from regression analysis 282 demonstrated absence of influence of sociocultural variables such as age and education in RDRS-2 scores. Correlations with other instruments were as following: BDRS, r=0.820; IDDD, r=0.882; ADAS-Cog, r=0.762, and MMSE, r=0.742. Intraclass coefficient was 0.86 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.91. For the RDRS-2 the best cutoff score was 21 (82.88% sensitivity and 88.8% specificity). Area under the ROC curve was 0.92. The Spanish adaptation of the RDRS-2 is free of sociocultural influence, and shows very adequate data on internal consistency and stability. Although not specifically designed for its use in AD it correlates highly and significantly with other functional scales as well as with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD.

  16. Cross-cultural evaluation of the modified Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale across disease stages.

    PubMed

    Virués-Ortega, Javier; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Micheli, Federico; Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier; Serrano-Dueñas, Marcos; Martínez-Martín, Pablo

    2010-07-30

    This study assessed the psychometric attributes of the modified Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale (mPPRS). In an attempt to improve scale's scaling assumptions and content validity, all types of hallucinations were rated and all items were scored based on intensity. The scale was cross-culturally adapted to four Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, and Paraguay). Acceptability, internal consistency, factor structure, convergent and known-groups validity, and precision (standard error of measurement, SEM) were explored. A total of 388 patients with PD were included in the study (age, 64.5 +/- 10.7 years; 59.8% males; PD duration, 8.2 +/- 4.9 years). The mPPRS was highly usable in terms of missing values generated and scores distribution (total computable scores, 99.7%, ceiling effect, <15%). Scaling assumptions were acceptable as noted by the range of item-total correlations (0.14-0.55, only one coefficient below 0.2). Internal consistency was adequate for research use (Cronbach alpha, 0.7). Factor analysis identified two factors that accounted for 58.5% of the variance. Low correlation coefficients were found with cognitive function (SCOPA-Cog) and disease severity (CISI-PD) (r(S) scale's content validity and internal consistency. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Using cognitive pretesting in scale development for Parkinson's disease: the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) example.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Barbara C; LaPelle, Nancy R; Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive pretesting, a qualitative step in scale development, precedes field testing and assesses the difficulty of instrument completion for examiners and respondents. Cognitive pretesting assesses respondent interest, attention span, discomfort, and comprehension, and highlights problems with the logical structure of questions/response options that can affect understanding. In the past this approach was not consistently used in the development or revision of movement disorders scales. We applied qualitative cognitive pretesting using testing guides in development of the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS). The guides were based on qualitative techniques, verbal probing and "think-aloud" interviewing, to identify problems with the scale from the patient and rater perspectives. English-speaking Parkinson's disease patients and movement disorders specialists (raters) from multiple specialty clinics in the United States, Western Europe and Canada used the MDS-UPDRS and completed the testing guides. Two rounds of cognitive pretesting were necessary before proceeding to field testing of the revised scale to assess clinimetric properties. Scale revisions based on cognitive pretesting included changes in phrasing, simplification of some questions, and addition of a reassuring statement explaining that not all PD patients experience the symptoms described in the questions. The strategy of incorporating cognitive pretesting into scale development and revision provides a model for other movement disorders scales. Cognitive pretesting is being used in translating the MDS-UPDRS into multiple languages to improve comprehension and acceptance and in the development of a new Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale for Parkinson's disease patients.

  18. Using Cognitive Pretesting in Scale Development for Parkinson’s Disease: The Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Example

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, Barbara C.; LaPelle, Nancy R.; Goetz, Christopher G.; Stebbins, Glenn T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognitive pretesting, a qualitative step in scale development, precedes field testing and assesses the difficulty of instrument completion for examiners and respondents. Cognitive pretesting assesses respondent interest, attention span, discomfort, and comprehension, and highlights problems with the logical structure of questions/response options that can affect understanding. In the past this approach was not consistently used in the development or revision of movement disorders scales. Methods We applied qualitative cognitive pretesting using testing guides in development of the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS). The guides were based on qualitative techniques, verbal probing and “think-aloud” interviewing, to identify problems with the scale from the patient and rater perspectives. English-speaking Parkinson’s disease patients and movement disorders specialists (raters) from multiple specialty clinics in the United States, Western Europe and Canada used the MDS-UPDRS and completed the testing guides. Results Two rounds of cognitive pretesting were necessary before proceeding to field testing of the revised scale to assess clinimetric properties. Scale revisions based on cognitive pretesting included changes in phrasing, simplification of some questions, and addition of a reassuring statement explaining that not all PD patients experience the symptoms described in the questions. Conclusions The strategy of incorporating cognitive pretesting into scale development and revision provides a model for other movement disorders scales. Cognitive pretesting is being used in translating the MDS-UPDRS into multiple languages to improve comprehension and acceptance and in the development of a new Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale for Parkinson’s disease patients. PMID:24613868

  19. Simplified Conversion Method for Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Motor Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Hentz, Joseph G.; Mehta, Shyamal H.; Shill, Holly A.; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Beach, Thomas G.; Adler, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated a simplified method for converting Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Part III Motor Examination total scores (UPDRS III) to the Movement Disorders Society’s revised version of the scores. Methods Parkinson’s disease patients in the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders were assessed with both scales. The accuracy of the predicted scores was assessed using regression modeling, classical intraclass correlation coefficients, and the Bland-Altman method. Results There was strong correlation between the two scores. Adding seven points to a UPDRS III total score performed approximately as well as previously published conversion formulas (intraclass correlation 0.96). The adjusted score is expected to be within three points of the Movement Disorders Society-UPDRS III score 50% of the time, and within nine points 95% of the time. Conclusions Simply adding seven points to a UPDRS III total score provides a good approximation of the Movement Disorders Society-UPDRS III total score. PMID:26779608

  20. Validation of the Hebrew version of the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Zitser, Jennifer; Peretz, Chava; Ber David, Aya; Shabtai, Herzl; Ezra, Adi; Kestenbaum, Meir; Brozgol, Marina; Rosenberg, Alina; Herman, Talia; Balash, Yakov; Gadoth, Avi; Thaler, Avner; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G; Tilley, Barbara C; Luo, Sheng T; Liu, Yuanyuan; Giladi, Nir; Gurevich, Tanya

    2017-09-24

    The Movement Disorders Society (MDS) published the English new Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) as the official benchmark scale for Parkinson's disease (PD) in 2008. We aimed to validate the Hebrew version of the MDS-UPDRS, explore its dimensionality and compare it to the original English one. The MDS-UPDRS questionnaire was translated to Hebrew and was tested on 389 patients with PD, treated at the Movement Disorders Unit at Tel-Aviv Medical Center. The MDS-UPDRS is made up of four sections. The higher the score, the worst the clinical situation of the patient is. Confirmatory and explanatory factor analysis were applied to determine if the factor structure of the English version could be confirmed in the Hebrew version. The Hebrew version of the MDS-UPDRS showed satisfactory clinimetric properties. The internal consistency of the Hebrew-version was satisfactory, with Cronbach's alpha values 0.79, 0.90, 0.93, 0.80, for parts 1 to 4 respectively. In the confirmatory factor analysis, all four parts had high (greater than 0.90) comparative fit index (CFI) in comparison to the original English MDS-UPDRS with high factor structure (0.96, 0.99, 0.94, 1.00, respectively), thus confirming the pre-specified English factor structure. Explanatory factor analysis yielded that the Hebrew responses differed from the English one within an acceptable range: in isolated item differences in factor structure and in the findings of few items having cross loading on multiple factors. The Hebrew version of the MDS-UPDRS meets the requirements to be designated as the Official Hebrew Version of the MDS-UPDRS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rating disease progression of Friedreich’s ataxia by the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale: analysis of a 603-patient database

    PubMed Central

    Coppard, Nicholas; Cooper, Jonathon M.; Delatycki, Martin B.; Dürr, Alexandra; Di Prospero, Nicholas A.; Giunti, Paola; Lynch, David R.; Schulz, J. B.; Rummey, Christian; Meier, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyse disease progression in Friedreich’s ataxia as measured by the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale. Single ratings from 603 patients with Friedreich’s ataxia were analysed as a function of disease duration, age of onset and GAA repeat lengths. The relative contribution of items and subscales to the total score was studied as a function of disease progression. In addition, the scaling properties were assessed using standard statistical measures. Average total scale progression per year depends on the age of disease onset, the time since diagnosis and the GAA repeat length. The age of onset inversely correlates with increased GAA repeat length. For patients with an age of onset ≤14 years associated with a longer repeat length, the average yearly rate of decline was 2.5 ± 0.18 points in the total International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale for the first 20 years of disease duration, whereas patients with a later onset progress more slowly (1.8 ± 0.27 points/year). Ceiling effects in posture, gait and lower limb scale items lead to a reduced sensitivity of the scale in the severely affected population with a total score of >60 points. Psychometric scaling analysis shows generally favourable properties for the total scale, but the subscale grouping could be improved. This cross-sectional study provides a detailed characterization of the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale. The analysis further provides rates of change separated for patients with early and late disease onset, which is driven by the GAA repeat length. Differences in the subscale dynamics merit consideration in the design of future clinical trials applying this scale as a neurological assessment instrument in Friedreich’s ataxia. PMID:23365101

  2. Are Changes in Gait and Balance Across the Disease Step Rating Scale in Multiple Sclerosis Statistically Significant and Clinically Meaningful?

    PubMed

    Williams, Katrina L; Low Choy, Nancy L; Brauer, Sandra G

    2016-09-01

    To explore differences in gait endurance, speed, and standing balance in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) across the Disease Step Rating Scale, and to determine if differences are statistically significant and clinically meaningful. Observational study. Community rehabilitation - primary health care center. Community-dwelling people with MS (N=222; mean age, 48±12y; 32% men). Not applicable. Participants were categorized using the Disease Step Rating Scale. Demographics and clinical measures of gait endurance (6-minute walk test [6MWT]), gait speed (10-m walk test [10MWT] and 25-foot walk test [25FWT]), and balance (Berg Balance Scale [BBS]) were recorded in 1 session. Differences in these parameters across categories of the Disease Step Rating Scale were explored, and clinically meaningful differences were identified. The 6MWT showed a greater number of significant differences across adjacent disease steps in those with less disability (P<.001), whereas the 10MWT and 25FWT demonstrated more significant changes in those with greater disability (P<.001). The BBS demonstrated significant differences across the span of the Disease Step Rating Scale categories (P<.001). Differences in gait and balance between adjacent Disease Step Rating Scale categories met most previously established levels of minimally detectable change and all minimally important change scores. Our findings support the Disease Step Rating Scale is an observational tool that can be used by health professionals to categorize people with MS, with the categories reflective of statistically significant and clinically meaningful differences in gait and balance performance. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of the Italian version of the Movement Disorder Society--Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Angelo; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Tilley, Barbara; Huang, Jing; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G; Barone, Paolo; Bandettini di Poggio, Monica; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Di Stasio, Flavio; Tinazzi, Michele; Bovi, Tommaso; Ramat, Silvia; Meoni, Sara; Pezzoli, Gianni; Canesi, Margherita; Martinelli, Paolo; Maria Scaglione, Cesa Lorella; Rossi, Aroldo; Tambasco, Nicola; Santangelo, Gabriella; Picillo, Marina; Morgante, Letterio; Morgante, Francesca; Quatrale, Rocco; Sensi, MariaChiara; Pilleri, Manuela; Biundo, Roberta; Nordera, Giampietro; Caria, Antonella; Pacchetti, Claudio; Zangaglia, Roberta; Lopiano, Leonardo; Zibetti, Maurizio; Zappia, Mario; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Quattrone, Aldo; Salsone, Maria; Cossu, Gianni; Murgia, Daniela; Albanese, Alberto; Del Sorbo, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    The Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) has been available in English since 2008. As part of this process, the MDS-UPDRS organizing team developed guidelines for development of official non-English translations. We present here the formal process for completing officially approved non-English versions of the MDS-UPDRS and specifically focus on the first of these versions in Italian. The MDS-UPDRS was translated into Italian and tested in 377 native-Italian speaking PD patients. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses determined whether the factor structure for the English-language MDS-UPDRS could be confirmed in data collected using the Italian translation. To be designated an 'Official MDS translation,' the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) had to be ≥0.90 relative to the English-language version. For all four parts of the Italian MDS-UPDRS, the CFI, in comparison with the English-language data, was ≥0.94. Exploratory factor analyses revealed some differences between the two datasets, however these differences were considered to be within an acceptable range. The Italian version of the MDS-UPDRS reaches the criterion to be designated as an Official Translation and is now available for use. This protocol will serve as outline for further validation of this in multiple languages.

  4. The clinical manifestations of lumbar disease are correlated with self-rating depression scale scores.

    PubMed

    Tetsunaga, Tomoko; Misawa, Haruo; Tanaka, Masato; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Tetsunaga, Tomonori; Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2013-05-01

    Depression can exacerbate symptoms of chronic pain and worsen disability. The symptoms of lumbar disease may be particularly sensitive to psychological state, but statistical associations between low back pain (LBP) severity and mental health status have not been established. Of the 151 patients with LBP, 122 completed questionnaires probing depressive symptoms, LBP severity, and degree of disability. In addition to completing self-report questionnaires, patients provided demographic and clinical information. A self-rating depression scale (SDS) was used to screen for depression. Pain and disability were assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RDQ), respectively. Overall clinical severity was assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Kendall's tau correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationships among these variables. Ninety-four patients (77 %) were in a depressive state as indicated by SDS score ≥40, including mild depression group (47 patients, SDS score from 40 to 49) and depression group (47 patients, SDS score ≥50). There were only 28 patients in the no depression group (SDS score ≤39). There was no significant difference in both age and pain duration among the three groups. The mean VAS score in the depression group (70 ± 19 mm) was higher than both no depression (41 ± 24 mm) and mild depression groups (52 ± 21 mm). The mean JOA score in the no depression group (14 ± 5.0 points) was higher than both mild depression (12 ± 4.0 points) and depression groups (10 ± 6.0 points). The mean RDQ in the depression group (15.1 ± 6.0 points) was higher than both no depression (6.4 ± 5.0 points) and mild depression groups (10.9 ± 5.4 points). Factors significantly correlated with SDS score included VAS, JOA score, and RDQ score. In contrast, SDS did not correlate with patient age or pain duration. The majority of chronic LBP patients examined

  5. Validation of an ambulatory capacity measure in Parkinson disease: a construct derived from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Parashos, Sotirios A; Elm, Jordan; Boyd, James T; Chou, Kelvin L; Dai, Lin; Mari, Zoltan; Morgan, John C; Sudarsky, Lewis; Wielinski, Catherine L

    2015-01-01

    A construct calculated as the sum of items 13-15, 29, 30 of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) has been used as an "Ambulatory Capacity Measure" (ACM) in Parkinson disease (PD). Its construct validity has never been examined. A similar construct, consisting of the mean value of the same UPDRS items has been used under the acronym PIGD as a measure of postural instability and gait disorder in PD. To examine the construct validity of the ACM and PIGD in PD. We analyzed data in an existing database of 340 PD patients, Hoehn and Yahr stages (HYS) 1-5 who participated in a study of falls. Number of falls (NOF) was recorded over 4 weeks, and UPDRS (mental, ADL, and motor subscales), HYS, Activities Based Confidence Scale (ABC), Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOG), Five Times Sit-to-Stand (FTSS), Timed Up-and Go (TUG), Gait Velocity (GV), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) evaluations were performed. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was assessed through correlations of the ACM and PIGD to these measures and to their summed-ranks. A coefficient of determination was calculated through linear regression. Mean age was 71.4, mean age at diagnosis 61.4 years; 46% were women; mean UPDRS subscale scores were: Mental 3.7; ADL 15.7; motor: 27.1; mean ACM was 6.51, and mean PIGD 1.30. Cronbach's alpha was 0.78 for both ACM and PIGD. Spearman correlation coefficients between the ACM/PIGD and ABC, FOG, TUG, GV and BBS were 0.69, 0.72, 0.67, 0.58, and 0.70 respectively. Correlation between the ACM/PIGD and summed-ranks of HYS, NOF, ABC, FOG, FTSS, TUG, GV and BBS was high (Spearman r = 0.823, p < 0.0001); 68% of the variability in the summed-ranks was explained by ACM/PIGD. The ACM and the PIGD are valid global measures and accurately reflect the combined effects of the various components of ambulatory capacity in PD patients with HY stages 1-4.

  6. A group-theoretical notation for disease states: an example using the psychiatric rating scale.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Jitsuki; Morishita, Shigeru; Ishigooka, Jun

    2012-07-09

    While many branches of natural science have embraced group theory reaping enormous advantages for their respective fields, clinical medicine lacks to date such applications. Here we intend to explain a prototypal model based on the postulates of groups that could have potential in categorizing clinical states. As an example, we begin by modifying the original 'Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale' (BPRS), the most frequently used standards for evaluating the psychopathology of patients with schizophrenia. We consider a presumptively idealized (virtually standardized) BPRS (denoted BPRS-I) with assessments ranging from '0' to '6' to simplify our discussion. Next, we introduce the modulo group Z7 containing elements {0,1,2,…,6} defined by composition rule, 'modulo 7 addition', denoted by *. Each element corresponds to a score resulting from grading a symptom under the BPRS-I assessment. By grading all symptoms associated with the illness, a Cartesian product, denoted Aj, constitutes a summary of a patient assessment. By considering operations denoted A(j→k) that change state Aj into state Ak, a group M (that itself contains Aj and Ak as elements) is also considered. Furthermore, composition of these operations obey modulo 7 arithmetic (i.e., addition, multiplication, and division). We demonstrate the application with a simple example in the form of a series of states (A4 = A1*A(1→2)*A(2→3)*A(3→4)) to illustrate this result. The psychiatric disease states are defined as 18-fold Cartesian products of Z7, i.e., Z7×18 = Z7×…×Z7 (18 times). We can construct set G ≡ {a(m)i| m = 1,2,3,…(the patient's history of the i-th symptom)} and M ≡ {Am | Am ∈ Z7×18 (the set of all possible assessments of a patient)} simplistically, at least, in terms of modulo 7 addition that satisfies the group postulates. Despite the large limitations of our methodology, there are grounds not only within psychiatry but also within other medical fields to consider more

  7. Poetry Methods Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Donald R.

    Designed to assess high school teachers' attitudes about teaching poetry, this questionnaire asked teachers to respond to a 38-item poetry methods rating scale (PMRS) on a seven-point scale (from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree"). The items for the questionnaire were derived from a study of popular methods texts for…

  8. Validation of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) section I as a screening and diagnostic instrument for apathy in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Kenn Freddy; Larsen, Jan Petter; Aarsland, Dag

    2008-01-01

    We examined the validity of the motivation/initiative item of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) section I as a screening and diagnostic measure for apathy in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifty-eight patients with PD were evaluated with the UPDRS, the 14-item Apathy Scale (AS), and standardized rating scales of depression and cognitive impairment. Apathy was diagnosed using specific items of the AS together with proposed criteria for apathy. A score of 2 or more on the motivation/initiative item was adequate to screen for apathy, whereas a score of 4 had high diagnostic accuracy at the cost of unacceptable low sensitivity.

  9. Composite rating scales.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2010-02-15

    Rating scales are instruments that are very frequently used by clinicians to perform patient assessments. Typically, rating scales grade the attribute on an ordinal level of measurement, i.e., a rank ordering, meaning that the numbers assigned to the different ranks (item scores) do not represent 'real numbers' or 'physical magnitudes'. Single-item scales have some advantages, such as simplicity and low respondent burden, but they may also suffer from disadvantages, such as ambiguous score meanings and low responsiveness. Multi-item scales, in contrast, seem more adequate for assessment of complex constructs, allowing for detailed evaluation. Total scores representing the value of the construct may be quite precise and thus the responsiveness of the scale may be high. The most common strategy for obtaining the total score is the sum of the item scores, a strategy that constitutes one of the most important problems with these types of scales. A summative score of ordinal figures is not a 'real magnitude' and may have little sense. This paper is a review of the theoretical frameworks of the main theories used to develop rating scales (Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory). Bearing in mind that no alternative is perfect, additional research in this field and judicious decisions are called for.

  10. Teaching program for the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale: (MDS-UPDRS).

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Chmura, Teresa A; Fahn, Stanley; Poewe, Werner; Tanner, Caroline M

    2010-07-15

    To accompany the newly developed Movement Disorder Society revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), we developed a teaching program. The DVD-based program covers the four parts of the scale with visual and verbal instructions for uniform application. For the motor section (Part III), all items except rigidity are shown with an example of each rating option (0-4) as agreed upon by a panel of experts. The rate of agreement for the selected samples was always significant, with Kendall's coefficient of concordance W ranging between 0.99 and 0.72. The teaching program also provides a full patient examination with rating answers provided and four full MDS-UPDRS cases for a Certificate Program exercise of Part III. This training program is in English, but as non-English official translations of the MDS-UPDRS are developed, the program can be potentially modified into different languages.

  11. Measuring awareness in people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: development of the Memory Awareness Rating Scale--adjusted.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Rachel M; Oyebode, Jan R; Clare, Linda

    2006-04-01

    Variations in level of awareness among people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may impact on well-being for the person with dementia and their carer, and may influence outcomes of cognitive rehabilitation interventions. Awareness has often been assessed using discrepancies between self and proxy rating or between self-rating and objective task performance, with the latter considered to be preferable. Measures are available that are suitable for people with mild AD, for example the Memory Awareness Rating Scale (MARS). However, these may be less appropriate for people whose impairments are more advanced and who consequently have more difficulty with the objective task component. In order to provide a measure suitable for people with moderate AD, an adjusted Memory Awareness Rating Scale (MARSA) was developed by altering the objective task component of the MARS. The MARSA was piloted with 41 participants with mild to moderate AD. It was found to be suitable for use with a broader group of participants than the MARS. The component ratings were found to have good internal consistency. The component ratings and the two indices of awareness had high test-retest reliability. The extension of the original measure offers the opportunity to consider awareness throughout the course of the disease and provides a basis for longitudinal investigations of awareness.

  12. Evaluation of depressive symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease using the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Staniute, Margarita; Brozaitiene, Julija; Pommer, Antoinette M; Pop, Victor J M; Montgomery, Stuart A; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), factor structure and psychometric properties of the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) to identify patients with current major depressive episode (MDE). The construct validity of the MADRS against self-rating scales was also evaluated. Consecutive 522 CAD patients at admission to the cardiac rehabilitation program were interviewed for the severity of depressive symptoms using the MADRS and for current MDE using the structured MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Also, all patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. The MADRS had one-factor structure and high internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α=0.82). Confirmative factor analysis indicated an adequate fit: comparative fit index=0.95, normed fit index=0.91, and root mean square error of approximation=0.07. At a cut-off value of 10 or higher, the MADRS had good psychometric properties for the identification of current MDE (positive predictive value=42%, with sensitivity=88% and specificity=85%). There was also a moderate to strong correlation of MADRS scores with scores on self-rating depression scales. In sum, in CAD patients undergoing rehabilitation, the MADRS is a unidimensional instrument with high internal consistency and can be used for the identification of depressed CAD patients. The association between MADRS and self-rating depression scores is moderate to strong.

  13. How to identify tremor dominant and postural instability/gait difficulty groups with the movement disorder society unified Parkinson's disease rating scale: comparison with the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G; Burn, David J; Jankovic, Joseph; Khoo, Tien K; Tilley, Barbara C

    2013-05-01

    Formulas were developed to define tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD) phenotypes of Parkinson's Disease (PD) using the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS). TD and PIGD designations, based on the original Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), provided useful designations for classifying different phenotypes of PD. With the advent of the MDS-UPDRS, a valid set of calculations for these phenotypes is needed. UPDRS and MDS-UPDRS scores were collected on 877 PD patients. TD/PIGD scores were calculated using the UPDRS formula for all patients. Comparable TD and PIGD items from the MDS-UPDRS were used to calculate new ratios. Data were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic models. The new MDS-UPDRS TD/PIGD ratios accounted for a significant area under the curve compared with the UPDRS classification. Optimal sensitivity and specificity were obtained with MDS-UPDRS cutoff scores of ≥1.15 for TD classification and ≤0.90 for PIGD. The development of comparable and valid PIGD and TD scores from the MDS-UPDRS provides a clear method for clinicians and researchers to transition from the original UPDRS to the new MDS-UPDRS in categorizing patients with different clinical phenotypes. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  14. A group-theoretical notation for disease states: an example using the psychiatric rating scale

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While many branches of natural science have embraced group theory reaping enormous advantages for their respective fields, clinical medicine lacks to date such applications. Here we intend to explain a prototypal model based on the postulates of groups that could have potential in categorizing clinical states. Method As an example, we begin by modifying the original ‘Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale’ (BPRS), the most frequently used standards for evaluating the psychopathology of patients with schizophrenia. We consider a presumptively idealized (virtually standardized) BPRS (denoted BPRS-I) with assessments ranging from ‘0’ to ‘6’ to simplify our discussion. Next, we introduce the modulo group Z7 containing elements {0,1,2,…,6} defined by composition rule, ‘modulo 7 addition’, denoted by *. Each element corresponds to a score resulting from grading a symptom under the BPRS-I assessment. By grading all symptoms associated with the illness, a Cartesian product, denoted Aj, constitutes a summary of a patient assessment. By considering operations denoted A(j→k) that change state Aj into state Ak, a group M (that itself contains Aj and Ak as elements) is also considered. Furthermore, composition of these operations obey modulo 7 arithmetic (i.e., addition, multiplication, and division). We demonstrate the application with a simple example in the form of a series of states (A4 = A1*A(1→2)*A(2→3)*A(3→4)) to illustrate this result. Results The psychiatric disease states are defined as 18-fold Cartesian products of Z7, i.e., Z7×18 = Z7×…×Z7 (18 times). We can construct set G ≡ {a(m)i| m = 1,2,3,…(the patient’s history of the i-th symptom)} and M ≡ {Am | Am ∈ Z7×18 (the set of all possible assessments of a patient)} simplistically, at least, in terms of modulo 7 addition that satisfies the group postulates. Conclusions Despite the large limitations of our methodology, there are grounds not only within

  15. Movement disorder society unified Parkinson disease rating scale experiences in daily living: longitudinal changes and correlation with other assessments.

    PubMed

    Lang, Anthony E; Eberly, Shirley; Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn; Oakes, David; Marek, Ken; Ravina, Bernard; Tanner, Caroline M; Shoulson, Ira

    2013-12-01

    The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) commissioned a revision of the UPDRS with the goals of improving instructions and definitions, more accurately evaluating milder features, and assessing patient-reported outcomes and nonmotor features. To date, no study has evaluated longitudinal changes in components of the MDS-UPDRS over time or correlated these with changes in other scales of various symptoms. We assessed Parts I and II of the MDS-UPDRS (non-Motor and Motor Experiences of Daily Living [nM-EDL, M-EDL]) as well as a number of other scales of motor, cognitive and behavioral function in a large population of patients (n = 383) with early- to mid-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) who had previously participated in a trial of a putative disease-modifying agent. Both parts of a MDS-UPDRS showed significant change over the 3-year follow-up period, with M-EDL scores declining to a greater extent than nM-EDL. Both the scores and their changes over time correlated relatively well with other rating scales of similar disease aspects. Modest correlations with the original version of the UPDRS supported the increased attention to nonmotor symptoms as well as milder levels of severity in the MDS-UPDRS. The M-EDL was much more sensitive to change over time in these early- to mid-stage patients than the original UPDRS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale. Finally, we showed no change over time in a small group of individuals with dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography scans without evidence for dopamine deficiency. The nM-EDL and M-EDL components of the MDS-UPDRS provide an effective, relevant measure of change in the broad spectrum of symptoms of PD over the first decade of the disease. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Clinical characteristics related to worsening of motor function assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale in the elderly population.

    PubMed

    Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Lerche, Stefanie; Behnke, Stefanie; Godau, Jana; Gaenslen, Alexandra; Pausch, Christoph; Fassbender, Klaus; Brockmann, Kathrin; Srulijes, Karin; Huber, Heiko; Wurster, Isabel; Berg, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    There is evidence that nigrostriatal pathology may at least partly underlie mild Parkinsonian signs. We evaluated whether an increase in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III) could be predicted by the presence of risk and prodromal markers for neurodegenerative diseases in elderly individuals without those diseases. Therefore, we analyzed the UPDRS-III score and various risk and prodromal markers known to antecede neurodegenerative diseases in a population-based cohort comprising 807 individuals free of neurodegenerative diseases at baseline. After 5 years, eight persons (1.0 %) were diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease (PD). Of those, seven (87.5 %) had motor worsening ≥3 points on the UPDRS-III from baseline to follow-up, one had two points increase. Of the 788 people without PD, 568 (72.1 %) showed no increase in the UPDRS-III scale, 220 (27.9 %) had ≥1 point increase and out of these 104 (13.2 %) had an increase of ≥3 points in the UPDRS-III score after 5 years. We identified an age >60 years (relative risk, RR = 1.7; confidence interval, CI 1.3-2.1) and the occurrence of ≥2 risk factors (RR = 1.5; CI 1.2-1.9) as possible predictors of motor progression. After 5 years, individuals with an increase in the UPDRS-III score had more often a one-sided reduced arm swing (p < 0.001) and identified less odors in the Sniffin' sticks test (p < 0.041) than persons with stable motor performance. Our data support the assumption that progression of Parkinsonian signs assessed by the UPDRS-III parallels the development of prodromal markers for neurodegenerative diseases in the elderly population.

  17. Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS): scale presentation and clinimetric testing results.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G; Tilley, Barbara C; Shaftman, Stephanie R; Stebbins, Glenn T; Fahn, Stanley; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Poewe, Werner; Sampaio, Cristina; Stern, Matthew B; Dodel, Richard; Dubois, Bruno; Holloway, Robert; Jankovic, Joseph; Kulisevsky, Jaime; Lang, Anthony E; Lees, Andrew; Leurgans, Sue; LeWitt, Peter A; Nyenhuis, David; Olanow, C Warren; Rascol, Olivier; Schrag, Anette; Teresi, Jeanne A; van Hilten, Jacobus J; LaPelle, Nancy

    2008-11-15

    We present a clinimetric assessment of the Movement Disorder Society (MDS)-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS). The MDS-UDPRS Task Force revised and expanded the UPDRS using recommendations from a published critique. The MDS-UPDRS has four parts, namely, I: Non-motor Experiences of Daily Living; II: Motor Experiences of Daily Living; III: Motor Examination; IV: Motor Complications. Twenty questions are completed by the patient/caregiver. Item-specific instructions and an appendix of complementary additional scales are provided. Movement disorder specialists and study coordinators administered the UPDRS (55 items) and MDS-UPDRS (65 items) to 877 English speaking (78% non-Latino Caucasian) patients with Parkinson's disease from 39 sites. We compared the two scales using correlative techniques and factor analysis. The MDS-UPDRS showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79-0.93 across parts) and correlated with the original UPDRS (rho = 0.96). MDS-UPDRS across-part correlations ranged from 0.22 to 0.66. Reliable factor structures for each part were obtained (comparative fit index > 0.90 for each part), which support the use of sum scores for each part in preference to a total score of all parts. The combined clinimetric results of this study support the validity of the MDS-UPDRS for rating PD.

  18. The utility of the Dementia Severity Rating Scale in differentiating mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease from controls.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Joel C; Dick, Malcolm B; Wood, Amanda E; Tapp, Andre M; Ziegler, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the utility of the Dementia Severity Rating Scale (DSRS) total score to identify individuals at the earliest stage of impairment (ie, mild cognitive impairment/MCI). In addition, the authors sought to investigate how well the measure correlates with an expanded battery of cognitive tests and other measures of functional abilities. Of the 320 participants included in this study, 85 were normal controls, 96 had single-domain or multiple-domain amnestic MCI, and 139 had possible or probable Alzheimer disease (AD). Each participant underwent a thorough cognitive, neurological, and physical examination. Results from this study indicated that the DSRS total scores differed significantly between the 3 groups (P<0.001) and accurately identified 81% of the control group, 60% of the MCI group, and 78% of the AD group in a post hoc discriminant analysis. When combined with a brief cognitive measure (ie, Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Word List 5 min recall test), the DSRS accurately identified 98% of the control group, 76% of the MCI group, and 82% of the AD group. Implications for clinical practice and proposed areas of future research are discussed.

  19. Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Labra, Fabio A.; Marquet, Pablo A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emergent property of a complex system and test the hypothesis that the probability distribution of fluctuations in the metabolic rate of individuals has a “universal” form regardless of body size or taxonomic affiliation. We examined data from 71 individuals belonging to 25 vertebrate species (birds, mammals, and lizards). We report three main results. First, for all these individuals and species, the distribution of metabolic rate fluctuations follows a tent-shaped distribution with power-law decay. Second, the standard deviation of metabolic rate fluctuations decays as a power-law function of both average metabolic rate and body mass, with exponents −0.352 and −1/4 respectively. Finally, we find that the distributions of metabolic rate fluctuations for different organisms can all be rescaled to a single parent distribution, supporting the existence of general principles underlying the structure and functioning of individual organisms. PMID:17578913

  20. The Parkinson's Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS): normative values from 268 healthy Italian individuals.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Lagravinese, Giovanna; Battini, Valeria; Chiorri, Carlo; Siciliano, Mattia; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Vitale, Carmine; Barone, Paolo

    2017-02-21

    The Parkinson's Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS) is a cognitive screening battery that includes subtests to assess cortical and subcortical functions. It is a valid screening tool for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is recommended for diagnosing PD-MCI-Level I. Until now, no study has provided population-based norms for the Italian population. The aim of the present study was to collect normative values in a sample of Italian healthy subjects. Two hundred and sixty-eight (125 men) participants of different ages (age range 30-79 years) and educational levels (from primary school to university) underwent the PD-CRS. Regression-based norming was used to explore the influence of demographic variables (age, education level, and gender) on PD-CRS total score, frontal-subcortical and instrumental-cortical sub-scores, and score achieved on each task of the PD-CRS. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly predicted the total score, the two sub-scores and the score on each task of the PD-CRS. No significant effect of gender was found. From the derived linear equations, a correction grid for raw scores was developed. Inferential cut-off scores, estimated using a non-parametric technique, were 71.25 for PD-CRS total score and 46.25 and 20.17 for frontal-subcortical and instrumental-cortical sub-score, respectively. Since the use of adjusted scores is more informative when they are standardized, we have converted adjusted scores into equivalent scores. The present study provides normative data for the PD-CRS, being useful and recommended by Movement Disorders Society task force to identify PD-MCI-Level I, at several stages of the disease.

  1. Dystonia rating scales: critique and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Alberto; Sorbo, Francesca Del; Comella, Cynthia; Jinnah, H A; Mink, Jonathan W; Post, Bart; Vidailhet, Marie; Volkmann, Jens; Warner, Thomas T; Leentjens, Albert F G; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G; Schrag, Anette

    2013-06-15

    Many rating scales have been applied to the evaluation of dystonia, but only few have been assessed for clinimetric properties. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned this task force to critique existing dystonia rating scales and place them in the clinical and clinimetric context. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify rating scales that have either been validated or used in dystonia. Thirty-six potential scales were identified. Eight were excluded because they did not meet review criteria, leaving 28 scales that were critiqued and rated by the task force. Seven scales were found to meet criteria to be "recommended": the Blepharospasm Disability Index is recommended for rating blepharospasm; the Cervical Dystonia Impact Scale and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale for rating cervical dystonia; the Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire for blepharospasm and cervical dystonia; the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Vocal Performance Questionnaire (VPQ) for laryngeal dystonia; and the Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale for rating generalized dystonia. Two "recommended" scales (VHI and VPQ) are generic scales validated on few patients with laryngeal dystonia, whereas the others are disease-specific scales. Twelve scales met criteria for "suggested" and 7 scales met criteria for "listed." All the scales are individually reviewed in the online information. The task force recommends 5 specific dystonia scales and suggests to further validate 2 recommended generic voice-disorder scales in dystonia. Existing scales for oromandibular, arm, and task-specific dystonia should be refined and fully assessed. Scales should be developed for body regions for which no scales are available, such as lower limbs and trunk. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Optimizing rating scale category effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Linacre, John M

    2002-01-01

    Rating scales are employed as a means of extracting more information out of an item than would be obtained from a mere "yes/no", "right/wrong" or other dichotomy. But does this additional information increase measurement accuracy and precision? Eight guidelines are suggested to aid the analyst in optimizing the manner in which rating scales categories cooperate in order to improve the utility of the resultant measures. Though these guidelines are presented within the context of Rasch analysis, they reflect aspects of rating scale functioning which impact all methods of analysis. The guidelines feature rating-scale-based data such as category frequency, ordering, rating-to-measure inferential coherence, and the quality of the scale from measurement and statistical perspectives. The manner in which the guidelines prompt recategorization or reconceptualization of the rating scale is indicated. Utilization of the guidelines is illustrated through their application to two published data sets.

  3. Spanish version of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-2 for early detection of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Boycheva, Elina; Contador, Israel; Fernández-Calvo, Bernardino; Ramos-Campos, Francisco; Puertas-Martín, Verónica; Villarejo-Galende, Alberto; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2017-03-23

    We aimed to analyse the clinical utility of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS-2) for early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a sample of Spanish older adults. A total of 125 participants (age = 75.12 ± 6.83, years of education =7.08 ± 3.57) were classified in three diagnostic groups: 45 patients with mild AD, 37 with amnestic MCI-single and multiple domain and 43 cognitively healthy controls (HCs). Reliability, criterion validity and diagnostic accuracy of the MDRS-2 (total and subscales) were analysed. The MDRS-2 scores, adjusted by socio-demographic characteristics, were calculated through hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The global scale had adequate reliability (α = 0.736) and good criterion validity (r = 0.760, p < .001) with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The optimal cut-off point between AD patients and HCs was 124 (sensitivity [Se] = 97% and specificity [Sp] = 95%), whereas 131 (Se = 89%, Sp = 81%) was the optimal cut-off point between MCI and HCs. An optimal cut-off point of 123 had good Se (0.97), but poor Sp (0.56) to differentiate AD and MCI groups. The Memory and Initiation/Perseveration subscales had the highest discriminative capacity between the groups. The MDRS-2 is a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of cognitive impairment in Spanish older adults. In particular, optimal capacity emerged for the detection of early AD and MCI. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales (PMRS) were developed for assessing psychological maltreatment in the mother-child interaction, and were used to rate the videotaped interaction of 49 high-risk mother-child dyads and predict child protective service involvements. The PMRS was found to be a moderately reliable and valid measure.…

  5. Expanded and independent validation of the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Alvarez-Sanchez, Mario; Arakaki, Tomoko; Bergareche-Yarza, Alberto; Chade, Anabel; Garretto, Nelida; Gershanik, Oscar; Kurtis, Monica M; Martinez-Castrillo, Juan Carlos; Mendoza-Rodriguez, Amelia; Moore, Henry P; Rodriguez-Violante, Mayela; Singer, Carlos; Tilley, Barbara C; Huang, Jing; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    The Movement Disorder Society-UPDRS (MDS-UPDRS) was published in 2008, showing satisfactory clinimetric results and has been proposed as the official benchmark scale for Parkinson's disease. The present study, based on the official MDS-UPDRS Spanish version, performed the first independent testing of the scale and adds information on its clinimetric properties. The cross-culturally adapted MDS-UPDRS Spanish version showed a comparative fit index ≥ 0.90 for each part (I-IV) relative to the English-language version and was accepted as the Official MDS-UPDRS Spanish version. Data from this scale, applied with other assessments to Spanish-speaking Parkinson's disease patients in five countries, were analyzed for an independent and complementary clinimetric evaluation. In total, 435 patients were included. Missing data were negligible and moderate floor effect (30 %) was found for Part IV. Cronbach's α index ranged between 0.79 and 0.93 and only five items did not reach the 0.30 threshold value of item-total correlation. Test-retest reliability was adequate with only two sub-scores of the item 3.17, Rest tremor amplitude, reaching κ values lower than 0.60. The intraclass correlation coefficient was higher than 0.85 for the total score of each part. Correlation of the MDS-UPDRS parts with other measures for related constructs was high (≥ 0.60) and the standard error of measurement lower than one-third baseline standard deviation for all subscales. Results confirm those of the original study and add information on scale reliability, construct validity, and precision. The MDS-UPDRS Spanish version shows satisfactory clinimetric characteristics.

  6. Validation of an Ambulatory Capacity Measure in Parkinson Disease: A Construct Derived from the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Parashos, Sotirios A.; Elm, Jordan; Boyd, James T.; Chou, Kelvin L.; Dai, Lin; Mari, Zoltan; Morgan, John C.; Sudarsky, Lewis; Wielinski, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Background A construct calculated as the sum of items 13, 14, 15, 29, 30 of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) has been used as an “Ambulatory Capacity Measure” (ACM in Parkinson disease (PD). Its construct validity has never been examined. A similar construct, consisting of the mean value of the same UPDRS items has been used under the acronym PIGD as a measure of postural instability and gait disorder in PD. Objective To examine the construct validity of the ACM and PIGD in PD. Methods We analyzed data in an existing database of 340 PD patients, Hoehn and Yahr stages (HYS) 1–5 who participated in a study of falls. Number of falls (NOF) was recorded over 4 weeks, and UPDRS (mental, ADL, and motor subscales), HYS, Activities Based Confidence Scale (ABC), Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOG), Five Times Sit-to-Stand (FTSS), Timed Up-and Go (TUG), Gait Velocity (GV), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) evaluations were performed. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha. Construct validity was assessed through correlations of the ACM and PIGD to these measures and to their summed-ranks. A coefficient of determination was calculated through linear regression. Results Mean age was 71.4, mean age at diagnosis 61.4 years; 46% were women; mean UPDRS subscale scores were: mental 3.7; ADL 15.7; motor: 27.1; mean ACM was 6.51, and mean PIGD 1.30. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.78 for both ACM and PIGD. Spearman correlation coefficients between the ACM/PIGD and ABC, FOG, TUG, GV and BBS were 0.69, 0.72, 0.67, 0.58, and 0.70 respectively. Correlation between the ACM/PIGD and summed-ranks of HYS, NOF, ABC, FOG, FTSS, TUG, GV and BBS was high (Spearman r=0.823, p <0.0001); 68% of the variability in the summed-ranks was explained by ACM/PIGD. Conclusion The ACM and the PIGD are valid global measures and accurately reflect the combined effects of the various components of ambulatory capacity in PD patients with HY stages 1–4. PMID:25311202

  7. An Item Response Analysis of the Motor and Behavioral Subscales of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale in Huntington Disease Gene Expansion Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarino, Anthony L.; Anderson, Karen; Borowsky, Beth; Duff, Kevin; Giuliano, Joseph; Guttman, Mark; Ho, Aileen K.; Orth, Michael; Paulsen, Jane S.; Sills, Terrence; van Kammen, Daniel P.; Evans, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    Although the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) is widely used in the assessment of Huntington disease (HD), the ability of individual items to discriminate individual differences in motor or behavioral manifestations has not been extensively studied in HD gene expansion carriers without a motor-defined clinical diagnosis (i.e., prodromal-HD or prHD). To elucidate the relationship between scores on individual motor and behavioral UHDRS items and total score for each subscale, a non-parametric item response analysis was performed on retrospective data from two multicentre, longitudinal studies. Motor and Behavioral assessments were supplied for 737 prHD individuals with data from 2114 visits (PREDICT-HD) and 686 HD individuals with data from 1482 visits (REGISTRY). Option characteristic curves were generated for UHDRS subscale items in relation to their subscale score. In prHD, overall severity of motor signs was low and participants had scores of 2 or above on very few items. In HD, motor items that assessed ocular pursuit, saccade initiation, finger tapping, tandem walking, and to a lesser extent saccade velocity, dysarthia, tongue protrusion, pronation/supination, Luria, bradykinesia, choreas, gait and balance on the retropulsion test were found to discriminate individual differences across a broad range of motor severity. In prHD, depressed mood, anxiety, and irritable behavior demonstrated good discriminative properties. In HD, depressed mood demonstrated a good relationship with the overall behavioral score. These data suggest that at least some UHDRS items appear to have utility across a broad range of severity, although many items demonstrate problematic features. PMID:21370269

  8. A Combined Measure of Cognition and Function for Clinical Trials: The Integrated Alzheimer’s Disease Rating Scale (iADRS)

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, A.M.; Siemers, E.R.; Yu, P.; Andersen, S.W.; Holdridge, K.C.; Sims, J.R.; Sundell, K.; Stern, Y.; Rentz, D.M.; Dubois, B.; Jones, R.W.; Cummings, J.; Aisen, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    It is generally recognized that more sensitive instruments for the earliest stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are needed. The integrated Alzheimer’s Disease Rating Scale (iADRS) combines scores from 2 widely accepted measures, the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) and the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study – instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-iADL). Disease progression and treatment differences as measured by the iADRS were analyzed using data from solanezumab EXPEDITION, EXPEDITION2, and EXPEDITION-EXT Studies; semagacestat IDENTITY Study; and donepezil ADCS – mild cognitive impairment (ADCS-MCI) Study. Psychometric properties of the iADRS were established through principal component analysis (PCA) and estimation of contributions of subscores and individual item scores to the iADRS total score. The iADRS performed better than most composites and scales in detecting disease progression and comparably or better than individual scales in detecting treatment differences. PCA demonstrated the iADRS can be divided into two principal components primarily representing cognitive items and instrumental ADLs. Dynamic ranges of the subscales were similar across all studies, reflecting approximately equal contributions from both subscales to the iADRS total score. In item analyses, every item contributed to the total score, with varying strength of contributions by item and across data sets. The iADRS demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and was effective in capturing disease progression from MCI through moderate AD and treatment effects across the early disease spectrum. These findings suggest the iADRS can be used in studies of mixed populations, ensuring sensitivity to treatment effects as subjects progress during studies of putative disease-modifying agents. PMID:27019841

  9. Rating of daytime and nighttime symptoms in RLS: validation of the RLS-6 scale of restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease.

    PubMed

    Kohnen, Ralf; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Benes, Heike; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Högl, Birgit; Dunkl, Elmar; Walters, Arthur S

    2016-04-01

    The International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS) is the most widely used of the scales rating the severity of restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED). It has been well validated and is the primary end point for most of the therapeutic and nontherapeutic studies of RLS/WED. It has excellent psychometric properties, although it does not capture the severity of RLS under a wide variety of circumstances and times of day. Moreover, the IRLS has a large placebo effect. The Restless Legs Syndrome-6 Scale (RLS-6), however, takes another potentially valuable approach. Six items are rated on a 0-10 scale from no symptoms at 0 to very severe at 10. In addition to questions on satisfaction with sleep and sleepiness, the scale rates the severity of RLS for the past week under four separate circumstances: while falling asleep, during the night, during the day while sitting or lying, and during the day when moving around. The purpose of the current study is to report the validation of the RLS-6 under baseline and therapeutic conditions. The RLS-6 seems to be an acceptable, reliable, precise, valid, and responsive instrument for the assessment of RLS severity in a specific and pragmatic manner. At present, we view the RLS-6 not as a replacement for the IRLS but as a supplement, as each scale provides information not captured by the other. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rating scales and Rasch measurement.

    PubMed

    Andrich, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessments with ratings in ordered categories have become ubiquitous in health, biological and social sciences. Ratings are used when a measuring instrument of the kind found in the natural sciences is not available to assess some property in terms of degree - for example, greater or smaller, better or worse, or stronger or weaker. The handling of ratings has ranged from the very elementary to the highly sophisticated. In an elementary form, and assumed in classical test theory, the ratings are scored with successive integers and treated as measurements; in a sophisticated form, and used in modern test theory, the ratings are characterized by probabilistic response models with parameters for persons and the rating categories. Within modern test theory, two paradigms, similar in many details but incompatible on crucial points, have emerged. For the purposes of this article, these are termed the statistical modeling and experimental measurement paradigms. Rather than reviewing a compendium of available methods and models for analyzing ratings in detail, the article focuses on the incompatible differences between these two paradigms, with implications for choice of model and inferences. It shows that the differences have implications for different roles for substantive researchers and psychometricians in designing instruments with rating scales. To illustrate these differences, an example is provided.

  11. Influence of Deep Breathing on Heart Rate Variability in Parkinson’s Disease: Co-relation with Severity of Disease and Non-Motor Symptom Scale Score

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Gayatri J; Chakor, Rahul T

    2014-01-01

    Context: Dysautonomia and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are frequent, disabling and reduce quality of life of patient. Aims and Objective: There is a paucity of studies on autonomic dysfunction in PD in Indian population. The study aimed to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD patients and co-relate the findings with severity of PD and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) score. Materials and Methods: We evaluated autonomic function in 30 diagnosed patients of PD (age 55-70 years) and 30 healthy age-matched controls by 3 min deep breathing test (DBT). NMSS was used to identify non-motor symptoms and Hoehn and Yahr (HY) Scale to grade severity of PD. The DBT findings were co-related with severity of PD (HY staging) and NMSS score. Results: DBT was found to be abnormal in 40% while it was on borderline in 33.3% of PD patients. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between patients and control group for the DBT. NMS were reported across all the stages of PD but with variable frequency and severity for individual symptom. A negative co-relation was found between results of deep breathing test and clinical severity of disease and NMSS score. Conclusion: Abnormalities of autonomic function and NMS were integral and present across all the stages of PD patients. Early recognition and treatment of these may decrease morbidity and improve quality of life of PD patients. PMID:25177554

  12. Scaling of ratings: Concepts and methods

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Brown; Terry C. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Rating scales provide an efficient and widely used means of recording judgments. This paper reviews scaling issues within the context of a psychometric model of the rating process, describes several methods of scaling rating data, and compares the methods in terms of the assumptions they require about the rating process and the information they provide about the...

  13. Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS): Process, format, and clinimetric testing plan.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G; Fahn, Stanley; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Poewe, Werner; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T; Stern, Matthew B; Tilley, Barbara C; Dodel, Richard; Dubois, Bruno; Holloway, Robert; Jankovic, Joseph; Kulisevsky, Jaime; Lang, Anthony E; Lees, Andrew; Leurgans, Sue; LeWitt, Peter A; Nyenhuis, David; Olanow, C Warren; Rascol, Olivier; Schrag, Anette; Teresi, Jeanne A; Van Hilten, Jacobus J; LaPelle, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the revision process, major innovations, and clinimetric testing program for the Movement Disorder Society (MDS)-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), known as the MDS-UPDRS. The UPDRS is the most widely used scale for the clinical study of Parkinson's disease (PD). The MDS previously organized a critique of the UPDRS, which cited many strengths, but recommended revision of the scale to accommodate new advances and to resolve problematic areas. An MDS-UPDRS committee prepared the revision using the recommendations of the published critique of the scale. Subcommittees developed new material that was reviewed by the entire committee. A 1-day face-to-face committee meeting was organized to resolve areas of debate and to arrive at a working draft ready for clinimetric testing. The MDS-UPDRS retains the UPDRS structure of four parts with a total summed score, but the parts have been modified to provide a section that integrates nonmotor elements of PD: I, Nonmotor Experiences of Daily Living; II, Motor Experiences of Daily Living; III, Motor Examination; and IV, Motor Complications. All items have five response options with uniform anchors of 0 = normal, 1 = slight, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, and 4 = severe. Several questions in Part I and all of Part II are written as a patient/caregiver questionnaire, so that the total rater time should remain approximately 30 minutes. Detailed instructions for testing and data acquisition accompany the MDS-UPDRS in order to increase uniform usage. Multiple language editions are planned. A three-part clinimetric program will provide testing of reliability, validity, and responsiveness to interventions. Although the MDS-UPDRS will not be published until it has successfully passed clinimetric testing, explanation of the process, key changes, and clinimetric programs allow clinicians and researchers to understand and participate in the revision process.

  14. Practical cut-offs for visual rating scales of medial temporal, frontal and posterior atrophy in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, D; Cavallin, L; Larsson, E-M; Muehlboeck, J-S; Mecocci, P; Vellas, B; Tsolaki, M; Kłoszewska, I; Soininen, H; Lovestone, S; Simmons, A; Wahlund, L-O; Westman, E

    2015-09-01

    Atrophy in the medial temporal lobe, frontal lobe and posterior cortex can be measured with visual rating scales such as the medial temporal atrophy (MTA), global cortical atrophy - frontal subscale (GCA-F) and posterior atrophy (PA) scales, respectively. However, practical cut-offs are urgently needed, especially now that different presentations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are included in the revised diagnostic criteria. The aim of this study was to generate a list of practical cut-offs for the MTA, GCA-F and PA scales, for both diagnosis of AD and determining prognosis in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to evaluate the influence of key demographic and clinical factors on these cut-offs. AddNeuroMed and ADNI cohorts were combined giving a total of 1147 participants (322 patients with AD, 480 patients with MCI and 345 control subjects). The MTA, GCA-F and PA scales were applied and a broad range of cut-offs was evaluated. The MTA scale showed better diagnostic and predictive performances than the GCA-F and PA scales. Age, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 status and age at disease onset influenced all three scales. For the age ranges 45-64, 65-74, 75-84 and 85-94 years, the following cut-offs should be used. MTA: ≥1.5, ≥1.5, ≥2 and ≥2.5; GCA-F, ≥1, ≥1, ≥1 and ≥1; and PA, ≥1, ≥1, ≥1 and ≥1, respectively, with an adjustment for early-onset ApoE ε4 noncarrier AD patients (MTA: ≥2, ≥2, ≥3 and ≥3; and GCA-F: ≥1, ≥1, ≥2 and ≥2, respectively). If successfully validated in clinical settings, the list of practical cut-offs proposed here might be useful in clinical practice. Their use might also (i) promote research on atrophy subtypes, (ii) increase the understanding of different presentations of AD, (iii) improve diagnosis and prognosis and (iv) aid population selection and enrichment for clinical trials. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  15. Association between nutritional status and disease severity using the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) functional rating scale in ALS patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongsoon; Park, Jinhee; Kim, Yeonsun; Baek, Heejoon; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional status of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been shown to be associated with mortality. However, there have not been, to our knowledge, any studies on the association between nutritional status and disease severity. The present study investigated the hypothesis that nutritional status was negatively associated with disease severity using the ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R). One hundred ninety-three Korean ALS patients were divided into tertiles based on their ALSFRS-R score. Dietary intake was measured using 24 h recall and nutritional status was determined by body mass index (BMI) and geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI). BMI and GNRI were significantly lower in patients in the lowest tertile of ALSFRS-R. BMI and GNRI also correlated with ALSFRS-R score, bulbar score, albumin levels, total lymphocyte count, and total daily energy expenditure. Intakes of energy and most nutrients were significantly lower in patients in the lowest tertiles of ALSFRS-R, but significances disappeared after adjusting for energy intake. Intakes of vegetables, grains, seasonings, and oils were also significantly lower in patients in the lowest tertile of ALSFRS-R. In addition, patients in the lowest tertile of ALSFRS-R were significantly younger at disease onset, had a longer duration of ALS, less regular exercise, and less sun exposure. Nutritional status, as assessed by BMI and GNRI, was negatively associated with disease severity using ALSFRS-R. The present study suggested that intake of nutrients decreases with disease progression in ALS patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A comprehensive visual rating scale of brain magnetic resonance imaging: application in elderly subjects with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal cognition.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae-Won; Park, So Young; Park, Young Ho; Baek, Min Jae; Lim, Jae-Sung; Youn, Young Chul; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows cerebral structural changes. However, a unified comprehensive visual rating scale (CVRS) has seldom been studied. Thus, we combined brain atrophy and small vessel disease scales and used an MRI template as a CVRS. The aims of this study were to design a simple and reliable CVRS, validate it by investigating cerebral structural changes in clinical groups, and made comparison to the volumetric measurements. Elderly subjects (n = 260) with normal cognition (NC, n = 65), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 101), or Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 94) were evaluated with brain MRI according to the CVRS of brain atrophy and small vessel disease. Validation of the CVRS with structural changes, neuropsychological tests, and volumetric analyses was performed. The CVRS revealed a high intra-rater and inter-rater agreement and it reflected the structural changes of subjects with NC, MCI, and AD better than volumetric measures (CVRS-coronal: F = 13.5, p < 0.001; CVRS-axial: F = 19.9, p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operation curve (aROC) of the CVRS showed higher accuracy than volumetric analyses. (NC versus MCI aROC: CVRS-coronal, 0.777; CVRS-axial, 0.773; MCI versus AD aROC: CVRS-coronal, 0.680; CVRS-axial, 0.681). The CVRS can be used clinically to conveniently measure structural changes of brain. It reflected cerebral structural changes of clinical groups and correlated with the age better than volumetric measures.

  17. Gender-, age-, and race/ethnicity-based differential item functioning analysis of the movement disorder society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G; Liu, Yuanyuan; Stebbins, Glenn T; Wang, Lu; Tilley, Barbara C; Teresi, Jeanne A; Merkitch, Douglas; Luo, Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Assess MDS-UPDRS items for gender-, age-, and race/ethnicity-based differential item functioning. Assessing differential item functioning is a core rating scale validation step. For the MDS-UPDRS, differential item functioning occurs if item-score probability among people with similar levels of parkinsonism differ according to selected covariates (gender, age, race/ethnicity). If the magnitude of differential item functioning is clinically relevant, item-score interpretation must consider influences by these covariates. Differential item functioning can be nonuniform (covariate variably influences an item-score across different levels of parkinsonism) or uniform (covariate influences an item-score consistently over all levels of parkinsonism). Using the MDS-UPDRS translation database of more than 5,000 PD patients from 14 languages, we tested gender-, age-, and race/ethnicity-based differential item functioning. To designate an item as having clinically relevant differential item functioning, we required statistical confirmation by 2 independent methods, along with a McFadden pseudo-R(2) magnitude statistic greater than "negligible." Most items showed no gender-, age- or race/ethnicity-based differential item functioning. When differential item functioning was identified, the magnitude statistic was always in the "negligible" range, and the scale-level impact was minimal. The absence of clinically relevant differential item functioning across all items and all parts of the MDS-UPDRS is strong evidence that the scale can be used confidently. As studies of Parkinson's disease increasingly involve multinational efforts and the MDS-UPDRS has several validated non-English translations, the findings support the scale's broad applicability in populations with varying gender, age, and race/ethnicity distributions. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  18. The degree of depression in Hamilton rating scale is correlated with the density of presynaptic serotonin transporters in 23 patients with Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Eggers, B; Hermann, W; Barthel, H; Sabri, O; Wagner, A; Hesse, S

    2003-05-01

    One of the most frequent psychiatric symptoms in patients with Wilson's disease (WD) is depression. It has been suggested that depression is associated with deficits in serotonergic neurotransmission, but, hitherto, no measurements have been performed in WD. We prospectively examined 23 adult patients (12 women, 11 men, mean age 40 years) with WD for symptoms of depression using the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD). We correlated the data with the presynaptic serotonin transporter density (SERT density) in the thalamus-hypothalamus and the midbrain-pons regions measured with high resolution single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) 24 hours after the application of 180 MBq 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4 [(123)I]iodophenyl)tropane ( [(123)I]b-CIT). The regions of interest were determined by coregistration with a standard MRI dataset. A significant negative correlation was found between HAMD and SERT density in the thalamus-hypothalamus region (r = -0.49, p = 0.02), but not in the midbrain-pons (r = -0.31, p = 0.15). We conclude that depression in patients with Wilson's disease is correlated with alterations of serotonergic neurotransmission in the thalamus-hypothalamus region.

  19. Anxiety in early Parkinson's disease: Validation of the Italian observer-rated version of the Parkinson Anxiety Scale (OR-PAS).

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Falco, Fabrizia; D'Iorio, Alfonsina; Cuoco, Sofia; Raimo, Simona; Amboni, Marianna; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Longo, Katia; Vitale, Carmine; Barone, Paolo

    2016-08-15

    Anxiety disorders are common in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and their identification is relevant even at early stages. The Parkinson Anxiety Scale (PAS) evaluates anxiety in PD; it was used only in the original validation study in PD patients mainly at 2-3 stages of Hoehn & Yahr system (H&Y). The study aimed to investigate psychometric properties of observer-rated version of the PAS (OR-PAS), prevalence rate of anxiety and its features, compared with diagnostic criteria in early PD patients. A sample of 101 PD patients with H&Y:1-2 underwent the OR-PAS. To assess convergent and divergent validity, PD patients underwent Beck Anxiety Inventory, and scales assessing depression, apathy, anhedonia and cognition. To diagnose anxiety disorders, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used as gold standard. A "receiver operating characteristics" curve was obtained; positive and negative predictive values were calculated for different cut-off points of the OR-PAS and its subscales. There was no missing data, no floor and ceiling effects; mean score was 12.2±10.1; Cronbach's alpha was 0.899. The OR-PAS showed good convergent and divergent validity. Maximum discrimination was obtained with a cut-off score of 8.5. The anxiety occurred in 59 patients (58.4%). The OR-PAS is a reliable and valid screening instrument for assessing anxiety in patients at early PD. Anxiety was found in 58.4% of PD patients, demonstrating that anxiety occurs even at early stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Huntington's Disease Dysphagia Scale.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Anne-Wil; Verbist, Berit M; Marinus, Johan; Heijnen, Bas; Sjögren, Elisabeth V; Roos, Raymund A C

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the swallowing disturbances of patients with Huntington's disease; therefore, we developed the Huntington's Disease Dysphagia Scale. The scale was developed in four stages: (1) item generation, (2) comprehension testing, (3) evaluation of reliability, (4) item reduction and validity testing. The questionnaire was presented twice to 50 Huntington's disease patients and their caregivers. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate whether the severity of swallowing difficulties increased with advancing disease. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to examine the construct validity with the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire. The final version contained 11 items with five response options and exhibited a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.728. The severity of swallowing difficulties was significantly higher in more advanced Huntington's disease. The correlation with the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire was 0.734. We developed a valid and reliable 11-item scale to measure the severity of dysphagia in Huntington's disease. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Functional competency and cognitive ability in mild Alzheimer's disease: relationship between ADL assessed by a relative/ carer-rated scale and neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Osamu; Saito, Masahiko

    2005-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by multiple cognitive deficits and affects functional competency to perform daily activities (ADL). As this may contribute to the patient's overall disability, it is important to identify factors that compromise competency. The relationship between different cognitive domains and functional activities in AD was studied. The functional competency of 73 Japanese AD patients, most with mild dementia, was assessed using a 27-item relative/carer-rating scale covering 7 ADL: managing finances, using transportation, taking precautions, self-care, housekeeping, communication and taking medicine. Cognitive assessment used 16 neuropsychological tests from the Japanese version of the WAIS-R and COGNISTAT, covering 9 cognitive domains: orientation, attention, episodic memory, semantic memory, language, visuoperceptual and construction abilities, computational ability, abstract thinking, and psychomotor speed. Multiple regression analysis by the stepwise method indicated that functional competency could, for the most part, be predicted from test scores for orientation, abstract thinking and psychomotor speed. The results of this study suggest that impairment of these three cognitive domains plays an important role in the functional deterioration of AD.

  2. The rapid disability rating scale-2.

    PubMed

    Linn, M W; Linn, B S

    1982-06-01

    A revised version of the Rapid Disability Rating Scale (RDRS-2) is presented. Item definitions have been sharpened and directions expanded to indicate that ratings are based upon the patient's performance in regard to behavior, and that prosthesis normally used by the patient should be included in the assessment. Three items have been added to increase the breadth of the scale. Response items have been changed from three-point to four-point ratings in order to increase group discrimination amd make the scale more sensitive to changes in treatment. The new appraisals of reliability, factor structure, and validity are reported, along with the potential uses of the scale.

  3. Developmentally Appropriate Physical Education. A Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stork, Steve; Sanders, Steve

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of elementary physical education is poorly defined, and the public has low expectations and support for the field. The Developmentally Appropriate Physical Education Practices for Children rating scale emphasizes teaching practices that are appropriate to each student's age and ability. The paper describes use of the scale. (SM)

  4. Validation of the Interpersonal Relationship Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nina W.; Sullivan, James

    1979-01-01

    Hipple's Interpersonal Relationship Rating Scale (1972) was administered to graduate students in a counselor education program. The results were factor analyzed and six scales were extracted. The IRRS was then administered to two classes of students in group counseling. Both groups had significant discrepancy scores. (Author)

  5. Association Between Change in Body Mass Index, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Scores, and Survival Among Persons With Parkinson Disease: Secondary Analysis of Longitudinal Data From NINDS Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease Long-term Study 1.

    PubMed

    Wills, Anne-Marie A; Pérez, Adriana; Wang, Jue; Su, Xiao; Morgan, John; Rajan, Suja S; Leehey, Maureen A; Pontone, Gregory M; Chou, Kelvin L; Umeh, Chizoba; Mari, Zoltan; Boyd, James

    2016-03-01

    Greater body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is associated with improved survival among persons with Huntington disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Weight loss is common among persons with Parkinson disease (PD) and is associated with worse quality of life. To explore the association between change in BMI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor and total scores, and survival among persons with PD and to test whether there is a positive association between BMI at randomization and survival. Secondary analysis (from May 27, 2014, to October 13, 2015) of longitudinal data (3-6 years) from 1673 participants who started the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in PD Long-term Study-1 (NET-PD LS-1). This was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of creatine monohydrate (10 g/d) that was performed at 45 sites throughout the United States and Canada. Participants with early (within 5 years of diagnosis) and treated (receiving dopaminergic therapy) PD were enrolled from March 2007 to May 2010 and followed up until September 2013. Change across time in motor UPDRS score, change across time in total UPDRS score, and time to death. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the effect of BMI on the change in motor and total UPDRS scores after controlling for covariates. Survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models of time to death. A participant's BMI was measured at randomization, and BMI trajectory groups were classified according to whether participants experienced weight loss ("decreasing BMI"), weight stability ("stable BMI"), or weight gain ("increasing BMI") during the study. Of the 1673 participants (mean [SD] age, 61.7 [9.6] years; 1074 [64.2%] were male), 158 (9.4%) experienced weight loss (decreasing BMI), whereas 233 (13.9%) experienced weight gain (increasing BMI). After adjusting for covariates, we

  6. Subjective rating scales as a workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    A multidimensional bipolar-adjective rating scale is employed as a subjective measure of operator workload in the performance of a one-axis tracking task. The rating scale addressed several dimensions of workload, including cognitive, physical, and perceptual task loading as well as fatigue and stress effects. Eight subjects performed a one-axis tracking task (with six levels of difficulty) and rated these tasks on several workload dimensions. Performance measures were tracking error RMS (root-mean square) and the standard deviation of control stick output. Significant relationships were observed between these performance measures and skill required, task complexity, attention level, task difficulty, task demands, and stress level.

  7. The Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale.

    PubMed

    Altman, E G; Hedeker, D; Peterson, J L; Davis, J M

    1997-11-15

    We report on the development, reliability, and validity of the Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM). The ASRM was completed during medication washout and after treatment by 22 schizophrenic, 13 schizoaffective, 36 depressed, and 34 manic patients. The Clinician-Administered Rating Scale for Mania (CARS-M) and Mania Rating Scale (MRS) were completed at the same time to measure concurrent validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed separately on 20 depressed and 10 manic patients who completed the ASRM twice during washout. Principal components analysis of ASRM items revealed three factors: mania, psychotic symptoms, and irritability. Baseline mania subscale scores were significantly higher for manic patients compared to all other diagnostic groups. Manic patients had significantly decreased posttreatment scores for all three subscales. ASRM mania subscale scores were significantly correlated with MRS total scores (r = .718) and CARS-M mania subscale scores (r = .766). Test-retest reliability for the ASRM was significant for all three subscales. Significant differences in severity levels were found for some symptoms between patient ratings on the ASRM and clinician ratings on the CARS-M. Mania subscale scores of greater than 5 on the ASRM resulted in values of 85.5% for sensitivity and 87.3% for specificity. Advantages of the ASRM over other self-rating mania scales are discussed.

  8. Rasch rating scale analysis of the Attitudes Toward Research Scale.

    PubMed

    Papanastasiou, Elena C; Schumacker, Randall

    2014-01-01

    College students may view research methods courses with negative attitudes, however, few studies have investigated this issue due to the lack of instruments that measure the students' attitudes towards research. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Attitudes Toward Research Scale using Rasch rating scale analysis. Assessment of attitudes toward research is essential to determine if students have negative attitudes towards research and assist instructors in better facilitation of learning research methods in their courses. The results of this study have shown that a thirty item Attitudes Toward Research Scale yielded scores with high person and item reliability.

  9. Computer-administered interviews and rating scales.

    PubMed

    Garb, Howard N

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the value of computer-administered interviews and rating scales, the following topics are reviewed in the present article: (a) strengths and weaknesses of structured and unstructured assessment instruments, (b) advantages and disadvantages of computer administration, and (c) the validity and utility of computer-administered interviews and rating scales. Computer-administered evaluations are more comprehensive and reliable and less biased than evaluations routinely conducted in clinical practice. Also, the use of continuous monitoring systems, which increasingly entail the use of computer administration, has been related to improved treatment outcome. However, the use of computer-administered interviews and rating scales will sometimes lead to false positive diagnoses, and for this reason, it is recommended that computer assessment be combined with clinical judgment. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Reliability Generalization for Childhood Autism Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidbord, Jonathan; Croudace, Tim J.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) is a popular behavior-observation instrument that was developed more than 34 years ago and has since been adopted in a wide variety of contexts for assessing the presence and severity of autism symptomatology in both children and adolescents. This investigation of the reliability of CARS scores involves…

  11. Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Thelma; Clifford, Richard M.; Cryer, Debby

    The ECERS-R is a thorough revision of the widely used program quality assessment instrument, the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS). Designed for use in preschool, kindergarten, and child care classrooms serving children 2-and-a-half through 5 years of age, the ECERS-R can be used by program directors for supervision and program…

  12. Reliability Generalization for Childhood Autism Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidbord, Jonathan; Croudace, Tim J.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) is a popular behavior-observation instrument that was developed more than 34 years ago and has since been adopted in a wide variety of contexts for assessing the presence and severity of autism symptomatology in both children and adolescents. This investigation of the reliability of CARS scores involves…

  13. Validity and Reliability of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (2nd Edition): Youth Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Michael H.; Mooney, Paul; Ryser, Gail; Pierce, Corey D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article reports findings of three studies addressing convergent validity and test-retest reliability of the Youth Rating Scale of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-Second Edition (BERS-2). Method: Pearson product-moment correlations were used in all three studies, the first two addressing convergent validity and the third…

  14. Validity and Reliability of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (2nd Edition): Youth Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Michael H.; Mooney, Paul; Ryser, Gail; Pierce, Corey D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article reports findings of three studies addressing convergent validity and test-retest reliability of the Youth Rating Scale of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-Second Edition (BERS-2). Method: Pearson product-moment correlations were used in all three studies, the first two addressing convergent validity and the third…

  15. The Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale--revisited.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Thomas R E

    2003-12-01

    Akathisia is a syndrome of motor restlessness, principally seen in association with antipsychotic medication. It is characterized by a subjective experience of mental unease and the urge to move, and manifests physically as particular patterns of restless movement. This review focuses on the signs and symptoms of the condition, and its diagnosis and assessment using the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale. This scale was generated 15 years ago, and was derived from the findings of studies exploring the clinical features of antipsychotic-induced akathisia. Subsequently, its validity and reliability have been established, and it has been used extensively in clinical studies worldwide.

  16. Psychometric validation of the German translation of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire in patients with reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Kulich, Károly R; Malfertheiner, Peter; Madisch, Ahmed; Labenz, Joachim; Bayerdörffer, Ekkehard; Miehlke, Stephan; Carlsson, Jonas; Wiklund, Ingela K

    2003-01-01

    Background Symptoms of heartburn has an impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL). When a questionnaire is translated into a new language, a linguistic validation is necessary but not sufficient unless the psychometric characteristics have been verified. The aim is to document the psychometric characteristics of the German translation of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire. Methods 142 patients with symptoms of heartburn (Age: M = 47.5, ± 14.6; Males = 44.4%) completed the German translation of GSRS, the QOLRAD, the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale. Results The internal consistency reliability of GSRS ranged from 0.53–0.91 and of QOLRAD from 0.90–0.94, respectively. The test-retest reliability of GSRS ranged from 0.49–0.73 and of QOLRAD from 0.70–0.84. The relevant domains of the GSRS and QOLRAD domain scores significantly correlated. GSRS domains of Abdominal Pain and Constipation correlated (negatively) with most of the domains of the SF-36. The relevant QOLRAD domains significantly correlated with all SF-36 domains. Conclusions The psychometric characteristics of the German translation of GSRS and QOLRAD were found to be good, with satisfactory reliability and validity. The reliability of the GSRS Abdominal Pain domain was moderate. PMID:14613560

  17. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) scale: A methodological review

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Klaas; Ruebig, Alexander; Potthoff, Peter; Schneider, Hermann PG; Strelow, Frank; Heinemann, Lothar AJ; Thai, Do Minh

    2004-01-01

    Background This paper compiles data from different sources to get a first comprehensive picture of psychometric and other methodological characteristics of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) scale. The scale was designed and standardized as a self-administered scale to (a) to assess symptoms/complaints of aging women under different conditions, (b) to evaluate the severity of symptoms over time, and (c) to measure changes pre- and postmenopause replacement therapy. The scale became widespread used (available in 10 languages). Method A large multinational survey (9 countries in 4 continents) from 2001/ 2002 is the basis for in depth analyses on reliability and validity of the MRS. Additional small convenience samples were used to get first impressions about test-retest reliability. The data were centrally analyzed. Data from a postmarketing HRT study were used to estimate discriminative validity. Results Reliability measures (consistency and test-retest stability) were found to be good across countries, although the sample size for test-retest reliability was small. Validity: The internal structure of the MRS across countries was astonishingly similar to conclude that the scale really measures the same phenomenon in symptomatic women. The sub-scores and total score correlations were high (0.7–0.9) but lower among the sub-scales (0.5–0.7). This however suggests that the subscales are not fully independent. Norm values from different populations were presented showing that a direct comparison between Europe and North America is possible, but caution recommended with comparisons of data from Latin America and Indonesia. But this will not affect intra-individual comparisons within clinical trials. The comparison with the Kupperman Index showed sufficiently good correlations, illustrating an adept criterion-oriented validity. The same is true for the comparison with the generic quality-of-life scale SF-36 where also a sufficiently close association has been shown

  18. Validation of the secretion severity rating scale.

    PubMed

    Pluschinski, Petra; Zaretsky, Eugen; Stöver, Timo; Murray, Joseph; Sader, Robert; Hey, Christiane

    2016-10-01

    Accumulation of secretions within the hypopharynx, aditus laryngis, and trachea is one characteristic of severe dysphagia and is of high clinical and therapeutic relevance. For the graduation of the secretion severity level, a secretion scale was provided by Murray et al. in 1996. The purpose of the study presented here is the validation of this scale by analyzing the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability as well as concurrent validity. For examination of reliability and validity, a reference standard was defined by two expert clinicians who reviewed 40 video recordings of fiberendoscopic swallowing evaluations, with 10 videos for each severity grade. These videos were rated and rerated independently and blinded by 4 ENT-residents with an interval of 4 weeks. Both the intra-rater (Kendall's τ > 0.847***) and inter-rater reliability (Kendall's W > 0.951***) were highly significant and can be considered good or very good. Correlation of the median of all ratings with the reference standard was close to the highest possible value 1 (τ = 0.984***). The scale was proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for graduation of one of the principal symptoms of oropharyngeal dysphagia and is recommended as an evidence-based instrument for standardized fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing.

  19. Likert and Guttman scaling of visual function rating scale questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Massof, Robert W

    2004-12-01

    To test the assumptions underlying Likert scoring of visual function questionnaires. Questionnaires were administered to 284 low-vision subjects by telephone. Each subject was administered two of four questionnaires: ADVS, NEI VFQ-25 plus supplement, expanded VAQ, and VF-14. Z-scores for cumulative frequency of using each rating category across subjects are not linear with rating category rank and items are not the same difficulty for any of the questionnaires. Guttmann coefficients of reproducibility ranged from 57% for the ADVS to 51% for the NEI VFQ-25. Cronbach alphas ranged from 0.92 for the VF-14 to 0.96 for the NEI VFQ; however, inter-item consistency coefficients ranged from 0.24 for the VAQ to 0.45 for the NEI VFQ. Likert scores were significantly correlated between instruments, ranging from 0.66 for NEI VFQ vs ADVS to 0.90 for the VF-14 vs. ADVS. The rating scales of all four questionnaires fail to satisfy Likert's assumptions. Also, ratings are probabilistic, rather than deterministic, which means that the Likert model is not valid for these questionnaires. However, Likert scores for all four instruments are intercorrelated, suggesting that they are monotonic with the latent subject trait distributed in the low vision sample.

  20. Development of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale: Methodology.

    PubMed

    Comella, Cynthia L; Fox, Susan H; Bhatia, Kailash P; Perlmutter, Joel S; Jinnah, Hyder A; Zurowski, Mateusz; McDonald, William M; Marsh, Laura; Rosen, Ami R; Waliczek, Tracy; Wright, Laura J; Galpern, Wendy R; Stebbins, Glenn T

    2015-06-01

    We present the methodology utilized for development and clinimetric testing of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia (CD) Rating scale, or CCDRS. The CCDRS includes a revision of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-2), a newly developed psychiatric screening tool (TWSTRS-PSYCH), and the previously validated Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58). For the revision of the TWSTRS, the original TWSTRS was examined by a committee of dystonia experts at a dystonia rating scales workshop organized by the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation. During this workshop, deficiencies in the standard TWSTRS were identified and recommendations for revision of the severity and pain subscales were incorporated into the TWSTRS-2. Given that no scale currently evaluates the psychiatric features of cervical dystonia (CD), we used a modified Delphi methodology and a reiterative process of item selection to develop the TWSTRS-PSYCH. We also included the CDIP-58 to capture the impact of CD on quality of life. The three scales (TWSTRS2, TWSTRS-PSYCH, and CDIP-58) were combined to construct the CCDRS. Clinimetric testing of reliability and validity of the CCDRS are described. The CCDRS was designed to be used in a modular fashion that can measure the full spectrum of CD. This scale will provide rigorous assessment for studies of natural history as well as novel symptom-based or disease-modifying therapies.

  1. Development of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale: Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Comella, Cynthia L.; Fox, Susan H.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Jinnah, Hyder A.; Zurowski, Mateusz; McDonald, William M.; Marsh, Laura; Rosen, Ami R.; Waliczek, Tracy; Wright, Laura J.; Galpern, Wendy R.; Stebbins, Glenn T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the methodology utilized for development and clinimetric testing of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia (CD) Rating scale, or CCDRS. The CCDRS includes a revision of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-2), a newly developed psychiatric screening tool (TWSTRS-PSYCH), and the previously validated Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58). For the revision of the TWSTRS, the original TWSTRS was examined by a committee of dystonia experts at a dystonia rating scales workshop organized by the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation. During this workshop, deficiencies in the standard TWSTRS were identified and recommendations for revision of the severity and pain subscales were incorporated into the TWSTRS-2. Given that no scale currently evaluates the psychiatric features of cervical dystonia (CD), we used a modified Delphi methodology and a reiterative process of item selection to develop the TWSTRS-PSYCH. We also included the CDIP-58 to capture the impact of CD on quality of life. The three scales (TWSTRS2, TWSTRS-PSYCH, and CDIP-58) were combined to construct the CCDRS. Clinimetric testing of reliability and validity of the CCDRS are described. The CCDRS was designed to be used in a modular fashion that can measure the full spectrum of CD. This scale will provide rigorous assessment for studies of natural history as well as novel symptom-based or disease-modifying therapies. PMID:27088112

  2. Outcome Rating Scale and Session Rating Scale in Psychological Practice: Clinical Utility of Ultra-Brief Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Alistair; Hemsley, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS) were evaluated against existing longer measures, including the Outcome Questionnaire-45, Working Alliance Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. The measures…

  3. Outcome Rating Scale and Session Rating Scale in Psychological Practice: Clinical Utility of Ultra-Brief Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Alistair; Hemsley, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS) were evaluated against existing longer measures, including the Outcome Questionnaire-45, Working Alliance Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. The measures…

  4. Developing a rating scale for projected stories.

    PubMed

    Dent-Brown, Kim; Wang, Michael

    2004-09-01

    The Six-part Story Method (6PSM) is a projective tool in wide use by dramatherapists in the UK, USA and Israel (Lahad & Ayalon, 1993). In contrast to projective tests used by psychotherapists and psychologists, the 6PSM has never been the subject of any validation or reliability studies. This study reports on the identification of scale items to describe the manifest content of six-part stories. In all, 26 statements with acceptable inter-rater reliability have been identified. These statements were used to rate stories produced by clinicians (N = 24) mainstream community mental health patients (N = 21) and patients with a borderline personality disorder (N = 19). Some features that were expected to be indicators of an author with a BPD diagnosis proved to be as common in stories from other authors. However, a scale of eight items was identified that differentiated well between authors with a BPD diagnosis and others, with adequate test-retest and inter-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested against the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II (SCID-II), the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems--Short Form (IIP-32).

  5. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change on balance and ambulation tests, the 36-item short-form health survey, and the unified Parkinson disease rating scale in people with parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Teresa; Seney, Megan

    2008-06-01

    Distinguishing between a clinically significant change and change due to measurement error can be difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change for the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), forward and backward functional reach, the Romberg Test and the Sharpened Romberg Test (SRT) with eyes open and closed, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), comfortable and fast gait speed, the Timed "Up & Go" Test (TUG), the Medical Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) in people with parkinsonism. Thirty-seven community-dwelling adults with parkinsonism (mean age=71 years) participated. The Hoehn and Yahr Scale median score of 2 was on the lower end of the scale; however, the scores ranged from 1 to 4. Subjects were tested twice by the same raters, with 1 week between tests. Test-retest reliability was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Minimal detectable change was calculated using a 95% confidence interval (MDC(95)). The ICCs for test-retest reliability were above .90 for the BBS, ABC Scale, SRT with eyes closed, 6MWT, and comfortable and fast gait speeds. The MDC(95) values for those functional tests were: BBS=5/56, ABC Scale=13%, SRT with eyes closed=19 seconds, 6MWT=82 m, comfortable gait speed=0.18 m/s, and fast gait speed=0.25 m/s. The ICCs for test-retest reliability of SF-36 scores were above .80, with the exception of the social functioning subscale. The MDC(95) values for the SF-36 ranged between 19% and 45%. The MDC(95) values for the UPDRS Activities of Daily Living section, Motor Examination section, and total scores were 4/52, 11/108, and 13/176, respectively. Minimal detectable change values are useful to therapists in rehabilitation and wellness programs in determining whether change during or after intervention is clinically significant. High test-retest reliability of

  6. An investigation of ride quality rating scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted for the combined purposes of determining the relative merits of various category scales for the prediction of human discomfort response to vibration and for determining the mathematical relationships whereby subjective data are transformed from one scale to other scales. There were 16 category scales analyzed representing various parametric combinations of polarity, that is, unipolar and bipolar, scale type, and number of scalar points. Results indicated that unipolar continuous-type scales containing either seven or nine scalar points provide the greatest reliability and discriminability. Transformations of subjective data between category scales were found to be feasible with unipolar scales of a larger number of scalar points providing the greatest accuracy of transformation. The results contain coefficients for transformation of subjective data between the category scales investigated. A result of particular interest was that the comfort half of a bipolar scale was seldom used by subjects to describe their subjective reaction to vibration.

  7. [Self-rating scales reveal psychopathy].

    PubMed

    Dåderman, A; Lidberg, L

    1998-01-28

    Psychopathy is regarded as a dimensional concept--i.e., a person can be more or less psychopathic. This approach enables psychopathy to be measured with reliable, validated personality scales, and to be related to impairment of serontonergic function in the brain. Several personality inventories are described in the article, especially the Karolinska Scales of Personality, the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scales, form V, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, including an impulsiveness scale from the IVE (Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy) inventory, and the old dimensional scale, the Marke-Nyman Personality Temperament scale based on the personality theory of Henrik Sjöbring. In this way both old and new, and both Swedish and foreign personality concepts are linked together. Personality scales are easy to use and enable better stability and validity of results to be attained.

  8. A pilot rating scale for vortex hazard evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoh, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A pilot rating scale is developed for subjective assessment of hazard resulting from wake vortex encounter upsets. The development of the rating scale is based on a survey of 48 pilots regarding the semantic properties of various phrases and a choice of formats for the rating scale. The rating scale can be used to define a hazard/nonhazard boundary as well as to determine a measure of the hazard.

  9. Development of an Interview-Based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Christine; Scogin, Forrest

    1992-01-01

    Developed interview-based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale (GDRS) and administered 35-item GDRS to 68 older adults with range of affective disturbance. Found scale to have internal consistency and split-half reliability comparable to those of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Geriatric Depression Scale. Concurrent validity, construct…

  10. Rating scale for psychogenic movement disorders: scale development and clinimetric testing.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Vanessa K; Cubo, Esther; Comella, Cynthia L; Goetz, Christopher G; Leurgans, Sue

    2005-12-01

    We developed and tested the clinimetric properties of a scale for psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs). PMDs are disabling but lack any generally accepted treatment strategies. To develop treatments, means of assessing disease severity must be provided. No scale to assess PMDs existed. The PMD scale developed here rates 10 phenomena (rest tremor, action tremor, dystonia, chorea, bradykinesia, myoclonus, tics, athetosis, ballism, cerebellar incoordination), 2 functions (gait, speech), and 14 body regions. To study interrater agreement, three movement disorder neurologists independently rated 88 videotapes of PMD patients. Data analysis was performed using a kappa coefficient of agreement, Kendall's coefficient of concordance, Spearman correlations, and intraclass correlation coefficients. Validity and scale responsiveness were tested as well. All phenomena and speech and gait dysfunction occurred in the patient sample. A wide range of affected body regions, severity, and incapacitation was captured. Ratings showed excellent interrater reliability for presence or absence of each phenomenon (kappa range, 0.63 to 0.86). Kendall's concordance coefficients for phenomenology, function, and total PMD scores were 0.92, 0.93, and 0.91. Spearman correlations between raters ranged from 0.86 to 0.90. The scale was responsive to changes that occurred as a result of a neuropsychiatric intervention. The PMD scale adequately captures the complex movements of PMDs and can be used to assess PMDs and test the efficacy of intervention strategies.

  11. Neuromuscular rate of force development deficit in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Kelley G; Pfeiffer, Ronald F; LeDoux, Mark S; Schilling, Brian K

    2017-06-01

    Bradykinesia and reduced neuromuscular force exist in Parkinson disease. The interpolated twitch technique has been used to evaluate central versus peripheral manifestations of neuromuscular strength in healthy, aging, and athletic populations, as well as moderate to advanced Parkinson disease, but this method has not been used in mild Parkinson disease. This study aimed to evaluate quadriceps femoris rate of force development and quantify potential central and peripheral activation deficits in individuals with Parkinson disease. Nine persons with mild Parkinson Disease (Hoehn & Yahr≤2, Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale total score=mean 19.1 (SD 5.0)) and eight age-matched controls were recruited in a cross-sectional investigation. Quadriceps femoris voluntary and stimulated maximal force and rate of force development were evaluated using the interpolated twitch technique. Thirteen participants satisfactorily completed the protocol. Individuals with early Parkinson disease (n=7) had significantly slower voluntary rate of force development (p=0.008; d=1.97) and rate of force development ratio (p=0.004; d=2.18) than controls (n=6). No significant differences were found between groups for all other variables. Persons with mild-to-moderate Parkinson disease display disparities in rate of force development, even without deficits in maximal force. The inability to produce force at a rate comparable to controls is likely a downstream effect of central dysfunction of the motor pathway in Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  13. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  14. Rating scales measuring the severity of psychotic depression

    PubMed Central

    Østergaard, Søren D.; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Flint, Alastair J.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Whyte, Ellen M.; Leadholm, Anne Katrine; Bech, Per; Meyers, Barnett S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unipolar psychotic depression (PD) is a severe and debilitating syndrome, which requires intensive monitoring. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the rating scales used to assess illness severity in PD. Method Selective review of publications reporting results on non-self-rated, symptom-based rating scales utilized to measure symptom severity in PD. The clinical and psychometric validity of the identified rating scales was reviewed. Results A total of 14 rating scales meeting the predefined criteria were included in the review. These scales grouped into the following categories: I. Rating scales predominantly covering depressive symptoms, II. Rating scales predominantly covering psychotic symptoms, III. Rating scales covering delusions, and IV. Rating scales covering psychotic depression. For the vast majority of the scales, the clinical and psychometric validity had not been tested empirically. The only exception from this general tendency was the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), which was developed specifically to assess the severity of PD. Conclusion In PD, the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) represents the only empirically derived rating scale for the measurement of overall severity of illness. The PDAS should be considered in future studies of PD and in clinical practice. PMID:26016647

  15. Effects of Some Variations in Rating Scale Characteristics on the Means and Reliabilities of Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Since both the means and reliabilities of the ratings were affected by the number of scale levels but not by the manner of defining scale levels, it would appear that the most critical consideration in rating scale construction is that of determining the appropriate number of rating scale levels. (Author/MB)

  16. Rating scales measuring the severity of psychotic depression.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, S D; Rothschild, A J; Flint, A J; Mulsant, B H; Whyte, E M; Leadholm, A K; Bech, P; Meyers, B S

    2015-11-01

    Unipolar psychotic depression (PD) is a severe and debilitating syndrome, which requires intensive monitoring. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the rating scales used to assess illness severity in PD. Selective review of publications reporting results on non-self-rated, symptom-based rating scales utilized to measure symptom severity in PD. The clinical and psychometric validity of the identified rating scales was reviewed. A total of 14 rating scales meeting the predefined criteria were included in the review. These scales grouped into the following categories: (i) rating scales predominantly covering depressive symptoms, (ii) rating scales predominantly covering psychotic symptoms, (iii) rating scales covering delusions, and (iv) rating scales covering PD. For the vast majority of the scales, the clinical and psychometric validity had not been tested empirically. The only exception from this general tendency was the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), which was developed specifically to assess the severity of PD. In PD, the PDAS represents the only empirically derived rating scale for the measurement of overall severity of illness. The PDAS should be considered in future studies of PD and in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.

    1995-09-01

    Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.

  18. Genome-scale rates of evolutionary change in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Duchêne, Sebastian; Holt, Kathryn E.; Weill, François-Xavier; Le Hello, Simon; Hawkey, Jane; Edwards, David J.; Fourment, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the rates at which bacterial genomes evolve is critical to understanding major evolutionary and ecological processes such as disease emergence, long-term host–pathogen associations and short-term transmission patterns. The surge in bacterial genomic data sets provides a new opportunity to estimate these rates and reveal the factors that shape bacterial evolutionary dynamics. For many organisms estimates of evolutionary rate display an inverse association with the time-scale over which the data are sampled. However, this relationship remains unexplored in bacteria due to the difficulty in estimating genome-wide evolutionary rates, which are impacted by the extent of temporal structure in the data and the prevalence of recombination. We collected 36 whole genome sequence data sets from 16 species of bacterial pathogens to systematically estimate and compare their evolutionary rates and assess the extent of temporal structure in the absence of recombination. The majority (28/36) of data sets possessed sufficient clock-like structure to robustly estimate evolutionary rates. However, in some species reliable estimates were not possible even with ‘ancient DNA’ data sampled over many centuries, suggesting that they evolve very slowly or that they display extensive rate variation among lineages. The robustly estimated evolutionary rates spanned several orders of magnitude, from approximately 10−5 to 10−8 nucleotide substitutions per site year−1. This variation was negatively associated with sampling time, with this relationship best described by an exponential decay curve. To avoid potential estimation biases, such time-dependency should be considered when inferring evolutionary time-scales in bacteria. PMID:28348834

  19. Local scale effects of disease on biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine F; Behrens, Michael D; Sax, Dov F

    2009-06-01

    To date, ecologists and conservation biologists have focused much of their attention on the population and ecosystem effects of disease at regional scales and the role that diseases play in global species extinction. Far less research has been dedicated to identifying the effects that diseases can have on local scale species assemblages. We examined the role of infectious disease in structuring local biodiversity. Our intention was to illustrate how variable outcomes can occur by focusing on three case studies: the influence of chestnut blight on forest communities dominated by chestnut trees, the influence of red-spot disease on urchin barrens and kelp forests, and the influence of sylvatic plague on grassland communities inhabited by prairie dogs. Our findings reveal that at local scales infectious disease seems to play an important, though unpredictable, role in structuring species diversity. Through our case studies, we have shown that diseases can cause drastic population declines or local extirpations in keystone species, ecosystem engineers, and otherwise abundant species. These changes in local diversity may be very important, particularly when considered alongside potentially corresponding changes in community structure and function, and we believe that future efforts to understand the importance of disease to species diversity should have an increased focus on these local scales.

  20. Rasch Analysis for Psychometric Improvement of Science Attitude Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oon, Pey-Tee; Fan, Xitao

    2017-01-01

    Students' attitude towards science (SAS) is often a subject of investigation in science education research. Survey of rating scale is commonly used in the study of SAS. The present study illustrates how Rasch analysis can be used to provide psychometric information of SAS rating scales. The analyses were conducted on a 20-item SAS scale used in an…

  1. Hierarchical structure in healthy and diseased human heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Emily S.; Lin, D. C.; Zhang, C.

    2004-05-01

    It is shown that the healthy and diseased human heart rate variability (HRV) possesses a hierarchical structure of the She-Leveque (SL) form. This structure, first found in measurements in turbulent fluid flows, implies further details in the HRV multifractal scaling. The potential of diagnosis is also discussed based on the characteristics derived from the SL hierarchy.

  2. Reliability and Validity of Scores on the IFSP Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; McWilliam, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is presented regarding the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of scores for an investigator-developed individualized family service plan (IFSP) rating scale. One hundred and twenty IFSPs were rated using a 12-item instrument, the IFSP Rating Scale (McWilliam & Jung, 2001). Using principal components factor…

  3. Reliability and Validity of Scores on the IFSP Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; McWilliam, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is presented regarding the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of scores for an investigator-developed individualized family service plan (IFSP) rating scale. One hundred and twenty IFSPs were rated using a 12-item instrument, the IFSP Rating Scale (McWilliam & Jung, 2001). Using principal components factor…

  4. Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Adler, Lenard A.; Qiao, Meihua; Saylor, Keith E.; Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James A.; Schuh, Kory J.; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) that measures aspects of ADHD in adults. Method: Psychometric properties of the AISRS total and AISRS subscales are analyzed and compared to the Conners' Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV)…

  5. Measuring Cognitive Load with Subjective Rating Scales during Problem Solving: Differences between Immediate and Delayed Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeck, Annett; Opfermann, Maria; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Leutner, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Subjective cognitive load (CL) rating scales are widely used in educational research. However, there are still some open questions regarding the point of time at which such scales should be applied. Whereas some studies apply rating scales directly after each step or task and use an average of these ratings, others assess CL only once after the…

  6. Current Use of Depression Rating Scales in Mental Health Setting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Jeong; Kim, Jung Bum; Shin, Im Hee; Lim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Cho, Gyung Ah; Sung, Hyung Mo; Jung, Sung Won; Zmimmerman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was to investigate the current use of depression rating scales by psychiatrists and clinical psychologists in Korea. Methods The questionnaires from many psychiatrists and clinical psychologists were included in the analysis. The questionnaire was composed of items about examining the percentage of patients clinically using depression rating scales, reasons for not use of them, the degree of satisfaction, the perceived agreement rate between the result of depression rating scales and doctor's clinical interview in the evaluation of patients with depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed by χ2 and independent t-test. Results The clinical use of depression rating scales was more frequent in the psychologists than in the psychiatrists. The purposes for using depression rating scales were assessed into six areas, there was no significant difference in between two groups, and both groups pointed out their purpose as rating of severity and screening. The reasons for not using scales were that their interview may be sufficient for diagnosis and assessment of depressive patients and they are not familiar with the use of depression rating scales. The psychiatrists usually prefer the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Symptom Checklist 90-Revision (SCL-90-R) in order of frequency, and the clinical psychologists are more likely to use the BDI, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and SCL-90-R. Overall rate of satisfaction in the use of the scales was 67.29±14.45% and overall perceived agreement rate was 70.89±16.45%. Conclusion Currently used depression rating scales at the clinical practice were not various. Therefore, to heighten clinicians' utility of these depression rating scales measures, either educational efforts or advertisements, or both, will be necessary to spread them wildly. PMID:20927305

  7. Speech rate and rhythm in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Skodda, Sabine; Schlegel, Uwe

    2008-05-15

    Articulatory rate and pause time in a standardized reading task in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients in correlation to disease duration and severity as compared to healthy controls were analyzed. In 121 PD patients and 70 healthy controls, an acoustical analysis was performed on the first and last sentence of a standardized 170-syllabic text, using a commercial audio software. Articulatory rate and speech to pause ratios were calculated by measuring the length of each syllable and each pause both at the end of words and within polysyllabic words. No significant difference in overall articulatory rate was found between PD patients and controls. Both groups showed an accelerated speech rate in the last sentence compared to the first; however, PD patients had a higher speech acceleration than did controls. PD patients exhibited a significantly reduced percental pause duration in relation to total speech time in the first sentence and a reduced percental pause time within polysyllabic words. PD patients made significantly less but longer pauses at the end of words and less pauses within polysyllabic words. UPDRS III showed an inverse relation to number and rate of intraword pauses, and disease duration was negatively correlated with articulatory rate. The characteristics of parkinsonian speech feature was not only a stronger acceleration of articulation rate in the course of speaking but also a significant reduction of the total numbers of pauses, indicating an impaired speech rhythm and timing organization.

  8. Decision tree rating scales for workload estimation: Theme and variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwille, W. W.; Skipper, J. H.; Rieger, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale which is a sensitive indicator of workload in several different types of aircrew tasks was examined. The study determined if variations of the scale might provide greater sensitivity and the reasons for the sensitivity of the scale. The MCH scale and five newly devised scales were examined in two different aircraft simulator experiments in which pilot loading was treated as an independent variable. It is indicated that while one of the new scales may be more sensitive in a given experiment, task dependency is a problem. The MCH scale exhibits consistent senstivity and remains the scale recommended for general use. The MCH scale results are consistent with earlier experiments. The rating scale experiments are reported and the questionnaire results which were directed to obtain a better understanding of the reasons for the relative sensitivity of the MCH scale and its variations are described.

  9. Decision Tree Rating Scales for Workload Estimation: Theme and Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wietwille, W. W.; Skipper, J. H.; Rieger, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of workload in several different types of aircrew tasks. The MCH scale was examined to determine if certain variations of the scale might provide even greater sensitivity and to determine the reasons for the sensitivity of the scale. The MCH scale and five newly devised scales were studied in two different aircraft simulator experiments in which pilot loading was treated as an independent variable. Results indicate that while one of the new scales may be more sensitive in a given experiment, task dependency is a problem. The MCH scale exhibits consistent sensitivity and remains the scale recommended for general use. The results of the rating scale experiments are presented and the questionnaire results which were directed at obtaining a better understanding of the reasons for the relative sensitivity of the MCH scale and its variations are described.

  10. Decision Tree Rating Scales for Workload Estimation: Theme and Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wietwille, W. W.; Skipper, J. H.; Rieger, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of workload in several different types of aircrew tasks. The MCH scale was examined to determine if certain variations of the scale might provide even greater sensitivity and to determine the reasons for the sensitivity of the scale. The MCH scale and five newly devised scales were studied in two different aircraft simulator experiments in which pilot loading was treated as an independent variable. Results indicate that while one of the new scales may be more sensitive in a given experiment, task dependency is a problem. The MCH scale exhibits consistent sensitivity and remains the scale recommended for general use. The results of the rating scale experiments are presented and the questionnaire results which were directed at obtaining a better understanding of the reasons for the relative sensitivity of the MCH scale and its variations are described.

  11. Agreement between hopelessness/helplessness and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale in healthy individuals and in patients with benign breast disease and breast cancer: a prospective case-control study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, Matti; Korhonen, Riika; Selander, Tuomas; Ollonen, Paula

    2015-04-01

    The relation between scoring for hopelessness/helplessness and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in healthy study subjects (HSS) and in patients with benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer (BC) has not been compared in a prospective study. We, therefore, investigated hopelessness and helplessness scores versus the MADRS in 115 patients. In the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast symptoms were evaluated for hopelessness and helplessness, and for the MADRS before any diagnostic procedures were carried out. In the self-rating score (SRS), hopelessness/helplessness versus the MADRS were highly significantly positively correlated in the HSS, BBD and BC groups. In the SRS, the weighted kappa values for hopelessness/helplessness versus the MADRS in the HSS, BBD and BC groups were also statistically significant. There was also a significant positive correlation in the examiner-rating score (ERS) for hopelessness versus the MADRS in the HSS, BBD and BC groups and for helplessness versus the MADRS in the HSS, BBD and BC groups. The unweighted kappa values in the ERS for hopelessness versus the MADRS were statistically highly significant for the HSS, BBD and BC groups and those for helplessness versus the MADRS in the HSS and BBD groups were statistically significant. A new finding with clinical relevance in the present work is the agreement between hopelessness/helplessness scores and MADRS in the SRS and ERS. In the breast cancer diagnostic unit, the identification of hopeless/helpless persons is essential in suicide prevention and it is important to assess and treat hopelessness/helplessness even though an individual may report few depressive symptoms. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of physician-rating and self-rating scales for patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Lu, Mei-Jou; Wong, Julielynn; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2014-12-01

    Physician-rating scales remain the standard in antidepressant clinical trials. The current study aimed to examine the discrepancies between physician-rating scales and self-rating scales for symptoms and functioning, before and after treatment, in newly hospitalized patients. A total of 131 acutely ill inpatients with major depressive disorder were enrolled to receive 20 mg of fluoxetine daily for 6 weeks. Symptom severity and functioning were assessed at baseline and again at week 6. Symptom severity was rated using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZDS). Functioning was measured by the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between HDRS-17 and ZDS and between GAF and WSAS were calculated at week 0 and week 6. Sensitivity to change was measured using effect sizes. One-hundred twelve patients completed the 6-week trial. After 6 weeks of treatment, correlations between HDRS-17 and ZDS or correlations between GAF and WSAS became larger from baseline to end point. All correlations were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Effect sizes measured by physician-rating scales (ie, HDRS-17 and GAF) were larger than by self-rating scales (ie, ZDS and WSAS). Correlations between baseline physician-rating scale scores and self-rating scale scores improved after 6 weeks of treatment. Physician-rating scales had larger effect sizes than self-rating scales. Physician-rating scales were more sensitive in detecting symptom or functional changes than self-rating scales.

  13. Wearing-off scales in Parkinson's disease: critique and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Angelo; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Chaudhuri, Ray K; Merello, Marcelo; Hauser, Robert; Katzenschlager, Regina; Odin, Per; Stacy, Mark; Stocchi, Fabrizio; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Oliver; Sampaio, Cristina; Schrag, Anette; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G

    2011-10-01

    Wearing-off occurs in the majority of patients with Parkinson's disease after a few years of dopaminergic therapy. Because a variety of scales have been used to estimate wearing-off, the Movement Disorder Society commissioned a task force to assess their clinimetric properties. A systematic review was conducted to identify wearing-off scales that have either been validated or used in Parkinson's patients. A scale was designated "Recommended" if it had been used in clinical studies beyond the group that developed it, if it had been specifically used in Parkinson's disease reports, and if clinimetric studies had established that it is valid, reliable, and sensitive. "Suggested" scales met 2 of the above criteria, and those meeting 1 were "Listed." We identified 3 diagnostic and 4 severity rating scales for wearing-off quantification. Two questionnaires met the criteria to be Recommended for diagnostic screening (questionnaires for 19 and 9 items), and 1 was Suggested (questionnaire for 32 items). Only the patient diaries were Recommended to assess wearing-off severity, with the caveat of relatively limited knowledge of validity. Among the other severity assessment tools, the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale version 3 and the version revised from the Movement Disorders Society were classified as Suggested, whereas the Treatment Response Scale was Listed. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  14. The brief psychiatric rating scale: effect of scaling system on clinical response assessment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P A; Buckley, P F; Meltzer, H Y

    1994-10-01

    The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is an 18-item rating scale frequently used to assess change in psychopathology in schizophrenic patients in antipsychotic drug trials. BPRS items may be rated by the use of either a 1 to 7 or 0 to 6 scaling system, with the 1 or 0 rating indicating no pathology, respectively. When percent change in BPRS total score is used as an index of change, measurement considerations indicate that the 0 to 6 scaling system is preferable. Furthermore, when the 1 to 7 scaling system is used, patients whose initial BPRS values fall at the lower end of the range are classified as responders at a lower rate than are patients with higher initial scores. The adoption of the 0 to 6 scaling system for the BPRS and other rating scales, such as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, is advocated.

  15. Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

  16. Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

  17. Rating Scales for Dystonia in Cerebral Palsy: Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monbaliu, E.; Ortibus, E.; Roelens, F.; Desloovere, K.; Deklerck, J.; Prinzie, P.; De Cock, P.; Feys, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females;…

  18. Rating Scales for Dystonia in Cerebral Palsy: Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monbaliu, E.; Ortibus, E.; Roelens, F.; Desloovere, K.; Deklerck, J.; Prinzie, P.; De Cock, P.; Feys, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females;…

  19. The Random-Effect Generalized Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Shiu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale items have been widely used in educational and psychological tests. These items require people to make subjective judgments, and these subjective judgments usually involve randomness. To account for this randomness, Wang, Wilson, and Shih proposed the random-effect rating scale model in which the threshold parameters are treated as…

  20. The Children's Behavior Rating Scale: A Factor Analytic Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeper, Ronald; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    1986-01-01

    A factor analysis of a revised and expanded 102-item version of the Children's Behavior Scale (CBRS) was conducted to complete development of this teacher rating scale. Results confirmed previous research on the CBRS that indicated that two independent dimensions of cognitive deficits can be identified in teacher ratings. (Author/LMO)

  1. Direct Behavior Rating Instrumentation: Evaluating the Impact of Scale Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faith G.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Schardt, Alyssa A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of two different Direct Behavior Rating--Single Item Scale (DBR-SIS) formats on rating accuracy. A total of 119 undergraduate students participated in one of two study conditions, each utilizing a different DBR-SIS scale format: one that included percentage of time anchors on the DBR-SIS…

  2. Definitions of Ratings on the ETS Composition Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diederich, Paul B.

    The Educational Testing Service Composition Scale was derived from a factor analysis of grades on 300 college freshman compositions, followed by further ratings using the scales with high school papers. This summary provides brief descriptions of the characteristics of student writing rated high, middle, and low on the eight subscales: ideas;…

  3. Validity of the Children's Orientation to Book Reading Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderavek, Joan N.; Guo, Ying; Justice, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the validity of a 4-point rating scale used to measure the level of preschool children's orientation to literacy during shared book reading. Validity was explored by (a) comparing the children's level of literacy orientation as measured with the "Children's Orientation to Book Reading Rating Scale" (COB)…

  4. Validity of the Children's Orientation to Book Reading Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderavek, Joan N.; Guo, Ying; Justice, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the validity of a 4-point rating scale used to measure the level of preschool children's orientation to literacy during shared book reading. Validity was explored by (a) comparing the children's level of literacy orientation as measured with the "Children's Orientation to Book Reading Rating Scale" (COB)…

  5. The Random-Effect Generalized Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Shiu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale items have been widely used in educational and psychological tests. These items require people to make subjective judgments, and these subjective judgments usually involve randomness. To account for this randomness, Wang, Wilson, and Shih proposed the random-effect rating scale model in which the threshold parameters are treated as…

  6. Sensitivity of School-Performance Ratings to Scaling Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Hui Leng; Koretz, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers usually leave decisions about scaling the scores used for accountability to their appointed technical advisory committees and the testing contractors. However, scaling decisions can have an appreciable impact on school ratings. Using middle-school data from New York State, we examined the consistency of school ratings based on two…

  7. Critical Scale Invariance in a Healthy Human Heart Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyono, Ken; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Aoyagi, Naoko; Sakata, Seiichiro; Hayano, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2004-10-01

    We demonstrate the robust scale-invariance in the probability density function (PDF) of detrended healthy human heart rate increments, which is preserved not only in a quiescent condition, but also in a dynamic state where the mean level of the heart rate is dramatically changing. This scale-independent and fractal structure is markedly different from the scale-dependent PDF evolution observed in a turbulentlike, cascade heart rate model. These results strongly support the view that a healthy human heart rate is controlled to converge continually to a critical state.

  8. Scale dependence of immigration rates: models, metrics and data.

    PubMed

    Englund, Göran; Hambäck, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    1. We examine the relationship between immigration rate and patch area for different types of movement behaviours and detection modes. Theoretical models suggest that the scale dependence of the immigration rate per unit area (I/A) can be described by a power model I/A = i*Area(zeta), where zeta describes the strength of the scale dependence. 2. Three types of scaling were identified. Area scaling (zeta = 0) is expected for passively dispersed organisms that have the same probability of landing anywhere in the patch. Perimeter scaling (-0.30 > zeta > -0.45) is expected when patches are detected from a very short distance and immigrants arrive over the patch boundary, whereas diameter scaling (zeta = -0.5) is expected if patches are detected from a long distance or if search is approximately linear. 3. A meta-analysis of published empirical studies of the scale dependence of immigration rates in terrestrial insects suggests that butterflies show diameter scaling, aphids show area scaling, and the scaling of beetle immigration is highly variable. We conclude that the scaling of immigration rates in many cases can be predicted from search behaviour and the mode of patch detection.

  9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Rating Scales with a Brief Review of the "Connors Teacher Rating Scale" (1998)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, Matthew, McLaughlin, T. F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) definition of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) (ADHD). The use of rating scales to diagnose ADHD was evaluated. Rating scales have been used since the 1970s and are highly influential in the detection…

  10. [Diagnosis and symptom rating scale of restless legs syndrome].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi

    2009-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder, characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs and usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations. It begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, is partially or totally relieved by movement and is exacerbated or occurs mainly in the evening or night. People suffering from RLS are estimated to represent 2-3% of the general Japanese population, which is relatively lower than the estimated prevalence in western countries. Supportive diagnostic critevia include family history, the presence of periodic-leg movements (PLM) when awake or asleep, and a positive response to dopaminergic treatment. RLS phenotypes include an early onset form that is usually idiopathic with frequent familial history and a late onset form that is usually secondary to other somatic conditions that are causative factors in RLS occurrence. In all patients presenting with complaints of insomnia or discomfort in the lower limbs, diagnosis of RLS should be considered. RLS should be differentiated from akathisia, which is an urge to move the whole body in the absence of uncomfortable sensations. Polysomnographic studies and the suggested immobilization test (SIT) can detect PLM in patients that are asleep or awake. RLS may cause severe sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, depressive and anxious symptoms, and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Secondary RLS may occur due to iron deficiency, end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, peripheral neuropathy and drug use including antipsychotics and antidepressants. Small fiber neuropathy can trigger RLS or mimic its symptoms. RLS is associated with many neurological disorders, including Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy; althoughit does not predispose to these diseases. A symptom rating scale for RLS authorized by the International RLS Study Group (IRLS) would facilitate accurate diagnosis of this condition.

  11. Hippocampal atrophy rates in Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Henneman, W J.P.; Sluimer, J D.; Barnes, J; van der Flier, W M.; Sluimer, I C.; Fox, N C.; Scheltens, P; Vrenken, H; Barkhof, F

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the added value of hippocampal atrophy rates over whole brain volume measurements on MRI in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and controls. Methods: We included 64 patients with AD (67 ± 9 years; F/M 38/26), 44 patients with MCI (71 ± 6 years; 21/23), and 34 controls (67 ± 9 years; 16/18). Two MR scans were performed (scan interval: 1.8 ± 0.7 years; 1.0 T), using a coronal three-dimensional T1-weighted gradient echo sequence. At follow-up, 3 controls and 23 patients with MCI had progressed to AD. Hippocampi were manually delineated at baseline. Hippocampal atrophy rates were calculated using regional, nonlinear fluid registration. Whole brain baseline volumes and atrophy rates were determined using automated segmentation and registration tools. Results: All MRI measures differed between groups (p < 0.005). For the distinction of MCI from controls, larger effect sizes of hippocampal measures were found compared to whole brain measures. Between MCI and AD, only whole brain atrophy rate differed significantly. Cox proportional hazards models (variables dichotomized by median) showed that within all patients without dementia, hippocampal baseline volume (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.7 [95% confidence interval: 1.5–22.2]), hippocampal atrophy rate (5.2 [1.9–14.3]), and whole brain atrophy rate (2.8 [1.1–7.2]) independently predicted progression to AD; the combination of low hippocampal volume and high atrophy rate yielded a HR of 61.1 (6.1–606.8). Within patients with MCI, only hippocampal baseline volume and atrophy rate predicted progression. Conclusion: Hippocampal measures, especially hippocampal atrophy rate, best discriminate mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from controls. Whole brain atrophy rate discriminates Alzheimer disease (AD) from MCI. Regional measures of hippocampal atrophy are the strongest predictors of progression to AD. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; BET = brain

  12. Escape rate scaling in infinite measure preserving systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, Sara; Knight, Georgie

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the scaling of the escape rate from piecewise linear dynamical systems displaying intermittency due to the presence of an indifferent fixed point. Strong intermittent behaviour in the dynamics can result in the system preserving an infinite measure. We define a neighbourhood of the indifferent fixed point to be a hole through which points escape and investigate the scaling of the rate of this escape as the length of the hole decreases, both in the finite measure preserving case and infinite measure preserving case. In the infinite measure preserving systems we observe logarithmic corrections to and polynomial scaling of the escape rate with hole length. Finally we conjecture a relationship between the wandering rate and the observed scaling of the escape rate.

  13. The Secret to the "Best" Ratings from Any Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    Most faculty developers have a wide variety of rating scales that fly across their desk tops as their incremental program activities unfold during the academic year. The primary issue for this column is: What is the quality of those ratings used for decisions about people and programs? When students, faculty, and administrators rate a program or…

  14. The Secret to the "Best" Ratings from Any Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    Most faculty developers have a wide variety of rating scales that fly across their desk tops as their incremental program activities unfold during the academic year. The primary issue for this column is: What is the quality of those ratings used for decisions about people and programs? When students, faculty, and administrators rate a program or…

  15. The Spectrum of Functional Rating Scales in Neurology Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswami, Pushpa

    2017-01-01

    The selection of an appropriate outcome measure is crucial to the success of a clinical trial, in order to obtain accurate results, which, in turn, influence patient care and future research. Outcomes that can be directly measured are mortality/survival. More frequently, neurology clinical trials evaluate outcomes that cannot be directly measured, such as disability, cognitive function, or change in symptoms of the condition under study. These complex outcomes are abstract ideas or latent constructs and are measured using rating scales. Functional rating scales typically assess the ability of patients to perform tasks and roles for everyday life. Rating scales should be valid (measure what they are supposed to measure), reliable (provide similar results if administered under the same conditions), and responsive (able to detect clinically important changes over time). The clinical relevance of rating scales depends on their ability to detect a minimal clinically important difference, and should be distinguished from statistical significance. Most rating scales are ordinal scales and have limitations. Modern psychometric methods of Rasch analysis and item response theory, termed latent trait theory, are increasingly being utilized to convert ordinal data to interval measurements, both to validate existing scales and to develop new scales. Patient-reported outcomes are being increasingly used in clinical trials and have a role in clinical quality assessment. The PROMIS and NeuroQoL databases are excellent resources for rigorously developed and validated patient-reported outcomes.

  16. A parametric investigation of ride quality rating scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The relative merits of various category scales for the prediction of human discomfort response to vibration and the mathematical relationships that allow for transformations of subjective data from one scale to another scale were determined. A total of 16 category scales were studied and these represented various parametric combinations of polarity, scale type, and number of scalar points. Sixteen subject groups were used and each subject group evaluated its comfort/discomfort to vertical sinusoidal vibration using one of the rating scales. The passenger ride quality apparatus which can expose six subjects simultaneously to predetermined vibrations was utilized. The vibration stimuli were composed of repeats of selected sinusoidal frequencies applied at each of nine peak floor acceleration levels. A higher degree of reliability and discriminability was generally obtained from unipolar continuous type scales containing either seven or nine scalar points as opposed to the other scales investigated.

  17. Scaling and technology issues for soft error rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. H.

    2000-01-01

    Th effects of device technology and scaling on soft error rates are discussed, using information obtained from both the device and space communities as a guide to determine the net effect on soft errors.

  18. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H; Kuiper, Marieke J; Lunsing, Roelinka J; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P; Sival, Deborah A

    2014-06-01

    To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean age 10y 5mo SD 3y 11mo). The investigated scales involved the commonly applied International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), the Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS), and PEG-board tests. We investigated the interrelatedness between individual ataxia scales, the influence of age and sex, inter- and intra-observer agreement, and test-retest reliability. Spearman's rank correlations revealed strong correlations between ICARS, SARA BARS, and PEG-board test (all p<0.001). ICARS, SARA, BARS and PEG-board test outcomes were age-dependent until 12.5, 10, 11, and 11.5 years of age respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) varied between moderate and almost perfect (interobserver agreement: 0.85, 0.72, and 0.69; intraobserver agreement: 0.92, 0.94, and 0.70; and test-retest reliability: 0.95, 0.50, and 0.71; for ICARS, SARA, and BARS respectively). Interobserver variability decreased after the sixth year of life. In healthy children, ataxia rating scales are reliable, but should include age-dependent interpretation in children up to 12 years of age. To enable longitudinal interpretation of quantitative ataxia rating scales in children, European paediatric normative values are necessary. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  19. A new, female-specific irritability rating scale

    PubMed Central

    Born, Leslie; Koren, Gideon; Lin, Elizabeth; Steiner, Meir

    2008-01-01

    Objective Irritability is a prominent symptom in the spectrum of female-specific mood disorders, and in some women, irritability is serious enough to disrupt their lives and warrant treatment. The objective of this research was to develop a new, female-specific state measure of irritability. Methods We constructed self-rating and observer rating scales using items derived from spontaneous descriptions of irritability by women with mood disturbances related to the menstrual cycle, childbearing or menopause. Following a pretest, the scales were shortened to the core items of irritability (annoyance, anger, tension, hostility, sensitivity to noise and touch) and tested on a new cohort of patients. Results The 14-item Self-Rating Scale and the 5-item Observer Rating Scale showed evidence for internal consistency (Self-Rating: n = 36 patients, Cronbach's α = 0.9257, mean interitem correlation = 0.4690; Observer Rating: Cronbach's α = 0.7418, mean interitem correlation = 0.3616), Self-Rating test–retest reliability (n = 29 patients, rs = 0.704, p = 0.01) and interrater reliability (n = 20 patients; τb = 1.000, p = 0.001). Conclusion This new, female-specific scale for rating irritability has the potential to further the evaluation of this prominent symptom cluster and increase specificity in clinical assessments of emotional disturbances related to reproductive cyclicity in women. PMID:18592028

  20. The Predictive Validity of the Kindergarten Teacher Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazzard, Peggy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The Kindergarten Teacher Rating Scale is shown to be a valid predictor of first-grade reading achievement in a study of predictive validity and classification accuracy. The scale's success in explaining the variance in first-grade reading scores and correctly classifying students is compared to that of reading readiness tests. (Author/CM)

  1. Factor Structure of the Behavior Flexibility Rating Scale (BFRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pituch, Keenan A.; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Itchon, Jonathan; O'Reilly, Mark; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Didden, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The Behavior Flexibility Rating Scale (BFRS) is designed to assess insistence on sameness or lack of behavioral flexibility, which is often associated with autism and other developmental disabilities. This study was designed to assess the factor structure of this scale for a sample of 968 individuals with autism, Asperger's syndrome, and Down…

  2. Pictorial versus Verbal Rating Scales in Music Preference Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Albert; Jin, Young Chang; Simpson, Charles S.; Stamou, Lelouda; McCrary, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Compares pictorial and verbal rating scales as measures of music preference opinions. Examines internal consistency and test-retest reliability of each type of scale, the overall preference scores generated through the use of each to measure preference for the same music stimuli, and student preferences for each type after using them. (DSK)

  3. Development and Validation of the Physics Anxiety Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Caliskan, Serap; Dilek, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the development and validation process for an instrument to measure university students' anxiety in physics courses. The development of the Physics Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) included the following steps: Generation of scale items, content validation, construct validation, and reliability calculation. The results of construct…

  4. Calibrating Borg scale ratings of hand force exertion.

    PubMed

    Spielholz, Peregrin

    2006-09-01

    A study was conducted to assess the efficacy of calibrating subjective worker ratings of hand exertions to reduce error in estimates of applied force. Twenty volunteer subjects applied pinch and power grip forces corresponding to their perceptions of different Borg CR-10 scale levels using both "grip-to-scale" and "guided-grip" procedures. These data were used separately to define relationships between scale ratings and actual force application. Two gripping tasks were performed and corresponding subjective hand force ratings were calibrated using the grip-to-scale calibration data. Results showed that the mean estimation error for a 44.5 N (10 lb) power grip task was significantly reduced from 142.8 (+/-69.0) to 62.3 (+/-58.3) N. The guided-grip calibration method also significantly reduced rating error for the power grip task, however the estimates were biased toward zero. Neither calibration procedure improved rating accuracy of an 8.9 N (2 lb) pinch grip task. The study results indicate that calibration of hand force ratings using the grip-to-scale procedure may improve the accuracy of hand exertion measurements using the Borg CR-10 scale.

  5. Future increases in extreme precipitation exceed observed scaling rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jiawei; Sherwood, Steven C.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Evans, Jason P.

    2017-01-01

    Models and physical reasoning predict that extreme precipitation will increase in a warmer climate due to increased atmospheric humidity. Observational tests using regression analysis have reported a puzzling variety of apparent scaling rates including strong rates in midlatitude locations but weak or negative rates in the tropics. Here we analyse daily extreme precipitation events in several Australian cities to show that temporary local cooling associated with extreme events and associated synoptic conditions reduces these apparent scaling rates, especially in warmer climatic conditions. A regional climate projection ensemble for Australia, which implicitly includes these effects, accurately and robustly reproduces the observed apparent scaling throughout the continent for daily precipitation extremes. Projections from the same model show future daily extremes increasing at rates faster than those inferred from observed scaling. The strongest extremes (99.9th percentile events) scale significantly faster than near-surface water vapour, between 5.7-15% °C-1 depending on model details. This scaling rate is highly correlated with the change in water vapour, implying a trade-off between a more arid future climate or one with strong increases in extreme precipitation. These conclusions are likely to generalize to other regions.

  6. Relationship between the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score and the success rate of 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Jin, Dan; Qiao, Fang; Chen, Jianchang; Gong, Jianping

    Computed tomography coronary angiography, a key method for obtaining coronary artery images, is widely used to screen for coronary artery diseases due to its noninvasive nature. In China, 64-slice computed tomography systems are now the most common models. As factors that directly affect computed tomography performance, heart rate and rhythm control are regulated by the autonomic nervous system and are highly related to the emotional state of the patient. The aim of this prospective study is to use a pre-computed tomography scan Self-Rating Anxiety Scale assessment to analyze the effects of tension and anxiety on computed tomography coronary angiography success. Subjects aged 18-85 years who were planned to undergo computed tomography coronary angiography were enrolled; 1 to 2 h before the computed tomography scan, basic patient data (gender, age, heart rate at rest, and family history) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score were obtained. The same group of imaging department doctors, technicians, and nurses performed computed tomography coronary angiography for all the enrolled subjects and observed whether those subjects could finish the computed tomography coronary angiography scan and provide clear, diagnostically valuable images. Participants were divided into successful (obtained diagnostically useful coronary images) and unsuccessful groups. Basic data and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale scores were compared between the groups. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale standard score of the successful group was lower than that of the unsuccessful group (P = 0.001). As the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale standard score rose, the success rate of computed tomography coronary angiography decreased. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score has a negative relationship with computed tomography coronary angiography success. Anxiety can be a disadvantage in computed tomography coronary angiography examination. The pre-computed tomography coronary angiography scan Self-Rating Anxiety Scale

  7. Reliability and discriminant validity of ataxia rating scales in early onset ataxia.

    PubMed

    Brandsma, Rick; Lawerman, Tjitske F; Kuiper, Marieke J; Lunsing, Roelineke J; Burger, Huibert; Sival, Deborah A

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether ataxia rating scales are reliable disease biomarkers for early onset ataxia (EOA). In 40 patients clinically identified with EOA (28 males, 12 females; mean age 15y 3mo [range 5-34y]), we determined interobserver and intraobserver agreement (interclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) and discriminant validity of ataxia rating scales (International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale [ICARS], Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia [SARA], and Brief Ataxia Rating Scale [BARS]). Three paediatric neurologists independently scored ICARS, SARA and BARS performances recorded on video, and also phenotyped the primary and secondary movement disorder features. When ataxia was the primary movement disorder feature, we assigned patients to the subgroup 'EOA with core ataxia' (n=26). When ataxia concurred with other prevailing movement disorders (such as dystonia, myoclonus, and chorea), we assigned patients to the subgroup 'EOA with comorbid ataxia' (n=12). ICC values were similar in both EOA subgroups of 'core' and 'comorbid' ataxia (0.92-0.99; ICARS, SARA, and BARS). Independent of the phenotype, the severity of the prevailing movement disorder predicted the ataxia rating scale scores (β=0.83-0.88; p<0.05). In patients with EOA, the reliability of ataxia rating scales is high. However, the discriminative validity for 'ataxia' is low. For adequate interpretation of ataxia rating scale scores, application in uniform movement disorder phenotypes is essential. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  8. 1/f scaling in heart rate requires antagonistic autonomic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Hayano, Junichiro; Sakata, Seiichiro; Kwak, Shin; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2004-11-01

    We present systematic evidence for the origins of 1/f -type temporal scaling in human heart rate. The heart rate is regulated by the activity of two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic (PNS) and the sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems. We examine alterations in the scaling property when the balance between PNS and SNS activity is modified, and find that the relative PNS suppression by congestive heart failure results in a substantial increase in the Hurst exponent H towards random-walk scaling 1/f2 and a similar breakdown is observed with relative SNS suppression by primary autonomic failure. These results suggest that 1/f scaling in heart rate requires the intricate balance between the antagonistic activity of PNS and SNS.

  9. UFMG Sydenham's chorea rating scale (USCRS): reliability and consistency.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Maia, Débora P; Cardoso, Francisco

    2005-05-01

    Despite the renewed interest in Sydenham's chorea (SC) in recent years, there were no valid and reliable scales to rate the several signs and symptoms of patients with SC and related disorders. The Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) Sydenham's Chorea Rating Scale (USCRS) was designed to provide a detailed quantitative description of the performance of activities of daily living, behavioral abnormalities, and motor function of subjects with SC. The scale comprises 27 items and each one is scored from 0 (no symptom or sign) to 4 (severe disability or finding). Data from 84 subjects, aged 4.9 to 33.6 years, support the interrater reliability and internal consistency of the scale. The USCRS is a promising instrument for rating the clinical features of SC as well as their functional impact in children and adults.

  10. Self-Control in Children: Development of a Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.; Wilcox, Lance E.

    1979-01-01

    Referred children were rated as significantly less self-controlled on the self control rating scale (SCRS) than were matched nonreferred children. Significant differences were found on the SCRS, Matching Familiar Figures test latencies and behavioral observations. The SCRS appeared to be a reliable and valid index of self-control. (Author)

  11. Interrater Agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iovannone, Rose; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wang, Wei; Dunlap, Glen; Kincaid, Don

    2014-01-01

    Data assessment is critical for determining student behavior change in response to individualized behavior interventions in schools. This study examined the interrater agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool (IBRST), a perceptual direct behavior rating tool that was used by typical school personnel to record behavior occurrence…

  12. Interrater Agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iovannone, Rose; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wang, Wei; Dunlap, Glen; Kincaid, Don

    2014-01-01

    Data assessment is critical for determining student behavior change in response to individualized behavior interventions in schools. This study examined the interrater agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool (IBRST), a perceptual direct behavior rating tool that was used by typical school personnel to record behavior occurrence…

  13. Clinimetric testing of the comprehensive cervical dystonia rating scale.

    PubMed

    Comella, Cynthia L; Perlmutter, Joel S; Jinnah, Hyder A; Waliczek, Tracy A; Rosen, Ami R; Galpern, Wendy R; Adler, Charles A; Barbano, Richard L; Factor, Stewart A; Goetz, Christopher G; Jankovic, Joseph; Reich, Stephen G; Rodriguez, Ramon L; Severt, William L; Zurowski, Mateusz; Fox, Susan H; Stebbins, Glenn T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the clinimetric properties of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale. This is a modular scale with modifications of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (composed of three subscales assessing motor severity, disability, and pain) now referred to as the revised Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Scale-2; a newly developed psychiatric screening instrument; and the Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile-58 as a quality of life measure. Ten dystonia experts rated subjects with cervical dystonia using the comprehensive scale. Clinimetric techniques assessed each module of the scale for reliability, item correlation, and factor structure. There were 208 cervical dystonia patients (73% women; age, 59 ± 10 years; duration, 15 ± 12 years). Internal consistency of the motor severity subscale was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.57). Item to total correlations showed that elimination of items with low correlations (<0.20) increased alpha to 0.71. Internal consistency estimates for the subscales for disability and pain were 0.88 and 0.95, respectively. The psychiatric screening scale had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.84 and satisfactory item to total correlations. When the subscales of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Scale-2 were combined with the psychiatric screening scale, Cronbach's alpha was 0.88, and construct validity assessment demonstrated four rational factors: motor; disability; pain; and psychiatric disorders. The Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile-58 had an alpha of 0.98 and its construction was validated through a confirmatory factor analysis. The modules of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale are internally consistent with a logical factor structure. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Time scale bias in erosion rates of glaciated landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Ganti, Vamsi; von Hagke, Christoph; Scherler, Dirk; Lamb, Michael P.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering erosion rates over geologic time is fundamental for understanding the interplay between climate, tectonic, and erosional processes. Existing techniques integrate erosion over different time scales, and direct comparison of such rates is routinely done in earth science. On the basis of a global compilation, we show that erosion rate estimates in glaciated landscapes may be affected by a systematic averaging bias that produces higher estimated erosion rates toward the present, which do not reflect straightforward changes in erosion rates through time. This trend can result from a heavy-tailed distribution of erosional hiatuses (that is, time periods where no or relatively slow erosion occurs). We argue that such a distribution can result from the intermittency of erosional processes in glaciated landscapes that are tightly coupled to climate variability from decadal to millennial time scales. In contrast, we find no evidence for a time scale bias in spatially averaged erosion rates of landscapes dominated by river incision. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of the proposed coupling between climate and tectonics, and interpreting erosion rate estimates with different averaging time scales through geologic time. PMID:27713925

  15. Time scale bias in erosion rates of glaciated landscapes.

    PubMed

    Ganti, Vamsi; von Hagke, Christoph; Scherler, Dirk; Lamb, Michael P; Fischer, Woodward W; Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Deciphering erosion rates over geologic time is fundamental for understanding the interplay between climate, tectonic, and erosional processes. Existing techniques integrate erosion over different time scales, and direct comparison of such rates is routinely done in earth science. On the basis of a global compilation, we show that erosion rate estimates in glaciated landscapes may be affected by a systematic averaging bias that produces higher estimated erosion rates toward the present, which do not reflect straightforward changes in erosion rates through time. This trend can result from a heavy-tailed distribution of erosional hiatuses (that is, time periods where no or relatively slow erosion occurs). We argue that such a distribution can result from the intermittency of erosional processes in glaciated landscapes that are tightly coupled to climate variability from decadal to millennial time scales. In contrast, we find no evidence for a time scale bias in spatially averaged erosion rates of landscapes dominated by river incision. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of the proposed coupling between climate and tectonics, and interpreting erosion rate estimates with different averaging time scales through geologic time.

  16. Universal temperature and body-mass scaling of feeding rates

    PubMed Central

    Rall, Björn C.; Brose, Ulrich; Hartvig, Martin; Kalinkat, Gregor; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Petchey, Owen L.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of feeding rates is the basis to understand interaction strength and subsequently the stability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Feeding rates, as all biological rates, depend on consumer and resource body masses and environmental temperature. Despite five decades of research on functional responses as quantitative models of feeding rates, a unifying framework of how they scale with body masses and temperature is still lacking. This is perplexing, considering that the strength of functional responses (i.e. interaction strengths) is crucially important for the stability of simple consumer–resource systems and the persistence, sustainability and biodiversity of complex communities. Here, we present the largest currently available database on functional response parameters and their scaling with body mass and temperature. Moreover, these data are integrated across ecosystems and metabolic types of species. Surprisingly, we found general temperature dependencies that differed from the Arrhenius terms predicted by metabolic models. Additionally, the body-mass-scaling relationships were more complex than expected and differed across ecosystems and metabolic types. At local scales (taxonomically narrow groups of consumer–resource pairs), we found hump-shaped deviations from the temperature and body-mass-scaling relationships. Despite the complexity of our results, these body-mass- and temperature-scaling models remain useful as a mechanistic basis for predicting the consequences of warming for interaction strengths, population dynamics and network stability across communities differing in their size structure. PMID:23007080

  17. HEATING RATE SCALING OF TURBULENCE IN THE PROTON KINETIC REGIME

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, Bernard J.

    2015-06-10

    Three-dimensional numerical hybrid simulations with particle protons and quasi-neutralizing, fluid electrons are conducted for a freely decaying turbulence. The main results are obtained from a series of runs as a function of the initial total rms fluctuation amplitude. In the turbulent phase and at a corresponding nonlinear time dependent on the amplitude, the scaling of the proton perpendicular heating rate is examined as a function of the spectral value of the electron bulk perpendicular speed integrated in wavenumbers about the inverse thermal proton gyroradius. The perpendicular direction is relative to the background magnetic field. The obtained spectral value is normalized to the proton thermal speed and ranges from 0.06 to 0.16. The scaling of the perpendicular heating rate with this spectral value is fitted with a power law, which has an index of −3.3 ± 0.2. The fit is consistent with the scaling of the total heating rate as a function of total rms amplitude, which has an index of −3.06 ± 0.12. The power-law index is near the turbulent hydrodynamic-like prediction for the energy cascade rate as a function of amplitude. The heating rate, then, obeys a power law with amplitude or spectral value regardless of whether that quantity is evaluated at large scales or at the proton gyroradius scales.

  18. Critical scaling with strain rate in overdamped sheared disordered solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmer, Joel; Salerno, Kenneth; Robbins, Mark

    In the limit of quasistatic shear, disordered solids demonstrate non-equilibrium critical behavior including power-law distributions of avalanches. Using molecular dynamics simulations of 2D and 3D overdamped binary LJ glasses, we explore the critical behavior in the limit of finite strain rate. We use finite-size scaling to find the critical exponents characterizing shear stress, kinetic energy, and measures of temporal and spatial correlations. The shear stress of the system rises as a power β of the strain rate. Larger system size extends this power law to lower rates. This behavior is governed by a power law drop of the dynamic correlation length with increasing shear stress defined by the exponent ν. This finite-size effect also impacts the scaling of the RMS kinetic energy with strain rate as avalanches begin nucleating simultaneously leading to continuous deformation of the solid. As system size increases, avalanches begin overlapping at lower rates. The correlation function of non-affine displacement exhibits novel anisotropic power law scaling with the magnitude of the wave vector. Its strain rate dependence is used to determine the scaling of the dynamic correlation length. Support provided by: DMR-1006805; NSF IGERT-0801471; OCI-0963185; CMMI-0923018.

  19. Large-scale dimension densities for heart rate variability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Corinna; Wessel, Niels; Schirdewan, Alexander; Kurths, Jürgen

    2006-04-01

    In this work, we reanalyze the heart rate variability (HRV) data from the 2002 Computers in Cardiology (CiC) Challenge using the concept of large-scale dimension densities and additionally apply this technique to data of healthy persons and of patients with cardiac diseases. The large-scale dimension density (LASDID) is estimated from the time series using a normalized Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm, which leads to a suitable correction of systematic errors produced by boundary effects in the rather large scales of a system. This way, it is possible to analyze rather short, nonstationary, and unfiltered data, such as HRV. Moreover, this method allows us to analyze short parts of the data and to look for differences between day and night. The circadian changes in the dimension density enable us to distinguish almost completely between real data and computer-generated data from the CiC 2002 challenge using only one parameter. In the second part we analyzed the data of 15 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), 15 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), 15 elderly healthy subjects (EH), as well as 18 young and healthy persons (YH). With our method we are able to separate completely the AF (ρlsμ=0.97±0.02) group from the others and, especially during daytime, the CHF patients show significant differences from the young and elderly healthy volunteers (CHF, 0.65±0.13 ; EH, 0.54±0.05 ; YH, 0.57±0.05 ; p<0.05 for both comparisons). Moreover, for the CHF patients we find no circadian changes in ρlsμ (day, 0.65±0.13 ; night, 0.66±0.12 ; n.s.) in contrast to healthy controls (day, 0.54±0.05 ; night, 0.61±0.05 ; p=0.002 ). Correlation analysis showed no statistical significant relation between standard HRV and circadian LASDID, demonstrating a possibly independent application of our method for clinical risk stratification.

  20. College students' perceived disease risk versus actual prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B; Sosa, Erica T; J McKyer, E Lisako; Ory, Marcia G

    2012-01-01

    To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and overweight/obesity. Respondents estimated their risk of developing heart disease as lower than cancer, yet rated their risk of developing heart disease as higher than diabetes and being overweight/obese. Incongruence between college students' perceived disease risk and disease prevalence rates calls for improved public health education.

  1. Scaling of geochemical reaction rates via advective solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, A. G.; Ghanbarian, B.; Skinner, T. E.; Ewing, R. P.

    2015-07-01

    Transport in porous media is quite complex, and still yields occasional surprises. In geological porous media, the rate at which chemical reactions (e.g., weathering and dissolution) occur is found to diminish by orders of magnitude with increasing time or distance. The temporal rates of laboratory experiments and field observations differ, and extrapolating from laboratory experiments (in months) to field rates (in millions of years) can lead to order-of-magnitude errors. The reactions are transport-limited, but characterizing them using standard solute transport expressions can yield results in agreement with experiment only if spurious assumptions and parameters are introduced. We previously developed a theory of non-reactive solute transport based on applying critical path analysis to the cluster statistics of percolation. The fractal structure of the clusters can be used to generate solute distributions in both time and space. Solute velocities calculated from the temporal evolution of that distribution have the same time dependence as reaction-rate scaling in a wide range of field studies and laboratory experiments, covering some 10 decades in time. The present theory thus both explains a wide range of experiments, and also predicts changes in the scaling behavior in individual systems with increasing time and/or length scales. No other theory captures these variations in scaling by invoking a single physical mechanism. Because the successfully predicted chemical reactions include known results for silicate weathering rates, our theory provides a framework for understanding changes in the global carbon cycle, including its effects on extinctions, climate change, soil production, and denudation rates. It further provides a basis for understanding the fundamental time scales of hydrology and shallow geochemistry, as well as the basis of industrial agriculture.

  2. Heterogeneity of cells may explain allometric scaling of metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-01

    The origin of allometric scaling of metabolic rate is a long-standing question in biology. Several models have been proposed for explaining the origin; however, they have advantages and disadvantages. In particular, previous models only demonstrate either two important observations for the allometric scaling: the variability of scaling exponents and predominance of 3/4-power law. Thus, these models have a dispute over their validity. In this study, we propose a simple geometry model, and show that a hypothesis that total surface area of cells determines metabolic rate can reproduce these two observations by combining two concepts: the impact of cell sizes on metabolic rate and fractal-like (hierarchical) organization. The proposed model both theoretically and numerically demonstrates the approximately 3/4-power law although several different biological strategies are considered. The model validity is confirmed using empirical data. Furthermore, the model suggests the importance of heterogeneity of cell size for the emergence of the allometric scaling. The proposed model provides intuitive and unique insights into the origin of allometric scaling laws in biology, despite several limitations of the model.

  3. Evaluation of the ADHD Rating Scale in Youth with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; de Marchena, Ashley; Watkins, Marley W.; Antezana, Ligia; Power, Thomas J.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists and clinicians regularly use clinical screening tools for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to assess comorbidity without empirical evidence that these measures are valid in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of youth meeting ADHD criteria on the ADHD rating scale fourth edition…

  4. ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklists, Norms, and Clinical Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the "ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklist, norms, and clinical interpretation," is a norm-referenced checklist that measures the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric…

  5. Validation of the Global Rating Scale for endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Williams, T; Ross, A; Stirling, C; Palmer, K; Phull, P S

    2013-02-01

    The Global Rating Scale for endoscopy is a web-based tool that can be used to assess and improve the quality of an endoscopy service. It was developed by asking endoscopy health professionals what they would want from the service for themselves or their relatives if they were undergoing an endoscopic procedure. To date, the Global Rating Scale has not been validated by patients themselves. We used focus groups in order to access the views and opinions of patients who had recently had experience of endoscopy services. Six focus groups were undertaken in five different Health Board areas across Scotland; in total 26 people participated. The results indicated that from the patients' perspective the 12 items of the GRS covered all areas of the endoscopy experience. There were no specific concerns identified that were not already covered within the Global Rating Scale. We conclude that the Global Rating Scale does address quality issues that matter to patients undergoing endoscopy, and validates the use of the GRS as a quality assessment tool for endoscopy services.

  6. Development and Validation of Kindergarten Environment Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu-Yan; Pan-Yuejuan

    2008-01-01

    The authors present the development and the validation of the four-dimensional, twenty-five-item, five-point Kindergarten Environment Rating Scale (KERS). The Cohen's Kappa of the items indicates acceptable reliability for the instrument. The content validity and confirmatory factor analysis indicates that the data obtained using the KERS could…

  7. Child Mania Rating Scale: Development, Reliability, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Henry, David B.; Devineni, Bhargavi; Carbray, Julie A.; Birmaher, Boris

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To develop a reliable and valid parent-report screening instrument for mania, based on DSM-IV symptoms. Method: A 21-item Child Mania Rating Scale-Parent version (CMRS-P) was completed by parents of 150 children (42.3% female) ages 10.3 plus or minus 2.9 years (healthy controls = 50; bipolar disorder = 50;…

  8. Factor Structure Evaluation of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magyar, Caroline I.; Pandolfi, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the factor structure of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Principal components analysis (PCA) and principal axis factor analysis (PAF) evaluated archival data from children presenting to a university clinic with suspected autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; N = 164). PCA did not replicate components identified by…

  9. The Influence of Negatively Worded Scale Items on Overall Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ory, John C.; Valois, Robert F.

    Two studies investigate whether the placement and/or wording (either positively or negatively) of diagnostic rating scale items influenced student responses to the global items in the evaluation of a course of instruction. The Instructor and Course Evaluation System (ICES) developed at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign was used to…

  10. Child Mania Rating Scale: Development, Reliability, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Henry, David B.; Devineni, Bhargavi; Carbray, Julie A.; Birmaher, Boris

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To develop a reliable and valid parent-report screening instrument for mania, based on DSM-IV symptoms. Method: A 21-item Child Mania Rating Scale-Parent version (CMRS-P) was completed by parents of 150 children (42.3% female) ages 10.3 plus or minus 2.9 years (healthy controls = 50; bipolar disorder = 50;…

  11. Construction and Validation of the Play Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    1984-01-01

    The Play Rating Scale was developed to observe young children's behaviors in four different areas of play: physical, block, manipulative, and dramatic. In each area, observations focus on frequency, ability, and creativity in communicating ideas; social levels of participation; and leadership capability. A total of 2,400 three-, four- and…

  12. Preliminary Validation of the Motor Skills Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Claire E.; Chen, Wei-Bing; Blodgett, Julia; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Brock, Laura L.; Grissmer, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a questionnaire designed for classroom teachers of children in early elementary school. Items were developed with the guidance of two occupational therapists, and factor structure was examined with an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The resulting model showed…

  13. Broadband Behavior Rating Scales as Screeners for Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.; Gross, Amber D.; McReynolds, Brandy M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to start providing important early intervention services to preschoolers and toddlers with autism, those children first need to be identified. Despite the availability of specialized autism assessment instruments, there is a need for effective screeners at the early childhood level. Three broadband behavior rating scales were evaluated in…

  14. Evaluation of the ADHD Rating Scale in Youth with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; de Marchena, Ashley; Watkins, Marley W.; Antezana, Ligia; Power, Thomas J.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists and clinicians regularly use clinical screening tools for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to assess comorbidity without empirical evidence that these measures are valid in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of youth meeting ADHD criteria on the ADHD rating scale fourth edition…

  15. An Item Response Unfolding Model for Graphic Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The graphic rating scale, a measurement tool used in many areas of psychology, usually takes a form of a fixed-length line segment, with both ends bounded and labeled as extreme responses. The raters mark somewhere on the line, and the length of the line segment from one endpoint to the mark is taken as the measure. An item response unfolding…

  16. FAPRS Manual: Manual for the Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Glenn M.; Follette, William C.

    2008-01-01

    The Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Rating Scale (FAPRS) is behavioral coding system designed to capture those essential client and therapist behaviors that occur during Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP). The FAPRS manual presents the purpose and rules for documenting essential aspects of FAP. The FAPRS codes are exclusive and exhaustive…

  17. An Item Response Unfolding Model for Graphic Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The graphic rating scale, a measurement tool used in many areas of psychology, usually takes a form of a fixed-length line segment, with both ends bounded and labeled as extreme responses. The raters mark somewhere on the line, and the length of the line segment from one endpoint to the mark is taken as the measure. An item response unfolding…

  18. Effects of Scale Anchors on Student Ratings of Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Trudy C.; Davison, Mark L.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of packing or skewing the response options of a scale on the common measurement problems of leniency and range restriction in instructor ratings were assessed. Results from a sample of 130 undergraduate education students indicate that packing reduced leniency but had no effect on range restriction. (TJH)

  19. Using the Environmental Rating Scales for Quality Improvement Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Marcy

    2005-01-01

    Many tools have been created and utilized in an effort to assess the quality of early childhood programs, though few of these tools address the many programmatic elements of these programs. Some of the most comprehensive tools that are widely used are the Environmental Rating Scales developed by Thelma Harms, Debbie Cryer, and Richard Clifford.…

  20. The Validity and Utility of the Depression Proneness Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemore, Robert; And Others

    The development of the Depression Proneness Rating Scale (DPRS) and three investigations into its reliability, validity, and factor structure are described. Subjects of all three studies were university undergraduates. The first study (n=100) found a stability coefficient of 0.82 for the DPRS over a test-retest (Time 1-Time 2) interval of 9 weeks.…

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Zelhart, Paul F.

    2007-01-01

    An exploratory factor analysis and several confirmatory analyses were performed to evaluate the factorial structure of the Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (RMARS) through the responses of 805 college students. On 559 students' scores, the instrument's construct validity was tested through a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and was found…

  2. A Confirmatory Study of Rating Scale Category Effectiveness for the Coaching Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This study extended validity evidence for measures of coaching efficacy derived from the Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES) by testing the rating scale categorizations suggested in previous research. Previous research provided evidence for the effectiveness of a four-category (4-CAT) structure for high school and collegiate sports coaches; it also…

  3. Ten-Year Review of Rating Scales, VII: Scales Assessing Functional Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Nancy C.; Collett, Brent R.; Myers, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This is the seventh in a series of 10-year reviews of rating scales. Here the authors present scales measuring functional impairment, a sequela of mental illness. The measurement of functional impairment has assumed importance with the recognition that symptom resolution does not necessarily correlate with functional improvement.…

  4. Characterizing the effects of scale and heating rate on micro-scale explosive ignition criteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Hafenrichter, Everett Shingo; Pahl, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Laser diode ignition experiments were conducted in an effort to characterize the effects of scale and heating rate on micro-scale explosive ignition criteria. Over forty experiments were conducted with various laser power densities and laser spot sizes. In addition, relatively simple analytical and numerical calculations were performed to assist with interpretation of the experimental data and characterization of the explosive ignition criteria.

  5. A Confirmatory Study of Rating Scale Category Effectiveness for the Coaching Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This study extended validity evidence for measures of coaching efficacy derived from the Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES) by testing the rating scale categorizations suggested in previous research. Previous research provided evidence for the effectiveness of a four-category (4-CAT) structure for high school and collegiate sports coaches; it also…

  6. Scaling Behaviour and Memory in Heart Rate of Healthy Human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shi-Min; Peng, Hu; Yang, Hui-Jie; Zhou, Tao; Zhou, Pei-Ling; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2007-10-01

    We investigate a set of complex heart rate time series from healthy human in different behaviour states with the detrended fluctuation analysis and diffusion entropy (DE) method. It is proposed that the scaling properties are influenced by behaviour states. The memory detected by DE exhibits an approximately same pattern after a detrending procedure. Both of them demonstrate the long-range strong correlations in heart rate. These findings may be helpful to understand the underlying dynamical evolution process in the heart rate control system, as well as to model the cardiac dynamic process.

  7. Broadband behavior rating scales as screeners for autism?

    PubMed

    Myers, Carl L; Gross, Amber D; McReynolds, Brandy M

    2014-06-01

    In order to start providing important early intervention services to preschoolers and toddlers with autism, those children first need to be identified. Despite the availability of specialized autism assessment instruments, there is a need for effective screeners at the early childhood level. Three broadband behavior rating scales were evaluated in this study to determine if any of the scales on the instruments could adequately distinguish between children with autism from other clinically referred children. There were four scales from two instruments that resulted in mean scores outside the average range and had statistically significant differences. However, the small mean score differences and analyses of sensitivity and specificity suggest those scales have limited practical usefulness when used by clinicians.

  8. A Comparison of EFL Raters' Essay-Rating Processes across Two Types of Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hang; He, Lianzhen

    2015-01-01

    This study used think-aloud protocols to compare essay-rating processes across holistic and analytic rating scales in the context of China's College English Test Band 6 (CET-6). A group of 9 experienced CET-6 raters scored the same batch of 10 CET-6 essays produced in an operational CET-6 administration twice, using both the CET-6 holistic…

  9. The Utility of Clinicians Ratings of Anxiety Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Riddle, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinician ratings of anxiety hold the promise of clarifying discrepancies often found between child and parent reports of anxiety. The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) is a clinician-administered instrument that assesses the frequency, severity, and impairment of common pediatric anxiety disorders and has been used as a primary outcome…

  10. A Comparison of EFL Raters' Essay-Rating Processes across Two Types of Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hang; He, Lianzhen

    2015-01-01

    This study used think-aloud protocols to compare essay-rating processes across holistic and analytic rating scales in the context of China's College English Test Band 6 (CET-6). A group of 9 experienced CET-6 raters scored the same batch of 10 CET-6 essays produced in an operational CET-6 administration twice, using both the CET-6 holistic…

  11. The Utility of Clinicians Ratings of Anxiety Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Riddle, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinician ratings of anxiety hold the promise of clarifying discrepancies often found between child and parent reports of anxiety. The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) is a clinician-administered instrument that assesses the frequency, severity, and impairment of common pediatric anxiety disorders and has been used as a primary outcome…

  12. Polymer reversal rate calculated via locally scaled diffusion map.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenwei; Rohrdanz, Mary A; Maggioni, Mauro; Clementi, Cecilia

    2011-04-14

    A recent study on the dynamics of polymer reversal inside a nanopore by Huang and Makarov [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 114903 (2008)] demonstrated that the reaction rate cannot be reproduced by projecting the dynamics onto a single empirical reaction coordinate, a result suggesting the dynamics of this system cannot be correctly described by using a single collective coordinate. To further investigate this possibility we have applied our recently developed multiscale framework, locally scaled diffusion map (LSDMap), to obtain collective reaction coordinates for this system. Using a single diffusion coordinate, we obtain a reversal rate via Kramers expression that is in good agreement with the exact rate obtained from the simulations. Our mathematically rigorous approach accounts for the local heterogeneity of molecular configuration space in constructing a diffusion map, from which collective coordinates emerge. We believe this approach can be applied in general to characterize complex macromolecular dynamics by providing an accurate definition of the collective coordinates associated with processes at different time scales.

  13. Scaling laws in the dynamics of crime growth rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Luiz G. A.; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Mendes, Renio S.

    2013-06-01

    The increasing number of crimes in areas with large concentrations of people have made cities one of the main sources of violence. Understanding characteristics of how crime rate expands and its relations with the cities size goes beyond an academic question, being a central issue for contemporary society. Here, we characterize and analyze quantitative aspects of murders in the period from 1980 to 2009 in Brazilian cities. We find that the distribution of the annual, biannual and triannual logarithmic homicide growth rates exhibit the same functional form for distinct scales, that is, a scale invariant behavior. We also identify asymptotic power-law decay relations between the standard deviations of these three growth rates and the initial size. Further, we discuss similarities with complex organizations.

  14. Variation of foraging rate and wing loading, but not resting metabolic rate scaling, of insect pollinators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, John S.; Anderson, Bruce

    2010-08-01

    Morphological, physiological and behavioural variation with body size (i.e. scaling) may affect costs of living in a particular environment for insects and, ultimately, pollination or foraging success. However, few studies have directly assessed the scaling of these traits at the species level. Using two similar-sized pollinator species (the hawkmoth Macroglossum trochilus and the fly Moegistorhynchus longirostrus), we compare intraspecific scaling relationships of resting metabolic rate (RMR), foraging rate (FR) and wing loading (WL) to address this paucity of data. Scaling of RMR was similar for both taxa although the intercepts for the relationships differed. However, these two species showed variation in WL scaling relationships and fundamentally different FR scaling. For M. longirostrus, FR scaling was positive but non-significantly related to body mass while for M. trochilus FR scaling was negative. This suggests that variation in FR and WL, but not RMR scaling, among these flies and hawkmoths may impose significant energetic costs which could affect animal-plant interactions in the wild.

  15. Construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Adami, Fernando; Schlickmann Frainer, Deivis Elton; de Souza Almeida, Fernando; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E; Piva Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos; Mello Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira de; de Oliveira, Fernando R

    2012-04-13

    Figure rating scales were developed as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women, men, and children. However, it lacks in the literature the validation of the scale for body silhouettes previously adapted. We aimed to obtain evidence for construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents. The study was carried out with adolescent students attending three public schools in an urban region of the municipality of Florianopolis in the State of Santa Catarina (SC). The sample comprised 232 10-19-year-old students, 106 of whom are boys and 126 girls, from the 5th "series" (i.e. year) of Primary School to the 3rd year of Secondary School. Data-gathering involved the application of an instrument containing 8 body figure drawings representing a range of children's and adolescents' body shapes, ranging from very slim (contour 1) to obese (contour 8). Weights and heights were also collected, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated later. BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable, using z-scores, and as a dichotomous categorical variable, representing a diagnosis of nutritional status (normal and overweight including obesity). Results showed that both males and females with larger BMI z-scores chose larger body contours. Girls with higher BMI z-scores also show higher values of body image dissatisfaction. We provided the first evidence of validity for a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents.

  16. Factor Validity of a Proactive and Reactive Aggression Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Kaat, Aaron; Gadow, Kenneth; Findling, Robert L.; Bukstein, Oscar; Arnold, L. Eugene; Bangalore, Srihari; McNamara, Nora; Aman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors can be classified into proactive and reactive functions, though there is disagreement about whether these are distinct constructs. Data suggest that proactive and reactive aggression have different etiologies, correlates, and response to treatment. Several rating scales are available to characterize aggressive behavior as proactive or reactive; one commonly used scale was originally developed for teacher ratings, referred to here as the Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS). However, no data are available on the psychometric properties of the ABS for parent ratings. This study examined the factor structure and convergent/divergent validity of the parent-rated ABS among 168 children aged 6–12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, a disruptive behavior disorder, and severe aggression enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Multidimensional item response theory was used to confirm the original factor structure. The proactive and reactive factors were distinct but moderately correlated; the algorithm items exhibited acceptable fit on the original factors. The non-algorithm items caused theoretical problems and model misfit. Convergent and divergent validity of the scale was explored between the ABS and other parent-report measures. Proactive and reactive aggression showed differential correlates consistent with expectations for externalizing symptoms. The subscales were correlated weakly or not at all with most non-externalizing symptoms, with some exceptions. Thus, the original factor structure was supported and we found preliminary evidence for the validity of the scale, though the results suggest that the constructs measured by the ABS may not be totally distinct from general behavior problems in this clinical sample. PMID:26504369

  17. The premenstrual tension syndrome rating scales: an updated version.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Meir; Peer, Miki; Macdougall, Mary; Haskett, Roger

    2011-12-01

    The Premenstrual Tension Syndrome (PMTS) Rating Scales have been widely used as inclusion criteria and/or outcome measures in clinical trials of treatment of Premenstrual Syndromes (PMS). However, both the PMTS Observer Rating Scale (PMTS-O) and the PMTS Self Rating Scale (PMTS-SR) are outdated. We propose to bring them in line with the DSM-IV criteria for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) by updating the PMTS-O and replacing the PMTS-SR with a Multiple Visual Analogue Scale (PMTS-VAS). A convenience sample of 23 Caucasian, English-speaking women in their reproductive years with regular menstrual cycles was recruited. Participants were administered the revised PMTS-O (PMTS-OR) by a trained clinician and then instructed to complete the PMTS-SR and the new PMTS-VAS, both of which were timed. The participants were also asked which of the instruments they preferred. The PMTS-OR and the new PMTS-VAS were sensitive to the variation in severity of premenstrual symptoms among the study participants. All 3 questionnaires showed very high inter-correlations. The PMTS-VAS took less time to complete, and most women preferred the PMTS-VAS to the original PMTS-SR, especially those with PMDD and severe PMS. By making minor modifications to the PMTS-O we have ensured that all criteria for the DSM-IV definition of PMDD are now represented in the PMTS-OR. The new PMTS-VAS mirrors the PMTS-OR but now also captures the severity of self rated symptoms. These scales are simple to complete for both clinicians and clients, and are reliable, valid and sensitive to change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Factor Validity of a Proactive and Reactive Aggression Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Kaat, Aaron; Farmer, Cristan; Gadow, Kenneth; Findling, Robert L; Bukstein, Oscar; Arnold, L Eugene; Bangalore, Srihari; McNamara, Nora; Aman, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Aggressive behaviors can be classified into proactive and reactive functions, though there is disagreement about whether these are distinct constructs. Data suggest that proactive and reactive aggression have different etiologies, correlates, and response to treatment. Several rating scales are available to characterize aggressive behavior as proactive or reactive; one commonly used scale was originally developed for teacher ratings, referred to here as the Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS). However, no data are available on the psychometric properties of the ABS for parent ratings. This study examined the factor structure and convergent/divergent validity of the parent-rated ABS among 168 children aged 6-12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, a disruptive behavior disorder, and severe aggression enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Multidimensional item response theory was used to confirm the original factor structure. The proactive and reactive factors were distinct but moderately correlated; the algorithm items exhibited acceptable fit on the original factors. The non-algorithm items caused theoretical problems and model misfit. Convergent and divergent validity of the scale was explored between the ABS and other parent-report measures. Proactive and reactive aggression showed differential correlates consistent with expectations for externalizing symptoms. The subscales were correlated weakly or not at all with most non-externalizing symptoms, with some exceptions. Thus, the original factor structure was supported and we found preliminary evidence for the validity of the scale, though the results suggest that the constructs measured by the ABS may not be totally distinct from general behavior problems in this clinical sample.

  19. Limestone weathering rates accelerated by micron-scale grain detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanuel, S.; Levenson, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The weathering rates of carbonate rocks is often thought to be controlled by chemical dissolution, although some studies have suggested that mechanical erosion could also play an important role. Quantifying the rates of the different processes has proved challenging due to the high degree of variability encountered in both field and lab settings. To determine the rates and mechanisms controlling long-term limestone weathering, we analyse a lidar scan of the Western Wall, a Roman period edifice located in Jerusalem. Weathering rates in fine-grained micritic limestone blocks are up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than the average rates estimated for coarse-grained limestone blocks at the same site. In addition, in experiments that use atomic force microscopy to image dissolving micritic limestone, we show that these higher reaction rates could be due to rapid dissolution along micron-scale grain boundaries, followed by mechanical detachment of tiny particles from the surface. Our analysis indicates that micron-scale grain detachment, rather than pure chemical dissolution, could be the dominant erosional mode for fine-grained rocks in many carbonate terrains.

  20. Eating disorder symptom severity scale: a new clinician rated measure.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Katherine A; Buchholz, Annick; Perkins, Julie; Norwood, Sarah; Obeid, Nicole; Spettigue, Wendy; Feder, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the clinician-rated Eating Disorder Symptom Severity Scale (EDS(3)), created to address a gap in measurement options for youth with eating disorders. The EDS(3) is modeled on the Childhood Severity and Acuity of Psychiatric Illness Scales (Lyons, J. S, 1998). Factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution and accounted for 78% of the variance, and internal consistency within the subscales was good (Cronbach alphas: 0.69 to 0.93). The EDS(3) is a valid and reliable measure designed for clinicians to help assess the severity of a youth's eating disorder and to facilitate outcomes research.

  1. A Comparison of Two Task Rating Scales of Physical Demand.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    Research Report 3/86 0 r=CG RISON OF TwO TASK RATING SCALES CF PHYSICAL CEMAND by Major Robert S. Collyer Commonwealth of Autralia ! August 19g86 This...analysis system . because the wording of the anchor points for the PSE scale made reference to specific weights and heights, it was judged to be an...Air Force Occupational ’,easurement Center. Lindquist, E. F. (1953). Design and analysis of experiments in psychology and education . Boston, l,1A

  2. Speech rate in Parkinson's disease: A controlled study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, F; Meilán, J J G; Carro, J; Gómez Íñiguez, C; Millian-Morell, L; Pujante Valverde, I M; López-Alburquerque, T; López, D E

    2016-09-01

    Speech disturbances will affect most patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) over the course of the disease. The origin and severity of these symptoms are of clinical and diagnostic interest. To evaluate the clinical pattern of speech impairment in PD patients and identify significant differences in speech rate and articulation compared to control subjects. Speech rate and articulation in a reading task were measured using an automatic analytical method. A total of 39 PD patients in the 'on' state and 45 age-and sex-matched asymptomatic controls participated in the study. None of the patients experienced dyskinesias or motor fluctuations during the test. The patients with PD displayed a significant reduction in speech and articulation rates; there were no significant correlations between the studied speech parameters and patient characteristics such as L-dopa dose, duration of the disorder, age, and UPDRS III scores and Hoehn & Yahr scales. Patients with PD show a characteristic pattern of declining speech rate. These results suggest that in PD, disfluencies are the result of the movement disorder affecting the physiology of speech production systems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent developments in cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling model based on analytical fits to Monte Carlo simulations of atmospheric cosmic ray flux spectra (both of which agree well with measured spectra) enables identification and quantification of the biases in previously published models (Lifton, N., Sato, T., Dunai, T., in review, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett.). Scaling predictions derived from the new model (termed LSD) suggest two potential sources of bias in the previous models: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. In addition, the particle flux spectra generated by the LSD model allow one to generate nuclide-specific scaling factors that reflect the influences of the flux energy distribution and the relevant excitation functions (probability of nuclide production in a given nuclear reaction as a function of energy). Resulting scaling factors indicate 3He shows the strongest positive deviation from the flux-based scaling, while 14C exhibits a negative deviation. These results are consistent with previous studies showing an increasing 3He/10Be ratio with altitude in the Himalayas, but with a much lower magnitude for the effect. Furthermore, the new model provides a flexible framework for exploring the implications of future advances in model inputs. For example, the effects of recently updated paleomagnetic models (e.g. Korte et al., 2011, Earth and Planet Sci. Lett. 312, 497-505) on scaling predictions will also be presented.

  4. Cross-Cultural Differences of the Non-Motor Symptoms Studied by the Traditional Chinese Version of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society– Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rwei-Ling; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Chan, Anne Y.Y.; Mok, Vincent; Wu, Yih-Ru; Tilley, Barbara C.; Luo, Sheng; Wang, Lu; LaPelle, Nancy R.; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Given the importance of ethnic differences in the evaluation of various aspects of symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), we present the formal procedure for completing the traditional Chinese translation of the International and Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society/UPDRS (MDS-UPDRS) and highlight the discrepancy in nonmotor symptoms (NMS) between patients in Eastern and Western countries. Methods A total of 350 native Chinese-speaking PD patients were recruited from multiple hospitals in Eastern countries; they completed the MDS-UPDRS. The translation process was executed and factor analysis was performed to determine the structure of the scale. Chi-squared and t tests were used to compare frequency and severity of PD symptoms between the Chinese-speaking and English-speaking groups (n = 876). Results NMS and motor symptoms were more severe in the Western population (Part I: t(1205) = 5.36, P < 0.0001; and Part III: t(1205) = 7.64, P < 0.0001); however, the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction and impairments in activities of daily living were more frequent in the Eastern patients. The comparative fit index was 0.93 or greater, and the exploratory factor analysis revealed compatible results between the translated scale and the original version. Conclusion The traditional Chinese version of the MDS-UPDRS can be designated as an official translation of the original scale, and it is now available for use. Moreover, NMS in PD constitute a major issue worldwide, and the pattern of NMS among the Chinese population is more marked in terms of cognition-based symptoms and activities of daily living. PMID:28345011

  5. A comparison of different category scales for estimating disease severity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant pathologists most often obtain quantitative information on disease severity using visual assessments. Category scales are widely used for assessing disease severity, including for screening germplasm. The most widely used category scale is the Horsfall-Barratt (H-B) scale, but reports show tha...

  6. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  7. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  8. Characterizing heart rate variability by scale-dependent Lyapunov exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Gao, Jianbo; Tung, Wen-wen

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies on heart rate variability (HRV) using chaos theory, fractal scaling analysis, and many other methods, while fruitful in many aspects, have produced much confusion in the literature. Especially the issue of whether normal HRV is chaotic or stochastic remains highly controversial. Here, we employ a new multiscale complexity measure, the scale-dependent Lyapunov exponent (SDLE), to characterize HRV. SDLE has been shown to readily characterize major models of complex time series including deterministic chaos, noisy chaos, stochastic oscillations, random 1/f processes, random Levy processes, and complex time series with multiple scaling behaviors. Here we use SDLE to characterize the relative importance of nonlinear, chaotic, and stochastic dynamics in HRV of healthy, congestive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation subjects. We show that while HRV data of all these three types are mostly stochastic, the stochasticity is different among the three groups.

  9. Prejudiced attitude measurement using the Rasch Rating Scale model.

    PubMed

    Rojas Tejada, Antonio J; Lozano Rojas, Oscar M; Navas Luque, Marisol; Pérez Moreno, Pedro J

    2011-10-01

    There have been two basic approaches for the study of minority group prejudice against the majority: to adapt instruments from the majority group, and to use qualitative techniques by analyzing the content of the discourse of the groups involved. Neither of these procedures solves the problem of measuring intergroup attitudes of majorities and minorities in interaction. This study shows the result of a prejudice scale which was developed to measure the attitude of both the minority and majority groups. Prejudice is conceived as an attitude which requires the beliefs or opinions about the out-group, the emotions it elicits, and the behavior or intentional behavior toward it to be known for its evaluation. The innovation in this work is that the psychometric development of the scale was based on the item response theory, and more specifically, the rating scale model.

  10. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes.

    PubMed

    Stevison, Laurie S; Woerner, August E; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Kelley, Joanna L; Veeramah, Krishna R; McManus, Kimberly F; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F; Wall, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-01

    We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature 499:471-475). We also identified species-specific recombination hotspots in each group using a modified LDhot framework, which greatly improves statistical power to detect hotspots at varying strengths. We show that fewer hotspots are shared among chimpanzee subspecies than within human populations, further narrowing the time scale of complete hotspot turnover. Further, using species-specific PRDM9 sequences to predict potential binding sites (PBS), we show higher predicted PRDM9 binding in recombination hotspots as compared to matched cold spot regions in multiple great ape species, including at least one chimpanzee subspecies. We found that correlations between broad-scale recombination rates decline more rapidly than nucleotide divergence between species. We also compared the skew of recombination rates at centromeres and telomeres between species and show a skew from chromosome means extending as far as 10-15 Mb from chromosome ends. Further, we examined broad-scale recombination rate changes near a translocation in gorillas and found minimal differences as compared to other great ape species perhaps because the coordinates relative to the chromosome ends were unaffected. Finally, on the basis of multiple linear regression analysis, we found that various correlates of recombination rate persist throughout the African great apes including repeats, diversity, and divergence. Our study is the first to analyze within- and between-species genome-wide recombination rate variation in several close relatives.

  11. Allometric scaling of mortality rates with body mass in abalones.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A; Bevacqua, Daniele; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2012-04-01

    The existence of an allometric relationship between mortality rates and body mass has been theorized and extensively documented across taxa. Within species, however, the allometry between mortality rates and body mass has received substantially less attention and the consistency of such scaling patterns at the intra-specific level is controversial. We reviewed 73 experimental studies to examine the relationship between mortality rates and body size among seven species of abalone (Haliotis spp.), a marine herbivorous mollusk. Both in the field and in the laboratory, log-transformed mortality rates were negatively correlated with log-transformed individual body mass for all species considered, with allometric exponents remarkably similar among species. This regular pattern confirms previous findings that juvenile abalones suffer higher mortality rates than adult individuals. Field mortality rates were higher overall than those measured in the laboratory, and the relationship between mortality and body mass tended to be steeper in field than in laboratory conditions for all species considered. These results suggest that in the natural environment, additional mortality factors, especially linked to predation, could significantly contribute to mortality, particularly at small body sizes. On the other hand, the consistent allometry of mortality rates versus body mass in laboratory conditions suggests that other sources of mortality, beside predation, are size-dependent in abalone.

  12. [Resting heart rate and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Alemán Sánchez, José Juan; Cabrera de León, Antonio

    2014-07-07

    Heart rate reflects autonomic nervous system activity. Numerous studies have demonstrated that an increased heart rate at rest is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as an independent risk factor. It has been shown a link between cardiac autonomic balance and inflammation. Thus, an elevated heart rate produces a micro-inflammatory response and is involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. In turn, decrease in heart rate produces benefits in congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. Alteration of other heart rate-related parameters, such as their variability and recovery after exercise, is associated with risk of cardiovascular events. Drugs reducing the heart rate (beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and inhibitors of If channels) have the potential to reduce cardiovascular events. Although not recommended in healthy subjects, interventions for reducing heart rate constitute a reasonable therapeutic goal in certain pathologies.

  13. Evaluation of the ADHD Rating Scale in Youth with Autism.

    PubMed

    Yerys, Benjamin E; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; de Marchena, Ashley; Watkins, Marley W; Antezana, Ligia; Power, Thomas J; Schultz, Robert T

    2017-01-01

    Scientists and clinicians regularly use clinical screening tools for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to assess comorbidity without empirical evidence that these measures are valid in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of youth meeting ADHD criteria on the ADHD rating scale fourth edition (ADHD-RS-IV), the relationship of ADHD-RS-IV ratings with participant characteristics and behaviors, and its underlying factor structure in 386, 7-17 year olds with ASD without intellectual disability. Expected parent prevalence rates, relationships with age and externalizing behaviors were observed, but confirmatory factor analyses revealed unsatisfactory fits for one-, two-, three-factor models. Exploratory analyses revealed several items cross-loading on multiple factors. Implications of screening ADHD in youth with ASD using current diagnostic criteria are discussed.

  14. Quantitative regional validation of the visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Möller, Christiane; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Versteeg, Adriaan; Benedictus, Marije R; Wattjes, Mike P; Koedam, Esther L G M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo

    2014-02-01

    Validate the four-point visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) on magnetic resonance images (MRI) through quantitative grey matter (GM) volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to justify its use in clinical practice. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 128 with subjective memory complaints underwent 3T MRI. PCA was rated according to the visual rating scale. GM volumes of six posterior structures and the total posterior region were extracted using IBASPM and compared among PCA groups. To determine which anatomical regions contributed most to the visual scores, we used binary logistic regression. VBM compared local GM density among groups. Patients were categorised according to their PCA scores: PCA-0 (n = 122), PCA-1 (n = 143), PCA-2 (n = 79), and PCA-3 (n = 13). All structures except the posterior cingulate differed significantly among groups. The inferior parietal gyrus volume discriminated the most between rating scale levels. VBM showed that PCA-1 had a lower GM volume than PCA-0 in the parietal region and other brain regions, whereas between PCA-1 and PCA-2/3 GM atrophy was mostly restricted to posterior regions. The visual PCA rating scale is quantitatively validated and reliably reflects GM atrophy in parietal regions, making it a valuable tool for the daily radiological assessment of dementia. • Visual rating scale reflects grey matter atrophy in posterior brain regions. • Different PCA scores corresponded well to different quantitative degrees of atrophy. • Inferior parietal gyrus volume influenced assessment based on the visual rating scale. • This simple visual rating scale makes it useful for radiological dementia assessment.

  15. Interchanging scores between clinical dementia rating scale and global deterioration scale.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong Hye; Lee, Byung Hwa; Kim, Seonwoo; Hahm, Dong Seok; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Yoon, Soo Jin; Jeong, Yong; Ha, Choong Keun; Nab, Duk L

    2003-01-01

    Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) are commonly used to measure the severity of dementia. However, no specific rules are available to convert the scores of CDR into those of GDS and vice versa. Using a semi-structured interview, two examiners independently rated CDR and GDS in 78 patients with dementia and 34 controls. Regression analysis showed a curvilinear relationship between CDR and GDS. This curve may provide a rule to interchange the scores of GDS and CDR (or Sum of Boxes of CDR).

  16. Scale dependence of rock friction at high work rate.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Takizawa, Shigeru; Xu, Shiqing; Kawakata, Hironori

    2015-12-10

    Determination of the frictional properties of rocks is crucial for an understanding of earthquake mechanics, because most earthquakes are caused by frictional sliding along faults. Prior studies using rotary shear apparatus revealed a marked decrease in frictional strength, which can cause a large stress drop and strong shaking, with increasing slip rate and increasing work rate. (The mechanical work rate per unit area equals the product of the shear stress and the slip rate.) However, those important findings were obtained in experiments using rock specimens with dimensions of only several centimetres, which are much smaller than the dimensions of a natural fault (of the order of 1,000 metres). Here we use a large-scale biaxial friction apparatus with metre-sized rock specimens to investigate scale-dependent rock friction. The experiments show that rock friction in metre-sized rock specimens starts to decrease at a work rate that is one order of magnitude smaller than that in centimetre-sized rock specimens. Mechanical, visual and material observations suggest that slip-evolved stress heterogeneity on the fault accounts for the difference. On the basis of these observations, we propose that stress-concentrated areas exist in which frictional slip produces more wear materials (gouge) than in areas outside, resulting in further stress concentrations at these areas. Shear stress on the fault is primarily sustained by stress-concentrated areas that undergo a high work rate, so those areas should weaken rapidly and cause the macroscopic frictional strength to decrease abruptly. To verify this idea, we conducted numerical simulations assuming that local friction follows the frictional properties observed on centimetre-sized rock specimens. The simulations reproduced the macroscopic frictional properties observed on the metre-sized rock specimens. Given that localized stress concentrations commonly occur naturally, our results suggest that a natural fault may lose its

  17. Rating scales for dystonia in cerebral palsy: reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Monbaliu, E; Ortibus, E; Roelens, F; Desloovere, K; Deklerck, J; Prinzie, P; de Cock, P; Feys, H

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females; mean age 13 y 3 mo, SD 5 y 2 mo, range 5-22 y). One patient each was classified at levels I-IV in the Gross Motor Function Classification System and six patients were classified at level V. Reliability was measured by (1) intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for interrater reliability, (2) standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable difference (SDD), and (3) Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. Validity was assessed by Pearson's correlations among the three scales used and by content analysis. Moderate to good interrater reliability was found for total scores of the three scales (ICC: BADS=0.87; BFMMS=0.86; UDRS=0.79). However, many subitems showed low reliability, in particular for the UDRS. SEM and SDD were respectively 6.36% and 17.72% for the BADS, 9.88% and 27.39% for the BFMMS, and 8.89% and 24.63% for the UDRS. High internal consistency was found. Pearson's correlations were high. Content validity showed insufficient accordance with the new CP definition and classification. Our results support the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the scales; however, taking into consideration the limitations in reliability, including the large SDD values and the content validity, further research on methods of assessment of dystonia is warranted.

  18. Development of a work environment rating scale for kindergarten teachers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yau-ho P

    2015-08-01

    Kindergarten education in Hong Kong serves children aged 32-68 months. However, there is no extant scale that measures kindergarten teachers' perceived work environment, an important influence on their well-being. To develop a new instrument, the Teachers' Perceived Work Environment (TPWE) scale, and to assess whether kindergarten teachers with higher TPWE ratings had higher scores for job satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health. A 25-item rating scale was developed and used with a sample of in-service kindergarten teachers. Their perceived work environment was represented by five factors (ergonomics, staffing, teaching space, work hours and social space). These teachers also completed three well-being inventories: the Job Satisfaction Survey, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire-12. In a second stage, a new sample of in-service kindergarten teachers was used to cross-validate the findings from the earlier assessment. In the first sample of 141 teachers and the second of 125, social space, staffing and work hours were associated with job satisfaction, while ergonomics was a significant negative predictor of mental health complaints. The TPWE exhibited satisfactory reliability and validity. Some factors were differentially associated with specific types of well-being. The results may inform future studies of the working conditions of kindergarten teachers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Urate predicts rate of clinical decline in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Ascherio, Alberto; LeWitt, Peter A.; Xu, Kui; Eberly, Shirley; Watts, Arthur; Matson, Wayne R.; Marras, Connie; Kieburtz, Karl; Rudolph, Alice; Bogdanov, Mikhail B.; Schwid, Steven R.; Tennis, Marsha; Tanner, Caroline M.; Beal, M. Flint; Lang, Anthony E.; Oakes, David; Fahn, Stanley; Shoulson, Ira; Schwarzschild, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Context The risk of Parkinson disease (PD) and its rate of progression may decline with increasing blood urate, a major antioxidant. Objective To determine whether serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of urate predict clinical progression in patients with PD. Design, Setting, and Participants 800 subjects with early PD enrolled in the DATATOP trial. Pre-treatment urate was measured in serum for 774 subjects and in CSF for 713. Main Outcome Measures Treatment-, age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for clinical disability requiring levodopa therapy, the pre-specified primary endpoint. Results The HR of progressing to endpoint decreased with increasing serum urate (HR for 1 standard deviation increase = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.93). In analyses stratified by α-tocopherol treatment (2,000 IU/day), a decrease in the HR for the primary endpoint was seen only among subjects not treated with α-tocopherol (HR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.89, versus those treated HR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.75 to 1.08). Results were similar for the rate of change in the United Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). CSF urate was also inversely related to both the primary endpoint (HR for highest versus lowest quintile = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.96) and to the rate of change in UPDRS. As with serum urate, these associations were present only among subjects not treated with α-tocopherol. Conclusion Higher serum and CSF urate at baseline were associated with slower rates of clinical decline. The findings strengthen the link between urate and PD and the rationale for considering CNS urate elevation as a potential strategy to slow PD progression. PMID:19822770

  20. Psychopathological rating scales for diagnostic use in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Rösler, M; Retz, W; Thome, J; Schneider, M; Stieglitz, R-D; Falkai, P

    2006-09-01

    The diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is a complex procedure which should include retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms either by patient recall or third party information, diagnostic criteria according to DSM-IV, current adult ADHD psychopathology including symptom severity and pervasiveness, functional impairment, quality of life and comorbidity. In order to obtain a systematic database for the diagnosis and evaluation of the course ADHD rating scales can be very useful. This article reviews rating instruments that have found general acceptance. The Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and the Childhood Symptoms Scale by Barkley and Murphy try to make a retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms. The Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Current Symptoms Scales by Barkley and Murphy (CSS), the Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS) by Adler et al. and Kessler et al. or the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Self Report Scale (ADHD-SR by Rösler et al.) are self report rating scales focusing mainly on the DSM-IV criteria. The CAARS and the CSS have other report forms too. The Brown ADD Rating Scale (Brown ADD-RS) and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Other Report Scale (ADHD-OR by Rösler et al.) are instruments for use by clinicians or significant others. Both self rating scales and observer report scales quantify the ADHD symptoms by use of a Likert scale mostly ranging from 0 to 3. This makes the instruments useful to follow the course of the disease quantitatively. Comprehensive diagnostic interviews not only evaluate diagnostic criteria, but also assess different psychopathological syndrome scores, functional disability measures, indices of pervasiveness and information about comorbid disorders. The most comprehensive procedures are the Brown ADD Diagnostic Form and the Adult Interview (AI) by Barkley and Murphy. An instrument of particular interest is the Wender Reimherr Interview (WRI

  1. Evolution in time and scales of the stability of heart interbeat rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Pérez, R.; Guzmán-Vargas, L.; Reyes-Ramírez, I.; Angulo-Brown, F.

    2010-12-01

    We approach heart interbeat rate by observing the evolution of its stability on scales and time, using tools for the analysis of frequency standards. In particular, we employ the dynamic Allan variance, which is used to characterize the time-varying stability of an atomic clock, to analyze heart interbeat time series for normal subjects and patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Our stability analysis shows that healthy dynamics is characterized by at least two stability regions along different scales. In contrast, diseased patients exhibit at least three different stability regions; over short scales the fluctuations resembled white-noise behavior whereas for large scales a drift is observed. The inflection points delimiting the first two stability regions for both groups are located around the same scales. Moreover, we find that CHF patients show lower variation of the stability in time than healthy subjects.

  2. Quantum metabolism explains the allometric scaling of metabolic rates.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Tuszynski, J A

    2010-03-06

    A general model explaining the origin of allometric laws of physiology is proposed based on coupled energy-transducing oscillator networks embedded in a physical d-dimensional space (d = 1, 2, 3). This approach integrates Mitchell's theory of chemi-osmosis with the Debye model of the thermal properties of solids. We derive a scaling rule that relates the energy generated by redox reactions in cells, the dimensionality of the physical space and the mean cycle time. Two major regimes are found corresponding to classical and quantum behaviour. The classical behaviour leads to allometric isometry while the quantum regime leads to scaling laws relating metabolic rate and body size that cover a broad range of exponents that depend on dimensionality and specific parameter values. The regimes are consistent with a range of behaviours encountered in micelles, plants and animals and provide a conceptual framework for a theory of the metabolic function of living systems.

  3. Quantum metabolism explains the allometric scaling of metabolic rates

    PubMed Central

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Tuszynski, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    A general model explaining the origin of allometric laws of physiology is proposed based on coupled energy-transducing oscillator networks embedded in a physical d-dimensional space (d = 1, 2, 3). This approach integrates Mitchell's theory of chemi-osmosis with the Debye model of the thermal properties of solids. We derive a scaling rule that relates the energy generated by redox reactions in cells, the dimensionality of the physical space and the mean cycle time. Two major regimes are found corresponding to classical and quantum behaviour. The classical behaviour leads to allometric isometry while the quantum regime leads to scaling laws relating metabolic rate and body size that cover a broad range of exponents that depend on dimensionality and specific parameter values. The regimes are consistent with a range of behaviours encountered in micelles, plants and animals and provide a conceptual framework for a theory of the metabolic function of living systems. PMID:19734187

  4. Validation of the Italian version of the SBMA Functional Rating Scale as outcome measure.

    PubMed

    Querin, Giorgia; DaRe, Elisa; Martinelli, Ilaria; Bello, Luca; Bertolin, Cinzia; Pareyson, Davide; Mariotti, Caterina; Pegoraro, Elena; Sorarù, Gianni

    2016-11-01

    The Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy Functional Rating Scale (SBMAFRS) is an established rating instrument used to assess the functional status of patients with Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy (SBMA). Our aim was to validate an Italian version of the scale. We administered the SBMAFRS to sixty SBMA patients during routine follow-up of clinical evaluations. To estimate the test stability, the scale was re-administered to a subset of 39 randomly selected patients after 8 weeks. The patients underwent clinical evaluation including 6-min walk. Psychometric analysis included reliability assessment and factorial analysis. To evaluate convergent validity, correlations between SBMAFRS items and muscular force assessed by manual testing, ALSFRS total score and subscales scores, and forced vital capacity, were performed. Internal consistency as measured by Cronbach's alpha (total scale 0.85) was high. Test-retest reliability assessed by Spearman's rho was also high. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation yielded a four-factor solution accounting for approximately 79 % of the variance. The scale total score and subscales score were strongly correlated with respective items and subscores of the ALSFRS, with respiratory function and with the 6-min walk test. In conclusion, we performed an Italian validation of the only existing disease-specific Functional Rating Scale for SBMA patients. This scale will be a useful tool not only in the clinical practice but also as an outcome measure in upcoming clinical trials.

  5. A confirmatory study of rating scale category effectiveness for the Coaching Efficacy Scale.

    PubMed

    Myers, Nicholas D; Feltz, Deborah L; Wolfe, Edward W

    2008-09-01

    This study extended validity evidence for measures of coaching efficacy derived from the Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES) by testing the rating scale categorizations suggested in previous research. Previous research provided evidence for the effectiveness of a four-category (4-CAT) structure for high school and collegiate sports coaches; it also suggested that a five-category (5-CAT) structure may be effective for youth sports coaches, because they may be more likely to endorse categories on the lower end of the scale. Coaches of youth sports (N = 492) responded to the CES items with a 5-CAT structure. Across rating scale category effectiveness guidelines, 32 of 34 evidences (94%) provided support for this structure. Data were condensed to a 4-CAT structure by collapsing responses in Category 1 (CAT-1) and Category 2 (CAT-2). Across rating scale category effectiveness guidelines, 25 of 26 evidences (96%) provided support for this structure. Findings provided confirmatory, cross-validation evidence for both the 5-CAT and 4-CAT structures. For empirical, theoretical, and practical reasons, the authors concluded that the 4-CAT structure was preferable to the 5-CAT when CES items are used to measure coaching efficacy. This conclusion is based on the findings of this confirmatory study and the more exploratory findings of Myers, Wolfe, and Feltz (2005).

  6. King's Parkinson's disease pain scale, the first scale for pain in PD: An international validation.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, K Ray; Rizos, A; Trenkwalder, C; Rascol, O; Pal, S; Martino, D; Carroll, C; Paviour, D; Falup-Pecurariu, C; Kessel, B; Silverdale, M; Todorova, A; Sauerbier, A; Odin, P; Antonini, A; Martinez-Martin, P

    2015-10-01

    Pain is a key unmet need and a major aspect of non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). No specific validated scales exist to identify and grade the various types of pain in PD. We report an international, cross-sectional, open, multicenter, one-point-in-time evaluation with retest study of the first PD-specific pain scale, the King's PD Pain Scale. Its seven domains include 14 items, each item scored by severity (0-3) multiplied by frequency (0-4), resulting in a subscore of 0 to 12, with a total possible score range from 0 to 168. One hundred seventy-eight PD patients with otherwise unexplained pain (age [mean ± SD], 64.38 ± 11.38 y [range, 29-85]; 62.92% male; duration of disease, 5.40 ± 4.93 y) and 83 nonspousal non-PD controls, matched by age (64.25 ± 11.10 y) and sex (61.45% males) were studied. No missing data were noted, and floor effect was observed in all domains. The difference between mean and median King's PD Pain Scale total score was less than 10% of the maximum observed value. Skewness was marginally high (1.48 for patients). Factor analysis showed four factors in the King's PD Pain Scale, explaining 57% of the variance (Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin, 0.73; sphericity test). Cronbach's alpha was 0.78, item-total correlation mean value 0.40, and item homogeneity 0.22. Correlation coefficients of the King's PD Pain Scale domains and total score with other pain measures were high. Correlation with the Scale for Outcomes in PD-Motor, Non-Motor Symptoms Scale total score, and quality of life measures was high. The King's PD Pain Scale seems to be a reliable and valid scale for grade rating of various types of pain in PD.

  7. The relationship between discharge readiness inventory scales and the brief psychiatric rating scale.

    PubMed

    Carmin, C N; Ownby, R L

    1994-03-01

    Important relationships exist between chronic psychiatric patients' symptoms of disorder and their readiness to be discharged from inpatient treatment. Behavioral rating scales can supplement clinical decision making by standardizing information about patients' functioning. The authors assessed whether two different behavioral measures described the same dimensions of disordered behavior in an older chronic patient population. Multivariate correlation analysis (canonical analysis) was used to assess relationships between items on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the scales in the Discharge Readiness Inventory. Three significant correlation variates were found. The variates reflected patterns of positive psychiatric symptomatology with a low level of psychosocial competence, a low level of symptomatology with a low level of psychosocial competence, and paranoid symptomatology with a high level of psychosocial competence. The presence or absence of psychiatric symptomatology and possibly the type of symptomatology are relevant in assessing patients' readiness for discharge.

  8. The Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…

  9. The Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…

  10. What interval characteristics make a good disease assessment category scale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant pathologists most often obtain quantitative information on disease severity using visual assessments. Category scales have been used for assessing plant disease severity in field experiments, epidemiological studies, and for screening germplasm. The most widely used category scale is the Horsf...

  11. Scaling Relations of Galactic Winds with Star Formation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Ryan; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    The galactic scale outflows generated by nuclear starbursts consist of a multiphase medium where each phase has a distinct velocity depending on the characteristics of the starburst. Using synthetic absorption lines generated from 3D hydrodynamical simulations we probe the outflow velocity of the hot, warm, and neutral gas entrained in a galactic wind. By varying the star formation rate (SFR) in our simulations, we find no correlation between the outflow velocity of the hot gas with the SFR, but we do find a correlation between the outflow velocity of both warm and neutral gas with the SFR. The scaling relation between outflow velocity and SFR only holds for low SFR until the scaling relation abruptly flattens at a SFR determined by the mass loading of the starburst. The outflow velocity of the hot gas only depends on the mass loading of the starburst and not the SFR. For low SFRs the difference between the velocity of cold gas, as measured by absorption lines of neutral or low ionized gas, may be 5-7 times lower than the velocity of the hot, highly ionized gas. The difference in velocity between the cold and hot gas for higher SFRs depends on the mass loading factor of the starburst. Thus the measured velocities of neutral or low ionized gas cannot be used to estimate the outflow velocity of the hot gas without determining the mass loading of the starburst.

  12. Disability rating scale for severe head trauma: coma to community.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, M; Hall, K M; Hopkins, K; Belleza, T; Cope, D N

    1982-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop one instrument for assessing quantitatively the disability of severe head trauma patients so their rehabilitative progress could be followed from coma through different levels of awareness and functioning to their return to the community. This disability rating (DR) instrument was designed to be easily learned, quickly completed, valid, predictive of outcome and to have a high inter-rater reliability. The DR Scale consists of 8 items divided into 4 categories; 1. Arousal and awareness; 2. Cognitive ability to handle self-care functions; 3. Physical dependence upon others; 4. Psychosocial adaptability for work, housework, or school. Completed independently by several raters for more than 88 serious head injury patients, inter-rater correlations were highly significant. The admission DR was significantly related to clinical outcome at 1 year after injury and was significantly related to electrophysiologic measures of brain dysfunction as reflected in degree of abnormality of evoked brain potential patterns. The DR Scale is more sensitive than the Glasgow Outcome Scale in detecting and measuring clinical changes in individuals who have sustained severe head trauma. Also it can be used to help identify patients most likely to benefit from intensive rehabilitation care within a hospital setting. It provides a shorthand global description of a head injury patient's condition that facilitates understanding and communication.

  13. A Comparison between School and Home Rating Scales and Reliability-Validity of the Scales-the Scales for Diagnosing Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    AKSU MERİÇLİ, Ebru; TURAN, Figen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the present research is to compare the Turkish translations of school and home versions of the Scales for Diagnosing Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (SCALES) developed by Ryser and McConnell with respect to age and gender and to examine the correlation between the two scales. Method The research was conducted with 102 teachers and parents of 891 children aged between 5.0 and 14.11 years. 656 scale forms of parents returned to us were included in the study. The teachers filled in teacher information form, child information form, SCALES-School Rating Scale and the Turkish version of Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale. The parents filled in family information form, child information form and SCALES-Home Rating Scale and the Turkish version of the Conners’ Home Rating Scale. Results When SCALES-Home Rating Scale and SCALES-School Rating Scale scores of each age group were compared using t-test, it was observed that the difference in all sub-scale scores in the 5–9 age group was significant and it was also observed that in the 10–13 and 13+ age groups, the difference was significant only in the hyperactivity field. The correlation between SCALES-School Rating Scale and SCALES-Home Rating Scale was investigated. The correlation between sub-scales measuring the same abilities was found to be between 0.1 and 0.26. Conclusion We assume that the Turkish version of the SCALES is a valid and reliable instrument for diagnosing ADHD. Since SCALES-Home Rating Scale scores were higher than SCALES-School Rating Scale scores and the correlation between the two scales was low, we assume that the objectivity of parents’ ratings was limited. Future validity studies on diagnosed children are needed.

  14. A Comparison between School and Home Rating Scales and Reliability-Validity of the Scales-the Scales for Diagnosing Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Aksu Meriçli, Ebru; Turan, Figen

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present research is to compare the Turkish translations of school and home versions of the Scales for Diagnosing Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (SCALES) developed by Ryser and McConnell with respect to age and gender and to examine the correlation between the two scales. The research was conducted with 102 teachers and parents of 891 children aged between 5.0 and 14.11 years. 656 scale forms of parents returned to us were included in the study. The teachers filled in teacher information form, child information form, SCALES-School Rating Scale and the Turkish version of Conners' Teacher Rating Scale. The parents filled in family information form, child information form and SCALES-Home Rating Scale and the Turkish version of the Conners' Home Rating Scale. When SCALES-Home Rating Scale and SCALES-School Rating Scale scores of each age group were compared using t-test, it was observed that the difference in all sub-scale scores in the 5-9 age group was significant and it was also observed that in the 10-13 and 13+ age groups, the difference was significant only in the hyperactivity field. The correlation between SCALES-School Rating Scale and SCALES-Home Rating Scale was investigated. The correlation between sub-scales measuring the same abilities was found to be between 0.1 and 0.26. We assume that the Turkish version of the SCALES is a valid and reliable instrument for diagnosing ADHD. Since SCALES-Home Rating Scale scores were higher than SCALES-School Rating Scale scores and the correlation between the two scales was low, we assume that the objectivity of parents' ratings was limited. Future validity studies on diagnosed children are needed.

  15. Subjective rating of executive functions in mild Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Jennifer; Almklov, Erin; Borrie, Michael; Wells, Jennie; Roth, Robert M

    2017-11-01

    Subjective cognitive decline is considered to be a core feature of pre-Alzheimer's disease (AD) conditions, the vast majority of literature having focused on memory concerns. Neuropsychological studies have implicated executive dysfunction on objective performance measures in AD, but no research has evaluated whether individuals with AD have concerns about their executive functions and whether it differs from their caregiver's concerns. In the present study, we sought to evaluate self- and informant ratings of executive functioning in patients with mild AD. Participants were 23 patients with mild AD and 32 healthy elderly controls (HC) and their informants who completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult version. Patients with AD and their informants reported greater executive dysfunction than the HC group and their informants, respectively, and patients reported greater difficulty than their informants. The largest effect size for both self- and informant ratings was obtained for the Working Memory scale. These findings indicate that subjective cognitive concerns in mild AD extend beyond the memory domain to executive functions. That greater difficulty was endorsed by patients than their informants suggests that at least in the mild stage of AD some awareness of executive dysfunction may be maintained in some patients. Implications for clinical care are discussed.

  16. The Levels of Speech Usage rating scale: comparison of client self-ratings with speech pathologist ratings.

    PubMed

    Gray, Christina; Baylor, Carolyn; Eadie, Tanya; Kendall, Diane; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    The term 'speech usage' refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to fulfil the communication demands in their life roles. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) need to know about clients' speech usage to plan appropriate interventions to meet their life participation goals. The Levels of Speech Usage is a categorical scale intended for client self-report of speech usage, but SLPs may want the option to use it as a proxy-report tool. The relationship between self-report and clinician ratings should be examined before the instrument is used in a proxy format. The primary purpose of this study was to compare client self-ratings with SLP ratings on the Levels of Speech Usage scale. The secondary purpose was to determine if the SLP ratings differed depending on whether or not the SLPs knew about the clients' medical condition. Self-ratings of adults with communication disorders on the Levels of Speech Usage scale were available from prior research. Vignettes about these individuals were created from existing data. Two sets of vignettes were created. One set contained information about demographic information, living situation, occupational status and hobbies or social activities. The second set was identical to the first with the addition of information about the clients' medical conditions and communication disorders. Various communication disorders were represented including dysarthria, voice disorders, laryngectomy, and mild cognitive and language disorders. Sixty SLPs were randomly divided into two groups with each group rating one set of vignettes. The task was completed online. While this does not replicate typical in-person clinical interactions, it was a feasible method for this study. For data analysis, the client self-ratings were considered fixed points and the percentage of SLP ratings in agreement with the self-ratings was calculated. The percentage of SLP ratings in exact agreement with client self-ratings was 44.9%. Agreement was lowest

  17. Highly Challenging Balance Program Reduces Fall Rate in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sparrow, David; DeAngelis, Tamara R.; Hendron, Kathryn; Thomas, Cathi A.; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Ellis, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose There is a paucity of effective treatment options to reduce falls in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although a variety of rehabilitative approaches have been shown to improve balance, evidence of a reduction in falls has been mixed. Prior balance trials suggest that programs with highly challenging exercises had superior outcomes. We investigated the effects of a theoretically driven, progressive, highly challenging group exercise program on fall rate, balance, and fear of falling. Methods Twenty-three subjects with PD participated in this randomized cross-over trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to 3 months of active balance exercises or usual care followed by the reverse. During the active condition, subjects participated in a progressive, highly challenging group exercise program twice weekly for 90 minutes. Outcomes included a change in fall rate over the 3-month active period and differences in balance (Mini-BESTest), and fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I)) between active and usual care conditions. Results: The effect of time on falls was significant (regression coefficient = −0.015 per day, p<0.001). The estimated rate ratio comparing incidence rates at time points one month apart was 0.632 (95% CI 0.524 to 0.763). Thus, there was an estimated 37% decline in fall rate per month (95% CI 24% to 48%). Improvements were also observed on the Mini-BESTest (p=0.037) and FES-I (p=0.059). Discussion and Conclusions The results of this study show that a theoretically based, highly challenging, and progressive exercise program was effective in reducing falls, improving balance, and reducing fear of falling in PD. PMID:26655100

  18. Chronic Disease Medication Administration Rates in a Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Lawrence; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Burbach, Cindy; Molgaard, Craig A.; Ngong, Lolem

    2004-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest school nurses and staff treat increasing numbers of public school students with chronic diseases. However, professionals know little about actual disease burden in schools. This study measured prevalence of chronic disease medication administration rates in a large, urban midwestern school district. Data from daily…

  19. Vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccination rates in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Kightlinger, Lon

    2013-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases have historically caused much illness and death in South Dakota. Sixty-seven diphtheria deaths were reported in 1892 and 1,017 polio cases were reported at the peak of the polio epidemic in 1952. As vaccines have been developed, licensed and put into wide use, the rates of diphtheria, polio, measles, smallpox and other diseases have successfully decreased leading to control, statewide elimination or eradication. Other diseases, such as pertussis, have been more difficult to control by vaccination alone. Although current vaccination coverage rates for South Dakota's kindergarten children surpass the Healthy People 2020 targets of 95 percent, the coverage rates for 2-year-old children and teenagers are below the target rates. Until vaccine-preventable diseases are eradicated globally, we must vigilantly maintain high vaccination coverage rates and aggressively apply control measures to limit transmission when diseases do occur in South Dakota.

  20. Universal scaling of production rates across mammalian lineages

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Davidson, Ana D.; Sibly, Richard M.; Brown, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Over many millions of years of independent evolution, placental, marsupial and monotreme mammals have diverged conspicuously in physiology, life history and reproductive ecology. The differences in life histories are particularly striking. Compared with placentals, marsupials exhibit shorter pregnancy, smaller size of offspring at birth and longer period of lactation in the pouch. Monotremes also exhibit short pregnancy, but incubate embryos in eggs, followed by a long period of post-hatching lactation. Using a large sample of mammalian species, we show that, remarkably, despite their very different life histories, the scaling of production rates is statistically indistinguishable across mammalian lineages. Apparently all mammals are subject to the same fundamental metabolic constraints on productivity, because they share similar body designs, vascular systems and costs of producing new tissue. PMID:20798111

  1. Universal scaling of production rates across mammalian lineages.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Marcus J; Davidson, Ana D; Sibly, Richard M; Brown, James H

    2011-02-22

    Over many millions of years of independent evolution, placental, marsupial and monotreme mammals have diverged conspicuously in physiology, life history and reproductive ecology. The differences in life histories are particularly striking. Compared with placentals, marsupials exhibit shorter pregnancy, smaller size of offspring at birth and longer period of lactation in the pouch. Monotremes also exhibit short pregnancy, but incubate embryos in eggs, followed by a long period of post-hatching lactation. Using a large sample of mammalian species, we show that, remarkably, despite their very different life histories, the scaling of production rates is statistically indistinguishable across mammalian lineages. Apparently all mammals are subject to the same fundamental metabolic constraints on productivity, because they share similar body designs, vascular systems and costs of producing new tissue.

  2. Inhomogeneous scaling behaviors in Malaysian foreign currency exchange rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniandy, S. V.; Lim, S. C.; Murugan, R.

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fractal scaling behaviors of foreign currency exchange rates with respect to Malaysian currency, Ringgit Malaysia. These time series are examined piecewise before and after the currency control imposed in 1st September 1998 using the monofractal model based on fractional Brownian motion. The global Hurst exponents are determined using the R/ S analysis, the detrended fluctuation analysis and the method of second moment using the correlation coefficients. The limitation of these monofractal analyses is discussed. The usual multifractal analysis reveals that there exists a wide range of Hurst exponents in each of the time series. A new method of modelling the multifractal time series based on multifractional Brownian motion with time-varying Hurst exponents is studied.

  3. High mutational rates of large-scale duplication and deletion in Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Nathan; Tucker, Abraham E.; Jackson, Craig E.; Sung, Way; Lucas Lledó, José Ignacio; Schrider, Daniel R.; Schaack, Sarah; Dudycha, Jeffry L.; Ackerman, Matthew; Younge, Andrew J.; Shaw, Joseph R.; Lynch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the genome-wide rate and spectrum of mutations is necessary to understand the origin of disease and the genetic variation driving all evolutionary processes. Here, we provide a genome-wide analysis of the rate and spectrum of mutations obtained in two Daphnia pulex genotypes via separate mutation-accumulation (MA) experiments. Unlike most MA studies that utilize haploid, homozygous, or self-fertilizing lines, D. pulex can be propagated ameiotically while maintaining a naturally heterozygous, diploid genome, allowing the capture of the full spectrum of genomic changes that arise in a heterozygous state. While base-substitution mutation rates are similar to those in other multicellular eukaryotes (about 4 × 10−9 per site per generation), we find that the rates of large-scale (>100 kb) de novo copy-number variants (CNVs) are significantly elevated relative to those seen in previous MA studies. The heterozygosity maintained in this experiment allowed for estimates of gene-conversion processes. While most of the conversion tract lengths we report are similar to those generated by meiotic processes, we also find larger tract lengths that are indicative of mitotic processes. Comparison of MA lines to natural isolates reveals that a majority of large-scale CNVs in natural populations are removed by purifying selection. The mutations observed here share similarities with disease-causing, complex, large-scale CNVs, thereby demonstrating that MA studies in D. pulex serve as a system for studying the processes leading to such alterations. PMID:26518480

  4. Scaling of standard metabolic rate in estuarine crocodiles Crocodylus porosus.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S; Gienger, C M; Brien, Matthew L; Tracy, Christopher R; Charlie Manolis, S; Webb, Grahame J W; Christian, Keith A

    2013-05-01

    Standard metabolic rate (SMR, ml O2 min(-1)) of captive Crocodylus porosus at 30 °C scales with body mass (kg) according to the equation, SMR = 1.01 M(0.829), in animals ranging in body mass of 3.3 orders of magnitude (0.19-389 kg). The exponent is significantly higher than 0.75, so does not conform to quarter-power scaling theory, but rather is likely an emergent property with no single explanation. SMR at 1 kg body mass is similar to the literature for C. porosus and for alligators. The high exponent is not related to feeding, growth, or obesity of captive animals. The log-transformed data appear slightly curved, mainly because SMR is somewhat low in many of the largest animals (291-389 kg). A 3-parameter model is scarcely different from the linear one, but reveals a declining exponent between 0.862 and 0.798. A non-linear model on arithmetic axes overestimates SMR in 70% of the smallest animals and does not satisfactorily represent the data.

  5. Pilot Validation Study: Canadian Global Rating Scale for Colonoscopy Services

    PubMed Central

    El Ouali, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background. The United Kingdom Global Rating Scale (GRS-UK) measures unit-level quality metrics processes in digestive endoscopy. We evaluated the psychometric properties of its Canadian version (GRS-C), endorsed by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG). Methods. Prospective data collection at three Canadian endoscopy units assessed GRS-C validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change according to responses provided by physicians, endoscopy nurses, and administrative personnel. These responses were compared to national CAG endoscopic quality guidelines and GRS-UK statements. Results. Most respondents identified the overarching theme each GRS-C item targeted, confirming face validity. Content validity was suggested as 18 out of 23 key CAG endoscopic quality indicators (78%, 95% CI: 56–93%) were addressed in the GRS-C; statements not included pertained to educational programs and competency monitoring. Concordance ranged 75–100% comparing GRS-C and GRS-UK ratings. Test-retest reliability Kappa scores ranged 0.60–0.83, while responsiveness to change scores at 6 months after intervention implementations were greater (P < 0.001) in two out of three units. Conclusion. The GRS-C exhibits satisfactory metrics, supporting its use in a national quality initiative aimed at improving processes in endoscopy units. Data collection from more units and linking to actual patient outcomes are required to ensure that GRS-C implementation facilitates improved patient care. PMID:27840810

  6. Freely expanding detonation products: Scaling of rate processes

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, N.R.

    1988-01-01

    Using the Los Alamos reactive hydrodynamics code KIVA, calculations have been made to simulate the free expansion of cylinders of detonation products into a high vacuum. The emphasis of this paper is on the scaling of rate processes with cylinder size and initial conditions as a function of position in the expanding mass. The processes considered include diffusion, unimolecular decomposition, biomolecular radical reactions, and vibrational relaxation. The calculations also give time-dependent velocity fields; schlieren images; and profiles of density, pressure, and temperature. Many features of the calculations can be compared with experimental observations, including time-delayed schlieren and shadowgraph snapshots, time-dependent absorption spectra, and time-of-arrival profiles of molecular species. Some unexpected insights, such as the effect of the equation of state on the shape of the expanding plume and the effect of position on the rate of quenching, are discussed. These calculations are being used to interpret the available experimental data and to design future experiments. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Validation of Empirically Derived Rating Scales for a Story Retelling Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Akiyo; Koizumi, Rie

    2013-01-01

    In recognition of the rating scale as a crucial tool of performance assessment, this study aims to establish a rating scale suitable for a Story Retelling Speaking Test (SRST), which is a semidirect test of speaking ability in English as a foreign language for classroom use. To identify an appropriate scale, three rating scales, all of which have…

  8. Validation of Empirically Derived Rating Scales for a Story Retelling Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Akiyo; Koizumi, Rie

    2013-01-01

    In recognition of the rating scale as a crucial tool of performance assessment, this study aims to establish a rating scale suitable for a Story Retelling Speaking Test (SRST), which is a semidirect test of speaking ability in English as a foreign language for classroom use. To identify an appropriate scale, three rating scales, all of which have…

  9. A validated rating scale for global mental workload measurement applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwile, W. W.; Casali, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    The Cooper-Harper (1969) scale has been extensively used for evaluation of aircraft handling qualities and associated mental workload. The scale is a 10-point scale with a decision tree. A modified version of the scale, called the MCH scale, has been devised for the purpose of assessing workload in systems other than those where the human operator performs motor tasks; namely, where perceptual, mediational, and communications activity is preent. The MCH scale has been validated in three different experiments. The scale is recommended for applications in which overall mental workload is to be assessed.

  10. Scientists Spot Genetic Clues to Disfiguring 'Fish Scale' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166145.html Scientists Spot Genetic Clues to Disfiguring 'Fish Scale' Disease People with ... June 1 in the American Journal of Human Genetics , adds to the list of genetic culprits. The ...

  11. A Scale for Rating Fire-Prevention Contactors

    Treesearch

    M.L. Doolittle

    1979-01-01

    A scale is constructed to help fire-prevention program administrators determine if an individual contactor is effective at influencing people. The 24 items in the scale indicate the qualities that an effective contactor should have.

  12. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  13. Uncinate Process Length in Birds Scales with Resting Metabolic Rate

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Peter; Nudds, Robert; Codd, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental function of the respiratory system is the supply of oxygen to meet metabolic demand. Morphological constraints on the supply of oxygen, such as the structure of the lung, have previously been studied in birds. Recent research has shown that uncinate processes (UP) are important respiratory structures in birds, facilitating inspiratory and expiratory movements of the ribs and sternum. Uncinate process length (UPL) is important for determining the mechanical advantage for these respiratory movements. Here we report on the relationship between UPL, body size, metabolic demand and locomotor specialisation in birds. UPL was found to scale isometrically with body mass. Process length is greatest in specialist diving birds, shortest in walking birds and intermediate length in all others relative to body size. Examination of the interaction between the length of the UP and metabolic demand indicated that, relative to body size, species with high metabolic rates have corresponding elongated UP. We propose that elongated UP confer an advantage on the supply of oxygen, perhaps by improving the mechanical advantage and reducing the energetic cost of movements of the ribs and sternum. PMID:19479074

  14. Uncinate process length in birds scales with resting metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Peter; Nudds, Robert; Codd, Jonathan

    2009-05-27

    A fundamental function of the respiratory system is the supply of oxygen to meet metabolic demand. Morphological constraints on the supply of oxygen, such as the structure of the lung, have previously been studied in birds. Recent research has shown that uncinate processes (UP) are important respiratory structures in birds, facilitating inspiratory and expiratory movements of the ribs and sternum. Uncinate process length (UPL) is important for determining the mechanical advantage for these respiratory movements. Here we report on the relationship between UPL, body size, metabolic demand and locomotor specialisation in birds. UPL was found to scale isometrically with body mass. Process length is greatest in specialist diving birds, shortest in walking birds and intermediate length in all others relative to body size. Examination of the interaction between the length of the UP and metabolic demand indicated that, relative to body size, species with high metabolic rates have corresponding elongated UP. We propose that elongated UP confer an advantage on the supply of oxygen, perhaps by improving the mechanical advantage and reducing the energetic cost of movements of the ribs and sternum.

  15. Declining tuberculosis case notification rates with the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Harries, A. D.; Sandy, C.; Mutasa-Apollo, T.; Zishiri, C.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Zimbabwe has a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) driven tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, with antiretroviral therapy (ART) scaled up in the public sector since 2004. Objective: To determine whether national ART scale-up was associated with annual national TB case notification rates (CNR), stratified by disease type and category, between 2000 and 2013. Design: This was a retrospective study using aggregate data from global reports. Results: The number of people living with HIV and retained on ART from 2004 to 2013 increased from 8400 to 665 299, with ART coverage increasing from <0.5% to 48%. TB CNRs, all types and categories, increased from 2000 to 2003, and declined thereafter from 2004 to 2013. The decreases in annual TB notifications between the highest rates (before 2004) and lowest rates (2013) were all forms of TB (56%), new TB (60%), previously treated TB (53%), new smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) (40%), new smear-negative/smear-unknown PTB (58%) and extra-pulmonary TB (58%). Conclusion: Significant declines in TB CNRs were observed during ART scale-up, especially for smear-negative PTB and extra-pulmonary TB. These encouraging national trends support the continued scale-up of ART for people living with HIV as a way of tackling the twin epidemics of HIV/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome and TB in Zimbabwe. PMID:27695678

  16. Declining tuberculosis case notification rates with the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Takarinda, K C; Harries, A D; Sandy, C; Mutasa-Apollo, T; Zishiri, C

    2016-09-01

    Setting: Zimbabwe has a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) driven tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, with antiretroviral therapy (ART) scaled up in the public sector since 2004. Objective: To determine whether national ART scale-up was associated with annual national TB case notification rates (CNR), stratified by disease type and category, between 2000 and 2013. Design: This was a retrospective study using aggregate data from global reports. Results: The number of people living with HIV and retained on ART from 2004 to 2013 increased from 8400 to 665 299, with ART coverage increasing from <0.5% to 48%. TB CNRs, all types and categories, increased from 2000 to 2003, and declined thereafter from 2004 to 2013. The decreases in annual TB notifications between the highest rates (before 2004) and lowest rates (2013) were all forms of TB (56%), new TB (60%), previously treated TB (53%), new smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) (40%), new smear-negative/smear-unknown PTB (58%) and extra-pulmonary TB (58%). Conclusion: Significant declines in TB CNRs were observed during ART scale-up, especially for smear-negative PTB and extra-pulmonary TB. These encouraging national trends support the continued scale-up of ART for people living with HIV as a way of tackling the twin epidemics of HIV/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome and TB in Zimbabwe.

  17. Quantifying behaviors of children with Sanfilippo syndrome: The Sanfilippo Behavior Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Elsa G.; Nestrasil, Igor; Ahmed, Alia; Wey, Andrew; Rudser, Kyle; Delaney, Kathleen; Rumsey, Robin; Haslett, Patrick; Whitley, Chester B.; Potegal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Sanfilippo Behavior Rating Scale (SBRS), a 68 item questionnaire, has been developed to assess the behavioral phenotype of children with Sanfilippo syndrome and its progression over time. Fifteen scales rate orality, movement/activity, attention/self-control, emotional function including anger and fear, and social interaction. Items within scales intercorrelate; measures of internal consistency are adequate. Twelve scales are grouped into 4 abnormality clusters: Movement, Lack of fear, Social/emotional and Executive Dysfunction. A Loess age-trajectory analysis showed that Lack of Fear, Social/Emotional and Executive Dysfunction increased steadily with age; Orality and Mood/Anger/Aggression leveled off. Movement peaked around 6 years, then declined as children’s excessive/purposeless actions stopped. Compared with standard scales, SBRS Movement was appropriately associated with the Vineland Motor scale; SBRS Lack of Fear had significant associations with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), indicating a symptom overlap between Sanfilippo syndrome and autism. This suggests that reduced fearfulness may be the most salient/sensitive SBRS marker of disease progression. Volumetric MRI showed that increased Lack of Fear was significantly associated with reduced amygdala volume, consistent with our hypothesis that the behavior seen in Sanfilippo syndrome is a variant of Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Hippocampal volume loss had twice the effect on Social-Emotional Dysfunction as amygdala loss, consistent with a hippocampal role in attachment and social emotions. In conclusion, the SBRS assesses the Sanfilippo behavioral phenotype; it can measure behavior change that accompanies disease progression and/or results from treatment. PMID:25770355

  18. Quantifying behaviors of children with Sanfilippo syndrome: the Sanfilippo Behavior Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Elsa G; Nestrasil, Igor; Ahmed, Alia; Wey, Andrew; Rudser, Kyle R; Delaney, Kathleen A; Rumsey, Robin K; Haslett, Patrick A J; Whitley, Chester B; Potegal, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The Sanfilippo Behavior Rating Scale (SBRS), a 68 item questionnaire, has been developed to assess the behavioral phenotype of children with Sanfilippo syndrome and its progression over time. Fifteen scales rate orality, movement/activity, attention/self-control, emotional function including anger and fear, and social interaction. Items within scales intercorrelate; measures of internal consistency are adequate. Twelve scales are grouped into 4 abnormality clusters: Movement, Lack of fear, Social/emotional and Executive Dysfunction. A Loess age-trajectory analysis showed that Lack of Fear, Social/Emotional and Executive Dysfunction increased steadily with age; Orality and Mood/Anger/Aggression leveled off. Movement peaked around 6years, then declined as children's excessive/purposeless actions stopped. Compared with standard scales, SBRS Movement was appropriately associated with the Vineland Motor scale; SBRS Lack of Fear had significant associations with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), indicating a symptom overlap between Sanfilippo syndrome and autism. This suggests that reduced fearfulness may be the most salient/sensitive SBRS marker of disease progression. Volumetric MRI showed that increased Lack of Fear was significantly associated with reduced amygdala volume, consistent with our hypothesis that the behavior seen in Sanfilippo syndrome is a variant of Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Hippocampal volume loss had twice the effect on Social-Emotional Dysfunction as amygdala loss, consistent with a hippocampal role in attachment and social emotions. In conclusion, the SBRS assesses the Sanfilippo behavioral phenotype; it can measure behavior change that accompanies disease progression and/or results from treatment.

  19. [Respiratory domain of revised amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Functional Rating Scale].

    PubMed

    Lima, Sandra E; Pessolano, Fernando A; Monteiro, Sergio G; De Vito, Eduardo L

    2009-01-01

    Virtually all patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis will complain of dyspnea, which is perhaps the most distressing symptom of this devastating disease. The objective was to correlate respiratory domain of ALSFRS-R with forced vital capacity and maximal static pressures in the mouth. We designed a prospective study in 20 consecutive patients without dyspnea during 24 months. The global decline of ALSFRS-R was from 34.3 +/- 10.3 to 22.1 +/- 8.0 (p = 0.0325), the contribution of respiratory domain was irrelevant. Those who referred dyspnea (n: 12), forced vital capacity fell 41 +/- 21% of the initial value but with similar value of fall (46 +/- 23%) 8 patients did not referred dyspnea. Total score of ALSFRS-R correlated with forced vital capacity (litres), r: 0.73, p = 0.0016 and maximal inspiratory pressure (cm H2O), r: 0.84, p = 0.0038, but the fall of the forced vital capacity (%) did not correlate with dyspnea (r(s): 0.23, p = 0.1400). There was a moderate correlation between dyspnea and maximal inspiratory pressure (%), r(s): 0.58, p = 0.0300 and between dyspnea and maximal expiratory pressure (%), r(s): 0.49, p = 0.0400. We concluded that the respiratory functional deterioration could not be predicted using respiratory domain of ALSFRS-R. This suggests that respiratory domain of this scale does not replace to respiratory function testing measurements and, due to the respiratory insufficiency could not be clinically evident; performing pulmonary function tests provides an objective view and permit to make anticipatory actions.

  20. Elevated Rates of Mild Cognitive Impairment in HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, David P.; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Bondi, Mark W.; Doyle, Katie L.; Morgan, Erin E.; Massman, Paul J.; Gilbert, Paul E.; Woods, Steven Paul

    2015-01-01

    With the rising number of individuals in their 50s and 60s who are infected with HIV, concerns have emerged about possible increases in the rates of non-HIV-associated dementias. The current study examined the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older HIV-infected adults, since MCI is an intermediate state between typical cognitive aging and dementia that emerges in this age range. Participants included 75 adults with HIV disease aged 50 years and older who were on cART and had undetectable plasma viral loads and 80 demographically similar HIV seronegative comparison subjects. Participants completed a research neuropsychological evaluation that was used to classify MCI according to the comprehensive diagnostic scheme described by Bondi et al. (2014). HIV-infected persons were over seven times more likely to have an MCI designation (16%) than their seronegative counterparts (2.5%). Within the HIV+ cohort, MCI had minimal overlap with diagnoses of Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment and was significantly associated with older age, lower Karnofsky Scale of Performance Scores, and mild difficulties performing instrumental activities of daily living (iADLs). HIV infection in older adults is associated with a notably elevated concurrent risk of MCI, which may increase the likelihood of developing non-HIV-associated dementias as this population ages further. PMID:26139019

  1. Self-rated quality of life in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Ciacci, C; D'Agate, C; De Rosa, A; Franzese, C; Errichiello, S; Gasperi, V; Pardi, A; Quagliata, D; Visentini, S; Greco, L

    2003-11-01

    As much as 1% of the gluten-consuming world is gluten-intolerant. New screening methods are increasingly identifying gluten intolerance in individuals previously free from health problems. The often-abrupt major change in diet may adversely affect the patient's quality of life. Our aim was to evaluate self-perceived quality of life in a large cohort of adult celiac patients after at least one year of a gluten-free diet. In all 581 members (410 females) of five regional celiac societies were on a gluten-free regimen for at least one year. In this cross-sectional study, a modified version of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was administered to the 581 patients from five Italian regions. Most patients correctly defined celiac disease, and compliance with the gluten-free diet was high, although reporting bias cannot be excluded. Most felt well (83.6% "very well" and "well"); consequently, anxiety and depression scores were low. Happiness also scored low. Most participants did not feel that a gluten-free life differentiated them from the general population. Women and patients diagnosed after 20 years of age had better dietary compliance, but more problems in their social life. Happiness scores were higher in patients diagnosed before 20 years of age. Anxiety and depression were infrequent in this group; however, anxiety was frequently related to feeling different from the general population, and depression to an unsatisfactory sexual life. In conclusion, celiac disease does not appear to be associated to a low level of self-perceived quality of life in members of the Italian Celiac Society.

  2. Clinical rating scale for pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Darling, Alejandra; Tello, Cristina; Martí, María Josep; Garrido, Cristina; Aguilera-Albesa, Sergio; Tomás Vila, Miguel; Gastón, Itziar; Madruga, Marcos; González Gutiérrez, Luis; Ramos Lizana, Julio; Pujol, Montserrat; Gavilán Iglesias, Tania; Tustin, Kylee; Lin, Jean Pierre; Zorzi, Giovanna; Nardocci, Nardo; Martorell, Loreto; Lorenzo Sanz, Gustavo; Gutiérrez, Fuencisla; García, Pedro J; Vela, Lidia; Hernández Lahoz, Carlos; Ortigoza Escobar, Juan Darío; Martí Sánchez, Laura; Moreira, Fradique; Coelho, Miguel; Correia Guedes, Leonor; Castro Caldas, Ana; Ferreira, Joaquim; Pires, Paula; Costa, Cristina; Rego, Paulo; Magalhães, Marina; Stamelou, María; Cuadras Pallejà, Daniel; Rodríguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Lupo, Vincenzo; Stefanis, Leonidas; Pons, Roser; Espinós, Carmen; Temudo, Teresa; Pérez Dueñas, Belén

    2017-08-28

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration is a progressive neurological disorder occurring in both childhood and adulthood. The objective of this study was to design and pilot-test a disease-specific clinical rating scale for the assessment of patients with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. In this international cross-sectional study, patients were examined at the referral centers following a standardized protocol. The motor examination was filmed, allowing 3 independent specialists in movement disorders to analyze 28 patients for interrater reliability assessment. The scale included 34 items (maximal score, 135) encompassing 6 subscales for cognition, behavior, disability, parkinsonism, dystonia, and other neurological signs. Forty-seven genetically confirmed patients (30 ± 17 years; range, 6-77 years) were examined with the scale (mean score, 62 ± 21; range, 20-106). Dystonia with prominent cranial involvement and atypical parkinsonian features were present in all patients. Other common signs were cognitive impairment, psychiatric features, and slow and hypometric saccades. Dystonia, parkinsonism, and other neurological features had a moderate to strong correlation with disability. The scale showed good internal consistency for the total scale (Cronbach's α = 0.87). On interrater analysis, weighted kappa values (0.30-0.93) showed substantial or excellent agreement in 85% of the items. The scale also discriminated a subgroup of homozygous c.1583C>T patients with lower scores, supporting construct validity for the scale. The proposed scale seems to be a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of pediatric and adult patients with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Additional validation studies with a larger sample size will be required to confirm the present results and to complete the scale validation testing. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement

  3. Scaling and universality in heart rate variability distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, M. G.; Peng, C. K.; Mietus, J. E.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    We find that a universal homogeneous scaling form describes the distribution of cardiac variations for a group of healthy subjects, which is stable over a wide range of time scales. However, a similar scaling function does not exist for a group with a common cardiopulmonary instability associated with sleep apnea. Subtle differences in the distributions for the day- and night-phase dynamics for healthy subjects are detected.

  4. Scaling and universality in heart rate variability distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, M. G.; Peng, C. K.; Mietus, J. E.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    We find that a universal homogeneous scaling form describes the distribution of cardiac variations for a group of healthy subjects, which is stable over a wide range of time scales. However, a similar scaling function does not exist for a group with a common cardiopulmonary instability associated with sleep apnea. Subtle differences in the distributions for the day- and night-phase dynamics for healthy subjects are detected.

  5. Scaling and universality in heart rate variability distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. Ch; Rosenblum, M. G.; Peng, C.-K.; Mietus, J. E.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    We find that a universal homogeneous scaling form describes the distributions of cardiac variations for a group of healthy subjects, which is stable over a wide range of time scales. However, a similar scaling function does not exist for a group with a common cardiopulmonary instability associated with sleep apnea. Subtle differences in the distributions for the day- and night-phase dynamics for healthy subjects are detected.

  6. On the Validity of the Psychosocial Maturity Scales: Relationship to Teacher Ratings. Report No. 171.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josselson, Ruthellen; And Others

    This study attempts to provide evidence for the criterion validity of the Psychosocial Maturity (PSM) scales. Students' scores on the nine PSM scales were related to teachers' ratings of student PSM-related behavior. All scales except Trust significantly differentiated students rated high on PSM-related traits from students not rated high. Only…

  7. Psychometric Properties of ADHD Rating Scales among Children with Mental Retardation I: Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael L.; Fee, Virginia E.; Netterville, Amanda K.

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) rating scales in children with mental retardation was assessed. Parents, teachers, and teaching assistants completed ADHD rating scales on 48 children aged 5-12 diagnosed with mental retardation. Measures included the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Conners Rating Scales, the…

  8. Rating Scale Impact on EFL Essay Marking: A Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2007-01-01

    Educators often have to choose among different types of rating scales to assess second-language (L2) writing performance. There is little research, however, on how different rating scales affect rater performance. This study employed a mixed-method approach to investigate the effects of two different rating scales on EFL essay scores, rating…

  9. Rating Scale Items: A Brief Review of Nomenclature, Components, and Formatting to Inform the Development of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Boice, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Ratings scales are a common component of many multisource, multimethod frameworks for socioemotional and behavior assessment of children. There is a modest literature base to support the use of attitudinal, behavioral, and personality rating scales. Much of that historic literature focuses on the characteristics and interpretations of specific…

  10. Rating Scale Items: A Brief Review of Nomenclature, Components, and Formatting to Inform the Development of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Boice, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Ratings scales are a common component of many multisource, multimethod frameworks for socioemotional and behavior assessment of children. There is a modest literature base to support the use of attitudinal, behavioral, and personality rating scales. Much of that historic literature focuses on the characteristics and interpretations of specific…

  11. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Parent and Teacher Ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-01-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., "Journal of Child Psychology and…

  12. Large-Scale Discovery of Disease-Disease and Disease-Gene Associations

    PubMed Central

    Gligorijevic, Djordje; Stojanovic, Jelena; Djuric, Nemanja; Radosavljevic, Vladan; Grbovic, Mihajlo; Kulathinal, Rob J.; Obradovic, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Data-driven phenotype analyses on Electronic Health Record (EHR) data have recently drawn benefits across many areas of clinical practice, uncovering new links in the medical sciences that can potentially affect the well-being of millions of patients. In this paper, EHR data is used to discover novel relationships between diseases by studying their comorbidities (co-occurrences in patients). A novel embedding model is designed to extract knowledge from disease comorbidities by learning from a large-scale EHR database comprising more than 35 million inpatient cases spanning nearly a decade, revealing significant improvements on disease phenotyping over current computational approaches. In addition, the use of the proposed methodology is extended to discover novel disease-gene associations by including valuable domain knowledge from genome-wide association studies. To evaluate our approach, its effectiveness is compared against a held-out set where, again, it revealed very compelling results. For selected diseases, we further identify candidate gene lists for which disease-gene associations were not studied previously. Thus, our approach provides biomedical researchers with new tools to filter genes of interest, thus, reducing costly lab studies. PMID:27578529

  13. Correlating heart rate and perceived exertion during aerobic exercise in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Bil, Kristin

    2010-09-01

    Older adults reap many health benefits from aerobic exercise training; however, little is known about how to monitor the training responses in older adults with Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the correlation of objectively measured heart rate and subjectively reported perceived exertion during aerobic exercise training in four older men with advanced Alzheimer's disease from a pilot study that used a one-group pre- and post-test design. During training (three times per week for 8 weeks), the participants' heart rate and perceived exertion were assessed by a trained exercise trainer every 5 min by using the Polar heart rate monitor and the Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale, respectively. There were 596 heart rate-perceived exertion data pairs. The results show that the Pearson's r for the heart rate and perceived exertion was 0.457 (significant at 0.01, two-tailed), controlling for age, education, exercise session, and cognition. We conclude that the Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale itself might be insufficient for monitoring the exercise responses in older men with advanced Alzheimer's disease. Future studies are needed to further examine the utility of this scale in this population.

  14. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer

    PubMed Central

    de Groof, Ad; Guelen, Lars; Deijs, Martin; van der Wal, Yorick; Miyata, Masato; Ng, Kah Sing; van Grinsven, Lotte; Simmelink, Bartjan; Biermann, Yvonne; Grisez, Luc; van Lent, Jan; de Ronde, Anthony; Chang, Siow Foong; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-01-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch’s postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease. PMID:26252390

  15. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    de Groof, Ad; Guelen, Lars; Deijs, Martin; van der Wal, Yorick; Miyata, Masato; Ng, Kah Sing; van Grinsven, Lotte; Simmelink, Bartjan; Biermann, Yvonne; Grisez, Luc; van Lent, Jan; de Ronde, Anthony; Chang, Siow Foong; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-08-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease.

  16. Validation of the Lille's Apathy Rating Scale in Very Mild to Moderate Dementia.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Matarrubia, Marta; Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; Moreno-Ramos, Teresa; Valles-Salgado, María; Marcos-Dolado, Alberto; García-Ramos, Rocío; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    Apathy is one of the most common and disabling syndromes of dementia and presents at all stages of the disease. Comprehensive and structured methods to assess apathy in dementia are still needed. Lille's Apathy Rating Scale (LARS) has shown good psychometric properties for apathy evaluation in Parkinson disease but has not been validated in dementia. The aim of this study was to validate the LARS in a cohort of patients with very mild to moderate dementia. 101 patients with cognitive impairment (Clinical Dementia Rating ≤ 2) and 50 healthy subjects were recruited. Patient diagnoses included 43 individuals with Alzheimer disease, 41 frontotemporal dementia, and 17 primary progressive aphasia. In addition to LARS, the following assessments were administered: Clinical Dementia Rating, Interview for Deterioration in Daily Living Activities in Dementia, Functional Activities Questionnaire, Frontal Behavioral Inventory, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Internal consistency for LARS (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.940. Test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.940 and inter-rater ICC was 0.987. The correlation among LARS and NPI apathy scores (concurrent validity) was 0.834. Receiver operating characteristic analysis estimated an area under the curve of 0.987. The optimal cutoff point was -10. Although total LARS score was influenced by the presence of depression, this disorder was independent with respect to apathy. LARS is reliable and valid for detecting and quantifying apathy in patients with dementia, even in very early stages of the disease. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Classroom Adaptation Scale: A Behavior Rating Scale Designed to Screen Primary Grade Children for School Adaptation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virbickis, Joseph A.

    After a brief historical review of the background and research, the paper focuses on development of a teacher-administered behavior rating scale to screen for school adaptation problems on a large scale basis using as Ss 15 primary grade teachers and their ratings of 315 primary grade children (ages 6-to-10 years) in their classes. A 16-item…

  18. Modeling relative frost weathering rates at geomorphic scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, Alan W.; Marshall, Jill A.; Roering, Joshua J.

    2016-11-01

    Frost damage is a powerful agent of geomorphic change. Cracks can grow when the ice pressure in pores reaches a threshold that depends on matrix properties and crack geometry. Mineral surfaces that are preferentially wetted by liquid water rather than ice are coated by premelted liquid at a pressure that is lower than the ice pressure. Because this pressure difference increases as the temperature cools, when the ice pressure is effectively pinned at the cracking threshold, temperature gradients induce gradients in liquid pressure that draw water towards colder temperatures. Porosity increases and frost damage accumulates in regions where water supplies crack growth. To apply this understanding over the large spatial and temporal scales that are relevant to evolving landscapes, we develop a simple model that tracks porosity changes. Our central assumption is that frost damage is correlated with porosity increases under conditions where frost cracking takes place. Accordingly, we account for the permeability reductions with decreased temperature that accompany ice growth along porous pathways and derive general expressions for the porosity change through time at particular depths, as well as the total porosity increase through all depths beneath a point at the ground surface over the time during which cracking occurs each year. To illustrate the resulting patterns of frost weathering, we consider a general case in which the permeability has a power law dependence on temperature and the annual surface-temperature variation is sinusoidal. We find that the degree of frost damage generally decreases with depth, except at localized depths where damage is elevated because the rock spends longer times near the threshold for cracking, leading to enhanced water supply in comparison with neighboring regions. The magnitude of the net expansion that results from porosity changes at all depths beneath the ground surface is increased for seasonal thermal cycles with larger

  19. The assessment of dyspnea during the vigorous intensity exercise by three Dyspnea Rating Scales in inactive medical personnel.

    PubMed

    Intarakamhang, Patrawut; Wangjongmeechaikul, Piyathida

    2013-07-24

    It is well recognized that exercise is good for health especially as it's known to prevent metabolic syndromes such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease. To reap the benefits from exercise the most appropriate level of intensity must be determined, the level of intensity ranging from low, low to moderate to hard (vigorous). This study is aimed to 1. To investigate and evaluate 3 subjective rating scales. The Borg scale, the Combined Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) + FACES Dyspnea Rating Scale (FACES) and the Likert scale, during hard (vigorous) exercise. 2. To compare the effectiveness of the Borg scale and Combined Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) + FACES Dyspnea Rating Scale during the hard (vigorous) intensity exercise. This study uses a descriptive methodology. The sample group was 73 medical personnel that were leading an inactive life style, volunteers from Phramongkutklao Hospital. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group 1, those to report using the Borg Scale, group 2 using NRS + FACES, and group 3 to subjectively assess the intensity of the exercise using the Likert scale during a treadmill Exercise Stress Test (EST) using the Bruce protocol. The upper limit of the intensity in the study was equal to 85% of the maximal heart rate of all participants. The subjective reporting of the experienced level of dyspnea was undertaken immediately after the completion of exercise. The average age of participants was 23.37 years old. The 26 participants reporting using the Borg scale had mean Borg scale score of 13.46+1.77, a mode score of 15. The 24 participants reporting intensity levels through NRS +FACES had a mean NRS + FACES score of 6.83+1.09 and mode on the NRS + FACES scale equal to 7. The Likert scale group evaluated 23 participants with a mean Likert scale score of 2.74. That is those choosing Levels 2 and 3 were 6 (26.9%) and 17 participants (73.95%), respectively. Comparing the two groups with the Borg scale at equal to or greater than 15

  20. The Assessment of Dyspnea during the Vigorous Intensity Exercise by Three Dyspnea Rating Scales in Inactive Medical Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Intarakamhang, Patrawut; Wangjongmeechaikul, Piyathida

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that exercise is good for health especially as it’s known to prevent metabolic syndromes such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease. To reap the benefits from exercise the most appropriate level of intensity must be determined, the level of intensity ranging from low, low to moderate to hard (vigorous). This study is aimed to 1. To investigate and evaluate 3 subjective rating scales. The Borg scale, the Combined Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) + FACES Dyspnea Rating Scale (FACES) and the Likert scale, during hard (vigorous) exercise. 2. To compare the effectiveness of the Borg scale and Combined Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) + FACES Dyspnea Rating Scale during the hard (vigorous) intensity exercise. This study uses a descriptive methodology. The sample group was 73 medical personnel that were leading an inactive life style, volunteers from Phramongkutklao Hospital. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group 1, those to report using the Borg Scale, group 2 using NRS + FACES, and group 3 to subjectively assess the intensity of the exercise using the Likert scale during a treadmill Exercise Stress Test (EST) using the Bruce protocol. The upper limit of the intensity in the study was equal to 85% of the maximal heart rate of all participants. The subjective reporting of the experienced level of dyspnea was undertaken immediately after the completion of exercise. The average age of participants was 23.37 years old. The 26 participants reporting using the Borg scale had mean Borg scale score of 13.46+1.77, a mode score of 15. The 24 participants reporting intensity levels through NRS +FACES had a mean NRS + FACES score of 6.83+1.09 and mode on the NRS + FACES scale equal to 7. The Likert scale group evaluated 23 participants with a mean Likert scale score of 2.74. That is those choosing Levels 2 and 3 were 6 (26.9%) and 17 participants (73.95%), respectively. Comparing the two groups with the Borg scale at equal to or greater than

  1. Scaling laws of coronary circulation in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yunlong; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2016-08-16

    The heterogeneity and complexity of coronary vasculature (structure) and myocardial flow (function) have fractal-like characteristics and can be described by scaling laws with remarkable simplicity. In contrast with allometric (interspecific) scaling law, intraspecific scaling laws describe the design rules of vascular trees within a species. This paper provides an overview of intraspecific scaling laws of vascular trees and the physiological and clinical implications thereof. The significance and shortcomings of these scaling laws are discussed in relation to diffuse coronary artery disease, Glagov's positive remodeling in early stages of coronary atherosclerosis, treatment guidelines of complex bifurcation lesions, and for estimation of outlet resistance values for computation of blood flow in epicardial coronary arteries. Finally, we summarize the highlights of scaling relations and suggest some future directions.

  2. Development of a scale to measure individuals’ ratings of peace

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. Methods After developing a working definition of ‘peace’ and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. Results The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual’s level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. Conclusions The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions. PMID:25298781

  3. Development of a scale to measure individuals' ratings of peace.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Howard; Ahn, Roy; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Blais, Mark; Nelson, Brett D; Burke, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. After developing a working definition of 'peace' and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual's level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions.

  4. The importance of rating scales in measuring patient-reported outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A critical component that influences the measurement properties of a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument is the rating scale. Yet, there is a lack of general consensus regarding optimal rating scale format, including aspects of question structure, the number and the labels of response categories. This study aims to explore the characteristics of rating scales that function well and those that do not, and thereby develop guidelines for formulating rating scales. Methods Seventeen existing PROs designed to measure vision-related quality of life dimensions were mailed for self-administration, in sets of 10, to patients who were on a waiting list for cataract extraction. These PROs included questions with ratings of difficulty, frequency, severity, and global ratings. Using Rasch analysis, performance of rating scales were assessed by examining hierarchical ordering (indicating categories are distinct from each other and follow a logical transition from lower to higher value), evenness (indicating relative utilization of categories), and range (indicating coverage of the attribute by the rating scale). Results The rating scales with complicated question format, a large number of response categories, or unlabelled categories, tended to be dysfunctional. Rating scales with five or fewer response categories tended to be functional. Most of the rating scales measuring difficulty performed well. The rating scales measuring frequency and severity demonstrated hierarchical ordering but the categories lacked even utilization. Conclusion Developers of PRO instruments should use a simple question format, fewer (four to five) and labelled response categories. PMID:22794788

  5. Large Scale System Safety Integration for Human Rated Space Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massie, Michael J.

    2005-12-01

    Since the 1960s man has searched for ways to establish a human presence in space. Unfortunately, the development and operation of human spaceflight vehicles carry significant safety risks that are not always well understood. As a result, the countries with human space programs have felt the pain of loss of lives in the attempt to develop human space travel systems. Integrated System Safety is a process developed through years of experience (since before Apollo and Soyuz) as a way to assess risks involved in space travel and prevent such losses. The intent of Integrated System Safety is to take a look at an entire program and put together all the pieces in such a way that the risks can be identified, understood and dispositioned by program management. This process has many inherent challenges and they need to be explored, understood and addressed.In order to prepare truly integrated analysis safety professionals must gain a level of technical understanding of all of the project's pieces and how they interact. Next, they must find a way to present the analysis so the customer can understand the risks and make decisions about managing them. However, every organization in a large-scale project can have different ideas about what is or is not a hazard, what is or is not an appropriate hazard control, and what is or is not adequate hazard control verification. NASA provides some direction on these topics, but interpretations of those instructions can vary widely.Even more challenging is the fact that every individual/organization involved in a project has different levels of risk tolerance. When the discrete hazard controls of the contracts and agreements cannot be met, additional risk must be accepted. However, when one has left the arena of compliance with the known rules, there can be no longer be specific ground rules on which to base a decision as to what is acceptable and what is not. The integrator must find common grounds between all parties to achieve

  6. Model for complex heart rate dynamics in health and diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotani, Kiyoshi; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Stanley, H. Eugene; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2005-10-01

    A physiologically motivated, dynamical model of cardiovascular autonomic regulation is shown to be capable of generating long-range correlated and multifractal heart rate. Virtual disease simulations are carried out systematically to account for the disease-induced relative dysfunction of the parasympathetic and the sympathetic branches of the autonomic control. Statistical agreement of the simulation results with those of real life data is reached, suggesting the possible use of the model as a state-of-the-art basis for further understanding of the physiological correlates of complex heart rate dynamics.

  7. Rates of computational errors for scoring the SIRS primary scales.

    PubMed

    Tyner, Elizabeth A; Frederick, Richard I

    2013-12-01

    We entered item scores for the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1991) into a spreadsheet and compared computed scores with those hand-tallied by examiners. We found that about 35% of the tests had at least 1 scoring error. Of SIRS scale scores tallied by examiners, about 8% were incorrectly summed. When the errors were corrected, only 1 SIRS classification was reclassified in the fourfold scheme used by the SIRS. We note that mistallied scores on psychological tests are common, and we review some strategies for reducing scale score errors on the SIRS.

  8. Development of a new scale for dysphagia in patients with progressive neuromuscular diseases: the Neuromuscular Disease Swallowing Status Scale (NdSSS).

    PubMed

    Wada, Ayako; Kawakami, Michiyuki; Liu, Meigen; Otaka, Eri; Nishimura, Atsuko; Liu, Fumio; Otsuka, Tomoyoshi

    2015-10-01

    Dysphagia is one of the most critical problems in patients with progressive neuromuscular diseases. However, clinically useful and practical scales to evaluate dysphagia are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop such a scale. An 8-stage Neuromuscular Disease Swallowing Status Scale (NdSSS) was developed and tested for its inter- and intrarater reliabilities, concurrent validity, and responsiveness. The NdSSS was used to evaluate 134 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and 84 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Inter- and intrarater reliabilities were examined with weighted kappa statistics. Concurrent validity was assessed by correlating the NdSSS with the existing scales [Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), Functional Intake LEVEL Scales (FILS), and ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised Swallow (ALSFRS-R Sw)], using Spearman's correlation coefficients. Responsiveness was determined with the standardized response mean (SRM). For inter- and intrarater reliabilities, the weighted kappas were 0.95 and 1.00, respectively, for DMD; and 0.98 and 0.98, respectively, for ALS. The NdSSS showed strong correlations with the FOIS (rs = 0.87 for DMD, rs = 0.93 for ALS, p < 0.001), FILS (rs = 0.89 for DMD, rs = 0.92 for ALS, p < 0.001), and ALSFRS-R SW (rs = 0.93, p < 0.001). SRMs were 0.65 for DMD and 1.21 for ALS. The SRM was higher in DMD patients for the NdSSS than for the other scales, while it was similar in ALS patients and the other scales. Our originally developed NdSSS demonstrated sufficient reliability, validity, and responsiveness in patients with DMD and ALS. It is also useful in evaluating dysphagia in patients with progressive neuromuscular diseases.

  9. Health-related quality-of-life scales in Parkinson's disease: critique and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Lyons, Kelly E; Rodriguez-Blazquez, C; Selai, Caroline; Siderowf, Andrew; Welsh, Mickie; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Oliver; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G; Schrag, Anette

    2011-11-01

    Health-related quality of life is an important patient-reported outcome used in intervention trials and for monitoring the consequences of health status on physical, mental, and social domains. Parkinson's disease is a complex disorder that strongly affects patients' quality of life. Several health-related quality of life tools have been used in Parkinson's disease. A Movement Disorder Society Task Force was commissioned to rate the psychometric quality of available health-related quality of life scales as applied to Parkinson's disease. Following the methodology adopted by previous work of the Movement Disorder Society Task Force, a review of generic and specific health-related quality of life scales applied in studies on Parkinson's disease was completed. Considering the scales from 3 perspectives-use in Parkinson's disease, use by multiple research groups, and clinimetric properties-a final classification as "recommended," "suggested," or "listed" was applied to each reviewed instrument. Four generic scales (EuroQoL, Nottingham Health Profile, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and Sickness Impact Profile) and 5 specific scales (39-Item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire Short Form, Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, Parkinson's Impact Scale, and Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Psychosocial) reached the level of "recommended." The 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire is the most thoroughly tested and applied questionnaire. Three other generic measures (Quality of Life Questionnaire 15D, Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Short Version) and the specific Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Scale are "suggested." With a little additional effort in completing the stipulated requirements, they could reach the "recommended" level. At present there is a wide variety of health-related quality of life measures

  10. Determining the Scoring Validity of a Co-Constructed CEFR-Based Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deygers, Bart; Van Gorp, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Considering scoring validity as encompassing both reliable rating scale use and valid descriptor interpretation, this study reports on the validation of a CEFR-based scale that was co-constructed and used by novice raters. The research questions this paper wishes to answer are (a) whether it is possible to construct a CEFR-based rating scale with…

  11. Determining the Scoring Validity of a Co-Constructed CEFR-Based Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deygers, Bart; Van Gorp, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Considering scoring validity as encompassing both reliable rating scale use and valid descriptor interpretation, this study reports on the validation of a CEFR-based scale that was co-constructed and used by novice raters. The research questions this paper wishes to answer are (a) whether it is possible to construct a CEFR-based rating scale with…

  12. Using Rasch Rating Scale Methodology to Examine a Behavioral Screener for Preschoolers at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Greer, Fred W.; Kamphaus, R. W.; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    A screening instrument used to identify young children at risk for behavioral and emotional difficulties, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool was examined. The Rasch Rating Scale Method was used to provide additional information about psychometric properties of items, respondents, and the response scale.…

  13. Using Rasch Rating Scale Methodology to Examine a Behavioral Screener for Preschoolers at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Greer, Fred W.; Kamphaus, R. W.; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    A screening instrument used to identify young children at risk for behavioral and emotional difficulties, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool was examined. The Rasch Rating Scale Method was used to provide additional information about psychometric properties of items, respondents, and the response scale.…

  14. Are self-report scales as effective as clinician rating scales in measuring treatment response in routine clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Walsh, Emily; Friedman, Michael; Boerescu, Daniela A; Attiullah, Naureen

    2018-01-01

    Recent treatment guidelines have suggested that outcome should be measured in routine clinical practice. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we compared three self-report scales of depressive symptoms and the two most widely used clinician administered scales in treatment studies in their sensitivity to change and evaluation of treatment response in depressed patients treated in routine practice. At baseline and 4-month follow-up 153 depressed outpatients with DSM-IV MDD completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-report version (QIDS-SR), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The patients were rated on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). On each scale treatment response was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in scores from baseline. While there were some differences in the percentage of patients considered to be responders on the different scales, a large effect size was found for each scale, with little variability amongst the scales. The level of agreement between the three self-report scales and the clinician rating scales was approximately the same LIMITATIONS: The present study was conducted in a single clinical practice in which the majority of the patients were white, female, and had health insurance. When measuring outcome in clinical practice the magnitude of change in depressive symptoms is as great on self-report scales as on clinician rating scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Scale-Dependent Rates of Uranyl Surface Complexation Reaction in Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Zachara, John M.; Zhu, Weihuang

    2013-03-15

    Scale-dependency of uranyl[U(VI)] surface complexation rates was investigated in stirred flow-cell and column systems using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment from the US Department of Energy, Hanford site, WA. The experimental results were used to estimate the apparent rate of U(VI) surface complexation at the grain-scale and in porous media. Numerical simulations using molecular, pore-scale, and continuum models were performed to provide insights into and to estimate the rate constants of U(VI) surface complexation at the different scales. The results showed that the grain-scale rate constant of U(VI) surface complexation was over 3 to 10 orders of magnitude smaller, dependent on the temporal scale, than the rate constant calculated using the molecular simulations. The grain-scale rate was faster initially and slower with time, showing the temporal scale-dependency. The largest rate constant at the grain-scale decreased additional 2 orders of magnitude when the rate was scaled to the porous media in the column. The scaling effect from the grain-scale to the porous media became less important for the slower sorption sites. Pore-scale simulations revealed the importance of coupled mass transport and reactions in both intragranular and inter-granular domains, which caused both spatial and temporal dependence of U(VI) surface complexation rates in the sediment. Pore-scale simulations also revealed a new rate-limiting mechanism in the intragranular porous domains that the rate of coupled diffusion and surface complexation reaction was slower than either process alone. The results provided important implications for developing models to scale geochemical/biogeochemical reactions.

  16. Fetal development assessed by heart rate patterns--time scales of complex autonomic control.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Dirk; Nowack, Samuel; Bauer, Stephan; Tetschke, Florian; Ludwig, Stefan; Moraru, Liviu; Rudoph, Anja; Wallwitz, Ulrike; Jaenicke, Franziska; Haueisen, Jens; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe

    2012-03-01

    The increasing functional integrity of the organism during fetal maturation is connected with increasing complex internal coordination. We hypothesize that time scales of complexity and dynamics of heart rate patterns reflect the increasing inter-dependencies within the fetal organism during its prenatal development. We investigated multi-scale complexity, time irreversibility and fractal scaling from 73 fetal magnetocardiographic 30min recordings over the third trimester. We found different scale dependent complexity changes, increasing medium scale time irreversibility, and increasing long scale fractal correlations (all changes p<0.05). The results confirm the importance of time scales to be considered in fetal heart rate based developmental indices.

  17. Maximizing measurement efficiency of behavior rating scales using Item Response Theory: An example with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James C; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2016-04-01

    Measurement efficiency is an important consideration when developing behavior rating scales for use in research and practice. Although most published scales have been developed within a Classical Test Theory (CTT) framework, Item Response Theory (IRT) offers several advantages for developing scales that maximize measurement efficiency. The current study provides an example of using IRT to maximize rating scale efficiency with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale (SSIS - TRS), a measure of student social skills frequently used in practice and research. Based on IRT analyses, 27 items from the Social Skills subscales and 14 items from the Problem Behavior subscales of the SSIS - TRS were identified as maximally efficient. In addition to maintaining similar content coverage to the published version, these sets of maximally efficient items demonstrated similar psychometric properties to the published SSIS - TRS. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A rating scale for gait evaluation in cognitive deterioration (RSGE-CD): validation study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Osa-Ruiz, Emma; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia; Olazarán, Javier

    2012-01-01

    A relationship between decline in mobility and walking performance and cognitive impairment exists in the elderly. Therefore, clinical assessment of gait and mobility may be relevant for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. However, the rating scales used for evaluation of gait disorder in the context of cognitive deterioration were not designed or validated for that setting. The present study was aimed at checking the clinimetric properties of the Rating Scale for Gait Evaluation in Cognitive Deterioration (RSGE-CD), specifically developed for assessment of gait dysfunction across all stages of cognitive decline. Two hundred fifty six subjects were included in the study and classified according to the Global Deterioration Scale (control, subjective/mild cognitive impairment, or dementia). Patients with dementia had a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (73%) or dementia of combined etiology (27%). Cognitive and functional evaluations, the Tinetti scale, and timed tests were simultaneously applied with the tested scale, which is composed of two subscales: Functional ability and Examination. Exploratory factor analysis showed one factor (70% of the variance). Floor effect and skewness were observed in the control group, whereas internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88-0.95), inter-observer and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.97) were satisfactory. Convergent validity with the other measures was ≥ 0.60 and the discriminant validity according to classification of subjects by cognitive state and other aspects was also satisfactory (p = 0.0001). The RSGE-CD showed low standard errors of measurement. In this first validation study, the RSGE-CD showed satisfactory clinimetric attributes for assessing gait and mobility across the complete range of cognitive state.

  19. Fault Scaling Relationships Depend on the Average Geological Slip Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. G.; Biasi, G. P.; Wesnousky, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    This study addresses whether knowing the geological slip rates on a fault in addition to the rupture length improves estimates of magnitude (Mw) of continental earthquakes that rupture the surface, based on a database of 80 events that includes 57 strike-slip, 12 reverse, and 11 normal faulting events. Three functional forms are tested to relate rupture length L to magnitude Mw: linear, bilinear, and a shape with constant static stress drop. The slip rate dependence is tested as a perturbation to the estimates of magnitude from rupture length. When the data are subdivided by fault mechanism, magnitude predictions from rupture length are improved for strike-slip faults when slip rate is included, but not for reverse or normal faults. This conclusion is robust, independent of the functional form used to relate L to Mw. Our preferred model is the constant stress drop model, because teleseismic observations of earthquakes favor that result. Because a dependence on slip rate is only significant for strike-slip events, a combined relationship for all rupture mechanisms is not appropriate. The observed effect of slip rate for strike-slip faults implies that the static stress drop, on average, tends to decrease as the fault slip rate increases.

  20. Evaluating response to mood stabilizers in patients with mixed depression: A study of agreement between three different mania rating scales and a depression rating scale.

    PubMed

    Shansis, Flávio Milman; Reche, Mateus; Capp, Edison

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate agreement between three pairs formed by one of three mania scales (Young Mania Rating Scale [YMRS], Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale [BRMS], or the Clinician-Administered Rating Scale for Mania [CARS-M]) and a single depression scale (21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [21-HAM-D]) for evaluation of response to mood stabilizers in patients with mixed bipolar disorder. Between 2010 and 2014, 68 consecutive bipolar type I and II outpatients with mixed depression as per DSM-IV-TR and Cincinnati criteria were included in this 8-week open-label trial to randomly receive carbamazepine, lithium carbonate, or valproic acid as monotherapy. Patterns of response (defined as a reduction of at least 50% in one of the mania scales and on the 21-HAM-D) were strikingly similar: 21-HAM-D+YMRS=22.1%, 21-HAM-D+BRMS=20.6%, and 21-HAM-D+CARS-M=23.5% (p<0.368). Assessment of agreement revealed very high kappa coefficients: 21-HAM-D+YMRS vs. 21-HAM-D+CARS-M, kappa=0.87; 21-HAM-D+YMRS vs. 21-HAM-D+BRMS, kappa=0.78; 21-HAM-D+CARS-M vs. 21-HAM-D+BRMS, kappa=0.91 (p<0.001). The decision to combine a depression rating scale with any one mania rating scale to assess treatment response in patients with mixed depression is questionable. The present study suggests that any one of the three tested mania rating scales (YMRS, BRMS, and CARS-M) can be combined with the 21-HAM-D to assess treatment response in patients with mixed bipolar disorder. This should give clinicians an added measure of confidence in using this strategy until valid, and specific instruments are developed for assessment of mixed states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Parkinson's disease death rate: carbidopa and vitamin B6.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Cole, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The only indication for carbidopa and benserazide is the management of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa)-induced nausea. Both drugs irreversibly bind to and permanently deactivate pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, and PLP-dependent enzymes. PLP is required for the function of over 300 enzymes and proteins. Virtually every major system in the body is impacted directly or indirectly by PLP. The administration of carbidopa and benserazide potentially induces a nutritional catastrophe. During the first 15 years of prescribing L-dopa, a decreasing Parkinson's disease death rate was observed. Then, in 1976, 1 year after US Food and Drug Administration approved the original L-dopa/carbidopa combination drug, the Parkinson's disease death rate started increasing. This trend has continued to the present, for 38 years and counting. The previous literature documents this increasing death rate, but no hypothesis has been offered concerning this trend. Carbidopa is postulated to contribute to the increasing Parkinson's disease death rate and to the classification of Parkinson's as a progressive neurodegenerative disease. It may contribute to L-dopa tachyphylaxis.

  2. Scale anomalies, states, and rates in conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillioz, Marc; Lu, Xiaochuan; Luty, Markus A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents two methods to compute scale anomaly coefficients in conformal field theories (CFTs), such as the c anomaly in four dimensions, in terms of the CFT data. We first use Euclidean position space to show that the anomaly coefficient of a four-point function can be computed in the form of an operator product expansion (OPE), namely a weighted sum of OPE coefficients squared. We compute the weights for scale anomalies associated with scalar operators and show that they are not positive. We then derive a different sum rule of the same form in Minkowski momentum space where the weights are positive. The positivity arises because the scale anomaly is the coefficient of a logarithm in the momentum space four-point function. This logarithm also determines the dispersive part, which is a positive sum over states by the optical theorem. The momentum space sum rule may be invalidated by UV and/or IR divergences, and we discuss the conditions under which these singularities are absent. We present a detailed discussion of the formalism required to compute the weights directly in Minkowski momentum space. A number of explicit checks are performed, including a complete example in an 8-dimensional free field theory.

  3. Measurement Quality of the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale: An Investigation Using Multivariate Generalizability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dezhi; Hu, Bi Ying; Fan, Xitao; Li, Kejian

    2014-01-01

    Adapted from the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised, the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale (CECPRS) is a culturally comparable measure for assessing the quality of early childhood education and care programs in the Chinese cultural/social contexts. In this study, 176 kindergarten classrooms were rated with CECPRS on eight…

  4. Measurement Quality of the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale: An Investigation Using Multivariate Generalizability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dezhi; Hu, Bi Ying; Fan, Xitao; Li, Kejian

    2014-01-01

    Adapted from the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised, the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale (CECPRS) is a culturally comparable measure for assessing the quality of early childhood education and care programs in the Chinese cultural/social contexts. In this study, 176 kindergarten classrooms were rated with CECPRS on eight…

  5. The SNAP Rating Scale for the Diagnosis of the Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, James M.; And Others

    The correlation of ratings from the SNAP Rating Scale with the ratings from the established Conners' Ratinq Scale are discussed as a method for assessing the validity of the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) criteria for attention deficient disorder with hyper-activity (ADDH). The questionnaire of SNAP items and…

  6. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: A Validation Study Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools…

  7. Development of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Lian-Hwang

    1987-01-01

    Developed a teacher's rating scale of self-esteem for children. Participants were 231 school children in grades K-7. Used sociometric measures, popularity ranking by teachers, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to estimate validity. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (SERSC) included 12 behavioral characteristics rated most…

  8. Development of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Lian-Hwang

    1987-01-01

    Developed a teacher's rating scale of self-esteem for children. Participants were 231 school children in grades K-7. Used sociometric measures, popularity ranking by teachers, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to estimate validity. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (SERSC) included 12 behavioral characteristics rated most…

  9. Heart rate reduction in cardiovascular disease and therapy.

    PubMed

    Reil, Jan-Christian; Custodis, Florian; Swedberg, Karl; Komajda, Michel; Borer, Jeffrey S; Ford, Ian; Tavazzi, Luigi; Laufs, Ulrich; Böhm, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Heart rate influences myocardial oxygen demand, coronary blood flow, and myocardial function. Clinical and experimental studies support an association between elevated resting heart rate and a broad range of maladaptive effects on the function and structure of the cardiovascular system. Heart rate has been shown to be an important predictor of mortality in cardiovascular disorders such as coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and chronic heart failure. This review summarizes the specific influence of heart rate on vascular morphology and function as well as on myocardial lesions leading from early impact on vascular homeostasis to myocardial hemodynamics in chronic heart failure. Heart rate can be easily determined during physical examination of the patient and therefore allows a simple hint on prognosis and efficiency of therapy.

  10. Analysis of the Professional Choice Self-Efficacy Scale Using the Rasch-Andrich Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambiel, Rodolfo A. M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto; de Francisco Carvalho, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze the psychometrics properties of the professional choice self-efficacy scale (PCSES), using the Rasch-Andrich rating scale model. The PCSES assesses four factors: self-appraisal, gathering occupational information, practical professional information search and future planning. Participants were 883 Brazilian…

  11. Does Scale Length Matter? A Comparison of Nine- versus Five-Point Rating Scales for the Mini-CEX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Educators must often decide how many points to use in a rating scale. No studies have compared interrater reliability for different-length scales, and few have evaluated accuracy. This study sought to evaluate the interrater reliability and accuracy of mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) scores, comparing the traditional mini-CEX…

  12. Examining rating scales using Rasch and Mokken models for rater-mediated assessments.

    PubMed

    Wind, Stephanie A

    2014-01-01

    A variety of methods for evaluating the psychometric quality of rater-mediated assessments have been proposed, including rater effects based on latent trait models (e.g., Engelhard, 2013; Wolfe, 2009). Although information about rater effects contributes to the interpretation and use of rater-assigned scores, it is also important to consider ratings in terms of the structure of the rating scale on which scores are assigned. Further, concern with the validity of rater-assigned scores necessitates investigation of these quality control indices within student subgroups, such as gender, language, and race/ethnicity groups. Using a set of guidelines for evaluating the interpretation and use of rating scales adapted from Linacre (1999, 2004), this study demonstrates methods that can be used to examine rating scale functioning within and across student subgroups with indicators from Rasch measurement theory (Rasch, 1960) and Mokken scale analysis (Mokken, 1971). Specifically, this study illustrates indices of rating scale effectiveness based on Rasch models and models adapted from Mokken scaling, and considers whether the two approaches to evaluating the interpretation and use of rating scales lead to comparable conclusions within the context of a large-scale rater-mediated writing assessment. Major findings suggest that indices of rating scale effectiveness based on a parametric and nonparametric approach provide related, but slightly different, information about the structure of rating scales. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed.

  13. The Development of the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale: A New Rating Scale for the Assessment of Nasolabial Appearance in Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients.

    PubMed

    Mosmuller, David G M; Mennes, Lisette M; Prahl, Charlotte; Kramer, Gem J C; Disse, Melissa A; van Couwelaar, Gijs M; Niessen, Frank B; Griot, J P W Don

    2017-09-01

      The development of the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale, a simple and reliable photographic reference scale for the assessment of nasolabial appearance in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients.   A blind retrospective analysis of photographs of cleft lip and palate patients was performed with this new rating scale.   VU Medical Center Amsterdam and the Academic Center for Dentistry of Amsterdam.   Complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients at the age of 6 years.   Photographs that showed the highest interobserver agreement in earlier assessments were selected for the photographic reference scale. Rules were attached to the rating scale to provide a guideline for the assessment and improve interobserver reliability. Cropped photographs revealing only the nasolabial area were assessed by six observers using this new Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale in two different sessions.   Photographs of 62 children (6 years of age, 44 boys and 18 girls) were assessed. The interobserver reliability for the nose and lip together was 0.62, obtained with the intraclass correlation coefficient. To measure the internal consistency, a Cronbach alpha of .91 was calculated. The estimated reliability for three observers was .84, obtained with the Spearman Brown formula.   A new, easy to use, and reliable scoring system with a photographic reference scale is presented in this study.

  14. Comparing comorbidity scales: Attending physician score versus the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics.

    PubMed

    Kirkhus, Lene; Jordhøy, Marit; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Rostoft, Siri; Selbæk, Geir; Jensen Hjermstad, Marianne; Grønberg, Bjørn H

    2016-03-01

    Assessing comorbidity using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G) and its comprehensive manual is time consuming. We investigated if similar information could be obtained by a simpler assessment based on the original CIRS. Data from a randomized chemotherapy trial (RCT) on advanced NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) were analyzed. Baseline comorbidity was assessed by 1) trained oncologists using hospital records and the CIRS-G manual (CIRS-G), 2) by patients' oncologists/pulmonologists (local investigators=LI-score) using a brief set of instructions. By both methods, the severity of comorbidity in 14 organ systems was graded 0 (no problem) to 4 (extremely severe). The agreement between methods was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis and weighted kappa statistics. The impact of comorbidity on survival was analyzed by Cox regression. Complete data were available for 375/446 (84%) patients enrolled in the RCT. Median age was 65years (25-85). Overall, more comorbidities and higher severity were registered by the CIRS-G compared to the LI-score. Severe comorbidity was registered for 184 (49%) and 94 (25%) patients according to the CIRS-G and LI-scores, respectively. Mean total score was 7.0 (0-17) (CIRS-G) versus 4.2 (0-16) (LI-score), and mean severity index (total score/number of categories with score >0) was 1.73 (SD 0.46) versus 1.43 (SD 0.78). Neither the CIRS-G scores nor the LI-scores were prognostic for survival. The CIRS-G scores and LI-scores had poor agreement, indicating that assessment method affects the registration of comorbidity. Thorough descriptions of comorbidity registrations in trials are paramount due to lack of a standardized assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Scaling and Ordering of Neonatal Heart Rate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghili, Ali A.; Rizwan-Uddin, Rizwan-Uddin; Griffin, M. Pamela; Moorman, J. Randall

    1995-02-01

    By analyzing cardiac beat-to-beat intervals and interbeat increments, we find that-unlike adults-the difference in the pattern of interbeat increments in healthy and sick newborn infants is more due to a change in the amplitude and much less to a change in the ordering of the interbeat increments. This suggests that very low-frequency elements of neonatal and adult heart rate variability rise from fundamentally different mechanisms.

  16. An Evaluation of China's Kindergarten Quality Rating System through the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale--The Zhejiang Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-Ieng; Mak, Miranda Chi Kuan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of one province's Kindergarten Quality Rating System in differentiating quality levels using the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS). Results confirmed that, except for the difference between the Standard and Level-3 Kindergartens, the CECERS was successful in detecting the differences…

  17. An Evaluation of China's Kindergarten Quality Rating System through the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale--The Zhejiang Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-Ieng; Mak, Miranda Chi Kuan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of one province's Kindergarten Quality Rating System in differentiating quality levels using the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS). Results confirmed that, except for the difference between the Standard and Level-3 Kindergartens, the CECERS was successful in detecting the differences…

  18. Fine scale association mapping of disease loci using simplex families.

    PubMed

    Morris, A P; Whittaker, J C

    2000-05-01

    We present a new method for the fine scale mapping of disease loci based on samples of simplex families, each containing an affected child. The method is based on a generalisation of a single locus allele transmission model to multiple marker loci. The model is developed under the assumption of a single ancestral mutation and allows for the calculation of posterior probabilities that each allele at a particular marker was present on the founder chromosome. We illustrate the method using simulated family data for cystic fibrosis and Huntingtons disease, for which the locations of mutations in the disease genes are now known. For both diseases, our new method provides good estimates of the location of the mutations.

  19. Scaling Exponent for the Healthy and Diseased Heartbeat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazawa, Toru; Tanaka, Katsunori

    `Alternans' is an arrhythmia exhibiting alternating amplitude or alternating interval from heartbeat to heartbeat, which was first described in 1872 by Traube. Recently alternans was finally recognized as the harbinger of a cardiac disease because physicians noticed that an ischemic heart exhibits alternans. To quantify irregularity of the heartbeat including alternans, we used the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). We revealed that in both, animal models and humans, the alternans rhythm lowers the scaling exponent. This correspondence describes that the scaling exponent calculated by the DFA reflects a risk for the `failing' heart.

  20. Review of Alzheimer's disease scales: is there a need for a new multi-domain scale for therapy evaluation in medical practice?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The present review of Alzheimer's disease (AD) rating scales aims to outline the need for a new rating scale to be used in routine clinical practice for long-term medical care of AD patients. An ideal scale would be: 1) practical, easy and quick to administer for an experienced clinician; 2) validated for AD; 3) multi-domain: covering the AD-relevant areas of cognition, activities of daily living, behavior, communication/social interaction, and quality of life; 4) applicable to all AD severity stages; 5) able to monitor disease progression; and 6) sensitive to measure therapy effects. Methods The National Library of Medicines' MEDLINE database was searched for the years 1981 to September 2008, using a set of keywords aiming to select instruments which cover at least some of the requirements for an ideal practical AD scale for therapy evaluation. Measures for AD staging and screening tests were not considered for review. Results Of 1,902 articles resulting from the literature search, 68 relevant AD scales were identified. Most of them were scales that predominantly measure the severity of major dysfunctions in particular AD domains. Only five scales met some of the requirements for a practical multi-domain AD scale, but did not possess all required characteristics. Conclusions Despite the multitude of AD scales for various purposes, there remains a need for a new multi-domain and easy to administer AD scale for assessment of disease progression and response to therapy in daily medical practice. PMID:20796301

  1. Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate Retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shupe, Matthew

    2013-05-22

    Time-height fields of retrieved in-cloud vertical wind velocity and turbulent dissipation rate, both retrieved primarily from vertically-pointing, Ka-band cloud radar measurements. Files are available for manually-selected, stratiform, mixed-phase cloud cases observed at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site during periods covering the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE, late September through early November 2004) and the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC, April-early May 2008). These time periods will be expanded in a future submission.

  2. A new MRI rating scale for progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy: validity and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Yan; Vérin, Marc; Payan, Christine A; Duchesne, Simon; Kraft, Eduard; Hauser, Till K; Jarosz, Josef; Deasy, Neil; Defevbre, Luc; Delmaire, Christine; Dormont, Didier; Ludolph, Albert C; Bensimon, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate a standardised MRI acquisition protocol and a new image rating scale for disease severity in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple systems atrophy (MSA) in a large multicentre study. Methods The MRI protocol consisted of two-dimensional sagittal and axial T1, axial PD, and axial and coronal T2 weighted acquisitions. The 32 item ordinal scale evaluated abnormalities within the basal ganglia and posterior fossa, blind to diagnosis. Among 760 patients in the study population (PSP=362, MSA=398), 627 had per protocol images (PSP=297, MSA=330). Intra-rater (n=60) and inter-rater (n=555) reliability were assessed through Cohen's statistic, and scale structure through principal component analysis (PCA) (n=441). Internal consistency and reliability were checked. Discriminant and predictive validity of extracted factors and total scores were tested for disease severity as per clinical diagnosis. Results Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were acceptable for 25 (78%) of the items scored (≥0.41). PCA revealed four meaningful clusters of covarying parameters (factor (F) F1: brainstem and cerebellum; F2: midbrain; F3: putamen; F4: other basal ganglia) with good to excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α 0.75–0.93) and moderate to excellent reliability (intraclass coefficient: F1: 0.92; F2: 0.79; F3: 0.71; F4: 0.49). The total score significantly discriminated for disease severity or diagnosis; factorial scores differentially discriminated for disease severity according to diagnosis (PSP: F1–F2; MSA: F2–F3). The total score was significantly related to survival in PSP (p<0.0007) or MSA (p<0.0005), indicating good predictive validity. Conclusions The scale is suitable for use in the context of multicentre studies and can reliably and consistently measure MRI abnormalities in PSP and MSA. Clinical Trial Registration Number The study protocol was filed in the open clinical trial registry (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) with

  3. Effect of rating scales on scores given to junior doctors in multi-source feedback.

    PubMed

    Hassell, Andrew; Bullock, Alison; Whitehouse, Andrew; Wood, Lawrence; Jones, Peter; Wall, David

    2012-01-01

    Multi-source feedback (MSF) has an established role in the workplace based assessment of doctors in training. Different models of MSF are currently used in different training programmes and settings. One important way in which these models differ is the rating scale on which assessors score the trainee. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of rating scale on MSF scores. Foundation Year 2 trainees in hospitals in the West Midlands underwent MSF using the validated MSF tool, team assessment of behaviour (TAB) in autumn 2005. Trainees were scored with TAB using one of four different rating scales, ranging from 3- to 9-point scales. Each participating hospital used only one rating scale. The proportions of trainees scored as having potential problems were related to the different rating scale used. Similarly, the proportions scored as 'above expectations' were compared. Assessors also completed a short questionnaire regarding the assessment. 245 trainees underwent 2594 assessments. Longer rating scales were associated with a lower proportion of trainees awarded 'problem' scores and higher proportions of trainees scored as 'above expectations'. Assessors generally reported no difficulties whichever rating scale they had used. Careful consideration, recognising its potential impact on assessment score, should be given to the rating scale used when instituting MSF within a system of workplace based assessment.

  4. Understanding scale dependency of climatic processes with diarrheal disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr Azadani, F.; Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The issue of scales in linking climatic processes with diarrheal diseases is perhaps one of the most challenging aspect to develop any predictive algorithm for outbreaks and to understand impacts of changing climate. Majority of diarrheal diseases have shown to be strongly associated with climate modulated environmental processes where pathogens survive. Using cholera as an example of characteristic diarrheal diseases, this study will provide methodological insights on dominant scale variability in climatic processes that are linked with trigger and transmission of disease. Cholera based epidemiological models use human to human interaction as a main transmission mechanism, however, environmental conditions for creating seasonality in outbreaks is not explicitly modeled. For example, existing models cannot create seasonality, unless some of the model parameters are a-priori chosen to vary seasonally. A systems based feedback approach will be presented to understand role of climatic processes on trigger and transmission disease. In order to investigate effect of changing climate on cholera, a downscaling approach using support vector machine will be used. Our preliminary results using three climate models, ECHAM5, GFDL, and HADCM show that varying modalities in future cholera outbreaks.

  5. Video-rate fuzzy Golay processor for wafer scale integration

    SciTech Connect

    Steinvorth, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The fuzzy Golay transformation is a novel approach for gray-level image processing. Fuzzy-set theory is used to modify the binary image processing techniques developed by M. J. Golay to permit direct gray-level image processing without thresholding. The comparison between gray-level pixels is accomplished with the Pixel Closeness Value (PCV) while comparison between gray-level neighborhoods uses the Neighborhood Closeness Value (NCV). Feature extraction is done by comparing the gray-level image neighborhood to a subset of the fourteen Golay neighborhoods using the NCV function. The Fuzzy Golay Processor (FGP) is an architecture designed to implement the fuzzy Golay transformation. The design of the FGP has been optimized to permit a successful implementation in Wafer Scale Integration (WSI). A system containing four FGPs is capable of performing thirty fuzzy Golay transformations per second on a 256 by 256 eight-bit pixel image. Such a system could fit on a four-inch wafer with enough redundant dies to allow a 30% die yield. The required dies are four Input-Output Modules (IOM) and 56 Neighborhood Evaluation Modules (NEM).

  6. Large scale high strain-rate tests of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroni, M.; Solomos, G.; Viaccoz, B.; Magonette, G.; Kiefer, R.

    2012-08-01

    This work presents the stages of development of some innovative equipment, based on Hopkinson bar techniques, for performing large scale dynamic tests of concrete specimens. The activity is centered at the recently upgraded HOPLAB facility, which is basically a split Hopkinson bar with a total length of approximately 200 m and with bar diameters of 72 mm. Through pre-tensioning and suddenly releasing a steel cable, force pulses of up to 2 MN, 250 μs rise time and 40 ms duration can be generated and applied to the specimen tested. The dynamic compression loading has first been treated and several modifications in the basic configuration have been introduced. Twin incident and transmitter bars have been installed with strong steel plates at their ends where large specimens can be accommodated. A series of calibration and qualification tests has been conducted and the first real tests on concrete cylindrical specimens of 20cm diameter and up to 40cm length have commenced. Preliminary results from the analysis of the recorded signals indicate proper Hopkinson bar testing conditions and reliable functioning of the facility.

  7. [Usefulness of the GEOPTE scale--self-rating scale of social cognition for persons suffering from schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Wciórka, Jacek; Krasuska, Katarzyna; Schaeffer, Ewa; Waszkiewicz, Justyna; Switaj, Piotr; Chrostek, Anna; Bembenek, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    To analyse psychometric value of the Polish version of the GEOPTE Scale, a self-rating scale measuring social cognition among persons suffering from schizophrenic psychoses. Fifty patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia according to ICD-10 criteria were assessed by the scale under study. Analysis of its usefulness included: reliability (as internal consistency), validity - as content, construct, and diagnostic validity in relation to selected measures of mental state (CGI scale, PANSS), social (GAF scale, SOFAS), and cognitive functioning (WCST and N-back test), and feasibility of the scale - according to observed patients' coping with the task. The scale revealed good reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84) and observed feasibility. Descriptive characteristics of the scale's items an its principal component structure (two components interpreted as basic cognitive processes and social cognition) resembled findings of the Spanish Authors in the original study. It may be considered as proof of content and, to some extent, construct (factorial) validity of the scale. Criterion validity seems to be less certain. With exception of a weak correlation of the GEOPTE scale with social and occupational functioning (measured by SOFAS), no significant correlation were detected with other diagnostic validators applied in the study. Polish version of the GEOPTE scale seems to have satisfactory reliability and feasibility. Its validity remains uncertain and open for further study.

  8. Mokken scaling analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in individuals with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cosco, Theodore D; Doyle, Frank; Watson, Roger; Ward, Mark; McGee, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a prolifically used scale of anxiety and depression. The original bidimensional anxiety-depression latent structure of the HADS has come under significant scrutiny, with previous studies revealing one-, two-, three- and four-dimensional structures. The current study examines the latent structure of the HADS using a non-parametric item response theory method. Using data conglomerated from four independent studies of cardiovascular disease employing the HADS (n=893), Mokken scaling procedure was conducted to assess the latent structure of the HADS. A single scale consisting of 12 of 14 HADS items was revealed, indicating a unidimensional latent HADS structure. The HADS was initially intended to measure mutually exclusive levels of anxiety and depression; however, the current study indicates that a single dimension of general psychological distress is captured. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Racial and Regional Differences in Rates of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    de St Maurice, Annabelle; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher; Schaffner, William

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) remains an important cause of illness in US children. We assessed the impact of introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on pediatric IPD rates, as well as changes in racial and regional differences in IPD, in Tennessee. METHODS: Data from active laboratory and population-based surveillance of IPD were used to compare IPD rates in the early-PCV7 (2001–2004), late-PCV7 (2005–2009), and post-PCV13 (2011–2012) eras. IPD rates were further stratified according to age, race, and region (east and middle-west TN). RESULTS: Among children aged <2 years, IPD rates declined by 70% from 67 to 19 per 100 000 person-years in the early-PCV7 era and post-PCV13 era, respectively. Similar decreasing trends in IPD rates were observed in older children aged 2 to 4 years and 5 to 17 years. In the late-PCV7 era, IPD rates in children aged <2 years were higher in black children compared with white children (70 vs 43 per 100 000 person-years); however, these racial differences in IPD rates were no longer significant after PCV13 introduction. Before PCV13, IPD rates in children aged <2 years were also higher in east Tennessee compared with middle-west Tennessee (91 vs 45 per 100 000 person-years), but these differences were no longer significant in the post-PCV13 era. CONCLUSIONS: PCV13 introduction led to substantial declines in childhood IPD rates and was associated with reduced regional and racial differences in IPD rates in Tennessee. PMID:26459652

  10. Age and rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: implications for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bernick, Charles; Cummings, Jeffrey; Raman, Rema; Sun, Xiaoying; Aisen, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Factors that affect the rate of progression of Alzheimer disease (AD) need to be considered in the clinical trial designs of potential disease-modifying therapies. To determine the influence of age on AD course in a clinical trial setting. Pooled cohort study from 3 AD clinical trials of 18-month duration conducted by the Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study group. Alzheimer disease research centers from across the United States. Four hundred seventy-one subjects with mild to moderate AD assigned to the placebo arm of 3 clinical trials. The relationships between baseline age and rate of change in the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) 11, Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating scale Sum of Boxes score, Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study–activities of daily living scale, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory were analyzed using a mixed-effect regression model. Sample size calculation for possible future AD clinical trials lasting 18 months using the results of the change in ADAS-cog 11 by tertiles of age groups. Older age at baseline was associated with a slower rate of decline in the ADAS-cog 11 and the Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Almost twice as many subjects aged 80 years and older compared with those aged younger than 70 years would be required to demonstrate a 30% treatment effect on the ADAS-cog 11 in an 18-month AD trial. Subject age is an important factor to consider when defining the study population in and analyzing data from AD trials of potential disease-modifying therapies.

  11. Rates of Pneumococcal Disease in Adults With Chronic Medical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Kimberly M.; Edelsberg, John; Weycker, Derek; Farkouh, Raymond A.; Strutton, David R.; Pelton, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Background.  Although it is widely accepted that adults with immunocompromising conditions are at greatly increased risk of pneumococcal infection, the extent of risk among immunocompetent adults with chronic medical conditions is less certain, particularly in the current era of universal vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Methods.  We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from 3 healthcare claims repositories (2006–2010) to compare rates of pneumococcal disease in immunocompetent adults with chronic medical conditions (“at-risk”) and immunocompromised adults (“high-risk”), with rates in adults without these conditions (“healthy”). Risk profiles and episodes of pneumococcal disease—all-cause pneumonia, pneumococcal pneumonia, and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)—were ascertained from diagnosis, procedure, and drug codes. Results.  Rates of all-cause pneumonia among at-risk persons aged 18–49 years, 50–64 years, and ≥65 years were 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1–3.2), 3.1 (95% CI, 3.1–3.1), and 3.0 (95% CI, 3.0–3.0) times the rates in age-matched healthy counterparts, respectively. We identified rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn's disease, and neuromuscular or seizure disorders as additional at-risk conditions for pneumococcal disease. Among persons with at-risk conditions, the rate of all-cause pneumonia substantially increased with the accumulation of concurrent at-risk conditions (risk stacking): among persons 18–49 years, rate ratios increased from 2.5 (95% CI, 2.5–2.5) in those with 1 at-risk condition to 6.2 (95% CI, 6.1–6.3) in those with 2 conditions, and to 15.6 (95% CI, 15.3–16.0) in those with ≥3 conditions. Findings for pneumococcal pneumonia and IPD were similar. Conclusions.  Despite widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, rates of pneumonia and IPD remain disproportionately high in adults with at-risk conditions

  12. A rating scale for the severity of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guan, Z; Shang, L; Zhang, W; Guo, Y; Xue, Y; Li, X; Gong, Y; Liu, X

    2017-06-14

    The objective of this study was to develop a rating scale to assess the severity of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The preliminary rating scale, which contained 11 items, was developed by the Delphi method, and data of 258 patients were collected to evaluate it. Item analysis was accomplished by 100 patients; the additional 158 patients were used to evaluate the reliability, validity, and discriminative ability of the rating scale. The structure of the rating scale was testified by the confirmatory factor analysis and also made a further evaluation by the correlation analysis. The rating scale contained 10 items. The three factors mainly generalized the motor function, cranial nerve function and autonomic function. The results of reliability and validity showed that the structure of the rating scale was good (χ(2) =68.25, df=32, χ(2) /df=2.13, normed fit index (NFI)=0.919, non-normed fit index (NNFI)=0.936, comparative fit index (CFI)=0.96, a root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)=0.085), and the Cronbach's α coefficient for the scale was .852, with the three dimensions ranging from .585 to .752. Reliability and validity of the rating scale are all satisfied. The scale contained the main clinical presentations of GBS, and it is suitable to evaluate the severity of GBS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. An Emerging Infectious Disease Triggering Large-Scale Hyperpredation

    PubMed Central

    Moleón, Marcos; Almaraz, Pablo; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperpredation refers to an enhanced predation pressure on a secondary prey due to either an increase in the abundance of a predator population or a sudden drop in the abundance of the main prey. This scarcely documented mechanism has been previously studied in scenarios in which the introduction of a feral prey caused overexploitation of native prey. Here we provide evidence of a previously unreported link between Emergent Infectious Diseases (EIDs) and hyperpredation on a predator-prey community. We show how a viral outbreak caused the population collapse of a host prey at a large spatial scale, which subsequently promoted higher-than-normal predation intensity on a second prey from shared predators. Thus, the disease left a population dynamic fingerprint both in the primary host prey, through direct mortality from the disease, and indirectly in the secondary prey, through hyperpredation. This resulted in synchronized prey population dynamics at a large spatio-temporal scale. We therefore provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which EIDs can disrupt a predator-prey interaction from the individual behavior to the population dynamics. This mechanism can pose a further threat to biodiversity through the human-aided disruption of ecological interactions at large spatial and temporal scales. PMID:18523587

  14. [The initial testing and the discrimination property of the UFMG Sydenham's Chorea Rating Scale (USCRS)].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Maia, Débora Palma; Cardoso, Francisco

    2005-09-01

    Recently we developed and validated the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) Sydenham's chorea Rating Scale (USCRS) to systematically assess SC patients. In this study, we assessed 97 children and adults with SC (mean age +/- SD, 15.5 +/- 5.9; male/female, 31/66) seen at the Movement Disorders Clinic at UFMG employing the USCRS. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to their clinical status: acute (n=19), recurrent (n=17), persistent (n=19) and remission (n=42). The mean +/- SEM USCRS scores for each group were: 47.7 +/- 4.7 for acute group, 29.5 +/- 2.6 for recurrent group, 17.6 +/- 3.1 for persistent group and 1.1 +/- 0.2 for remission group. All pair comparisons were statistically significant (p<0.05). Our results indicate that the USRSC can reasonably discriminate groups of SC patients in different clinical stages of the disease.

  15. Reliability and Validity of the Borg and OMNI Rating of Perceived Exertion Scales in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Pivarnik, James M.; Womack, Christopher J.; Reeves, Mathew J.; Malina, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the reliability and validity of the Borg and OMNI rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scales in adolescent girls during treadmill exercise. Girls were randomly assigned to one of the RPE scales during various treadmill exercise conditions. Results indicated that the OMNI cycle pictorial scale was reliable and valid for use with…

  16. Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derek T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The 14-item Wind Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Scale (WJIES) was constructed and refined through a facet-rational approach to scale development. Five wind jazz students and one professional jazz educator were asked to record…

  17. Area Scales of the Navy Vocational Interest Inventory as Predictors of School Performance and Rating Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Alan W.; Abrahams, Norman M.

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the area (homogeneous) scales of the Navy Vocational Interest Inventory (NVII) as predictors of Class "A" school achievement and as measures of rating differentiation by comparing specific occupational scales with more general interest measures--the NVII area scales. The…

  18. Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derek T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The 14-item Wind Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Scale (WJIES) was constructed and refined through a facet-rational approach to scale development. Five wind jazz students and one professional jazz educator were asked to record…

  19. Modifying the Response Labels of an ADHD Teacher Rating Scale: Psychometric and Epidemiologic Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Andrew S.; Umbach, David M.; Bohlig, E. Michael; Stallone, Lil; Sandler, Dale P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of changing the response labels of a teacher rating scale in a population-based study of ADHD. Method: For parents, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, which asks whether each of 18 symptoms occurred "often" in the past year, was used. For teachers, most scales use a 4-point scale, with…

  20. Comparison of four neuropathological scales for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Brunnström, H; Englund, E

    2011-01-01

    There are several neuropathological scales for staging of Alzheimer pathology. The system proposed by Braak and Braak is based on the topographic distribution of neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads, while that of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) is based on the quantity of neocortical neuritic plaques. A combination of the Braak and CERAD staging scales was recommended by the National Institute on Aging and Reagan Institute (NIA-RI). The Poly-Pathology Alzheimer's Disease assessment, nine areas (PPAD9) is a staging system based on the extent of neuronal degeneration, microvacuolization, cytoarchitectural disorder and gliosis, in addition to neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques, in nine cerebral regions. The aim of the present study was to critically compare these four neuropathological staging scales. We assessed the Alzheimer pathology, using the four scales, in 43 patients with various dementia disorders, with focus on concordance and differences between the staging systems. Comparing the staging systems, the Spearman's rho value for PPAD9 vs. Braak was 0.65, for PPAD9 vs. CERAD 0.72, for PPAD9 vs. NIA-RI 0.67, and for Braak vs. CERAD 0.46. The correlation between the neuropathological staging systems was suboptimal, and we conclude that the choice of staging system affects the evaluation of Alzheimer pathology, and hence the final diagnosis.

  1. Health and well-being ratings of african american adults with sickle cell disease:.

    PubMed

    Maynard, M; Neal-Smith, F; Martin, L D

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), a chronic condition affecting predominantly individuals of African decent. The study describes the health and ratings of Adult African Americans with SCD using a Self-Evaluation of Life Function Scale. The majority of the respondents scored in the favorable range on the SELF scales suggesting good adaptation to their condition. Based on respondents comments more information and support would be beneficial, especially supportive counseling, occupational therapy intervention, and instruction to aid in self care management and job issues.

  2. Reliability and Structural Validity of The Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Erin E.; Diperna, James C.; Missall, Kristen; Volpe, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are few strengths-based preschool rating scales that sample a wide array of behaviors believed to be essential for early academic success. The purpose of this study was to assess the factor structure of a new measure of early academic competence for at-risk preschool populations. The Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic…

  3. Identifying Young Gifted Children Using the Gifted Rating Scales Preschool/Kindergarten Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted preschool and kindergarten students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. An examination of the standardization sample using…

  4. Optimizing the Compatibility between Rating Scales and Measures of Productive Second Language Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a systematic investigation concerning the performance of different rating scales used in the English section of a university entrance examination to assess 1,287 Japanese test takers' ability to write a third-person introduction speech. Although the rating scales did not conform to all of the expectations of the Rasch model,…

  5. The Influence of Sub-Type of Depression on Self-Rating Scale Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Judith; And Others

    Most patients with diagnosable major depression may fail to show the classic symptom pattern for which standard assessment instruments were designed. To investigate the influence of subtype of depressive illness on Zung Self-Rating Scale (SDS) and Hamilton Rating Scale (HRS) validity, 36 in-patients, who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual…

  6. A Short Form of the Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.

    2007-01-01

    A total of 278 children at Time 1 (144 male and 134 female) from School Years 1 and 2 in the United Kingdom serve as participants. The children complete self-rated scales of school adjustment, and their teachers complete the Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment (TRSSA) twice across a 1-year period. At Time 1, children's performance on…

  7. Programs for the Construction and Analysis of Custom Questionnaires and Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kenneth O., Jr.; Wattawa, Scott

    1977-01-01

    Programs are described for the construction and analysis of student evaluation questionnaires and rating scales that are custom-designed for individual course instructors. Minor modifications would permit the use of these programs for other kinds of questionnaires and rating scales as well as for achievement tests. (Author)

  8. Emotional Indicators on the Bender-Gestalt and the Devereux Child Behavior Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory Mary K.

    1977-01-01

    A heterogeneous group of elementary school children referred for psycho-educational diagnosis were rated on the Devereux Child Behavior Rating Scale and the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, scoring for Koppitz Emotional Indicators. Findings suggests that certain DCB factors may be more predictive of emotional problems than others in the scale.…

  9. Minimal Clinically Important Worsening on the Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Hewer, Sarah; Varley, Sue; Boxer, Adam L.; Paul, Eldho; Williams, David R

    2016-01-01

    Structured Abstract Introduction Despite the widespread use of the PSP rating scale it is not known what change in this scale is meaningful for patients. Methods We analyzed data from a large clinical trial in PSP-Richardson’s syndrome (AL-108-231) to calculate minimal clinically important worsening. This was defined as the difference in mean change of PSP rating scale in subjects rated ‘a little worse’ and those rated ‘unchanged’ on the Clinicians’ Global Impression of Change Scale. A multivariate analysis using logistic regression assessed the relationship between clinical worsening, PSP rating scale, depression and activities of daily living. Results The minimal clinically important worsening on the PSP rating scale was 5.7 points, corresponding to the mean decline over six months in the trial. Changes in activities of daily living and PSP rating scale were significantly associated with clinical worsening. Conclusion Clinically meaningful change is measurable on the PSP rating scale over six months. PMID:27324431

  10. Internet Administration of the Paper-and-Pencil Gifted Rating Scale: Assessing Psychometric Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnell, Jordy B.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the psychometric equivalence of administering a computer-based version of the Gifted Rating Scale (GRS) compared with the traditional paper-and-pencil GRS-School Form (GRS-S). The GRS-S is a teacher-completed rating scale used in gifted assessment. The GRS-Electronic Form provides an alternative method of administering…

  11. Identifying Young Gifted Children Using the Gifted Rating Scales Preschool/Kindergarten Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted preschool and kindergarten students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. An examination of the standardization sample using…

  12. The Working Memory Rating Scale: A Classroom-Based Behavioral Assessment of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Kirkwood, Hannah; Elliott, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS), an observer-based rating scale that reflects behavioral difficulties of children with poor working memory. The findings indicate good internal reliability and adequate psychometric properties for use as a screening tool by teachers. Higher…

  13. How Is a Teacher Rating Scale Used in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, C. Keith

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of children with Attention Deficit Disorder should include use of teacher rating scales. Rater biases, positive and negative halo effects, practice effects, and other problems are outweighed by the ease of use, low cost, and reasonable reliability and validity of teacher rating scales. (Author/DB)

  14. How Is a Teacher Rating Scale Used in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, C. Keith

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of children with Attention Deficit Disorder should include use of teacher rating scales. Rater biases, positive and negative halo effects, practice effects, and other problems are outweighed by the ease of use, low cost, and reasonable reliability and validity of teacher rating scales. (Author/DB)

  15. Rating Scale Analysis: Gauging the Impact of Positively and Negatively Worded Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, Betty A.; Lunz, Mary E.

    This paper addresses questions of whether positively- and negatively-worded items measure the same construct and whether the rating scale categories "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree" are used in the same way for both types of items. Item response theory (IRT), specifically the Andrich Rating Scale Model (B. Wright and G.…

  16. The Working Memory Rating Scale: A Classroom-Based Behavioral Assessment of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Kirkwood, Hannah; Elliott, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS), an observer-based rating scale that reflects behavioral difficulties of children with poor working memory. The findings indicate good internal reliability and adequate psychometric properties for use as a screening tool by teachers. Higher…

  17. Internet Administration of the Paper-and-Pencil Gifted Rating Scale: Assessing Psychometric Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnell, Jordy B.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the psychometric equivalence of administering a computer-based version of the Gifted Rating Scale (GRS) compared with the traditional paper-and-pencil GRS-School Form (GRS-S). The GRS-S is a teacher-completed rating scale used in gifted assessment. The GRS-Electronic Form provides an alternative method of administering…

  18. Reliability and Structural Validity of The Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Erin E.; Diperna, James C.; Missall, Kristen; Volpe, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are few strengths-based preschool rating scales that sample a wide array of behaviors believed to be essential for early academic success. The purpose of this study was to assess the factor structure of a new measure of early academic competence for at-risk preschool populations. The Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic…

  19. Expert Practitioner's Views about the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-ieng; Chen, Yuewen; Li, Kejian

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the views of 176 expert practitioners on the relevance and feasibility of applying the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS), which is developed based on the Chinese version of Harms, Clifford, and Cryer's (2005) world renowned Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-revised (ECERS-R). The CECERS…

  20. Optimizing the Compatibility between Rating Scales and Measures of Productive Second Language Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a systematic investigation concerning the performance of different rating scales used in the English section of a university entrance examination to assess 1,287 Japanese test takers' ability to write a third-person introduction speech. Although the rating scales did not conform to all of the expectations of the Rasch model,…

  1. The Dissipation Rate Transport Equation and Subgrid-Scale Models in Rotating Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Ye, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The dissipation rate transport equation remains the most uncertain part of turbulence modeling. The difficulties arc increased when external agencies like rotation prevent straightforward dimensional analysis from determining the correct form of the modelled equation. In this work, the dissipation rate transport equation and subgrid scale models for rotating turbulence are derived from an analytical statistical theory of rotating turbulence. In the strong rotation limit, the theory predicts a turbulent steady state in which the inertial range energy spectrum scales as k(sup -2) and the turbulent time scale is the inverse rotation rate. This scaling has been derived previously by heuristic arguments.

  2. Rating scale for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: scale development and clinimetric testing.

    PubMed

    Cianci, Vittoria; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Condino, Francesca; Mauvais, Hélène Somma; Farnarier, Guy; Labate, Angelo; Latella, Maria Adele; Gasparini, Sara; Branca, Damiano; Pucci, Franco; Vazzana, Francesco; Gambardella, Antonio; Aguglia, Umberto

    2011-06-01

    Our aim was to develop a clinimetric scale evaluating motor phenomena, associated features, and severity of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Sixty video/EEG-recorded PNES induced by suggestion maneuvers were evaluated. We examined the relationship between results from this scale and results from the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale to validate this technique. Interrater reliabilities of the PNES scale for three raters were analyzed using the AC1 statistic, Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The relationship between the CGI and PNES scales was evaluated with Spearman correlations. The AC1 statistic demonstrated good interrater reliability for each phenomenon analyzed (tremor/oscillation, tonic; clonic/jerking, hypermotor/agitation, atonic/akinetic, automatisms, associated features). KCC and the ICC showed moderate interrater agreement for phenomenology, associated phenomena, and total PNES scores. Spearman's correlation of mean CGI score with mean total PNES score was 0.69 (P<0.001). The scale described here accurately evaluates the phenomenology of PNES and could be used to assess and compare subgroups of patients with PNES. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale--comparison of psychometric properties of the two instruments for rating a manic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wciórka, Jacek; Schaeffer, Ewa; Switaj, Piotr; Waszkiewicz, Justyna; Krasuska, Katarzyna; Wegrzyn, Jacek; Woźniak, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    The Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (BRMAS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) are both popular rating scales for mania. Until now BRMAS has not had a Polish language version BRMAS, although it may be particularly useful because of its twin depression (melancholia) rating scale (BRMES). No attempt of evaluation of the scales were made in Poland until now. Attempts to compare their worth are rare in the literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the two scales. Thirty-five patients hospitalised for mania in the course of affective, schizophrenic and organic disorders were assessed by means of two mania rating scales (BRMAS, YRMS), as well as with clinical global impression (CGI) scale, and its parallel versions for mania (CGI-M) and treatment adverse events (CGI-SE). Two rating scales for psychotic syndromes (PANSS, KOSS-S) was also used. Patients were assessed three times. First three diagnosticians evaluated simultaneously and independently the patients' mental state, and then--after one and two weeks--one of them. As reliability measures, inter-rater, test-retest, and internal consistency indices were analysed. As validity measures, a clinical meaning of descriptive characteristics of the scales (external validity), and a comparison with alternative tools for mania rating (criterion, diagnostic validity) were performed. Specificity and sensitivity of BRMAS and YMRS in relation to clinical criterion of severe mania (CGI > or = 5) was analysed by means of ROC curve. As feasibility measure observations made during assessments were used. BRMAS and YMRS revealed satisfactory convergence between assessments of the three diagnosticians (Spearman's rho > 0.72, no significant difference in non-parametric Friedman test), repeatability after a week (rho > 0.52) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha for BRMAS > 0.86, for YMRS > 0.73). Profile and dynamics of symptoms in the three successive assessments (each week) depicted changes consistent with

  4. Construct and concurrent validation of OMNI-Kayak rating of Perceived Exertion Scale.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Fábio Y; Perandini, Luiz A; Okuno, Nilo M; Borges, Thiago O; Bertuzzi, Rômulo C M; Robertson, Robert J

    2009-06-01

    This study tested the concurrent and construct validity of a newly developed OMNI-Kayak Scale, testing 8 male kayakers who performed a flatwater load-incremented "shuttle" test over a 500-m course and 3 estimation-production trials over a 1,000-m course. Velocity, blood lactate concentration, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE), using the OMNI-Kayak RPE Scale and the Borg 6-20 Scale were recorded. OMNI-Kayak Scale RPE was highly correlated with velocity, the Borg 6-20 Scale RPE, blood lactate, and heart rate for both load-incremented test (rs = .87-.96), and estimation trials (rs = .75-.90). There were no significant differences among velocities, heart rate and blood lactate concentration between estimation and production trials. The OMNI-Kayak RPE Scale showed concurrent and construct validity in assessing perception of effort in flatwater kayaking and is a valid tool for self-regulation of exercise intensity.

  5. A Self-rating Scale of English Difficulty: Rasch Scalar Analysis of Items and Rating Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Fred; Henning, Grant

    1985-01-01

    Presents a study of how well a set of language proficiency self-ratings fit the predictions of a probabilistic measurement model known as the Rasch Model. Applies the principles of the model to scalar rather than binary item response data. Concludes that scalar analysis of this kind is feasible with self-rating data. (Author/SED)

  6. [Demographic change and disease rates: a projection until 2050].

    PubMed

    Peters, E; Pritzkuleit, R; Beske, F; Katalinic, A

    2010-05-01

    Demographic change and its impact on the German healthcare system is a subject of great debate. The purpose of this paper is to make projections on disease rates based on the 11th coordinated demographic prediction and population-based data which take into consideration demographic developments. The German population will decrease by approximately 16% until 2050, while at the same time the number of persons aged over 65 years will increase by 38% and the number of individuals aged over 80 years will increase by 156%. Baby boomers cause a vertical wave in the population pyramid. The population pyramid itself will lead to an overproportional increase in the number of elderly persons. Assuming that disease probability stays the same, the incidence of diseases due to advanced age will rise dramatically. Especially diseases, such as community-acquired pneumonia, age-related macula degeneration, dementia, fracture of the femur neck, and myocardial infarction, will by then occur more often. By 2050, some of the most frequent diseases will be hypertension and arthrosis. Thus, the continuous cutting of resources seems rather short minded. It is highly recommended to reconsider the long-run effects before setting a health policy course. A proper social discourse about primary care and prioritization appears to be urgently needed.

  7. Large-scale spatial population databases in infectious disease research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Modelling studies on the spatial distribution and spread of infectious diseases are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with global risk mapping and epidemic modelling studies now popular. Yet, in deriving populations at risk of disease estimates, these spatial models must rely on existing global and regional datasets on population distribution, which are often based on outdated and coarse resolution data. Moreover, a variety of different methods have been used to model population distribution at large spatial scales. In this review we describe the main global gridded population datasets that are freely available for health researchers and compare their construction methods, and highlight the uncertainties inherent in these population datasets. We review their application in past studies on disease risk and dynamics, and discuss how the choice of dataset can affect results. Moreover, we highlight how the lack of contemporary, detailed and reliable data on human population distribution in low income countries is proving a barrier to obtaining accurate large-scale estimates of population at risk and constructing reliable models of disease spread, and suggest research directions required to further reduce these barriers. PMID:22433126

  8. Disparities in sexually transmitted disease rates across the "eight Americas".

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of 3 bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) in 8 subpopulations (known as the "eight Americas") defined by race and a small number of county-level sociodemographic and geographical characteristics. The eight Americas are (1) Asians and Pacific Islanders in specific counties; (2) Northland low-income rural white; (3) Middle America; (4) Low-income whites in Appalachia and Mississippi Valley; (5) Western Native American; (6) Black middle America; (7) Southern low-income rural black; and (8) High-risk urban black. A list of the counties comprising each of the eight Americas was obtained from the corresponding author of the original eight Americas project, which examined disparities in mortality rates across the eight Americas. Using county-level STD surveillance data, we calculated syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates (new cases per 100,000) for each of the eight Americas. Reported STD rates varied substantially across the eight Americas. STD rates were generally lowest in Americas 1 and 2 and highest in Americas 6, 7, and 8. Although disparities in STDs across the eight Americas are generally similar to the well-established disparities in STDs across race/ethnicity, the grouping of counties into the eight Americas does offer additional insight into disparities in STDs in the United States. The high STD rates we found for black Middle America are consistent with the assertion that sexual networks and social factors are important drivers of racial disparities in STDs.

  9. Pore-Scale Process Coupling and Effective Surface Reaction Rates in Heterogeneous Subsurface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Zachara, John M.

    2015-09-01

    This manuscript provides a review of pore-scale researches in literature including experimental and numerical approaches, and scale-dependent behavior of geochemical and biogeochemical reaction rates in heterogeneous porous media. A mathematical equation that can be used to predict the scale-dependent behavior of geochemical reaction rates in heterogeneous porous media has been derived. The derived effective rate expression explicitly links the effective reaction rate constant to the intrinsic rate constant, and to the pore-scale variations in reactant concentrations in porous media. Molecular simulations to calculate the intrinsic rate constants were provided. A few examples of pore-scale simulations were used to demonstrate the application of the equation to calculate effective rate constants in heterogeneous materials. The results indicate that the deviation of effective rate constant from the intrinsic rate in heterogeneous porous media is caused by the pore-scale distributions of reactants and their correlation, which are affected by the pore-scale coupling of reactions and transport.

  10. Optimizing the compatibility between rating scales and measures of productive second language competence.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a systematic investigation concerning the performance of different rating scales used in the English section of a university entrance examination to assess 1,287 Japanese test takers' ability to write a third-person introduction speech. Although the rating scales did not conform to all of the expectations of the Rasch model, they successfully defined a meaningful continuum of English communicative competence. In some cases, the expectations of the Rasch model needed to be weighed against the specific assessment needs of the university entrance examination. This investigation also found that the degree of compatibility between the number of points allotted to the different rating scales and the various requirements of an introduction speech played a considerable role in determining the extent to which the different rating scales conformed to the expectations of the Rasch model. Compatibility thus becomes an important factor to consider for optimal rating scale performance.

  11. Variability in results from negative binomial models for Lyme disease measured at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phoebe; Waller, Lance

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease has been the subject of many studies due to increasing incidence rates year after year and the severe complications that can arise in later stages of the disease. Negative binomial models have been used to model Lyme disease in the past with some success. However, there has been little focus on the reliability and consistency of these models when they are used to study Lyme disease at multiple spatial scales. This study seeks to explore how sensitive/consistent negative binomial models are when they are used to study Lyme disease at different spatial scales (at the regional and sub-regional levels). The study area includes the thirteen states in the Northeastern United States with the highest Lyme disease incidence during the 2002-2006 period. Lyme disease incidence at county level for the period of 2002-2006 was linked with several previously identified key landscape and climatic variables in a negative binomial regression model for the Northeastern region and two smaller sub-regions (the New England sub-region and the Mid-Atlantic sub-region). This study found that negative binomial models, indeed, were sensitive/inconsistent when used at different spatial scales. We discuss various plausible explanations for such behavior of negative binomial models. Further investigation of the inconsistency and sensitivity of negative binomial models when used at different spatial scales is important for not only future Lyme disease studies and Lyme disease risk assessment/management but any study that requires use of this model type in a spatial context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Preliminary study on civil capacity rating scale for mental disabled patients].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin-Ting; Pang, Yan-Xia; Cai, Wei-Xiong; Tang, Tao; Huang, Fu-Yin

    2010-10-01

    To create civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients, and explore its feasibility during the forensic psychiatric expertise. The civil capacity-related items were determined after discussion and consultation. The civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients was established and the manual was created according to the logistic sequence of the assessment. The rating scale was used during the civil assessment in four institutes. There were 14 items in civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients. Two hundred and two subjects were recruited and divided into three groups according to the experts' opinion on their civil capacities: full civil capacity, partial civil capacity and no civil capacity. The mean score of the three groups were 2.32 +/- 2.45, 11.62 +/- 4.01 and 25.02 +/- 3.90, respectively, and there was statistical differences among the groups. The Cronbach alpha of the rating scale was 0.9724, and during the split-reliability test, the two-splited part of the rating scale were highly correlated (r = 0.9729, P = 0.000). The Spearman correlative coefficient between each item and the score of the rating scale was from 0.643 to 0.882 (P = 0.000). There was good correlation between the conclusion according to the rating scale and the experts' opinion (kappa = 0.841, P = 0.000). When the discriminate analysis was used, 7 items were included into the discrimination equation, and 92.6% subjects were identified as the correct groups using the equation. There is satisfied reliability and validity on civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients. The rating scale can be used as effective tools to grade their civil capacity during the forensic expertise.

  13. Validating the Berg Balance Scale for patients with Parkinson's disease: a key to rehabilitation evaluation.

    PubMed

    Qutubuddin, Abu A; Pegg, Phillip O; Cifu, David X; Brown, Rashelle; McNamee, Shane; Carne, William

    2005-04-01

    To assess the criterion-related validity of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD). Prospective, correlational analysis between the BBS and accepted measures of PD motor and functional impairment. The federally funded PD research center, an interdisciplinary center of excellence for people with PD within a Veterans Affairs medical center. Thirty-eight men (average +/- standard deviation, 71.1+/-10.5 y) with confirmed PD. Their initial diagnosis had been made on average 5.8+/-3.6 years earlier. All could stand or walk unassisted and had mild to moderate disability. Patients who could not ambulate without assistive devices were excluded. Not applicable. Correlational analyses between the BBS and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scale, Modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging (Hoehn and Yahr) Scale, and the Modified Schwab and England Capacity for Daily Living Scale (S&E ADL Scale). BBS score showed significant correlations with indicators of motor functioning, stage of disease, and daily living capacity. BBS score was inversely associated with the UPDRS motor score (-.58, P <.005), Hoehn and Yahr Scale staging (-.45, P <.005), and S&E ADL Scale rating (.55, P <.005). In all 3 correlations, lower scores on the BBS (indicating greater balance deficits) correlated with higher UPDRS scores (indicating greater motoric or functional impairment). Results support the criterion-related validity of the BBS. Its utility in other balance conditions of older adults has been established. Rehabilitation interventions have been shown to improve the balance deficits associated with PD. Early referral and periodic reassessment is vital to achieving and maintaining improvements. Our research results agree with other published research in suggesting that the BBS may be used as a screening tool and ongoing assessment tool for patients with PD.

  14. Rating Apathy in Huntington’s Disease: Patients and Companions Agree.

    PubMed

    Mason, Sarah; Barker, Roger A

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is a common feature of Huntington’s disease (HD), even from early disease. However, patients are believed to lack insight into their own apathy and therefore clinicians and/or companions are relied upon to estimate the extent of a patient’s apathy. In addition, the evolution of apathy over time in HD has not been unequivocally established. OBJECTIVEs: The purpose of this study was to determine whether HD patient’s self-rated apathy scores were consistent with the scores given by companions who were also asked to rate the patients apathy. Furthermore, the clinical correlates of apathy and its stability over time were examined for both self-rated and companion-rated scores. METHODs: Apathy was measured in a large cross-sectional population of HD patients ranging from early to late stage disease (n = 106) using the Apathy Evaluation Scale; a subgroup of whom were followed longitudinally (n = 62) on average 18.7 (1.2 SD) months later. Comparisons were made between self-rated and companion-rated apathy and the relationship between apathy and motor, cognitive and functional performance was explored. Analysis of the cross-sectional data revealed that self-rated and companion-rated apathy were highly correlated, establishing the validity of using self-rated instead of, or in combination with, companion-rated assessments of apathy in future studies. Both self-rated and companion-rated scores had a relationship with motor and functional impairment, but had a complex relationship with cognition. The results of the longitudinal comparison revealed that apathy did not change over time in this cohort.CONCLUSIONs: Apathy can be equally well assessed by either patients or companions and does not change significantly over an18 month period. These findings have implications in the design of studies looking at treating this important aspect of HD.

  15. Scaling law of average failure rate and steady-state rate in rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Shengwang; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yingchong; Chang, Fuqing

    2017-06-01

    The evolution properties in the steady stage of a rock specimen are reflective of the damage or weakening growth within and thus are used to determine whether an unstable transition occurs. In this paper, we report the experimental results for rock (granite and marble) specimens tested at room temperature and room humidity under three typical loading modes: quasi-static monotonic loading, brittle creep, and brittle creep relaxation. Deformed rock specimens in current experiments exhibit an apparent steady stage characterized by a nearly constant evolution rate, which dominates the lifetime of the rock specimens. The average failure rate presents a common power-law relationship with the evolution rate in the steady stage, although the exponent is different for different loading modes. The results indicate that a lower ratio of the slope of the secondary stage with respect to the average rate of the entire lifetime implies a more brittle failure.

  16. Scaling law of average failure rate and steady-state rate in rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Shengwang; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yingchong; Chang, Fuqing

    2017-03-01

    The evolution properties in the steady stage of a rock specimen are reflective of the damage or weakening growth within and thus are used to determine whether an unstable transition occurs. In this paper, we report the experimental results for rock (granite and marble) specimens tested at room temperature and room humidity under three typical loading modes: quasi-static monotonic loading, brittle creep, and brittle creep relaxation. Deformed rock specimens in current experiments exhibit an apparent steady stage characterized by a nearly constant evolution rate, which dominates the lifetime of the rock specimens. The average failure rate presents a common power-law relationship with the evolution rate in the steady stage, although the exponent is different for different loading modes. The results indicate that a lower ratio of the slope of the secondary stage with respect to the average rate of the entire lifetime implies a more brittle failure.

  17. Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.

    PubMed

    Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A

    2014-08-01

    Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when

  18. MRI visual rating scales in the diagnosis of dementia: evaluation in 184 post-mortem confirmed cases

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Lorna; Fumagalli, Giorgio G.; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; O’Brien, John T.; Bouwman, Femke; Burton, Emma J.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Fox, Nick C.; Ridgway, Gerard R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately distinguishing between different degenerative dementias during life is challenging but increasingly important with the prospect of disease-modifying therapies. Molecular biomarkers of dementia pathology are becoming available, but are not widely used in clinical practice. Conversely, structural neuroimaging is recommended in the evaluation of cognitive impairment. Visual assessment remains the primary method of scan interpretation, but in the absence of a structured approach, diagnostically relevant information may be under-utilized. This definitive, multi-centre study uses post-mortem confirmed cases as the gold standard to: (i) assess the reliability of six visual rating scales; (ii) determine their associated pattern of atrophy; (iii) compare their diagnostic value with expert scan assessment; and (iv) assess the accuracy of a machine learning approach based on multiple rating scales to predict underlying pathology. The study includes T1-weighted images acquired in three European centres from 184 individuals with histopathologically confirmed dementia (101 patients with Alzheimer’s disease, 28 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 55 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration), and scans from 73 healthy controls. Six visual rating scales (medial temporal, posterior, anterior temporal, orbito-frontal, anterior cingulate and fronto-insula) were applied to 257 scans (two raters), and to a subset of 80 scans (three raters). Six experts also provided a diagnosis based on unstructured assessment of the 80-scan subset. The reliability and time taken to apply each scale was evaluated. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore the relationship between each rating scale and the pattern of grey matter volume loss. Additionally, the performance of each scale to predict dementia pathology both individually and in combination was evaluated using a support vector classifier, which was compared with expert scan assessment to estimate clinical value

  19. MRI visual rating scales in the diagnosis of dementia: evaluation in 184 post-mortem confirmed cases.

    PubMed

    Harper, Lorna; Fumagalli, Giorgio G; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; O'Brien, John T; Bouwman, Femke; Burton, Emma J; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Fox, Nick C; Ridgway, Gerard R; Schott, Jonathan M

    2016-04-01

    Accurately distinguishing between different degenerative dementias during life is challenging but increasingly important with the prospect of disease-modifying therapies. Molecular biomarkers of dementia pathology are becoming available, but are not widely used in clinical practice. Conversely, structural neuroimaging is recommended in the evaluation of cognitive impairment. Visual assessment remains the primary method of scan interpretation, but in the absence of a structured approach, diagnostically relevant information may be under-utilized. This definitive, multi-centre study uses post-mortem confirmed cases as the gold standard to: (i) assess the reliability of six visual rating scales; (ii) determine their associated pattern of atrophy; (iii) compare their diagnostic value with expert scan assessment; and (iv) assess the accuracy of a machine learning approach based on multiple rating scales to predict underlying pathology. The study includes T1-weighted images acquired in three European centres from 184 individuals with histopathologically confirmed dementia (101 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 28 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 55 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration), and scans from 73 healthy controls. Six visual rating scales (medial temporal, posterior, anterior temporal, orbito-frontal, anterior cingulate and fronto-insula) were applied to 257 scans (two raters), and to a subset of 80 scans (three raters). Six experts also provided a diagnosis based on unstructured assessment of the 80-scan subset. The reliability and time taken to apply each scale was evaluated. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore the relationship between each rating scale and the pattern of grey matter volume loss. Additionally, the performance of each scale to predict dementia pathology both individually and in combination was evaluated using a support vector classifier, which was compared with expert scan assessment to estimate clinical value

  20. Cerebral perivascular spaces visible on magnetic resonance imaging: development of a qualitative rating scale and its observer reliability.

    PubMed

    Potter, Gillian M; Chappell, Francesca M; Morris, Zoe; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-01-01

    Perivascular spaces (PVS) are an important component of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), several inflammatory disorders, hypertension and blood-brain barrier breakdown, but are difficult to quantify. A recent international collaboration of SVD experts has highlighted the need for a robust, easy-to-use PVS rating scale for the effective investigation of the diagnostic and prognostic significance of PVS. The purpose of the current study was to develop and extend existing PVS scales to provide a more comprehensive scale for the measurement of PVS in the basal ganglia, centrum semiovale and midbrain, and to test its intra- and inter-rater agreement, assessing reasons for discrepancy. We reviewed previously published PVS scales, including site of PVS assessed, rating method, and size and morphological criteria. Retaining key features, we devised a more comprehensive scale in order to improve the reliability of PVS rating. Two neuroradiologists tested the new scale in MRI brain scans of 60 patients from two studies (stroke, ageing population), chosen to represent a full range of PVS, and demonstrating concomitant features of SVD such as lacunes and white matter hyperintensities. We rated basal ganglia, centrum semiovale, and midbrain PVS. Basal ganglia and centrum semiovale PVS were rated 0 (none), 1 (1-10), 2 (11-20), 3 (21-40) and 4 (>40), and midbrain PVS were rated 0 (none visible) or 1 (visible). We calculated kappa statistics for rating, assessed consistency in use of PVS categories (Bhapkar test) and reviewed sources of discrepancy. Intra- and inter-rater kappa statistics were highest for basal ganglia PVS (range 0.76-0.87 and 0.8-0.9, respectively) than for centrum semiovale PVS (range 0.68-0.75 and 0.61-0.8, respectively) or midbrain PVS (inter-rater range 0.51-0.52). Inter-rater consistency was better for basal ganglia compared to centrum semiovale PVS (Bhapkar statistic 2.49-3.72, compared to 6.79-21.08, respectively). Most inter-rater disagreements were

  1. [Scientific Evaluation of TCM Clinical Outcomes Rating Scale for Heart Failure Based on Patients Report].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-qiang; Mao, Jing-yuan; Wang, Xian-liang; Hou, Ya-zhu; Bi, Ying-fei

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical outcomes rating scale for heart failure (HF) based on patients' report. TCM clinical outcomes rating scale for HF (TCM-HF-PRO) were evaluated based on 340 HF patients' report from multiple centers. The completion of the investigation was recorded. Cronbach's α coefficient and split-half reliability were used for reliability analysis, and factor analysis was used to assess the construct validity of the rating scale. Pearson correlation analysis was then used for criterion validity analysis. Discriminant analysis was used to assess the responsiveness of the scale. All 340 HF patients having complete TCM-HF-PRO data were assigned to the treatment group and the control group by central randomization. The total TCM-HF-PRO scores of the two groups were compared using paired t-test to reflect the longitude responsiveness of the scale before treatment and at week 2 after treatment. (1) The recycling rate of the scale was 100.0%. One of them was not filled completely, which was rejected thereby. So the completion rate was 99.7%. The completion time for TCM-HF-PRO scale ranged 15 to 25 min. (2) The Cronbach's α coefficient of rating scale was 0.903, split-half reliability was 0.844 and 0.849. (3) Confirmatory factor analysis showed that 7 factors and items formed according to maximum load factor basically coincided with the construct of the rating scale, 7 factors accumulated contribution rate was 43.8%. TCM clinical outcomes rating scale for HF based on patients' report was relatively better correlated with the Minnesota living with HF questionnaire (r = 0.726, P < 0.01). (4) Discriminant analysis showed that the rating scale correctly classified more than 78.8% of case studies having confirmed initial differential diagnosis by experts. The total scale of the rating scale decreased more in the two group after treatment, with significant difference as compared with

  2. Rating Scale Analysis and Psychometric Properties of the Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipriani, Daniel J.; Hensen, Francine E.; McPeck, Danielle L.; Kubec, Gina L. D.; Thomas, Julie J.

    2012-01-01

    Parents and caregivers faced with the challenges of transferring children with disability are at risk of musculoskeletal injuries and/or emotional stress. The Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers (CSEST) is a 14-item questionnaire that measures self-efficacy for transferring under common conditions. The CSEST yields reliable data and valid…

  3. Development and validation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) induced angioedema investigator rating scale and proposed discharge criteria.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Nicola; Panter, Charlotte; Kimura, Alan; Sinert, Rich; Moellman, Joseph; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2017-05-22

    The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) has been associated with the development of bradykinin-mediated angioedema. With ever-widening indications for ACEI in diseases including hypertension, congestive heart failure and diabetic nephropathy, a concomitant increase in ACEI-Angioedema (ACEI-A) has been reported. At present there is no validated severity scoring or discharge criteria for ACEI-A. We sought to develop and validate an investigator rating scale with corresponding discharge criteria using clinicians experienced in treating ACEI-A. In-depth, 60-min qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with 12 US-based emergency physicians. Beforehand, clinicians were sent four case studies describing patients experiencing different severities of angioedema attacks. Clinicians were initially asked open-ended questions about their experience of patients' symptoms, treatment and discharge decisions. Clinicians then rated each patient case study and discussed patient diagnoses, ratings of symptom severity and discharge evaluation. The ratings were used to assess inter-rater reliability of the scale using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) using IBM SPSS analysis Version 19 software. The findings provide support focusing on four key symptoms of airway compromise scored on a 0-4 scale: 1) Difficulty Breathing, 2) Difficulty Swallowing, 3) Voice Changes and 4) Tongue Swelling and the corresponding discharge criteria of a score of 0 or 'No symptoms' for Difficulty Breathing and Difficulty Swallowing and a score of 0 or 1 indicating mild or absence of symptoms for Voice Change and Tongue Swelling. Eleven clinicians agreed the absence of standardized discharge criteria supported the use of this scale. All physicians concurred with the recommended discharge criteria. The clinician ratings provided evidence of strong inter-rater reliability for the rating scale (ICC > 0.80). The investigator rating scale and discharge criteria are

  4. Convergent Validity with the BERS-2 Teacher Rating Scale and the Achenbach Teacher's Report Form: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Gregory J.; Beaudoin, Kathleen; Mooney, Paul; Uhing, Brad M.; Pierce, Corey D.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we sought to extend instrument validation research for a strength-based emotional and behavior rating scale, the "Teacher Rating Scale of the Behavior and Emotional Rating Scale-Second Edition" (BERS-2; Epstein, M. H. (2004). "Behavioral and emotional rating scale" (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED) through…

  5. Optimizing the control of disease infestations at the landscape scale

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Graeme A.; Gilligan, Christopher A.

    2007-01-01

    Using a contact-process model for the spread of crop disease over a regional scale, we examine the importance of the time scale for control with respect to the cost of the epidemic. The costs include the direct cost of treating infected sites as well as the indirect costs incurred through lost yield. We first use a mean-field approximation to derive analytical results for the optimal treatment regimes that minimize the total cost of the epidemic. We distinguish short- and long-term epidemics. and show that seasonal control (short time scale) requires extreme treatment, either treating all sites or none or switching between the two at some stage during the season. The optimal long-term strategy requires an intermediate level of control that results in near eradication of the disease. We also demonstrate the importance of incorporating economic constraints by deriving a critical relationship between the epidemiological and economic parameters that determine the qualitative nature of the optimal treatment strategy. The set of optimal strategies is summarized in a policy plot, which can be used to determine the nature of the optimal treatment regime given prior knowledge of the epidemiological and economic parameters. Finally, we test the robustness of the analytical results, derived from the mean-field approximation, on the spatially explicit contact process and demonstrate robustness to implementation errors and misestimation of crucial parameters. PMID:17360397

  6. Cross-Informant Agreement for Ratings for Social Skill and Problem Behavior Ratings: An Investigation of the Social Skills Improvement System--Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Cook, Clayton R.; Vance, Michael J.; Kettler, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in rating scale research with children and adolescents is the modest agreement among different informants' ratings. The present study systematically explored patterns of agreement among teachers, parents/caregivers, and students in domains of social skills and problem behaviors using the Social Skills…

  7. How to reduce the number of rating scale items without predictability loss?

    PubMed

    Koczkodaj, W W; Kakiashvili, T; Szymańska, A; Montero-Marin, J; Araya, R; Garcia-Campayo, J; Rutkowski, K; Strzałka, D

    2017-01-01

    Rating scales are used to elicit data about qualitative entities (e.g., research collaboration). This study presents an innovative method for reducing the number of rating scale items without the predictability loss. The "area under the receiver operator curve method" (AUC ROC) is used. The presented method has reduced the number of rating scale items (variables) to 28.57% (from 21 to 6) making over 70% of collected data unnecessary. Results have been verified by two methods of analysis: Graded Response Model (GRM) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). GRM revealed that the new method differentiates observations of high and middle scores. CFA proved that the reliability of the rating scale has not deteriorated by the scale item reduction. Both statistical analysis evidenced usefulness of the AUC ROC reduction method.

  8. Geometrical scaling and modal decay rates in periodic arrays of deeply subwavelength Terahertz resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Isić, Goran Gajić, Radoš

    2014-12-21

    It is well known that due to the high conductivity of noble metals at terahertz frequencies and scalability of macroscopic Maxwell equations, a geometrical downscaling of a terahertz resonator results in the linear upscaling of its resonance frequency. However, the scaling laws of modal decay rates, important for the resonator excitation efficiency, are much less known. Here, we investigate the extent to which the scale-invariance of decay rates is violated due to the finite conductivity of the metal. We find that the resonance quality factor or the excitation efficiency may be substantially affected by scaling and show that this happens as a result of the scale-dependence of the metal absorption rate, while the radiative decay and the dielectric cavity absorption rates are approximately scale-invariant. In particular, we find that by downscaling overcoupled resonators, their excitation efficiency increases, while the opposite happens with undercoupled resonators.

  9. Imaging biomarkers of dementia: recommended visual rating scales with teaching cases.

    PubMed

    Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Westman, Eric; van Westen, Danielle; Wallin, Anders; Shams, Sara; Cavallin, Lena; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2017-02-01

    The diagnostic work up of dementia may benefit from structured reporting of CT and/or MRI and the use of standardised visual rating scales. We advocate a more widespread use of standardised scales as part of the workflow in clinical and research evaluation of dementia. We propose routine clinical use of rating scales for medial temporal atrophy (MTA), global cortical atrophy (GCA) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). These scales can be used for evaluation of both CT and MRI and are efficient in routine imaging assessment in dementia, and may improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Our review provides detailed imaging examples of rating increments in each of these scales and a separate teaching file. The radiologist should relate visual ratings to the clinical assessment and other biomarkers to assist the clinician in the diagnostic decision.

  10. Casualty Estimation Sub-Study: Disease and Nonbattle Injury Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    visits (15.39/1000/day). Of these, 110 (10%) were defined as heat exhaustion and another 176 (16%) as heat related. Trauma accounted for 36 percent of...rates for dental and other specific conditions are shown in Table 7. The respective disease to trauma ratios were 1.5:1, 1:1.5, and 1:1 for Irwin 1...combat non-effectiveness is largely unknown. Quantitative information from historical data has been sufficient only in the area of maxilofacial injury

  11. Celiac disease markers in patients with liver diseases: a single center large scale screening study.

    PubMed

    Drastich, Pavel; Honsová, Eva; Lodererová, Alena; Jarešová, Marcela; Pekáriková, Aneta; Hoffmanová, Iva; Tučková, Ludmila; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena; Spičák, Julius; Sánchez, Daniel

    2012-11-21

    To study the coincidence of celiac disease, we tested its serological markers in patients with various liver diseases. Large-scale screening of serum antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG), and deamidated gliadin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum antibodies against endomysium using immunohistochemistry, in patients with various liver diseases (n = 962) and patients who underwent liver transplantation (OLTx, n = 523) was performed. The expression of tTG in liver tissue samples of patients simultaneously suffering from celiac disease and from various liver diseases using immunohistochemistry was carried out. The final diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed by histological analysis of small-intestinal biopsy. We found that 29 of 962 patients (3%) with liver diseases and 5 of 523 patients (0.8%) who underwent OLTx were seropositive for IgA and IgG anti-tTG antibodies. However, celiac disease was biopsy-diagnosed in 16 patients: 4 with autoimmune hepatitis type I, 3 with Wilson's disease, 3 with celiac hepatitis, 2 with primary sclerosing cholangitis, 1 with primary biliary cirrhosis, 1 with Budd-Chiari syndrome, 1 with toxic hepatitis, and 1 with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Unexpectedly, the highest prevalence of celiac disease was found in patients with Wilson's disease (9.7%), with which it is only rarely associated. On the other hand, no OLTx patients were diagnosed with celiac disease in our study. A pilot study of the expression of tTG in liver tissue using immunohistochemistry documented the overexpression of this molecule in endothelial cells and periportal hepatocytes of patients simultaneously suffering from celiac disease and toxic hepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis or autoimmune hepatitis type I. We suggest that screening for celiac disease may be beneficial not only in patients with associated liver diseases, but also in patients with Wilson's disease.

  12. Renormalization-scale uncertainty in the decay rate of false vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Motoi; Moroi, Takeo; Nojiri, Mihoko M.; Shoji, Yutaro

    2016-01-01

    We study radiative corrections to the decay rate of false vacua, paying particular attention to the renormalization-scale dependence of the decay rate. The decay rate exponentially depends on the bounce action. The bounce action itself is renormalization-scale dependent. To make the decay rate scale-independent, radiative corrections, which are due to the field fluctuations around the bounce, have to be included. We show quantitatively that the inclusion of the fluctuations suppresses the scale dependence, and hence is important for the precise calculation of the decay rate. We also apply our analysis to a supersymmetric model and show that the radiative corrections are important for the Higgs-stau system with charge breaking minima.

  13. Development of the Huntington disease work function scale.

    PubMed

    Brossman, Bradley; Williams, Janet K; Downing, Nancy; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2012-10-01

    A work function measure specific for persons with prodromal Huntington disease (HD) was created to assist with workplace accommodations. A self-report HD Work Function (HDWF) measure was developed from focus group and expert validation. Pilot studies with 238 people with prodromal HD, and 185 companions; and 89 people without prodromal HD, and 70 companions indicate that HDWF has acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.77), acceptable interrater reliability (r = 0.58), and acceptable convergent validity with selected items from the Endicott Work Productivity Scale (r = -0.56), Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report (r = -0.29), and Everyday Cognition (r = -0.70). The HDWF can distinguish between people with prodromal HD and people with an HD family history who do not have prodromal HD (P < 0.0001). The HDWF is a brief self-assessment that may be used to monitor work function.

  14. Gravity waves as a probe of the Hubble expansion rate during an electroweak scale phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Zhou Peng

    2010-07-15

    Just as big bang nucleosynthesis allows us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was around 1 MeV, the measurement of gravity waves from electroweak scale first order phase transitions may allow us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was at the electroweak scale. We compute the simple transformation rule for the gravity wave spectrum under the scaling transformation of the Hubble expansion rate. We then apply this directly to the scenario of quintessence kination domination and show how gravity wave spectra would shift relative to Laser Interferometer Space Antenna and Big Bang Observer projected sensitivities.

  15. Validation of a new scale to assess olfactory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Millar Vernetti, Patricio; Perez Lloret, Santiago; Rossi, Malco; Cerquetti, Daniel; Merello, Marcelo

    2012-05-01

    BAKCKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction is present in up to 90% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It is usually evaluated by means of objective standardized tests; however no self-administered scales have been developed for olfactory dysfunction bedside assessment. We present validation of a new scale to assess this symptom in PD patients. Seventy-five PD patients and 25 control subjects were evaluated using a Hyposmia Rating Scale developed in-house, combined with the extended Sniffin' Sticks test. Total score of the 6-item Hyposmia Rating Scale showed significant correlation with threshold, discrimination, identification and total Sniffin' Sticks test scores (r = 0.53; r = 0.60; r = 0.57; r = 0.65 respectively, p < 0.001 for all values). Area under the curve of the receiver operating curve for the ability of Hyposmia Rating Scale to discriminate patients with Sniffin' Sticks test total scores below or above the cut-off point was 80 ± 6% (p < 0.001). Considering Sniffin' Sticks test as the gold standard method for olfactory dysfunction detection, an affirmative response to a single screening question about smelling ability problems showed 35% sensitivity (95%CI = 23-47%) and 100% specificity. The best cut-off point for Hyposmia Rating Scale was 22.5 with a sensitivity of 70% (60-81%) and a specificity of 85% (65-100%). The Hyposmia Rating Scale here presented may offer a simple, cost-effective, time-saving and reliable approach to evaluate olfactory dysfunction in PD patients. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Linguistic Adaptation of the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale for a Spanish-Speaking Population

    PubMed Central

    Oquendo-Jiménez, Ilia; Mena, Rafaela; Antoun, Mikhail D.; Wojna, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. In Hispanic populations there are few validated tests for the accurate identification and diagnosis of AD. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale is an internationally recognized questionnaire used to stage dementia. This study's objective was to develop a linguistic adaptation of the CDR for the Puerto Rican population. Methods The linguistic adaptation consisted of the evaluation of each CDR question (item) and the questionnaire's instructions, for similarities in meaning (semantic equivalence), relevance of content (content equivalence), and appropriateness of the questionnaire's format and measuring technique (technical equivalence). A focus group methodology was used to assess cultural relevance, clarity, and suitability of the measuring technique in the Argentinean version of the CDR for use in a Puerto Rican population. Results A total of 27 semantic equivalence changes were recommended in four categories: higher than 6th grade level of reading, meaning, common use, and word preference. Four content equivalence changes were identified, all focused on improving the applicability of the test questions to the general population's concept of street addresses and common dietary choices. There were no recommendations for changes in the assessment of technical equivalence. Conclusions We developed a linguistically adapted CDR instrument for the Puerto Rican population, preserving the semantic, content, and technical equivalences of the original version. Further studies are needed to validate the CDR instrument with the staging of Alzheimer's disease in the Puerto Rican population. PMID:20496524

  17. Validation of the Official Slovak Version of the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS).

    PubMed

    Skorvanek, Matej; Minar, Michal; Grofik, Milan; Kracunova, Katarina; Han, Vladimir; Cibulcik, Frantisek; Necpal, Jan; Gurcik, Ladislav; Valkovic, Peter

    2015-01-01

    After successful clinimetric testing of the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS), a program for translation and validation of non-English versions of the UDysRS was initiated. The aim of this study was to validate and confirm the factor structure of the Slovak translation of the UDysRS. We examined 251 patients with Parkinson's disease and dyskinesia using the Slovak version of the UDysRS. The average age of our sample was 65.2 ± 9.2 years and average disease duration was 10.9 ± 5.0 years. Slovak data were compared using confirmatory factor analysis with the Spanish data. To be designated as the official Slovak UDysRS translation, the comparative fit index (CFI) had to be ≥0.90 relative to the Spanish language version. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to explore the underlying factor structure without the constraint of a prespecified factor structure. For all four parts of the Slovak UDysRS, the CFI, in comparison with the Spanish language factor structure, was ≥0.98. Isolated differences in the factor structure of the Slovak UDysRS were identified by exploratory factor analysis compared with the Spanish version. The Slovak version of the UDysRS was designated as an official non-English translation and can be downloaded from the website of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Review of outcome measurement instruments in Alzheimer's disease drug trials: psychometric properties of global scales.

    PubMed

    Oremus, M; Perrault, A; Demers, L; Wolfson, C

    2000-01-01

    The use of global outcome measures with strong psychometric properties in Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug trials is encouraged. This article focuses on Clinician Global Impression of Change scales, the Clinical Dementia Rating, and the Global Deterioration Scale to provide (1) a review of psychometric properties, (2) a critique of how these properties are assessed in the literature, and (3) a basis for evaluating, from the standpoint of psychometric properties, the appropriateness of using a given global scale in a drug trial. Reported reliability and validity estimates for the aforementioned scales range from fair to very good, but small sample sizes and/or inappropriate measures of correlation weaken the quality of the evidence. There is also a dearth of published information on responsiveness to change. Researchers planning AD drug trials should consider these issues, along with the interval between test administrations for test-retest reliability, to help select appropriate global outcome measurement instruments.

  19. Validity of depression rating scales during pregnancy and the postpartum period: impact of trimester and parity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shuang; Long, Qi; Newport, D Jeffrey; Na, Hyeji; Knight, Bettina; Zach, Elizabeth B; Morris, Natalie J; Kutner, Michael; Stowe, Zachary N

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the current study was to delineate the optimal cutpoints for depression rating scales during pregnancy and the postpartum period and to assess the perinatal factors influencing these scores. Women participating in prospective investigations of maternal mental illness were enrolled prior to 28 weeks gestation and followed through 6 months postpartum. At each visit, subjects completed self-rated depression scales--Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and clinician-rated scales--Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD(17) and HRSD(21)). These scores were compared to the SCID Mood Module for the presence of fulfilling diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode (MDE) during 6 perinatal windows: preconception; first trimester; 2nd trimester; 3rd trimester; early postpartum; and later postpartum. Optimal cutpoints were determined by maximizing the sum of each scale's sensitivity and specificity. Stratified ROC analyses determined the impact of previous pregnancy and comparison of initial to follow-up visits. A total of 534 women encompassing 640 pregnancies and 4025 follow-up visits were included. ROC analysis demonstrated that all 4 scales were highly predictive of MDE. The AUCs ranged from 0.857 to 0.971 and were all highly significant (p < .0001). Optimal cutpoints were higher at initial visits and for multigravidas and demonstrated more variability for the self-rated scales. These data indicate that both clinician-rated and self-rated scales can be effective tools in identifying perinatal episodes of major depression. However, the results also suggest that prior childbirth experiences and the use of scales longitudinally across the perinatal period influence optimal cutpoints. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS): comparison with Kupperman index and quality-of-life scale SF-36.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H P; Heinemann, L A; Rosemeier, H P; Potthoff, P; Behre, H M

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate further the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) for scoring menopausal symptoms by comparison with other instruments relevant for women in their menopausal transition: the Kupperman index and the quality-of-life scale SF-36. A population sample of 306 women, who had been randomly selected from an initially representative survey of German women (aged 40-60), completed three questionnaires in 1997: the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), the Kupperman index and the short form-36 (SF-36). A comparison of the MRS with the Kupperman index produced a high correlation of raw scores (r = 0.91). The highest association of scores (80%) was found in the highest quartile of the MRS. The terms 'mild', 'moderate' and 'severe', relating to the degree of severity of menopausal symptoms, reflect different contents and spread in each scale, i.e. are not directly comparable. There is a strikingly good association between the subscales of the SF-36 and the MRS. The MRS correlates best with those dimensions of the SF-36 that are highly relevant for women in the menopausal transition. For this reason, the MRS can be utilized as an age- and condition-specific quality-of-life instrument. The Menopause Rating Scale is a valuable modern tool for the assessment of menopausal complaints. It combines in practice excellent applicability and good reliability, and there are normal values for the population available. The MRS could serve as an adequate diagnostic instrument for menopausal quality of life.

  1. Choice of rating scale labels: implication for minimizing patient satisfaction response ceiling effect in telemedicine surveys.

    PubMed

    Masino, Caterina; Lam, Tony C M

    2014-12-01

    Lack of response variability is problematic in surveys because of its detrimental effects on sensitivity and consequently reliability of the responses. In satisfaction surveys, this problem is caused by the ceiling effect resulting from high satisfaction ratings. A potential solution strategy is to manipulate the labels of the rating scale to create greater discrimination of responses on the high end of the response continuum. This study examined the effects of a positive-centered scale on the distribution and reliability of telemedicine satisfaction responses in a highly positive respondent population. In total, 216 telemedicine participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions as defined by the form of Likert scale: (1) 5-point Balanced Equal-Interval, (2) 5-point Positive-Packed, and (3) 5-point Positive-Centered Equal-Interval. Although the study findings were not statistically significant, partially because of sample size, the distribution and internal consistency reliability of responses occurred in the direction hypothesized. Loading the rating scale with more positive labels appears to be a useful strategy for reducing the ceiling effect and increases the discrimination ability of survey responses. The current research provides a survey design strategy to minimize ceiling effects. Although the findings provide some evidence suggesting the benefit of using rating scales loaded with positive labels, more research is needed to confirm this, as well as extend it to examine other types of rating scales and the interaction between rating scale formats and respondent characteristics.

  2. A Behavior Rating Scale for Emotionally Disturbed Students: The Pupil Observation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong-Hugg, Robin L.; And Others

    The paper describes development of the Pupil Observation Schedule (POS), a computer based system which provides a framework for assessing, evaluating, and reporting behavioral progress of emotionally disturbed students. The POS is used to rate five skill areas--computation, language, reading, reference, and psychomotor skills; and nine behavioral…

  3. Pneumococcal vaccination rates in VHA patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Case, David J; Copeland, Laurel A; Stock, Eileen M; Herrera, Henry R; Pfanner, Timothy P

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammatory condition of the digestive tract not caused by infectious agents. Symptoms of IBD, such as diarrhea and pain, diminish one's quality of life. Underlying immune dysregulation may put IBD patients at risk for severe infectious disease making preventative vaccination highly recommended. Therefore, this study sought to assess rates of pneumococcal vaccination in patients with IBD.A cross-sectional observational study was employed utilizing administrative data extracts from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to identify patients diagnosed with IBD per International Classification of Diseases, Version 9, Clinical Modification codes. Their pneumococcal vaccine histories were determined from Common Procedural Terminology codes. Data were aggregated to the patient level and subjected to multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with receipt of the vaccination and 1-year mortality; survival analyses extended follow-up to as much as 4 years following IBD diagnosis.From October 2004 to September 2009, 49,350 patients were diagnosed with IBD in the VHA. Incidence was approximately 6000 cases/y. Patients averaged 62 years (±15, range 19-98) with 45% aged 65 or older. Approximately 6% were women, 21% were highly disabled from a military service-connected condition, 46% had hypertension, 38% dyslipidemia, and 18% diabetes. Only 20% of the cohort received pneumococcal vaccination including 5% vaccinated prior to IBD diagnosis, 2% on the date of diagnosis, and 13% subsequently. Being married, living outside the Northeast, and having more comorbidities were associated with vaccination before IBD diagnosis; models of vaccination at or after diagnosis demonstrated poor fit: little better than chance. Vaccinations before, after, and at diagnosis were protective against 1-year mortality adjusting for clinical and demographic covariates. Living in the South was an independent risk factor for death among IBD

  4. Rate dependence of grain boundary sliding via time-scaling atomistic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammami, Farah; Kulkarni, Yashashree

    2017-02-01

    Approaching experimentally relevant strain rates has been a long-standing challenge for molecular dynamics method which captures phenomena typically on the scale of nanoseconds or at strain rates of 107 s-1 and higher. Here, we use grain boundary sliding in nanostructures as a paradigmatic problem to investigate rate dependence using atomistic simulations. We employ a combination of time-scaling computational approaches, including the autonomous basin climbing method, the nudged elastic band method, and kinetic Monte Carlo, to access strain rates ranging from 0.5 s-1 to 107 s-1. Combined with a standard linear solid model for viscoelastic behavior, our simulations reveal that grain boundary sliding exhibits noticeable rate dependence only below strain rates on the order of 10 s-1 but is rate independent and consistent with molecular dynamics at higher strain rates.

  5. Predictors of family caregiver ratings of patient quality of life in Alzheimer disease: cross-sectional results from the Canadian Alzheimer's Disease Quality of Life Study.

    PubMed

    Naglie, Gary; Hogan, David B; Krahn, Murray; Black, Sandra E; Beattie, B Lynn; Patterson, Christopher; Macknight, Chris; Freedman, Morris; Borrie, Michael; Byszewski, Anna; Bergman, Howard; Streiner, David; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul; Comrie, Janna; Kowgier, Matthew; Tomlinson, George

    2011-10-01

    To assess whether the core symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD) and caregiver factors consistently predict family caregiver ratings of patient quality of life (QOL) as assessed by a variety of QOL measures in a large national sample. : Cross-sectional. Fifteen dementia and geriatric clinics across Canada. : Family caregivers (n = 412) of community-living patients with AD of all severities. Caregiver ratings of patient QOL using three utility indexes, the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, Quality of Well-Being Scale and Health Utilities Index; a global QOL visual analogue scale; a disease-specific measure, the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease; and a generic health status measure, the Short Form-36. Patient cognition was assessed with the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale and Mini-Mental State Examination, function with the Disability Assessment for Dementia, and behavioral and psychological symptoms with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Caregiver burden was assessed with the Zarit Burden Interview and caregiver depression with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. One-way analysis of variance and fully adjusted multiple linear regression were used to assess the relationship between patient dementia symptom and caregiver variables with QOL ratings. In multivariable analyses, caregiver ratings of patient function and depressive symptoms were the only consistent independent predictors of caregiver-rated QOL across the QOL measures. Caregiver ratings of patient function and depression were consistent independent predictors of caregiver-rated QOL, using a spectrum of QOL measures, while measures of patient cognition and caregiver burden and depression were not. These findings support the continued use of caregiver ratings as an important source of information about patient QOL and endorse the inclusion in AD clinical trials of caregiver-rated measures of patient function, depression

  6. Verification of energy dissipation rate scalability in pilot and production scale bioreactors using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chris; Natarajan, Venkatesh; Antoniou, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Suspension mammalian cell cultures in aerated stirred tank bioreactors are widely used in the production of monoclonal antibodies. Given that production scale cell culture operations are typically performed in very large bioreactors (≥ 10,000 L), bioreactor scale-down and scale-up become crucial in the development of robust cell-culture processes. For successful scale-up and scale-down of cell culture operations, it is important to understand the scale-dependence of the distribution of the energy dissipation rates in a bioreactor. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations can provide an additional layer of depth to bioreactor scalability analysis. In this communication, we use CFD analyses of five bioreactor configurations to evaluate energy dissipation rates and Kolmogorov length scale distributions at various scales. The results show that hydrodynamic scalability is achievable as long as major design features (# of baffles, impellers) remain consistent across the scales. Finally, in all configurations, the mean Kolmogorov length scale is substantially higher than the average cell size, indicating that catastrophic cell damage due to mechanical agitation is highly unlikely at all scales. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Estimating average annual percent change for disease rates without assuming constant change.

    PubMed

    Fay, Michael P; Tiwari, Ram C; Feuer, Eric J; Zou, Zhaohui

    2006-09-01

    The annual percent change (APC) is often used to measure trends in disease and mortality rates, and a common estimator of this parameter uses a linear model on the log of the age-standardized rates. Under the assumption of linearity on the log scale, which is equivalent to a constant change assumption, APC can be equivalently defined in three ways as transformations of either (1) the slope of the line that runs through the log of each rate, (2) the ratio of the last rate to the first rate in the series, or (3) the geometric mean of the proportional changes in the rates over the series. When the constant change assumption fails then the first definition cannot be applied as is, while the second and third definitions unambiguously define the same parameter regardless of whether the assumption holds. We call this parameter the percent change annualized (PCA) and propose two new estimators of it. The first, the two-point estimator, uses only the first and last rates, assuming nothing about the rates in between. This estimator requires fewer assumptions and is asymptotically unbiased as the size of the population gets large, but has more variability since it uses no information from the middle rates. The second estimator is an adaptive one and equals the linear model estimator with a high probability when the rates are not significantly different from linear on the log scale, but includes fewer points if there are significant departures from that linearity. For the two-point estimator we can use confidence intervals previously developed for ratios of directly standardized rates. For the adaptive estimator, we show through simulation that the bootstrap confidence intervals give appropriate coverage.

  8. Comparison of self and proxy ratings for motor performance of individuals with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Sabiha

    2016-03-01

    The impact of Parkinson disease (PD) has been examined in recent years by comparing self-ratings by individuals with PD and proxy ratings by caregivers, communication partners, and/or health care providers. However, the existing evidence is mixed with some researchers suggesting perfect agreement between rater groups while others suggesting differences among rater groups for motor performance of individuals with PD. The current study examined self and proxy perception of performance of individuals with PD for six motor characteristics (gait, rigidity, right and left bradykinesia, rest tremors, and perception of physical effort) based on Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor tasks. Participants included 20 individuals with PD, 20 communication partners, and a trained rater. The study compared perceptual ratings and corresponding UPDRS scores as well as rater group differences for perceptual motor ratings. A series of Pearson Product Moment Correlations indicated significant relationship only between self-ratings for gait and rest tremors by individuals with PD and corresponding UPDRS scores (p<.05). Further, a multivariate analysis of variance was completed to compare rater group differences. Results indicated significant overestimation of rest tremors by both individuals with PD and communication partners when compared to corresponding ratings by the trained rater. Overall, the study provided evidence for perception deficits among individuals with PD and communication partners regarding motor performance of individuals with PD. Additional studies are needed to further explore the changes in perception abilities of individuals with PD and communication partners with respect to disease duration, disease severity, and other co-morbid factors.

  9. Validation of the Parents' Evaluation of Aural/Oral Performance of Children (PEACH) Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Bagatto, Marlene P; Scollie, Susan D

    2013-02-01

    The Parents' Evaluation of Aural/Oral Performance of Children (PEACH) is a caregiver report questionnaire that is suitable for use with children who wear hearing aids. It is available in both a Diary format and a Rating Scale format. Following a critical review of subjective outcome evaluation tools for infants, toddlers, and preschool children (Bagatto, Moodie, Seewald et al, 2011), the Rating Scale version of the PEACH was included in a recently developed guideline for monitoring real-world auditory performance of children who have hearing loss (Bagatto, Moodie, Malandrino et al, 2011). Normative data exist only for the PEACH Diary, not the Rating Scale. This article evaluates whether published normative data for the PEACH Diary (Ching and Hill, 2007) are replicated on a different sample of children using the PEACH Rating Scale. Fifty-nine children with normal hearing aged 2 mo to 83 mo and their primary caregivers participated in the study. Caregivers completed the PEACH Rating Scale for each child with normal hearing. Results indicated close agreement to existing normative data collected with the PEACH Diary, with no differences in scores between males and females and good internal consistency. Age-related trends published for the Diary version were replicated using the Rating Scale version, as significantly lower scores were observed for children 20 mo of age and younger compared to those older than 20 mo of age. The currently published norms for the PEACH Diary are valid for use with the PEACH Rating Scale with caregivers of normal hearing children. This validation work adds to the evidence base of the PEACH Rating Scale and supports its use in clinical practice. American Academy of Audiology.

  10. Validation of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper T.; Mo, Guofang

    2008-01-01

    The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S), a teacher-completed rating scale, is designed to identify five types of giftedness and motivation. This study examines the reliability and validity of a Chinese-translated version of the GRS-S with a sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students (N = 499). The Chinese GRS-S was found to have…

  11. Iowa's Severity Rating Scales for Communication Disabilities: Preschool, Ages 2-5 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freilinger, J. Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    The Iowa Severity Rating Scales are designed to provide general guidelines which may be used as a part of the clinical speech and language program to obtain uniform identification of preschool children with communication disabilities. Section 1 contains definitions, an explanation of the severity classification (a 5 point scale ranging from 0 for…

  12. Factor Structure of Scores from the Conners' Rating Scales-Revised among Nepali Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Cole, Pamela M.; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Christian, Parul

    2014-01-01

    This study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the structures of scores from the Conners' Teacher and Parent Rating Scales-Revised (CTRS-R and CPRS-R, respectively; Conners, 1997). The scales were administered to 1,835 parents and 1,387 teachers of children in Nepal's Sarlahi district, a region where no other measures of…

  13. Screening Accuracy of Level 2 Autism Spectrum Disorder Rating Scales: A Review of Selected Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Megan; Lecavalier, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review was to examine the state of Level 2, caregiver-completed rating scales for the screening of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in individuals above the age of three years. We focused on screening accuracy and paid particular attention to comparison groups. Inclusion criteria required that scales be developed post ICD-10, be…

  14. Personality as a Determinate of Response Dimension Scaling for Likert Rating Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Wayne E.; Sanford, David L.

    A study was designed to evaluate the use of summated rating (Likert) scales of agreement, evaluation, and frequency. The subjects, 58 female and 45 male college students, rank ordered the descriptive adjectives for the areas of agreement, evaluation, and frequency on a scale of 1 to 100. They also completed the Personal Report of Communication…

  15. Factor Structure of Scores from the Conners' Rating Scales-Revised among Nepali Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Cole, Pamela M.; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Christian, Parul

    2014-01-01

    This study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the structures of scores from the Conners' Teacher and Parent Rating Scales-Revised (CTRS-R and CPRS-R, respectively; Conners, 1997). The scales were administered to 1,835 parents and 1,387 teachers of children in Nepal's Sarlahi district, a region where no other measures of…

  16. Discrete Scale Invariance in the Cascade Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, D. C.

    Evidence of discrete scale invariance (DSI) in daytime healthy heart rate variability (HRV) is presented based on the log-periodic power law scaling of the heart beat interval increment. Our analysis suggests multiple DSI groups and a dynamic cascading process. A cascade model is presented to simulate such a property.

  17. The Structure of Instruction Rating Scale (SIRS): Development and Technical Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deno, Stanley L.; And Others

    Using instructional variables identified by the literature as important in predicting classroom achievement, a bi-polar rating scale was designed to assess the structure of instruction in resource rooms. The data for 158 elementary school children in four school districts were analyzed. The scale evidenced good reliability, both in terms of…

  18. Use of the Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale in Evaluating Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Robert J.

    Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS), a new quantitative method of employee performance evaluation, is advocated for teacher evaluation. Development of a BARS consists generally of five steps: a representative sample of potential raters generates the scales; the group identifies the broad qualities to be evaluated; the group formulates…

  19. The Development of a Behavior Patterns Rating Scale for Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliskan, Nihat; Kuzu, Okan; Kuzu, Yasemin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a rating scale that can be used to evaluate behavior patterns of the organization people pattern of preservice teachers (PSTs). By reviewing the related literature on people patterns, a preliminary scale of 38 items with a five-points Likert type was prepared. The number of items was reduced to 29 after…

  20. Psychometric Analysis of the Pittsburgh Insomnia Rating Scale among University Population of Poor Sleepers in India.

    PubMed

    Veqar, Zubia; Moiz, Jamal Ali; Hussain, Mohammed Ejaz

    2014-04-01

    Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale is a 65 item self administered open source questionnaire. The scale is widely used in clinical practice but its psychometric properties are not well established. Therefore keeping in mind this lacuna the current study was designed for university population of poor sleepers in India. The purpose of this study was to establish the Pittsburgh sleep Quality Index test- retest reliability, validity and internal consistency of Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale. Twenty five subjects were randomly chosen from the screened population of poor sleepers. Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale, Pittsburgh sleep quality index and Insomnia severity index were administered on test day. Retest was administered after one week. Eight males and seventeen females with mean age 24 + 7.04 were recruited. The test retest reliability for Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale total score showed excellent reliability (ICC2,1-0.93). The results also show that the total score is moderately correlated with Pittsburgh sleep Quality Index (r-0.31) and moderately correlated with Insomnia severity index (r-0.49). Internal consistency for the test was excellent (Cronbach's alpha- 0.930). The study findings suggest that Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale has excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability and good validity for university population of poor sleepers in India. It is an important first line of assessment scale for screening of sleep problems.

  1. Analyzing data from a fuzzy rating scale-based questionnaire. A case study.

    PubMed

    Gil, María Ángeles; Lubiano, María Asunción; de la Rosa de Sáa, Sara; Sinova, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The fuzzy rating scale was introduced to cope with the imprecision of human thought and experience in measuring attitudes in many fields of Psychology. The flexibility and expressiveness of this scale allow us to properly describe the answers to many questions involving psychological measurement. Analyzing the responses to a fuzzy rating scale-based questionnaire is indeed a critical problem. Nevertheless, over the last years, a methodology is being developed to analyze statistically fuzzy data in such a way that the information they contain is fully exploited. In this paper, a summary review of the main procedures is given. The methods are illustrated by their application on the dataset obtained from a case study with nine-year-old children. In this study, children replied to some questions from the well-known TIMSS/PIRLS questionnaire by using a fuzzy rating scale. The form could be filled in either on the computer or by hand. The study indicates that the requirements of background and training underlying the fuzzy rating scale are not too demanding. Moreover, it is clearly shown that statistical conclusions substantially often differ depending on the responses being given in accordance with either a Likert scale or a fuzzy rating scale.

  2. Effects of flow and water chemistry on lead release rates from pipe scales.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanjiao; Giammar, Daniel E

    2011-12-01

    Lead release from pipe scales was investigated under different water compositions, stagnation times, and flow regimes. Pipe scales containing PbO(2) and hydrocerussite (Pb(3)(OH)(2)(CO(3))(2)) were developed on lead pipes by conditioning the pipes with water containing free chlorine for eight months. Water chemistry and the composition of the pipe scales are two key factors affecting lead release from pipe scales. The water rarely reached equilibrium with pipe scales within one day, which makes solid-water contact time and corrosion product dissolution rates the controlling factors of lead concentrations for the conditions tested. Among five water compositions studied, a solution with orthophosphate had the lowest dissolved lead release rate and highest particulate lead release rate. Free chlorine also decreased the dissolved lead release rate at stagnant conditions. Water flow increased rates of release of both dissolved and particulate lead by accelerating the mass transfer of lead out of the porous pipe scales and by physically destabilizing pipe scales. Dissolved lead comprised the majority of the lead released at both stagnant and laminar flow conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physicochemical heterogeneity controls on uranium bioreduction rates at the field scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Gawande, Nitin; Kowalsky, Michael B; Steefel, Carl I; Hubbard, Susan S

    2011-12-01

    It has been demonstrated in laboratory systems that U(VI) can be reduced to immobile U(IV) by bacteria in natural environments. The ultimate efficacy of bioreduction at the field scale, however, is often challenging to quantify and depends on site characteristics. In this work, uranium bioreduction rates at the field scale are quantified, for the first time, using an integrated approach. The approach combines field data, inverse and forward hydrological and reactive transport modeling, and quantification of reduction rates at different spatial scales. The approach is used to explore the impact of local scale (tens of centimeters) parameters and processes on field scale (tens of meters) system responses to biostimulation treatments and the controls of physicochemical heterogeneity on bioreduction rates. Using the biostimulation experiments at the Department of Energy Old Rifle site, our results show that the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity and solid phase mineral (Fe(III)) play a critical role in determining the field-scale bioreduction rates. Due to the dependence on Fe-reducing bacteria, field-scale U(VI) bioreduction rates were found to be largely controlled by the abundance of Fe(III) minerals at the vicinity of the injection wells and by the presence of preferential flow paths connecting injection wells to down gradient Fe(III) abundant areas.

  4. A rating scale for disruptive behavior disorders, based on the DSM-IV item pool.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raul R; Alpert, Murray; Pouget, Enrique; Silva, Victoria; Trosper, Sarah; Reyes, Kimberly; Dummit, Steven

    2005-01-01

    DSM IV includes three clusters of items that are used to establish diagnoses for the Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Attention Deficit, Conduct, and Oppositional Defiant. In this report, we examine the feasibility of using the items in each cluster to form a rating scale. We studied eighty-four consecutive school-aged referrals to an inner-city child and adolescent Psychiatry clinic. Case diagnosis was established with a clinician's KID-SCID assessment. Parents and teachers rated the 41 DSM items on four-point scales, and completed the Conners' Rating Scales, in English or Spanish. In this paper we report psychometrics of the new scale, the Rating Scale for Disruptive Behavior Disorders (RS-DBD), along with the agreement among parents and teachers, and concurrence between the new scales and the relevant Conners' scales. While, the parent and teacher ratings may provide a useful index for severity of behavioral disturbance in the home and school environments, it will not establish a diagnosis. There was a great deal of comorbidity among diagnostic groups.

  5. Tremor irregularity, torque steadiness and rate of force development in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rose, Martin H; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jensen, Bente R

    2013-04-01

    We investigated lower-extremity isometric tremor Approximate Entropy (irregularity), torque steadiness and rate of force development (RFD) and their associations to muscle activation strategy during isometric knee extensions in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirteen male patients with idiopathic PD and 15 neurologically healthy matched controls performed isometric maximal contractions (extension/flexion) as well as steady submaximal and powerful isometric knee extensions. The patients with PD showed decreased isometric tremor irregularity. Torque steadiness was reduced in PD and the patients had increased muscle coactivation. A markedly lower RFD was found in PD and the decreased RFD correlated with reduced agonist muscle activation. Furthermore, patient RFD correlated with the Movement-Disorder-Society-Unified-Parkinson's-Disease-Rating-Scale 3 (motor part) scores. We concluded that both knee isometric tremor Approximate Entropy and torque steadiness clearly differentiate between patients with PD and healthy controls. Furthermore, severely compromised RFD was found in patients with PD and was associated with decreased agonist muscle activation.

  6. The Global Rating Scale in clinical practice: a comprehensive quality assurance programme for endoscopy departments.

    PubMed

    Sint Nicolaas, Jerome; de Jonge, Vincent; de Man, Robert A; ter Borg, Frank; Cahen, Djuna L; Moolenaar, Willem; Stolk, Mark F J; van Tilburg, Antonie J P; Valori, Roland M; van Leerdam, Monique E; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2012-11-01

    The Global Rating Scale is an endoscopy quality assurance programme, successfully implemented in England. It remains uncertain whether it is applicable in another health care setting. To assess the applicability of the Global Rating Scale as benchmark tool in an international context. Eleven Dutch endoscopy departments were included for a Global Rating Scale-census, performed as a cross-sectional evaluation, July 2010. Two Global Rating Scale-dimensions - 'clinical quality' and 'patient experience' - were assessed across six items using a range of levels: from level-D (basic) to level-A (excellent). Construct validity was assessed by comparing department-specific colonoscopy audit data to GRS-levels. For 'clinical quality', variable scores were achieved in items 'safety' (9%=B, 27%=C, 64%=D) and 'communication' (46%=A, 18%=C, 36%=D). All departments achieved a basic score in 'quality' (100%=D). For 'patient experience', variable scores were achieved in 'timeliness' (18%=A, 9%=B, 73%=D) and 'booking-choice' (36%=B, 46%=C, 18%=D). All departments achieved basic scores in 'equality' (100%=D). Departments obtaining level-C or above in 'information', 'comfort', 'communication', 'timeliness' and 'aftercare', achieved significantly better audit outcomes compared to those obtaining level-D (p<0.05). The Global Rating Scale is appropriate to use outside England. There was significant variance across departments in dimensions. Most Global Rating Scale-levels were in line with departments' audit outcomes, indicating construct validity. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. All rights reserved.

  7. PANSS-6: a brief rating scale for the measurement of severity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, S D; Lemming, O M; Mors, O; Correll, C U; Bech, P

    2016-06-01

    The 30-item Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-30) is the most widely used rating scale in schizophrenia, but too long for clinical use. Shorter PANSS versions have been proposed, including the PANSS-14 and PANSS-8. However, none of these PANSS versions has been validated using the parametric Rasch rating scale model, which evaluates 'scalability'. Scalability means that each item in a rating scale provides unique information regarding syndrome severity and is a statistical prerequisite for using the total score as a measure of overall severity. Based on data from two randomized placebo-controlled trials in schizophrenia, we tested the scalability of PANSS-30, PANSS-14 and PANSS-8 by means of the parametric Rasch rating scale model. Furthermore, we tested whether a scalable PANSS version could separate efficacy of haloperidol and sertindole from placebo. Neither PANSS-30, PANSS-14 nor PANSS-8 was scalable. However, PANSS-6, consisting of the items: P1-Delusions, P2-Conceptual disorganization, P3-Hallucinations, N1-Blunted Affect, N4-Social withdrawal, N6-Lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation, was scalable. Furthermore, PANSS-6 captured superior symptom reduction and higher remission rates during treatment with haloperidol and sertindole vs. placebo. PANSS-6 is a short schizophrenia severity rating scale that adequately separates antipsychotic efficacy from that of placebo. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evidence based clinical assessment of child and adolescent social phobia: a critical review of rating scales.

    PubMed

    Tulbure, Bogdan T; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social anxiety scales for children and adolescents were identified. An overview about the scientific support accumulated by these scales is offered. Our main results are consistent with recent reviews that consider the Social Phobia and Anxiety Scale for Children (SPAI-C) and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) among the most pertinent and empirically supported measures of social anxiety for youngsters. However, after considering the existing evidence, we highly recommend another couple of scales that proved to be empirically supported (i.e., the Social Phobia Inventory-SPIN, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents-LSAS-CA).

  9. Factors affecting the age of onset and rate of progression of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, J.; Munoz, D.; Merskey, H.; Hachinski, V.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the role of cerebrovascular disease, sex, education, occupation, year of birth, leukoaraiosis, congophilic angiopathy, family history, and other demographic factors on the reported age of onset and rate of progression of Alzheimer's disease.
METHODS—Analysis of data from the University of Western Ontario Dementia Study, a prospective longitudinal study of dementia patients with clinical and 6 monthly psychometric follow up to postmortem based in a university memory disorders clinic with secondary and tertiary referrals. There were 172 patients with dementia. The main outcome measures were the reported age of onset of cognitive decline as described by the family (available in 168) and rate of progression as measured during the linear phase of the extended scale for dementia, which could be calculated in 66. The cases subdivided into 49 cases of definite Alzheimer's disease without infarcts, 25 cases of otherwise definite Alzheimer's disease with infarcts, 79 cases of probable Alzheimer's disease without infarcts, and 19 such cases with infarcts.
RESULTS—The age of onset was not influenced by the rate of progression, the presence of cerebral infarcts, or congophilic angiopathy. Educational level, occupational level, sex, family history, year of birth, reported age of onset, severity at entry, an ischaemic score, and the presence of leukoariosis, affected neither age of onset nor the rate of progression. An earlier year of birth had a major effect and higher education had a minor effect on earlier age of onset. The earlier the year of birth, the lower the educational level and the greater the accrual of cerebral infarcts.
CONCLUSIONS—Contrary to series without pathological verification, age of onset in this study was not affected by occupation. Education had a modest effect on earlier reported onset, probably reflecting earlier recognition. As birth year has a strong effect on educational level and the occurrence of cerebral infarcts

  10. Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scales Based on Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Paul D; Hersey, Denise P; Leder, Steven B

    2016-06-01

    Identification of pharyngeal residue severity located in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses has always been a primary goal during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Pharyngeal residue is a clinical sign of potential prandial aspiration making an accurate description of its severity an important but difficult challenge. A reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scale for FEES would be beneficial. A systematic review of the published English language literature since 1995 was conducted to determine the quality of existing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales based on FEES. Databases were searched using controlled vocabulary words and synonymous free text words for topics of interest (deglutition disorders, pharyngeal residue, endoscopy, videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic technology, aspiration, etc.) and outcomes of interest (scores, scales, grades, tests, FEES, etc.). Search strategies were adjusted for syntax appropriate for each database/platform. Data sources included MEDLINE (OvidSP 1946-April Week 3 2015), Embase (OvidSP 1974-2015 April 20), Scopus (Elsevier), and the unindexed material in PubMed (NLM/NIH) were searched for relevant articles. Supplementary efforts to identify studies included checking reference lists of articles retrieved. Scales were compared using qualitative properties (sample size, severity definitions, number of raters, and raters' experience and training) and psychometric analyses (randomization, intra- and inter-rater reliability, and construct validity). Seven articles describing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales met inclusion criteria. Six of seven scales had insufficient data to support their use as evidenced by methodological weaknesses with both qualitative properties and psychometric analyses. There is a need for qualitative and psychometrically reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scales that are anatomically specific, image

  11. The psychometric properties of an Arabic numeric pain rating scale for measuring osteoarthritis knee pain.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to translate the numeric rating scale (NRS) into Arabic and to evaluate the test-retest reliability and convergent validity of an Arabic Numeric Pain Rating Scale (ANPRS) for measuring pain in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. The English version of the NRS was translated into Arabic as per the translation process guidelines for patient-rated outcome scales. One hundred twenty-one consecutive patients with OA of the knee who had experienced pain for more than 6 months were asked to report their pain levels on the ANPRS, visual analogue scale (VAS), and verbal rating scale (VRS). A second assessment was performed 48 h after the first to assess test-retest reliability. The test-retest reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1). The convergent validity was assessed using Spearman rank correlation coefficient. In addition, the minimum detectable change (MDC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were also assessed. The repeatability of ANPRS was good to excellent (ICC 0.89). The SEM and MDC were 0.71 and 1.96, respectively. Significant correlations were found with the VAS and VRS scores (p <0.01). The Arabic numeric pain rating scale is a valid and reliable scale for measuring pain levels in OA of the knee. Implications for Rehabilitation The Arabic Numeric Pain Rating Scale (ANPRS) is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring pain in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, with psychometric properties in agreement with other widely used scales. The ANPRS is well correlated with the VAS and NRS scores in patients with OA of the knee. The ANPRS appears to measure pain intensity similar to the VAS, NRS, and VRS and may provide additional advantages to Arab populations, as Arabic numbers are easily understood by this population.

  12. Local changes in rates of group A Streptococcus disease and antibiotic resistance are associated with geographically widespread strain turnover events.

    PubMed

    Metzgar, David; McDonough, Erin A; Hansen, Christian J; Blaesing, Carl R; Baynes, Darcie; Hawksworth, Anthony W; Blair, Patrick J; Faix, Dennis J; Russell, Kevin L

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the effects of dynamic strain turnover and antibiotic prophylaxis on rates of group A Streptococcus (GAS) antibiotic resistance and disease. The authors analyzed the strain distributions, disease rates, and patterns of antibiotic resistance of 802 GAS isolates collected from 2002 through 2007. These samples were collected from patients with GAS infection symptoms at 10 military facilities. Macrolide resistance peaked at 25% during 2004, due to the geographically widespread dominance of a single resistant strain (M75). The resistant strain was not retained regardless of local patterns of macrolide use, and resistance rates decreased upon replacement of M75 with macrolide-susceptible strains. Disease rates were similarly correlated with dominance of specific M types. Statistical analysis revealed temporal correlations between strain distributions at multiple locations. Only the most common strains yielded enough data at multiple sites for statistically significant comparison of temporal fluctuations in dominance, but these (including M44, M3, M18, M118, and M6) all yielded highly significant temporal correlations of 90% or greater on yearly scales. As expected given the complexity and variability of strain distributions on shorter time scales, analysis on a monthly scale yielded lower degrees of positive correlation (31-62%), but in this case all significant correlations were still positive. Shifts in antibiotic resistance profiles and disease rates at specific sites appear to be associated with strain replacements happening on larger scales, independent of antibiotic use at individual sites.

  13. Analysis and Visualization of 3D Motion Data for UPDRS Rating of Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Piro, Neltje E; Piro, Lennart K; Kassubek, Jan; Blechschmidt-Trapp, Ronald A

    2016-06-21

    Remote monitoring of Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients with inertia sensors is a relevant method for a better assessment of symptoms. We present a new approach for symptom quantification based on motion data: the automatic Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) classification in combination with an animated 3D avatar giving the neurologist the impression of having the patient live in front of him. In this study we compared the UPDRS ratings of the pronation-supination task derived from: (a) an examination based on video recordings as a clinical reference; (b) an automatically classified UPDRS; and (c) a UPDRS rating from the assessment of the animated 3D avatar. Data were recorded using Magnetic, Angular Rate, Gravity (MARG) sensors with 15 subjects performing a pronation-supination movement of the hand. After preprocessing, the data were classified with a J48 classifier and animated as a 3D avatar. Video recording of the movements, as well as the 3D avatar, were examined by movement disorder specialists and rated by UPDRS. The mean agreement between the ratings based on video and (b) the automatically classified UPDRS is 0.48 and with (c) the 3D avatar it is 0.47. The 3D avatar is similarly suitable for assessing the UPDRS as video recordings for the examined task and will be further developed by the research team.

  14. A clinical rating scale for the assessment of facial aging in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sumit; Choudhury, Supriyo; Gangopadhyay, Anusree; Halder, Chinmay; Biswas, Projna; Jain, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of facial aging has assumed growing importance due to the advent of several antiaging therapies. Evidence-based estimation of global facial aging is often necessary, especially for validation of these treatment modalities. Most available methods are expensive and have been used in fair skinned individuals. We attempted to develop a clinical rating scale for the estimation of global facial aging applied on an Indian population which has brown to black skin. We have also measured the association of this rating scale score with the chronological age. Initially, a 14- item summated rating scale was developed with inputs from five dermatologists and a clinical pharmacologist. The rating scale was applied to 105 consenting subjects with healthy facial skin between 30 to 90 years of age. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was assessed. The summated rating score showed a significant positive correlation with the chronological age (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.834, P < 0.001). We omitted one item from the scale due to a low inter-rater agreement. The resulting 13-item rating scale was internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha: 0.905), with substantial inter- and intra-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.973 and 0.788, respectively). Principal components and predictive equation for perceptible age were identified on further computation. Participants of this study were limited to a particular ethnic group from West Bengal and other neighboring states of Eastern India. We have developed and validated a 13-item rating scale for the quantification of global facial aging suitable for Indian (brown to black) skin type. This scale can be utilized effectively for clinical estimation of global facial aging.

  15. SPES/SCOPA and MDS-UPDRS: formulas for converting scores of two motor scales in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Verbaan, D; van Rooden, S M; Benit, C P; van Zwet, E W; Marinus, J; van Hilten, J J

    2011-09-01

    Motor impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) can be evaluated with the Short Parkinson's Evaluation Scale/Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease (SPES/SCOPA) and the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS). The aim of this study was to determine equation models for the conversion of scores from one scale to the other. 148 PD patients were evaluated with the SPES/SCOPA-motor and the MDS-UPDRS motor examination. Linear regression was used to develop equation models. Scores on both scales were highly correlated (r = 0.88). Linear regression revealed the following equation models (explained variance: 78%): With the equation models identified in this study, scores from SPES/SCOPA-motor can be converted to scores from MDS-UPDRS motor examination and vice versa. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tectonic interpretation of erosion rates at different spatial scales in an upliting block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretier, S.; Poisson, B.; Vassallo, R.; Pepin, E.; Farias, M.

    2009-04-01

    A theoretical framework is still lacking to interpret erosion rate data at differing spatial scales in active mountains in terms of erosion laws, climate or tectonics for transient landscapes. We explore the extent to which it is possible to convert erosion rate data into uplift rate or erosion laws, using a landscape evolution model. Transient stages of topography and erosion rates of a block uplifting at a constant rate are investigated at different spatial scales, for a constant climate, and for various erosion laws and initial topographies. We identify three main model types for the evolution of the mountain-scale mean erosion rate: "linear"-type, "sigmoid"-type and "exponential"-type. Linear-type models are obtained for topographies without drainage system reorganization, in which river incision rates never exceed the uplift rate and stepped river terraces converge upstream. In sigmoid-type and exponential-type models (typically detachment-limited or transport-limited models with a significant transport threshold), drainage growth lasts a long time, and correspond to more-than-linear transport laws in water discharge and slope. In exponential-type models, the mean erosion rate passes through a maximum that is higher than the rock uplift rate. This happens when the time taken to connect the drainage network exceeds half the total response time to reach dynamic equilibrium. River incision rates can be much greater than the uplift rate in both cases. In the exponential-type model, river terraces converge downstream. Thus, documenting erosion rates and the geometry of river terraces together should allow us to better constrain the limiting erosion processes. Observations of a mountain in the Gobi-Altay range in Mongolia support the exponential-type model. This suggests that the erosion of this mountain is either detachment-limited or transport-limited with a significant transport threshold. This study shows that drainage growth could explain differences in erosion

  17. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms in Chinese Urban Schoolchildren: Assessment With the Chinese ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Home Version.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi Esther; Wang, Hong; Geng, Yao-Guo; Sun, Ling; Du, Ya-Song; Fan, Fang; Su, Lin-Yan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD RS-IV): Home Version and to explore parent ratings of ADHD symptoms in a large sample of urban schoolchildren in China. Parents of a representative sample of 1,616 schoolchildren (aged 6-17) in 12 Chinese cities completed the ADHD RS-IV: Home Version. The Chinese ADHD RS-IV: Home Version demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, test-retest reliability, parent-teacher correlation, discriminant validity, and convergent validity. Factor analysis revealed the DSM-IV two-factor model with "inattention" and "hyperactivity-impulsivity" dimensions, accounting for equal variances. Parent ratings revealed lower/similar scores for Chinese schoolchildren compared with the U.S. The ADHD RS-IV: Home Version is a reliable and valid ADHD rating scale in China. The factor structure is similar but not identical to the U.S. Normative data reveal cultural differences in some aspects of the parent ratings of ADHD. © The Author(s) 2012.

  18. Rate of change in early Huntington's disease: a clinicometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christina; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Schwenke, Carsten; Doble, Adam; Orth, Michael; Ludolph, Albert C

    2012-01-01

    Sensitive outcome measures for patients with Huntington's disease (HD) are required for future clinical trials. Longitudinal data were collected from a 3-year study of 379 patients suffering from early HD who were not treated by antipsychotics. Progression of UHDRS item scores was evaluated by linear regression and slope, whereas correlation coefficient, standard error, and P values were estimated on the basis of the data of eight evaluations from screening to study end (36 months). For the functional assessment dimension, the proportion of "no" responses at baseline and at study end was determined. Linear progression was observed for the motor score and for all three functional measures (i.e., functional assessment score, independence assessment score, and total functional capacity score). In contrast, there was little evidence for progression of the behavioral assessment score over the study period, whereas the cognitive assessment score was intermediate. Twenty-two motor-score items showed linear progression, with a slope of >0.003. These included all chorea items, finger tapping and pronation/supination (left and right), gait, tongue protrusion, and tandem walking. Different symptom domains and individual items evolved at different rates in this group of patients suffering from early HD. It may be possible to select sensitive items to create a simplified version of the UHDRS, which would be more efficient and more sensitive for the assessment of disease progression in clinical trials and natural history studies.

  19. Electrostimulation to reduce synaptic scaling driven progression of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Mark S.; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Lytton, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Cell death and synapse dysfunction are two likely causes of cognitive decline in AD. As cells die and synapses lose their drive, remaining cells suffer an initial decrease in activity. Neuronal homeostatic synaptic scaling then provides a feedback mechanism to restore activity. This homeostatic mechanism is believed to sense levels of activity-dependent cytosolic calcium within the cell and to adjust neuronal firing activity by increasing the density of AMPA synapses at remaining synapses to achieve balance. The scaling mechanism increases the firing rates of remaining cells in the network to compensate for decreases in network activity. However, this effect can itself become a pathology, as it produces increased imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory circuits, leading to greater susceptibility to further cell loss via calcium-mediated excitotoxicity. Here, we present a mechanistic explanation of how directed brain stimulation might be expected to slow AD progression based on computational simulations in a 470-neuron biomimetic model of a neocortical column. The simulations demonstrate that the addition of low-intensity electrostimulation (neuroprosthesis) to a network undergoing AD-like cell death can raise global activity and break this homeostatic-excitotoxic cascade. The increase in activity within the remaining cells in the column results in lower scaling-driven AMPAR upregulation, reduced imbalances in excitatory and inhibitory circuits, and lower susceptibility to ongoing damage. PMID:24765074

  20. Electrostimulation to reduce synaptic scaling driven progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Mark S; Neymotin, Samuel A; Lytton, William W

    2014-01-01

    Cell death and synapse dysfunction are two likely causes of cognitive decline in AD. As cells die and synapses lose their drive, remaining cells suffer an initial decrease in activity. Neuronal homeostatic synaptic scaling then provides a feedback mechanism to restore activity. This homeostatic mechanism is believed to sense levels of activity-dependent cytosolic calcium within the cell and to adjust neuronal firing activity by increasing the density of AMPA synapses at remaining synapses to achieve balance. The scaling mechanism increases the firing rates of remaining cells in the network to compensate for decreases in network activity. However, this effect can itself become a pathology, as it produces increased imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory circuits, leading to greater susceptibility to further cell loss via calcium-mediated excitotoxicity. Here, we present a mechanistic explanation of how directed brain stimulation might be expected to slow AD progression based on computational simulations in a 470-neuron biomimetic model of a neocortical column. The simulations demonstrate that the addition of low-intensity electrostimulation (neuroprosthesis) to a network undergoing AD-like cell death can raise global activity and break this homeostatic-excitotoxic cascade. The increase in activity within the remaining cells in the column results in lower scaling-driven AMPAR upregulation, reduced imbalances in excitatory and inhibitory circuits, and lower susceptibility to ongoing damage.

  1. Item response theory analyses of the parent and teacher ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD rating scale.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-08-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 265-274, 1999) for a group of 1,475 primary school-aged children. The results for the discrimination parameters showed that all symptoms for both groups of respondents were generally good for discriminating their respective latent traits. For virtually all symptoms, their threshold values showed moderate to large increases in the level of the latent trait at each subsequent response dichotomy, with the symptoms being especially good at representing the appropriate traits from mean to moderately high trait levels. The item information function values for most symptoms indicated reasonable reliability from, approximately, the mean trait levels to moderately high trait levels. These findings indicate good psychometric properties for the parent and teacher ratings of the DARS. The implications of the findings for the use of the DARS and other similar scales are discussed.

  2. Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiscaletti, D.; Elsinga, G. E.; Attili, A.; Bisetti, F.; Buxton, O. R. H.

    2016-10-01

    The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor ei, with the vorticity vector ω , is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors | ei.ω ̂| are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e1, in contrast to the global tendency for ω to be aligned in parallel with the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008), 10.1063/1.3021055]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between ω and nonlocal e1 and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.

  3. The measurement of mathematics anxiety: the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale for Adolescents--MARS-A.

    PubMed

    Suinn, R M; Edwards, R

    1982-07-01

    Describes the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale for Adolescents (MARS-A). Normative data on over 1,200 junior high and senior high students are reported. In addition, psychometric data that relate to reliability and construct validity for the MARS-A scale are discussed. Two factors were identified in the scale, a factor of numerical anxiety that appeared in 91% of the items and a factor of mathematics test anxiety that appeared in the remaining items. Results that show the association between high mathematics anxiety scale scores and low grade average in mathematics courses are reported on two samples of students.

  4. Further Psychometric Properties of the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Parent Rated Version (TODS-PR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Soto, Ohel; Sajid, Muhammad; Allen, Pam; Roberti, Jonathan W.; Killiany, Erin M.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Parent Rated (TODS-PR), a 15-item parent-rated instrument that assesses a range of common symptoms seen in childhood Tourette's Disorder (TD) patients including tics, obsessions, compulsions, inattention, hyperactivity, aggression, and emotional disturbances.…

  5. The Impact of Silhouette Randomization on the Results of Figure Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Dodd, Lorna J.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of silhouette randomization on the responses to rating scales developed to rate the perceived current and ideal body shape, as well as body dissatisfaction. Seventy students (30 men and 40 women), ages 18 to 43 (M [plus or minus] SD = 22.1 [plus or minus] 5.7) years, completed the Stunkard, Sorensen,…

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  7. Should Global Items on Student Rating Scales Be Used for Summative Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the simplest indicators of teaching or course effectiveness is student ratings on one or more global items from the entire rating scale. That approach seems intuitively sound and easy to use. Global items have even been recommended by a few researchers to get a quick-read, at-a-glance summary for summative decisions about faculty. The…

  8. The Reliability and Validity of a Spanish Translated Version of the Gifted Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This study was a preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of a newly developed Spanish translated version of the "Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S)". Data was collected from elementary and middle schools in northeastern Puerto Rico. Thirty teachers independently rated 153 students using the "GRS-S" Spanish…

  9. Measurement Invariance of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form across Five Cultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Lee, Donghyuck; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Kamata, Akihito; Kumtepe, Alper T.; Rosado, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This study examined measurement invariance of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form (GRS-S) across the United States, Puerto Rico, China, South Korea, and Turkey, using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. A total of 1,817 students were rated by 287 teachers using either translated versions of GRS-S or the original English GRS-S. Results…

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  11. The Impact of Silhouette Randomization on the Results of Figure Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Dodd, Lorna J.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of silhouette randomization on the responses to rating scales developed to rate the perceived current and ideal body shape, as well as body dissatisfaction. Seventy students (30 men and 40 women), ages 18 to 43 (M [plus or minus] SD = 22.1 [plus or minus] 5.7) years, completed the Stunkard, Sorensen,…

  12. The Swedish Version of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale in a Clinical Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Viviann; Gillberg, Christopher; Nyden, Agneta

    1998-01-01

    This study assessed the interrater reliability of a Swedish version of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), an instrument for screening and diagnosis of autism. The CARS was used for rating autistic behavior by two investigators in 25 children. Results indicated fair to excellent agreement. Aspects of validity and reliability are discussed.…

  13. Evaluation of the Bess TRS-CA Using the Rasch Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating System for Children and Adolescents (BESS TRS-CA; Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007) screener using Rasch Rating Scale model (RSM) methodology to provide additional information about psychometric properties of items. Data from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children…

  14. Preliminary Psychometric Evidence of the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Fred W.; DiStefano, Christine A.; Liu, Jin; Cain, Leia K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide psychometric evidence related to the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool" form's (BESS TRS-P) ability to identify emerging problems in preschool children. Reliability and validity associated with screener scores were compared by analyzing teacher ratings of…

  15. Measurement Invariance of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form across Five Cultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Lee, Donghyuck; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Kamata, Akihito; Kumtepe, Alper T.; Rosado, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This study examined measurement invariance of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form (GRS-S) across the United States, Puerto Rico, China, South Korea, and Turkey, using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. A total of 1,817 students were rated by 287 teachers using either translated versions of GRS-S or the original English GRS-S. Results…

  16. Further Psychometric Properties of the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Parent Rated Version (TODS-PR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Soto, Ohel; Sajid, Muhammad; Allen, Pam; Roberti, Jonathan W.; Killiany, Erin M.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Parent Rated (TODS-PR), a 15-item parent-rated instrument that assesses a range of common symptoms seen in childhood Tourette's Disorder (TD) patients including tics, obsessions, compulsions, inattention, hyperactivity, aggression, and emotional disturbances.…

  17. Yin and Yang of disease genes and death genes between reciprocally scale-free biological networks

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyun Wook; Ohn, Jung Hun; Moon, Jisook; Kim, Ju Han

    2013-01-01

    Biological networks often show a scale-free topology with node degree following a power-law distribution. Lethal genes tend to form functional hubs, whereas non-lethal disease genes are located at the periphery. Uni-dimensional analyses, however, are flawed. We created and investigated two distinct scale-free networks; a protein–protein interaction (PPI) and a perturbation sensitivity network (PSN). The hubs of both networks exhibit a low molecular evolutionary rate (P < 8 × 10−12, P < 2 × 10−4) and a high codon adaptation index (P < 2 × 10−16, P < 2 × 10−8), indicating that both hubs have been shaped under high evolutionary selective pressure. Moreover, the topologies of PPI and PSN are inversely proportional: hubs of PPI tend to be located at the periphery of PSN and vice versa. PPI hubs are highly enriched with lethal genes but not with disease genes, whereas PSN hubs are highly enriched with disease genes and drug targets but not with lethal genes. PPI hub genes are enriched with essential cellular processes, but PSN hub genes are enriched with environmental interaction processes, having more TATA boxes and transcription factor binding sites. It is concluded that biological systems may balance internal growth signaling and external stress signaling by unifying the two opposite scale-free networks that are seemingly opposite to each other but work in concert between death and disease. PMID:23935122

  18. Yin and Yang of disease genes and death genes between reciprocally scale-free biological networks.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyun Wook; Ohn, Jung Hun; Moon, Jisook; Kim, Ju Han

    2013-11-01

    Biological networks often show a scale-free topology with node degree following a power-law distribution. Lethal genes tend to form functional hubs, whereas non-lethal disease genes are located at the periphery. Uni-dimensional analyses, however, are flawed. We created and investigated two distinct scale-free networks; a protein-protein interaction (PPI) and a perturbation sensitivity network (PSN). The hubs of both networks exhibit a low molecular evolutionary rate (P < 8 × 10(-12), P < 2 × 10(-4)) and a high codon adaptation index (P < 2 × 10(-16), P < 2 × 10(-8)), indicating that both hubs have been shaped under high evolutionary selective pressure. Moreover, the topologies of PPI and PSN are inversely proportional: hubs of PPI tend to be located at the periphery of PSN and vice versa. PPI hubs are highly enriched with lethal genes but not with disease genes, whereas PSN hubs are highly enriched with disease genes and drug targets but not with lethal genes. PPI hub genes are enriched with essential cellular processes, but PSN hub genes are enriched with environmental interaction processes, having more TATA boxes and transcription factor binding sites. It is concluded that biological systems may balance internal growth signaling and external stress signaling by unifying the two opposite scale-free networks that are seemingly opposite to each other but work in concert between death and disease.

  19. Validity and reliability of the Minimum Data Set Depression Rating Scale (MDSDRS) for older adults in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rachel L; Buckwalter, Kathleen C; Buchanan, Robert J; Maas, Meridean L; Imhof, Sara L

    2003-07-01

    this research examined the psychometric properties of the Minimum Data Set Depression Rating Scale for use among older adults living in nursing homes. interviews with 145 older adults in three nursing homes were conducted to complete the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Information relevant to completing the Minimum Data Set Depression Rating Scale was gathered from the Minimum Data Set. the Minimum Data Set Depression Rating Scale did not perform well when validated against the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Minimum Data Set Depression Rating Scale cut-off levels of > or =2 and > or =3 were associated with relatively low total score correlations and sensitivity rates, but acceptable specificity. findings suggest that the Minimum Data Set Depression Rating Scale may be of limited clinical value to identify depression among older adults living in nursing homes.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of child self-rating using the Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale.

    PubMed

    Cloes, Kelly Isaacs; Barfell, Kara S Francis; Horn, Paul S; Wu, Steve W; Jacobson, Sarah E; Hart, Kathleen J; Gilbert, Donald L

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate and compare how children with Tourette syndrome and parents rate tic and non-tic behavioral related impairment in home, school, and social domains; to compare these with clinician tic ratings; and to identify factors that may predict greater impairment. In a sample of 85 Tourette syndrome and 92 healthy control families, the Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale, designed for parent-report and which includes 37 items rated for tic and non-tic impairment, was administered to parents and, with the referent modified, to children ages 9 to 17 years. Tic severity was rated using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). Analyses utilized descriptive and multivariate statistics. Tourette syndrome children's and parents' impairment ratings were higher than HC (p<0.001) and correlated moderately (r=0.46 to 0.54; p<0.001). Children's and parents' tic impairment ratings correlated with YGTSS (r=0.36 to 0.37; p<0.001). Parents' average ratings were higher than children's for 19 tic and all 37 non-tic impairment items. For 29 items, children self-rated impairment higher for tics than non-tics. Diagnoses of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder had larger effects on parent impairment ratings. The Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale appears informative for child self-rating in Tourette syndrome. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Large-scale dynamo growth rates from numerical simulations and implications for mean-field theories.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiwan; Blackman, Eric G; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2013-05-01

    Understanding large-scale magnetic field growth in turbulent plasmas in the magnetohydrodynamic limit is a goal of magnetic dynamo theory. In particular, assessing how well large-scale helical field growth and saturation in simulations match those predicted by existing theories is important for progress. Using numerical simulations of isotropically forced turbulence without large-scale shear with its implications, we focus on several additional aspects of this comparison: (1) Leading mean-field dynamo theories which break the field into large and small scales predict that large-scale helical field growth rates are determined by the difference between kinetic helicity and current helicity with no dependence on the nonhelical energy in small-scale magnetic fields. Our simulations show that the growth rate of the large-scale field from fully helical forcing is indeed unaffected by the presence or absence of small-scale magnetic fields amplified in a precursor nonhelical dynamo. However, because the precursor nonhelical dynamo in our simulations produced fields that were strongly subequipartition with respect to the kinetic energy, we cannot yet rule out the potential influence of stronger nonhelical small-scale fields. (2) We have identified two features in our simulations which cannot be explained by the most minimalist versions of two-scale mean-field theory: (i) fully helical small-scale forcing produces significant nonhelical large-scale magnetic energy and (ii) the saturation of the large-scale field growth is time delayed with respect to what minimalist theory predicts. We comment on desirable generalizations to the theory in this context and future desired work.

  2. Carrier rate of Canavan disease among Ashkenazi Jewish individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Matalon, R.; Kaul, R.; Michals, K.

    1994-09-01

    Canavan Disease (CD) is a severe leukodystrophy prevalent among people of Ashkenazi Jewish extraction. The incidence of CD is unknown although it has been stated to be rare. The human aspartoacylase gene has been cloned and mutation determined in 50 Jewish patients with CD. Four mutations were identified in 99 of 100 alleles. A missense mutation, E285A, accounted for 83% of the alleles; a second mutation, Y231X, was found in 13% of the alleles; two other mutations accounted for 3 alleles. In non-Jewish individuals with CD, 52 alleles were examined and 11 mutations were observed. In order to determine the rate of carriers in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, 2,700 blood specimens from unrelated healthy individuals were studied using a panel of 4 mutations found in Jewish individuals. Genomic DNA was amplified by PCR and analyzed for single strand conformation polymorphism. The mutations identified were confirmed by restriction digestion. Sixty carriers were identified, suggesting a carrier rate of 1:45. Of the 60 carriers, 52 had E285A mutation and 8 had Y231X. The proportion of E285A and Y231X mutations in the Jewish population was 86.7% and 13.3%, respectively, in agreement with the relative distribution seen in patients with CD. These studies are being expanded to a larger sample so that other mutations are identified. Our data suggest higher than expected carrier rate for CD in Ashkenazi Jews. It seems that carrier testing for preventive counseling should be applied in the risk population.

  3. Hypersexuality in Psychiatric Conditions Observer-Rated Scale (HIPCORS): Evaluation of Reliability and Validity.

    PubMed

    Davidson, C K Dennisa; Cheung, Gary; Jansen, Karl

    2017-04-03

    Hypersexual behavior is not uncommon in psychiatric presentations. Most available scales that measure hypersexual behavior are self-rated, often containing sexually explicit questions, unsuitable for use in mentally unwell people. Lack of a clinically suitable instrument may have resulted in underdetection and under-researching of hypersexuality in people with mental disorders, with potential to cause significant consequences for themselves and those around them, including family members, coclients, and clinicians. To address this need, we developed the Hypersexuality in Psychiatric Conditions Observer-Rated Scale (HIPCORS), a rater-rated, nonintrusive tool, designed for use in mentally unwell people. It has been shown to be a reliable and valid instrument.

  4. A model for scaling in firms’ size and growth rate distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzig, Cornelia; Gordon, Mirta B.

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a simple agent-based model which allows us to analyze three stylized facts: a fat-tailed size distribution of companies, a ‘tent-shaped’ growth rate distribution, the scaling relation of the growth rate variance with firm size, and the causality between them. This is achieved under the simple hypothesis that firms compete for a scarce quantity (either aggregate demand or workforce) which is allocated probabilistically. The model allows us to relate size and growth rate distributions. We compare the results of our model to simulations with other scaling relationships, and to similar models and relate it to existing theory. Effects arising from binning data are discussed.

  5. Bayesian multi-scale modeling for aggregated disease mapping data.

    PubMed

    Aregay, Mehreteab; Lawson, Andrew B; Faes, Christel; Kirby, Russell S

    2015-09-29

    In disease mapping, a scale effect due to an aggregation of data from a finer resolution level to a coarser level is a common phenomenon. This article addresses this issue using a hierarchical Bayesian modeling framework. We propose four different multiscale models. The first two models use a shared random effect that the finer level inherits from the coarser level. The third model assumes two independent convolution models at the finer and coarser levels. The fourth model applies a convolution model at the finer level, but the relative risk at the coarser level is obtained by aggregating the estimates at the finer level. We compare the models using the deviance information criterion (DIC) and Watanabe-Akaike information criterion (WAIC) that are applied to real and simulated data. The results indicate that the models with shared random effects outperform the other models on a range of criteria.

  6. A new method for flow rate measurement in millimeter-scale pipes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Haifeng; Gao, Xuemin; Wang, Baoliang; Huang, Zhiyao; Li, Haiqing

    2013-01-25

    Combining the Capacitively Coupled Contactless Conductivity Detection (C4D) technique and the principle of cross correlation flow measurement, a new method for flow rate measurement in millimeter-scale pipes was proposed. The research work included two parts. First, a new five-electrode C4D sensor was developed. Second, with two conductivity signals obtained by the developed sensor, the flow rate measurement was implemented by using the principle of cross correlation flow measurement. The experimental results showed that the proposed flow rate measurement method was effective, the developed five-electrode C4D sensor was successful, and the measurement accuracy was satisfactory. In five millimeter-scale pipes with different inner diameters of 0.5, 0.8, 1.8, 3.0 and 3.9 mm respectively, the maximum relative difference of the flow rate measurement between the reference flow rate and the measured flow rate was less than 5%.

  7. A New Method for Flow Rate Measurement in Millimeter-Scale Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haifeng; Gao, Xuemin; Wang, Baoliang; Huang, Zhiyao; Li, Haiqing

    2013-01-01

    Combining the Capacitively Coupled Contactless Conductivity Detection (C4D) technique and the principle of cross correlation flow measurement, a new method for flow rate measurement in millimeter-scale pipes was proposed. The research work included two parts. First, a new five-electrode C4D sensor was developed. Second, with two conductivity signals obtained by the developed sensor, the flow rate measurement was implemented by using the principle of cross correlation flow measurement. The experimental results showed that the proposed flow rate measurement method was effective, the developed five-electrode C4D sensor was successful, and the measurement accuracy was satisfactory. In five millimeter-scale pipes with different inner diameters of 0.5, 0.8, 1.8, 3.0 and 3.9 mm respectively, the maximum relative difference of the flow rate measurement between the reference flow rate and the measured flow rate was less than 5%. PMID:23353139

  8. Pore and Continuum Scale Study of the Effect of Subgrid Transport Heterogeneity on Redox Reaction Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chongxuan; Zhang, Changyong; Yang, Xiaofan; Zachara, John M.

    2015-08-01

    A micromodel system with a pore structure for heterogeneous flow and transport was used to investigate the effect of subgrid transport heterogeneity on redox reaction rates. Hematite reductive dissolution by injecting a reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) at variable flow rates was used as an example to probe the variations of redox reaction rates in different subgrid transport domains. Experiments, pore-scale simulations, and macroscopic modeling were performed to measure and simulate in-situ hematite reduction and to evaluate the scaling behavior of the redox reaction rates from the pore to macroscopic scales. The results indicated that the measured pore-scale rates of hematite reduction were consistent with the predictions from a pore scale reactive transport model. A general trend is that hematite reduction followed reductant transport pathways, starting from the advection-dominated pores toward the interior of diffusion-dominated domains. Two types of diffusion domains were considered in the micromodel: a micropore diffusion domain, which locates inside solid grains or aggregates where reactant transport is limited by diffusion; and a macropore diffusion domain, which locates at wedged, dead-end pore spaces created by the grain-grain contacts. The rate of hematite reduction in the advection-dominated domain was faster than those in the diffusion-controlled domains, and the rate in the macropore diffusion domain was faster than that in the micropore domain. The reduction rates in the advection and macropore diffusion domains increased with increasing flow rate, but were affected by different mechanisms. The rate increase in the advection domain was controlled by the mass action effect as a faster flow supplied more reactants, and the rate increase in the macropore domain was more affected by the rate of mass exchange with the advection domain, which increased with increasing flow rate. The hematite reduction rate in the micropore domain was, however

  9. Assessment of Competence in EVAR Procedures: A Novel Rating Scale Developed by the Delphi Technique.

    PubMed

    Strøm, M; Lönn, L; Bech, B; Schroeder, T V; Konge, L

    2017-07-01

    To develop a procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of operator competence in endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). A Delphi approach was used to achieve expert consensus. A panel of 32 international experts (median 300 EVAR procedures, range 200-3000) from vascular surgery (n = 21) and radiology (n = 11) was established. The first Delphi round was based on a review of endovascular skills assessment papers, stent graft instructions for use, and structured interviews. It led to a primary pool of 83 items that were formulated as global rating scale items with tentative anchors. Iterative Delphi rounds were executed. The panellists rated the importance of each item on a 5 point Likert scale. Consensus was defined as 80% of the panel rating an item 4 or 5 in the primary round and 90% in subsequent rounds. Consensus on the final assessment tool was defined as Cronbach's alpha > .8 after a minimum of three rounds. Thirty-two of 35 invited experts participated. Three rounds of surveys were completed with a completion rate of 100% in the first two rounds and 91% in round three. The 83 primary assessment items were supplemented with five items suggested by the panel and reduced to seven pivotal assessment items that reached consensus, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82. The seven item rating scale covers key elements of competence in EVAR stent placement and deployment. Each item has well defined grades with explicit anchors at unacceptable, acceptable, and superior performance on a 5 point Likert scale. The Delphi methodology allowed for international consensus on a new procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of competence in EVAR. The resulting scale, EndoVascular Aortic Repair Assessment of Technical Expertise (EVARATE), represents key elements in the procedure. EVARATE constitutes an assessment tool for providing structured feedback to endovascular operators in training. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier

  10. The multiple sclerosis rating scale, revised (MSRS-R): development, refinement, and psychometric validation using an online community.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Paul; Vaughan, Timothy E; Massagli, Michael P

    2012-06-18

    In developing the PatientsLikeMe online platform for patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), we required a patient-reported assessment of functional status that was easy to complete and identified disability in domains other than walking. Existing measures of functional status were inadequate, clinician-reported, focused on walking, and burdensome to complete. In response, we developed the Multiple Sclerosis Rating Scale (MSRS). We adapted a clinician-rated measure, the Guy's Neurological Disability Scale, to a self-report scale and deployed it to an online community. As part of our validation process we reviewed discussions between patients, conducted patient cognitive debriefing, and made minor improvements to form a revised scale (MSRS-R) before deploying a cross-sectional survey to patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) on the PatientsLikeMe platform. The survey included MSRS-R and comparator measures: MSIS-29, PDDS, NARCOMS Performance Scales, PRIMUS, and MSWS-12. In total, 816 RRMS patients responded (19% response rate). The MSRS-R exhibited high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .86). The MSRS-R walking item was highly correlated with alternative walking measures (PDDS, ρ = .84; MSWS-12, ρ = .83; NARCOMS mobility question, ρ = .86). MSRS-R correlated well with comparison instruments and differentiated between known groups by PDDS disease stage and relapse burden in the past two years. Factor analysis suggested a single factor accounting for 51.5% of variance. The MSRS-R is a concise measure of MS-related functional disability, and may have advantages for disease measurement over longer and more burdensome instruments that are restricted to a smaller number of domains or measure quality of life. Studies are underway describing the use of the instrument in contexts outside our online platform such as clinical practice or trials. The MSRS-R is released for use under creative commons license.

  11. Landscape scale measures of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioenergetic growth rate potential in Lake Michigan and comparison with angler catch rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Brines, Shannon J.; Geddes, C.A.; Mason, D.M.; Schwab, D.J.; Fleischer, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relative quality of a habitat can influence fish consumption, growth, mortality, and production. In order to quantify habitat quality, several authors have combined bioenergetic and foraging models to generate spatially explicit estimates of fish growth rate potential (GRP). However, the capacity of GRP to reflect the spatial distributions of fishes over large areas has not been fully evaluated. We generated landscape scale estimates of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) GRP throughout Lake Michigan for 1994-1996, and used these estimates to test the hypotheses that GRP is a good predictor of spatial patterns of steelhead catch rates. We used surface temperatures (measured with AVHRR satellite imagery) and acoustically measured steelhead prey densities (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus) as inputs for the GRP model. Our analyses demonstrate that potential steelhead growth rates in Lake Michigan are highly variable in both space and time. Steelhead GRP tended to increase with latitude, and mean GRP was much higher during September 1995, compared to 1994 and 1996. In addition, our study suggests that landscape scale measures of GRP are not good predictors of steelhead catch rates throughout Lake Michigan, but may provide an index of interannual variation in system-wide habitat quality.

  12. Excellent reliability of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) in Indonesia after training.

    PubMed

    Istriana, Erita; Kurnia, Ade; Weijers, Annelies; Hidayat, Teddy; Pinxten, Lucas; de Jong, Cor; Schellekens, Arnt

    2013-09-01

    The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) is the most widely used depression rating scale worldwide. Reliability of HDRS has been reported mainly from Western countries. The current study tested the reliability of HDRS ratings among psychiatric residents in Indonesia, before and after HDRS training. The hypotheses were that: (i) prior to the training reliability of HDRS ratings is poor; and (ii) HDRS training can improve reliability of HDRS ratings to excellent levels. Furthermore, we explored cultural validity at item level. Videotaped HDRS interviews were rated by 30 psychiatric residents before and after 1 day of HDRS training. Based on a gold standard rating, percentage correct ratings and deviation from the standard were calculated. Correct ratings increased from 83% to 99% at item level and from 70% to 100% for the total rating. The average deviation from the gold standard rating improved from 0.07 to 0.02 at item level and from 2.97 to 0.46 for the total rating. HDRS assessment by psychiatric trainees in Indonesia without prior training is unreliable. A short, evidence-based HDRS training improves reliability to near perfect levels. The outlined training program could serve as a template for HDRS trainings. HDRS items that may be less valid for assessment of depression severity in Indonesia are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Uranium Bioreduction Rates Across Scales During a Biostimulation Field Experiments at Rifle, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehikhoo, F.; Bao, C.; Li, L.; Wu, H.; Williams, K. H.; Newcomer, D.; Long, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial evolution of biogeochemical processes at different spatial scales is important (and challenging) for complex, heterogeneous subsurface systems. In this work, we aim to understand the dynamic propagation of uranium bioreduction rates across scales during a field biostimulation experiment at Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected as an electron donor to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and reduce mobile U(VI) to immobile U(IV). Bicarbonate was co-injected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI) to investigate the impact of bicarbonate on the bioreduction of mobile U(VI). We use reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic conductivity and aqueous geochemistry data and to quantify bioreduction rates from the local grid block scale (approximately 0.25 meters) to the field scale (10s of meters). The modeling results showed good agreement with the geochemical measurements in the 17 monitoring wells. The good match indicates that the model has captured the dynamics of the system given our conceptual model of an inverse relationship between bioavailable oxidized Fe and permeability, providing constraints for the estimation of aqueous species, mineral precipitates, and biomass. Our results shows that although the local rates varied by more than two orders of magnitude with the biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, the maximum rates remained at the a few 'hot spots' right at the down gradient of the injection wells where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maximum. These local rates dominated the ';field-scale' rates (10's of m2). At particular locations, the 'hot moments' with maximum bioreduction rates positively corresponded to their distance from the wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced the local bioreduction rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 41.9%, its effect at the field-scale was limited to a maximum of 15.7%, with majority of the domain unaffected. The field-scale rates calculated

  14. On the depth and scale of metabolic rate variation: scaling of oxygen consumption rates and enzymatic activity in the Class Cephalopoda (Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Seibel, Brad A

    2007-01-01

    Recent ecological theory depends, for predictive power, on the apparent similarity of metabolic rates within broad taxonomic or functional groups of organisms (e.g. invertebrates or ectotherms). Such metabolic commonality is challenged here, as I demonstrate more than 200-fold variation in metabolic rates independent of body mass and temperature in a single class of animals, the Cephalopoda, over seven orders of magnitude size range. I further demonstrate wide variation in the slopes of metabolic scaling curves. The observed variation in metabolism reflects differential selection among species for locomotory capacity rather than mass or temperature constraints. Such selection is highest among epipelagic squids (Lolignidae and Ommastrephidae) that, as adults, have temperature-corrected metabolic rates higher than mammals of similar size.

  15. Estimation of waste component-specific landfill decay rates using laboratory-scale decomposition data.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2010-06-15

    The current methane generation model used by the U.S. EPA (Landfill Gas Emissions Model) treats municipal solid waste (MSW) as a homogeneous waste with one decay rate. However, component-specific decay rates are required to evaluate the effects of changes in waste composition on methane generation. Laboratory-scale rate constants, k(lab), for the major biodegradable MSW components were used to derive field-scale decay rates (k(field)) for each waste component using the assumption that the average of the field-scale decay rates for each waste component, weighted by its composition, is equal to the bulk MSW decay rate. For an assumed bulk MSW decay rate of 0.04 yr(-1), k(field) was estimated to be 0.298, 0.171, 0.015, 0.144, 0.033, 0.02, 0.122, and 0.029 yr(-1), for grass, leaves, branches, food waste, newsprint, corrugated containers, coated paper, and office paper, respectively. The effect of landfill waste diversion programs on methane production was explored to illustrate the use of component-specific decay rates. One hundred percent diversion of yard waste and food waste reduced the year 20 methane production rate by 45%. When a landfill gas collection schedule was introduced, collectable methane was most influenced by food waste diversion at years 10 and 20 and paper diversion at year 40.

  16. Independent validation of the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-autonomic (SCOPA-AUT).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Blazquez, C; Forjaz, M J; Frades-Payo, B; de Pedro-Cuesta, J; Martinez-Martin, P

    2010-02-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and causes a great impact in health-related quality of life (HRQL) and functional status of patients. This study is the first independent validation of the Scales for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic (SCOPA-AUT). In an observational, cross-sectional study (ELEP Study), 387 PD patients were assessed using, in addition to the SCOPA-AUT, the Hoehn and Yahr staging, SCOPA-Motor, SCOPA-Cognition, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-Geriatrics, modified Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale, Clinical Impression of Severity Index for PD, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, SCOPA-Sleep, SCOPA-Psychosocial, pain and fatigue visual analogue scales, and EQ-5D. SCOPA-AUT acceptability, internal consistency, construct validity, and precision were explored. Data quality was satisfactory (97%). SCOPA-AUT total score did not show floor or ceiling effect, and skewness was 0.40. Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from 0.64 (Cardiovascular and Thermorregulatory subscales) to 0.95 (Sexual dysfunction, women). Item homogeneity index was low (0.24) for Gastrointestinal subscale. Factor analysis identified eight factors for men (68% of the variance) and seven factors for women (65% of the variance). SCOPA-AUT correlated at a high level with specific HRQL and functional measures (r(S) = 0.52-0.56). SCOPA-AUT scores were higher for older patients, for more advanced disease, and for patients treated only with levodopa (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.01). Standard error of measurement for SCOPA-AUT subscales was 0.81 (sexual, men) - 2.26 (gastrointestinal). Despite its heterogeneous content, which determines some weaknesses in the psychometric attributes of its subscales, SCOPA-AUT is an acceptable, consistent, valid and precise scale.

  17. Heart rate detection from single-foot plantar bioimpedance measurements in a weighing scale.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Delia H; Casas, Oscar; Pallas-Areny, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Electronic bathroom scales are an easy-to-use, affordable mean to measure physiological parameters in addition to body weight. They have been proposed to obtain the ballistocardiogram (BCG) and derive from it the heart rate, cardiac output and systolic blood pressure. Therefore, weighing scales may suit intermittent monitoring in e-health and patient screening. Scales intended for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) have also been proposed to estimate the heart rate by amplifying the pulsatile impedance component superimposed on the basal impedance. However, electronic weighing scales cannot easily obtain the BCG from people that have a single leg neither are bioimpedance measurements between both feet recommended for people wearing a pacemaker or other electronic implants, neither for pregnant women. We propose a method to detect the heart rate (HR) from bioimpedance measured in a single foot while standing on an bathroom weighting scale intended for BIA. The electrodes built in the weighing scale are used to apply a 50 kHz voltage between the outer electrode pair and to measure the drop in voltage across the inner electrode pair. The agreement with the HR simultaneously obtained from the ECG is excellent. We have also compared the drop in voltage across the waist and the thorax with that obtained when measuring bioimpedance between both feet to compare the possible risk of the proposed method to that of existing BIA scales.

  18. How Do Observational Scales Correlate the Ratings of Children's Behavior during Pediatric Procedural Sedation?

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Larissa da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is little information regarding the ability of observational scales to properly assess children's behavior during procedural sedation. Aim. To evaluate the characteristics of the Houpt scales, the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS) and the Venham Behavior Rating Scale when applied to preschool children undergoing conscious dental sedation. Design. This study included 27 children, 4–6 years old with early childhood caries that participated in a clinical trial (NCT02284204) that investigated two sedative regimes using oral midazolam/ketamine. Dental appointments were video-recorded; five calibrated observers assessed 1,209 minutes of video recording to score the children's behavior, following the instructions of the investigated scales. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Spearman correlation tests (P < 0.05). Results. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scale were highly correlated (rho = −0.87; P < 0.001). OSUBRS scores were better correlated with Houpt overall behavior and Venham ratings, when compared to Houpt scores in the categories for movement and crying. Conclusions. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scores are global scales that properly measure children's behavior during dental sedation. Continuous assessment with OSUBRS through videos has a chance to give more precise data, while the Houpt categories can easily demonstrate children's behavior during procedures. PMID:28116299

  19. Health-related quality of life in Huntington's disease patients: a comparison of proxy assessment and patient self-rating using the disease-specific Huntington's disease health-related quality of life questionnaire (HDQoL).

    PubMed

    Hocaoglu, Mevhibe B; Gaffan, E A; Ho, Aileen K

    2012-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease for which there is no known cure. Proxy evaluation is relevant for HD as its manifestation might limit the ability of persons to report their health-related quality of life (HrQoL). This study explored patient-proxy ratings of HrQoL of persons at different stages of HD, and examined factors that may affect proxy ratings. A total of 105 patient-proxy pairs completed the Huntington's disease health-related quality of life questionnaire (HDQoL) and other established HrQoL measures (EQ-5D and SF-12v2). Proxy-patient agreement was assessed in terms of absolute level (mean ratings) and intraclass correlation. Proxies' ratings were at a similar level to patients' self-ratings on an overall Summary Score and on most of the six Specific Scales of the HDQoL. On the Specific Hopes and Worries Scale, proxies on average rated HrQoL as better than patients' self-ratings, while on both the Specific Cognitive Scale and Specific Physical and Functional Scale proxies tended to rate HrQoL more poorly than patients themselves. The patient's disease stage and mental wellbeing (SF-12 Mental Component scale) were the two factors that primarily affected proxy assessment. Proxy scores were strongly correlated with patients' self-ratings of HrQoL, on the Summary Scale and all Specific Scales. The patient-proxy correlation was lower for patients at moderate stages of HD compared to patients at early and advanced stages. The proxy report version of the HDQoL is a useful complementary tool to self-assessment, and a promising alternative when individual patients with advanced HD are unable to self-report.

  20. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of date from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes particularly regarding the trade-off between precison and potential bias o parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  1. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of data from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes, particularly regarding the trade-off between precision and potential bias of parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  2. Do insect metabolic rates at rest and during flight scale with body mass?

    PubMed

    Niven, Jeremy E; Scharlemann, Jörn P W

    2005-09-22

    Energetically costly behaviours, such as flight, push physiological systems to their limits requiring metabolic rates (MR) that are highly elevated above the resting MR (RMR). Both RMR and MR during exercise (e.g. flight or running) in birds and mammals scale allometrically, although there is little consensus about the underlying mechanisms or the scaling relationships themselves. Even less is known about the allometric scaling of RMR and MR during exercise in insects. We analysed data on the resting and flight MR (FMR) of over 50 insect species that fly to determine whether RMR and FMR scale allometrically. RMR scaled with body mass to the power of 0.66 (M0.66), whereas FMR scaled with M1.10. Further analysis suggested that FMR scaled with two separate relationships; insects weighing less than 10mg had fourfold lower FMR than predicted from the scaling of FMR in insects weighing more than 10mg, although both groups scaled with M0.86. The scaling exponents of RMR and FMR in insects were not significantly different from those of birds and mammals, suggesting that they might be determined by similar factors. We argue that low FMR in small insects suggests these insects may be making considerable energy savings during flight, which could be extremely important for the physiology and evolution of insect flight.

  3. Scaling Up Chronic Disease Prevention Interventions in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Gaziano, Thomas A.; Pagidipati, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Chronic diseases are increasingly becoming a health burden in lower-and middle-income countries, putting pressure on public health efforts to scale up interventions. This article reviews current efforts in interventions on a population and individual level. Population-level interventions include ongoing efforts to reduce smoking rates, reduce intake of salt and trans–fatty acids, and increase physical activity in increasingly sedentary populations. Individual-level interventions include control and treatment of risk factors for chronic diseases and secondary prevention. This review also discusses the barriers in interventions, particularly those specific to low- and middle-income countries. Continued discussion of proven cost-effective interventions for chronic diseases in the developing world will be useful for improving public health policy. PMID:23297660

  4. Contribution of climate and air pollution to variation in coronary heart disease mortality rates in England.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, Peter; Allender, Steven; Rayner, Mike; Goldacre, Michael

    2012-01-01

    There are substantial geographic variations in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in England that may in part be due to differences in climate and air pollution. An ecological cross-sectional multi-level analysis of male and female CHD mortality rates in all wards in England (1999-2004) was conducted to estimate the relative strength of the association between CHD mortality rates and three aspects of the physical environment--temperature, hours of sunshine and air quality. Models were adjusted for deprivation, an index measuring the healthiness of the lifestyle of populations, and urbanicity. In the fully adjusted model, air quality was not significantly associated with CHD mortality rates, but temperature and sunshine were both significantly negatively associated (p<0.05), suggesting that CHD mortality rates were higher in areas with lower average temperature and hours of sunshine. After adjustment for the unhealthy lifestyle of populations and deprivation, the climate variables explained at least 15% of large scale variation in CHD mortality rates. The results suggest that the climate has a small but significant independent association with CHD mortality rates in England.

  5. Contribution of Climate and Air Pollution to Variation in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Rates in England

    PubMed Central

    Scarborough, Peter; Allender, Steven; Rayner, Mike; Goldacre, Michael

    2012-01-01

    There are substantial geographic variations in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in England that may in part be due to differences in climate and air pollution. An ecological cross-sectional multi-level analysis of male and female CHD mortality rates in all wards in England (1999–2004) was conducted to estimate the relative strength of the association between CHD mortality rates and three aspects of the physical environment - temperature, hours of sunshine and air quality. Models were adjusted for deprivation, an index measuring the healthiness of the lifestyle of populations, and urbanicity. In the fully adjusted model, air quality was not significantly associated with CHD mortality rates, but temperature and sunshine were both significantly negatively associated (p<0.05), suggesting that CHD mortality rates were higher in areas with lower average temperature and hours of sunshine. After adjustment for the unhealthy lifestyle of populations and deprivation, the climate variables explained at least 15% of large scale variation in CHD mortality rates. The results suggest that the climate has a small but significant independent association with CHD mortality rates in England. PMID:22427884

  6. A new statistical model for analyzing rating scale data pertaining to word meaning.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Rubke, Felipe; Kafadar, Karen; James, Karin H

    2017-04-25

    The concrete-abstract categorization scheme has guided several research programs. A popular way to classify words into one of these categories is to calculate a word's mean value in a Concreteness or Imageability rating scale. However, this procedure has several limitations. For instance, results can be highly distorted by outliers, ascribe differences among words when none may exist, and neglect rating trends in participants. We suggest using an alternative procedure to analyze rating scale data called median polish analysis (MPA). MPA is tolerant to outliers and accounts for information in multiple dimensions, including trends among participants. MPA performance can be readily evaluated using an effect size measure called analog R (2) and be integrated with bootstrap 95% confidence intervals, which can prevent assigning inexistent differences among words. To compare these analysis procedures, we asked 80 participants to rate a set of nouns and verbs using four different rating scales: Action, Concreteness, Imageability, and Multisensory. We analyzed the data using both two-way and three-way MPA models. We also calculated 95% CIs for the two-way models. Categorizing words with the Action scale revealed a continuum of word meaning for both nouns and verbs. The remaining scales produced dichotomous or stratified results for nouns, and continuous results for verbs. While the sample mean analysis generated continua irrespective of the rating scale, MPA differentiated among dichotomies and continua. We conclude that MPA allowed us to better classify words by discarding outliers, focusing on main trends, and considering the differences in rating criteria among participants.

  7. Genome-Wide Fine-Scale Recombination Rate Variation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun S.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating fine-scale recombination maps of Drosophila from population genomic data is a challenging problem, in particular because of the high background recombination rate. In this paper, a new computational method is developed to address this challenge. Through an extensive simulation study, it is demonstrated that the method allows more accurate inference, and exhibits greater robustness to the effects of natural selection and noise, compared to a well-used previous method developed for studying fine-scale recombination rate variation in the human genome. As an application, a genome-wide analysis of genetic variation data is performed for two Drosophila melanogaster populations, one from North America (Raleigh, USA) and the other from Africa (Gikongoro, Rwanda). It is shown that fine-scale recombination rate variation is widespread throughout the D. melanogaster genome, across all chromosomes and in both populations. At the fine-scale, a conservative, systematic search for evidence of recombination hotspots suggests the existence of a handful of putative hotspots each with at least a tenfold increase in intensity over the background rate. A wavelet analysis is carried out to compare the estimated recombination maps in the two populations and to quantify the extent to which recombination rates are conserved. In general, similarity is observed at very broad scales, but substantial differences are seen at fine scales. The average recombination rate of the X chromosome appears to be higher than that of the autosomes in both populations, and this pattern is much more pronounced in the African population than the North American population. The correlation between various genomic features—including recombination rates, diversity, divergence, GC content, gene content, and sequence quality—is examined using the wavelet analysis, and it is shown that the most notable difference between D. melanogaster and humans is in the correlation between recombination and

  8. Disappointing durable remission rates in complex Crohn's disease fistula.

    PubMed

    Molendijk, Ilse; Nuij, Veerle J A A; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; van der Woude, C Janneke

    2014-11-01

    Despite potent drugs and surgical techniques, the treatment of perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease (CD) remains challenging. We assessed treatment strategies for perianal fistulizing CD and their effect on remission, response, and relapse. Patients with perianal fistulizing CD visiting the Erasmus MC between January 1, 1980 and January 1, 2000 were identified. Demographics, fistula characteristics, and received treatments aimed at the outcome of these strategies were noted. In total, 232 patients were identified (98 male; 42.2%). Median follow-up was 10.0 years (range, 0.5-37.5 yr). Complex fistulas were present in 78.0%. Medical treatment (antibiotics, steroids, immunosuppressants, and anti-tumor necrosis factor) commenced in 79.7% of the patients and in 53.2%, surgery (colectomy, fistulectomy, stoma, and rectum amputation) was performed. Simple fistulas healed more often than complex fistulas (88.2% versus 64.6%; P < 0.001). Rectum involvement was not associated with a lower remission rate, and anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy did not increase complete fistula healing rates in simple and complex fistula. Initially, healed fistulas recurred in 26.7% in case of simple fistulas and in 41.9% in case of complex fistulas (P = 0.051). Only 37.0% of the complex fistulas were in remission at the end of follow-up compared with 66.7% of the simple fistulas (P < 0.001). Only the minority of CD complex perianal fistulas were in remission after conventional treatment strategies after a median follow-up of 10 years. Simple fistulas were more likely to heal than complex fistulas, and less of these healed fistulas relapsed. However, more than 3 quarters of the patients had complex perianal fistulas.

  9. Effects of Post-Fire Salvage Logging on Erosion Rates at Multiple Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; MacDonald, L. H.; Brown, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Forest managers sometimes harvest burned trees after wildfires to realize economic value, reduce fuel loads, or achieve other operational goals. This logging can be controversial because some ecosystem effects are negative, yet the potential impacts on erosion rates have not been clearly identified. Our objectives were to quantify hillslope-scale erosion rates and compare the hillslope erosion rates to rates from larger (swale) and smaller (rill) scales. Soil characteristics, vegetative regrowth, and erosion rates were measured in logged areas and unlogged controls at seven severely burned sites in the western US. One site had replicated measurements at all three scales, five sites had only hillslope or swale scale measurements, and one site had only rill measurements. Erosion rates from hillslopes (70-170 m2) and swales (0.1-2.6 ha) were measured with sediment fences. Rill erosion rates were measured with rill experiments, where water was applied to a hillslope at five flow rates for 12 min each; water samples were collected at a point 9 m downslope. At the hillslope scale the passage of heavy logging equipment reduced soil water repellency, compacted the soil, reduced vegetative regrowth rates, and generally increased erosion rates by one or two orders of magnitude relative to the controls. The rill experiments also showed greater rates of rill incision and erosion from the areas disturbed by heavy logging equipment relative to the controls. At the swale scale erosion rates were higher in the logged areas than the controls when measurements were replicated and simultaneous but there was no detectable change in the other study areas. Overall, the absolute erosion rates from both logged and unlogged areas tended to decline over time while the relative difference in erosion tended to increase due to the slower vegetative recovery in the more heavily disturbed areas. The potential adverse effects of salvage logging can be minimized by reducing compaction and

  10. Does study partner type impact the rate of Alzheimer's disease progression?

    PubMed

    Grill, Joshua D; Zhou, Yan; Karlawish, Jason; Elashoff, David

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) do not have a spouse. Despite this, the majority of AD research participants enroll with a spouse study partner. It remains unclear if differences between AD patients who do and do not have a spouse may bias study results. In this study, we examined whether AD patients with different study partner types (spouse versus adult child) demonstrate different rates of disease progression over two years on three outcome measures commonly used in AD research, including clinical trials. We used data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set to examine disease progression in participants age 55-90 with probable AD dementia. We examined disease progression as measured by the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale-Sum of the Boxes score, the Mini Mental Status Examination, and the Functional Assessment Questionnaire. Analyses were performed on data for all available eligible participants from the NACC UDS and after performing a propensity-matching model to better account for inherent differences between the populations of interest. Propensity matching was successful only when models did not include age and gender. For both propensity-matched analyses and those of all available data, we did not observe any differences between the study partner populations for any outcome measure. These results suggest that if investigators can improve in recruiting AD patients with adult child caregivers to research, the implications to study results may be minimal.

  11. Laboratory-Scale Melter for Determination of Melting Rate of Waste Glass Feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Buchmiller, William C.; Matyas, Josef

    2012-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to develop the laboratory-scale melter (LSM) as a quick and inexpensive method to determine the processing rate of various waste glass slurry feeds. The LSM uses a 3 or 4 in. diameter-fused quartz crucible with feed and off-gas ports on top. This LSM setup allows cold-cap formation above the molten glass to be directly monitored to obtain a steady-state melting rate of the waste glass feeds. The melting rate data from extensive scaled-melter tests with Hanford Site high-level wastes performed for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant have been compiled. Preliminary empirical model that expresses the melting rate as a function of bubbling rate and glass yield were developed from the compiled database. The two waste glass feeds with most melter run data were selected for detailed evaluation and model development and for the LSM tests so the melting rates obtained from LSM tests can be compared with those from scaled-melter tests. The present LSM results suggest the LSM setup can be used to determine the glass production rates for the development of new glass compositions or feed makeups that are designed to increase the processing rate of the slurry feeds.

  12. Construction and evaluation of a self rating scale for stress-induced Exhaustion Disorder, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale

    PubMed Central

    Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Åke; Åsberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between self-rated symptoms of ED, depression, and anxiety using KEDS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Items were selected based on their correspondence to criteria for ED as formulated by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW), with seven response alternatives in a Likert-format. Self-ratings performed by 317 clinically assessed participants were used to analyse the scale’s psychometric properties. KEDS consists of nine items with a scale range of 0–54. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that a cut-off score of 19 was accompanied by high sensitivity and specificity (each above 95%) in the discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with ED. Reliability was satisfactory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that ED, depression and anxiety are best regarded as different phenomena. KEDS may be a useful tool in the assessment of symptoms of Exhaustion Disorder in clinical as well as research settings. There is evidence that the symptom clusters of ED, anxiety and depression, respectively, reflect three different underlying dimensions. PMID:24236500

  13. Differential item functioning in the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS).

    PubMed

    Luo, Sheng; Liu, Yuanyuan; Teresi, Jeanne A; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G

    2017-08-01

    Test if differential item functioning due to gender, age, race/ethnicity, or education impacts Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale scores. Testing rating scales for differential item functioning is a core validation step. If differential item functioning exists, interpretation of item scores must consider secondary influences on dyskinesia ratings. Using Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale translation databases (N = 3,132), we tested uniform and nonuniform differential item functioning. We required confirmation by two independent methods and considered differential item functioning pertinent if McFadden pseudo R(2) magnitude statistics exceeded negligible ratings. No age, race/ethnicity, or education nonuniform differential item functioning was identified. Gender nonuniform differential item functioning occurred for 2 items, both with negligible magnitude. Gender, race, and education uniform differential item functioning was observed for multiple items, all with negligible magnitude. The Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale items effectively capture dyskinesia severity without pertinent gender, age, race/ ethnicity, or education influence. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Up-Scaling Geochemical Reaction Rates for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Deep Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Lindquist, W Brent

    2009-03-03

    The overall goal of the project was to bridge the gap between our knowledge of small-scale geochemical reaction rates and reaction rates meaningful for modeling transport at core scales. The working hypothesis was that reaction rates, determined from laboratory measurements based upon reactions typically conducted in well mixed batch reactors using pulverized reactive media may be significantly changed in in situ porous media flow due to rock microstructure heterogeneity. Specifically we hypothesized that, generally, reactive mineral surfaces are not uniformly accessible to reactive fluids due to the random deposition of mineral grains and to the variation in flow rates within a pore network. Expected bulk reaction rates would therefore have to be correctly up-scaled to reflect such heterogeneity. The specific objective was to develop a computational tool that integrates existing measurement capabilities with pore-scale network models of fluid flow and reactive transport. The existing measurement capabilities to be integrated consisted of (a) pore space morphology, (b) rock mineralogy, and (c) geochemical reaction rates. The objective was accomplished by: (1) characterizing sedimentary sandstone rock morphology using X-ray computed microtomography, (2) mapping rock mineralogy using back-scattered electron microscopy (BSE), X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and CMT, (3) characterizing pore-accessible reactive mineral surface area, and (4) creating network models to model acidic CO{sub 2} saturated brine injection into the sandstone rock samples.

  15. Adapting CEF-Descriptors for Rating Purposes: Validation by a Combined Rater Training and Scale Revision Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsch, Claudia; Martin, Guido

    2012-01-01

    We explore how a local rating scale can be based on the Common European Framework CEF-proficiency scales. As part of the scale validation (Alderson, 1991; Lumley, 2002), we examine which adaptations are needed to turn CEF-proficiency descriptors into a rating scale for a local context, and to establish a practicable method to revise the initial…

  16. The intraspecific scaling of metabolic rate with body mass in fishes depends on lifestyle and temperature.

    PubMed

    Killen, Shaun S; Atkinson, David; Glazier, Douglas S

    2010-02-01

    Metabolic energy fuels all biological processes, and therefore theories that explain the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass potentially have great predictive power in ecology. A new model, that could improve this predictive power, postulates that the metabolic scaling exponent (b) varies between 2/3 and 1, and is inversely related to the elevation of the intraspecific scaling relationship (metabolic level, L), which in turn varies systematically among species in response to various ecological factors. We test these predictions by examining the effects of lifestyle, swimming mode and temperature on intraspecific scaling of resting metabolic rate among 89 species of teleost fish. As predicted, b decreased as L increased with temperature, and with shifts in lifestyle from bathyal and benthic to benthopelagic to pelagic. This effect of lifestyle on b may be related to varying amounts of energetically expensive tissues associated with different capacities for swimming during predator-prey interactions.

  17. A validated subjective rating of display quality: the Maryland Visual Comfort Scale.

    PubMed

    Seagull, F Jacob; Sutton, Erica; Lee, Tommy; Godinez, Carlos; Lee, Gyusung; Park, Adrian

    2011-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery requires high-quality imaging to provide effective visual displays to surgeons. Whereas objective measures--pixels, resolution, display size, contrast ratio--are used to compare imaging systems, there are no tools for assessing the perceptual impact of these physical measures. We developed the "Maryland Visual Comfort Scale" (MVCS) to measure perceptual qualities in relation to an imaging system. We theorize that what the surgeon perceives as a high-quality image can be summarized by a scoring of seven characteristics related to human perception, and that image quality is not homogenous across a video display such that object location impacts perception and display quality. We created a rating scale for seven dimensions of display characteristics (contrast, detail, brightness, lighting uniformity, focus uniformity, color, sharpness). For validation, 30 participants viewed test patterns and manipulated physiologic images, rating the image quality for all seven dimensions as well as giving an overall rating. Image ratings for contrast and detail dimensions were assessed across five locations on the video display. For ratings, two imaging systems were used, differing primarily in the 10-mm zero-degree scope's quality: a standard scope and one taken from service for quality degradation. The rating scale was sensitive to differences in scope quality for all seven items in the MVCS (all p values<0.01). Significant differences existed between quality ratings at central and peripheral locations (p<0.05). This seven-item rating scale for assessing visual comfort is reliable and sensitive to scope quality differences. The scale is sensitive to degradation of image quality at video display edges. These seven dimensions of display characteristics can be refined to create a psychometric to serve as a composite of perceptual quality in laparoscopy.

  18. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. Benchmarking diagnosis using the Wender-Reimherr adult rating scale].

    PubMed

    Rösler, M; Retz, W; Retz-Junginger, P; Stieglitz, R D; Kessler, H; Reimherr, F; Wender, P H

    2008-03-01

    We report on a study comparing different systems for the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Recruited for evaluation were 168 patients referred to our ADHD outpatient unit. We used the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edn. (DSM-IV), International Classification of Diseases 10th edn. (ICD-10), and Utah criteria for diagnostic assessment and the Wender Utah rating scale, ADHD Self Report (ADHD-SR), and Wender Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Rating Scale as psychopathological assessment tools. We present basic psychometric data of the Wender-Reimherr Interview (WRI). Internal consistency was determined as 0.82 (alpha). The inter-rater reliability was 1.0 (kappa coefficient) regarding ADHD diagnoses, and the ICC was 0.98 referring to the WRI total scores. The convergent validity with the ADHD-SR was 0.65 (Spearman coefficient). In 126 of 168 patients an ADHD diagnosis was made according to at least one of the three systems. The DSM-IV diagnostic set led to 119 ADHD diagnoses. As compared with the two other systems, this is about the minimum level for an ADHD diagnosis. All of the 87 ADHD diagnoses according to ICD-10 were covered by DSM-IV. The ICD-10 had no independent psychopathological items and therefore offered no additional points for the diagnostic procedure than the DSM-IV. The situation regarding Utah criteria is different. These criteria contain seven psychopathological domains: inattention, hyperactivity, disorganisation, impulsivity, affective lability, overreactivity, and hot temper. They can be assessed by use of the WRI. Ninety-three of 168 patients were diagnosed as having ADHD according to the Utah concept, which is much lower than with the DSM-IV. The particular definition of the disorder by the Utah criteria resulted in seven patients having only a Utah diagnosis but no DSM-IV diagnosis. Thus we are in a position to say that the Utah criteria have a relatively high level for

  19. Assessment of patient interpersonal behavior: Development and validation of a rating scale.

    PubMed

    Richtberg, Samantha; Jakob, Marion; Höfling, Volkmar; Weck, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Patient in-session interpersonal behavior, as part of the therapeutic alliance, is an important aspect of the psychotherapy process and impacts treatment outcome. In the present study, the development and validation of a rating scale of patient in-session interpersonal behavior is described. A 10-item rating scale, the Assessment Form of Patient Interpersonal Behavior (AFPIB), was developed using an inductive procedure. The AFPIB was then validated in a sample of patients with hypochondriasis (N = 30), by having two independent raters assess patients' interpersonal behaviors shown in videotaped psychotherapy sessions (N = 60). The AFPIB demonstrated good reliability and validity. Thus, the AFPIB seems to be a promising rating scale for the assessment of patient interpersonal behavior shown in psychotherapy sessions.

  20. Compression based entropy estimation of heart rate variability on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Baumert, Mathias; Voss, Andreas; Javorka, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate fluctuates beat by beat in a complex manner. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for entropy assessment of heart rate fluctuations on multiple time scales. We employed the Lempel-Ziv algorithm for lossless data compression to investigate the compressibility of RR interval time series on different time scales, using a coarse-graining procedure. We estimated the entropy of RR interval time series of 20 young and 20 old subjects and also investigated the compressibility of randomly shuffled surrogate RR time series. The original RR time series displayed significantly smaller compression entropy values than randomized RR interval data. The RR interval time series of older subjects showed significantly different entropy characteristics over multiple time scales than those of younger subjects. In conclusion, data compression may be useful approach for multiscale entropy assessment of heart rate variability.