Phuong, Linny Kimly; Bonetto, Caterina; Buttery, Jim; Pernus, Yolanda Brauchli; Chandler, Rebecca; Felicetti, Patrizia; Goldenthal, Karen L; Kucuku, Merita; Monaco, Giuseppe; Pahud, Barbara; Shulman, Stanford T; Top, Karina A; Trotta, Francesco; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Varricchio, Frederick; de Ferranti, Sarah; Newburger, Jane W; Dahdah, Nagib; Singh, Surjit; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Burgner, David
Kawasaki disease is a complex and potentially serious condition. It has been observed in temporal relation to immunisation. We conducted a systematic literature review using various reference sources to review the available evidence published in the literature. We identified twenty seven publications reporting a temporal association between immunisation and Kawasaki disease. We present a systematic review of data drawn from randomised controlled trials, observational studies, case series and reports, and reviews. Overall there was a lack of standardised case definitions, making data interpretation and comparability challenging. Although a temporal relationship between immunisation and Kawasaki disease is suggested, evidence for an increased risk or a causal association is lacking. Implementation of a standardised Kawasaki disease case definition would increase confidence in the findings and add value to future studies of pre- or post-licensure vaccine safety studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Carrozzino, Danilo; Bech, Per; Patierno, Chiara; Onofrj, Marco; Morberg, Bo Mohr; Thomas, Astrid; Bonanni, Laura; Fulcheri, Mario
The current systematic review study is aimed at critically analyzing from a clinimetric viewpoint the clinical consequence of somatization in Parkinson's Disease (PD). By focusing on the International Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a comprehensive electronic literature research strategy on ISI Web-of-Science, PsychINFO, PubMed, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Out of 2.926 initial records, only a total of 9 studies were identified as clearly relevant and analyzed in this systematic review. The prevalence of somatization in PD has been found to range between 7.0% and 66.7%, with somatoform disorders acting as clinical factor significantly contributing to predict a progressive cognitive impairment. We highlighted that somatization is a highly prevalent comorbidity affecting PD. However, the clinical consequence of such psychiatric symptom should be further evaluated by replacing the clinically inadequate diagnostic label of psychogenic parkinsonism with the psychosomatic concept of persistent somatization as conceived by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mota, Vitor Gomes; Markman Filho, Brivaldo
Doppler echocardiography (Echo) is a non-invasive method of excellent accuracy to screen portopulmonary hypertension (PPH) and to assess intrapulmonary shunts (IPS) in chronic liver disease (CLD). In the past decade, Echo proved to play a fundamental role in the diagnosis of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM). To perform a systematic review of relevant articles on the subject 'Echo in CLD'. In November 2011, a systematic review was performed in the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases, and the characteristics of the studies selected were reported. The search based on descriptors and free terms obtained 204 articles (179 in Pubmed, 21 in LILACS, and 1 in SciELO). Of those 204 articles, 22 were selected for systematic review. A meta-analysis could not be performed because of the heterogeneity of the articles. Echo should be part of CLD stratification for screening PPH, IPS and CCM, because, most of the time, such complications are diagnosed only when patients are already waiting for a liver transplant.
Heetun, Zaid S; Quigley, Eamonn M M
Some of the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms commonly experienced by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been attributed to gastroparesis; however, the precise prevalence and relevance of gastric emptying delay in PD is unclear. The definition of gastroparesis varies; currently the most widely accepted definition (from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium) is the presence of appropriate symptoms (including nausea, retching, vomiting, stomach fullness, and inability to finish a meal) for ≥ 12 weeks, together with delayed gastric emptying on scintigraphy and the absence of any obstructive lesions on upper GI endoscopy. In PD patients, gastroparesis has the potential to affect nutrition and quality of life, as well as the absorption of PD medications, including L-dopa. This reduced absorption of L-dopa has implications for the control of the PD motor symptoms for which it is administered. We performed a systematic review of the literature on gastroparesis in PD with the aim of developing an evidence-based approach to its management. Based on this review, we conclude that while gastric emptying has been reported to be frequently delayed in PD, the existing data do not permit definitive conclusions concerning its true prevalence, relationship to the underlying disease process, relevance to PD management, or the optimal therapy of related GI symptoms. Further study of these important issues is, therefore, required.
Hart, Robert G; Pearce, Lesly A; Ravina, Bernard M; Yaltho, Toby C; Marler, John R
Treatments to slow the progression are a major unmet need in Parkinson's disease. Detailed assessment of randomized trials testing putative neuroprotective drugs was undertaken to inform the design, reporting, and interpretation of future studies. This study is a systematic review of trials testing neuroprotective drugs. Data were extracted independently by two coauthors. Fifteen completed, published trials involving 4,087 participants tested 13 different drugs in 18 double-blind comparisons with placebo. Seven comparisons involving 2,000 subjects assessed MAO-B inhibitors. The primary outcome was change in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score in eight trials and time to need for dopaminergic therapy in seven. Mean participant age was 62 years, 35% were women, the interval from diagnosis to entry averaged 11 months, and the number of participants averaged 272 (largest = 806). Follow-up averaged <16 months in all but two trials. Detailed randomization methods and success of double-blinding were reported in 20% and 13%, respectively. Based on the investigators' conclusions, six trials were interpreted as consistent with a neuroprotective effect, three as negative, and five as either confounded or not meeting criteria for futility. Neuroprotection trials have involved relatively uniform groups of participants early in the clinical disease course, with outcomes weighted heavily toward motor deterioration. Future trials should include participants with wider ranges of disease stages and assess broader neurological outcomes.
Serra, Raffaele; Andreucci, Michele; De Caridi, Giovanni; Massara, Mafalda; Mastroroberto, Pasquale; de Franciscis, Stefano
Objectives Functional chronic venous disease is an underestimated syndrome quite present in the general population. It affects up to 20% of the general population and is based on the presence of venous symptoms without instrumental evidence of anatomic and morphologic damage. The aim of this review article is to provide the reader with the most updated information on this phenomenon. Methods Medline and Scopus databases were searched without time limit using the key-word: 'Functional chronic venous disease of legs', C0s patients. We decided to include all the studies conducted about functional chronic venous disease. Randomised trials, cohort studies and reviews were contemplated in order to give a breadth of clinical data. Only publications in English were considered. We excluded all the studies with insufficient statistical analysis, possible biases and contradictions, not clear end-points, inconsistent or arbitrary conclusions. Results Of the 326 records found, after removal of 68 duplicates, 143 matched our inclusion criteria. After reading the full-text articles, 133 manuscripts were excluded. Ten full text articles were assessed for eligibility and four studies were excluded because of the following reasons: (a) no specific or important content and (b) insufficient data; the final set included six articles. Conclusions Functional chronic venous disease is a complex syndrome and further evidences are needed in order to assess the pathophysiology, the morbidity and the correct treatment of this venous dysfunction.
Rieder, Florian; Zimmermann, Ellen M; Remzi, Feza H; Sandborn, William J
The occurrence of strictures as a complication of Crohn’s disease is a significant clinical problem. No specific antifibrotic therapies are available. This systematic review comprehensively addresses the pathogenesis, epidemiology, prediction, diagnosis and therapy of this disease complication. We also provide specific recommendations for clinical practice and summarise areas that require future investigation. PMID:23626373
Background There has been growing interest regarding the impact of telemonitoring and its ability to reduce the increasing burden of chronic diseases, including chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD), on healthcare systems. A number of randomised trials have been undertaken internationally and synthesised into various systematic reviews to establish an evidence base for this model of care. This study sought to synthesise and critically evaluate this large body of evidence to inform clinicians, researchers and policy makers. Methods A systematic review of systematic reviews investigating the impact of telemonitoring interventions in the primary care management of CVD was conducted. Reviews were included if they explored primary care based telemonitoring in either CVD, heart failure or hypertension, were reported in the English language and were published between 2000 and 2013. Data was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer using a standardised form. Two assessors then rated the quality of each review using the Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ). Results Of the 13 included reviews, four focused on telemonitoring interventions in hypertension or CVD management and the remaining 9 reviews investigated telemonitoring in HF management. Seven reviews scored a five or above on the OQAQ evidencing good quality reviews. Findings suggest that telemonitoring can contribute to significant reductions in blood pressure, decreased all-cause and HF related hospitalisations, reduced all-cause mortality and improved quality of life. Telemonitoring was also demonstrated to reduce health care costs and appears acceptable to patients. Conclusion Telemonitoring has the potential to enhance primary care management of CVD by improving patient outcomes and reducing health costs. However, further research needs to explore the specific elements of telemonitoring interventions to determine the relative value of the various elements. Additionally, the ways in
Rinella, Mary E
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its subtype nonalcoholic steatohepatitis affect approximately 30% and 5%, respectively, of the US population. In patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, half of deaths are due to cardiovascular disease and malignancy, yet awareness of this remains low. Cirrhosis, the third leading cause of death in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is predicted to become the most common indication for liver transplantation. To illustrate how to identify patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at greatest risk of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis; to discuss the role and limitations of current diagnostics and liver biopsy to diagnose nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; and to provide an outline for the management of patients across the spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PubMed was queried for published articles through February 28, 2015, using the search terms NAFLD and cirrhosis, mortality, biomarkers, and treatment. A total of 88 references were selected, including 16 randomized clinical trials, 44 cohort or case-control studies, 6 population-based studies, and 7 meta-analyses. Sixty-six percent of patients older than 50 years with diabetes or obesity are thought to have nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with advanced fibrosis. Even though the ability to identify the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis subtype within those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease still requires liver biopsy, biomarkers to detect advanced fibrosis are increasingly reliable. Lifestyle modification is the foundation of treatment for patients with nonalcoholic steatosis. Available treatments with proven benefit include vitamin E, pioglitazone, and obeticholic acid; however, the effect size is modest (<50%) and none is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The association between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cardiovascular disease is clear, though causality remains to be proven in well-controlled prospective studies. The
Hazar, Narjes; Seddigh, Leila; Rampisheh, Zahra; Nojomi, Marzieh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Demonstrating the modifiable risk factors of AD can help to plan for prevention of this disease. The aim of the current review was to characterize modifiable cardiovascular risk factors of AD using existing data and determine their contribution in AD development in Iran and the world. The systematic search was done in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases from inception to May 2014 to find systematic reviews or meta-analyses about association between AD and cardiovascular modifiable risk factors included diabetes, hypertension (HTN), physical inactivity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight and obesity. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for these risk factors in Iran and the world. Of 2651 articles, 11 were eligible for data extraction after assessing relevancy and quality. Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2, smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity were significantly associated with increased risk of AD. Physical inactivity with 22.0% and smoking with 15.7% had the highest PAF for AD in Iran and the world, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that modifiable cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of AD. Moreover, about one-third of AD cases were attributed to five modifiable risk factors.
Hazar, Narjes; Seddigh, Leila; Rampisheh, Zahra; Nojomi, Marzieh
Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Demonstrating the modifiable risk factors of AD can help to plan for prevention of this disease. The aim of the current review was to characterize modifiable cardiovascular risk factors of AD using existing data and determine their contribution in AD development in Iran and the world. Methods: The systematic search was done in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases from inception to May 2014 to find systematic reviews or meta-analyses about association between AD and cardiovascular modifiable risk factors included diabetes, hypertension (HTN), physical inactivity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight and obesity. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for these risk factors in Iran and the world. Results: Of 2651 articles, 11 were eligible for data extraction after assessing relevancy and quality. Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2, smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity were significantly associated with increased risk of AD. Physical inactivity with 22.0% and smoking with 15.7% had the highest PAF for AD in Iran and the world, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that modifiable cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of AD. Moreover, about one-third of AD cases were attributed to five modifiable risk factors. PMID:27648178
Kadhum, M; Smock, E; Khan, A; Fleming, A
Radiotherapy has been advocated as an alternative treatment in early Dupuytren's disease. We have systematically reviewed the evidence on the use of radiotherapy in Dupuytren's disease. Only six articles met a minimum set standard, five of which were retrospective cohort studies and one a randomized controlled study. A total of 770 Dupuytren's hands, nearly all with Tubiana stage 0-1 disease, were irradiated with an average 30 Gy. Disease regression ranged from 0%-56%, stability from 14%-98% and progression from 2%-86%. Salvage surgery was successful in all cases of disease progression post-radiotherapy. There were no reports of adverse wound healing problems associated with such surgery or radiotherapy-associated malignancy. On balance, radiotherapy should be considered an unproven treatment for early Dupuytren's disease due to a scarce evidence base and unknown long-term adverse effects. Well-designed randomized controlled studies are required to confirm the benefits of radiotherapy treatment. II.
Chan, Roxane Raffin; Larson, Janet L
The rapidly growing body of research regarding the use of meditation interventions in chronic disease presents an opportunity to compare outcomes based on intervention content. For this review, meditation interventions were described as those interventions delivered to persons with chronic disease where sitting meditation was the main or only content of the intervention with or without the addition of mindful movement. This systematic review identified 45 individual research studies that examined meditations effect on levels of anxiety, depression, and chronic disease symptoms in persons with chronic disease. Individual studies were assessed based on interventional content, the consistency with which interventions were applied, and the research quality. This study identified seven categories of meditation interventions based on the meditation skills and mindful movement practices that were included in the intervention. Overall, half of the interventions had clearly defined and specific meditation interventions (25/45) and half of the studies were conducted using randomized control trials (24/45).
Caceres, Billy A; Brody, Abraham; Luscombe, Rachel E; Primiano, Jillian E; Marusca, Peter; Sitts, Edward M; Chyun, Deborah
Mental health and HIV disparities are well documented among sexual minorities, but there is a dearth of research on other chronic conditions. Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Although sexual minorities have high rates of several modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (including stress, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption), there is a paucity of research in this area. In this systematic review, we synthesized and critiqued the existing evidence on cardiovascular disease among sexual minority adults. We conducted a thorough literature search of 6 electronic databases for studies published between January 1985 and December 2015 that compared cardiovascular disease risk or prevalence between sexual minority and heterosexual adults. We included peer-reviewed English-language studies that compared cardiovascular disease risk or diagnoses between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals older than 18 years. We excluded reviews, case studies, and gray literature. A total of 31 studies met inclusion criteria. At least 2 authors independently abstracted data from each study. We performed quality assessment of retrieved studies using the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool. Sexual minority women exhibited greater cardiovascular disease risk related to tobacco use, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, poor mental health, and body mass index, whereas sexual minority men experienced excess risk related to tobacco use, illicit drug use, and poor mental health. We identified several limitations in the extant literature. The majority of included studies were cross-sectional analyses that used self-reported measures of cardiovascular disease. Even though we observed elevated cardiovascular disease risk, we found few differences in cardiovascular disease diagnoses (including hypertension, diabetes, and high cholesterol). Overall, 23 of the 26 studies that examined cardiovascular disease diagnoses used subjective measures. Only 7
Seely, Dugald MR; Wu, Ping; Mills, Edward J
Background Numerous practitioners of both conventional and complementary and alternative medicine throughout North America and Europe claim that chelation therapy with EDTA is an effective means to both control and treat cardiovascular disease. These claims are controversial, and several randomized controlled trials have been completed dealing with this topic. To address this issue we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the best available evidence for the use of EDTA chelation therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 7 databases from inception to May 2005. Hand searches were conducted in review articles and in any of the trials found. Experts in the field were contacted and registries of clinical trials were searched for unpublished data. To be included in the final systematic review, the studies had to be randomized controlled clinical trials. Results A total of seven articles were found assessing EDTA chelation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Two of these articles were subgroup analyses of one RCT that looked at different clinical outcomes. Of the remaining five studies, two smaller studies found a beneficial effect whereas the other three exhibited no benefit for cardiovascular disease from the use of EDTA chelation therapy. Adverse effects were rare but those of note included a few cases of hypocalcemia and a single case of increased creatinine in a patient on the EDTA intervention. Conclusion The best available evidence does not support the therapeutic use of EDTA chelation therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Although not considered to be a highly invasive or harmful therapy, it is possible that the use of EDTA chelation therapy in lieu of proven therapy may result in causing indirect harm to the patient. PMID:16262904
Conners, Erin E; Vinetz, Joseph M; Weeks, John R; Brouwer, Kimberly C
Human migration has been identified as a potential factor for increased Chagas disease risk and has transformed the disease from a Latin American problem to a global one. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature between 2004-2014 in order to: summarize recent seroprevalence estimates of Chagas disease among Latin American migrants, in both endemic and non-endemic settings; compare seroprevalence estimates in migrants to countrywide prevalence estimates; and identify risk factors for Chagas disease among migrants. A total of 320 studies were screened and 23 studies were included. We found evidence that the prevalence of Chagas disease is higher than expected in some migrant groups and that reliance on blood donor screening prevalence estimates underestimates the burden of disease. Overall there is a dearth of high quality epidemiologic studies on the prevalence of Chagas disease in migrants, especially among intra-regional migrants within Latin America. Given that this zoonotic disease cannot likely be eradicated, improved surveillance and reporting is vital to continuing control efforts. More accurate health surveillance of both Latin American migrants and the Chagas disease burden will help countries appropriately scale up their response to this chronic disease. Overall, improved estimates of Chagas disease among migrants would likely serve to highlight the real need for better screening, diagnostics, and treatment of individuals living with the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nascimento, Elisabete Rodrigues; Maia, Ana Claudia Ornelas; Pereira, Valeska; Soares-Filho, Gastão; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso
The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular diseases. An article search of the ISI Web of Science and PubMed databases using the search terms "sexual dysfunction", "cardiovascular diseases", "coronary artery disease", "myocardial infarct" and "prevalence" was performed. In total, 893 references were found. Non-English-language and repeated references were excluded. After an abstract analysis, 91 references were included for full-text reading, and 24 articles that evaluated sexual function using validated instruments were selected for this review. This research was conducted in October 2012, and no time restrictions were placed on any of the database searches. Reviews and theoretical articles were excluded; only clinical trials and epidemiological studies were selected for this review. The studies were mostly cross-sectional, observational and case-control in nature; other studies used prospective cohort or randomized clinical designs. In women, all domains of sexual function (desire, arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, sexual dissatisfaction and pain) were affected. The domains prevalent in men included erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation and orgasm. Sexual dysfunction was related to the severity of cardiovascular disease. When they resumed sexual activity, patients with heart disease reported significant difficulty, including a lack of interest in sex, sexual dissatisfaction and a decrease in the frequency of sexual activity.
Lahner, Edith; Bellisario, Cristina; Hassan, Cesare; Zullo, Angelo; Esposito, Gianluca; Annibale, Bruno
Diverticular disease is a common gastrointestinal condition. Low-grade inflammation and altered intestinal microbiota have been identified as factors contributing to abdominal symptoms. Probiotics may lead to symptoms improvement by modifying the gut microbiota and are promising treatments for diverticular disease. The aim of this study was to systematically review the efficacy of probiotics in diverticular disease in terms of remission of abdominal symptoms and prevention of acute diverticulitis. According to PRISMA, we identified studies on diverticular disease patients treated with probiotics (Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane). The quality of these studies was evaluated by the Jadad scale. Main outcomes measures were remission of abdominal symptoms and prevention of acute diverticulitis. 11 studies (2 double-blind randomized placebo-controlled, 5 open randomized, 4 non-randomized open studies) were eligible. Overall, diverticular disease patients were 764 (55.1% females, age 58-75 years). Three studies included patients with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease, 4 studies with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease in remission, 4 studies with complicated or acute diverticulitis. Mainly (72.7%) single probiotic strains had been used, most frequently Lactobacilli. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 24 months. Interventions were variable: in 8 studies the probiotic was administered together with antibiotic or anti-inflammatory agents and compared with the efficacy of the drug alone; in 3 studies the probiotic was compared with a high-fibre diet or used together with phytoextracts. As an outcome measure, 4 studies evaluated the occurrence rate of acute diverticulitis, 6 studies the reduction of abdominal symptoms, and 6 studies the recurrence of abdominal symptoms. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of probiotics in diverticular disease could not be performed due to the poor quality of retrieved studies. This systematic review showed that high-quality data on the
Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Moghbeli, Fateme
Naive Bayesian networks (NBNs) are one of the most effective and simplest Bayesian networks for prediction. This paper aims to review published evidence about the application of NBNs in predicting disease and it tries to show NBNs as the fundamental algorithm for the best performance in comparison with other algorithms. PubMed was electronically checked for articles published between 2005 and 2015. For characterizing eligible articles, a comprehensive electronic searching method was conducted. Inclusion criteria were determined based on NBN and its effects on disease prediction. A total of 99 articles were found. After excluding the duplicates (n= 5), the titles and abstracts of 94 articles were skimmed according to the inclusion criteria. Finally, 38 articles remained. They were reviewed in full text and 15 articles were excluded. Eventually, 23 articles were selected which met our eligibility criteria and were included in this study. In this article, the use of NBN in predicting diseases was described. Finally, the results were reported in terms of Accuracy, Sensitivity, Specificity and Area under ROC curve (AUC). The last column in Table 2 shows the differences between NBNs and other algorithms. This systematic review (23 studies, 53,725 patients) indicates that predicting diseases based on a NBN had the best performance in most diseases in comparison with the other algorithms. Finally in most cases NBN works better than other algorithms based on the reported accuracy. The method, termed NBNs is proposed and can efficiently construct a prediction model for disease.
Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Moghbeli, Fateme
Introduction: Naive Bayesian networks (NBNs) are one of the most effective and simplest Bayesian networks for prediction. Objective: This paper aims to review published evidence about the application of NBNs in predicting disease and it tries to show NBNs as the fundamental algorithm for the best performance in comparison with other algorithms. Methods: PubMed was electronically checked for articles published between 2005 and 2015. For characterizing eligible articles, a comprehensive electronic searching method was conducted. Inclusion criteria were determined based on NBN and its effects on disease prediction. A total of 99 articles were found. After excluding the duplicates (n= 5), the titles and abstracts of 94 articles were skimmed according to the inclusion criteria. Finally, 38 articles remained. They were reviewed in full text and 15 articles were excluded. Eventually, 23 articles were selected which met our eligibility criteria and were included in this study. Result: In this article, the use of NBN in predicting diseases was described. Finally, the results were reported in terms of Accuracy, Sensitivity, Specificity and Area under ROC curve (AUC). The last column in Table 2 shows the differences between NBNs and other algorithms. Discussion: This systematic review (23 studies, 53,725 patients) indicates that predicting diseases based on a NBN had the best performance in most diseases in comparison with the other algorithms. Finally in most cases NBN works better than other algorithms based on the reported accuracy. Conclusion: The method, termed NBNs is proposed and can efficiently construct a prediction model for disease. PMID:28077895
Block, Valerie A. J.; Pitsch, Erica; Tahir, Peggy; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Allen, Diane D.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.
Objective To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. Methods Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined. Results 137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS) (61 studies); stroke (41); Parkinson's Disease (PD) (20); dementia (11); traumatic brain injury (2) and ataxia (1). Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering. Conclusions These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability. PMID:27124611
Milner, Kerry A
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review in which authors systematically search for, critically appraise, and synthesize evidence from several studies on the same topic (Grant & Booth, 2009). The precise and systematic method differentiates systematic reviews from traditional reviews (Khan, Kunz, Kleijnen, & Antes, 2003). In all types of systematic reviews, a quality assessment is done of the individual studies that meet inclusion criteria. These individual assessments are synthesized, and aggregated results are reported. Systematic reviews are considered the highest level of evidence in evidence-based health care because the reviewers strive to use transparent, rigorous methods that minimize bias.
Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Jones, Miranda R; Dominguez-Lucas, Alejandro; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas-Acien, Ana
Mounting evidence supports that cadmium, a toxic metal found in tobacco, air and food, is a cardiovascular risk factor. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease. Twelve studies were identified. Overall, the pooled relative risks (95% confidence interval) for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were: 1.36 (95%CI: 1.11, 1.66), 1.30 (95%CI: 1.12, 1.52), 1.18 (95%CI: 0.86, 1.59), and 1.49 (95%CI: 1.15, 1.92), respectively. The pooled relative risks for cardiovascular disease in men, women and never smokers were 1.29 (1.12, 1.48), 1.20 (0.92, 1.56) and 1.27 (0.97, 1.67), respectively. Together with experimental evidence, our review supports the association between cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease, especially for coronary heart disease. The number of studies with stroke, HF and PAD endpoints was small. More studies, especially studies evaluating incident endpoints, are needed. PMID:23955722
Moon, Katherine; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas–Acien, Ana
In epidemiologic studies, high-chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with cardiovascular disease, despite methodological limitations. At low-moderate arsenic levels, the evidence was inconclusive. Here, we update a previous systematic review (Am J Epidemiol 2005;162: 1037–49) examining the association between arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease. Eighteen studies published since 2005 were combined with 13 studies from the previous review. We calculated pooled relative risks by comparing the highest versus the lowest exposure category across studies. For high exposure (arsenic in drinking water > 50 μg/L), the pooled relative risks (95 % confidence interval) for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were 1.32 (95 % CI: 1.05–1.67), 1.89 (95 % CI: 1.33–2.69), 1.08 (95 % CI: 0.98–1.19), and 2.17 (95 % CI: 1.47–3.20), respectively. At low-moderate arsenic levels, the evidence was inconclusive. Our review strengthens the evidence for a causal association between high-chronic arsenic exposure and clinical cardiovascular endpoints. Additional high quality studies are needed at low-moderate arsenic levels. PMID:22968315
Mahid, Suhal S; Mulhall, Aaron M; Gholson, Ryan D; Eichenberger, M Robert; Galandiuk, Susan
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is comprised of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). There are conflicting reports on whether African Americans have a more severe disease course, presentation, and more frequent extraintestinal manifestations (EIM). We examined the precise nature of this relationship by conducting a systematic review. Using predefined inclusion criteria we searched multiple healthcare databases and Grey literature. Eight reports met the inclusion criteria. Using the parameters as defined in the Montreal classification and the presence or absence of EIM, we compared IBD in African Americans and Caucasians. Over 2000 IBD cases were pooled from 8 reports with African Americans comprising 17%. African Americans and Caucasians had similar distribution of types of IBD, with CD being more common than UC in both groups (CD 76% versus 68% and UC 24% versus 32%, respectively). With respect to CD, both groups presented with nonstricturing and nonpenetrating disease behavior (55% versus 41%) more frequently and had similar rates of ileocolonic disease location (42% versus 38%), and presence of perianal disease (26% versus 29%). In UC patients, proctitis was the most frequent initial presentation in both races. Joint complications were the most frequent EIM in both African Americans (52%) and Caucasians (60%). This study dispels the commonly held views that African Americans with IBD generally have more colonic disease, more severe disease behavior, and more perianal disease than Caucasians. African Americans also have similar variety and frequency of EIMs as compared to Caucasians.
Kaltsatou, Antonia; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Sakkas, Giorgos K.
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience imbalance between oxygen reactive species (ROS) production and antioxidant defenses leading to cell and tissue damage. However, it remains unclear at which stage of renal insufficiency the redox imbalance becomes more profound. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an update on recent advances in our understanding of how the redox status changes in the progression of renal disease from predialysis stages 1 to 4 to end stage 5 and whether the various treatments and dialysis modalities influence the redox balance. A systematic review was conducted searching PubMed and Scopus by using the Cochrane and PRISMA guidelines. In total, thirty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Even from an early stage, imbalance in redox status is evident and as the kidney function worsens it becomes more profound. Hemodialysis therapy per se seems to negatively influence the redox status by the elevation of lipid peroxidation markers, protein carbonylation, and impairing erythrocyte antioxidant defense. However, other dialysis modalities do not so far appear to confer advantages. Supplementation with antioxidants might assist and should be considered as an early intervention to halt premature atherogenesis development at an early stage of CKD. PMID:27563376
Tiseo, Bruno Camargo; Cocuzza, Marcello; Bonfá, Eloisa; Srougi, Miguel; Clovis, A
ABSTRACT Background Improved targeted therapies for rheumatic diseases were developed recently resulting in a better prognosis for affected patients. Nowadays, patients are living longer and with improved quality of life, including fertility potential. These patients are affected by impaired reproductive function and the causes are often multifactorial related to particularities of each disease. This review highlights how rheumatic diseases and their management affect testicular function and male fertility. Materials and Methods A systematic review of literature of all published data after 1970 was conducted. Data was collected about fertility abnormalities in male patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis, ankylosing spondylitis, Behçet disease and gout. Two independent researchers carried out the search in online databases. Results A total of 19 articles were included addressing the following diseases: 7 systemic lupus erythematosus, 6 Behçet disease, 4 ankylosing spondylitis, 2 rheumatoid arthritis, 2 dermatomyositis and one gout. Systemic lupus erythematosus clearly affects gonadal function impairing spermatogenesis mainly due to antisperm antibodies and cyclophosphamide therapy. Behçet disease, gout and ankylosing spondylitis patients, including those under anti-TNF therapy in the latter disease, do not seem to have reduced fertility whereas in dermatomyositis, the fertility potential is hampered by disease activity and by alkylating agents. Data regarding rheumatoid arthritis is scarce, gonadal dysfunction observed as consequence of disease activity and antisperm antibodies. Conclusions Reduced fertility potential is not uncommon. Its frequency and severity vary among the different rheumatic diseases. Permanent infertility is rare and often associated with alkylating agent therapy. PMID:27120778
Zheng, Laura; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Agnew, Jackie; Weaver, Virginia M.; Navas-Acien, Ana
In epidemiologic studies, high arsenic exposure has been associated with adverse kidney disease outcomes. We performed a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence of the association between arsenic and various kidney disease outcomes. The search period was January 1966 through January 2014. Twenty-five papers (comprising 24 studies) meeting the search criteria were identified and included in this review. In most studies, arsenic exposure was assessed by measurement of urine concentrations or with an ecological indicator. There was a generally positive association between arsenic and albuminuria and proteinuria outcomes. There was mixed evidence of an association between arsenic exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD), β-2 microglobulin (β2MG), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) outcomes. There was evidence of a positive association between arsenic exposure and kidney disease mortality. Assessment of a small number of studies with three or more categories showed a clear dose-response association between arsenic and prevalent albuminuria and proteinuria, but not with CKD outcomes. Eight studies lacked adjustment for possible confounders, and two had small study populations. The evaluation of the causality of the association between arsenic exposure and kidney disease outcomes is limited by the small number of studies, lack of study quality, and limited prospective evidence. Because of the high prevalence of arsenic exposure worldwide, there is a need for additional well-designed epidemiologic and mechanistic studies of arsenic and kidney disease outcomes. PMID:25221743
Trump, Lisa J; Mendenhall, Tai J
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for both men and women. Its potential ramifications on all aspects of life, for patients and partners, are just beginning to be understood. Although research has focused on the individual who has received the diagnosis, relatively little is known about how couples manage CVD. This article presents a systematic review of literature that focuses on how couples cope with one partner's CVD diagnosis. A systematic review is warranted to orient practitioners, policy makers, and researchers to the state of existing knowledge and its gaps and to identify what still needs to be done. Method: Data were extracted from 25 peer-reviewed articles that met our inclusion criteria. Content examined included theory integration, coping constructs and instruments, samples, analyses, and findings. Results: Most articles successfully integrated theory in the studies' respective conceptualizations and designs. Most used valid and reliable instruments to measure coping. Principal limitations included problematic sampling strategies and analysis techniques, thereby limiting external validity. Discussion: Principal implications of this review's findings relate to our fields' need to provide more care focused on dyads (vs. individual patients), adopt an integrated model in health care, and conduct systemic, longitudinal research to gain a better grasp on how coping changes over time. Doing so will serve to better equip providers in the support of patients and partners living with CVD. (PsycINFO Database Record
Andersen, A D; Binzer, M; Stenager, E; Gramsbergen, J B
Diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) relies on clinical history and physical examination, but misdiagnosis is common in early stages. Identification of biomarkers for PD may allow early and more precise diagnosis and monitoring of dopamine replacement strategies and disease modifying treatments. Developments in analytical chemistry allow the detection of large numbers of molecules in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid, associated with the pathophysiology or pathogenesis of PD. This systematic review includes cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies focusing on different disease pathways: oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, lysosomal dysfunction and proteins involved in PD and other neurodegenerative disorders, focusing on four clinical domains: their ability to (1) distinguish PD from healthy subjects and other neurodegenerative disorders as well as their relation to (2) disease duration after initial diagnosis, (3) severity of disease (motor symptoms) and (4) cognitive dysfunction. Oligomeric alpha-synuclein might be helpful in the separation of PD from controls. Through metabolomics, changes in purine and tryptophan metabolism have been discovered in patients with PD. Neurofilament light chain (NfL) has a significant role in distinguishing PD from other neurodegenerative diseases. Several oxidative stress markers are related to disease severity, with the antioxidant urate also having a prognostic value in terms of disease severity. Increased levels of amyloid and tau-proteins correlate with cognitive decline and may have prognostic value for cognitive deficits in PD. In the future, larger longitudinal studies, corroborating previous research on viable biomarker candidates or using metabolomics identifying a vast amount of potential biomarkers, could be a good approach.
Römkens, Tessa EH; Bulte, Geert J; Nissen, Loes HC; Drenth, Joost PH
AIM: To identify definitions of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and intestinal disease, in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), to determine the prevalence associated with these definitions. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and interrogated PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane for literature on prevalence and diagnostics of CMV infection and intestinal disease in IBD patients. As medical headings we used “cytomegalovirus” OR “CMV” OR “cytomegalo virus” AND “inflammatory bowel disease” OR “IBD” OR “ulcerative colitis” OR “colitis ulcerosa” OR “Crohn’s disease”. Both MeSH-terms and free searches were performed. We included all types of English-language (clinical) trials concerning diagnostics and prevalence of CMV in IBD. RESULTS: The search strategy identified 924 citations, and 52 articles were eligible for inclusion. We identified 21 different definitions for CMV infection, 8 definitions for CMV intestinal disease and 3 definitions for CMV reactivation. Prevalence numbers depend on used definition, studied population and region. The highest prevalence for CMV infection was found when using positive serum PCR as a definition, whereas for CMV intestinal disease this applies to the use of tissue PCR > 10 copies/mg tissue. Most patients with CMV infection and intestinal disease had steroid refractory disease and came from East Asia. CONCLUSION: We detected multiple different definitions used for CMV infection and intestinal disease in IBD patients, which has an effect on prevalence numbers and eventually on outcome in different trials. PMID:26811669
Blicher, B; Joshipura, K; Eke, P
Self-report is an efficient and accepted means of assessing many population characteristics, risk factors, and diseases, but has rarely been used for periodontal disease (chronic periodontitis). The availability of valid self-reported measures of periodontal disease would facilitate epidemiologic studies on a much larger scale, allow for integration of new studies of periodontal disease within large ongoing studies, and facilitate lower-cost population surveillance of periodontitis. Several studies have been conducted to validate self-reported measures for periodontal disease, but results have been inconsistent. In this report, we conducted a systematic review of the validation studies. We reviewed the 16 studies that assessed the validity of self-reported periodontal and gingivitis measures against clinical gold standards. Seven of the studies included self-reported measures specific to gingivitis, four included measures only for periodontitis, and five included both gingivitis and periodontal measures. Three of the studies used a self-assessment method where they provided the patient with a detailed manual for performing a self-exam. The remaining 13 studies asked participants to self-report symptoms, presence of periodontal disease itself, or their recollection of a dental health professional diagnosing them or providing treatment for periodontal disease. The review indicates that some measures showed promise, but results varied across populations and self-reported measures. One example of a good measure is, "Has any dentist/hygienist told you that you have deep pockets?", which had a sensitivity of 55%, a specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 77%, and negative predictive value of 75% against clinical pocket depth. Higher validity could be potentially obtained by the use of combinations of several self-reported questions and other predictors of periodontal disease.
Grønkjær, Lea Ladegaard
Studies suggest that periodontal disease, a source of subclinical and persistent infection, may be associated with various systemic conditions, including liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to examine the literature and determine the relationship between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis and to identify opportunities and directions for future research in this area. A systematic review of English articles in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases was conducted using search terms including 'liver cirrhosis', 'end-stage liver disease', 'liver diseases', 'oral health', 'periodontal disease', 'mouth disease', 'gingivitis', and 'periodontitis'. Thirteen studies published between 1981 and 2014 were found to include data on oral health and periodontal disease in cirrhotic patients. Studies indicated an increased incidence of periodontal disease in patients with liver cirrhosis, measured with several different periodontal indices. The reported prevalence of periodontal disease in cirrhosis patients ranged from 25.0% to 68.75% in four studies and apical periodontitis was found in 49%-79% of the patients. One study found that mortality was lower among patients who underwent dental treatment versus non-treated patients. Another study suggested an association between periodontal disease and the progression of liver cirrhosis, but data are sparse and conflicting as to whether periodontal disease is correlated to cirrhosis aetiology and severity. Despite the clinical reality of periodontal disease in liver cirrhosis patients, there are few published studies. Before clinical implications can be addressed, more data on the prevalence of and correlation between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis aetiology, duration, and progression are needed.
Arah, Onyebuchi A.
We reviewed the use of agent-based modeling (ABM), a systems science method, in understanding noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and their public health risk factors. We systematically reviewed studies in PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Sciences published from January 2003 to July 2014. We retrieved 22 relevant articles; each had an observational or interventional design. Physical activity and diet were the most-studied outcomes. Often, single agent types were modeled, and the environment was usually irrelevant to the studied outcome. Predictive validation and sensitivity analyses were most used to validate models. Although increasingly used to study NCDs, ABM remains underutilized and, where used, is suboptimally reported in public health studies. Its use in studying NCDs will benefit from clarified best practices and improved rigor to establish its usefulness and facilitate replication, interpretation, and application. PMID:25602871
Nianogo, Roch A; Arah, Onyebuchi A
We reviewed the use of agent-based modeling (ABM), a systems science method, in understanding noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and their public health risk factors. We systematically reviewed studies in PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Sciences published from January 2003 to July 2014. We retrieved 22 relevant articles; each had an observational or interventional design. Physical activity and diet were the most-studied outcomes. Often, single agent types were modeled, and the environment was usually irrelevant to the studied outcome. Predictive validation and sensitivity analyses were most used to validate models. Although increasingly used to study NCDs, ABM remains underutilized and, where used, is suboptimally reported in public health studies. Its use in studying NCDs will benefit from clarified best practices and improved rigor to establish its usefulness and facilitate replication, interpretation, and application.
Ferreira, Cátia; Providência, Rui; Ferreira, Maria João; Gonçalves, Lino Manuel
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis, increasing the risk of stroke and death. Although traditionally associated with cardiovascular diseases, there is increasing evidence of high incidence of AF in patients with highly prevalent noncardiovascular diseases, such as cancer, sepsis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, considerable number of patients has been affected by these comorbidities, leading to an increased risk of adverse outcomes. The authors performed a systematic review of the literature aiming to better elucidate the interaction between these conditions. Several mechanisms seem to contribute to the concomitant presence of AF and noncardiovascular diseases. Comorbidities, advanced age, autonomic dysfunction, electrolyte disturbance and inflammation are common to these conditions and may predispose to AF. The treatment of AF in these patients represents a clinical challenge, especially in terms of antithrombotic therapy, since the scores for stratification of thromboembolic risk, such as the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores, and the scores for hemorrhagic risk, like the HAS-BLED score have limitations when applied in these conditions. The evidence in this area is still scarce and further investigations to elucidate aspects like epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of AF in noncardiovascular diseases are still needed. PMID:26577719
Bonfill, X; Martí, J
Theoretically, doctors update their knowledge from the scientific literature, and bibliographic databases have made it possible to overcome many of the limitations with this information, but not all of them. When faced with a therapeutic issue, the practice of evidence based medicine requires the efficient access to information derived from controlled clinical trials (CCT). Reviews of the scientific literature are of increasing importance. The Cochrane Collaboration is dedicated to preparing, maintaining and disseminating updated, systematic reviews of CCTs of health care interventions, which are published in the Cochrane Library. To describe the Cochrane Collaboration and to locate, with the greatest exhaustiveness possible, CCTs published in the journals "Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica", describe their characteristics and include them in a global database of clinical trials maintained by the Cochrane Collaboration. The CCTs were identified by systematic manual searches of all issues of the journal. A descriptive analysis of the CCTs located was made. A total of 24 CCTs were published in 15 years (1.6 per year), 10 were original articles and 14 were communications at congresses. All were done in Spain and the majority were done in hospitals. The most frequently researched question was antibiotic prophylaxis and all evaluated pharmaceutical interventions. The majority of the CCTs published had important information missing (phase of study, randomization, blinding, etc.). The identification of CCTs is a prerequisite for the development of systematic reviews. There were few clinical trials published in the 15 years of publication of this journal, and the most common characteristic is, clearly, the absence of basic data. The most common is a lack of on the phase of the clinical trial, the follow-up period, and funding sources. The idea of what experimental clinical investigation in infectious diseases is in our country needs to include the
Cicchitti, Luca; Martelli, Marta; Cerritelli, Francesco
Background Chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) are globally highly prevalent and characterized by severe pathological medical conditions. Several trials were conducted aiming at measuring the effects of manipulative therapies on patients affected by CID. The purpose of this review was to explore the extent to which osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) can be benefi-cial in medical conditions also classified as CID. Methods This review included any type of experimental study which enrolled sub-jects with CID comparing OMT with any type of control procedure. The search was conducted on eight databases in January 2014 using a pragmatic literature search approach. Two independent re-viewers conducted study selection and data extraction for each study. The risk of bias was evaluated according to the Cochrane methods. Heterogeneity was assessed and meta-analysis performed where possible. Results 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review enrolling 386 subjects. The search identified six RCTs, one laboratory study, one cross-over pilot studies, one observation-al study and one case control pilot study. Results suggest a potential effect of osteopathic medicine on patients with medical pathologies associated with CID (in particular Chronic Obstructive Pul-monary Disease (COPD), Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Asthma and Peripheral Arterial Disease) com-pared to no treatment or sham therapy although data remain elusive. Moreover one study showed possible effects on arthritis rat model. Meta-analysis was performed for COPD studies only show-ing no effect of any type of OMT applied versus control. No major side effects were reported by those receiving OMT. Conclusion The present systematic review showed inconsistent data on the effect of OMT in the treatment of medical conditions potentially associated with CID, however the OMT appears to be a safe approach. Further more robust trials are needed to determine the direction and magnitude of the effect of OMT and to
Monjardino, Teresa; Lucas, Raquel; Barros, Henrique
To describe the frequency of rheumatic diseases in Portugal through a systematic review of published literature, critically appraising available information and identifying data collection gaps. We systematically reviewed the literature to retrieve data on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases in Portugal through MEDLINE and Índex das Revistas Médicas Portuguesas searches, PhD theses, and national health surveys reports. Original articles in English or Portuguese published between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010 were included. We retrieved information for the prevalence of rheumatic diseases, osteoarthritis, back pain, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs), osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis and other systemic rheumatic diseases and for the incidence of back pain, osteoporotic fracture and other systemic rheumatic diseases. The prevalence of rheumatic diseases ranged from 16.0% to 24.0% and the prevalence of osteoarthritis was 11.1% (95% confidence intervals (95%CI): 9.4-13.1) in the knee and 5.5% (95%CI: 4.3-7.0) in the hip. Regarding back pain, period prevalence ranged from 8.0% (95%CI: 6.1-10.1) to 29.5% (95%CI: 23.4-36.2) in children and from 12.3% (95%CI: 10.5-14.3) to 51.3% (95%CI: 48.6-53.9) in adults. The prevalence of WRMDs ranged from 5.9% to 84.2% (95%CI: 80.8-87.3). The yearly incidence of osteoporotic fracture (per 100 000) ranged from 93.3 to 481 (95%CI: 407-564) in women and from 31.9 to 154 (95%CI: 106-218) in men. The prevalence of osteoporosis in women ranged from 11.0% to 15.4% (95%CI: 13.4-17.6) and in men from 1.1% to 16.8% (95%CI: 12.2-22.3). The prevalence of fibromyalgia ranged from 3.6% (95%CI: 2.0-5.2) to 3.7% (95%CI: 2.0-5.4). The prevalence estimates of ankylosing spondylitis and of spondyloarthritis were 0.6% and 1.6% (95%CI: 0.8-2.7), respectively. The prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus was estimated in 0.2% (95%CI: 0.1-0.8). There is a broad spectrum of information available
Objectives: Studies suggest that periodontal disease, a source of subclinical and persistent infection, may be associated with various systemic conditions, including liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to examine the literature and determine the relationship between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis and to identify opportunities and directions for future research in this area. Methods: A systematic review of English articles in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases was conducted using search terms including ‘liver cirrhosis’, ‘end-stage liver disease’, ‘liver diseases’, ‘oral health’, ‘periodontal disease’, ‘mouth disease’, ‘gingivitis’, and ‘periodontitis’. Results: Thirteen studies published between 1981 and 2014 were found to include data on oral health and periodontal disease in cirrhotic patients. Studies indicated an increased incidence of periodontal disease in patients with liver cirrhosis, measured with several different periodontal indices. The reported prevalence of periodontal disease in cirrhosis patients ranged from 25.0% to 68.75% in four studies and apical periodontitis was found in 49%–79% of the patients. One study found that mortality was lower among patients who underwent dental treatment versus non-treated patients. Another study suggested an association between periodontal disease and the progression of liver cirrhosis, but data are sparse and conflicting as to whether periodontal disease is correlated to cirrhosis aetiology and severity. Conclusion: Despite the clinical reality of periodontal disease in liver cirrhosis patients, there are few published studies. Before clinical implications can be addressed, more data on the prevalence of and correlation between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis aetiology, duration, and progression are needed. PMID:26770799
Assogna, Francesca; Cravello, Luca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco
Anhedonia, defined as lowered ability to experience physical or social pleasure, is a key symptom of several psychiatric illnesses. In this systematic review, we aimed to evaluate the role of anhedonia in Parkinson's Disease and its relationships with other clinical characteristics, dopamine dysfunction, and antiparkinsonian therapy. The database was selected using PubMed Services. Relevant journals were hand-searched, and the bibliographies of all the important articles were scrutinized to find additional publications. Fifteen studies assessed the topic of anhedonia in Parkinson's disease from 1984 to 2009 and mainly described it as a core symptom of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease. Some studies investigated the relationship between anhedonia and neuropsychological symptoms and found correlations with frontal lobe functions. Reports on the relationship between anhedonia and illness severity or motor symptoms are rather inconclusive. No definitive conclusions can be drawn because few studies have been published on this topic. Nevertheless, some evidence suggests that in Parkinson's disease anhedonia is a secondary phenomenon linked to depression, apathy severity, and frontal lobe dysregulation and that it could respond to antiparkinsonian treatment. Future studies of larger samples of patients are strongly required to definitively clarify the relationship between anhedonia and other clinical features, such as depression, anxiety, apathy, cognition, and motor status. Furthermore, more reliable tools and validated diagnostic criteria are necessary to assess anhedonia in patients with Parkinson's disease.
Wallace, Taylor C.; Slavin, Margaret; Frankenfeld, Cara L.
Anthocyanins are dietary flavonoids commonly consumed in the diet, which have been suggested to have a preventative effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) development among epidemiological studies. We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing the effects of purified anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts on markers of CVD (triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and blood pressure) in both healthy and diseased populations. Eligible studies included RCTs of adults published in English. We searched PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, and BIOSIS Previews for relevant articles from inception until 1 July 2014. Twelve RCTs representing 10 studies were included in this review. Supplementation with anthocyanins significantly improved LDL cholesterol among diseased individuals or those with elevated biomarkers. Supplementation did not significantly affect other markers of CVD in either healthy individuals or those with elevated markers. No adverse effects of anthocyanins were reported across studies at levels up to 640 mg/day. Limitations of trials in the qualitative analyses include short trial duration and large variability in the dose administered within the trials. Longer-duration trials assessing dose response are needed to adequately determine whether an effect of supplementation exists. PMID:26761031
Glotzbecker, Michael P; Bono, Christopher M; Wood, Kirkham B; Harris, Mitchell B
Systematic review of the literature and analysis of pooled data. To better understand the incidence of thromboembolic disease in postoperative spinal patients, and to establish a starting point for defining appropriate postoperative prophylaxis protocols. The risk of thromboembolic disease is well studied for some orthopedic procedures. However, the incidence of postoperative thromboembolic disease is less well-defined in patients who have had spinal surgery. The MEDLINE database was queried using the search terms deep venous thrombosis or DVT, pulmonary embolus, thromboembolic disease, and spinal or spine surgery. Abstracts of all identified articles were reviewed. Detailed information from eligible articles was extracted. Data were compiled and analyzed by simple summation methods when possible to stratify rates of DVT and/or pulmonary embolus for a given prophylaxis protocol, screening method, and type of spinal surgery. Twenty-five articles were eligible for full review. DVT risk ranged from 0.3% to 31%, varying between patient populations and methods of surveillance. Pooling data from the 25 studies, the overall rate of DVT was 2.1%. DVT rate was influenced by prophylaxis method: no prophylaxis, 2.7%; compression stockings (CS), 2.7%; pneumatic sequential compression device (PSCD), 4.6%; PSCD and CS, 1.3%; chemical anticoagulants, 0.6%; and inferior vena cava filters with/without another method of prophylaxis, 22%. DVT rate was also influenced by the method of diagnosis, ranging from 1% to 12.3%. As risk of DVT after routine elective spinal surgery is fairly low, it seems reasonable to use CS with PSCD as a primary method of prophylaxis. There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of chemical anticoagulants in routine elective spinal surgery. In addition, there is insufficient evidence to suggest that screening patients undergoing elective spinal surgery with ultrasound or venogram is routinely warranted.
Met, Rosemarie Lienden, Krijn P. Van; Koelemay, Mark J. W.; Bipat, Shandra; Legemate, Dink A.; Reekers, Jim A.
The objective of this study was to summarize outcomes of subintimal angioplasty (SA) for peripheral arterial occlusive disease. The Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase databases were searched to perform a systematic review of the literature from 1966 through May 2007 on outcomes of SA for peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the infrainguinal vessels. The keywords 'percutaneous intentional extraluminal revascularization,' 'subintimal angioplasty,' 'peripheral arterial disease,' 'femoral artery,' 'popliteal artery,' and 'tibial artery' were used. Assessment of study quality was done using a form based on a checklist of the Dutch Cochrane Centre. The recorded outcomes were technical and clinical success, primary (assisted) patency, limb salvage, complications, and survival, in relation to the clinical grade of disease (intermittent claudication or critical limb ischemia [CLI] or mixed) and location of lesion (femoropopliteal, crural, or mixed). Twenty-three cohort studies including a total of 1549 patients (range, 27 to 148) were included in this review. Methodological and reporting quality were moderate, e.g., there was selection bias and reporting was not done according to the reporting standards. These and significant clinical heterogeneity obstructed a meta-analysis. Reports about length of the lesion and TASC classification were too various to summarize or were not mentioned at all. The technical success rates varied between 80% and 90%, with lower rates for crural lesions compared with femoral lesions. Complication rates ranged between 8% and 17% and most complications were minor. After 1 year, clinical success was between 50% and 70%, primary patency was around 50% and limb salvage varied from 80% to 90%. In conclusion, taking into account the methodological shortcomings of the included studies, SA can play an important role in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease, especially in the case of critical limb ischemia. Despite the moderate patency
Runge-Ranzinger, S; McCall, P J; Kroeger, A; Horstick, O
Objectives To review the evidence for the application of tools for dengue outbreak prediction/detection and trend monitoring in passive and active disease surveillance systems in order to develop recommendations for endemic countries and identify important research needs. Methods This systematic literature review followed the protocol of a review from 2008, extending the systematic search from January 2007 to February 2013 on PubMed, EMBASE, CDSR, WHOLIS and Lilacs. Data reporting followed the PRISMA statement. The eligibility criteria comprised (i) population at risk of dengue, (ii) dengue disease surveillance, (iii) outcome of surveillance described and (iv) empirical data evaluated. The analysis classified studies based on the purpose of the surveillance programme. The main limitation of the review was expected publication bias. Results A total of 1116 papers were identified of which 36 articles were included in the review. Four cohort-based prospective studies calculated expansion factors demonstrating remarkable levels of underreporting in the surveillance systems. Several studies demonstrated that enhancement methods such as laboratory support, sentinel-based reporting and staff motivation contributed to improvements in dengue reporting. Additional improvements for passive surveillance systems are possible by incorporating simple data forms/entry/electronic-based reporting; defining clear system objectives; performing data analysis at the lowest possible level (e.g. district); seeking regular data feedback. Six studies showed that serotype changes were positively correlated with the number of reported cases or with dengue incidence, with lag times of up to 6 months. Three studies found that data on internet searches and event-based surveillance correlated well with the epidemic curve derived from surveillance data. Conclusions Passive surveillance providing the baseline for outbreak alert should be strengthened and appropriate threshold levels for outbreak
Guillot, Xavier; Tordi, Nicolas; Mourot, Laurent; Demougeot, Céline; Dugué, Benoît; Prati, Clément; Wendling, Daniel
The aim of this article was to review current evidence about cryotherapy in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (therapeutic and biological effects). For therapeutic effects, we performed a systematic review (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, LILACS databases, unpublished data) and selected studies including non-operated and non-infected arthritic patients treated with local cryotherapy or whole-body cryotherapy. By pooling 6 studies including 257 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, we showed a significant decrease in pain visual analogic scale (mm) and 28-joint disease activity score after chronic cryotherapy in RA patients. For molecular pathways, local cryotherapy induces an intrajoint temperature decrease, which might downregulate several mediators involved in joint inflammation and destruction (cytokines, cartilage-degrading enzymes, proangiogenic factors), but studies in RA are rare. Cryotherapy should be included in RA therapeutic strategies as an adjunct therapy, with potential corticosteroid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug dose-sparing effects. However, techniques and protocols should be more precisely defined in randomized controlled trials with stronger methodology.
Sman, Amy D; Hackett, Daniel; Fiatarone Singh, Maria; Fornusek, Ché; Menezes, Manoj P; Burns, Joshua
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a slowly progressive hereditary degenerative disease and one of the most common neuromuscular disorders. Exercise may be beneficial to maintain strength and function for people with CMT, however, no comprehensive evaluation of the benefits and risks of exercise have been conducted. A systematic review was completed searching numerous electronic databases from earliest records to February 2015. Studies of any design including participants of any age with confirmed diagnosis of CMT that investigated the effects of exercise were eligible for inclusion. Of 13,301 articles identified following removal of duplicates, 11 articles including 9 unique studies met the criteria. Methodological quality of studies was moderate, sample sizes were small, and interventions and outcome measures used varied widely. Although the majority of the studies identified changes in one or more outcome measurements across exercise modalities, the majority were non-significant, possibly due to Type II errors. Significant effects described included improvements in strength, functional activities, and physiological adaptations following exercise. Despite many studies showing changes in strength and function following exercise, findings of this review should be met with caution due to the few studies available and moderate quality of evidence. Well-powered studies, harmonisation of outcome measures, and clearly described interventions across studies would improve the quality and comparability of the evidence base. The optimal exercise modality and intensity for people with CMT as well as the long-term safety of exercise remain unclear.
Gordois, Adam L; Toth, Peter P; Quek, Ruben Gw; Proudfoot, Emma M; Paoli, Carly J; Gandra, Shravanthi R
People with cardiovascular disease (CVD) often require time off work to recover from illness or surgery; for example, following a myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke. These individuals incur income losses, work-related productivity is reduced for employers, and output is reduced for the wider economy. Productivity impacts to the economy also arise due to CVD-related mortality. Areas covered: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify and collate studies that report the magnitude of work-related productivity losses associated with CVD generally or specific cardiovascular (CV) events or conditions (coronary heart disease, MI, stroke, transient ischemic attack, angina, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, coronary revascularization). The search was conducted using Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Google to find studies published from January 2004 to January 2015. In total, 60 studies were identified, including 20 studies conducted in the USA, 25 studies conducted in Europe, and 18 studies conducted in other countries (three studies were conducted in multiple regions). The studies differed by the scope of losses assessed (absenteeism, presenteeism, early retirement, premature mortality) and CVD conditions/events included. Studies reported either average patient or population losses, and generally used a human capital rather than friction cost method. Outcomes were standardized and adjusted to 2015 US dollars where possible. Expert commentary: The review demonstrates that CVD imposes substantial morbidity- and mortality-related productivity costs. The studies identified in the review may be used to inform and populate societal economic evaluations in CVD, with the most appropriate source study being that most closely matching the context of the evaluation.
Thies, Frank; Masson, Lindsey F; Boffetta, Paolo; Kris-Etherton, Penny
Whole-grain foods such as oats may protect against colorectal cancer and have benefits on inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature describing intervention studies that investigated the effects of oats or oat bran on risk factors for bowel disease. A literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline and the Cochrane library, which identified 654 potential articles. Thirty-eight articles describing twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Two studies carried out in participants with a history of colorectal adenomas found no effects of increased oat-bran intake on indirect risk makers for colorectal cancer. One of two interventions with oat bran in patients with ulcerative colitis showed small improvements in the patients' conditions. Most of the eleven studies carried out in adults with coeliac disease showed no negative effects of uncontaminated oat consumption. The fourteen studies carried out in volunteers with no history of bowel disease suggest that oats or oat bran can significantly increase stool weight and decrease constipation, but there is a lack of evidence to support a specific effect of oats on bowel function compared with other cereals. A long-term dietary intake of oats or oat bran could benefit inflammatory bowel disorders, but this remains to be proven. A protective effect on colorectal adenoma and cancer incidence has not yet been convincingly shown. The majority of patients with coeliac disease could consume up to 100 g/d of uncontaminated oats, which would increase the acceptability of, and adherence to, a gluten-free diet.
Svensson, Camilla Kara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Backer, Vibeke
Fabry disease is an X-linked disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase A, resulting in accumulation of glycosphingolipids in multiple organs, primarily heart, kidneys, skin, CNS, and lungs. A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database, leading to a total number of 154 hits. Due to language restriction, this number was reduced to 135; 53 papers did not concern Fabry disease, 19 were either animal studies or gene therapy studies, and 36 papers did not have lung involvement in Fabry disease as a topic. The remaining 27 articles were relevant for this review. The current literature concerning lung manifestations describes various respiratory symptoms such as dyspnoea or shortness of breath, wheezing, and dry cough. These symptoms are often related to cardiac involvement in Fabry disease as respiratory examinations are seldom performed. Pulmonary function tests primarily show obstructive airway limitation, but a few articles also report of patients with restrictive limitation and a mixture of both. No significant association has been found between smoking and the development of symptoms or spirometry abnormalities in patients with Fabry disease. Electron microscopy of lung biopsy and induced sputum show lamellar inclusion bodies (Zebra bodies) in the cytoplasm of cells in the airway wall. X-ray and CT scan have shown patchy ground-glass pulmonary infiltrations, fibrosis, and air trapping. Fibrosis diagnosed by high-resolution CT has not been significantly correlated with lung spirometry. Consistent findings have not been shown in the current literature. Pulmonary function tests and registration of symptoms showed various results; however, there is a trend towards obstructive airway limitation in patients with Fabry disease. Further studies are needed to evaluate pathogenesis, progression, and the effects of treatment.
Kaur, S; White, S; Bartold, P M
This systematic review considers the evidence available for a relationship between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, DOSS, Embase, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, MedNar, and ProQuest Theses and Dissertations were searched from the inception of the database until June 2012 for any quantitative studies that examined the association between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Nineteen studies met our inclusion criteria. Good evidence was found to support an association between these conditions with regard to tooth loss, clinical attachment levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rates. Moderate evidence was noted for C-reactive protein and interleukin-1β. Some evidence for a positive outcome of periodontal treatment on the clinical features of rheumatoid arthritis was noted. These results provide moderate evidence based on biochemical markers and stronger evidence with regard to clinical parameters that common risk factors or common pathologic processes may be responsible for an association between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease. Further studies are required to fully explore both the biochemical processes and clinical relationships between these 2 chronic inflammatory conditions. There is a need to move from case-control studies to more rigorous studies using well-defined populations and well-defined biochemical and clinical outcomes as the primary outcome measures with consideration of potential confounding factors.
Vooijs, Marloes; Leensen, Monique C J; Hoving, Jan L; Wind, Haije; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W
The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the available effective interventions that enhance work participation of people with a chronic disease, irrespective of their diagnosis. A search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library, searching for systematic reviews published between 2004 and February 2015. Systematic reviews were eligible for inclusion if they described an intervention aimed at enhancing work participation and included participants of working age (18-65 years) with a chronic disease. Reviews had to include populations having different chronic diseases. The quality of the included reviews was evaluated using the quality instrument AMSTAR. Results of reviews of medium and high quality were described in this review. The search resulted in 9 reviews, 5 of which were of medium quality. No high quality reviews were retrieved. 1 review reported inconclusive evidence for policy-based return to work initiatives. The 4 other reviews described interventions focused on changes at work, such as changes in work organisation, working conditions and work environment. Of these 4 reviews, 3 reported beneficial effects of the intervention on work participation. Interventions examined in populations having different chronic diseases were mainly focused on changes at work. The majority of the included interventions were reported to be effective in enhancing work participation of people with a chronic disease, indicating that interventions directed at work could be considered for a generic approach in order to enhance work participation in various chronic diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Karim-Kos, Henrike E.; Kulik, Margarete C.; Stolk, Wilma A.; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Lenk, Edeltraud J.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; de Vlas, Sake J.
Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are generally assumed to be concentrated in poor populations, but evidence on this remains scattered. We describe within-country socioeconomic inequalities in nine NTDs listed in the London Declaration for intensified control and/or elimination: lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), trachoma, Chagas’ disease, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), leprosy, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Methodology We conducted a systematic literature review, including publications between 2004–2013 found in Embase, Medline (OvidSP), Cochrane Central, Web of Science, Popline, Lilacs, and Scielo. We included publications in international peer-reviewed journals on studies concerning the top 20 countries in terms of the burden of the NTD under study. Principal findings We identified 5,516 publications, of which 93 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 59 papers reported substantial and statistically significant socioeconomic inequalities in NTD distribution, with higher odds of infection or disease among poor and less-educated people compared with better-off groups. The findings were mixed in 23 studies, and 11 studies showed no substantial or statistically significant inequality. Most information was available for STH, VL, schistosomiasis, and, to a lesser extent, for trachoma. For the other NTDs, evidence on their socioeconomic distribution was scarce. The magnitude of inequality varied, but often, the odds of infection or disease were twice as high among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups compared with better-off strata. Inequalities often took the form of a gradient, with higher odds of infection or disease each step down the socioeconomic hierarchy. Notwithstanding these inequalities, the prevalence of some NTDs was sometimes also high among better-off groups in some highly endemic areas. Conclusions While recent evidence on socioeconomic inequalities is scarce for
Seidler, A; Euler, U; Müller-Quernheim, J; Gaede, K I; Latza, U; Groneberg, D; Letzel, S
The relevance of beryllium sensitization testing for occupational health practice and prevention is unclear. To analyse the natural course of beryllium sensitization and clarify the prognosis following cessation of exposure among sensitized workers. An electronic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Toxline and Cochrane databases supplemented by a manual search. Data abstraction and study quality assessment with adapted guideline checklists were performed independently by three reviewers. Seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review; however, six of the seven studies were of low methodological quality. A substantial (although not specifically quantifiable) proportion of beryllium-sensitized employees will develop chronic beryllium disease (CBD). To date, it is unknown if cessation of exposure in sensitized workers reduces the progression rate to CBD. To determine the utility of regular assessments for beryllium sensitization among exposed workers, there is a need for prospective studies. This should include detailed and continuous exposure monitoring, regular tests for beryllium sensitization and a thorough diagnostic evaluation of sensitized workers to confirm or exclude CBD.
Linares-Del Rey, M; Vela-Desojo, L; Cano-de la Cuerda, R
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. However, diagnosing, assessing, and treating these patients is a complex process requiring continuous monitoring. In this context, smartphones may be useful in the management of patients with PD. The purpose of this study is to perform a systematic review of the literature addressing the use of mobile phone applications (apps) in PD. We conducted a literature search of articles published in English or Spanish between 2011 and 2016 analysing or validating apps specifically designed for or useful in PD. In addition, we searched for apps potentially useful for PD patients in the leading app stores. The literature and app searches yielded a total of 125 apps, 56 of which were classified as potentially useful in PD and 69 as specifically designed for PD (23 information apps, 29 assessment apps, 13 treatment apps, and 4 assessment and treatment apps). Numerous mobile apps are potentially useful in or specifically designed for PD management. However, scientific evidence of their usefulness is scarce and of poor quality. Further studies are needed to validate these tools and regulate their use. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Tompson, Alice C; Onakpoya, Igho J; Roberts, Nia; Ward, Alison M; Heneghan, Carl J
Objective To identify, critically appraise and summarise existing systematic reviews on the impact of global cardiovascular risk assessment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults. Design Systematic review of systematic reviews published between January 2005 and October 2016 in The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE or CINAHL databases, and post hoc analysis of primary trials. Participants, interventions, outcomes Systematic reviews of interventions involving global cardiovascular risk assessment relative to no formal risk assessment in adults with no history of CVD. The primary outcomes of interest were CVD-related morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality; secondary outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP), cholesterol and smoking. Results We identified six systematic reviews of variable but generally of low quality (mean Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews 4.2/11, range 0/11 to 7/11). No studies identified by the systematic reviews reported CVD-related morbidity or mortality or all-cause mortality. Meta-analysis of reported randomised controlled trials (RCTs) showed small reductions in SBP (mean difference (MD) −2.22 mm Hg (95% CI −3.49 to −0.95); I2=66%; n=9; GRADE: very low), total cholesterol (MD −0.11 mmol/L (95% CI −0.20 to −0.02); I2=72%; n=5; GRADE: very low), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD −0.15 mmol/L (95% CI −0.26 to −0.05), I2=47%; n=4; GRADE: very low) and smoking cessation (RR 1.62 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.43); I2=17%; n=7; GRADE: low). The median follow-up time of reported RCTs was 12 months (range 2–36 months). Conclusions The quality of existing systematic reviews was generally poor and there is currently no evidence reported in these reviews that the prospective use of global cardiovascular risk assessment translates to reductions in CVD morbidity or mortality. There are reductions in SBP, cholesterol and smoking but they may not be clinically
Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D
Noise exposure might be a risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). Unlike residential exposure, however, evidence for occupational noise is limited. Given that high-quality quantitative synthesis of existing data is highly warranted for occupational safety and policy, we aimed at conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the risks of IHD morbidity and mortality because of occupational noise exposure. We carried out a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and on the Internet since April 2, 2015, in English, Spanish, Russian, and Bulgarian. A quality-scoring checklist was developed a priori to assess different sources of methodological bias. A qualitative data synthesis was performed. Conservative assumptions were applied when appropriate. A meta-analysis was not feasible because of unresolvable methodological discrepancies between the studies. On the basis of five studies, there was some evidence to suggest higher risk of IHD among workers exposed to objectively assessed noise >75–80 dB for <20 years (supported by one high, one moderate, and one low quality study, opposed by one high and one moderate quality study). Three moderate and two low quality studies out of six found self-rated exposure to be associated with higher risk of IHD, and only one moderate quality study found no effect. Out of four studies, a higher mortality risk was suggested by one moderate quality study relying on self-rated exposure and one of high-quality study using objective exposure. Sensitivity analyses showed that at higher exposures and in some vulnerable subgroups, such as women, the adverse effects were considerably stronger. Despite methodological discrepancies and limitations of the included studies, occupational noise appeared to be a risk factor for IHD morbidity. Results suggested higher risk for IHD mortality only among vulnerable subgroups. Workers exposed to high occupational noise should be considered at higher overall risk of IHD. PMID:27569404
Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D
Noise exposure might be a risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). Unlike residential exposure, however, evidence for occupational noise is limited. Given that high-quality quantitative synthesis of existing data is highly warranted for occupational safety and policy, we aimed at conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the risks of IHD morbidity and mortality because of occupational noise exposure. We carried out a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and on the Internet since April 2, 2015, in English, Spanish, Russian, and Bulgarian. A quality-scoring checklist was developed a priori to assess different sources of methodological bias. A qualitative data synthesis was performed. Conservative assumptions were applied when appropriate. A meta-analysis was not feasible because of unresolvable methodological discrepancies between the studies. On the basis of five studies, there was some evidence to suggest higher risk of IHD among workers exposed to objectively assessed noise >75-80 dB for <20 years (supported by one high, one moderate, and one low quality study, opposed by one high and one moderate quality study). Three moderate and two low quality studies out of six found self-rated exposure to be associated with higher risk of IHD, and only one moderate quality study found no effect. Out of four studies, a higher mortality risk was suggested by one moderate quality study relying on self-rated exposure and one of high-quality study using objective exposure. Sensitivity analyses showed that at higher exposures and in some vulnerable subgroups, such as women, the adverse effects were considerably stronger. Despite methodological discrepancies and limitations of the included studies, occupational noise appeared to be a risk factor for IHD morbidity. Results suggested higher risk for IHD mortality only among vulnerable subgroups. Workers exposed to high occupational noise should be considered at higher overall risk of IHD.
Moore, Alan; Young, Carolyn A; Hughes, Dyfrig A
Motor neurone disease (MND) is a devastating condition which greatly diminishes patients' quality of life and limits life expectancy. Health technology appraisals of future interventions in MND need robust data on costs and utilities. Existing economic evaluations have been noted to be limited and fraught with challenges. The aim of this study was to identify and critique methodological aspects of all published economic evaluations, cost studies, and utility studies in MND. We systematically reviewed all relevant published studies in English from 1946 until January 2016, searching the databases of Medline, EMBASE, Econlit, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) and the Health Economics Evaluation Database (HEED). Key data were extracted and synthesised narratively. A total of 1830 articles were identified, of which 15 economic evaluations, 23 cost and 3 utility studies were included. Most economic studies focused on riluzole (n = 9). Six studies modelled the progressive decline in motor function using a Markov design but did not include mutually exclusive health states. Cost estimates for a number of evaluations were based on expert opinion and were hampered by high variability and location-specific characteristics. Few cost studies reported disease-stage-specific costs (n = 3) or fully captured indirect costs. Utilities in three studies of MND patients used the EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire or standard gamble, but included potentially unrepresentative cohorts and did not consider any health impacts on caregivers. Economic evaluations in MND suffer from significant methodological issues such as a lack of data, uncertainty with the disease course and use of inappropriate modelling framework. Limitations may be addressed through the collection of detailed and representative data from large cohorts of patients.
Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Duke, Carmen Hope; Finch, Kathryn Cameron; Snook, Kassandra Renee; Tseng, Pei-Ling; Hernandez, Ana Cristina; Gambhir, Manoj; Fu, King-Wa; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho
We systematically reviewed existing research pertinent to Ebola virus disease and social media, especially to identify the research questions and the methods used to collect and analyze social media. We searched 6 databases for research articles pertinent to Ebola virus disease and social media. We extracted the data using a standardized form. We evaluated the quality of the included articles. Twelve articles were included in the main analysis: 7 from Twitter with 1 also including Weibo, 1 from Facebook, 3 from YouTube, and 1 from Instagram and Flickr. All the studies were cross-sectional. Eleven of the 12 articles studied ≥ 1of these 3 elements of social media and their relationships: themes or topics of social media contents, meta-data of social media posts (such as frequency of original posts and reposts, and impressions) and characteristics of the social media accounts that made these posts (such as whether they are individuals or institutions). One article studied how news videos influenced Twitter traffic. Twitter content analysis methods included text mining (n = 3) and manual coding (n = 1). Two studies involved mathematical modeling. All 3 YouTube studies and the Instagram/Flickr study used manual coding of videos and images, respectively. Published Ebola virus disease-related social media research focused on Twitter and YouTube. The utility of social media research to public health practitioners is warranted. Copyright Â© 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spoletini, I; Vitale, C; Pelliccia, F; Fossati, C; Rosano, G M C
Androgens play a pivotal role in cardiovascular function and their effects differ between men and women. In postmenopausal women, testosterone replacement within physiological levels is associated with overall well-being. However, a definitive explanation as to how androgens have an impact on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women and whether they may be used for cardiovascular treatment has yet to be established. With these aims, a systematic review of the existing studies on the link between androgens and cardiovascular disease and the effects of testosterone therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in postmenopausal women has been conducted. The few existing studies on cardiovascular outcomes in postmenopausal women indicate no effect or a deleterious effect of increasing androgens and increased cardiovascular risk. However, there is evidence of a favorable effect of androgens on surrogate cardiovascular markers in postmenopausal women, such as high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, body fat mass and triglycerides. Further studies are therefore needed to clarify the impact of therapy with androgens on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. The cardiovascular effect of testosterone or methyltestosterone with or without concomitant estrogens needs to be elucidated.
Piazza-Gardner, Anna K; Gaffud, Timothy J B; Barry, Adam E
Currently, there is discrepancy regarding alcohol's impact on Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, the purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether alcohol serves as a protective agent against the development of AD, as well as whether protective effects are influenced by quantity and/or frequency of drinking. Adapted versions of the Matrix Method and PRISMA guidelines were used in order to identify, organize, and synthesize relevant research. Overall, there is no consensus regarding alcohol's impact on AD. Specifically, seven articles suggested drinking alcohol decreases the risk of AD, three studies found drinking led to an increased risk of AD, and yet another nine reported alcohol had no impact on AD. Validity and consistency of both alcohol and AD measures across studies represents a severe limitation. Prior to the development of standards and/or clinical recommendations, more investigations into the association between alcohol and AD are necessary. Considering the current evidence base, alcohol should not be used as a means to decrease risk of developing AD.
Borup, H; Kirkeskov, L; Hanskov, D J A; Brauer, C
Between 15 and 20% of prevalent cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been attributed to occupational exposures to vapours, gases, dusts and fumes. Dust at construction sites is still a challenge, but no overview exists of COPD among construction workers. To assess the occurrence of COPD among construction workers. We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Embase between 1 January 1990 and 31 August 2016 in order to identify epidemiological studies with a risk estimate for either COPD morbidity/mortality or a spirometry-based definition of airway obstruction among workers in the construction industry. The authors independently assessed studies to determine their eligibility and performed a quality assessment of the included papers. Twelve studies were included. Nine studies found a statistically significant association between COPD and work in the construction industry, although only among never-smokers in one study and only for the period after 2000 in another study. One study found that the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s was significantly higher among construction workers compared with bus drivers. This review suggests that COPD occurs more often among construction workers than among workers who are not exposed to construction dust. It is not possible to draw any conclusions on specific subgroups as most studies analysed construction workers as one united group. In addition, no potential exposure-effect relationship could be identified.
Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Campbell, Michael J; Hofman, Albert; Del Castillo, Amparo Serrano; Fernández-Crehuet Navajas, Rafael
We estimated the pooled risk of tobacco smoking for Parkinson's disease (PD). Inclusion criteria included systematic searches of MedLine, PsycLIT, Embase, Current Contents, previously published reviews, examination of cited reference sources, and personal contact and discussion with several investigators expert in the field. Published prospective studies on PD and cigarette smoking. When two or more studies were based on an identical study, the study that principally investigated the relationship or the study that was published last was used. Seven prospective studies were carried out between 1959 and 1997, of which six reported risk estimates. Four cohorts were based on standardised mortality rates, which were exclusively of male. Only one study included risk estimates for both males and females separately. The risk of ever smoker was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.43 to 0.61). There was an obvious protective effect of current smoking in the pooled estimate (relative risk, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.26-0.47). Former smokers had lower risk compared with never smokers (relative risk, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49-0.88). Although our pooled estimates show that smoking is inversely associated with the risk of PD, the four prospective studies that were based on follow-up of mortality of smokers had many limitations. Further studies evaluating the association between smoking and PD in women are strongly needed.
Lloyd, L J; Langley-Evans, S C; McMullen, S
Although the relationship between adult obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been shown, the relationship with childhood obesity remains unclear. Given the evidence of tracking of body mass index (BMI) from childhood to adulthood, this systematic review investigated the independent relationship between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk. To investigate the association between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk, and whether the associations observed are independent of adult BMI. Electronic databases were searched from inception until July 2008 for studies investigating the association between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk. Two investigators independently reviewed studies for eligibility according to inclusion/exclusion criteria, extracted the data and assessed study quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Positive associations between childhood BMI and adult blood pressure or carotid intima-media thickness were generally attenuated once adjusted for adult BMI. Associations between childhood BMI and CVD morbidity/mortality had not been adjusted and do not provide evidence of an independent relationship. Negative associations between childhood BMI and blood pressure were observed in several adjusted data sets. Little evidence was found to suggest that childhood obesity is an independent risk factor for CVD risk. Instead, the data suggest that relationships observed are dependent on the tracking of BMI from childhood to adulthood. Importantly, evidence suggests that risk of raised blood pressure is highest in those who are at the lower end of the BMI scale in childhood and overweight in adulthood. The findings challenge the widely accepted view that the presence of childhood obesity is an independent risk factor for CVD and that this period should be a priority for public health intervention. Although interventions during childhood may be important in prevention of adult obesity, it is important to avoid the potential for negative consequences when the timing
Gerlach, Oliver HH; Winogrodzka, Ania; Weber, Wim EJ
The problems Parkinson's disease (PD) patients encounter when admitted to a hospital, are known to be numerous and serious. These problems have been inventoried through a systematic review of literature on reasons for emergency and hospital admissions in PD patients, problems encountered during hospitalization, and possible solutions for the encountered problems using the Pubmed database. PD patients are hospitalized in frequencies ranging from 7 to 28% per year. PD/parkinsonism patients are approximately one and a half times more frequently and generally 2 to 14 days longer hospitalized than non-PD patients. Acute events occurring during hospitalization were mainly urinary infection, confusion, and pressure ulcers. Medication errors were also frequent adverse events. During and after surgery PD patients had an increased incidence of infections, confusion, falls, and decubitus, and 31% of patients was dissatisfied in the way their PD was managed. There are only two studies on medication continuation during surgery and one analyzing the effect of an early postoperative neurologic consultation, and numerous case reports, and opinionated views and reviews including other substitutes for dopaminergic medication intraoperatively. In conclusion, most studies were retrospective on small numbers of patients. The major clinical problems are injuries, infections, poor control of PD, and complications of PD treatment. There are many (un-researched) proposals for improvement. A substantial number of PD patients' admissions might be prevented. There should be guidelines concerning the hospitalized PD patients, with accent on early neurological consultation and team work between different specialities, and incorporating nonoral dopaminergic replacement therapy when necessary. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society PMID:21284037
Porto, E F; Castro, A A M; Schmidt, V G S; Rabelo, H M; Kümpel, C; Nascimento, O A; Jardim, J R
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) fall frequently, although the risk of falls may seem less important than the respiratory consequences of the disease. Nevertheless, falls are associated to increased mortality, decreased independence and physical activity levels, and worsening of quality of life. The aims of this systematic review was to evaluate information in the literature with regard to whether impaired postural control is more prevalent in COPD patients than in healthy age-matched subjects, and to assess the main characteristics these patients present that contribute to impaired postural control. Five databases were searched with no dates or language limits. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PEDro databases were searched using "balance", "postural control", and "COPD" as keywords. The search strategies were oriented and guided by a health science librarian and were performed on March 27, 2014. The studies included were those that evaluated postural control in COPD patients as their main outcome and scored more than five points on the PEDro scale. Studies supplied by the database search strategy were assessed independently by two blinded researchers. A total of 484 manuscripts were found using the "balance in COPD or postural control in COPD" keywords. Forty-three manuscripts appeared more than once, and 397 did not evaluate postural control in COPD patients as the primary outcome. Thus, only 14 studies had postural control as their primary outcome. Our study examiners found only seven studies that had a PEDro score higher than five points. The examiners' interrater agreement was 76.4%. Six of those studies were accomplished with a control group and one study used their patients as their own controls. The studies were published between 2004 and 2013. Patients with COPD present postural control impairment when compared with age-matched healthy controls. Associated factors contributing to impaired postural control were
Bolier, E A; Kessing, B F; Smout, A J; Bredenoord, A J
Numerous questionnaires with a wide variety of characteristics have been developed for the assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Four well-defined dimensions are noticeable in these GERD questionnaires, which are symptoms, response to treatment, diagnosis, and burden on the quality of life of GERD patients. The aim of this review is to develop a complete overview of all available questionnaires, categorized per dimension of the assessment of GERD. A systematic search of the literature up to January 2013 using the Pubmed database and the Embase database, and search of references and conference abstract books were conducted. A total number of 65 questionnaires were extracted and evaluated. Thirty-nine questionnaires were found applicable for the assessment of GERD symptoms, three of which are generic gastrointestinal questionnaires. For the assessment of response to treatment, 14 questionnaires were considered applicable. Seven questionnaires with diagnostic purposes were found. In the assessment of quality of life in GERD patients, 18 questionnaires were found and evaluated. Twenty questionnaires were found to be used for more than one assessment dimension, and eight questionnaires were found for GERD assessment in infants and/or children. A wide variety of GERD questionnaires is available, of which the majority is used for assessment of GERD symptoms. Questionnaires differ in aspects such as design, validation and translations. Also, numerous multidimensional questionnaires are available, of which the Reflux Disease Questionnaire is widely applicable. We provided an overview of GERD questionnaires to aid investigators and clinicians in their search for the most appropriate questionnaire for their specific purposes.
Fode, Mikkel; Fusco, Ferdinando; Lipshultz, Larry; Weidner, Wolfgang
Theoretically, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have the potential to disrupt male fertility; however, the topic remains controversial. To describe the possible association between STDs and male infertility and to explore possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. We performed a systematic literature review in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published before January 1, 2016, using the MeSH terms for a variety of STDs and infertility. The search was restricted to human studies performed in men and published in English. Studies were included if they contained original data on a possible association or a cause-and-effect relationship between STD and male infertility. Studies were considered only if they included an appropriate control group and/or comprehensive laboratory data. Due to heterogeneity in the literature, a qualitative analysis was performed. Relevant studies on Chlamydia trachomatis, genital mycoplasmas, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and viral infections were identified. For all pathogens, the studies were contradictory and generally of limited quality. In studies confirming an association, there was a tendency for authors to perform multiple analyses without appropriate corrections and to subsequently focus solely on outcomes that seemed to suggest a positive association; however, the body of literature that does not confirm an association between STDs and male infertility is also of inadequate quality. The data regarding possible pathophysiologic mechanisms are inconclusive. There may be an association between STDs and male infertility of unknown genesis and possibly with different pathogenic mechanisms for different pathogens. Alternatively, some STDs may cause male infertility, whereas others may not; however, there is hardly a strong correlation. High-quality studies of the subject are needed. Sexually transmitted diseases may cause male infertility through
Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Hruby, Adela; Clish, Clary B; Liang, Liming; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Hu, Frank B
Metabolomics is a promising tool of cardiovascular biomarker discovery. We systematically reviewed the literature on comprehensive metabolomic profiling in association with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to January 2016. Studies were eligible if they pertained to adult humans; followed an agnostic and/or comprehensive approach; used serum or plasma (not urine or other biospecimens); conducted metabolite profiling at baseline in the context of examining prospective disease; and included myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or CVD death in the CVD outcome definition. We identified 12 original articles (9 cohort and 3 nested case-control studies); participant numbers ranged from 67 to 7256. Mass spectrometry was the predominant analytical method. The number and chemical diversity of metabolites were very heterogeneous, ranging from 31 to >10 000 features. Four studies used untargeted profiling. Different types of metabolites were associated with CVD risk: acylcarnitines, dicarboxylacylcarnitines, and several amino acids and lipid classes. Only tiny improvements in CVD prediction beyond traditional risk factors were observed using these metabolites (C index improvement ranged from 0.006 to 0.05). There are a limited number of longitudinal studies assessing associations between comprehensive metabolomic profiles and CVD risk. Quantitatively synthesizing the literature is challenging because of the widely varying analytical tools and the diversity of methodological and statistical approaches. Although some results are promising, more research is needed, notably standardization of metabolomic techniques and statistical approaches. Replication and combinations of novel and holistic methodological approaches would move the field toward the realization of its promise. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
Alvin, Matthew D; Qureshi, Sheeraz; Klineberg, Eric; Riew, K Daniel; Fischer, Dena J; Norvell, Daniel C; Mroz, Thomas E
Systematic review. To perform an evidence-based synthesis of the literature assessing the cost-effectiveness of surgery for patients with symptomatic cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD). Cervical DDD is a common cause of clinical syndromes such as neck pain, cervical radiculopathy, and myelopathy. The appropriate surgical intervention(s) for a given problem is controversial, especially with regard to quality-of-life outcomes, complications, and costs. Although there have been many studies comparing outcomes and complications, relatively few have compared costs and, more importantly, cost-effectiveness of the interventions. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration Library, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis registry database, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database for full economic evaluations published through January 16, 2014. Identification of full economic evaluations that were explicitly designed to evaluate and synthesize the costs and consequences of surgical procedures or surgical intervention with nonsurgical management in patients with cervical DDD were considered for inclusion, based on 4 key questions. Five studies were included, each specific to 1 or more of our focus questions. Two studies suggested that cervical disc replacement may be more cost-effective compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Two studies comparing anterior with posterior surgical procedures for cervical spondylotic myelopathy suggested that anterior surgery was more cost-effective than posterior surgery. One study suggested that posterior cervical foraminotomy had a greater net economic benefit than anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in a military population with unilateral cervical radiculopathy. No studies assessed the cost-effectiveness of surgical intervention compared with nonoperative treatment of cervical myelopathy or radiculopathy, although it is acknowledged that existing studies
Salehi, Alireza; Hashemi, Neda; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Saber, Mahboobeh
Chiropractic is a complementary medicine that has been growing increasingly in different countries over recent decades. It addresses the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the neuromusculoskeletal system disorders and their effects on the whole body health. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of chiropractic in the treatment of different diseases. To gather data, scientific electronic databases, such as Cochrane, Medline, Google Scholar, and Scirus were searched and all systematic reviews in the field of chiropractic were obtained. Reviews were included if they were specifically concerned with the effectiveness of chiropractic treatment, included evidence from at least one clinical trial, included randomized studies and focused on a specific disease. The research data including the article’s first author’s name, type of disease, intervention type, number and types of research used, meta-analysis, number of participants, and overall results of the study, were extracted, studied and analyzed. Totally, 23 chiropractic systematic reviews were found, and 11 articles met the defined criteria. The results showed the influence of chiropractic on improvement of neck pain, shoulder and neck trigger points, and sport injuries. In the cases of asthma, infant colic, autism spectrum disorder, gastrointestinal problems, fibromyalgia, back pain and carpal tunnel syndrome, there was no conclusive scientific evidence. There is heterogeneity in some of the studies and also limited number of clinical trials in the assessed systematic reviews. Thus, conducting comprehensive studies based on more reliable study designs are highly recommended. PMID:26448951
Mirzaagha, Foroozandeh; Azali, Sepideh Hagh; Islami, Farhad; Zamani, Farhad; Khalilipour, Elias; Khatibian, Morteza; Malekzadeh, Reza
Several studies have reported an association between coeliac disease and autoimmune liver disease, but there is little information on the prevalence of coeliac disease in certain autoimmune liver diseases, particularly from non-European, non-American countries. To investigate prevalence of coeliac disease in autoimmune liver disease in Iran and to summarize previous literature. We investigated prevalence of coeliac disease among 100 autoimmune liver disease patients and compared it with the prevalence in healthy individuals. We also performed an extensive search of the English literature in PubMed Database. We found substantially elevated prevalence of coeliac disease in patients with overlap syndrome (10-15%) compared to the general population (0.1-1%). To a lesser extent, the prevalence was high in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (2-4%). In our systematic review, prevalence of coeliac disease in autoimmune hepatitis in the majority of studies was 4% or more; several studies also reported such prevalence in primary biliary cirrhosis. Since coeliac disease is common among patients with autoimmune liver disease, screening autoimmune liver disease patients for coeliac disease is indicated. Although the magnitude of benefit from a gluten-free diet in reversing autoimmune liver disease in patients with coeliac disease is controversial, it may reduce the risk of further complications of coeliac disease. Copyright (c) 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saccà, Sergio Claudio; Vagge, Aldo; Pulliero, Alessandra; Izzotti, Alberto
Abstract The connection between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and eye diseases has been increasingly reported in the literature and in active research. The implication of this bacterium in chronic eye diseases, such as blepharitis, glaucoma, central serous chorioretinopathy and others, has been hypothesized. Although the mechanisms by which this association occurs are currently unknown, this review describes shared pathogenetic mechanisms in an attempt to identify a lowest common denominator between eye diseases and Hp infection. The aim of this review is to assess whether different studies could be compared and to establish whether or not Hp infection and Eye diseases share common pathogenetic aspects. In particular, it has been focused on oxidative damage as a possible link between these pathologies. Text word search in Medline from 1998 to July 2014. 152 studies were included in our review. Were taken into considerations only studies that related eye diseases more frequent and/or known. Likely oxidative stress plays a key role. All of the diseases studied seem to follow a common pattern that implicates a cellular response correlated with a sublethal dose of oxidative stress. These alterations seem to be shared by both Hp infections and ocular diseases and include the following: decline in mitochondrial function, increases in the rate of reactive oxygen species production, accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations, increases in the levels of oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids, and decreases in the capacity to degrade oxidatively damaged proteins and other macromolecules. This cascade of events appears to repeat itself in different diseases, regardless of the identity of the affected tissue. The trabecular meshwork, conjunctiva, and retina can each show how oxidative stress may acts as a common disease effector as the Helicobacter infection spreads, supported by the increased oxidative damage and other inflammation. PMID:25526440
Prion diseases are fatal infectious neurodegenerative disorders; examples include the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease affecting humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle. The causative agents of these diseases--the prions--are thought to consist of the pathogenic isoform of the prion protein PrP(Sc), which is produced by the conformational conversion of the normal isoform PrP(c). Many lines of evidence indicate that the constitutive conversion of PrP(c) to PrP(Sc), resulting in a marked accumulation of PrP(Sc) in the brain, is a central event in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. A large number of compounds have been identified as anti-prion agents and capable of reducing the PrP(Sc) levels in infected cells. Some of these compounds have been found to be partially effective in infected animals, thus resulting in the prolongation of the incubation or survival times and a few of these compounds were or are under clinical trials. However, none of these compounds have proven to be therapeutically effective against this group of diseases. This is probably because (1) these compounds fail to cross the blood-brain barrier and (2) their effectiveness is reduced because they are administered only to patients with clinically advanced disease owing to a lack of diagnostic indicators for presymptomatic individuals. In this communication, we systematically list these anti-prion compounds and summarize their effectiveness and possible mechanisms of action.
Krewski, Daniel; Barakat-Haddad, Caroline; Donnan, Jennifer; Martino, Rosemary; Pringsheim, Tamara; Tremlett, Helen; van Lieshout, Pascal; Walsh, Stephanie J; Birkett, Nicholas J; Gomes, James; Little, Julian; Bowen, Sonya; Candundo, Hamilton; Chao, Ting-Kuang; Collins, Kayla; Crispo, James A G; Duggan, Tom; El Sherif, Reem; Farhat, Nawal; Fortin, Yannick; Gaskin, Janet; Gupta, Pallavi; Hersi, Mona; Hu, Jing; Irvine, Brittany; Jahanfar, Shayesteh; MacDonald, Don; McKay, Kyla; Morrissey, Andrea; Quach, Pauline; Rashid, Ruksana; Shin, Sabina; Sikora, Lindsey; Tkachuk, Stacey; Taher, Mohamed K; Wang, Ming-Dong; Darshan, Shalu; Cashman, Neil R
Systematic reviews were conducted to identify risk factors associated with the onset and progression of 14 neurological conditions, prioritized as a component of the National Population Health Study of Neurological Conditions. These systematic reviews provided a basis for evaluating the weight of evidence of evidence for risk factors for the onset and progression of the 14 individual neurological conditions considered. A number of risk factors associated with an increased risk of onset for more than one condition, including exposure to pesticides (associated with an increased risk of AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain tumours, and PD; smoking (AD, MS); and infection (MS, Tourette syndrome). Coffee and tea intake was associated with a decreased risk of onset of both dystonia and PD. Further understanding of the etiology of priority neurological conditions will be helpful in focusing future research initiatives and in the development of interventions to reduce the burden associated with neurological conditions in Canada and internationally. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Hong, Catherine H L; Hu, Shijia; Haverman, Thijs; Stokman, Monique; Napeñas, Joel J; Braber, Jacolien Bos-den; Gerber, Erich; Geuke, Margot; Vardas, Emmanouil; Waltimo, Tuomas; Jensen, Siri Beier; Saunders, Deborah P
This systematic review aims to update on the prevalence of odontogenic-related infections and the efficacy of dental strategies in preventing dental-related complications in cancer patients since the 2010 systematic review. A literature search was conducted in the databases MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE for articles published between 1 January 2009 and 30 June 2016. Each study was assessed by 2 reviewers and the body of evidence for each intervention was assigned an evidence level. After examination of the abstracts and full-text articles, 59 articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. The weighted prevalence of dental infections and pericoronitis during cancer therapy was 5.4 and 5.3%, respectively. The frequency of dental-related infections during intensive chemotherapy after complete, partial, and minimal pre-cancer dental evaluation/treatment protocols ranged from 0 to 4%. Protocols involving third molars extractions had the highest complications (40%). In view of the low prevalence of infections and the potential for complications after third molar extractions, it is suggested that partial dental evaluation/treatment protocols prior to intensive chemotherapy; whereby minor caries (within dentin), asymptomatic third molars or asymptomatic teeth without excessive probing depth (<8 mm), mobility (mobility I or II) or with periapical lesions of <5 mm were observed; is a viable option when there is insufficient time for complete dental evaluation/treatment protocols. The use of chlorhexidine, fluoride mouth rinses as well as composite resin, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC), and amalgam restorations over conventional GIC in post head and neck radiation patients who are compliant fluoride users is recommended.
González Navarro, Beatriz; Pintó Sala, Xavier; Jané Salas, Enric
The relationship between atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease (ATCD) and localised infections in teeth, including caries and chronic apical periodontitis (CAP) has not been studied much and is not well defined. A systematic search was performed using the scientific databases PubMed and Medline from 1989 to 2016. A significant relationship was observed with ATCD in 10 out of 10 studies addressing the degree of oral hygiene, in 14 of 17 that included loss of teeth, in 6 of 12 that analysed caries and in 11 of 15 that included CAP. However, there was a huge methodological heterogeneity. It can be concluded that there is an association between CAP and ATCD. Patients with ATCD present a worse oral hygiene status and fewer teeth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Archontogeorgis, Kostas; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Tzouvelekis, Argyris; Nena, Evangelia; Bouros, Demosthenes
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of more than two hundred diseases of either known or unknown etiology with different pathogenesis and prognosis. Lung cancer, which is the major cause of cancer death in the developed countries, is mainly attributed to cigarette smoking and exposure to inhaled carcinogens. Different studies suggest a link between ILDs and lung cancer, through different pathogenetic mechanisms, such as inflammation, coagulation, dysregulated apoptosis, focal hypoxia, activation, and accumulation of myofibroblasts as well as extracellular matrix accumulation. This paper reviews current evidence on the association between lung cancer and interstitial lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis/polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and pneumoconiosis. PMID:22900168
D-Cycloserine, known from tuberculosis therapy, has been widely introduced to neuropsychiatric studies, since its central active mechanism as a partial NMDA-agonist has been found. In this review, we evaluate its therapeutic potential in neuropsychological disorders and discuss its pitfalls in terms of dosing and application frequency as well as its safety in low-dose therapy. Therefore, we identified 91 clinical trials by performing a Medline search. We demonstrate in part preliminary but increasing evidence that D-cycloserine may be effective in various psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, addiction, eating disorders, major depression, and autism as well as in neurological diseases, including dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and spinocerebellar degeneration. D-Cycloserine in low-dose therapy is safe, but there is still a need for new drugs with higher specificity to the different N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunits. PMID:26364274
Schiavon, Cecilia C.; Marchetti, Eduarda; Gurgel, Léia G.; Busnello, Fernanda M.; Reppold, Caroline T.
There is a growing recognition that positive psychological functioning (which includes constructs such as optimism and hope) influences health. However, the understanding of these underlying mechanisms in relation to health is limited. Therefore, this review sought to identify what the scientific literature says about the influence of optimism and hope on chronic disease treatment. A search was conducted in the PsycINFO, Scopus, Pubmed, and Web of Science databases using the indexing terms optimism, hope, chronic diseases, randomized controlled trial, and treatment between 1998 and 2015. In the articles, we identified the most studied diseases in context, the assessment instruments used, the participant characteristics investigated, the results found, and the publication dates. From our analysis of the articles that met our inclusion criteria, it appears that the study of these constructs is recent and there is evidence that individuals with greater optimism and hope seek to engage in healthier behaviors, regardless of their clinical status, and that this contributes to chronic disease treatment. More research is needed so that targeted interventions can be carried out effectively in chronic disease treatment. PMID:28101071
Mulligan, Kate; Dixon, Jenna; Sinn, Chi-Ling Joanna; Elliott, Susan J
Policy prescriptions for combating dengue fever tend to focus on addressing environmental and social conditions of poverty. However, while poverty has long been considered a determinant of dengue, the research evidence for such a relationship is not well established. Results of a systematic review of the research literature designed to identify and assess the current state of the empirical evidence for the dengue-poverty link reveal a mixed story. Of 260 peer-reviewed articles referencing dengue-poverty relationships, only 12 English-language studies empirically assessed these relationships. Our analysis covering various social and economic conditions of poverty showed no clear associations with dengue rates. While nine of the 12 studies demonstrated some positive associations between measures of dengue and poverty (measured inconsistently through income, education, structural housing condition, overcrowding, and socioeconomic status), nine also presented null results and five with negative results. Of the five studies relating to access to water and sanitation, four reported null associations. Income and physical housing conditions were more consistently correlated with dengue outcomes than other poverty indicators. The small size of this sample, and the heterogeneity of measures and scales used to capture conditions of poverty, make it difficult to assess the strength and consistency of associations between various poverty indicators and dengue outcomes. At present, the global body of eligible English-language peer-reviewed literature investigating dengue-poverty relationships is too small to support a definitive relationship. We conclude that more research, particularly using standardized measures of both outcomes and indicators, is needed to support evidence-informed policies and approaches.
Mulligan, Kate; Dixon, Jenna; Sinn, Chi-Ling Joanna; Elliott, Susan J.
Policy prescriptions for combating dengue fever tend to focus on addressing environmental and social conditions of poverty. However, while poverty has long been considered a determinant of dengue, the research evidence for such a relationship is not well established. Results of a systematic review of the research literature designed to identify and assess the current state of the empirical evidence for the dengue–poverty link reveal a mixed story. Of 260 peer-reviewed articles referencing dengue–poverty relationships, only 12 English-language studies empirically assessed these relationships. Our analysis covering various social and economic conditions of poverty showed no clear associations with dengue rates. While nine of the 12 studies demonstrated some positive associations between measures of dengue and poverty (measured inconsistently through income, education, structural housing condition, overcrowding, and socioeconomic status), nine also presented null results and five with negative results. Of the five studies relating to access to water and sanitation, four reported null associations. Income and physical housing conditions were more consistently correlated with dengue outcomes than other poverty indicators. The small size of this sample, and the heterogeneity of measures and scales used to capture conditions of poverty, make it difficult to assess the strength and consistency of associations between various poverty indicators and dengue outcomes. At present, the global body of eligible English-language peer-reviewed literature investigating dengue–poverty relationships is too small to support a definitive relationship. We conclude that more research, particularly using standardized measures of both outcomes and indicators, is needed to support evidence-informed policies and approaches. PMID:25546339
da Silva, Franciele Cascaes; Iop, Rodrigo da Rosa; Vietta, Giovanna Grunewald; Kair, Diego Alessandro; Gutierres Filho, Paulo José Barbosa; de Alvarenga, José Gustavo Souza; da Silva, Rudney
The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of blood microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in PD in humans. For this purpose the following electronic databases were selected: MEDLINE by Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science. The search strategy included the proposed descriptors in the Medical Subject Headings. There were no restrictions with respect to the language of the publication. In the study selection two independent reviewers initially evaluated studies that were identified by the search strategy according to titles and abstracts. The reviewers evaluated (also unassisted) the complete articles and selected studies according to the eligibility criteria specified above. Studies that were not in accordance with the adopted criteria were excluded according to the boundaries imposed by the search strategy. The following data were extracted from the selected studies: Publication identification, location where the study was conducted, study design, the sample size, the participants' characteristics, the miRNAs involved in PD, the miRNA detection and analysis method, and the type of miRNA dysregulation in PD. Through this systematic review of the literature published over the last 10 years, the expression of 91 different miRNAs were analyzed in the context of PD, with the expression of 39 of these miRNAs differing significantly between individuals with PD and healthy controls and/or between treated and untreated patients with PD. The miRNAs were extracted from mononuclear cells, leukocytes, plasma, serum and peripheral blood, and the majority of the studies used reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), which is considered to be the gold standard for miRNA analysis.
Soleimanpour, Hassan; Safari, Saeid; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Sanaie, Sarvin; Alavian, Seyed Moayed
Context The liver, one of the most important organs of the body, is known to be responsible for several functions. The functional contribution of the liver to the metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, drugs and toxins, fats and cholesterol and many other biological processes are still unknown. Liver disorders are classified into two types: acute and chronic. Different drugs are used in liver diseases to treat and control pain. Most pain relief medications such as opioids are metabolized via the liver; therefore, the adverse reactions of drugs are probably higher for patients with liver disease. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of opioid drugs on patients with liver disease; therefore, it is necessary to select suitable opioids for such patients. Evidence Acquisition This review was written by referring to research literature including 70 articles and four textbooks published from 1958 to 2015 on various reputable sites. Searches were carried out on the key phrases of narcotic pain relievers (opioids), acute and chronic hepatic failure, opioid adverse drug reactions, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and other similar keywords. References included a variety of research papers (descriptive and analytical), intervention and review articles. Results In patients with liver disease, administration of opioid analgesics should be observed, accurately. As a general rule, lower doses of drugs should be administered at regular intervals based on the signs of drug accumulation. Secondly, the interactions of opioid drugs with different levels of substrates of the P450 cytochrome enzyme should be considered. Conclusions Pain management in patients with liver dysfunction is always challenging to physicians because of the adverse reactions of drugs, especially opioids. Opioids should be used cautiously since they can cause sedation, constipation and sudden encephalopathy effects. Since the clearance of these drugs in patients with hepatic insufficiency is decreased
Merritt, Richard W.; Walker, Edward D.; Small, Pamela L. C.; Wallace, John R.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Benbow, M. Eric; Boakye, Daniel A.
Buruli ulcer is a neglected emerging disease that has recently been reported in some countries as the second most frequent mycobacterial disease in humans after tuberculosis. Cases have been reported from at least 32 countries in Africa (mainly west), Australia, Southeast Asia, China, Central and South America, and the Western Pacific. Large lesions often result in scarring, contractual deformities, amputations, and disabilities, and in Africa, most cases of the disease occur in children between the ages of 4–15 years. This environmental mycobacterium, Mycobacterium ulcerans, is found in communities associated with rivers, swamps, wetlands, and human-linked changes in the aquatic environment, particularly those created as a result of environmental disturbance such as deforestation, dam construction, and agriculture. Buruli ulcer disease is often referred to as the “mysterious disease” because the mode of transmission remains unclear, although several hypotheses have been proposed. The above review reveals that various routes of transmission may occur, varying amongst epidemiological setting and geographic region, and that there may be some role for living agents as reservoirs and as vectors of M. ulcerans, in particular aquatic insects, adult mosquitoes or other biting arthropods. We discuss traditional and non-traditional methods for indicting the roles of living agents as biologically significant reservoirs and/or vectors of pathogens, and suggest an intellectual framework for establishing criteria for transmission. The application of these criteria to the transmission of M. ulcerans presents a significant challenge. PMID:21179505
Pereira, Vanessa Patricia L; Robazzi, Teresa Cristina Martins Vicente
Juvenile rheumatic diseases affect the musculoskeletal system and begin before the age of 18. These conditions have varied, identifiable or unknown etiologies, but those of an autoimmune inflammatory nature have been associated with an increased risk of development of cancer, regardless of treatment. This study aims to assess, through a systematic review of the literature according to Prisma (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) quality criteria, the risk of cancer in patients with juvenile rheumatic disease, and its association with biological agents. The criteria described by the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology initiative were used in order to assess the methodological quality of those individual items selected in this study. We analyzed nine publications, from a total of 251 papers initially selected. There was an increase in cancer risk in the population with juvenile rheumatic disease versus the general population. Most specified cancers were of a lymphoproliferative nature. Seven studies did not specify the treatment or not defined an association between treatment and cancer risk. Only one study has suggested this association; in it, their authors observed high risk in patients diagnosed in the last 20 years, a period of the advent of new therapies. One study found an increased risk in a population not treated with biological agents, suggesting a disease in its natural course, and not an adverse effect of therapy. Studies have shown an increased risk of malignancy associated with juvenile rheumatic disease, and this may be related to disease activity and not specifically to the treatment with biological agents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.
Pereira, Vanessa Patricia L; Robazzi, Teresa Cristina Martins Vicente
Juvenile rheumatic diseases affect the musculoskeletal system and begin before the age of 18. These conditions have varied, identifiable or unknown etiologies, but those of an autoimmune inflammatory nature have been associated with an increased risk of development of cancer, regardless of treatment. This study aims to assess, through a systematic review of the literature according to Prisma (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) quality criteria, the risk of cancer in patients with juvenile rheumatic disease, and its association with biological agents. The criteria described by the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology initiative were used in order to assess the methodological quality of those individual items selected in this study. We analyzed nine publications, from a total of 251 papers initially selected. There was an increase in cancer risk in the population with juvenile rheumatic disease versus the general population. Most specified cancers were of a lymphoproliferative nature. Seven studies did not specify the treatment or not defined an association between treatment and cancer risk. Only one study has suggested this association; in it, their authors observed high risk in patients diagnosed in the last 20 years, a period of the advent of new therapies. One study found an increased risk in a population not treated with biological agents, suggesting a disease in its natural course, and not an adverse effect of therapy. Studies have shown an increased risk of malignancy associated with juvenile rheumatic disease, and this may be related to disease activity and not specifically to the treatment with biological agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Saccone, Gabriele; Berghella, Vincenzo; Sarno, Laura; Maruotti, Giuseppe M; Cetin, Irene; Greco, Luigi; Khashan, Ali S; McCarthy, Fergus; Martinelli, Domenico; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Pasquale
The aim of this metaanalysis was to evaluate the risk of the development of obstetric complications in women with celiac disease. We searched electronic databases from their inception until February 2015. We included all cohort studies that reported the incidence of obstetric complications in women with celiac disease compared with women without celiac disease (ie, control group). Studies without a control group and case-control studies were excluded. The primary outcome was defined a priori and was the incidence of a composite of obstetric complications that included intrauterine growth restriction, small for gestational age, low birthweight, preeclampsia and preterm birth. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, stillbirth, preeclampsia, small for gestational age, and low birthweight. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015017263) before data extraction. All authors were contacted to obtain the original databases and perform individual participant data metaanalysis. Primary and secondary outcomes were assessed in the aggregate data analysis and in the individual participant data metaanalysis. We included 10 cohort studies (4,844,555 women) in this metaanalysis. Four authors provided the entire databases for the individual participant data analysis. Because none of the included studies stratified data for the primary outcome (ie, composite outcome), the assessment of this outcome for the aggregate analysis was not feasible. Aggregate data analysis showed that, compared with women in the control group, women with celiac disease (both treated and untreated) had a significantly higher risk of the development of preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.66), intrauterine growth restriction (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-4.67), stillbirth (odds ratio, 4.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-21.75), low birthweight (odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1
Villarino Marín, A L; Posada Moreno, P; Martínez Alvarez, J R; Ortuño Soriano, I; Astasio, P; Ortega, P
The aims of the present study are: To carry out a systematic revision of the printed literature on beer consumption and its possible effects on human health. To analyze the possibility of applying techniques used in epidemiological studies considering meta-analysis as the most important element. Meta-analysis is a set of different statistical techniques that aim to get a quantitative and qualitative synthesis of the results of different independent studies on the same subject. First we proceed to carry out the bibliographical search and compilation by means of the following Date-Bases: Medline, Embase and Toxline. Beer is used as key word, specifying the time period between January, 1998 and May, 2000. A total of 403 reference works are obtained and subjected to the corresponding criteria of inclusion and exclusion. The meta-analysis of the selected studies related to cardiovascular disease provides an OR of 0.89 (0.89-0.97) which shows that the group of risk falls ill in less cases than the non-exposed. Beer consumption: possible factor of cardiovascular protection. Nevertheless we must take this consideration with as much caution as possible. It is necessary to determine the effects of beer consumption on the Spanish population.
Caldeira, Daniel; Fernandes, Ricardo M; Costa, João; David, Cláudio; Sampaio, Cristina; Ferreira, Joaquim J
In the United States, patent for branded Plavix has recently expired. Some studies have compared branded and generic clopidogrel in terms of pharmacokinetic parameters in healthy volunteers, but data on patients and clinical outcomes are scarce. We aimed to review efficacy and safety data from studies comparing Plavix with generic clopidogrel in patients with cardiovascular disease. Electronic databases were searched (from inception to May 2012) for prospective studies evaluating branded versus generic clopidogrel in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Studies' characteristics and data estimates were retrieved. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated through a random-effects model. Three studies evaluating 760 patients were included: 2 randomized controlled trials and 1 cohort study. The RR for major cardiovascular events was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.67-1.52). Incidence of adverse events was similar between Plavix and generic (RR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.49-1.48). The risks of mortality, bleeding, and drug discontinuation were also not different between groups. There are a limited number of studies comparing Plavix and generic clopidogrel in patients with cardiovascular diseases and reporting hard clinical end points. The available evidence is therefore limited and does not support the existence of differences in efficacy or safety between branded and generic clopidogrel.
He, Ting; Liu, Xing; Li, Ying; Wu, Qiaoyu; Liu, Meilin; Yuan, Hong
Background Remote home management is a new healthcare model that uses information technology to enhance patients' self-management of disease in a home setting. This study is designed to identify the effects of remote home management on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods A comprehensive search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed in January 2015. The reference listings of the included articles in this review were also manually examined. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed to evaluate the effects of remote home management on patients with CKD were included. Results Eight trials were identified. The results of this study suggest that the quality of life (QOL) enabled by remote home management was higher than typical care in certain dimensions. However, the effects of remote home management on blood pressure (BP) remain inconclusive. The studies that assessed health service utilization demonstrated a significant decrease in hospital readmission, emergency room visits, and number of days in the hospital. Another favorable result of this study is that regardless of their gender, age or nationality, patients tend to comply with remote home management programs and the use of related technologies. Conclusions The available data indicate that remote home management may be a novel and effective disease management strategy for improving CKD patients' QOL and influencing their attitudes and behaviors. And, relatively little is known about BP and cost-effectiveness, so future research should focus on these two aspects for the entire population of patients with CKD.
Ellis, Rachel; Shields, Nora; Lim, Kwang; Dodd, Karen J
To determine if eccentric exercise is effective, tolerable and safe for adults with chronic cardiorespiratory disease. We searched electronic databases from inception until January 2015 (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, SportDiscus, PEDro, Cochrane Central and AMED) supplemented by citation tracking and reference list scanning. Included articles had to report effects of eccentric exercise, alone or as a primary component of intervention, of any intensity and duration, on adults with chronic cardiorespiratory disease. Trials needed to be reported as full text in a peer-reviewed journal and include control data (randomised, quasi-randomised and single group cross-over design trials). Any outcomes or comparison interventions were accepted. Methodological rigor was assessed using the PEDro scale. Of 22 potentially relevant articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. They reported results from seven trials with a total of 112 participants across the diseases. PEDro scores were low (median 3). Eccentric exercise increased strength and mobility to comparable levels as concentric exercise, however, it did so with lower oxygen consumption (effect size as large as d = -3.07 (-4.12, -1.80)), and four-fold power output (effect size d = -3.60 (-5.03, -1.66)). There were no adverse events reported for eccentric exercise. Pain was avoided with familiarisation sessions and individual exercise prescription. Eccentric exercise is beneficial and at least comparable with traditional exercise in improving walking and strength for people with chronic cardiorespiratory disease. It was well tolerated and we identified no safety concerns for the use of this intervention for this population. © The Author(s) 2015.
Sherzai, Ayesha Z; Tagliati, Michele; Park, Katherine; Pezeshkian, Shant; Sherzai, Dean
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Although the precise pathogenetic mechanisms of PD remain undetermined, there appears to be both genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the risk of developing PD. With regard to environmental risk factors, there has been significant interest related to the role of diet, nutrition, and nutrients on the onset and progression of PD. As the current treatments are predominantly focused on symptomatic management, efforts must be directed toward prevention of the PD and identification of potentially modifiable risk and preventive factors. This comprehensive review gives an overview of studies examining the role of micronutrients in PD, and provides guidance on the value of the reported outcomes.
Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Brøvig; Blanc, Paul; Brisman, Jonas Brisman; Miller, Martin Reginald; Pedersen, Ole Find; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Viskum, Sven
Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures. We used PubMed and Embase to identify relevant original epidemiological peer-reviewed articles, supplemented with citations identified from references in key review articles. This yielded 4528 citations. Articles were excluded for lack of lung function measurement, insufficient occupational exposure classification, lack of either external or internal referents, non-accounting of age or smoking effect, or major analytic inadequacies preventing interpretation of findings. A structured data extraction sheet was used for the remaining 147 articles. Final inclusion was based on a positive qualitative Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) score (≥2+) for study quality, yielding 25 population-wide and 34 industry/occupation-specific studies, 15 on inorganic and 19 on organic dust exposure, respectively. There was a consistent and predominantly significant association between occupational exposures and COPD in 22 of 25 population-based studies, 12 of 15 studies with an inorganic/mineral dust exposure, and 17 of 19 studies on organic exposure, even though the studies varied in design, populations, and the use of measures of exposure and outcome. A nearly uniform pattern of a dose-response relationship between various exposures and COPD was found, adding to the evidence that occupational exposures from vapors, gas, dust, and fumes are risk factors for COPD. There is strong and consistent evidence to support a causal association between multiple categories of occupational exposure and COPD, both within and across industry groups.
Zhang, Yumin; Zhang, Siwen; Wang, Guixia
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is generally characterized by increasing albuminuria in diabetic patients; however, few biomarkers are available to facilitate early diagnosis of this disease. The application of metabolomics has shown promises addressing this need. In this review, we conducted a search about metabolomic biomarkers in DKD patients through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database up to the end of March, 2015. 12 eligible studies were selected and evaluated subsequently through the use of QUADOMICS, a quality assessment tool. 7 of the 12 included studies were classified as 'high quality'. We also recorded specific study characteristics including participants' characteristics, metabolomic techniques, sample types, and significantly altered metabolites between DKD and control groups. Products of lipid metabolisms including esterified and non-esterified fatty acids, carnitines, phospholipids and metabolites involved in branch-chained amino acids and aromatic amino acids metabolisms were frequently affected biomarkers of DKD. Other differential metabolites were also found, while some of their associations with DKD were unclear. Further more studies are required to test these findings in larger, diverse ethnic populations with elaborate study designs, and finally we could translate them into the benefits of DKD patients.
Taft, Tiffany H; Keefer, Laurie
Chronic illness stigma is a global public health issue. Most widely studied in HIV/AIDS and mental illness, stigmatization of patients living with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic autoimmune conditions affecting the digestive tract, has garnered increasing attention in recent years. In this paper, we systematically review the scientific literature on stigma as it relates to IBD across its three domains: perception, internalization, and discrimination experiences. We aim to document the current state of research, identify gaps in our knowledge, recognize unique challenges that IBD patients may face as they relate to stigmatization, and offer suggestions for future research directions. Based on the current review, patients living with IBD may encounter stigmatization and this may, in turn, impact several patient outcomes including quality of life, psychological functioning, and treatment adherence. Significant gaps exist related to the understanding of IBD stigma, providing opportunity for future studies to address this important public health issue. PMID:27022294
Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket
Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke). A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92) comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long-term cardiovascular outcomes
Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket
Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke). A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71-0.92) comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long-term cardiovascular outcomes.
Lee, Myeong Soo; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Kong, Jae Cheol; Ernst, Edzard
The objective of this review is to assess the clinical evidence for or against acupuncture as a treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). We searched the literature using 17 databases from their inception to September 2007 (searched again 3rd January 2008), without language restrictions. We included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) regardless of their design. Methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad score. Eleven RCTs met all inclusion criteria. Three RCTs assessed the effectiveness of acupuncture on Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) compared with placebo acupuncture. A meta-analysis of these studies showed no significant effect (n = 96, WMD, 5.7; 95% CI -2.8 to 14.2, P = 0.19, heterogeneity: tau(2) = 0, chi(2) = 0.97, P = 0.62, I(2) = 0%). Another six RCTs compared acupuncture plus conventional drugs on improvement of symptoms of PD with drugs only. A meta-analysis of two of these studies suggested a positive effect of scalp acupuncture (n = 106, RR, 1.46, 95% CI = 1.15 to 1.87, P = 0.002; heterogeneity: tau(2) = 0.00, chi(2) = 1.14, P = 0.29, I(2) = 12%). Two further RCTs tested acupuncture versus no treatment. The meta-analysis of these studies also suggested beneficial effects of acupuncture. The results of the latter two types of RCTs fail to adequately control for nonspecific effects. In conclusion, the evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating PD is not convincing. The number and quality of trials as well as their total sample size are too low to draw any firm conclusion. Further rigorous trials are warranted.
Heikkilä, K; Koskinen, O A; Agarwal, A; Tikkinen, K A O; Mäki, M; Kaukinen, K
Clinical experience suggests that atherosclerotic disease is common in individuals with coeliac disease, but epidemiological studies have had contradicting findings. To summarise the currently available evidence, we systematically reviewed and analysed observational studies of the association of coeliac disease or dermatitis herpetiformis with coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke. We searched for studies comparing CHD or stroke outcomes with individuals with and without coeliac disease or dermatitis herpetiformis. Three investigators independently searched electronic databases, identified relevant studies and extracted data. Study-specific results were combined in random-effects meta-analyses, and heterogeneity was quantified using the I(2) statistic and meta-regression. Twenty-one studies were included in our systematic review and 18 in the meta-analyses. For CHD, the pooled hazard ratio for incident disease was 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 1.19) and the overall standardised mortality ratio was 1.21 (0.99, 1.49). For stroke and brain haemorrhage, the corresponding estimates were 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.21) and 1.43 (0.97, 2.10), respectively. There was moderate to considerable heterogeneity among the study-specific estimates. In addition, many estimates were based on small numbers of outcomes and they had limitations in terms of adjustment for potential confounders. Our meta-analyses lend some support to an association between coeliac disease and CHD or cerebrovascular disease, but the evidence base was heterogeneous and had limitations. Our systematic review highlighted a need in this area for adequately powered prospective studies with appropriate adjustment for potentially confounding factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hindryckx, Pieter; Levesque, Barrett G; Holvoet, Tom; Durand, Serina; Tang, Ceen-Ming; Parker, Claire; Khanna, Reena; Shackelton, Lisa M; D'Haens, Geert; Sandborn, William J; Feagan, Brian G; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Leffler, Daniel A; Jairath, Vipul
Although several pharmacological agents have emerged as potential adjunctive therapies to a gluten-free diet for coeliac disease, there is currently no widely accepted measure of disease activity used in clinical trials. We conducted a systematic review of coeliac disease activity indices to evaluate their operating properties and potential as outcome measures in registration trials. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane central library were searched from 1966 to 2015 for eligible studies in adult and/or paediatric patients with coeliac disease that included coeliac disease activity markers in their outcome measures. The operating characteristics of histological indices, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and endoscopic indices were evaluated for content and construct validity, reliability, responsiveness and feasibility using guidelines proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Of 19 123 citations, 286 studies were eligible, including 24 randomised-controlled trials. Three of five PROs identified met most key evaluative criteria but only the Celiac Disease Symptom Diary (CDSD) and the Celiac Disease Patient-Reported Outcome (CeD PRO) have been approved by the FDA. All histological and endoscopic scores identified lacked content validity. Quantitative morphometric histological analysis had better reliability and responsiveness compared with qualitative scales. Endoscopic indices were infrequently used, and only one index demonstrated responsiveness to effective therapy. Current best evidence suggests that the CDSD and the CeD PRO are appropriate for use in the definition of primary end points in coeliac disease registration trials. Morphometric histology should be included as a key secondary or co-primary end point. Further work is needed to optimise end point configuration to inform efficient drug development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Abad-Franch, Fernando; Vega, M. Celeste; Rolón, Miriam S.; Santos, Walter S.; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta
Background Vector control has substantially reduced Chagas disease (ChD) incidence. However, transmission by household-reinfesting triatomines persists, suggesting that entomological surveillance should play a crucial role in the long-term interruption of transmission. Yet, infestation foci become smaller and harder to detect as vector control proceeds, and highly sensitive surveillance methods are needed. Community participation (CP) and vector-detection devices (VDDs) are both thought to enhance surveillance, but this remains to be thoroughly assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings We searched Medline, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, the bibliographies of retrieved studies, and our own records. Data from studies describing vector control and/or surveillance interventions were extracted by two reviewers. Outcomes of primary interest included changes in infestation rates and the detection of infestation/reinfestation foci. Most results likely depended on study- and site-specific conditions, precluding meta-analysis, but we re-analysed data from studies comparing vector control and detection methods whenever possible. Results confirm that professional, insecticide-based vector control is highly effective, but also show that reinfestation by native triatomines is common and widespread across Latin America. Bug notification by householders (the simplest CP-based strategy) significantly boosts vector detection probabilities; in comparison, both active searches and VDDs perform poorly, although they might in some cases complement each other. Conclusions/Significance CP should become a strategic component of ChD surveillance, but only professional insecticide spraying seems consistently effective at eliminating infestation foci. Involvement of stakeholders at all process stages, from planning to evaluation, would probably enhance such CP-based strategies. PMID:21713022
de Morais, E F; Pinheiro, J C; Leite, R B; Santos, P P A; Barboza, C A G; Freitas, R A
Periodontal disease is characterized as a disorder of the oral microbiota resulting in an immune response which, in turn, leads to the destruction of periodontal tissue. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) has been reported as the major metalloproteinase involved in periodontal disease, being present at high levels in gingival crevicular fluid and salivary fluid (SF). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the scientific literature regarding the expression of MMP-8 in gingival crevicular fluid and SF in patients with periodontal disease, analyzing its validity as a possible biomarker in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. A systematic review of the literature was performed using the PubMed/Medline, CENTRAL and Science Direct databases. Studies concerning the use of MMP-8 in the diagnosis of periodontal disease that evaluated its effectiveness as a biomarker for periodontal disease were selected. The search strategy provided a total of 6483 studies. After selection, six articles met all the inclusion criteria and were included in the present systematic review. The studies demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of MMP-8 in patients with periodontal disease compared with controls, as well as in patients presenting more advanced stages of periodontal disease. The findings on higher MMP-8 concentrations in patients with periodontal disease compared with controls imply the potential adjunctive use of MMP-8 in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Background The evidence that higher levels of physical activity and/or lower levels of physical inactivity are associated with beneficial health-related outcomes stems mainly from observational studies. Findings from these studies often differ from randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews currently demonstrate mixed results, due partly to heterogeneity in physical activity interventions, methodologies used and populations studied. As a result, translation into clinical practice has been difficult. It is therefore essential that an overview is carried out to compare and contrast systematic reviews, and to identify those physical activity interventions that are the most effective in preventing and/or treating major chronic disease. This protocol has been registered on PROSPERO 2013: CRD42013003523. Methods We will carry out an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews. We will search the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials that have a primary focus on disease-related outcomes. We will restrict reviews to those in selected major chronic diseases. Two authors will independently screen search outputs, select studies, extract data and assess the quality of included reviews using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews tool; all discrepancies will be resolved by discussing and reaching a consensus, or by arbitration with a third author. The data extraction form will summarise key information from each review, including details of the population(s) (for example, disease condition), the context (for example, prevention, treatment or management), the participants, the intervention(s), the comparison(s) and the outcomes. The primary outcomes of interest are the prevention of chronic disease and/or improved outcomes, in the treatment or management of chronic disease. These outcomes will be summarised and presented for individual chronic diseases (for example, any change in blood pressure in hypertension
Nunan, David; Mahtani, Kamal R; Roberts, Nia; Heneghan, Carl
The evidence that higher levels of physical activity and/or lower levels of physical inactivity are associated with beneficial health-related outcomes stems mainly from observational studies. Findings from these studies often differ from randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews currently demonstrate mixed results, due partly to heterogeneity in physical activity interventions, methodologies used and populations studied. As a result, translation into clinical practice has been difficult. It is therefore essential that an overview is carried out to compare and contrast systematic reviews, and to identify those physical activity interventions that are the most effective in preventing and/or treating major chronic disease. This protocol has been registered on PROSPERO 2013: CRD42013003523. We will carry out an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews. We will search the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials that have a primary focus on disease-related outcomes. We will restrict reviews to those in selected major chronic diseases. Two authors will independently screen search outputs, select studies, extract data and assess the quality of included reviews using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews tool; all discrepancies will be resolved by discussing and reaching a consensus, or by arbitration with a third author. The data extraction form will summarise key information from each review, including details of the population(s) (for example, disease condition), the context (for example, prevention, treatment or management), the participants, the intervention(s), the comparison(s) and the outcomes. The primary outcomes of interest are the prevention of chronic disease and/or improved outcomes, in the treatment or management of chronic disease. These outcomes will be summarised and presented for individual chronic diseases (for example, any change in blood pressure in hypertension or glucose control
Haagsma, Juanita A; Tariq, Luqman; Heederik, Dick J; Havelaar, Arie H
Employees in different types of work may be intentionally or accidentally exposed to biological agents. Improved risk assessment is needed to identify opportunities to prevent work-related infectious disease. The objective of the current study was to perform a systematic literature review of work-related infectious disease to assist in the identification of occupational infectious disease risks. A literature search of papers on work-related infectious disease published between 1999 and 2008 yielded 1239 papers of which 242 met the selection criteria and were included in the review. The results of the systematic literature review were arranged in a matrix of occupational groups and exposure pathways. Increased risk from infectious diseases appeared to be concentrated in specific professions. Healthcare workers, workers in contact with animals, laboratory workers and refuse workers seem to have the highest risk of infection by a variety of pathogens. However, pathogens reported to be associated with closely related professions were different, indicating qualitative under-reporting. Arranging the results of this systematic review on work-related infectious diseases in a matrix of occupational groups and exposure pathways allowed the reliable identification of exposure hazards for specific occupational groups beyond currently reported diseases.
Bellmunt, S; Roqué, M; Osorio, D; Pardo, H; Escudero, J-R; Bonfill, X
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a major health problem whose clinical management includes multiple options regarding risk factor control, diagnosis, and medical and surgical treatment. The aim was to generate indicators based on systematic reviews to evaluate the quality of healthcare provided in PAD. Electronic searches were run for systematic reviews in The Cochrane Library (Issue 6, 2011), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other databases (up to June 2011). Conclusive systematic reviews of high methodological quality were selected to formulate clinical recommendations. Indicators were derived from clinical recommendations with moderate to very high strength of evidence as assessed by the GRADE system. From 1,804 reviews initially identified, 29 conclusive and high-quality systematic reviews were selected and nine clinical recommendations were formulated with a moderate to very high strength of recommendation. Six indicators were finally generated: four on pharmacological interventions, antiplatelet agents, naftidrofuryl, cilostazol, and statins; and two lifestyle interventions, exercise and tobacco cessation. No indicators were derived for diagnostic tests or surgical techniques. Most indicators targeted patients with intermittent claudication. These quality indicators will help clinicians to assess the appropriateness of healthcare provided in PAD. The development of evidence-based indicators in PAD is limited by the lack of methodological quality of the research in this disease, the inconclusiveness of the evidence on diagnostic and surgical techniques, and the dynamic nature of the vascular diseases field. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grover, Ashoo; Joshi, Ashish
Aims: The objective of our study was to examine various existing chronic disease models, their elements and their role in the management of Diabetes, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and Cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed and CINHAL during a period of January 2003- March 2011. Following key terms were used either in single or in combination such as “Chronic Disease Model” AND “Diabetes Mellitus” OR “COPD” OR ‘CVD”. Results: A total of 23 studies were included in the final analysis. Majority of the studies were US-based. Five chronic disease models included Chronic Care Model (CCM), Improving Chronic Illness Care (ICIC), and Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions (ICCC), Stanford Model (SM) and Community based Transition Model (CBTM). CCM was the most studied model. Elements studied included delivery system design and self-management support (87%), clinical information system and decision support (57%) and health system organization (52%). Elements including center care on the patient and family (13%), patient safety (4%), community policies (4%), built integrated health care (4%) and remote patient monitoring (4%) have not been well studied. Other elements including support paradigm shift, manage political environment, align sectoral policies for health, use healthcare personnel more effectively, support patients in their communities, emphasize prevention, identify patient specific concerns related to the transition process, and health literacy between visits and treatments have also not been well studied in the existing literature. Conclusions: It was unclear to what extent the results generated is applicable to different populations and locations and therefore is an area of future research. Future studies are also needed to test chronic disease models in settings where more racially and ethnically representative patients receive chronic care. Future program development should also
Sun, Zhonghua; Lee, Shen Yuan
The application of 3-D printing has been increasingly used in medicine, with research showing many applications in cardiovascular disease. This systematic review analyzes those studies published about the applications of 3-D printed, patient-specific models in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. A search of PubMed/Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify studies investigating the 3-D printing in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Only studies based on patient's medical images were eligible for review, while reports on in vitro phantom or review articles were excluded. A total of 48 studies met selection criteria for inclusion in the review. A range of patient-specific 3-D printed models of different cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were generated in these studies with most of them being developed using cardiac CT and MRI data, less commonly with 3-D invasive angiographic or echocardiographic images. The review of these studies showed high accuracy of 3-D printed, patient-specific models to represent complex anatomy of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system and depict various abnormalities, especially congenital heart diseases and valvular pathologies. Further, 3-D printing can serve as a useful education tool for both parents and clinicians, and a valuable tool for pre-surgical planning and simulation. This systematic review shows that 3-D printed models based on medical imaging modalities can accurately replicate complex anatomical structures and pathologies of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system. 3-D printing is a useful tool for both education and surgical planning in these diseases.
Tichelaar, Y I G Vladimir; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke J C; Meijer, Karina
Inflammation and venous thrombosis are intertwined. Only in the recent 15 years clinical epidemiological studies have focussed on inflammatory or infectious diseases as risk factors for venous thrombosis. Although a few reviews and many case reports or studies on these topic has been written, a review reporting relative or absolute risks for venous thrombosis has not been published yet. We performed a systematic review using Medline, Pubmed and Embase and found 31 eligible articles. Inflammatory bowel disease, ANCA-associated vasculitis, infections in general and more specifically, human immunodeficiency virus, pneumonia and urinary tract infections are associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis.
Spoto, Belinda; Pisano, Anna; Zoccali, Carmine
Insulin resistance (IR) is an early metabolic alteration in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, being apparent when the glomerular filtration rate is still within the normal range and becoming almost universal in those who reach the end stage of kidney failure. The skeletal muscle represents the primary site of IR in CKD, and alterations at sites beyond the insulin receptor are recognized as the main defect underlying IR in this condition. Estimates of IR based on fasting insulin concentration are easier and faster but may not be adequate in patients with CKD because renal insufficiency reduces insulin catabolism. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp is the gold standard for the assessment of insulin sensitivity because this technique allows a direct measure of skeletal muscle sensitivity to insulin. The etiology of IR in CKD is multifactorial in nature and may be secondary to disturbances that are prominent in renal diseases, including physical inactivity, chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, vitamin D deficiency, metabolic acidosis, anemia, adipokine derangement, and altered gut microbiome. IR contributes to the progression of renal disease by worsening renal hemodynamics by various mechanisms, including activation of the sympathetic nervous system, sodium retention, and downregulation of the natriuretic peptide system. IR has been solidly associated with intermediate mechanisms leading to cardiovascular (CV) disease in CKD including left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular dysfunction, and atherosclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether IR is an independent predictor of mortality and CV complications in CKD. Because IR is a modifiable risk factor and its reduction may lower CV morbidity and mortality, unveiling the molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of CKD-related insulin resistance is of importance for the identification of novel therapeutic targets aimed at reducing the high CV risk of this condition.
Alfaro, Tiago M; Monteiro, Rita A; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo
The widespread consumption of coffee means that any biological effects from its use can lead to significant public health consequences. Chronic pulmonary diseases are extremely prevalent and responsible for one of every six deaths on a global level. Major medical databases for studies reporting on the effects of coffee or caffeine consumption on a wide range of non-malignant respiratory outcomes, including incidence, prevalence, evolution or severity of respiratory disease in adults were searched. Studies on lung function and respiratory mortality were also considered. Fifteen studies, including seven cohort, six cross-sectional, one case control and one randomized control trial were found. Coffee consumption was generally associated with a reduction in prevalence of asthma. The association of coffee with natural honey was an effective treatment for persistent post-infectious cough. One case-control study found higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with coffee consumption. No association was found with the evolution of COPD or sarcoidosis. Coffee was associated with a reduction in respiratory mortality, and one study found improved lung function in coffee consumers. Smoking was a significant confounder in most studies. Coffee consumption was associated with some positive effects on the respiratory system. There was however limited available evidence, mostly from cross sectional and retrospective studies. The only prospective cohort studies were those reporting on respiratory mortality. These results suggest that coffee consumption may be a part of a healthy lifestyle leading to reduced respiratory morbidity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Muñoz-Hellín, Elena; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos
Sensory stimuli or sensory cues are being used as a therapeutic tool for improving gait disorders in Parkinson's disease patients, but most studies seem to focus on auditory stimuli. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review regarding the use of visual cues over gait disorders, dual tasks during gait, freezing and the incidence of falls in patients with Parkinson to obtain therapeutic implications. We conducted a systematic review in main databases such as Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, TripDataBase, PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE and Physiotherapy Evidence Database, during 2005 to 2012, according to the recommendations of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials, evaluating the quality of the papers included with the Downs & Black Quality Index. 21 articles were finally included in this systematic review (with a total of 892 participants) with variable methodological quality, achieving an average of 17.27 points in the Downs and Black Quality Index (range: 11-21). Visual cues produce improvements over temporal-spatial parameters in gait, turning execution, reducing the appearance of freezing and falls in Parkinson's disease patients. Visual cues appear to benefit dual tasks during gait, reducing the interference of the second task. Further studies are needed to determine the preferred type of stimuli for each stage of the disease.
Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Smith, Denise L; Tsismenakis, Antonios J; Baur, Dorothee M; Kales, Stefanos N
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of on-duty death among firefighters (45% of on-duty fatalities) and a major cause of morbidity. CVD in the fire service also has adverse public safety implications as well as significant cost impacts on government agencies. Over the last decade, our understanding of CVD among firefighters has significantly improved and provides insight into potential preventive strategies. The physiology of cardiovascular arousal and other changes that occur in association with acute firefighting activities have been well-characterized. However, despite the strenuous nature of emergency duty, firefighters' prevalence of low fitness, obesity, and other CVD risk factors are high. Unique statistical approaches have documented that on-duty CVD events do not occur at random in the fire service. They are more frequent at certain times of day, certain periods of the year, and are overwhelmingly more frequent during strenuous duties compared with nonemergency situations. Moreover, as expected on-duty CVD events occur almost exclusively among susceptible firefighters with underlying CVD. These findings suggest that preventive measures with proven benefits be applied aggressively to firefighters. Furthermore, all fire departments should have entry-level medical evaluations, institute periodic medical and fitness evaluations, and require rigorous return to work evaluations after any significant illness. Finally, on the basis of the overwhelming evidence supporting markedly higher relative risks of on-duty death and disability among firefighters with established coronary heart disease, most firefighters with clinically significant coronary heart disease should be restricted from participating in strenuous emergency duties.
Ethnic and geographical differences are important factors in studying disease frequencies, because they may highlight the environmental or genetic influences in the etiology. We retrieved the studies which have been published regarding the epidemiologic features of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Asia, based on the definitions of GERD, study settings, publication years and geographical regions. From the population-based studies, the prevalence of symptom-based GERD in Eastern Asia was found to be 2.5%-4.8% before 2005 and 5.2%-8.5% from 2005 to 2010. In Southeast and Western Asia, it was 6.3%-18.3% after 2005, which was much higher than those in Eastern Asia. There were robust epidemiologic data of endoscopic reflux esophagitis in medical check-up participants. The prevalence of endoscopic reflux esophagitis in Eastern Asia increased from 3.4%-5.0% before 2000, to 4.3%-15.7% after 2005. Although there were only limited studies, the prevalence of extra-esophageal syndromes in Asia was higher in GERD group than in controls. The prevalence of Barrett's esophagus was 0.06%-0.84% in the health check-up participants, whereas it was 0.31%-2.00% in the referral hospital settings. In summary, the prevalence of symptom-based GERD and endoscopic reflux esophagitis has increased in Asian countries. However, the prevalence of Barrett's esophagus in Asia has not changed and also still rare. PMID:21369488
Moraschini, Vittorio; de Albuquerque Calasans-Maia, José; Diuana Calasans-Maia, Monica
The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the association between asthma and periodontal disease. An electronic search without date or language restrictions was carried out in MEDLINE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and LILACS until May 2016. In addition, manual search and in the grey literature were also conducted. The search process, data analysis, and quality assessment were performed by two independent reviewing authors. Eligibility criteria included prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case-controls, and randomized clinical trials. The search and selection process yielded 21 studies, published between 1979 and 2017. The meta-analysis showed a statistically significant difference for the parameters of gingival bleeding, plaque index, and gingival index for asthmatic participants with P<0.0001, P<0.0001, and P= 0.0005, respectively. The data from this systematic review strongly suggest the association of asthma with periodontal disease.
Chou, Roger; Bougatsos, Christina; Blazina, Ian; Mackey, Katherine; Grusing, Sara; Selph, Shelley
Silent or subclinical celiac disease may result in potentially avoidable adverse health consequences. To review the evidence on benefits and harms of screening for celiac disease in asymptomatic adults, adolescents, and children 3 years and older for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, searched to June 14, 2016. Randomized clinical trials and cohort or case-control studies on clinical benefits and harms of screening vs no screening for celiac disease or treatment vs no treatment for screen-detected celiac disease; studies on diagnostic accuracy of serologic tests for celiac disease. One investigator abstracted data, a second checked data for accuracy, and 2 investigators independently assessed study quality using predefined criteria. Cancer incidence, gastrointestinal outcomes, psychological outcomes, child growth outcomes, health outcomes resulting from nutritional deficiencies, quality of life, mortality, and harms of screening. No meta-analytic pooling was done. One systematic review and 3 primary studies met inclusion criteria. No trials of screening for celiac disease were identified. One recent, good-quality systematic review of 56 original studies and 12 previous systematic reviews (sample sizes of primary studies ranging from 62 to more than 12 000 participants) found IgA tissue transglutaminase was associated with high accuracy (sensitivity and specificity both >90%) for diagnosing celiac disease. IgA endomysial antibodies tests were associated with high specificity. Only 2 studies of serologic tests for celiac disease involving 62 and 158 patients were conducted in asymptomatic populations and reported lower sensitivity (57% and 71%). One fair-quality, small (n = 40) Finnish treatment trial of asymptomatic adults with screen-detected celiac disease based on positive serologic findings found initiation of a gluten-free diet associated with
Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Williams, Gemma; Mladovsky, Philipa; King, Lawrence; Pharris, Anastasia; Suk, Jonathan E; Hatzakis, Angelos; McKee, Martin; Noori, Teymur; Stuckler, David
It is not well understood how economic crises affect infectious disease incidence and prevalence, particularly among vulnerable groups. Using a susceptible-infected-recovered framework, we systematically reviewed literature on the impact of the economic crises on infectious disease risks in migrants in Europe, focusing principally on HIV, TB, hepatitis and other STIs. We conducted two searches in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, websites of key organizations and grey literature to identify how economic changes affect migrant populations and infectious disease. We perform a narrative synthesis in order to map critical pathways and identify hypotheses for subsequent research. The systematic review on links between economic crises and migrant health identified 653 studies through database searching; only seven met the inclusion criteria. Fourteen items were identified through further searches. The systematic review on links between economic crises and infectious disease identified 480 studies through database searching; 19 met the inclusion criteria. Eight items were identified through further searches. The reviews show that migrant populations in Europe appear disproportionately at risk of specific infectious diseases, and that economic crises and subsequent responses have tended to exacerbate such risks. Recessions lead to unemployment, impoverishment and other risk factors that can be linked to the transmissibility of disease among migrants. Austerity measures that lead to cuts in prevention and treatment programmes further exacerbate infectious disease risks among migrants. Non-governmental health service providers occasionally stepped in to cater to specific populations that include migrants. There is evidence that migrants are especially vulnerable to infectious disease during economic crises. Ring-fenced funding of prevention programs, including screening and treatment, is important for addressing this vulnerability. © The
Karanikolos, Marina; Williams, Gemma; Mladovsky, Philipa; King, Lawrence; Pharris, Anastasia; Suk, Jonathan E.; Hatzakis, Angelos; McKee, Martin; Noori, Teymur; Stuckler, David
Background: It is not well understood how economic crises affect infectious disease incidence and prevalence, particularly among vulnerable groups. Using a susceptible-infected-recovered framework, we systematically reviewed literature on the impact of the economic crises on infectious disease risks in migrants in Europe, focusing principally on HIV, TB, hepatitis and other STIs. Methods: We conducted two searches in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, websites of key organizations and grey literature to identify how economic changes affect migrant populations and infectious disease. We perform a narrative synthesis in order to map critical pathways and identify hypotheses for subsequent research. Results: The systematic review on links between economic crises and migrant health identified 653 studies through database searching; only seven met the inclusion criteria. Fourteen items were identified through further searches. The systematic review on links between economic crises and infectious disease identified 480 studies through database searching; 19 met the inclusion criteria. Eight items were identified through further searches. The reviews show that migrant populations in Europe appear disproportionately at risk of specific infectious diseases, and that economic crises and subsequent responses have tended to exacerbate such risks. Recessions lead to unemployment, impoverishment and other risk factors that can be linked to the transmissibility of disease among migrants. Austerity measures that lead to cuts in prevention and treatment programmes further exacerbate infectious disease risks among migrants. Non-governmental health service providers occasionally stepped in to cater to specific populations that include migrants. Conclusions: There is evidence that migrants are especially vulnerable to infectious disease during economic crises. Ring-fenced funding of prevention programs, including screening and treatment, is important for
Anderson, L J; Taylor, R S
Overviews are a new approach to summarising evidence and synthesising results from related systematic reviews. To conduct an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews to provide a contemporary review of the evidence for cardiac rehabilitation (CR), identify opportunities for merging or splitting existing Cochrane reviews, and identify current evidence gaps to inform new review titles. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched to identify reviews that address the objectives of this overview. Data presentation is descriptive with tabular presentations of review- and trial-level characteristics and results. The six included Cochrane systematic reviews were of high methodological quality and included 148 randomised controlled trials in 97,486 participants. Compared to usual care alone, exercise-based CR reduces hospital admissions and improves patient health related quality of life (HRQL) in low to moderate risk heart failure and coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. At 12 months or more follow-up, there was evidence of some reduction in mortality in patients with CHD. Psychological- and education-based interventions appear to have little impact on mortality or morbidity but may improve HRQL. Home- and centre-based programmes are equally effective in improving HRQL at similar costs. Selected interventions can increase the uptake of CR programmes but evidence to support interventions that improve adherence is weak. This overview confirms that exercise-based CR is effective and safe in the management of clinically stable heart failure and post-MI and PCI patients. We discuss the implications of this overview on the future direction of the Cochrane CR reviews portfolio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rimland, Joseph M; Abraha, Iosief; Luchetta, Maria Laura; Cozzolino, Francesco; Orso, Massimiliano; Cherubini, Antonio; Dell'Aquila, Giuseppina; Chiatti, Carlos; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Montedori, Alessandro
Healthcare databases are useful sources to investigate the epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), to assess longitudinal outcomes in patients with COPD, and to develop disease management strategies. However, in order to constitute a reliable source for research, healthcare databases need to be validated. The aim of this protocol is to perform the first systematic review of studies reporting the validation of codes related to COPD diagnoses in healthcare databases. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases will be searched using appropriate search strategies. Studies that evaluated the validity of COPD codes (such as the International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision and 10th Revision system; the Real codes system or the International Classification of Primary Care) in healthcare databases will be included. Inclusion criteria will be: (1) the presence of a reference standard case definition for COPD; (2) the presence of at least one test measure (eg, sensitivity, positive predictive values, etc); and (3) the use of a healthcare database (including administrative claims databases, electronic healthcare databases or COPD registries) as a data source. Pairs of reviewers will independently abstract data using standardised forms and will assess quality using a checklist based on the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy (STARD) criteria. This systematic review protocol has been produced in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Ethics approval is not required. Results of this study will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. The results from this systematic review will be used for outcome research on COPD and will serve as a guide to identify appropriate case definitions of COPD, and reference standards, for researchers involved in validating healthcare databases. CRD42015029204. Published by the BMJ
Jakobsen, Anna Svarre; Laursen, Lars Christian; Schou, Lone; Emme, Chistina; Phanareth, Klaus Viengpheth
A systematic review of existing evidence on the efficiency of telemedicine solutions for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was performed. A systematic literature search was conducted in five relevant databases followed by evaluation of methodology and results in selected studies. Nine RCT trials of varying quality were identified. The selected studies were mostly multimodal with telemedicine as part of a more complex intervention. Benefits of using telemedicine solutions for patients with COPD are not yet clear, but in some multimodal studies with telemedicine as part of the solution a positive effect on hospital admissions, emergency room visits and contacts to primary care may be seen. Larger studies are needed.
Background Left ventricular (LV) rotation is increasingly examined in those with heart disease. The available evidence measuring LV rotation in those with heart diseases has not been systematically reviewed. Methods To review systematically the evidence measuring LV rotational changes in various heart diseases compared to healthy controls, literature searches were conducted for appropriate articles using several electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE). All randomized-controlled trials, prospective cohort and case–controlled studies that assessed LV rotation in relation to various heart conditions were included. Three independent reviewers evaluated each investigation’s quality using validated scales. Results were tabulated and levels of evidence assigned. Results A total of 1,782 studies were found through the systematic literature search. Upon review of the articles, 47 were included. The articles were separated into those investigating changes in LV rotation in participants with: aortic stenosis, myocardial infarction, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, non-compaction, restrictive cardiomyopathy/ constrictive pericarditis, heart failure, diastolic dysfunction, heart transplant, implanted pacemaker, coronary artery disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Evidence showing changes in LV rotation due to various types of heart disease was supported by evidence with limited to moderate methodological quality. Conclusions Despite a relatively low quality and volume of evidence, the literature consistently shows that heart disease leads to marked changes in LV rotation, while rotational systolic-diastolic coupling is preserved. No prognostic information exists on the potential value of rotational measures of LV function. The literature suggests that measures of LV rotation may aid in diagnosing subclinical aortic stenosis and diastolic dysfunction. PMID:22726250
Parra-Medina, Rafael; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolás; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Arango, Maria-Teresa; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Anaya, Juan-Manuel
Background Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in susceptible individuals, and its prevalence varies depending on the studied population. Given that information on CD in Latin America is scarce, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of CD in this region of the world through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods and Findings This was a two-phase study. First, a cross-sectional analysis from 981 individuals of the Colombian population was made. Second, a systematic review and meta-regression analysis were performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Meta- Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Our results disclosed a lack of celiac autoimmunity in the studied Colombian population (i.e., anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and IgA anti-endomysium (EMA)). In the systematic review, 72 studies were considered. The estimated prevalence of CD in Latin Americans ranged between 0.46% and 0.64%. The prevalence of CD in first-degree relatives of CD probands was 5.5%. The coexistence of CD and type 1 diabetes mellitus varied from 4.6% to 8.7%, depending on the diagnosis methods (i.e., autoantibodies and/or biopsies). Conclusions Although CD seems to be a rare condition in Colombians; the general prevalence of the disease in Latin Americans seemingly corresponds to a similar scenario observed in Europeans. PMID:25942408
Imai, Chisato; Hashizume, Masahiro
Time series analysis is suitable for investigations of relatively direct and short-term effects of exposures on outcomes. In environmental epidemiology studies, this method has been one of the standard approaches to assess impacts of environmental factors on acute non-infectious diseases (e.g. cardiovascular deaths), with conventionally generalized linear or additive models (GLM and GAM). However, the same analysis practices are often observed with infectious diseases despite of the substantial differences from non-infectious diseases that may result in analytical challenges. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, systematic review was conducted to elucidate important issues in assessing the associations between environmental factors and infectious diseases using time series analysis with GLM and GAM. Published studies on the associations between weather factors and malaria, cholera, dengue, and influenza were targeted. Our review raised issues regarding the estimation of susceptible population and exposure lag times, the adequacy of seasonal adjustments, the presence of strong autocorrelations, and the lack of a smaller observation time unit of outcomes (i.e. daily data). These concerns may be attributable to features specific to infectious diseases, such as transmission among individuals and complicated causal mechanisms. The consequence of not taking adequate measures to address these issues is distortion of the appropriate risk quantifications of exposures factors. Future studies should pay careful attention to details and examine alternative models or methods that improve studies using time series regression analysis for environmental determinants of infectious diseases.
Janati, Ali; Hosseiny, Mozhgan; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Moradi, Ghobad; Ghaderi, Ebrahim
Communicable disease reporting and surveillance system has poor infrastructure and supporters in most of countries. Its quality improvement is a challenge and requires an accurate and efficient care and reporting systems at all levels to achieve new and simple models. This study evaluates reporting systems of communicable diseases using systematic review. This was a systematic review study. For data collection, we used the following database and search engines: Proquest, Science direct, Pub MED, Scopes, Springer, and EBESCO. For Persian databases, we used SID, Iranmedex and Magiran. Our key words were "Communicable Diseases", "Notifiable Disease", "Disease Notification", "Reporting System"," Surveillance Systems" and "evaluation". Two independent researchers reviewed the resources and the results were classified in different domains. From 1889 cases, only 66 resources were studied. The results were classified in several domains, including those who were reporting, reporting methods and procedures, responsibilities and reporting system characteristics, problems and solutions of the report, the reporting process, and receptor level. Disease-reporting system has similar problems in all parts of the world. Change, improve, update and continuous monitoring of the reporting system are very important. Although the reporting process can vary in different regions, but being perfect and timely are important principles in system design. Detailed explanations of tasks and providing appropriate instructions are the most important points to integrate an efficient reporting system.
Wright, Emily K.; Teo, Shu Mei; Inouye, Michael; Wagner, Josef; Kirkwood, Carl D.
Background: The intestinal microbiota is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. A reduction in the diversity of the intestinal microbiota as well as specific taxonomic and functional shifts have been reported in Crohn's disease and may play a central role in the inflammatory process. The aim was to systematically review recent developments in the structural and functional changes observed in the gastrointestinal microbiome in patients with Crohn's Disease. Results: Seventy-two abstracts were included in this review. The effects of host genetics, disease phenotype, and inflammatory bowel disease treatment on the gastrointestinal microbiome in Crohn's disease were reviewed, and taxonomic shifts in patients with early and established disease were described. The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes is increased and Firmicutes decreased in Crohn's disease compared with healthy controls. Enterobacteriaceae, specifically Eschericia coli, is enriched in Crohn's disease. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is found at lower abundance in Crohn's disease and in those with postoperative recurrence. Observed functional changes include major shifts in oxidative stress pathways, a decrease in butanoate and propanoate metabolism gene expression, lower levels of butyrate, and other short-chain fatty acids, decreased carbohydrate metabolism, and decreased amino acid biosynthesis. Conclusions: Changes in microbial composition and function have been described, although a causative role remains to be established. Larger, prospective, and longitudinal studies are required with deep interrogation of the microbiome if causality is to be determined, and refined microbial manipulation is to emerge as a focused therapy. PMID:25844959
Garba, Rayyan M.; Gadanya, Muktar A.
Objective To assess the role of Intervention Mapping (IM) in designing disease prevention interventions worldwide. Methods Systematic search and review of the relevant literature—peer-reviewed and grey—was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Findings Only five of the twenty two included studies reviewed were RCTs that compared intervention using IM protocol with placebo intervention, and provided the outcomes in terms of percentage increase in the uptake of disease-prevention programmes, and only one of the five studies provided an effect measure in the form of relative risk (RR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.08–2.34, p = 0.02). Of the five RCTs, three were rated as strong evidences, one as a medium evidence and one as a weak evidence, and they all reported statistically significant difference between the two study groups, with disease prevention interventions that have used the intervention mapping approach generally reported significant increases in the uptake of disease-prevention interventions, ranging from 9% to 28.5% (0.0001 ≤ p ≤ 0.02), On the other hand, all the 22 studies have successfully identified the determinants of the uptake of disease prevention interventions that is essential to the success of disease prevention programmes. Conclusion Intervention Mapping has been successfully used to plan, implement and evaluate interventions that showed significant increase in uptake of disease prevention programmes. This study has provided a good understanding of the role of intervention mapping in designing disease prevention interventions, and a good foundation upon which subsequent reviews can be guided. PMID:28358821
Pacauskiene, Ingrida; Astramskaite, Inesa
ABSTRACT Objectives To systematically review the influence of systemic diseases or medications used in their treatment on the dental implant therapy success. Material and Methods The search strategy was implemented on the National Library of Medicine database (MEDLINE) (Ovid) and EMBASE electronic databases between January 2006 and January 2016. Human studies with available English articles analysing the relationship between dental implant therapy success and systemic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, AIDS/HIV, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, Crohn’s disease, cardiovascular diseases, scleroderma, Sjögren’s syndrome, lichen planus, ectodermal dysplasia, post-transplantation status, were included in present review according to the PRISMA guidelines. The review protocol was registered on PROSPERO system with the code CRD42016033662. Results Present review included forty one retrospective and prospective follow-up studies, case-control studies, case report series and cohort studies. Despite some limitations this study reveals positive results of implantation in most systemic conditions that should be interpreted with caution. Influence of cardiovascular diseases on the dental implantation success should be explored deeply, because of controversial results and likelihood of comorbidity expressed by a history of cardiovascular diseases and periodontitis. There is only a weak relationship with bone density in osteoporosis and implant failure. All the other diseases did not show significant effect on implantation success. Conclusions Recent studies with low strength of evidence and controversy show that systemic diseases may have potential effect on the success of implantation, but further detailed studies are needed to provide these findings. PMID:27833730
Tovo, Cristiane V; Fernandes, Sabrina A; Buss, Caroline; de Mattos, Angelo A
AIM To perform a systematic review to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adult patients with sarcopenia. METHODS Randomized clinical trials, cross-sectional or cohort studies including adult patients (over 18 years) with sarcopenia were selected. The primary outcomes of interest were the prevalence or incidence of NAFLD in sarcopenic patients. In the screening process, 44 full-text articles were included in the review and 41 studies were excluded. RESULTS Three cross-sectional studies were included. The authors attempted to perform a systematic review, but due to the differences between the studies, a qualitative synthesis was provided. The diagnosis of NAFLD was made by non-invasive methods (image methods or any surrogate markers) in all three evaluated studies. All the studies suggested that there was an independent association between sarcopenia and NAFLD. CONCLUSION Sarcopenia is independently associated with NAFLD and possibly to an advanced fibrosis. PMID:28293382
Trejo, Edgardo; Faraone, Stephen V.
Objective: Depression has been linked to adverse coronary artery disease outcomes. Whether depression treatment improves or worsens coronary artery disease prognosis is unclear. This 25-year systematic review examines medical outcomes, and, secondarily, mood outcomes of depression treatment among patients with coronary artery disease. Data Sources: We systematically reviewed the past 25 years (January 1, 1986–December 31, 2011) of prospective trials reporting on the medical outcomes of depression treatment among patients with established coronary artery disease using keywords and MESH terms from OVID MEDLINE. Search 1 combined depression AND coronary artery disease AND antidepressants. Search 2 combined depression AND coronary artery disease AND psychotherapy. Search 3 combined depression AND revascularization AND antidepressants OR psychotherapy. Study Selection: English-language longitudinal randomized controlled trials, with at least 50 depressed coronary artery disease patients, reporting the impact of psychotherapy and/or antidepressants on cardiac and mood outcomes were included. Data Extraction: Data extracted included author name, year published, number of participants, enrollment criteria, depression definition/measures (standardized interviews, rating scales), power analyses, description of control arms and interventions (psychotherapy and/or medications), randomization, blinding, follow-up duration, follow-up loss, depression scores, and medical outcomes Results: The review yielded 10 trials. Antidepressant and/or psychotherapy did not significantly influence coronary artery disease outcomes in the overall population, but most studies were underpowered. There was a trend toward worse coronary artery disease outcomes after treatment with bupropion. Conclusions: After an acute coronary syndrome, depression often spontaneously remitted without treatment. Post–acute coronary syndrome persistence of depression predicted adverse coronary artery disease
Background A primary characteristic of complex genetic diseases is that affected individuals tend to cluster in families (that is, familial aggregation). Aggregation of the same autoimmune condition, also referred to as familial autoimmune disease, has been extensively evaluated. However, aggregation of diverse autoimmune diseases, also known as familial autoimmunity, has been overlooked. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed aimed at gathering evidence about this topic. Methods Familial autoimmunity was investigated in five major autoimmune diseases, namely, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Articles were searched in Pubmed and Embase databases. Results Out of a total of 61 articles, 44 were selected for final analysis. Familial autoimmunity was found in all the autoimmune diseases investigated. Aggregation of autoimmune thyroid disease, followed by systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, was the most encountered. Conclusions Familial autoimmunity is a frequently seen condition. Further study of familial autoimmunity will help to decipher the common mechanisms of autoimmunity. PMID:23497011
Sun, Zhonghua; Lee, Shen-Yuan
Objective: The application of 3-D printing has been increasingly used in medicine, with research showing many applications in cardiovascular disease. This systematic review analyzes those studies published about the applications of 3-D printed, patient-specific models in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Methods: A search of PubMed/Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify studies investigating the 3-D printing in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Only studies based on patient’s medical images were eligible for review, while reports on in vitro phantom or review articles were excluded. Results: A total of 48 studies met selection criteria for inclusion in the review. A range of patient-specific 3-D printed models of different cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were generated in these studies with most of them being developed using cardiac CT and MRI data, less commonly with 3-D invasive angiographic or echocardiographic images. The review of these studies showed high accuracy of 3-D printed, patient-specific models to represent complex anatomy of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system and depict various abnormalities, especially congenital heart diseases and valvular pathologies. Further, 3-D printing can serve as a useful education tool for both parents and clinicians, and a valuable tool for pre-surgical planning and simulation. Conclusion: This systematic review shows that 3-D printed models based on medical imaging modalities can accurately replicate complex anatomical structures and pathologies of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system. 3-D printing is a useful tool for both education and surgical planning in these diseases. PMID:28430115
Villar, Luis Angel; Rojas, Diana Patricia; Besada-Lombana, Sandra; Sarti, Elsa
A systematic literature review was conducted to describe the epidemiology of dengue disease in Colombia. Searches of published literature in epidemiological studies of dengue disease encompassing the terms “dengue”, “epidemiology,” and “Colombia” were conducted. Studies in English or Spanish published between 1 January 2000 and 23 February 2012 were included. The searches identified 225 relevant citations, 30 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria defined in the review protocol. The epidemiology of dengue disease in Colombia was characterized by a stable “baseline” annual number of dengue fever cases, with major outbreaks in 2001–2003 and 2010. The geographical spread of dengue disease cases showed a steady increase, with most of the country affected by the 2010 outbreak. The majority of dengue disease recorded during the review period was among those <15 years of age. Gaps identified in epidemiological knowledge regarding dengue disease in Colombia may provide several avenues for future research, namely studies of asymptomatic dengue virus infection, primary versus secondary infections, and under-reporting of the disease. Improved understanding of the factors that determine disease expression and enable improvement in disease control and management is also important. PMID:25790245
Villar, Luis Angel; Rojas, Diana Patricia; Besada-Lombana, Sandra; Sarti, Elsa
A systematic literature review was conducted to describe the epidemiology of dengue disease in Colombia. Searches of published literature in epidemiological studies of dengue disease encompassing the terms "dengue", "epidemiology," and "Colombia" were conducted. Studies in English or Spanish published between 1 January 2000 and 23 February 2012 were included. The searches identified 225 relevant citations, 30 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria defined in the review protocol. The epidemiology of dengue disease in Colombia was characterized by a stable "baseline" annual number of dengue fever cases, with major outbreaks in 2001-2003 and 2010. The geographical spread of dengue disease cases showed a steady increase, with most of the country affected by the 2010 outbreak. The majority of dengue disease recorded during the review period was among those <15 years of age. Gaps identified in epidemiological knowledge regarding dengue disease in Colombia may provide several avenues for future research, namely studies of asymptomatic dengue virus infection, primary versus secondary infections, and under-reporting of the disease. Improved understanding of the factors that determine disease expression and enable improvement in disease control and management is also important.
Zheng, Laura Y; Sanders, Alison P; Saland, Jeffrey M; Wright, Robert O; Arora, Manish
Environmental chemical exposures have been implicated in pediatric kidney disease. No appraisal of the available evidence has been conducted on this topic. We performed a systematic review of the epidemiologic studies that assessed association of environmental exposures with measures of kidney function and disease in pediatric populations. The search period went through July 2016. We found 50 studies that met the search criteria and were included in this systematic review. Environmental exposures reviewed herein included lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, fluoride, aflatoxin, melamine, environmental tobacco, bisphenol A, dental procedures, phthalates, ferfluorooctanoic acid, triclosan, and thallium/uranium. Most studies assessed environmental chemical exposure via biomarkers but four studies assessed exposure via proximity to emission source. There was mixed evidence of association between metal exposures, and other non-metal environmental exposures and pediatric kidney disease and other kidney disease biomarkers. The evaluation of causality is hampered by the small numbers of studies for each type of environmental exposure, as well as lack of study quality and limited prospective evidence. There is a need for well-designed epidemiologic studies of environmental chemical exposures and kidney disease outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Backé, Eva-Maria; Seidler, Andreas; Latza, Ute; Rossnagel, Karin; Schumann, Barbara
A systematic review was carried out to assess evidence for the association between different models of stress at work, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A literature search was conducted using five databases (MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PSYNDEX and PsycINFO). Inclusion criteria for studies were the following: self-reported stress for individual workplaces, prospective study design and incident disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, angina pectoris, high blood pressure). Evaluation, according to the criteria of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, was done by two readers. In case of disagreement, a third reader was involved. Twenty-six publications were included, describing 40 analyses out of 20 cohorts. The risk estimates for work stress were associated with a statistically significant increased risk of cardiovascular disease in 13 out of the 20 cohorts. Associations were significant for 7 out of 13 cohorts applying the demand-control model, all three cohorts using the effort-reward model and 3 out of 6 cohorts investigating other models. Most significant results came from analyses considering only men. Results for the association between job stress and cardiovascular diseases in women were not clear. Associations were weaker in participants above the age of 55. In accordance with other systematic reviews, this review stresses the importance of psychosocial factors at work in the aetiology of cardiovascular diseases. Besides individual measures to manage stress and to cope with demanding work situations, organisational changes at the workplace need to be considered to find options to reduce occupational risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.
Adams-Carr, Kerala L; Bestwick, Jonathan P; Shribman, Samuel; Lees, Andrew; Schrag, Anette; Noyce, Alastair J
To systematically review published literature to estimate the magnitude of association between premorbid constipation and later diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Constipation is a recognised non-motor feature of Parkinson's and has been reported to predate diagnosis in a number of observational studies. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out following the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) criteria. A literature search was undertaken in December 2014 using PubMed and the search terms 'Parkinson's disease' and 'constipation'. Articles were screened for suitability and reviewed against inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies were included if they assessed constipation by means of a structured questionnaire or if constipation/drugs used to treat constipation were coded in patient medical records. Data were extracted using a standardised template and effect size estimates combined using a fixed-effects model. Heterogeneity was explored with the I(2) statistic. 9 studies were included in the meta-analysis, with a combined sample size of 741 593 participants. Those with constipation had a pooled OR of 2.27 (95% CI 2.09 to 2.46) for developing subsequent Parkinson's disease compared with those without constipation. Weak evidence for heterogeneity was found (I(2)=18.9%, p=0.282). Restricting analysis to studies assessing constipation more than 10 years prior to Parkinson's disease gave a pooled OR of 2.13 (95% CI 1.78 to 2.56; I(2)=0.0%). This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates that people with constipation are at a higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease compared with those without and that constipation can predate Parkinson's diagnosis by over a decade. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Heikkilä, Katriina; Pearce, Jo; Mäki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri
Celiac disease, an autoimmune disease induced by dietary gluten, is associated with metabolic bone disorders, such as low bone mineral density. However, it is unclear whether this translates into an association between celiac disease and such hard clinical outcomes as bone fractures. To systematically review and pool the evidence for the relationship of celiac disease with prevalence and incidence of bone fractures. We systematically searched Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library in January 2014 for studies of celiac disease and bone fractures. Observational studies of any design, in which bone fracture outcomes were compared in individuals with and without celiac disease were included. Two investigators independently extracted results from eligible studies. In the meta-analyses of case-control and cross-sectional studies, bone fractures were almost twice as common in individuals with a clinically diagnosed celiac disease as in those without the disease. In the meta-analyses of prospective studies, celiac disease at baseline was associated with a 30% increase (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14, 1.50) in the risk of any fracture and a 69% increase in the risk of hip fracture (95% CI: 1.10, 2.59). The two studies of unrecognized celiac disease (elevated circulating concentrations of celiac disease-specific autoantibodies but no celiac disease diagnosis) had contradicting findings. Our findings suggest that clinically diagnosed celiac disease and bone fractures co-occur and that celiac disease was associated with an increased risk of hip fractures as well as fractures in general. Further research would be needed to determine whether unrecognized celiac disease is associated with the risk of bone fractures.
Khan, Samer R; Bano, Arjola; Wakkee, Marlies; Korevaar, Tim I M; Franco, Oscar H; Nijsten, Tamar E C; Peeters, Robin P; Chaker, Layal
Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and psoriatic disease share auto-immunological components. Few studies have investigated the link between both, yielding inconclusive results. We assessed the association of AITD with psoriatic disease in a prospective cohort study and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. 8214 participants of the Rotterdam Study (RS) with thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Abs), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and/or free thyroxine (FT4) measurements and information on psoriatic disease were included. We performed logistic and Cox regression analyses and a systematic literature search in several electronic databases on AITD and psoriatic disease. We pooled odds ratios (ORs) of included studies using the Mantel-Haenszel method, while adding RS data on prevalent psoriatic disease. Within the RS, we found no association between TPO-Ab positivity and psoriatic disease. There was a positive trend between TSH and prevalent psoriatic disease, and between FT4 and incident psoriatic disease, although not significant. Out of 1850 articles identified, seven were included in the systematic review and four in the meta-analysis. The risk of psoriatic disease (pooled OR) was 1.71 (confidence interval (CI): 1.27-2.31) for TPO-Ab positivity, 1.25 (CI: 1.14-1.37) for AITD and 1.34 (CI: 1.16-1.54) respectively, and 1.17 (CI: 1.03-1.32) for hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Our meta-analysis suggests that TPO-Ab positivity, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism might be associated with prevalent psoriatic disease. However, there are only few studies with large heterogeneity regarding psoriatic disease definition and indication of publication bias. Additional prospective data are needed to assess the association of AITD with incident psoriatic disease. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.
Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Garcia, Marissa; Bihuniak, Jessica D; Kenny, Anne; Kerstetter, Jane
Several systematic reviews/meta-analyses published within the past 10 y have examined the associations of Mediterranean-style diets (MedSDs) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, these reviews have not been evaluated for satisfying contemporary methodologic quality standards. This study evaluated the quality of recent systematic reviews/meta-analyses on MedSD and CVD risk outcomes by using an established methodologic quality scale. The relation between review quality and impact per publication value of the journal in which the article had been published was also evaluated. To assess compliance with current standards, we applied a modified version of the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTARMedSD) quality scale to systematic reviews/meta-analyses retrieved from electronic databases that had met our selection criteria: 1) used systematic or meta-analytic procedures to review the literature, 2) examined MedSD trials, and 3) had MedSD interventions independently or combined with other interventions. Reviews completely satisfied from 8% to 75% of the AMSTARMedSD items (mean ± SD: 31.2% ± 19.4%), with those published in higher-impact journals having greater quality scores. At a minimum, 60% of the 24 reviews did not disclose full search details or apply appropriate statistical methods to combine study findings. Only 5 of the reviews included participant or study characteristics in their analyses, and none evaluated MedSD diet characteristics. These data suggest that current meta-analyses/systematic reviews evaluating the effect of MedSD on CVD risk do not fully comply with contemporary methodologic quality standards. As a result, there are more research questions to answer to enhance our understanding of how MedSD affects CVD risk or how these effects may be modified by the participant or MedSD characteristics. To clarify the associations between MedSD and CVD risk, future meta-analyses and systematic reviews should not only follow methodologic
Kawalec, Paweł; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr
The aim of this systematic review was to collect all current data on indirect costs related to inflammatory bowel disease as well as assessing homogeneity and comparability, and conducting a meta-analysis. Costs were collected using databases from Medline, Embase and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, then average annual cost per patient was calculated and expressed in 2013-rate USD using the consumer price index and purchasing power parity (scenario 1) and then adjusted to specific gross domestic product (scenario 2) to make them comparable. The studies were then included in quantitative synthesis using the meta-analysis and bootstrap methods. This systematic review was carried out and reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. From 18 publications, overall annual indirect costs per patient as a result of the quantitative synthesis among all studies eligible for meta-analysis ranged from US$2425.01-US$9622.15 depending on the scenario and model used for analysis. The cost of presenteeism was assessed in only two studies. Considering heterogeneity among all identified studies random-effect model presented the most accurate results of meta-analysis equal to US$7189.27 and US$9622.15 per patient per year for scenario 1 and scenario 2, respectively. This systematic review revealed the existence of a relatively small number of studies that reported on the great economic burden of the disease upon society. A great variety of methodologies and cost components resulted in a very large discrepancy in indirect costs and made meta-analysis difficult to perform, so two scenarios were considered and meta-analysis conducted in subgroups to make data more comparable.
Al Rajeh, Ahmed M.; Hurst, John R.
Introduction: The value of monitoring physiological parameters to predict chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations is controversial. A few studies have suggested benefit from domiciliary monitoring of vital signs, and/or lung function but there is no existing systematic review. Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of monitoring physiological parameters to predict COPD exacerbation. Methods: An electronic systematic search compliant with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. The search was updated to April 6, 2016. Five databases were examined: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, or MEDLARS Online (Medline), Excerpta Medica dataBASE (Embase), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and the Cochrane clinical trials database. Results: Sixteen articles met the pre-specified inclusion criteria. Fifteen of these articules reported positive results in predicting COPD exacerbation via monitoring of physiological parameters. Nine studies showed a reduction in peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2%) prior to exacerbation onset. Three studies for peak flow, and two studies for respiratory rate reported a significant variation prior to or at exacerbation onset. A particular challenge is accounting for baseline heterogeneity in parameters between patients. Conclusion: There is currently insufficient information on how physiological parameters vary prior to exacerbation to support routine domiciliary monitoring for the prediction of exacerbations in COPD. However, the method remains promising. PMID:27897995
Blondeel, Karel; Say, Lale; Chou, Doris; Toskin, Igor; Khosla, Rajat; Scolaro, Elisa; Temmerman, Marleen
Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) include individuals with a wide range of sexual orientations, physical characteristics, and gender identities and expressions. Data suggest that people in this group face a significant and poorly understood set of additional health risks and bear a higher burden of some diseases compared to the general population. A large amount of data is available on HIV/AIDS, but far less on other health problems. In this review we aimed to synthesize the knowledge on the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases, mental health conditions and violence experienced by SGM, based on available systematic reviews. We conducted a global review of systematic reviews, including searching the Cochrane and the Campbell Collaboration libraries, as well as PubMed, using a range of search terms describing the populations of interest, without time or language restrictions. Google Scholar was also scanned for unpublished literature, and references of all selected reviews were checked to identify further relevant articles. We found 30 systematic reviews, all originally written in English. Nine reviews provided data on HIV, 12 on other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), 4 on cancer, 4 on violence and 3 on mental health and substance use. A quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. The findings are presented in a narrative format. Our review primarily showed that there is a high burden of disease for certain subpopulations of SGM in HIV, STIs, STI-related cancers and mental health conditions, and that they also face high rates of violence. Secondly, our review revealed many knowledge gaps. Those gaps partly stem from a lack of original research, but there is an equally urgent need to conduct systematic and literature reviews to assess what we already know on the disease burden in SGM. Additional reviews are needed on the non-biological factors that could contribute to the higher disease burden. In addition, to provide universal access to
Shewale, Akhilesh H; Gattani, Deepti R; Bhatia, Nidhi; Mahajan, Rupali; Saravanan, S P
Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of tissues and structures surrounding the teeth thus, if left untreated causes loss of teeth and ultimately results in edentulism, posing a great negative impact on individuals' quality of life. Hence the global epidemiological data suggests periodontal disease to be one of a major burden on oral diseases. To reduce this burden it is necessary to know the true prevalence of the disease according to which proper initiatives can be formulated. India being home to nearly 1.2 billion people and one amongst the rapidly developing country, its population requires being systemically as well as orally healthy to lead a good quality of life. However due to large heterogenecity amongst its residing population in terms of geographical area, culture, education, socioeconomic status, a variety of oral diseases like periodontal diseases are prevalent here. Even though the early studies suggested that the population is highly susceptible to the disease, the true prevalence of periodontal disease has not been found yet due to paucity in literature available. To systematically review the available literature taken from various parts of India and find the prevalence rate of periodontal disease amongst the general population of India. A literature search was performed using PUB MED, COCHRANE and EMBASE databases on August 6, 2015. Following full text assessment a thorough references search was made and potential studies were included. A Quality assessment of retrieved articles from 2(nd) round was done using a self designed questionnaire and only field survey studies were included in the systematic review. The literature search yielded six studies which had performed field surveys to find the prevalence of periodontal disease in their respective areas. These studies have observed different sets of age groups and the same has been accomplished by using Community Periodontal Index (CPI) or Community
Kasapis, Christos; Gurm, Hitinder S
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis affecting 5 million adults in the United States, with an age-adjusted prevalence of 4% to 15% and increasing up to 30% with age and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. In this article we focus on lower extremity PAD and specifically on the superficial femoral and proximal popliteal artery (SFPA), which are the most common anatomic locations of lower extremity atherosclerosis. We summarize current evidence and perform a systematic review on the diagnostic evaluation as well as the medical, endovascular and surgical management of SFPA disease. PMID:21037847
Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Ashour, Ala; Hweidi, Issa; Gharaibeh, Besher; Fitzsimons, Donna
The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review that investigates the differences in illness perception with age and gender in patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease. Previous studies show some discrepancies regarding the influence of age and gender on the specific dimensions of coronary artery disease patients' illness perception. A systematic review using a narrative synthesis process included preliminary synthesis, exploration of relationships and assessment of the robustness of the synthesis and findings was conducted. Search terms were used to identify research studies published between 1996 and December 2014 across four key databases: CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO and Web of Science. A total of 14 studies met the inclusion criteria of the review. The review found that men had a stronger perception that their own behaviour had caused their illness than women. In addition, older patients had lower perceptions of the consequences and chronicity of their illness. This analysis concludes that some dimensions of illness perception vary according to age and gender of patients with coronary artery disease. These differences should be taken into consideration, particularly when providing health education and cardiac rehabilitation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
JANATI, Ali; HOSSEINY, Mozhgan; GOUYA, Mohammad Mehdi; MORADI, Ghobad; GHADERI, Ebrahim
Background: Communicable disease reporting and surveillance system has poor infrastructure and supporters in most of countries. Its quality improvement is a challenge and requires an accurate and efficient care and reporting systems at all levels to achieve new and simple models. This study evaluates reporting systems of communicable diseases using systematic review. Methods: This was a systematic review study. For data collection, we used the following database and search engines: Proquest, Science direct, Pub MED, Scopes, Springer, and EBESCO. For Persian databases, we used SID, Iranmedex and Magiran. Our key words were “Communicable Diseases”, “Notifiable Disease”, “Disease Notification”, “Reporting System”,” Surveillance Systems” and “evaluation”. Two independent researchers reviewed the resources and the results were classified in different domains. Results: From 1889 cases, only 66 resources were studied. The results were classified in several domains, including those who were reporting, reporting methods and procedures, responsibilities and reporting system characteristics, problems and solutions of the report, the reporting process, and receptor level. Conclusion: Disease-reporting system has similar problems in all parts of the world. Change, improve, update and continuous monitoring of the reporting system are very important. Although the reporting process can vary in different regions, but being perfect and timely are important principles in system design. Detailed explanations of tasks and providing appropriate instructions are the most important points to integrate an efficient reporting system. PMID:26744702
Zhang, Qiu-Li; Rothenbacher, Dietrich
Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a major public health problem worldwide. This article reviews the published evidence of prevalence of CKD in population-based study samples that used the standardized definition from the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative of the National Kidney Foundation (K/DOQI) practice guideline, and particularly focus on performance of serum-creatinine based equations for GFR estimation. We provide a summary of available data about the burden of CKD in various populations. Methods We performed a systematic review of available published data in MEDLINE. A combination of various keywords relevant to CKD was used in this research. Related data of included studies were extracted in a systematic way. Results A total of 26 studies were included in this review. The studies were conducted in different populations, and the number of study participants ranged from 237 to 65181. The median prevalence of CKD was 7.2% in persons aged 30 years or older. In persons aged 64 years or older prevalence of CKD varied from 23.4% to 35.8%. Importantly, the prevalence of CKD strongly depended on which estimating equations were used. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (MDRD) equation was likely to be preferred in recent epidemiological studies compared to the adjusted Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation. Conclusion Worldwide, CKD is becoming a common disease in the general population. Accurately detecting CKD in special groups remains inadequate, particularly among elderly persons, females or other ethnic groups such as Asians. PMID:18405348
Borgnakke, Wenche S; Ylöstalo, Pekka V; Taylor, George W; Genco, Robert J
Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus are common, chronic diseases worldwide. Epidemiologic and biologic evidence suggest periodontal disease may affect diabetes. To systematically review non-experimental, epidemiologic evidence for effects of periodontal disease on diabetes control, complications and incidence. Electronic bibliographic databases, supplemented by hand searches of recent and future issues of relevant journals. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA AND PARTICIPANTS: Longitudinal and cross-sectional epidemiologic, non-interventional studies that permit determination of directionality of observed effects were included. Four reviewers evaluated pair-wise each study. Review findings regarding study results and quality were summarized in tables by topic, using the PRISMA Statement for reporting and the Newcastle-Ottawa System for quality assessment, respectively. From 2246 citations identified and available abstracts screened, 114 full-text reports were assessed and 17 included in the review. A small body of evidence supports significant, adverse effects of periodontal disease on glycaemic control, diabetes complications, and development of type 2 (and possibly gestational) diabetes. There were only a limited number of eligible studies, several of which included small sample sizes. Exposure and outcome parameters varied, and the generalizability of their results was limited. Current evidence suggests that periodontal disease adversely affects diabetes outcomes, and that further longitudinal studies are warranted. © 2013 European Federation of Periodontology and American Academy of Periodontology.
Borgnakke, Wenche S; Ylöstalo, Pekka V; Taylor, George W; Genco, Robert J
Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus are common, chronic diseases worldwide. Epidemiologic and biologic evidence suggest periodontal disease may affect diabetes. To systematically review non-experimental, epidemiologic evidence for effects of periodontal disease on diabetes control, complications and incidence. Electronic bibliographic databases, supplemented by hand searches of recent and future issues of relevant journals. Study eligibility criteria and participants: Longitudinal and cross-sectional epidemiologic, non-interventional studies that permit determination of directionality of observed effects were included. Four reviewers evaluated pair-wise each study. Review findings regarding study results and quality were summarized in tables by topic, using the PRISMA Statement for reporting and the Newcastle-Ottawa System for quality assessment, respectively. From 2246 citations identified and available abstracts screened, 114 full-text reports were assessed and 17 included in the review. A small body of evidence supports significant, adverse effects of periodontal disease on glycaemic control, diabetes complications, and development of type 2 (and possibly gestational) diabetes. There were only a limited number of eligible studies, several of which included small sample sizes. Exposure and outcome parameters varied, and the generalizability of their results was limited. Current evidence suggests that periodontal disease adversely affects diabetes outcomes, and that further longitudinal studies are warranted.
Soares-Filho, Gastão L F; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Santulli, Gaetano; Silva, Adriana C; Machado, Sergio; Valenca, Alexandre M; Nardi, Antonio E
Chest pain may be due benign diseases but often suggests an association with coronary artery disease, which justifies a quick search for medical care. However, some people have anxiety disorder with symptoms that resemble clearly an acute coronary syndrome. More specifically, during a panic attack an abrupt feeling of fear accompanied by symptoms such as breathlessness, palpitations and chest pain, makes patients believe they have a heart attack and confuse physicians about the diagnosis. The association between panic disorder and coronary artery disease has been extensively studied in recent years and, although some studies have shown anxiety disorders coexisting or increasing the risk of heart disease, one causal hypothesis is still missing. The aim of this systematic review is to present the various ways in which the scientific community has been investigating the relation between chest pain, panic disorder and coronary artery disease.
Soma, Mounica; Pulluri, Deepthi; Nemali, Naga T; Brooks, Matthew
Objective The primary objective of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of telemedicine in managing chronic heart disease patients concerning improvement in varied health attributes. Design This review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standard. Setting We adopted a logical search process used in two main research databases, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PubMed (MEDLINE). Four reviewers meticulously screened 151 abstracts to determine relevancy and significance to our research objectives. The final sample in the literature review consisted of 20 articles. Main outcome measures We looked for improved medical outcomes as the main outcome measure. Results Our results indicated that telemedicine is highly associated with the reduction in hospitalisations and readmissions (9 of 20 articles, 45%). The other significant attributes most commonly encountered were improved mortality and cost-effectiveness (both 40%) and improved health outcomes (35%). Patient satisfaction occurred the least in the literature, mentioned in only 2 of 20 articles (10%). There was no significant mention of an increase in patient satisfaction because of telemedicine. Conclusions We concluded that telemedicine is considered to be effective in quality measures such as readmissions, moderately effective in health outcomes, only marginally effective in customer satisfaction. Telemedicine shows promise on an alternative modality of care for cardiovascular disease, but additional exploration should continue to quantify the quality measures. PMID:28321319
Paulsen, Julie; Solligård, Erik; Damås, Jan Kristian; DeWan, Andrew; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Bracken, Michael B
Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of severe bloodstream infection. We performed a systematic review to assess whether consultation with infectious disease specialists decreased all-cause mortality or rate of complications of S aureus bloodstream infections. The review also assessed parameters associated with the quality of management of the infection. We searched for eligible studies in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and clinical trials.gov as well as the references of included studies. We identified 22 observational studies and 1 study protocol for a randomized trial. A meta-analysis was not performed because of the high risk of bias in the included studies. The outcomes are reported in a narrative review. Most included studies reported survival benefit, in the adjusted analysis. Recommended management strategies were carried out significantly more often among patients seen by an infectious disease specialist. Trials, such as cluster-randomized controlled trials, can more validly assess the studies at low risk of bias.
Beer, Christiane; Kolstad, Henrik A.; Søndergaard, Klaus; Bendstrup, Elisabeth; Heederik, Dick; Olsen, Karen E.; Omland, Øyvind; Petsonk, Edward; Sigsgaard, Torben; Sherson, David L.; Schlünssen, Vivi
ABSTRACT Objective: Exposure to coal dust can cause interstitial lung disease (ILD), but whether this is due to pure coal or to the contents of quartz in coal is less clear. Here, we systematically reviewed the relation between ‘pure coal’ and ILD. Methods: In a systematic review based on PRISMA criteria 2945 articles were identified. Strict eligibility criteria, which evaluated the ‘pure coal effect’, led to the inclusion of only nine studies. Results: Among these nine studies six studies indicated an independent effect of the non-quartz part of coal on the development and progression of ILD, two did not demonstrate an effect and one was inconclusive. Conclusions: Although an independent effect of non-quartz coal dust on the development of ILD is supported, due to methodological limitations the evidence is limited and further evidence is needed. PMID:28326173
Karmali, Kunal N.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Berendsen, Mark; Goff, David C.; Sanghavi, Darshak M.; Brown, Nina; Korenovska, Liliya; Huffman, Mark D.
Importance The Million Hearts initiative emphasizes the “ABCS” - aspirin, blood pressure control, cholesterol management, and smoking cessation. Evidence for the effects of drugs used to achieve the ABCS has not been comprehensively synthesized in primary atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prevention. Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of aspirin, blood pressure-lowering therapy, statin, and tobacco cessation drugs on fatal and non-fatal ASCVD outcomes in primary ASCVD prevention. Evidence Review Structured search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PROSPERO International Prospective Systematic Review Trial Register to identify systematic reviews published from January 1, 2005, to June 17, 2015, that reported the effect of aspirin, BP-lowering therapy, statin, or tobacco cessation drugs on ASCVD events in individuals without prevalent ASCVD. Additional studies were identified by searching the reference lists of included systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and health technology assessment reports. Reviews were selected according to predefined criteria and appraised formethodologic quality using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool (range, 0–11). Studies were independently reviewed for key participant and intervention characteristics. Outcomes that were meta-analyzed in each included review were extracted. Qualitative synthesis was performed, and data were analyzed from July 2 to August 13, 2015. Findings From a total of 1967 reports, 35 systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials were identified, including 15 reviews of aspirin, 4 reviews of BP-lowering therapy, 12 reviews of statins, and 4 reviews of tobacco cessation drugs. Methodologic quality varied, but 30 reviews had AMSTAR ratings of 5 or higher. Compared with placebo, aspirin (relative risk [RR], 0.90; 95%CI, 0.85–0.96) and
Nair, Gopakumar Ramachandran; Naidu, Giridhar Seetharam; Jain, Supreet; Makkad, Ramanpal Singh; Jha, Abhishek
Introduction Aloe vera is well known for its medicinal properties which lead to its application in treating various diseases. Its use in treating oral lesions has not been much documented in literature. Aim Although, systematic reviews on aloe vera and its extracts have been done earlier, but in relation to oral diseases this is the first systematic review. The aim of the present systematic review was to compile evidence based studies on the effectiveness of Aloe vera in treatment of various oral diseases. Materials and Methods Computerized literature searches were performed to identify all published articles in the subject. The following databases were used: PUBMED [MEDLINE], SCOPUS, COCHRANE DATABASE, EMBASE and SCIENCE DIRECT using specific keywords. The search was limited to articles published in English or with an English Abstract. All articles (or abstracts if available as abstracts) were read in full. Data were extracted in a predefined fashion. Assessment was done using Jadad score. Results Fifteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Population of sample study ranged from 20 patients to 110 patients with clinically diagnosed oral mucosal lesions. Out of 15 studies, five were on patients with oral lichen planus, two on patients with oral submucous fibrosis, other studies were carried on patients with burning mouth syndrome, radiation induced mucositis, candida associated denture stomatitis, xerostomic patients and four were on minor recurrent apthous stomatitis. Most studies showed statistically significant result demonstrating the effectiveness of Aloe vera in treatment of oral diseases. Conclusion Although there are promising results but in future, more controlled clinical trials are required to prove the effectiveness of Aloe vera for management of oral diseases. PMID:27656587
Bieri, Franziska A.; Gray, Darren J.; Raso, Giovanna; Li, Yue-Sheng; McManus, Donald P.
We conducted a systematic review of preventive health educational videos targeting infectious diseases in schoolchildren to formulate recommendations for establishing an evidence base for future studies. We included studies that evaluated interventions involving video-based health education in schools to improve knowledge and attitudes and to change behavior regarding different infections. The majority of the 11 studies we reviewed concluded that videos were well received by schools, teachers, and children, and are promising and effective health education tools, having a positive impact on knowledge and attitudes. However, there is a pressing need for more standardized, high-quality studies to draw evidence-based conclusions on the value of educational videos targeting infectious diseases. Therefore, we provide a descriptive summary of the results and make recommendations for studies using preventive educational videos targeting infectious diseases in schoolchildren on the basis of our experiences gained in a video-based cluster randomized trial. PMID:23222138
Leibovici, L; Yahav, D; Paul, M
As in other disciplines in medicine, systematic reviews (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) in infectious diseases are an important aid to clinical decision-making. In the present article we review features important to SRs in infectious diseases that should be addressed in most SRs and MAs. We stress the need to include in the SR analysis all patients that were randomized; and all studies that were performed. Authors of SRs should choose one main outcome that matters to patients, and base their conclusions mainly on this outcome. Resistance as an outcome is a topic that should be addressed in all SRs of antibiotic treatment. Ethical aspects and especially patients' safety should be addressed in SRs. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Fonseca, Nina Teixeira; Urbano, Jessica Julioti; Nacif, Sergio Roberto; Silva, Anderson Soares; Peixoto, Roger Andre Oliveira; Urbano, Giovanni Julioti; Oliveira, Ezequiel Fernandes; Santos, Israel Reis; Oliveira, Claudia Santos; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco
The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on sleep disorders in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis (HD). [Subjects and Methods] Two independent reviewers performed a computer-assisted search of the MEDLINE, SciELO, LILACS, and BIREME Virtual Health Library medical databases from their inception to November 2015. [Results] One thousand one hundred twenty-six articles were found that met the inclusion criteria. Articles were excluded if they were not in English, the patients did not undergo HD, or the studies were not cross-sectional or clinical trials. After reading the full text, a further 300 studies were excluded because they did not use polysomnography. The remaining 18 studies with ESRD patients undergoing HD comprised 8 clinical trials and 10 cross-sectional studies. This systematic review followed the criteria outlined by the PRISMA declaration. [Conclusion] In this systematic review, a high prevalence of sleep disorders was observed in ESRD, including sleep-disordered breathing. This knowledge may enable health professionals to devise new strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of these patients, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality and improve their quality of life. PMID:27512289
Page, Thomas E; Farina, Nicolas; Brown, Anna; Daley, Stephanie; Bowling, Ann; Basset, Thurstine; Livingston, Gill; Knapp, Martin; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube
Objective Neurodegenerative diseases, such as dementia, have a profound impact on those with the conditions and their family carers. Consequently, the accurate measurement of family carers' quality of life (QOL) is important. Generic measures may miss key elements of the impact of these conditions, so using disease-specific instruments has been advocated. This systematic review aimed to identify and examine the psychometric properties of disease-specific outcome measures of QOL of family carers of people with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease and other dementias; Huntington's disease; Parkinson's disease; multiple sclerosis; and motor neuron disease). Design Systematic review. Methods Instruments were identified using 5 electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus and the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)) and lateral search techniques. Only studies which reported the development and/or validation of a disease-specific measure for adult family carers, and which were written in English, were eligible for inclusion. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. The psychometric properties of each instrument were examined. Results 676 articles were identified. Following screening and lateral searches, a total of 8 articles were included; these reported 7 disease-specific carer QOL measures. Limited evidence was available for the psychometric properties of the 7 instruments. Psychometric analyses were mainly focused on internal consistency, reliability and construct validity. None of the measures assessed either criterion validity or responsiveness to change. Conclusions There are very few measures of carer QOL that are specific to particular neurodegenerative diseases. The findings of this review emphasise the importance of developing and validating psychometrically robust disease
Page, Thomas E; Farina, Nicolas; Brown, Anna; Daley, Stephanie; Bowling, Ann; Basset, Thurstine; Livingston, Gill; Knapp, Martin; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube
Neurodegenerative diseases, such as dementia, have a profound impact on those with the conditions and their family carers. Consequently, the accurate measurement of family carers' quality of life (QOL) is important. Generic measures may miss key elements of the impact of these conditions, so using disease-specific instruments has been advocated. This systematic review aimed to identify and examine the psychometric properties of disease-specific outcome measures of QOL of family carers of people with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease and other dementias; Huntington's disease; Parkinson's disease; multiple sclerosis; and motor neuron disease). Systematic review. Instruments were identified using 5 electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus and the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)) and lateral search techniques. Only studies which reported the development and/or validation of a disease-specific measure for adult family carers, and which were written in English, were eligible for inclusion. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. The psychometric properties of each instrument were examined. 676 articles were identified. Following screening and lateral searches, a total of 8 articles were included; these reported 7 disease-specific carer QOL measures. Limited evidence was available for the psychometric properties of the 7 instruments. Psychometric analyses were mainly focused on internal consistency, reliability and construct validity. None of the measures assessed either criterion validity or responsiveness to change. There are very few measures of carer QOL that are specific to particular neurodegenerative diseases. The findings of this review emphasise the importance of developing and validating psychometrically robust disease-specific measures of carer QOL. Published by the BMJ
Saldanha, Ian J; Lindsley, Kristina; Do, Diana V; Chuck, Roy S; Meyerle, Catherine; Jones, Leslie S; Coleman, Anne L; Jampel, Henry D; Dickersin, Kay; Virgili, Gianni
Suboptimal overlap in outcomes reported in clinical trials and systematic reviews compromises efforts to compare and summarize results across these studies. To examine the most frequent outcomes used in trials and reviews of the 4 most prevalent eye diseases (age-related macular degeneration [AMD], cataract, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and glaucoma) and the overlap between outcomes in the reviews and the trials included in the reviews. This cross-sectional study examined all Cochrane reviews that addressed AMD, cataract, DR, and glaucoma; were published as of July 20, 2016; and included at least 1 trial and the trials included in the reviews. For each disease, a pair of clinical experts independently classified all outcomes and resolved discrepancies. Outcomes (outcome domains) were then compared separately for each disease. Proportion of review outcomes also reported in trials and vice versa. This study included 56 reviews that comprised 414 trials. Although the median number of outcomes per trial and per review was the same (n = 5) for each disease, the trials included a greater number of outcomes overall than did the reviews, ranging from 2.9 times greater (89 vs 30 outcomes for glaucoma) to 4.9 times greater (107 vs 22 outcomes for AMD). Most review outcomes, ranging from 14 of 19 outcomes (73.7%) (for DR) to 27 of 29 outcomes (93.1%) (for cataract), were also reported in the trials. For trial outcomes, however, the proportion also named in reviews was low, ranging from 19 of 107 outcomes (17.8%) (for AMD) to 24 of 89 outcomes (27.0%) (for glaucoma). Only 1 outcome (visual acuity) was consistently reported in greater than half the trials and greater than half the reviews. Although most review outcomes were reported in the trials, most trial outcomes were not reported in the reviews. The current analysis focused on outcome domains, which might underestimate the problem of inconsistent outcomes. Other important elements of an outcome (ie, specific measurement
Vanterpool, Sizzle F; Tomsin, Kathleen; Reyes, Leticia; Zimmermann, Luc J; Kramer, Boris W; Been, Jasper V
Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease of the tissues supporting the teeth. Women who have periodontal disease while pregnant may be at risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes has been addressed in a considerable number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, there are important differences in the conclusions of these reviews. Systematic reviews assessing the effectivity of various therapeutic interventions to treat periodontal disease during pregnancy to try and reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes have also arrived at different conclusions. We aim to provide a systematic overview of systematic reviews comparing the frequency of adverse pregnancy outcomes between women with and without periodontal disease and/or evaluating the effect of preventive and therapeutic interventions for periodontal disease before or during pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcomes. We will include systematic reviews reporting on studies comparing adverse pregnancy outcomes: (i) between women with or without periodontal disease before (<6 months) or during pregnancy and/or (ii) according to preventive or therapeutic interventions for periodontal disease. Eligible interventions include (combinations of) the following: oral hygiene education, use of antibiotics, subgingival scaling, and root planing. For preventive and/or therapeutic reviews, the following comparisons will be considered: no intervention, a placebo intervention, or an alternative intervention. Our primary adverse pregnancy outcomes of interests are maternal mortality, preterm delivery, and perinatal mortality. Two reviewers will independently identify eligible published and unpublished systematic reviews from six electronic databases and using hand searching of reference lists and citations. Data items extracted from included systematic reviews are based on the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care checklist and the preferred
Siegl, Eva; Lassen, Britta; Saxer, Susi
Parkinson's disease is among the most common neurological diseases. About 4.1 million people are attected worldwide. The course of Parkinson's disease is chronically progressive. With L-Dopa therapy the life expectancy of people being affected by Parkinon's disease is not shortened compared with people who are not affected. Therefore people with Parkinson's disease often suffer from the serious effects for decades which include motor symptoms as well as vegetative disturbance, which concerns bladder function and functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Urinary and fecal incontinence involve severe impairment of quality of life. In this review the occurence of urinary and fecal incontinence should be determined in order to be able to describe its extent. There are different measures for treatment or improvement. These are reviewed based on the following research question: Which effects do interventions have in improving urinary and fecal incontinence in persons with Parkinson's disease compared to usual care? In order to answer the questions a systematic review was conducted. The literature search occured in the electronic databases Cochrane database, PubMed and CINAHL. Three studies investigating the prevalence with a total sample size of n = 1077 and for the evaluation of interventions four studies with a total sample size of n = 48 have been included. 25 percent of the women with Parkinson's disease suffer from urgency incontinence compared to seven percent of the women without Parkinson's disease (p < 0.01). Among men with Parkison's disease 28 percent are affected and six percent among men without Parkinson's disease (p < 0.01). In respect to stress and fecal incontinence there were no significant differences between people affected and people not affected by Parkinson's disease. With pelvic floor muscle exercises and accompanying measures as well as with injections of botulinum toxin A a reduction of urinary incontinence seems to be possible. Due to
Bovolenta, Tânia M.; de Azevedo Silva, Sônia Maria Cesar; Arb Saba, Roberta; Ferraz, Henrique Ballalai
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease worldwide, affecting more than four million people. Typically, it affects individuals above 45, when they are still productive, compromising both aging and quality of life. Therefore, the cost of the disease must be identified, so that the use of resources can be rational and efficient. Additionally, in Brazil, there is a lack of research on the costs of neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD, a gap addressed in this study. This systematic review critically addresses the various methodologies used in original research around the world in the last decade on the subject, showing that costs are hardly comparable. Nonetheless, the economic and social impacts are implicit, and important information for public health agents is provided. PMID:28357150
Bitton, Asaf; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Matlin, Olga S; Swanton, Kellie; Shrank, William H
Given the huge burden of coronary artery disease and the effectiveness of medication therapy, understanding and quantifying known impacts of poor medication adherence for primary and secondary prevention is crucial. We sought to systematically review the literature on this topic area with a focus on quantified cost and clinical outcomes related to adherence. We conducted a systematic review of the literature between 1966 and November 2011 using a fixed search strategy, multiple reviewers, and a quality rating scale. We found 2636 articles using this strategy, eventually weaning them down to 25 studies that met our inclusion criteria. Three reviewers independently reviewed the studies and scored them for quality using the Newcastle Ottawa Scoring Scale. We found 5 studies (4 of which focused on statins) that measured the impact of medication adherence on primary prevention of coronary artery disease and 20 articles that focused on the relationship between medication adherence to costs and outcomes related to secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Most of these latter studies focused on antihypertensive medications and aspirin. All controlled for confounding comorbidities and sociodemographic characteristics, but few controlled for likelihood of adherent patients to have healthier behaviors ("healthy adherer effect"). Three studies found that high adherence significantly improves health outcomes and reduces annual costs for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (between $294 and $868 per patient, equating to 10.1%-17.8% cost reductions between high- and low-adherence groups). The studies were all of generally of high quality on the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (median score 8 of 9). Increased medication adherence is associated with improved outcomes and reduced costs, but most studies do not control for a "healthy adherer" effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Jonge, Marieke J; Fransen, Jaap; Kievit, Wietske; van Riel, Piet LCM
Patient assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be useful in clinical practice, offering a patient-friendly, location independent, and a time-efficient and cost-efficient means of monitoring the disease. The objective of this study was to identify patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to assess disease activity in RA and to evaluate the measurement properties of these measures. Systematic literature searches were performed in the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify articles reporting on clinimetric development or evaluation of PROM-based instruments to monitor disease activity in patients with RA. 2 reviewers independently selected articles for review and assessed their methodological quality based on the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) recommendations. A total of 424 abstracts were retrieved for review. Of these abstracts, 56 were selected for reviewing the full article and 34 articles, presenting 17 different PROMs, were finally included. Identified were: Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index (RADAI), RADAI-5, Patient-based Disease Activity Score (PDAS) I & II, Patient-derived Disease Activity Score with 28-joint counts (Pt-DAS28), Patient-derived Simplified Disease Activity Index (Pt-SDAI), Global Arthritis Score (GAS), Patient Activity Score (PAS) I & II, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data (RAPID) 2–5, Patient Reported Outcome-index (PRO-index) continuous (C) & majority (M), Patient Reported Outcome CLinical ARthritis Activity (PRO-CLARA). The quality of reports varied from poor to good. Typically 5 out of 10 clinimetric domains were covered in the validations of the different instruments. The quality and extent of clinimetric validation varied among PROMs of RA disease activity. The Pt-DAS28, RADAI, RADAI-5 and RAPID 3 had the strongest and most extensive validation. The measurement properties least reported and in need of more evidence were: reliability
Dominguez, M; Münstermann, S; de Guindos, I; Timoney, P
An analysis of the factors leading to equine disease events was used to support the development of international recommendations for mitigating the risk of disease dissemination through sport horse movements (high health, high performance - 'HHP' horses). A review was undertaken to identify the factors resulting in equine disease events following international movement of horses to draw lessons in support of the development of international recommendations for the safe movements of a specific subpopulation of horses: the HHP sport horses. Systematic review carried out in accordance with the PRISMA statement. The review covered disease events that occurred from 1995 to 2014, identified from the databases of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and international surveillance reports. Overall, 54 disease events were identified, of which 7 were contained in post arrival quarantine and the others resulted in the introduction of pathogens into importing countries. For 81% of the introductions, the OIE recommendations applicable to the diseases involved had not been complied with. Subclinical infections are a challenge for international trade: 88% of the regulated movements that resulted in introductions involved infected horses that showed no clinical signs at the time of import. Biosecurity and management practices in resident equine populations were identified as important mitigating factors in preventing disease spread to the local horse population. The global increase in international horse movements, if not appropriately regulated and supervised by competent veterinary authorities and respective equine industry partners, could potentially lead to increased global spread of infectious equine diseases. Appropriate mitigation measures and compliance with OIE import recommendations for specific diseases can significantly reduce this risk. The recommendations proposed under the HHP approach take into account the mitigation measures identified by this review as
Rasmussen, Ditlev Nytoft; Karstensen, John Gásdal; Riis, Lene Buhl; Brynskov, Jørn; Vilmann, Peter
Confocal laser endomicroscopy is an endoscopic method that provides in vivo real-time imaging of the mucosa at a cellular level, elucidating mucosal changes that are undetectable by white light endoscopy. This paper systematically reviews current indications and perspectives of confocal laser endomicroscopy for inflammatory bowel disease. Available literature was searched systematically for studies applying confocal laser endomicroscopy in Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Relevant literature was reviewed and only studies reporting original clinical data were included. Next, eligible studies were analysed with respect to several parameters, such as technique and clinical aim and definitions of outcomes. Confocal laser endomicroscopy has been used for a wide range of purposes in inflammatory bowel disease, covering assessment of inflammatory severity, prediction of therapeutic response and relapse and adenoma surveillance in patients with ulcerative colitis. Methods for measurement of the histological changes ranged from subjective grading to objective quantification analysed by computer-aided models. The studies derived their conclusions from assessment of histological features such as colonic crypts, epithelial gaps and epithelial leakiness to fluorescein. Confocal laser endomicroscopy remains an experimental but emerging tool for assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. It is the only method that enables in vivo functional assessment of intestinal barrier function. There is great heterogeneity in the literature and no single approach has been validated and reproduced to the level of general acceptance. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Francis, Damian K; Bennett, Nadia R; Ferguson, Trevor S; Hennis, Anselm J M; Wilks, Rainford J; Harris, E Nigel; MacLeish, Marlene M Y; Sullivan, Louis W
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the predominant cause of death globally. The large health disparities in the distribution of the burden of disease seen in developed and developing countries are of growing concern. Central to this concern is the poor outcome which is seen disproportionately in socially disadvantaged groups and racial/ethnic minorities. The aim of the study was to conduct a systematic literature review to investigate the nature of cardiovascular disease health disparities among Afro-Caribbean origin populations and identify current knowledge gaps. A systematic literature review including a detailed search strategy was developed to search MEDLINE and other research databases. Using an a priori protocol peer-reviewed publications and grey literature articles were retrieved and screened and relevant data extracted by two independent review authors. Thematic analysis was done according to CVD outcomes and measures of disparity including age, sex, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The search retrieved 665 articles of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. Most studies were conducted in the United Kingdom and centered on the prevalence of CVD by ethnicity, age and sex. An important sub-theme identified was the disparities in health service utilization/hospital admission. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) were less prevalent among Afro-Caribbeans compared to Caucasian and South East Asian ethnic groups. The prevalence of CHD ranged from 0-7% in Afro-Caribbean to 2-22% in Caucasians. Strokes were more common among Afro-Caribbeans. There are inadequate data on morbidity and mortality from CVD, particularly across the socio-economic gradient, in Afro-Caribbean populations. There are important differences in morbidity and mortality from CVD across ethnic groups. Important knowledge gaps remain in understanding the social determinants of these disparities in CVD. More research exploring these gaps by varying disparity
Angelis, Aris; Tordrup, David; Kanavos, Panos
Cost-of-illness studies, the systematic quantification of the economic burden of diseases on the individual and on society, help illustrate direct budgetary consequences of diseases in the health system and indirect costs associated with patient or carer productivity losses. In the context of the BURQOL-RD project ("Social Economic Burden and Health-Related Quality of Life in patients with Rare Diseases in Europe") we studied the evidence on direct and indirect costs for 10 rare diseases (Cystic Fibrosis [CF], Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy [DMD], Fragile X Syndrome [FXS], Haemophilia, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis [JIA], Mucopolysaccharidosis [MPS], Scleroderma [SCL], Prader-Willi Syndrome [PWS], Histiocytosis [HIS] and Epidermolysis Bullosa [EB]). A systematic literature review of cost of illness studies was conducted using a keyword strategy in combination with the names of the 10 selected rare diseases. Available disease prevalence in Europe was found to range between 1 and 2 per 100,000 population (PWS, a sub-type of Histiocytosis, and EB) up to 42 per 100,000 population (Scleroderma). Overall, cost evidence on rare diseases appears to be very scarce (a total of 77 studies were identified across all diseases), with CF (n=29) and Haemophilia (n=22) being relatively well studied, compared to the other conditions, where very limited cost of illness information was available. In terms of data availability, total lifetime cost figures were found only across four diseases, and total annual costs (including indirect costs) across five diseases. Overall, data availability was found to correlate with the existence of a pharmaceutical treatment and indirect costs tended to account for a significant proportion of total costs. Although methodological variations prevent any detailed comparison between conditions and based on the evidence available, most of the rare diseases examined are associated with significant economic burden, both direct and indirect.
Reijnders, Jennifer S A M; Ehrt, Uwe; Weber, Wim E J; Aarsland, Dag; Leentjens, Albert F G
Prevalence rates of depressive disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD) vary widely across studies, ranging from 2.7% to more than 90%. The aim of this systematic review was to calculate average prevalences of depressive disorders taking into account the different settings and different diagnostic approaches of studies. Using Medline on Pubmed, a systematic literature search was carried out for studies of depression in Parkinson's disease. A total of 104 articles were included and assessed for quality; 51 articles fulfilled the quality criteria. Multiple publications from the same database were not included in the meta-analysis. In the remaining 36 articles, the weighted prevalence of major depressive disorder was 17% of PD patients, that of minor depression 22% and dysthymia 13%. Clinically significant depressive symptoms, irrespective of the presence of a DSM defined depressive disorder, were present in 35%. In studies using a (semi) structured interview to establish DSM criteria, the reported prevalence of major depressive disorder was 19%, while in studies using DSM criteria without a structured interview, the reported prevalence of major depressive disorder was 7%. Population studies report lower prevalence rates for both major depressive disorder and the clinically significant depressive symptoms than studies in other settings. This systematic review suggests that the average prevalence of major depressive disorder in PD is substantial, but lower than generally assumed.
Steuten, Lotte; Vrijhoef, Bert; Severens, Hans; van Merode, Frits; Spreeuwenberg, Cor
An overview was produced of indicators currently used to assess disease management programs and, based on these findings, provide a framework regarding sets of indicators that should be used when taking the aims and types of disease management programs into account. A systematic literature review was performed. Thirty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. It appeared that a link between aims of disease management and evaluated structure, process, as well as outcome indicators does not exist in a substantial part of published studies on disease management of diabetes and asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, especially when efficiency of care is concerned. Furthermore, structure indicators are largely missing from the evaluations, although these are of major importance for the interpretation of outcomes for purposes of decision-making. Efficiency of disease management is mainly evaluated by means of process indicators; the use of outcome indicators is less common. Within a framework, structure, process, and outcome indicators for effectiveness and efficiency are recommended for each type of disease management program. The link between aims of disease management and evaluated structure, process, and outcome indicators does not exist in a substantial part of published studies on disease management. The added value of this study mainly lies in the development of a framework to guide the choice of indicators for health technology assessment of disease management.
Sinnige, Judith; Braspenning, Jozé; Schellevis, François; Stirbu-Wagner, Irina; Westert, Gert; Korevaar, Joke
Since most clinical guidelines address single diseases, treatment of patients with multimorbidity, the co-occurrence of multiple (chronic) diseases within one person, can become complicated. Information on highly prevalent combinations of diseases can set the agenda for guideline development on multimorbidity. With this systematic review we aim to describe the prevalence of disease combinations (i.e. disease clusters) in older patients with multimorbidity, as assessed in available studies. In addition, we intend to acquire information that can be supportive in the process of multimorbidity guideline development. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library for all types of studies published between January 2000 and September 2012. We included empirical studies focused on multimorbidity or comorbidity that reported prevalence rates of combinations of two or more diseases. Our search yielded 3070 potentially eligible articles, of which 19 articles, representing 23 observational studies, turned out to meet all our quality and inclusion criteria after full text review. These studies provided prevalence rates of 165 combinations of two diseases (i.e. disease pairs). Twenty disease pairs, concerning 12 different diseases, were described in at least 3 studies. Depression was found to be the disease that was most commonly clustered, and was paired with 8 different diseases, in the available studies. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were found to be the second most clustered diseases, both with 6 different diseases. Prevalence rates for each disease combination varied considerably per study, but were highest for the pairs that included hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus. Twenty disease pairs were assessed most frequently in patients with multimorbidity. These disease combinations could serve as a first priority setting towards the development of multimorbidity guidelines, starting with the diseases with the highest observed prevalence
Jia, Zhiwei; Mo, Zhongjun; Ding, Fan; He, Qing; Fan, Yubo; Ruan, Dike
The optimal surgical technique for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases (DDD) remains controversial. Hybrid surgery (HS) incorporating anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and cervical disc replacement (CDR) is increasingly performed for cervical DDD. This study aims to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical evidence available for HS and to provide a systematic review of current understanding of HS. This systematic review was undertaken by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement. Multiple databases and online registers of clinical trials were searched up to February 2014. The biomechanical and clinical studies on HS for cervical DDD written in English were included. Two authors independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Fifteen studies including eight biomechanical studies and seven clinical studies were indentified. The biomechanical studies showed that HS was benefit to motion preservation of the operative levels and revealed less adverse effect on adjacent segments. All clinical studies demonstrated improvement in validated functional scores after HS. Segment motion and immobilization were achieved at the arthroplasty level and arthrodesis level, respectively. Postoperative assessments and complication rate were similar or in favor of HS when comparing with ACDF or CDR. However, the overall quality of evidence for HS was low to very low. There is a paucity of high quality evidence for HS. HS may be a safe and efficacious technique to benefit a select group of multilevel cervical DDD, which is needed to be confirmed by further prospective, randomized controlled trials.
Javed, Fawad; Bashir Ahmed, Hameeda; Romanos, Georgios E
The aim of the present study was to systematically review the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and periodontal disease. The addressed focused question was "Is there a relationship between ETS and periodontal disease?" PubMed/MEDLINE and Google-Scholar databases were searched from 1987 up to March 2014 using different combinations of the following keywords: "Environmental tobacco smoke", "passive", "periodontal disease", "secondhand" and "smoking". Letters to the Editor, review articles, commentaries, case-reports and articles published in languages other than English were excluded. Thirteen studies were included. Nine studies were clinical and 4 studies were performed in-vitro. Five studies reported the odds ratios for periodontal disease to be significantly higher among individuals exposed to ETS than controls (non-smoking individuals unexposed to ETS). In 2 studies, ETS exposure showed no association with periodontal disease. In 2 studies, salivary aspartate aminotransferase, lactoferrin and albumin levels were reported to be significantly higher in individuals exposed to ETS than controls. In one study, levels of salivary interleukin-1β were reported to be significantly higher in individuals exposed to ETS than controls. The in-vitro studies reported ETS exposure to enhance the production of proinflammatory proteins and phagocytic activity of salivary polymorphonuclear leukocytes thereby contributing to periodontal disease. The association between ETS and periodontal disease remains debatable and requires further investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Allet, Lara; Knols, Ruud H.; Shirato, Kei; de Bruin, Eling D.
The use of wearable motion sensing technology offers important advantages over conventional methods for obtaining measures of physical activity and/or physical functioning in individuals with chronic diseases. This review aims to identify the actual state of applying wearable systems for monitoring mobility-related activity in individuals with chronic disease conditions. In this review we focus on technologies and applications, feasibility and adherence aspects, and clinical relevance of wearable motion sensing technology. PubMed (Medline since 1990), PEdro, and reference lists of all relevant articles were searched. Two authors independently reviewed randomised trials systematically. The quality of selected articles was scored and study results were summarised and discussed. 163 abstracts were considered. After application of inclusion criteria and full text reading, 25 articles were taken into account in a full text review. Twelve of these papers evaluated walking with pedometers, seven used uniaxial accelerometers to assess physical activity, six used multiaxial accelerometers, and two papers used a combination approach of a pedometer and a multiaxial accelerometer for obtaining overall activity and energy expenditure measures. Seven studies mentioned feasibility and/or adherence aspects. The number of studies that use movement sensors for monitoring of activity patterns in chronic disease (postural transitions, time spent in certain positions or activities) is nonexistent on the RCT level of study design. Although feasible methods for monitoring human mobility are available, evidence-based clinical applications of these methods in individuals with chronic diseases are in need of further development. PMID:22163393
Ash, Susan; Campbell, Katrina L.; Bogard, Jessica; Millichamp, Anna
In Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), management of diet is important in prevention of disease progression and symptom management, however evidence on nutrition prescription is limited. Recent international CKD guidelines and literature was reviewed to address the following question “What is the appropriate nutrition prescription to achieve positive outcomes in adult patients with chronic kidney disease?” Databases included in the search were Medline and CINAHL using EBSCOhost search engine, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews published from 2000 to 2009. International guidelines pertaining to nutrition prescription in CKD were also reviewed from 2000 to 2013. Three hundred and eleven papers and eight guidelines were reviewed by three reviewers. Evidence was graded as per the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia criteria. The evidence from thirty six papers was tabulated under the following headings: protein, weight loss, enteral support, vitamin D, sodium, fat, fibre, oral nutrition supplements, nutrition counselling, including protein and phosphate, nutrients in peritoneal dialysis solution and intradialytic parenteral nutrition, and was compared to international guidelines. While more evidence based studies are warranted, the customary nutrition prescription remains satisfactory with the exception of Vitamin D and phosphate. In these two areas, additional research is urgently needed given the potential of adverse outcomes for the CKD patient. PMID:24451311
Ash, Susan; Campbell, Katrina L; Bogard, Jessica; Millichamp, Anna
In Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), management of diet is important in prevention of disease progression and symptom management, however evidence on nutrition prescription is limited. Recent international CKD guidelines and literature was reviewed to address the following question "What is the appropriate nutrition prescription to achieve positive outcomes in adult patients with chronic kidney disease?" Databases included in the search were Medline and CINAHL using EBSCOhost search engine, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews published from 2000 to 2009. International guidelines pertaining to nutrition prescription in CKD were also reviewed from 2000 to 2013. Three hundred and eleven papers and eight guidelines were reviewed by three reviewers. Evidence was graded as per the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia criteria. The evidence from thirty six papers was tabulated under the following headings: protein, weight loss, enteral support, vitamin D, sodium, fat, fibre, oral nutrition supplements, nutrition counselling, including protein and phosphate, nutrients in peritoneal dialysis solution and intradialytic parenteral nutrition, and was compared to international guidelines. While more evidence based studies are warranted, the customary nutrition prescription remains satisfactory with the exception of Vitamin D and phosphate. In these two areas, additional research is urgently needed given the potential of adverse outcomes for the CKD patient.
Corrêa-Fissmer, Mariane; Mendonça, Mariana Gaspar; Martins, Anesio Henrique; Galato, Dayani
Self-medication is the selection and use of drugs without medical prescription, to treat diseases or for symptomatic relief. This article is a systematic review on self-medication in skin diseases. A search was conducted on Virtual Health Library and PubMed databases using predetermined descriptors. Two researchers performed the article selection process independently, with the degree of inter-observer agreement measured by the kappa index. The prevalence of self-medication ranged from 6.0 to 45.0%. Topical corticosteroids were the most commonly used therapeutic strategies for self-medication, as found in the reviewed articles. This study revealed that published data on self-medication in dermatology are scarce, although the findings showed that it was a common practice.
Mengnjo, Michel K; Kamtchum-Tatuene, Joseph; Nicastro, Nicolas; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N
Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD) is highly prevalent in Africa. Considered as a public health problem, it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Neurological complications of SCD can cause significant disability with important socioeconomic and psychological impact on the patients and their families, and can even lead to death if not properly managed. There are important knowledge gaps regarding the burden of neurological complications of SCD in African populations. We propose to conduct the first systematic review to summarise the epidemiological data available on neurological complications of SCD in Africa. Methods and analysis We will search PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the African Index Medicus from 1 January 1950 to 31 May 2016 for studies of neurological complications of SCD in Africa. After study selection, full-text paper acquisition, data extraction and synthesis, we will assess all studies for quality, risk of bias and heterogeneity. Appropriate methods of meta-analysis will be used to pool prevalence estimates from studies with similar features, globally and in major subgroups. This protocol complies with the 2015 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. Ethics and dissemination The proposed study will use published data. Therefore, there is no requirement for ethical approval. This review is expected to provide relevant data to help quantify the burden of neurological complications of SCD in African populations, inform policymakers and identify further research topics. The final report of the systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at conferences. Review registration number CRD42016039574. PMID:27798028
Haider, Taj; Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Yoga, a mind-body exercise, utilizes breathing techniques with low-impact physical activity that may be an alternative treatment for cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine yoga interventions for patients at-risk for and/or suffering from cardiovascular disease. The inclusion criteria for interventions were (a) published in the English language between 2005 and 2015; (b) indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, or Alt HealthWatch; (c) employed a quantitative design; and (d) applied a yoga intervention. Twelve interventions met the inclusion criteria, of which, all documented significant improvements in one or more factors associated with cardiovascular disease. Limitations to the studies in this review included a lack of studies adhering to the inclusion criteria, small sample sizes, and high attrition rates. Despite the limitations, this review demonstrates the clear potential yoga has as an alternative and complementary means to improve cardiovascular disease risk.
Threapleton, Diane E; Greenwood, Darren C; Evans, Charlotte E L; Cleghorn, Christine L; Nykjaer, Camilla; Woodhead, Charlotte; Cade, Janet E; Gale, Christopher P
Objective To investigate dietary fibre intake and any potential dose-response association with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease. Design Systematic review of available literature and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies using random effects models. Data sources The Cochrane Library, Medline, Medline in-process, Embase, CAB Abstracts, ISI Web of Science, BIOSIS, and hand searching. Eligibility criteria for studies Prospective studies reporting associations between fibre intake and coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease, with a minimum follow-up of three years and published in English between 1 January 1990 and 6 August 2013. Results 22 cohort study publications met inclusion criteria and reported total dietary fibre intake, fibre subtypes, or fibre from food sources and primary events of cardiovascular disease or coronary heart disease. Total dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (risk ratio 0.91 per 7 g/day (95% confidence intervals 0.88 to 0.94)) and coronary heart disease (0.91 (0.87 to 0.94)). There was evidence of some heterogeneity between pooled studies for cardiovascular disease (I2=45% (0% to 74%)) and coronary heart disease (I2=33% (0% to 66%)). Insoluble fibre and fibre from cereal and vegetable sources were inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease. Fruit fibre intake was inversely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Greater dietary fibre intake is associated with a lower risk of both cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. Findings are aligned with general recommendations to increase fibre intake. The differing strengths of association by fibre type or source highlight the need for a better understanding of the mode of action of fibre components. PMID:24355537
Kriegel, Martin A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Costenbader, Karen H.
Objectives We evaluated the epidemiologic evidence that vitamin D may be related to human autoimmune disease risk. Methods PubMed limited to English from inception through April 2010 was searched using keywords: “vitamin D”, “autoimmune” and autoimmune disease names. We summarized in vitro, animal, and genetic association studies of vitamin D in autoimmune disease pathogenesis. We sorted studies by design and disease and performed a systematic review of: a) cross-sectional data concerning vitamin D level and autoimmune disease; b) interventional data on vitamin D supplementation in autoimmune diseases and c) prospective data linking vitamin D level or intake to autoimmune disease risk. Results Vitamin D has effects on innate and acquired immune systems and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms have been associated with various autoimmune diseases. In experimental animal models, vitamin D supplementation can prevent or forestall autoimmune disease. We identified 76 studies in which vitamin D levels were studied in autoimmune disease patients, particularly with active disease, and compared to controls. Nineteen observational or interventional studies assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation as therapy for various autoimmune diseases (excluding psoriasis and vitiligo) with a range of study approaches and results. The few prospective human studies performed conflict as to whether vitamin D level or intake is associated with autoimmune disease risk. No interventional trials have investigated whether vitamin D affects human autoimmune disease risk. Conclusions Cross-sectional data point to a potential role of vitamin D in autoimmune disease prevention, but prospective interventional evidence in humans is still lacking. PMID:21047669
Power, Melinda C.; Weuve, Jennifer; Gagne, Joshua J.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Viswanathan, Anand; Blacker, Deborah
Background Many epidemiologic studies have considered the association between blood pressure (BP) and Alzheimer disease, yet the relationship remains poorly understood. Methods In parallel with work on the AlzRisk online database (www.alzrisk.org), we conducted a systematic review to identify all epidemiologic studies meeting pre-specified criteria reporting on the association between hypertension, systolic BP, or diastolic BP and incident Alzheimer disease. When possible, we computed summary measures using random-effects models and explored potential heterogeneity related to age at BP assessment. Results Eighteen studies reporting on 19 populations met the eligibility criteria. We computed summary relative risks (RRΣ) for three measures of BP: hypertension (RRΣ=0.97 [95% confidence interval= 0.80–1.16]); a 10 mm Hg-increase in systolic BP (RRΣ=0.95 [0.91–1.00]); and a 10 mm Hg-increase in diastolic BP (RRΣ=0.94 [0.85–1.04]). We were unable to compute summary estimates for the association between categories of systolic or diastolic BP and Alzheimer disease; however, there did not appear to be a consistent pattern across studies. After stratifying on age at BP assessment, we found a suggestion of an inverse association between late-life hypertension and Alzheimer disease and a suggestion of an adverse association between midlife diastolic hypertension and Alzheimer disease. Conclusions Based on existing epidemiologic research, we cannot determine whether there is a causal association between BP and Alzheimer disease. Selection bias and reverse causation may account for the suggested inverse association between late-life hypertension on Alzheimer disease, but, given the expected direction of these biases, they are less likely to account for the suggestion that midlife hypertension increases risk. We advocate continuing systematic review; the Alzrisk database entry on this topic (www.alzrisk.org), which was completed in parallel with this work, will be
Ruby, Alexander; Knight, Abigail; Perel, Pablo; Blanchet, Karl; Roberts, Bayard
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are of increasing concern in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) affected humanitarian crises. Humanitarian agencies and governments are increasingly challenged with how to effectively tackle NCDs. Reviewing the evidence of interventions for NCDs in humanitarian crises can help guide future policies and research by identifying effective interventions and evidence gaps. The aim of this paper is to systematically review evidence on the effectiveness of interventions targeting NCDs during humanitarian crises in LMICs. A systematic review methodology was followed using PRISMA standards. Studies were selected on NCD interventions with civilian populations affected by humanitarian crises in low- and middle-income countries. Five bibliographic databases and a range of grey literature sources were searched. Descriptive analysis was applied and a quality assessment conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for observational studies and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for experimental studies. The search yielded 4919 references of which 8 studies met inclusion criteria. Seven of the 8 studies were observational, and one study was a non-blinded randomised-controlled trial. Diseases examined included hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, thalassaemia, and arthritis. Study settings included locations in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and South Asia. Interventions featuring disease-management protocols and/or cohort monitoring demonstrated the strongest evidence of effectiveness. No studies examined intervention costs. The quality of studies was limited, with a reliance on observational study designs, limited use of control groups, biases associated with missing data and inadequate patient-follow-up, and confounding was poorly addressed. The review highlights the extremely limited quantity and quality of evidence on this topic. Interventions that incorporate standardisation and
Guerrero-Torrelles, Mariona; Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Rodríguez-Prat, Andrea; Porta-Sales, Josep; Balaguer, Albert
Among patients with advanced disease, meaning in life is thought to enhance well-being, promote coping and improve the tolerance of physical symptoms. It may also act as a buffer against depression and hopelessness. As yet, there has been no synthesis of meaning in life interventions in which contextual factors, procedures and outcomes are described and evaluated. To identify meaning in life interventions implemented in patients with advanced disease and to describe their context, mechanisms and outcomes. Systematic review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and realist synthesis of meaning in life interventions using criteria from the Realist And Meta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards project. The CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched. A total of 12 articles were included in the systematic review, corresponding to nine different interventions. Five articles described randomized controlled trials, two were qualitative studies, two were commentaries or reflections, and there was one pre-post evaluation, one exploratory study and one description of a model of care. Analysis of context, mechanisms and outcomes configurations showed that a core component of all the interventions was the interpersonal encounter between patient and therapist, in which sources of meaning were explored and a sense of connectedness was re-established. Meaning in life interventions were associated with clinical benefits on measures of purpose-in-life, quality of life, spiritual well-being, self-efficacy, optimism, distress, hopelessness, anxiety, depression and wish to hasten death. This review provides an explanatory model of the contextual factors and mechanisms that may be involved in promoting meaning in life. These approaches could provide useful tools for relieving existential suffering at the end of life.
Allin, Benjamin Saul Raywood; Irvine, Amy; Patni, Nicholas; Knight, Marian
Heterogeneity in outcome reporting limits identification of gold-standard treatments for Hirschsprung’s Disease(HD) and gastroschisis. This review aimed to identify which outcomes are currently investigated in HD and gastroschisis research so as to counter this heterogeneity through informing development of a core outcome set(COS). Two systematic reviews were conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they compared surgical interventions for primary treatment of HD in review one, and gastroschisis in review two. Studies available only as abstracts were excluded from analysis of reporting transparency. Thirty-five HD studies were eligible for inclusion in the review, and 74 unique outcomes were investigated. The most commonly investigated was faecal incontinence (32 studies, 91%). Seven of the 28 assessed studies (25%) met all criteria for transparent outcome reporting. Thirty gastroschisis studies were eligible for inclusion in the review, and 62 unique outcomes were investigated. The most commonly investigated was length of stay (24 studies, 80%). None of the assessed studies met all criteria for transparent outcome reporting. This review demonstrates that heterogeneity in outcome reporting and a significant risk of reporting bias exist in HD and gastroschisis research. Development of a COS could counter these problems, and the outcome lists developed from this review could be used in that process. PMID:27941923
Vilchinsky, Noa; Ginzburg, Karni; Fait, Keren; Foa, Edna B
The goal of the current systematic review was to provide an overview of the findings in the field of Cardiac-Disease-Induced Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CDI-PTSD) in order to establish CDI-PTSD as a valid diagnostic entity for a wide spectrum of cardiac diseases and related medical procedures. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic electronic literature search. Of the 3202 citations identified, 150 studies meeting the selection criteria were reviewed. Our main findings were that the prevalence of CDI-PTSD ranged between 0% and 38% (averaging at 12%) and was highly dependent on the assessment tool used. The most consistent risk factors are of a psychological nature (e.g., pre-morbid distress). The consequences of CDI-PTSD range from psychosocial difficulties to lack of adherence and heightened mortality rates. Much inconsistency in the field was found with regard to patients who present with diagnoses other than acute coronary syndrome (e.g., cardiac arrest) and who undergo potentially traumatic medical procedures (e.g., defibrillator implantation). Yet the current review seems to strengthen the conceptualization of CDI-PTSD as a valid diagnostic entity, at least with regard to acute cardiac events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Audag, Nicolas; Goubau, Christophe; Toussaint, Michel; Reychler, Gregory
Dysphagia is frequent in paediatric patients with neuromuscular diseases (pNMD). Its detection is important for initiating early diagnosis and treatment as well as for minimizing related complications. The aim of this study was to review the literature on dysphagia screening and evaluation tools in pNMD. A systematic review was performed on the basis of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Three databases (PubMed, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect) were searched. Measurement properties of tools and the quality index developed by Downs and Black were considered. Our search yielded four studies and four different tools for paediatric patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire, surface electromyography, Neuromuscular Disease Swallowing Status Scale, and videofluoroscopic swallow study showed interesting properties for DMD. No data were available for other NMD and children under 9 years. The mean total score for the quality index was 17.5. We did not identify any superior validated tools, either for screening or for evaluation of dysphagia, and no widely accepted protocol. Further studies are needed to identify the simplest assessment with the best psychometric properties for pNMD. We recommend establishing a specific tool for pNMD. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.
Zhu, Ke-Fu; Wang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Jin-Zhou; Zhou, Qin-Yi; Wang, Ning-Fu
Coronary heart disease has become a major health concern over the past several decades. Several reviews have assessed the effects of socioeconomic status on the coronary heart disease epidemic in communities and countries, but only a few reviews have been performed at a global level. This study was to explore the relationship between the prevalence of coronary heart disease and socioeconomic development worldwide using the Human Development Index. Systematic review. The data in this study were collected from the MEDLINE database. Cross-sectional studies reporting the prevalence of coronary heart disease until November 2014 were collected. The Human Development Index was sourced from the United Nations Development Programme Database and was used to measure the socioeconomic achievements of countries. Each country was classified as a developing or developed country based on its level of development according to the Human Development Index value. Based on the data analysis on the global level, coronary heart disease prevalence had no association with the national Human Development Index (rho = 0.07). However, there was a positive association between coronary heart disease prevalence and the national Human Development Index in developing countries, although a negative association existed in developed countries (rho = 0.47 and -0.34, respectively). In addition, the past decades have witnessed a growing coronary heart disease epidemic in developing countries, with reverse trends observed in developed countries (P = 0.021 and 0.002, respectively). With the development of socioeconomic status, as measured by the Human Development Index, the prevalence of coronary heart disease is growing in developing countries, while declining in developed countries. Future research needs to pay more attention to the reasonable allocation of medical resources and control of coronary heart disease risk factors. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.
Moshous, Despina; Cassar, Olivier; Reguerre, Yves; Byun, Minji; Pedergnana, Vincent; Canioni, Danielle; Gessain, Antoine; Oksenhendler, Eric; Fieschi, Claire; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Rivière, Jean-Pierre; Herbigneaux, Rose-Marie; Muszlak, Matthias; Arnaud, Jean-Pierre; Fischer, Alain; Picard, Capucine; Blanche, Stéphane; Plancoulaine, Sabine
Childhood multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a rare and unexplained lymphoproliferative disorder. We report a human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)-infected child, born to consanguineous Comorian parents, who displayed isolated MCD in the absence of any known immunodeficiency. We also systematically review the clinical features of the 32 children previously reported with isolated and unexplained MCD. The characteristics of this patient and the geographic areas of origin of most previous cases suggest that pediatric MCD is associated with HHV-8 infection. Moreover, as previously suggested for Kaposi sarcoma, MCD in childhood may result from inborn errors of immunity to HHV-8 infection. PMID:22157133
Neuendorf, Rachel; Harding, Aubrey; Stello, Noelle; Hanes, Douglas; Wahbeh, Helané
An increasing number of studies have been conducted to look at anxiety and depression in IBD; however, there is no clear consensus on the prevalence of anxiety and depression in this population. The objective of this systematic review was to compile the existing data on the prevalence of all mood and anxiety disorders in Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients. A series of comprehensive literature searches of Medline, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, AMED, and ProQuest Dissertations were performed through March 2014. Inclusion criteria included peer-reviewed, published scientific articles that reported a measurement of mood or anxiety among IBD patients. Only studies with adults (≥18years old) and with more than 10 patients were included. Methodological quality was assessed for all included studies. 171 articles were identified with a total of 158,371 participants. Pooled prevalence estimate for anxiety disorders was 20.5% [4.9%, 36.5%] and 35.1% [30.5, 39.7%] for symptoms of anxiety. IBD patients in active disease had higher prevalence of anxiety of 75.6% [65.5%, 85.7%] compared to disease remission. Pooled prevalence of depression disorders was 15.2% [9.9%, 20.5%] and was 21.6% [18.7%, 24.3%] for symptoms of depression. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher in Crohn's disease (25.3% [20.7%, 30.0%]) compared to UC, and higher with active disease (40.7% [31.1%, 50.3%]) compared to IBD patients in remission. Results from this systematic review indicate that patients with IBD have about a 20% prevalence rate of anxiety and a 15% prevalence rate of depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fugazza, Alessandro; Gaiani, Federica; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Brunetti, Francesco; Lévy, Michaël; Sobhani, Iradj; Azoulay, Daniel; Catena, Fausto; de'Angelis, Gian Luigi; de'Angelis, Nicola
Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is an endoscopic-assisted technique developed to obtain histopathological diagnoses of gastrointestinal and pancreatobiliary diseases in real time. The objective of this systematic review is to analyze the current literature on CLE and to evaluate the applicability and diagnostic yield of CLE in patients with gastrointestinal and pancreatobiliary diseases. A literature search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane Oral Health Group Specialized Register, using pertinent keywords without time limitations. Both prospective and retrospective clinical studies that evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, or accuracy of CLE were eligible for inclusion. Of 662 articles identified, 102 studies were included in the systematic review. The studies were conducted between 2004 and 2015 in 16 different countries. CLE demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus, gastric neoplasms and polyps, colorectal cancers in inflammatory bowel disease, malignant pancreatobiliary strictures, and pancreatic cysts. Although CLE has several promising applications, its use has been limited by its low availability, high cost, and need of specific operator training. Further clinical trials with a particular focus on cost-effectiveness and medicoeconomic analyses, as well as standardized institutional training, are advocated to implement CLE in routine clinical practice. PMID:26989684
Sharififar, Sharareh; Coronado, Rogelio A; Romero, Sergio; Azari, Hassan; Thigpen, Mary
Whole body vibration (WBV) is a contemporary treatment modality that holds promise as an exercise training method in health-compromised individuals. A growing number of studies on individuals with Parkinson Disease are examining whether WBV improves balance and functional mobility. However, interpreting WBV studies is challenging since there is variability in the manner in which WBV intervention is conducted. The primary goal of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of WBV on improving mobility and balance as measured by a battery of clinical tests, in patients with Parkinson disease. Studies based on WBV parameters were characterized and a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature in five major databases was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV in patients with a Parkinson diagnosis and no cognitive impairment were included. A total of six publications met the inclusion criteria. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of WBV for improving balance or mobility. The majority of studies seem to suggest a favorable benefit following WBV for mobility and balance, but not when compared to other active intervention or placebo. There was variability in the manner in which WBV intervention was applied. Variations among the six studies included: duration of intervention and rest, follow-up period, type of control groups, frequency of vibration, number of treatment sessions and sex distribution of subjects. Future research is needed to investigate the effects of different types of equipment and treatment dosage in individuals with Parkinson disease.
Onalaja, Oluwademilade A.
Background Antipsychotics can exacerbate motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease psychosis. Aims To systematically review the literature on the efficacy and acceptability of antipsychotics for Parkinson's disease psychosis. Method Randomised controlled trials comparing an antipsychotic with placebo were systematically reviewed. Results The final selection list included nine studies using quetiapine (3), clozapine (2), olanzapine (3) and pimavanserin (1). A narrative synthesis and meta-analyses (where appropriate) were presented for each antipsychotic. Clozapine demonstrated superiority over placebo in reducing psychotic symptoms. Quetiapine and olanzapine did not significantly improve psychotic symptoms. All three antipsychotics may exacerbate motor symptoms. Quetiapine studies were associated with high drop-out rates due to adverse events. Pimavanserin is a novel treatment that warrants further investigation. Conclusions Further research is needed. Clozapine and pimavanserin appear to be a promising treatment for Parkinson's disease psychosis. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703720
Sharififar, Sharareh; Coronado, Rogelio A.; Romero, Sergio; Azari, Hassan; Thigpen, Mary
Whole body vibration (WBV) is a contemporary treatment modality that holds promise as an exercise training method in health–compromised individuals. A growing number of studies on individuals with Parkinson Disease are examining whether WBV improves balance and functional mobility. However, interpreting WBV studies is challenging since there is variability in the manner in which WBV intervention is conducted. The primary goal of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of WBV on improving mobility and balance as measured by a battery of clinical tests, in patients with Parkinson disease. Studies based on WBV parameters were characterized and a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature in five major databases was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV in patients with a Parkinson diagnosis and no cognitive impairment were included. A total of six publications met the inclusion criteria. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of WBV for improving balance or mobility. The majority of studies seem to suggest a favorable benefit following WBV for mobility and balance, but not when compared to other active intervention or placebo. There was variability in the manner in which WBV intervention was applied. Variations among the six studies included: duration of intervention and rest, follow-up period, type of control groups, frequency of vibration, number of treatment sessions and sex distribution of subjects. Future research is needed to investigate the effects of different types of equipment and treatment dosage in individuals with Parkinson disease. PMID:25031483
Choi, Jihye; Cho, Youngtae; Shim, Eunyoung; Woo, Hyekyung
Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are a significant public health concern, and early detection and immediate response is crucial for disease control. These challenges have led to the need for new approaches and technologies to reinforce the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for detecting emerging infectious diseases. In the last few years, the availability of novel web-based data sources has contributed substantially to infectious disease surveillance. This study explores the burgeoning field of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems by examining their current status, importance, and potential challenges. A systematic review framework was applied to the search, screening, and analysis of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases to extensively review the English literature published between 2000 and 2015. Eleven surveillance systems were chosen for evaluation according to their high frequency of application. Relevant terms, including newly coined terms, development and classification of the surveillance systems, and various characteristics associated with the systems were studied. Based on a detailed and informative review of the 11 web-based infectious disease surveillance systems, it was evident that these systems exhibited clear strengths, as compared to traditional surveillance systems, but with some limitations yet to be overcome. The major strengths of the newly emerging surveillance systems are that they are intuitive, adaptable, low-cost, and operated in real-time, all of which are necessary features of an effective public health tool. The most apparent potential challenges of the web-based systems are those of inaccurate interpretation and prediction of health status, and privacy issues, based on an individual's internet activity. Despite being in a nascent stage with further modification needed, web-based surveillance systems have evolved to complement
Penagini, Francesca; Dilillo, Dario; Borsani, Barbara; Cococcioni, Lucia; Galli, Erica; Bedogni, Giorgio; Zuin, Giovanna; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo
Nutrition is involved in several aspects of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ranging from disease etiology to induction and maintenance of disease. With regards to etiology, there are pediatric data, mainly from case-control studies, which suggest that some dietary habits (for example consumption of animal protein, fatty foods, high sugar intake) may predispose patients to IBD onset. As for disease treatment, exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is an extensively studied, well established, and valid approach to the remission of pediatric Crohn’s disease (CD). Apart from EEN, several new nutritional approaches are emerging and have proved to be successful (specific carbohydrate diet and CD exclusion diet) but the available evidence is not strong enough to recommend this kind of intervention in clinical practice and new large experimental controlled studies are needed, especially in the pediatric population. Moreover, efforts are being made to identify foods with anti-inflammatory properties such as curcumin and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3, which can possibly be effective in maintenance of disease. The present systematic review aims at reviewing the scientific literature on all aspects of nutrition in pediatric IBD, including the most recent advances on nutritional therapy. PMID:27258308
Poustie, Vanessa J; Watling, Ruth M; Smyth, Rosalind L
Growth failure and poor nutritional status are features of children with chronic disease. Oral protein-energy supplements are one of a number of interventions provided with the aim of improving nutritional status in these children. The present paper describes a Cochrane systematic review assessing the efficacy of these products in children with chronic disease. The objective was to examine the evidence that in children with chronic disease oral protein-energy supplements alter nutrient intake, nutritional indices, survival and quality of life. All randomised controlled trials of the use of oral protein-energy supplements in children with chronic disease were identified through searching electronic databases and hand searching the abstract books of nutrition conferences. Studies identified were independently assessed for eligibility and methodological quality, and data on outcomes of interest were combined in a meta-analysis where possible. Two trials were eligible for inclusion in the review, both of which were undertaken with children with cystic fibrosis. No statistical differences could be found between treatment and control groups when data from both studies were combined. Oral protein-energy supplements are widely used to improve the nutritional status of children with chronic disease. No conclusions can be drawn on the efficacy of these products based on the limited data available. Further randomised controlled trials are required to investigate the use of these products in children with chronic disease. Until further data are available, these products should be used with caution.
Oren, Shiri; Willerton, Charlene; Small, Jeff
Purpose: This article reports on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of spaced retrieval training (SRT) on semantic memory in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or related disorder. Method: An initial systematic database search identified 454 potential studies. After screening and de-duplication, 35 studies that used SRT…
Oren, Shiri; Willerton, Charlene; Small, Jeff
Purpose: This article reports on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of spaced retrieval training (SRT) on semantic memory in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or related disorder. Method: An initial systematic database search identified 454 potential studies. After screening and de-duplication, 35 studies that used SRT…
Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Villamandos García, Diana; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Nogales Gadea, Gisela; Lucia, Alejandro
The aim of this systematic review was to analyse all the published clinical trials assessing treatments for Niemann-Pick (NP) disease. At present there are only trials investigating the treatment of NP disease type C. Furthermore, there is no uniformity among studies in treatment outcomes or in data analysis and presentation of results. Miglustat is able to delay neurodegeneration, with greater benefits in patients with a late onset of the disease and β-cyclodextrin-hydroxypropyl (HBP-CD) can attenuate clinical symptoms. As for cholesterol-lowering drugs, the combination of lovastatin, cholestyramine and nicotinic acid is the most effective one for lowering cholesterolemia. Further research is much needed, and ongoing trials using enzyme replacement therapy might hopefully show promising results in the foreseeable future.
Villamandos García, Diana; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Nogales Gadea, Gisela; Lucia, Alejandro
The aim of this systematic review was to analyse all the published clinical trials assessing treatments for Niemann-Pick (NP) disease. At present there are only trials investigating the treatment of NP disease type C. Furthermore, there is no uniformity among studies in treatment outcomes or in data analysis and presentation of results. Miglustat is able to delay neurodegeneration, with greater benefits in patients with a late onset of the disease and β-cyclodextrin-hydroxypropyl (HBP-CD) can attenuate clinical symptoms. As for cholesterol-lowering drugs, the combination of lovastatin, cholestyramine and nicotinic acid is the most effective one for lowering cholesterolemia. Further research is much needed, and ongoing trials using enzyme replacement therapy might hopefully show promising results in the foreseeable future. PMID:26807415
Njie, Gibril J; Proia, Krista K; Thota, Anilkrishna B; Finnie, Ramona K C; Hopkins, David P; Banks, Starr M; Callahan, David B; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Rask, Kimberly J; Lackland, Daniel T; Kottke, Thomas E
Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) can help clinicians assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and manage CVD risk factors by providing tailored assessments and treatment recommendations based on individual patient data. The goal of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of CDSSs in improving screening for CVD risk factors, practices for CVD-related preventive care services such as clinical tests and prescribed treatments, and management of CVD risk factors. An existing systematic review (search period, January 1975-January 2011) of CDSSs for any condition was initially identified. Studies of CDSSs that focused on CVD prevention in that review were combined with studies identified through an updated search (January 2011-October 2012). Data analysis was conducted in 2013. A total of 45 studies qualified for inclusion in the review. Improvements were seen for recommended screening and other preventive care services completed by clinicians, recommended clinical tests completed by clinicians, and recommended treatments prescribed by clinicians (median increases of 3.8, 4.0, and 2.0 percentage points, respectively). Results were inconsistent for changes in CVD risk factors such as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1C levels. CDSSs are effective in improving clinician practices related to screening and other preventive care services, clinical tests, and treatments. However, more evidence is needed from implementation of CDSSs within the broad context of comprehensive service delivery aimed at reducing CVD risk and CVD-related morbidity and mortality. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Pulido, Olga M; Gillespie, Zoe; Zarkadas, Marion; Dubois, Sheila; Vavasour, Elizabeth; Rashid, Mohsin; Switzer, Connie; Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb
Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingested gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. The only treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet for life. This paper presents a systematic review of the scientific literature on the safety of pure oats for individuals with celiac disease, which historically has been subject to debate. Limitations identified within the scientific database include: limited data on long-term consumption, limited numbers of participants in challenge studies, and limited reporting about the reasons for withdrawals from study protocols. Furthermore, some evidence suggests that a small number of individuals with celiac disease may be intolerant to pure oats and some evidence from in vitro studies suggests that an immunological response to oat avenins can occur in the absence of clinical manifestations of celiac disease as well as suggesting that oat cultivars vary in toxicity. Based on the majority of the evidence provided in the scientific database, and despite the limitations, Health Canada and the Canadian Celiac Association (CCA) concluded that the majority of people with celiac disease can tolerate moderate amounts of pure oats. The incorporation of oats into a gluten-free diet provides high fiber and vitamin B content, increased palatability, and beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. However, it is recommended that individuals with celiac disease should have both initial and long-term assessments by a health professional when introducing pure oats into a gluten-free diet.
Defrancesco, Michaela; Marksteiner, Josef; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Blasko, Imrich
Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Unfortunately, studies evaluating their benefits and risks in these patients are limited. Clinical trials focusing on the effect of benzodiazepines on cognitive functions, disease progression, behavioral symptoms, sleep disturbances, and the general frequency of benzodiazepine use were included in this review. Published articles from January 1983 to January 2015 were identified using specific search terms in MEDLINE and PubMed Library according to the recommendations of The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology initiative. Of the 657 articles found, 18 articles met predefined selection criteria and were included in this review (8 on frequency, 5 on cognitive functions, 5 on behavioral and sleep disturbances). The frequency of benzodiazepine use ranged from 8.5% to 20%. Five studies reported accelerated cognitive deterioration in association with benzodiazepine use. Two studies reported clinical efficacy for lorazepam and alprazolam to reduce agitation in Alzheimer's disease patients. No evidence was found for an improvement of sleep quality using benzodiazepines. This systematic review shows a relatively high prevalence of benzodiazepine use but limited evidence for clinical efficacy in Alzheimer's disease patients. However, there is a paucity of methodologically high quality controlled clinical trials. Our results underscore a need for randomized controlled trials in this area. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Barr, Neil; Vania, Diana; Randall, Glen; Mulvale, Gillian
Objectives Information and communication technology is often lauded as the key to enhancing communication among health care providers. However, its impact on interprofessional collaboration is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which it improves communication and, subsequently, enhances interprofessional collaboration in chronic disease management. Methods A systematic review of academic literature using two electronic platforms: HealthSTAR and Web of Science (core collection and MEDLINE). To be eligible for inclusion in the review, articles needed to be peer-reviewed; accessible in English and focused on how technology supports, or might support, collaboration (through enhanced communication) in chronic disease management. Studies were assessed for quality and a narrative synthesis conducted. Results The searches identified 289 articles of which six were included in the final analysis (three used qualitative methods, two were descriptive and one used mixed methods). Various forms of information and communication technology were described including electronic health records, online communities/learning resources and telehealth/telecare. Three themes emerged from the studies that may provide insights into how communication that facilitates collaboration in chronic disease management might be enhanced: professional conflict, collective engagement and continuous learning. Conclusions The success of technology in enhancing collaboration for chronic disease management depends upon supporting the social relationships and organization in which the technology will be placed. Decision-makers should take into account and work toward balancing the impact of technology together with the professional and cultural characteristics of health care teams.
Bharath, Vighnesh; Kahn, Susan R; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro
Chronic venous disease encompasses a spectrum of disorders caused by an abnormal venous system. They include chronic venous insufficiency, varicose veins, lipodermatosclerosis, postthrombotic syndrome, and venous ulceration. Some evidence suggests a genetic predisposition to chronic venous disease from gene polymorphisms associated mainly with vein wall remodeling. The literature exploring these polymorphisms has not been reviewed and compiled thus far. In this narrative and systematic review, we present the current evidence available on the role of polymorphisms in genes involved in vein wall remodeling and other pathways as contributors to chronic venous disease. We searched the EMBASE, Medline, and PubMed databases from inception to 2013 for basic science or clinical studies relating to genetic associations in chronic venous disease and obtained 38 relevant studies for this review. Important candidate genes/proteins include the matrix metalloproteinases (extracellular matrix degradation), vascular endothelial growth factors (angiogenesis and vessel wall integrity), FOXC2 (vascular development), hemochromatosis (involved in venous ulceration and iron absorption), and various types of collagen (contributors to vein wall strength). The data on associations between these genes/proteins and the postthrombotic syndrome are limited and additional studies are required. These associations might have future prognostic and therapeutic implications.
Blom, Kimberly; Odutayo, Ayodele; Bramham, Kate; Hladunewich, Michelle A
During pregnancy, CKD increases both maternal and fetal risk. Adverse maternal outcomes include progression of underlying renal dysfunction, worsening of urine protein, and hypertension, whereas adverse fetal outcomes include fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm delivery. As such, pregnancy in young women with CKD is anxiety provoking for both the patient and the clinician providing care, and because the heterogeneous group of glomerular diseases often affects young women, this is an area of heightened concern. In this invited review, we discuss pregnancy outcomes in young women with glomerular diseases. We have performed a systematic review in attempt to better understand these outcomes among young women with primary GN, we review the studies of pregnancy outcomes in lupus nephritis, and finally, we provide a potential construct for management. Although it is safe to say that the vast majority of young women with glomerular disease will have a live birth, the counseling that we can provide with respect to individualized risk remains imprecise in primary GN because the existing literature is extremely dated, and all management principles are extrapolated primarily from studies in lupus nephritis and diabetes. As such, the study of pregnancy outcomes and management strategies in these rare diseases requires a renewed interest and a dedicated collaborative effort. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
El-Khodor, Bassem; Dhana, Klodian; Nano, Jana; Pulido, Tammy; Kraja, Bledar; Zaciragic, Asija; Bramer, Wichor M.; Troup, John; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Ikram, M. Arfam; Dehghan, Abbas; Muka, Taulant; Franco, Oscar H.
Importance Epigenetic modifications of the genome, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, have been reported to play a role in neurodegenerative diseases (ND) such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Objective To systematically review studies investigating epigenetic marks in AD or PD. Methods Eleven bibliographic databases (Embase.com, Medline (Ovid), Web-of-Science, Scopus, PubMed, Cinahl (EBSCOhost), Cochrane Central, ProQuest, Lilacs, Scielo and Google Scholar) were searched until July 11th 2016 to identify relevant articles. We included all randomized controlled trials, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies in humans that examined associations between epigenetic marks and ND. Two independent reviewers, with a third reviewer available for disagreements, performed the abstract and full text selection. Data was extracted using a pre-designed data collection form. Results Of 6,927 searched references, 73 unique case-control studies met our inclusion criteria. Overall, 11,453 individuals were included in this systematic review (2,640 AD and 2,368 PD outcomes). There was no consistent association between global DNA methylation pattern and any ND. Studies reported epigenetic regulation of 31 genes (including cell communication, apoptosis, and neurogenesis genes in blood and brain tissue) in relation to AD and PD. Methylation at the BDNF, SORBS3 and APP genes in AD were the most consistently reported associations. Methylation of α-synuclein gene (SNCA) was also found to be associated with PD. Seven studies reported histone protein alterations in AD and PD. Conclusion Many studies have investigated epigenetics and ND. Further research should include larger cohort or longitudinal studies, in order to identify clinically significant epigenetic changes. Identifying relevant epigenetic changes could lead to interventional strategies in ND. PMID:27973581
Moloi, Annesinah Hlengiwe; Watkins, David; Engel, Mark E; Mall, Sumaya; Zühlke, Liesl
Introduction Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a chronic disease affecting the heart valves, secondary to group A streptococcal infection (GAS) and subsequent acute rheumatic fever (ARF). However, RHD cure and preventative measures are inextricably linked with socioeconomic development, as the disease mainly affects children and young adults living in poverty. In order to address RHD, public health officials and health policymakers require up-to-date knowledge on the epidemiology of GAS, ARF and RHD, as well as the existing enablers and gaps in delivery of evidence-based care for these conditions. We propose to conduct a systematic review to assess the literature comprehensively, synthesising all existing quantitative and qualitative data relating to RHD in Africa. Methods and analysis We plan to conduct a comprehensive literature search using a number of databases and reference lists of relevant articles published from January 1995 to December 2015. Two evaluators will independently review and extract data from each article. Additionally, we will assess overall study quality and risk of bias, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme criteria for quantitative and qualitative studies, respectively. We will meta-analyse estimates of prevalence, incidence, case fatality and mortality for each of the conditions separately for each country. Qualitative meta-analysis will be conducted for facilitators and barriers in RHD health access. Lastly, we will create a list of key stakeholders. This protocol is registered in the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of systematic reviews, registration number CRD42016032852. Ethics and dissemination The information provided by this review will inform and assist relevant stakeholders in identifying key areas of intervention, and designing and implementing evidence-based programmes and policies at the local and regional level. With slight modifications (ie, to the country terms in the search
Background Maternal mortality in South Africa is rising, and heart conditions currently account for 41 per cent of indirect causes of deaths. Little is known about the burden of heart disease in pregnant South Africans. Methods We systematically reviewed the contemporary epidemiology and peripartum outcomes of heart disease in South African women attending antenatal care. Searches were performed in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, the EBSCO Africa-Wide database, the South African Union Catalogue, and the Current and Completed Research database (South Africa). References of included articles were also hand-searched. Studies reporting epidemiologic data on antenatal heart disease in South Africa were included. Data on morbidity and mortality were also collected. Results Seven studies were included in the systematic review. The prevalence of heart disease ranged from 123 to 943 per 100,000 deliveries, with a median prevalence of 616 per 100,000. Rheumatic valvular lesions were the commonest abnormalities, although cardiomyopathies were disproportionately high in comparison with other developing countries. Peripartum case-fatality rates were as high as 9.5 per cent in areas with limited access to care. The most frequent complications were pulmonary oedema, thromboembolism, and major bleeding with warfarin use. Perinatal mortality ranged from 8.9 to 23.8 per cent, whilst mitral lesions were associated with low birth weight. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to clinical and statistical heterogeneity of the included studies. Conclusion Approximately 0.6 per cent of pregnant South Africans have pre-existing cardiac abnormalities, with rheumatic lesions being the commonest. Maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality continue to be very high. We conclude this review by summarising limitations of the current literature and recommending standard reporting criteria for future reports. PMID:22463484
Tully, Phillip J; Wittert, Gary A; Turnbull, Deborah A; Beltrame, John F; Horowitz, John D; Cosh, Suzanne; Baumeister, Harald
The clinical presentation of panic disorder and panic attack overlaps many symptoms typically experienced in coronary heart disease (CHD). Etiological links between panic disorder and CHD are controversial and remain largely tenuous. This systematic review aims to pool together data regarding panic disorder with respect to incident CHD or myocardial infarction. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and SCOPUS) will be searched using a search strategy exploding the topics for CHD and panic disorder. Authors and reference lists of included studies will also be contacted to identify additional published and unpublished studies. Eligibility criteria are as follows: persons without CHD who meet criteria for panic disorder, panic attack, anxiety neurosis or elevated panic disorder symptoms; Comparison: persons without CHD who do not meet criteria for panic disorder, panic attack, anxiety neurosis or elevated panic disorder symptoms; verified fatal and non-fatal CHD at follow-up; including coronary revascularization procedure, coronary artery disease, and myocardial infarction. Studies adopting self-report CHD will be ineligible. Screening will be undertaken by two independent reviewers with disagreements resolved through discussion. Data extraction will include original data specified as hazard ratios, risk ratios, and original cell data if available. Risk of bias assessment will be undertaken by two independent reviewers. Meta-analytic methods will be used to synthesize the data collected relating to the CHD outcomes with Cochrane Review Manager 5.3. This systematic review aims to clarify whether panic disorder is associated with elevated risk for subsequent CHD. An evaluation of the etiological links between panic disorder with incident CHD might inform evidence-based clinical practice and policy concerning triaging chest pain patients, diagnostic assessment, and psychiatric intervention with panic disorder patients. PROSPERO CRD42014014891 .
Pivette, Mathilde; Mueller, Judith E; Crépey, Pascal; Bar-Hen, Avner
This systematic literature review aimed to summarize evidence for the added value of drug sales data analysis for the surveillance of infectious diseases. A search for relevant publications was conducted in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, African Index Medicus and Lilacs databases. Retrieved studies were evaluated in terms of objectives, diseases studied, data sources, methodologies and performance for real-time surveillance. Most studies compared drug sales data to reference surveillance data using correlation measurements or indicators of outbreak detection performance (sensitivity, specificity, timeliness of the detection). We screened 3266 articles and included 27 in the review. Most studies focused on acute respiratory and gastroenteritis infections. Nineteen studies retrospectively compared drug sales data to reference clinical data, and significant correlations were observed in 17 of them. Four studies found that over-the-counter drug sales preceded clinical data in terms of incidence increase. Five studies developed and evaluated statistical algorithms for selecting drug groups to monitor specific diseases. Another three studies developed models to predict incidence increase from drug sales. Drug sales data analyses appear to be a useful tool for surveillance of gastrointestinal and respiratory disease, and OTC drugs have the potential for early outbreak detection. Their utility remains to be investigated for other diseases, in particular those poorly surveyed.
Rodríguez-Caso, Luis; Reyes-Palomares, Armando; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Quesada, Ana R; Medina, Miguel Ángel
Angiogenesis, the formation of new vessels from pre-existing ones, is essential during ontogenetic development and is related to many important physio-pathological processes in the adult. In fact, a persistent and deregulated angiogenesis is a required event for many diseases and pathological situations, including cancer progression and metastasis. Some rare diseases are also angiogenesis-related pathologies. However, there is a lack of an exhaustive review on the topic. The main purpose of this work is to carry out a systematic review of literature to determine what (and how much) scientific information concerning angiogenesis-related rare diseases can be extracted from available sources. After exhaustive searches in bibliographic databases, preselected data were filtered by selecting only those articles on rare diseases with an Orpha number hosted in the Orphanet web. The selected bibliographic references were further curated manually. With the 187 selected references, a critical reading and analysis was carried out allowing for an identification and classification of angiogenesis-related rare diseases, the involved genes and the drugs available for their treatment, all on the basis of the information available in Orphanet database. PMID:22882737
Tallman, Jacob E.; Chu, Emily Y.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Pain, Kevin J.; Peck, Robert N.
The global burden of kidney disease is increasing, and several etiologies first begin in childhood. Risk factors for pediatric kidney disease are common in Africa, but data regarding its prevalence are lacking. We completed a systematic review of community-based studies describing the prevalence of proteinuria, hematuria, abnormal imaging, or kidney dysfunction among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Medline and Embase were searched. Five hundred twenty-three references were reviewed. Thirty-two references from 9 countries in sub-Saharan Africa were included in the qualitative synthesis. The degree of kidney damage and abnormal imaging varied widely: proteinuria 32.5% (2.2%-56.0%); hematuria 31.1% (0.6%-67.0%); hydronephrosis 11.3% (0.0%-38.0%), hydroureter 7.5% (0.0%-26.4%), major kidney abnormalities 0.1% (0.0%-0.8%). Serum creatinine was reported in four studies with insufficient detail to identify the prevalence renal dysfunction. A majority of the studies were performed in Schistosoma haematobium endemic areas. A lower prevalence of kidney disease was observed in the few studies from non-endemic areas. Published data on pediatric kidney disease in sub-Saharan Africa is highly variable and dependent on S. haematobium prevalence. More community-based studies are needed to describe the burden of pediatric kidney disease, particularly in regions where S. haematobium infection is non-endemic. PMID:25420180
Kivelä, Kirsi; Elo, Satu; Kyngäs, Helvi; Kääriäinen, Maria
The aim of this systematic review was to describe the effects of health coaching on adult patients with chronic diseases. The reviewers searched electronic databases and performed a manual search for studies published from 2009 to 2013. The inclusion criteria covered health coaching for adults with chronic diseases by health care professionals. The studies were original, randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental designs. Thirteen studies were selected using the inclusion criteria. The results indicate that health coaching produces positive effects on patients' physiological, behavioral and psychological conditions and on their social life. In particular, statistically significant results revealed better weight management, increased physical activity and improved physical and mental health status. Health coaching improves the management of chronic diseases. Further research into the cost-effectiveness of health coaching and its long-term effectiveness for chronic diseases is needed. Practice implications Health care professionals play key roles in promoting healthy behavior and motivating good care for adults with chronic diseases. Health coaching is an effective patient education method that can be used to motivate and take advantage of a patient's willingness to change their life style and to support the patient's home-based self-care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Babaie, Javad; Ardalan, Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Akbarisari, Ali
Background: This study aimed to identify the indices and frameworks that have been used to assess the performance of communicable disease surveillance (CDS) in response to disasters and other emergencies, including infectious disease outbreaks. Method: In this systematic review, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest databases and grey literature were searched until the end of 2013. All retrieved titles were examined in accordance with inclusion criteria. Abstracts of the relevant titles were reviewed and eligible abstracts were included in a list for data abstraction. Finally, the study variables were extracted. Results: Sixteen articles and one book were found relevant to our study objectives. In these articles, 31 criteria and 35 indicators were used or suggested for the assessment/evaluation of the performance of surveillance systems in disasters. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) updated guidelines for the evaluation of public health surveillance systems were the most widely used. Conclusion: Despite the importance of performance assessment in improving CDS in response to disasters, there is a lack of clear and accepted frameworks. There is also no agreement on the use of existing criteria and indices. The only relevant framework is the CDC guideline, which is a common framework for assessing public health surveillance systems as a whole. There is an urgent need to develop appropriate frameworks, criteria, and indices for specifically assessing the performance of CDS in response to disasters and other emergencies, including infectious diseases outbreaks. Key words: Disasters, Emergencies, Communicable Diseases, Surveillance System, Performance Assessment PMID:25774323
Hedlund, Christina; Blomstedt, Yulia; Schumann, Barbara
Background The Arctic and subarctic area are likely to be highly affected by climate change, with possible impacts on human health due to effects on food security and infectious diseases. Objectives To investigate the evidence for an association between climatic factors and infectious diseases, and to identify the most climate-sensitive diseases and vulnerable populations in the Arctic and subarctic region. Methods A systematic review was conducted. A search was made in PubMed, with the last update in May 2013. Inclusion criteria included human cases of infectious disease as outcome, climate or weather factor as exposure, and Arctic or subarctic areas as study origin. Narrative reviews, case reports, and projection studies were excluded. Abstracts and selected full texts were read and evaluated by two independent readers. A data collection sheet and an adjusted version of the SIGN methodology checklist were used to assess the quality grade of each article. Results In total, 1953 abstracts were initially found, of which finally 29 articles were included. Almost half of the studies were carried out in Canada (n=14), the rest from Sweden (n=6), Finland (n=4), Norway (n=2), Russia (n=2), and Alaska, US (n=1). Articles were analyzed by disease group: food- and waterborne diseases, vector-borne diseases, airborne viral- and airborne bacterial diseases. Strong evidence was found in our review for an association between climatic factors and food- and waterborne diseases. The scientific evidence for a link between climate and specific vector- and rodent-borne diseases was weak due to that only a few diseases being addressed in more than one publication, although several articles were of very high quality. Air temperature and humidity seem to be important climatic factors to investigate further for viral- and bacterial airborne diseases, but from our results no conclusion about a causal relationship could be drawn. Conclusions More studies of high quality are needed to
Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; ...
Here, research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: 1) Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improvemore » public health? 2) Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n=15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n=4), Medication and Vaccines (n=3), and Other (n=5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n=10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n=9), and Other (n=10). The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting from the review
Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C.; Suda, Katie J.; Corley, Courtney D.; Braunstein, Lidia Adriana
Here, research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: 1) Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improve public health? 2) Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n=15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n=4), Medication and Vaccines (n=3), and Other (n=5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n=10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n=9), and Other (n=10). The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting from the review is to
Charles-Smith, Lauren E; Reynolds, Tera L; Cameron, Mark A; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H Y; Olsen, Jennifer M; Pavlin, Julie A; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C; Suda, Katie J; Corley, Courtney D
Research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals' ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improve public health?Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes?Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n = 15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n = 4), Medication and Vaccines (n = 3), and Other (n = 5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n = 10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n = 9), and Other (n = 10). The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting from the review is to
Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C.; Suda, Katie J.; Corley, Courtney D.
Objective Research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improve public health? Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n = 15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n = 4), Medication and Vaccines (n = 3), and Other (n = 5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n = 10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n = 9), and Other (n = 10). Conclusions The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting
Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle; Staeger, Philippe; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Ghali, William A; Burnand, Bernard
Disease-management programs may enhance the quality of care provided to patients with chronic diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of COPD disease-management programs. We conducted a computerized search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) for studies evaluating interventions meeting our operational definition of disease management: patient education, 2 or more different intervention components, 2 or more health care professionals actively involved in patients' care, and intervention lasting 12 months or more. Programs conducted in hospital only and those targeting patients receiving palliative care were excluded. Two reviewers evaluated 12,749 titles and fully reviewed 139 articles; among these, data from 13 studies were included and extracted. Clinical outcomes considered were all-cause mortality, lung function, exercise capacity (walking distance), health-related quality of life, symptoms, COPD exacerbations, and health care use. A meta-analysis of exercise capacity and all-cause mortality was performed using random-effects models. The studies included were 9 randomized controlled trials, 1 controlled trial, and 3 uncontrolled before-after trials. Results indicate that the disease-management programs studied significantly improved exercise capacity (32.2 m, 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1-60.3), decreased risk of hospitalization, and moderately improved health-related quality of life. All-cause mortality did not differ between groups (pooled odds ratio 0.84, 95% CI, 0.54-1.40). COPD disease-management programs modestly improved exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, and hospital admissions, but not all-cause mortality. Future studies should explore the specific elements or characteristics of these programs that bring the greatest benefit.
Ferreira, M C; Dias-Pereira, A C; Branco-de-Almeida, L S; Martins, C C; Paiva, S M
The diagnosis of periodontal disease is commonly based on objective evaluations of the patient's medical/dental history as well as clinical and radiographic examinations. However, periodontal disease should also be evaluated subjectively through measures that quantify its impact on oral health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of periodontal disease on quality of life among adolescents, adults and older adults. A systematic search of the literature was performed for scientific articles published up to July 2015 using electronic databases and a manual search. Two independent reviewers performed the selection of the studies, extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality. Thirty-four cross-sectional studies involving any age group, except children, and the use of questionnaires for the assessment of the impact of periodontal disease on quality of life were included. Twenty-five studies demonstrated that periodontal disease was associated with a negative impact on quality of life, with severe periodontitis exerting the most significant impact by compromising aspects related to function and esthetics. Unlike periodontitis, gingivitis was associated with pain as well as difficulties performing oral hygiene and wearing dentures. Gingivitis was also negatively correlated with comfort. The results indicate that periodontal disease may exert an impact on quality of life of individuals, with greater severity of the disease related to greater impact. Longitudinal studies with representative samples are needed to ensure validity of the findings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Subramanian, Sreedhar; Ekbom, Anders; Rhodes, Jonathan M
The genetics of isolated colonic Crohn's disease place it approximately midway between Crohn's disease with small intestinal involvement and UC, making a case for considering it as a separate condition. We have therefore systematically reviewed its epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment. Key findings include a higher incidence in females (65%) and older average age at presentation than Crohn's disease at other sites, a mucosa-associated microbiota between that found in ileal Crohn's disease and UC, no response to mesalazine, but possibly better response to antitumour necrosis factor than Crohn's disease at other sites. Diagnostic distinction from UC is often difficult and also needs to exclude other conditions including ischaemic colitis, segmental colitis associated with diverticular disease and tuberculosis. Future studies, particularly clinical trials, but also historical cohorts, should assess isolated colonic Crohn's disease separately. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Bahia, Luciana; Toscano, Cristiana M; Takemoto, Maíra Libertad Soligo; Araujo, Denizar Vianna
Pneumococcal disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality associated with significant economic burden for healthcare systems and society. To systematically review pneumococcal disease cost of illness and productivity loss studies in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region. A search of relevant databases was performed till November 2011. A broad and sensitive search strategy was used consisting of medical subject headings (MeSH) terms for pneumococcal disease, healthcare costs and productivity loss studies. No language restriction was applied. Only papers from LAC region and child population were analyzed. Additional exclusion criteria included duplicate studies, and insufficient information about methods. A total of 1241 citations were retrieved. After applying the exclusion criteria, only 16 studies remained for analysis. There were 4 papers from Brazil, 3 from Argentina, 2 from Colombia, 2 from Mexico, 1 from Uruguay, 1 from Chile, and 3 analyzing a group of LAC countries. Only 4 were cost-of-illness studies, 11 were cost-effectiveness studies of pneumococcal vaccine and 1 study of the pneumococcal burden of disease. Methods used for quantifying health resource utilization and costing methods varied significantly among studies, as well as data sources considered. Productivity losses were considered in 8 studies, all of which used the human capital approach method. Pneumococcal disease cost estimates varied significantly depending on the pneumococcal syndromes considered, methods used, study perspective and type of costs included. This systematic review reinforced the importance of standardization of methods for cost studies that can allow comparison and reproducibility in other settings. These estimates can be useful for future economic analysis conducted to support the decision making process on the introduction of new vaccines in LAC. However, caution must be taken, as methodological aspects of studies will result in estimates with varying
Sandhu, Paramjit K.; Musaad, Salma M.A.; Remaley, Alan T.; Buehler, Stephanie S.; Strider, Sonya; Derzon, James H.; Vesper, Hubert W.; Ranne, Anne; Shaw, Colleen S.; Christenson, Robert H.
Background Controversy exists about the incremental utility of nontraditional lipid biomarkers [e.g., apolipoprotein (apo) B, apo A-I, and non-HDL-C] in improving cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction when added to a conventional model of traditional risk factors (e.g., total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, sex, age, smoking status, and blood pressure). Here we present a systematic review that was conducted to assess the use of nontraditional lipid biomarkers including apo B, apo A-I, apo B/A-I ratio, and non-HDL-C in improving CVD risk prediction after controlling for the traditional risk factors in populations at risk for cardiovascular events. Content This systematic review used the Laboratory Medicine Best Practices (LMBP™) A-6 methods. A total of 9 relevant studies published before and including July 2015 comprised the evidence base for this review. Results from this systematic review indicated that after the adjustment for standard nonlipid and lipid CVD risk factors, nontraditional apolipoprotein biomarkers apo B (overall effect = relative risk: 1.31; 95% CI, 1.22–1.40; 4 studies) and apo B/apo A-I ratio (overall effect = relative risk: 1.31; 95% CI, 1.11–1.38; 7 studies) resulted in significant improvement in long-term CVD risk assessment. Summary Available evidence showed that nontraditional lipid biomarkers apo B and apo B/apo I ratio can improve the risk prediction for cardiovascular events after controlling for the traditional risk factors for the populations at risk. However, because of insufficient evidence, no conclusions could be made for the effectiveness of apo A-I and non-HDL-C lipid markers to predict the CVD events, indicating a need for more research in this field. PMID:27840858
Ahsan, Syed F; Standring, Robert; Wang, Yun
To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of micropressure treatment for Meniere's disease (MD). Medline, Ovid, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library search of the literature from January 1996 to December 2012. Systematic literature review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Inclusion criteria required definitive diagnosis of unilateral MD, treatment with Meniett device, vertigo control results, and hearing results before and after treatment. Randomized controlled trials and other types of case-control studies were included. Improvements in vertigo, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) functional score, and pure tone average (PTA) were assessed. Funnel plots were used to detect bias and Q test was used to assess for heterogeneity. Random effects model was used for meta-analysis. T test was used to assess for significance. Of 113 abstracts screened, 18 studies met criteria for review and 12 were used for meta-analysis. Eight studies reported hearing evaluation and the improvement in PTA after Meniett treatment was significant (P = 0.0085). Data could not be combined for AAO-HNS functional score due to heterogeneity. However, there was a trend toward improvement. Of six studies reporting frequency of vertigo, Meniett treatment significantly reduced frequency of vertigo (P = < .0001). Much of the data used in the analysis was derived from retrospective or level 4 studies. The average follow-up was only 5 months, and there were low number of patients in the treatment and control groups. The Meniett device is a safe, nondestructive treatment for patients' refractory to medical therapy for MD. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Lai, Janice; Porter, Judi
Dietary apps for mobile technology are becoming increasingly available and can assist in recording food and fluid intake for nutrition assessment or monitoring. Patients with chronic renal disease, particularly those on dialysis, are required to make significant dietary changes. This study systematically reviews the current literature to assess whether dietary mobile apps improve dietary intake and clinical outcomes in the renal population, specifically those with Chronic Kidney Disease levels 3-5, including dialysis. A systematic search of Medline Complete, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library was performed and supplemented by manual searches of citation and reference lists. Of the 712 studies considered, five were eligible for inclusion in this review. The quality of each included study was assessed using a Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. Among five studies (two RCTs and three case studies/reports), none found significant changes in nutrient intake, biochemical markers or intradialytic weight gain, through the use of dietary mobile apps. The included studies show potential for clinical benefits of mobile app interventions in a renal population. However there is a need for additional rigorous trials to demonstrate if there is a clinical benefit to mobile phone app interventions in this population.
Chan, Vincy; Thurairajah, Pravheen; Colantonio, Angela
Although healthcare administrative data are commonly used for traumatic brain injury (TBI) research, there is currently no consensus or consistency on the International Classification of Diseases Version 10 (ICD-10) codes used to define TBI among children and youth internationally. This study systematically reviewed the literature to explore the range of ICD-10 codes that are used to define TBI in this population. The identification of the range of ICD-10 codes to define this population in administrative data is crucial, as it has implications for policy, resource allocation, planning of healthcare services, and prevention strategies. The databases MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically searched. Grey literature was searched using Grey Matters and Google. Reference lists of included articles were also searched for relevant studies. Two reviewers independently screened all titles and abstracts using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A full text screen was conducted on articles that met the first screen inclusion criteria. All full text articles that met the pre-defined inclusion criteria were included for analysis in this systematic review. A total of 1,326 publications were identified through the predetermined search strategy and 32 articles/reports met all eligibility criteria for inclusion in this review. Five articles specifically examined children and youth aged 19 years or under with TBI. ICD-10 case definitions ranged from the broad injuries to the head codes (ICD-10 S00 to S09) to concussion only (S06.0). There was overwhelming consensus on the inclusion of ICD-10 code S06, intracranial injury, while codes S00 (superficial injury of the head), S03 (dislocation, sprain, and strain of joints and ligaments of head), and S05 (injury of eye and orbit) were only used by articles that examined head injury, none of which specifically examined children and
Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan Camilo; Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Espinosa-Serna, Juan Sebastián; Herrera-Díaz, Catalina; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana
Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major predictor of poor prognosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. There is an increasing interest to identify “nontraditional” risk factors for this condition. Latin Americans (LA) are considered as a minority subpopulation and ethnically different due to admixture characteristics. To date, there are no systematic reviews of the literature published in LA and the Caribbean about CVD in RA patients. Methods. The systematic literature review was done by two blinded reviewers who independently assessed studies for eligibility. The search was completed through PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, and Virtual Health Library scientific databases. Results. The search retrieved 10,083 potential studies. A total of 16 articles concerning cardiovascular risk factors and measurement of any cardiovascular outcome in LA were included. The prevalence of CVD in LA patients with RA was 35.3%. Non-traditional risk factors associated to CVD in this population were HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles, rheumatoid factor, markers of chronic inflammation, long duration of RA, steroids, familial autoimmunity, and thrombogenic factors. Conclusions. There is limited data about CVD and RA in LA. We propose to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors comprehensively in the Latin RA patient and to generate specific public health policies in order to diminish morbi-mortality rates. PMID:23193471
Jordan, Cheryl; Sin, Jacqueline; Fear, Nicola T; Chalder, Trudie
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic long term condition which poses significant psychosocial adjustment challenges. The purpose of this review was to systematically identify psychological factors related to adjustment in adults with IBD with the aim of suggesting evidence based targets that may be modifiable though psychological intervention. Twenty five studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review and a narrative synthesis was conducted. A wide range of psychological variables were addressed covering six broad categories; personality traits, interpersonal traits, stress and coping, emotions and emotional control, IBD related cognitions and non IBD related cognitions. The most consistent relationship was found between certain emotion focused coping strategies and worse adjustment outcomes in IBD. Some evidence also hi-lighted a relationship between personality traits (such as neuroticism,) perceived stress, emotions and emotional control (such as alexithymia) and IBD related cognitions (such as illness perceptions) and negative adjustment outcomes. The results of this review suggest that interventions to improve adjustment in IBD may benefit from a focus on coping strategies, perceived stress and IBD related cognitions.
Lyme disease has become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. Both treatment-refractory infection and symptoms that are related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection remain subject to controversy. Because of the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, diagnostic criteria, tools and treatment options, the role of autoimmunity to residual or persisting antigens, and the role of a toxin or other bacterial-associated products that are responsible for the symptoms and signs, chronic Lyme disease (CLD) remains a relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role and performance of family medicine in the detection, integrative treatment, and follow-up of CLD are not well studied either. The purpose of this paper is to describe insights into the complexity of CLD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine by means of a systematic literature review. PMID:25506429
Epelbaum, Stéphane; Genthon, Rémy; Cavedo, Enrica; Habert, Marie Odile; Lamari, Foudil; Gagliardi, Geoffroy; Lista, Simone; Teichmann, Marc; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Hampel, Harald; Dubois, Bruno
Preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a relatively recent concept describing an entity characterized by the presence of a pathophysiological biomarker signature characteristic for AD in the absence of specific clinical symptoms. There is rising interest in the scientific community to define such an early target population mainly because of failures of all recent clinical trials despite evidence of biological effects on brain amyloidosis for some compounds. A conceptual framework has recently been proposed for this preclinical phase of AD. However, few data exist on this silent stage of AD. We performed a systematic review to investigate how the concept is defined across studies. The review highlights the substantial heterogeneity concerning the three main determinants of preclinical AD: "normal cognition," "cognitive decline," and "AD pathophysiological signature." We emphasize the need for a harmonized nomenclature of the preclinical AD concept and standardized population-based and case-control studies using unified operationalized criteria.
van Haalen, Femke M; Broersen, Leonie H A; Jorgensen, Jens O; Pereira, Alberto M; Dekkers, Olaf M
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate whether mortality is increased in patients biochemically cured after initial treatment for Cushing's disease. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of follow-up studies in patients cured from Cushing's disease after initial treatment was performed. Eight electronic databases were searched from 1975 to March 2014 to identify potentially relevant articles. Original articles reporting the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for patients cured of Cushing's disease were eligible for inclusion. SMRs were pooled in a random effects model. I(2) statistics was used for quantification of heterogeneity. Eight cohort studies with a total of 766 patients were included. Out of eight studies, seven showed an SMR above 1.0 for cured patients. The pooled SMR was 2.5 (95% CI 1.4-4.2). The I(2) statistics showed evidence for statistical heterogeneity (78%, Q-statistics P<0.001), which was largely explained by two outliers. This meta-analysis reveals that mortality remains increased in patients with Cushing's disease even after initial biochemical cure remission, suggesting that cure does not directly reverse the metabolic consequences of long-term overexposure to cortisol. Other conditions such as hypopituitarism, including persistent adrenocortical insufficiency after surgery, may also contribute to the increased mortality risk. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.
Steele, Lindsay; Orefuwa, Emma; Dickmann, Petra
The early detection of infectious disease outbreaks can reduce the ultimate size of the outbreak, with lower overall morbidity and mortality due to the disease. Numerous approaches to the earlier detection of outbreaks exist, and methods have been developed to measure progress on timeliness. Understanding why these surveillance approaches work and do not work will elucidate key drivers of early detection, and could guide interventions to achieve earlier detection. Without clarity about the conditions necessary for earlier detection and the factors influencing these, attempts to improve surveillance will be ad hoc and unsystematic. A systematic review was conducted using the PRISMA framework (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) to identify research published between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2015 in the English language. The MEDLINE (PubMed) database was searched. Influencing factors were organized according to a generic five-step infectious disease detection model. Five studies were identified and included in the review. These studies evaluated the effect of electronic-based reporting on detection timeliness, impact of laboratory agreements on timeliness, and barriers to notification by general practitioners. Findings were categorized as conditions necessary for earlier detection and factors that influence whether or not these conditions can be in place, and were organized according to the detection model. There is some evidence on reporting, no evidence on assessment, and speculation about local level recognition. Despite significant investment in early outbreak detection, there is very little evidence with respect to factors that influence earlier detection. More research is needed to guide intervention planning. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Becerra, Jaime Eduardo; Zorro, Oscar; Ruiz-Gaviria, Rafael; Castañeda-Cardona, Camilo; Otálora-Esteban, Margarita; Henao, Sara; Navarrete, Sergio; Acevedo, Juan Carlos; Rosselli, Diego
Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic multifaceted neurodegenerative disorder of adult onset that affects quality of life and places a burden on patients, caregivers, and society. In early disease, dopaminergic therapy improves motor symptoms, but as the disease progresses, symptoms tend to increase in frequency and severity, even with best medical treatment (BMT). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) becomes an option for certain patients, but cost becomes an important issue. We performed a systematic review of the literature of economic studies of the use of DBS in patients with PD, including costs studies or economic evaluations expressed as cost per improvement in quality life, decrease in dose of pharmacological treatments, and the decrease of caregiver burden. We reviewed the following databases: Medline/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, LILACS, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform ICTRP portal and ClinicalTrials.gov from 1980 to 2015. Costs have been converted or adjusted to 2016 US dollars (US$). Nine studies were identified. The average cost of DBS for a patient with PD in 5 years is US$186,244. The quality-adjusted life year was higher in DBS compared with BMT after at least 2 years of treatment, with an average incremental cost utility ratio of US$41,932 per additional quality-adjusted life year gained. Costs in the first year are higher with DBS because of direct costs related to the surgical procedure, the device, and the more frequent controls. Studies show better results with a longer time horizon (up to 5 years). DBS is a cost-effective intervention for patients with advanced PD, but it has a high initial cost compared with BMT. However, DBS reduces pharmacologic treatment costs and should also reduce direct, indirect, and social costs of PD on the long term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sagna, Atami; Gallo, Joseph J; Pontone, Gregory M
Depression and anxiety disorders have a substantial impact on the quality of life, the functioning and mortality of older adults with Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the factors associated with the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among individuals with PD aged 60 years and older. Following a literature search in PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE, 5 articles met the inclusion criteria (adults aged 60 years and older, individuals with PD, and with depression and anxiety disorders, and English-language peer reviewed articles) and were included in this review. These studies were conducted in the U.S (n = 3), in Italy (n = 1) and the U.K (n = 1). Findings indicated that autonomic symptoms, motor fluctuations, severity and frequency of symptoms, staging of the disease, and PD onset and duration were associated with the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among older adults suffering from PD. Despite the limited number of studies included in the review, depression and anxiety disorders are often unrecognized and untreated and the comorbidity greatly exacerbates PD symptoms. The identification of factors associated with the development of depression and anxiety disorders could help in designing preventive interventions that would decrease the risk and burden of depression and anxiety disorders among older adults with PD.
Leaver, Katherine; Poston, Kathleen L
Many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) will develop cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional studies have shown that certain protein levels are altered in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PD patients with dementia and are thought to represent potential biomarkers of underlying pathogenesis. Recent studies suggest that CSF biomarker levels may be predictive of future risk of cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. However, the strength of this evidence and difference between specific CSF biomarkers is not well delineated. We therefore performed a systematic review to assess if levels of specific CSF protein biomarkers are predictive of progression to cognitive impairment. Nine articles were identified that met inclusion criteria for the review. Findings from the review suggest a convergence of evidence that a low baseline Aβ42 in the CSF of non-demented PD patients predicts development of cognitive impairment over time. Conversely, there is limited evidence that CSF levels of tau, either total tau or phosphorylated tau, is a useful predictive biomarker. There are mixed results for other CSF biomarkers such as α-synuclein, Neurofilament light chain, and Heart fatty acid-binding protein. Overall the results of this review show that certain CSF biomarkers have better predictive ability to identify PD patients who are at risk for developing cognitive impairment. Given the interest in developing disease-modifying therapies, identifying this group will be important for clinical trials as initiation of therapy prior to the onset of cognitive decline is likely to be more efficacious.
Gattani, Deepti R; Bhatia, Nidhi; Mahajan, Rupali; Saravanan, SP
Introduction Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of tissues and structures surrounding the teeth thus, if left untreated causes loss of teeth and ultimately results in edentulism, posing a great negative impact on individuals’ quality of life. Hence the global epidemiological data suggests periodontal disease to be one of a major burden on oral diseases. To reduce this burden it is necessary to know the true prevalence of the disease according to which proper initiatives can be formulated. India being home to nearly 1.2 billion people and one amongst the rapidly developing country, its population requires being systemically as well as orally healthy to lead a good quality of life. However due to large heterogenecity amongst its residing population in terms of geographical area, culture, education, socioeconomic status, a variety of oral diseases like periodontal diseases are prevalent here. Even though the early studies suggested that the population is highly susceptible to the disease, the true prevalence of periodontal disease has not been found yet due to paucity in literature available. Aim To systematically review the available literature taken from various parts of India and find the prevalence rate of periodontal disease amongst the general population of India. Materials and Methods A literature search was performed using PUB MED, COCHRANE and EMBASE databases on August 6, 2015. Following full text assessment a thorough references search was made and potential studies were included. A Quality assessment of retrieved articles from 2nd round was done using a self designed questionnaire and only field survey studies were included in the systematic review. Results The literature search yielded six studies which had performed field surveys to find the prevalence of periodontal disease in their respective areas. These studies have observed different sets of age groups and the same has been accomplished by using
Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian
Several lines of evidence attest that diet may strongly influence the cardiovascular risk. We performed an electronic search in Medline (with PubMed interface), Scopus and ISI Web of Science, to identify epidemiological studies on the association between red meat intake and the overall risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Eleven studies (8 prospective and 3 case-control) were finally selected for this systematic literature review. Although a larger intake of red meat was found to be a significant risk factor for IHD in four studies (2 prospective and 2 case-control), no significant association was found in five other trials (4 prospective and 1 case-control). We suggest that future diet recommendations for prevention of cardiovascular disease should take into account that the current literature data does not support the existence of a clear relationship between large intake of red meat and increased risk of myocardial ischemia.
Schaefer, Roland M; Tylki-Szymańska, Anna; Hilz, Max J
Fabry disease is a progressive and life-threatening glycolipid storage disorder affecting both males and females. The primary driver of the disease is the accumulation of glycolipids (globotriaosylceramide [GL-3]) in a variety of cell types, including vascular endothelial cells, a range of renal cell types, cardiomyocytes and neurons, which is caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme, alpha-galactosidase. The disease typically presents during childhood or adolescence. First manifestations reflect involvement of small nerve fibres of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. With age, severe complications involving the kidneys, heart and brain cause considerable morbidity and premature death. Outside the US, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with agalsidase alfa 0.2 mg/kg every other week (EOW) and agalsidase beta 1.0 mg/kg EOW is available for the treatment of patients with Fabry disease, while agalsidase beta 1.0 mg/kg EOW is the only approved drug in the US. To analyse the evidence for ERT, a systematic review of the literature was performed to identify prospectively designed randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) and open-label studies on the efficacy of agalsidase alfa and agalsidase beta. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched; inclusion criteria for the systematic review were prospectively designed clinical studies evaluating ERT with quantifiable endpoints: double-blind and open-label studies were eligible. Exclusion criteria were review articles, case reports, case studies, letters to the editor and articles based on registry data (Fabry Outcome Survey or Fabry Registry). In addition, any studies with a retrospective design or data based on post hoc analyses were excluded. The evidence was reviewed with respect to the clinical benefits of ERT at the level of the end organ. A total of 9 RCTs and 23 open-label studies were identified for inclusion. The efficacy of ERT in Fabry disease has been measured against a variety of endpoints, the
Napeñas, Joel J.; Hodgson, Brian D.; Stokman, Monique A.; Mathers-Stauffer, Vickie; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.
Introduction This purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the literature and update our current understanding of the impact of present cancer therapies on the dental apparatus (teeth and periodontium) since the 1989 NIH Development Consensus Conference on the Oral Complications of Cancer Therapies. Review method A systematic literature search was conducted with assistance from a research librarian in the databases MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE for articles published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2008. Each study was independently assessed by two reviewers. Taking into account predetermined quality measures, a weighted prevalence was calculated for the prevalence of dental caries, severe gingival disease, and dental infection. Data on DMFT/dmft, DMFS/dmfs, plaque, and gingival indexes were also gathered. The level of evidence, recommendation, and guideline (if possible) were given for published preventive and management strategies. Results Sixty-four published papers between 1990 and 2008 were reviewed. The weighted overall prevalence of dental caries was 28.1%. The overall DMFT for patients who were post-antineoplastic therapy was 9.19 (SD, 7.98; n = 457). The overall plaque index for patients who were post-antineoplastic therapy was 1.38 (SD, 0.25; n = 189). The GI for patients who were post-chemotherapy was 1.02 (SD, 0.15; n = 162). The weighted prevalence of dental infections/abscess during chemotherapy was reported in three studies and was 5.8%. Conclusions Patients who were post-radiotherapy had the highest DMFT. The use of fluoride products and chlorhexidine rinses are beneficial in patients who are post-radiotherapy. There continues to be lack of clinical studies on the extent and severity of dental disease that are associated with infectious complications during cancer therapy. PMID:20449756
Manriquez, Juan; Cataldo, Karina; Harz, Isidora
BACKGROUND Disseminating information derived from systematic reviews is a fundamental step for translating evidence into practice. OBJECTIVE To determine which features of dermatological SR are associated with systematic review dissemination, using citation rates as an indicator. METHODS Dermatological systematic reviews published between 2008 and 2012 were obtained from Scopus, the ISI Web of Sciences and the Cochrane Skin Group. Bibliometric data of every systematic review were collected and analyzed. RESULTS A total of 320 systematic reviews were analyzed. Univariable analysis showed that the journal impact factor, number of authors, and total references cited were positively associated with the number of citations. There was a significant difference in the median number of citations with regard to the corresponding author's country, type of skin disease, type of funding, and presence of international collaboration. Cochrane reviews were significantly associated with a lower number of citations. Multivariable analysis found that the number of authors, number of references cited and the corresponding author from United Kingdom were independently correlated with many citations. Cochrane systematic reviews tended to be independently associated with a lower number of citations. CONCLUSIONS Citation number to systematic reviews may be improving by increasing the number of authors, especially collaborative authors, and the number of cited references. The reasons for the association of Cochrane SRs with fewer citations should be addressed in future studies. PMID:26560209
Manriquez, Juan; Cataldo, Karina; Harz, Isidora
Disseminating information derived from systematic reviews is a fundamental step for translating evidence into practice. To determine which features of dermatological SR are associated with systematic review dissemination, using citation rates as an indicator. Dermatological systematic reviews published between 2008 and 2012 were obtained from Scopus, the ISI Web of Sciences and the Cochrane Skin Group. Bibliometric data of every systematic review were collected and analyzed. A total of 320 systematic reviews were analyzed. Univariable analysis showed that the journal impact factor, number of authors, and total references cited were positively associated with the number of citations. There was a significant difference in the median number of citations with regard to the corresponding author's country, type of skin disease, type of funding, and presence of international collaboration. Cochrane reviews were significantly associated with a lower number of citations. Multivariable analysis found that the number of authors, number of references cited and the corresponding author from United Kingdom were independently correlated with many citations. Cochrane systematic reviews tended to be independently associated with a lower number of citations. Citation number to systematic reviews may be improving by increasing the number of authors, especially collaborative authors, and the number of cited references. The reasons for the association of Cochrane SRs with fewer citations should be addressed in future studies.
Wood, Kayleigh L; Miller, Michael H; Dillon, John F
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has an increasing prevalence in Western countries, affecting up to 20% of the population. Objective The aim of this project was to systematically review and summarise the genetic association studies that investigate possible genetic influences that confer susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Design The MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases were searched to identify candidate gene studies on histologically diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Results A total of 85 articles have been summarised and categorised on the basis of the general pathway each candidate gene is involved in, including lipid metabolism, lipoprotein processing, cholesterol synthesis, glucose homoeostasis, inflammatory response, protection against oxidative stress and whole body metabolism. Conclusions The main findings demonstrate a small but consistent association of PNPLA3 with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Genetic association studies have investigated general disease susceptibility, histological characteristics, severity and progression. However, further study is required to better elucidate the genetic factors influencing fatty liver disease. PMID:26462272
García-Lizana, Francisca; Sarría-Santamera, Antonio
We conducted a systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of interventions using information and communication technologies (ICTs) for managing and controlling chronic diseases. Electronic databases were searched for randomized clinical trials that assessed the effectiveness of ICTs (except for those that included only telephone communication) and measured some clinical indicator. Information was reviewed and assessed independently by two researchers. Of the 950 clinical trials identified, 56 studies were identified for potential inclusion. Of those, 24 were finally included: 5 studies in asthma, 3 in hypertension, 1 in home telecare, 7 in diabetes, 6 in heart failure and 2 in prevention heart disease. Overall, ICT applications did not show an improvement in clinical outcomes, although no adverse effects were identified. However, ICTs used in the detection and follow up of cardiovascular diseases provided better clinical outcomes, mortality reduction and lower health services utilization. Systems used for improving education and social support were also shown to be effective. At present the evidence about the clinical benefits of ICTs for managing chronic disease is limited.
Soh, Sze-Ee; Morris, Meg E; McGinley, Jennifer L
This systematic review critically evaluates the literature to identify the demographic and clinical factors that predict the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Understanding how these factors relate to HRQOL in people with PD may assist clinicians minimise the functional and social impact of the disease by optimising their assessment and clinical decision making processes. A tailored search strategy in six databases identified 29 full-text reports that fulfilled the pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was assessed by two independent reviewers using a customized assessment form. A best-evidence synthesis was used to summarise the demographic and clinical factors that were examined in relation to HRQOL. Depression was the most frequently identified determinant of HRQOL in people with idiopathic PD. Disease severity and disease disability were also found to be predictive of poor HRQOL outcomes in many studies. The motor symptoms that contributed most often to overall life quality were gait impairments and complications arising from medication therapy. To minimise the impact of PD on HRQOL, it may be necessary to consider the extent to which demographic factors and motor and non-motor symptoms contribute to life quality.
Fu, Li-Min; Li, Ju-Tzu
The objectives here are to provide a systematic review of the current evidence concerning the use of Chinese herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to understand their mechanisms of action with respect to the pathophysiology of the disease. AD, characterized microscopically by deposition of amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, has become the most common cause of senile dementia. The limitations of western medications have led us to explore herbal medicine. In particular, many Chinese herbs have demonstrated some interesting therapeutic properties. The following databases were searched from their inception: MEDLINE (PUBMED), ALT HEALTH WATCH (EBSCO), CINAH and Cochrane Central. Only single Chinese herbs are included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and performed quality assessment. The quality assessment of a clinical trial is based on the Jadad criteria. Seven Chinese herbs and six randomized controlled clinical trials were identified under the predefined criteria. Ginkgo biloba, Huperzine A (Lycopodium serratum) and Ginseng have been assessed for their clinical efficacy with limited favorable evidence. No serious adverse events were reported. Chinese herbs show promise in the treatment of AD in terms of their cognitive benefits and more importantly, their mechanisms of action that deal with the fundamental pathophysiology of the disease. However, the current evidence in support of their use is inconclusive or inadequate. Future research should place emphasis on herbs that can treat the root of the disease. PMID:19737808
Severson, Tyler J; Besur, Siddesh; Bonkovsky, Herbert L
AIM: To investigate roles of genetic polymorphisms in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) onset, severity, and outcome through systematic literature review. METHODS: The authors conducted both systematic and specific searches of PubMed through December 2015 with special emphasis on more recent data (from 2012 onward) while still drawing from more historical data for background. We identified several specific genetic polymorphisms that have been most researched and, at this time, appear to have the greatest clinical significance on NAFLD and similar hepatic diseases. These were further investigated to assess their specific effects on disease onset and progression and the mechanisms by which these effects occur. RESULTS: We focus particularly on genetic polymorphisms of the following genes: PNPLA3, particularly the p. I148M variant, TM6SF2, particularly the p. E167K variant, and on variants in FTO, LIPA, IFNλ4, and iron metabolism, specifically focusing on HFE, and HMOX-1. We discuss the effect of these genetic variations and their resultant protein variants on the onset of fatty liver disease and its severity, including the effect on likelihood of progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. While our principal focus is on NAFLD, we also discuss briefly effects of some of the variants on development and severity of other hepatic diseases, including hepatitis C and alcoholic liver disease. These results are briefly discussed in terms of clinical application and future potential for personalized medicine. CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms and genetic factors of several genes contribute to NAFLD and its end results. These genes hold keys to future improvements in diagnosis and management. PMID:27547017
Suárez-López del Amo, Fernando; Yu, Shan-Huey
ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this paper was to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of non-surgical therapy for the treatment of peri-implant diseases including both, mucositis and peri-implantitis lesions. Material and Methods An electronic search in two different databases was performed including MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE from 2011 to 2016. Human studies reporting non-surgical treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis with more than 10 implants and at least 6 months follow up published in English language were evaluated. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the different methods of decontamination employed in the included investigations. Risk of bias assessment was elaborated for included investigations. Results Twenty-five articles were identified of which 14 were further evaluated and included in the analysis. Due to significant heterogeneity in between included studies, a meta-analysis could not be performed. Instead, a systematic descriptive review was performed. Included investigations reported the used of different methods for implant decontamination, including self-performed cleaning techniques, and professionally delivered treatment such as laser, photodynamic therapy, supra-/sub-mucosal mechanical debridement, and air-abrasive devices. Follow-up periods ranged from 6 to 60 months. Conclusions Non-surgical treatment for peri-implant mucositis seems to be effective while modest and not-predictable outcomes are expected for peri-implantitis lesions. Limitations include different peri-implant diseases definitions, treatment approaches, as well as different implant designs/surfaces and defect characteristics. PMID:27833738
Background Rupture of the spleen in the absence of trauma or previously diagnosed disease is largely ignored in the emergency literature and is often not documented as such in journals from other fields. We have conducted a systematic review of the literature to highlight the surprisingly frequent occurrence of this phenomenon and to document the diversity of diseases that can present in this fashion. Methods Systematic review of English and French language publications catalogued in Pubmed, Embase and CINAHL between 1950 and 2011. Results We found 613 cases of splenic rupture meeting the criteria above, 327 of which occurred as the presenting complaint of an underlying disease and 112 of which occurred following a medical procedure. Rupture appeared to occur spontaneously in histologically normal (but not necessarily normal size) spleens in 35 cases and after minor trauma in 23 cases. Medications were implicated in 47 cases, a splenic or adjacent anatomical abnormality in 31 cases and pregnancy or its complications in 38 cases. The most common associated diseases were infectious (n = 143), haematologic (n = 84) and non-haematologic neoplasms (n = 48). Amyloidosis (n = 24), internal trauma such as cough or vomiting (n = 17) and rheumatologic diseases (n = 10) are less frequently reported. Colonoscopy (n = 87) was the procedure reported most frequently as a cause of rupture. The anatomic abnormalities associated with rupture include splenic cysts (n = 6), infarction (n = 6) and hamartomata (n = 5). Medications associated with rupture include anticoagulants (n = 21), thrombolytics (n = 13) and recombinant G-CSF (n = 10). Other causes or associations reported very infrequently include other endoscopy, pulmonary, cardiac or abdominal surgery, hysterectomy, peliosis, empyema, remote pancreato-renal transplant, thrombosed splenic vein, hemangiomata, pancreatic pseudocysts, splenic artery aneurysm, cholesterol embolism
Ghanei Gheshlagh, Reza; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Ebadi, Abbas; Dalvandi, Asghar; Dalvand, Sahar; Nourozi Tabrizi, Kian
Context Resilience can be seen as an adaption to stress, such as that caused by health problems or disease, that attenuates the negative effects of stress. The present research performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to study resilience scores among adults diagnosed with chronic physical diseases. Evidence Acquisition Electronic databases, including Persian language (scientific information database [SID], IranMedex, Magiran, IranDoc, and Medlib) and English language (Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, Pre-Quest, and Scopus), were searched. Fifteen articles were found using the keywords disease or chronic disease, resilience or resiliency, and illness, either alone or in combination, both in Persian and English languages. Data analysis was carried out through meta-analysis (random-effects model), and heterogeneity was investigated by subgroup and meta-regression analyses. The data were analyzed in STAT software (12.0). Results The mean resilience score of the chronic disease patients (n = 3369) was 74.6 (95% CI: 51.8 - 97.4). In terms of diseases, the mean resilience score of cancer patients was 79.6 (95% CI: 48.3 - 111.1), whereas it was 79.6 for cardiovascular disease patients (95% CI: 45.8 - 113.3) and 64.6 for patients with other diseases (95% CI: 6.6 - 122.7). There was no relationship between the resilience of chronic disease patients and the year of the study (P = 0.711) and the sample size in the studies (P = 0.351). Conclusions The mean resilience score of the patients was less than that of healthy individuals. As resilience can be acquired at any stage of life, irrespective of age and disease status, there is a need for training to improve resilience among patients through educational programs. PMID:27703800
Wang, Yunyang; Sheng, Qi; Hou, Xu; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Wenjuan; Yan, Shengli; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Shihua
Although several epidemiological studies assessed the relationship between thyrotropin and risk of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly, the results were inconsistent. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies was conducted to assess the impact of serum thyrotropin levels on Alzheimer's disease risk. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched through September 20, 2014 to identify cohort studies on the relationship between serum thyrotropin levels and risk of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly. Pooled relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to assess the risk of Alzheimer's disease according to serum thyrotropin levels. Eight prospective cohort studies were included, with a total of 9456 participants and 640 cases of Alzheimer's disease. Low thyrotropin level was significantly associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (fixed RR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.31-2.19, P < 0.001; I(2) = 38.0%). High thyrotropin level was also significantly associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (fixed RR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.18-2.45, P = 0.005; I(2) = 42.2%) when compared with normal thyrotropin level. When using random effect model, low thyrotropin level was still significantly associated with risk of Alzheimer's disease (random RR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.14-2.37, P = 0.007), but high thyrotropin level was not (random RR = 1.54, 95% CI 0.88-2.68, P = 0.129). When investigating thyrotropin levels continuously, an inverse but not significant association between serum thyrotropin levels and Alzheimer's disease risk was observed (per standard deviation increment of thyrotropin: RR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.78-1.01, P = 0.06; I(2) = 31.3%). This meta-analysis supports that low thyrotropin level is significantly associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly.
Carroll, Lauren N; Au, Alan P; Detwiler, Landon Todd; Fu, Tsung-Chieh; Painter, Ian S; Abernethy, Neil F
A myriad of new tools and algorithms have been developed to help public health professionals analyze and visualize the complex data used in infectious disease control. To better understand approaches to meet these users' information needs, we conducted a systematic literature review focused on the landscape of infectious disease visualization tools for public health professionals, with a special emphasis on geographic information systems (GIS), molecular epidemiology, and social network analysis. The objectives of this review are to: (1) identify public health user needs and preferences for infectious disease information visualization tools; (2) identify existing infectious disease information visualization tools and characterize their architecture and features; (3) identify commonalities among approaches applied to different data types; and (4) describe tool usability evaluation efforts and barriers to the adoption of such tools. We identified articles published in English from January 1, 1980 to June 30, 2013 from five bibliographic databases. Articles with a primary focus on infectious disease visualization tools, needs of public health users, or usability of information visualizations were included in the review. A total of 88 articles met our inclusion criteria. Users were found to have diverse needs, preferences and uses for infectious disease visualization tools, and the existing tools are correspondingly diverse. The architecture of the tools was inconsistently described, and few tools in the review discussed the incorporation of usability studies or plans for dissemination. Many studies identified concerns regarding data sharing, confidentiality and quality. Existing tools offer a range of features and functions that allow users to explore, analyze, and visualize their data, but the tools are often for siloed applications. Commonly cited barriers to widespread adoption included lack of organizational support, access issues, and misconceptions about tool
Bemelmans, S A S A; Tromp, K; Bunnik, E M; Milne, R J; Badger, S; Brayne, C; Schermer, M H; Richard, E
Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosure are. This systematic review therefore examines the psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing genetic and nongenetic AD-related biomarkers to cognitively healthy research participants. We performed a systematic literature search in eight scientific databases. Three independent reviewers screened the identified records and selected relevant articles. Results extracted from the included articles were aggregated and presented per effect group. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the data synthesis. None of the identified studies examined the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers. All studies but one concerned the disclosure of APOE genotype and were conducted in the USA. Study populations consisted largely of cognitively healthy first-degree relatives of AD patients. In this group, disclosure of an increased risk was not associated with anxiety, depression or changes in perceived risk in relation to family history. Disclosure of an increased risk did lead to an increase in specific test-related distress levels, health-related behavior changes and long-term care insurance uptake and possibly diminished memory functioning. In cognitively healthy research participants with a first-degree relative with AD, disclosure of APOE ε4-positivity does not lead to elevated anxiety and depression levels, but does increase test-related distress and results in behavior changes concerning insurance and health. We did not find studies reporting the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers and only one study included people without a family history of AD. Empirical studies on the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers
West, Sophie; Bhugra, Praveen
Aims Currently, treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) focuses on the cholinergic hypothesis and provides limited symptomatic effects. Research currently focuses on other factors that are thought to contribute to AD development such as tau proteins and Aβ deposits, and how modification of the associated pathology affects outcomes in patients. This systematic review summarizes and appraises the evidence for the emerging drugs affecting Aβ and tau pathology in AD. Methods A comprehensive, systematic online database search was conducted using the databases ScienceDirect and PubMed to include original research articles. A systematic review was conducted following a minimum set of standards, as outlined by The PRISMA Group 1. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed and studies fitting the criteria were selected. No human trials were included in this review. In vitro and in vivo AD models were used to assess efficacy to ensure studied agents were emerging targets without large bodies of evidence. Results The majority of studies showed statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05) of Aβ and/or tau pathology, or cognitive effects. Many studies conducted in AD animal models have shown a reduction in Aβ peptide burden and a reduction in tau phosphorylation post-intervention. This has the potential to reduce plaque formation and neuronal degeneration. Conclusions There are many emerging targets showing promising results in the effort to modify the pathological effects associated with AD. Many of the trials also provided evidence of the clinical effects of such drugs reducing pathological outcomes, which was often demonstrated as an improvement of cognition. PMID:25753046
Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjat; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hamid; Deris, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud
Hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this systematic review article is to introduce the medicinal plants that exert significant clinical effects on hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. In this review article, the international research databases including MEDLINE, Google scholar, EBSCO, Academic Search, Web of Science, SciVerse, Scopus (SCOPUS), EBSCO, Academic Search, Cochrane, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a Chinese database (China Network Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched using the key words hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, herbal, obesity, and phytomedicine, matched by MESH, from their respective inceptions up to March, 2016. The plants that were effective on one, two, three, or all of four diseases were determined. The doses, side effects, the most important pharmaceutically effective compounds, the used organs, and important points regarding usage were separately recorded. Also known clinically significant interactions were presented. 1023 articles were found to be about medicinal plants and hypertension, 1912 articles about medicinal plants and hyperlipidemia, 810 articles about medicinal plants and obesity, 1174 articles about medicinal plants and diabetes. Of 144 plants included in the analysis, 83 were found to be effective on hyperlipidemia, 100 on hypertension, 66 on obesity, and 72 on diabetes. 43 plants were found to be effective on two diseases, 14 on three diseases, and 34 on all four diseases. Three plants (Tomato, Cranberry and Pomegranate), in food and therapeutic doses, were found to be used to treat cardiovascular diseases especially in pre-eclampsia and hyperlipidemia in pregnancy. Regarding the findings of this study, we can argue that the medicinal plants, other than monotherapy, can be used as poly-therapy, to treat cardiovascular diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any
Simons, Malorie; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Risech-Neyman, Yesenia; Moss, Steven; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Green, Peter Hr
Celiac disease has been associated with hyposplenism and multiple case reports link Celiac disease and pneumococcal infections; however, increased risk of pneumococcal infection in celiac disease has not been confirmed. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine the risk of pneumococcal infections in celiac disease. Relevant studies were identified using electronic bibliographic searches of PubMed, OVID Medline and EMBASE (1980 to February 2017) and reviewing abstracts from major conferences in gastroenterology. Using number of events in celiac patients and referent patients we calculated a summary relative risk of pneumococcal infections. All analyses were conducted in Comprehensive Meta-analysis software using random-effects assumptions. Of a total of 156 manuscripts, 3, representing three large databases including the Swedish National Inpatient Register; the Oxford Record Linkage Study; and the English National Hospital Episode Statistics, were included. Each compared patients with celiac disease and confirmed pneumococcal infection to a specific reference group: inpatients and/or the general population. Overall, the odds of pneumococcal infection were higher among hospitalized celiac patients compared to controls (odds ratio= 1.66; CI 95% 1.43, 1.92). There was no evidence of heterogeneity (Q = 1.17, p = .56, I(2) = 0%). Celiac disease is associated with an increased risk of pneumococcal infection. Preventive pneumococcal vaccination should be considered for those with celiac disease, with special attention to those ages 15 to 64 who have not received the scheduled pneumococcal vaccination series as a child. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Patel, Rajesh; Chang, Tammy; Greysen, S Ryan; Chopra, Vineet
The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes from applications of contemporary social media in chronic disease; to develop a conceptual taxonomy to categorize, summarize, and then analyze the current evidence base; and to suggest a framework for future studies on this topic. We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE via PubMed (January 2000 to January 2015) of studies reporting clinical outcomes on leading contemporary social media (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Wikipedia, YouTube) use in 10 chronic diseases. Two reviewers independently performed data extraction and quality assessment; characterization of study outcomes as positive, negative, neutral, or undefined impact; and inductive, thematic analysis to develop our taxonomy. Of 378 citations identified, 42 studies examining the use of Facebook (n = 16), blogs (n = 13), Twitter (n = 8), wikis (n = 5), and YouTube (n = 4) on outcomes in cancer (n = 14), depression (n = 13), obesity (n = 9), diabetes (n = 4), heart disease (n = 3), stroke (n = 2), and chronic lower respiratory tract infection (n = 1) were included. Studies were classified as support (n = 16), patient education (n = 10), disease modification (n = 6), disease management (n = 5), and diagnosis (n = 5) within our taxonomy. The overall impact of social media on chronic disease was variable, with 48% of studies indicating benefit, 45% neutral or undefined, and 7% suggesting harm. Among studies that showed benefit, 85% used either Facebook or blogs, and 40% were based within the domain of support. Using social media to provide social, emotional, or experiential support in chronic disease, especially with Facebook and blogs, appears most likely to improve patient care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fishta, Alba; Backé, Eva-Maria
Based on information reported in systematic reviews (SRevs), this study aimed to find out whether psychosocial stress at work leads to cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. A systematic search in PubMed and EMBASE (until 2014) used a string based on PICOS components. A manual search was followed. Applying the predefined criteria, two reviewers independently screened the titles, abstracts, selected full texts, and validated their quality. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion between reviewers. Studies of low quality were excluded. Contents of enrolled SRevs were extracted by one reviewer; a second reviewer evaluated their accurateness. The search resulted in 462 records. Six SRevs based on 81 studies (total population: ~1,468,670) fulfilled the inclusion criteria, four of "very good" (++) and two of "good" (+) quality. Excluded records were filed, and reasons for exclusion were documented in all cases. Different stress models were used to measure the work-related stress; the "demand-control model" was most commonly used. The two enrolled meta-analysis confirmed a modest (1.32, 95 % CI 1.09-1.59; Virtanen et al. 2013) to moderate evidence (1.45, 95 % CI 1.15-1.84; Kivimäki et al. 2006), predominantly among men, for the association between psychosocial stress at work and CV outcomes. Due to lacking information, it was not possible to give evidence on the dose-response relationship. Same to a SRev, an overview of SRev is used to summarize literature and identify areas in which research is needed. This overview can be used to: (a) Disseminate an up-to-date information on work-related stress as a risk factors for CV morbidity and mortality to government, health care providers, workers, and other stakeholders; (b) Encourage governments to better regulate the working conditions and consider work-related psychosocial stress as a hazardous factor that leads to CV diseases or mortality; and (c) Analyze gaps in the literature and provide a summary of research
Alignment of systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effectiveness with global burden-of-disease data: a bibliographic analysis.
Yoong, Sze Lin; Hall, Alix; Williams, Christopher M; Skelton, Eliza; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Wiggers, John; Karimkhani, Chante; Boyers, Lindsay N; Dellavalle, Robert P; Hilton, John; Wolfenden, Luke
Systematic reviews of high-quality evidence are used to inform policy and practice. To improve community health, the production of such reviews should align with burden of disease. This study aims to assess if the volume of research output from systematic reviews proportionally aligns with burden of disease assessed using percentages of mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). A cross-sectional audit of reviews published between January 2012 and August 2013 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) was undertaken. Percentages of mortality and DALYs were obtained from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. Standardised residual differences (SRD) based on percentages of mortality and DALYs were calculated, where conditions with SRD of more than or less than three were considered overstudied or understudied, respectively. 1029 reviews from CDSR and 1928 reviews from DARE were examined. There was a significant correlation between percentage DALYs and systematic reviews published in CDSR and DARE databases (CDSR: r=0.68, p=0.001; DARE: r=0.60, p<0.001). There was no significant correlation between percentage mortality and number of systematic reviews published in either database (CDSR: r=0.34, p=0.14; DARE: r=0.22, p=0.34). Relative to percentage of mortality, mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal conditions and other non-communicable diseases were overstudied. Maternal disorders were overstudied relative to percentages of mortality and DALYs in CDSR. The focus of systematic reviews is moderately correlated with DALYs. A number of conditions may be overstudied relative to percentage of mortality particularly in the context of health and medical reviews. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Vakil, Nimish B; Halling, Katarina; Becher, Anja; Rydén, Anna
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms are best assessed using patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. Guidance on developing well-defined and reliable instruments that capture optimal information from the patient's perspective was recently published by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate existing PRO instruments for GERD symptoms with regard to regulatory requirements. Systematic literature searches were conducted in PubMed and Embase to identify PRO instruments for GERD symptoms that have undergone psychometric evaluation. Content, construct and test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and responsiveness were evaluated in relation to regulatory recommendations. Supplementary searches were conducted to assess whether identified instruments had been used as clinical trial endpoint measures. The systematic literature searches identified 15 PRO instruments for GERD symptoms that have undergone psychometric evaluation. Eight were designed to evaluate GERD symptoms, two were to diagnose GERD, four were designed for both evaluative and diagnostic purposes, and one was designed for screening purposes. Five instruments were developed and reported to include most steps recommended by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency, and have also been used as endpoint measures in clinical trials: the GERD Symptom Assessment Scale, the Nocturnal Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease Symptom Severity and Impact Questionnaire, the Reflux Questionnaire, the Reflux Disease Questionnaire, and the Proton pump inhibitor Acid Suppression Symptom test. Existing PRO instruments for GERD do not meet all the regulatory requirements for an outcome instrument in reflux trials and may need further validation.
Lazzerini, Marzia; Bramuzzo, Matteo; Ventura, Alessandro
To review pediatric cases of orofacial granulomatosis (OFG), report disease characteristics, and explore the association between OFG and Crohn's disease. We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. We searched Medline, LILACS, Virtual Health Library, and Web of Knowledge in September 2013 for cases of OFG in the pediatric age range (< 18 years), with no language limitations. All relevant articles were accessed in full text. The manual search included references of retrieved articles. We extracted data on patients' characteristics, disease characteristics, association with other diseases, and treatment. We analyzed the data and reported the results in tables and text. We retrieved 173 reports of OFG in children. Mean age at onset was 11.1 ± 3.8 years (range: 2.0-18 years). Prevalence in males was significant higher than in females (P < 0.001), with a male:female ratio of 2:1. Gastrointestinal signs or symptoms were present in 26.0% of children at the time of OFG diagnosis. Overall, 70/173 (40.4%) children received a concomitant diagnosis of Crohn's disease. In about half (51.4%) of the cases the onset of OFG anticipated the diagnosis of Crohn's disease, with a mean time between the two diagnoses of 13.1 ± 11.6 mo (range: 3-36 mo). Overall, 21/173 (12.1%) of the children with OFG had perianal disease, while 11/173 (6.4%) had a family history of Crohn's disease. Both perianal disease and a family history of Crohn's disease were significantly associated with a higher risk of Crohn's disease diagnosis in children with OFG [relative risk (RR) = 3.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.46-3.90; RR = 2.74, 95%CI: 2.24-3.36, P < 0.0001 for both). Treatment of OFG included steroids (70.8% of children) and other immunosuppressive drugs (42.7%), such as azathioprine, thalidomide and infliximab. High prevalence of Crohn's disease in children with OFG suggests that OFG may be a subtype of Crohn's disease.
Beratarrechea, Andrea; Lee, Allison G; Willner, Jonathan M; Jahangir, Eiman; Ciapponi, Agustín; Rubinstein, Adolfo
Rates of chronic diseases will continue to rise in developing countries unless effective and cost-effective interventions are implemented. This review aims to discuss the impact of mobile health (m-health) on chronic disease outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Systematic literature searches were performed using CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS databases and gray literature. Scientific literature was searched to identify controlled studies evaluating cell phone voice and text message interventions to address chronic diseases in adults in low- or middle-income countries. Outcomes measured included morbidity, mortality, hospitalization rates, behavioral or lifestyle changes, process of care improvements, clinical outcomes, costs, patient-provider satisfaction, compliance, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). From the 1,709 abstracts retrieved, 163 articles were selected for full text review, including 9 randomized controlled trials with 4,604 participants. Most of the studies addressed more than one outcome. Of the articles selected, six studied clinical outcomes, six studied processes of care, three examined healthcare costs, and two examined HRQoL. M-health positively impacted on chronic disease outcomes, improving attendance rates, clinical outcomes, and HRQoL, and was cost-effective. M-health is emerging as a promising tool to address access, coverage, and equity gaps in developing countries and low-resource settings. The results for m-health interventions showed a positive impact on chronic diseases in LMIC. However, a limiting factor of this review was the relatively small number of studies and patients enrolled, highlighting the need for more rigorous research in this area in developing countries.
Lee, Allison G.; Willner, Jonathan M.; Jahangir, Eiman; Ciapponi, Agustín; Rubinstein, Adolfo
Abstract Introduction: Rates of chronic diseases will continue to rise in developing countries unless effective and cost-effective interventions are implemented. This review aims to discuss the impact of mobile health (m-health) on chronic disease outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Materials and Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed using CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS databases and gray literature. Scientific literature was searched to identify controlled studies evaluating cell phone voice and text message interventions to address chronic diseases in adults in low- or middle-income countries. Outcomes measured included morbidity, mortality, hospitalization rates, behavioral or lifestyle changes, process of care improvements, clinical outcomes, costs, patient–provider satisfaction, compliance, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Results: From the 1,709 abstracts retrieved, 163 articles were selected for full text review, including 9 randomized controlled trials with 4,604 participants. Most of the studies addressed more than one outcome. Of the articles selected, six studied clinical outcomes, six studied processes of care, three examined healthcare costs, and two examined HRQoL. M-health positively impacted on chronic disease outcomes, improving attendance rates, clinical outcomes, and HRQoL, and was cost-effective. Conclusions: M-health is emerging as a promising tool to address access, coverage, and equity gaps in developing countries and low-resource settings. The results for m-health interventions showed a positive impact on chronic diseases in LMIC. However, a limiting factor of this review was the relatively small number of studies and patients enrolled, highlighting the need for more rigorous research in this area in developing countries. PMID:24205809
Internet access and usage has changed how people seek and report health information. Meanwhile,infectious diseases continue to threaten humanity. The analysis of Big Data, or vast digital data, presents an opportunity to improve disease surveillance and epidemic intelligence. Epidemic intelligence contains two components: indicator based and event-based. A relatively new surveillance type has emerged called event-based Internet biosurveillance systems. These systems use information on events impacting health from Internet sources, such as social media or news aggregates. These systems circumvent the limitations of traditional reporting systems by being inexpensive, transparent, and flexible. Yet, innovations and the functionality of these systems can change rapidly. To update the current state of knowledge on event-based Internet biosurveillance systems by identifying all systems, including current functionality, with hopes to aid decision makers with whether to incorporate new methods into comprehensive programmes of surveillance. A systematic review was performed through PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases, while also including grey literature and other publication types. 50 event-based Internet systems were identified, including an extraction of 15 attributes for each system, described in 99 articles. Each system uses different innovative technology and data sources to gather data, process, and disseminate data to detect infectious disease outbreaks. The review emphasises the importance of using both formal and informal sources for timely and accurate infectious disease outbreak surveillance, cataloguing all event-based Internet biosurveillance systems. By doing so, future researchers will be able to use this review as a library for referencing systems, with hopes of learning, building, and expanding Internet-based surveillance systems. Event-based Internet biosurveillance should act as an extension of traditional systems, to be utilised as an
Leong, Xin Yu; Thanikachalam, Punniyakoti Veeraveedu; Pandey, Manisha; Ramamurthy, Srinivasan
Swertiamarin, is a secoiridoid glycoside found in genera of Enicostemma Species (Enicostemma littorale and Enicostemma axillare) belonging to the family of gentianaceae, which has been reported to cure many diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, arthritis, malaria and abdominal ulcers. However, to the best of our knowledge, till date systematic studies to understand the molecular basis of cardiac and metabolic disease preventing properties of swertiamarin has not been reported. The present review aims to compile an up-to-date information on the progress made in the protective role of swertiamarin in cardiac and metabolic diseases with the objective of providing a guide for future research on this bioactive molecule. Information on the swertiamarin was collected from major scientific databases (Pubmed, Springer, google scholar, and Web of Science) for publication between1974-2016. In this review, the protective role of swertiamarin on cardiac and metabolic diseases was discussed. Swertiamarin reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities such as anti-atherosclerotic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. These activities were mainly due to its effect on various signaling pathways associated with cardiac remodeling events such as inhibition of NF-kB expression, LDL oxidation, apoptosis, inflammatory and lipid peroxidation markers and stimulation of antioxidant enzymes. Sweriamarin exhibit a wide range of biological activities. This review presents evidence supporting the point of view that swertiamarin should be considered a potential therapeutic agent against cardiac and metabolic diseases, giving rise to novel applications in their prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tsafnat, Guy; Glasziou, Paul; Choong, Miew Keen; Dunn, Adam; Galgani, Filippo; Coiera, Enrico
Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects.We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time.
Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128
Elfström, P; Sundström, J; Ludvigsson, J F
In the past decade, a number of population-based studies have examined the prevalence of coeliac disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes but prevalences have differed considerably. To examine the prevalence of coeliac disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes. A systematic review of English-language articles published in PubMed Medline between 2000 and May 2014. Search terms included 'celiac disease' or 'coeliac disease' and 'diabetes mellitus'. Studies were selected with at least 100 individuals with type 1 diabetes being screened for coeliac disease where the coeliac diagnosis was later confirmed through small intestinal biopsy. Data synthesis used random-effects inverse variance-weighted models, and metaregression was used to examine heterogeneity in subgroups. A pooled analysis, based on 26,605 patients with type 1 diabetes, found a prevalence of biopsy-confirmed coeliac disease of 6.0% (95% CI = 5.0-6.9%). Heterogeneity was large (I(2) = 93.2%). The prevalence was lower in adults with type 1 diabetes (2.7%), and in mixed populations with both children and adults with type 1 diabetes (4.7%) than in children (6.2%) with type 1 diabetes (P < 0.001). Additional subgroup analyses could not explain the large variation in coeliac disease prevalence between studies. More than one in twenty patients with type 1 diabetes have biopsy-verified coeliac disease. This prevalence is high enough to motivate screening for coeliac disease among patients with type 1 diabetes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Takizawa, Claire; Gemmell, Elizabeth; Kenworthy, James; Speyer, Renée
Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a common condition after stroke, Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and can cause serious complications including malnutrition, aspiration pneumonia, and premature mortality. Despite its high prevalence among the elderly and associated serious complications, dysphagia is often overlooked and under-diagnosed in vulnerable patient populations. This systematic review aimed to improve understanding and awareness of the prevalence of dysphagia in susceptible patient populations. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, PROSPERO, and disease-specific websites were systematically searched for studies reporting oropharyngeal dysphagia prevalence or incidence in people with stroke, PD, AD, traumatic brain injury, and community-acquired pneumonia, from the USA, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, Japan, China, and regional studies. The quality of study descriptions were assessed based on STROBE guidelines. A total of 1207 publications were identified and 33 met inclusion criteria: 24 in stroke, six in PD, two in traumatic brain injury, and one in patients with traumatic brain injury. Dysphagia was reported in 8.1-80 % of stroke patients, 11-81 % of PD, 27-30 % of traumatic brain injury patients, and 91.7 % of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. No relevant studies of dysphagia in AD were identified. This review demonstrates that dysphagia is highly prevalent in these populations, and highlights discrepancies between studies, gaps in dysphagia research, and the need for better dysphagia management starting with a reliable, standardized, and validated method for oropharyngeal dysphagia identification.
Yosaee, Somaye; Soltani, Sepideh; Sekhavati, Eghbal; Jazayeri, Shima
Heart disease is one of the most common chronic disease and leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Adropin, a newly identified protein, is important for energy homeostasis and maintaining insulin sensitivity, and has been referred to as a novel regulator of endothelial cells. Endothelial dysfunction is a key early event in atherogenesis and onset of HD. Therefore, this review gives a systematic overview of studies investigating plasma adropin level in patient with heart disease. Data carried out in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, Google scholar and MEDLINE, from the earliest available online indexing year through 2015. The search restricted to studies conducted in humans. The keyword search was adropin to apply in title, abstract and keywords. References lists of all original published articles were scanned to find additional eligible studies. Heart failure (HF), coronary atherosclerosis acute myocardial infarction and Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX) were type of heart disease acknowledged in this study. Majority of evidences introduced low adropin as an independent risk factor of heart disease. In a case-control study, the plasma level of adropin increased with the severity of HF. Adropinmay be a potential serum biomarker for early diagnosis of HD.
Tassinari, Mariateresa; Mandrioli, Daniele; Gaggioli, Nadia; Roberti di Sarsina, Paolo
Ménière's disease is a disorder of the inner ear affecting hearing and balance to a varying degree. It is characterized by episodes of vertigo, low-pitched tinnitus, and hearing loss. There is currently no gold standard treatment for Ménière's disease. We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane Database, as a high-quality source of evidence-based therapies, for reviews on the efficacy of etiological therapy or on Ménière's disease or its symptoms. Following recent positive experiences reported by other research teams, we decided to involve a patients' representative in the assessment and analysis of the evidence retrieved in the literature in order to achieve a more patient-centered evaluation of the therapies. Evidence confirms that an effective treatment of Ménière's disease is still missing, but recent discoveries on the microvascular etiology of Ménière's disease may be assimilated by new evidence-based therapeutic approaches.
Ventura-Garcia, Laia; Roura, Maria; Pell, Christopher; Posada, Elisabeth; Gascón, Joaquim; Aldasoro, Edelweis; Muñoz, Jose; Pool, Robert
Globally, more than 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes about 20 000 annual deaths. Although Chagas disease is endemic to certain regions of Latin America, migratory flows have enabled its expansion into areas where it was previously unknown. Economic, social and cultural factors play a significant role in its presence and perpetuation. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of qualitative research on Chagas disease, both in endemic and non-endemic countries. Searches were carried out in ten databases, and the bibliographies of retrieved studies were examined. Data from thirty-three identified studies were extracted, and findings were analyzed and synthesized along key themes. Themes identified for endemic countries included: socio-structural determinants of Chagas disease; health practices; biomedical conceptions of Chagas disease; patient's experience; and institutional strategies adopted. Concerning non-endemic countries, identified issues related to access to health services and health seeking. The emergence and perpetuation of Chagas disease depends largely on socio-cultural aspects influencing health. As most interventions do not address the clinical, environmental, social and cultural aspects jointly, an explicitly multidimensional approach, incorporating the experiences of those affected is a potential tool for the development of long-term successful programs. Further research is needed to evaluate this approach.
Ventura-Garcia, Laia; Roura, Maria; Pell, Christopher; Posada, Elisabeth; Gascón, Joaquim; Aldasoro, Edelweis; Muñoz, Jose; Pool, Robert
Background Globally, more than 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes about 20 000 annual deaths. Although Chagas disease is endemic to certain regions of Latin America, migratory flows have enabled its expansion into areas where it was previously unknown. Economic, social and cultural factors play a significant role in its presence and perpetuation. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of qualitative research on Chagas disease, both in endemic and non-endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Searches were carried out in ten databases, and the bibliographies of retrieved studies were examined. Data from thirty-three identified studies were extracted, and findings were analyzed and synthesized along key themes. Themes identified for endemic countries included: socio-structural determinants of Chagas disease; health practices; biomedical conceptions of Chagas disease; patient's experience; and institutional strategies adopted. Concerning non-endemic countries, identified issues related to access to health services and health seeking. Conclusions The emergence and perpetuation of Chagas disease depends largely on socio-cultural aspects influencing health. As most interventions do not address the clinical, environmental, social and cultural aspects jointly, an explicitly multidimensional approach, incorporating the experiences of those affected is a potential tool for the development of long-term successful programs. Further research is needed to evaluate this approach. PMID:24069473
YOSAEE, Somaye; SOLTANI, Sepideh; SEKHAVATI, Eghbal; JAZAYERI, Shima
Background: Heart disease is one of the most common chronic disease and leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Adropin, a newly identified protein, is important for energy homeostasis and maintaining insulin sensitivity, and has been referred to as a novel regulator of endothelial cells. Endothelial dysfunction is a key early event in atherogenesis and onset of HD. Therefore, this review gives a systematic overview of studies investigating plasma adropin level in patient with heart disease. Methods: Data carried out in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, Google scholar and MEDLINE, from the earliest available online indexing year through 2015. The search restricted to studies conducted in humans. The keyword search was adropin to apply in title, abstract and keywords. References lists of all original published articles were scanned to find additional eligible studies. Results: Heart failure (HF), coronary atherosclerosis acute myocardial infarction and Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX) were type of heart disease acknowledged in this study. Majority of evidences introduced low adropin as an independent risk factor of heart disease. In a case-control study, the plasma level of adropin increased with the severity of HF. Conclusion: Adropinmay be a potential serum biomarker for early diagnosis of HD. PMID:28053922
Hong, Catherine H L; Napeñas, Joel J; Hodgson, Brian D; Stokman, Monique A; Mathers-Stauffer, Vickie; Elting, Linda S; Spijkervet, Fred K L; Brennan, Michael T
This purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the literature and update our current understanding of the impact of present cancer therapies on the dental apparatus (teeth and periodontium) since the 1989 NIH Development Consensus Conference on the Oral Complications of Cancer Therapies. A systematic literature search was conducted with assistance from a research librarian in the databases MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE for articles published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2008. Each study was independently assessed by two reviewers. Taking into account predetermined quality measures, a weighted prevalence was calculated for the prevalence of dental caries, severe gingival disease, and dental infection. Data on DMFT/dmft, DMFS/dmfs, plaque, and gingival indexes were also gathered. The level of evidence, recommendation, and guideline (if possible) were given for published preventive and management strategies. Sixty-four published papers between 1990 and 2008 were reviewed. The weighted overall prevalence of dental caries was 28.1%. The overall DMFT for patients who were post-antineoplastic therapy was 9.19 (SD, 7.98; n = 457). The overall plaque index for patients who were post-antineoplastic therapy was 1.38 (SD, 0.25; n = 189). The GI for patients who were post-chemotherapy was 1.02 (SD, 0.15; n = 162). The weighted prevalence of dental infections/abscess during chemotherapy was reported in three studies and was 5.8%. Patients who were post-radiotherapy had the highest DMFT. The use of fluoride products and chlorhexidine rinses are beneficial in patients who are post-radiotherapy. There continues to be lack of clinical studies on the extent and severity of dental disease that are associated with infectious complications during cancer therapy.
Chavez-Tapia, Norberto C; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Tellez-Ávila, Felix I; Sánchez-Ávila, Francisco; Montaño-Reyes, Maria Antonieta; Uribe, Misael
AIM: To summarize the evidence available for the clinical effectiveness of insulin sensitizers in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) systematically. METHODS: Relevant articles were located using computer-assisted searches of Medline (1966-March 2006), EMBASE (1988-March 2006), CINAHL (1982-March 2003), Educational Resource Information Center (1966-March 2006), Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (1967-March 2006), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (1994-2006), dissertations in ProQuest and FirstSearch databases. Manual searches were made in the abstracts from meetings of the American Gastroenterological Association (1999-2006), and the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (2003-2005). Studies were retrieved using the following selection criteria: (1) clinical trials using insulin sensitizers in subjects with NAFLD, (2) adult patients, (3) published as full manuscripts or abstracts, and (4) English, Spanish, German, and French languages only. Data were abstracted independently by two reviewers following standardized procedures. A face-to-face comparison of data was conducted to ensure the completeness and reliability of the abstraction process. RESULTS: Nine studies were included, six using metformin and three using thiazolidinediones. Only two studies were placebo-controlled trials. The median sample size for all studies was 18 subjects. In the placebo-controlled trials, metformin improved insulin resistance markers and liver function tests, but not histological scores. In the single-arm trials, metformin and thiazolidinediones improved insulin resistance markers and liver function tests, and beneficial histological changes were reported. There is limited high-quality information available from which to draw categorical conclusions about the clinical use of insulin sensitizers in NAFLD. CONCLUSION: Current information indicates that the use of insulin
Carlozzi, Noelle E; Miciura, Angela; Migliore, Nicholas; Dayalu, Praveen
Background The identification of the gene mutation causing Huntington disease has raised hopes for new treatments to ease symptoms and slow functional decline. As such, there has been a push towards designing efficient pharmacological trials (i.e., drug trials), especially with regard to selecting outcomes measures that are both brief and sensitive to changes across the course of the disease, from subtle prodromal changes, to more severe end-stage changes. Objectives Recently, to aid in efficient development of new HD research studies, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) published recommendations for measurement selection in HD. While these recommendations are helpful, many of the recommended measures have little published data in HD. As such, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify the most common outcomes measures used in HD clinical trials. Methods Major medical databases, including PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, were used to identify peer-reviewed journal articles in English from 2001 through April 2013; 151 pharmacological trials were identified. Results The majority of HD clinical trials employed clinician-reported outcomes measures (93%); patient reported outcome measures (11%) and observer reported outcome measures (3%) were used with much less frequency. Conclusions We provide a review of the most commonly used measures across these trials, compare these measures to the clinical recommendations made by the NINDS working groups, and provide recommendations for selecting measures for future clinical trials that meet the Food and Drug Administration standards. PMID:25300328
Huber, Manuel B.; Wacker, Margarethe E.; Vogelmeier, Claus F.; Leidl, Reiner
Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Comorbidities are often reported in patients with COPD and may influence the cost of care. Yet, the extent by which comorbidities affect costs remains to be determined. Objectives To review, quantify and evaluate excess costs of comorbidities in COPD. Methods Using a systematic review approach, Pubmed and Embase were searched for studies analyzing excess costs of comorbidities in COPD. Resulting studies were evaluated according to study characteristics, comorbidity measurement and cost indicators. Mark-up factors were calculated for respective excess costs. Furthermore, a checklist of quality criteria was applied. Results Twelve studies were included. Nine evaluated comorbidity specific costs; three examined index-based results. Pneumonia, cardiovascular disease and diabetes were associated with the highest excess costs. The mark-up factors for respective excess costs ranged between 1.5 and 2.5 in the majority of cases. On average the factors constituted a doubling of respective costs in the comorbid case. The main cost driver, among all studies, was inpatient cost. Indirect costs were not accounted for by the majority of studies. Study heterogeneity was high. Conclusions The reviewed studies clearly show that comorbidities are associated with significant excess costs in COPD. The inclusion of comorbid costs and effects in future health economic evaluations of preventive or therapeutic COPD interventions seems highly advisable. PMID:25875204
Abelló, David; Sancho, Elena; Camps, Jordi; Joven, Jorge
Paraoxonases (PON) are three enzymes (PON1, PON2 and PON3) that play a role in the organism’s antioxidant system; alterations in which are associated with diseases involving oxidative stress. In this review, we summarize the evidence of PON related to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherosclerosis. We searched three electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Database) with no date limit. All of the articles selected investigated PON enzymatic activity and/or PON gene polymorphisms. The selection focused on PON in relation to atherosclerosis, CAD and myocardial infarction. The exclusion criteria were a sample size <100 patients, non-human studies, editorials and systematic reviews without restrictions on the country of origin. With these criteria, we identified thirty-five prospective studies published between 1986 and 2014 with a total of 28,164 participants. The relationship between PON gene polymorphisms and CAD was not conclusive, but most studies support the concept that alterations in PON1 enzymatic activity levels do influence atheroma formation. Conversely, relationships between PON2 and PON3 vs. CAD have not been extensively investigated. Our review of the current data concludes that the bases of paraoxonases involvement in atherosclerosis are poorly understood and that this issue requires future comprehensive, multi-centered studies. PMID:25405733
Abelló, David; Sancho, Elena; Camps, Jordi; Joven, Jorge
Paraoxonases (PON) are three enzymes (PON1, PON2 and PON3) that play a role in the organism's antioxidant system; alterations in which are associated with diseases involving oxidative stress. In this review, we summarize the evidence of PON related to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherosclerosis. We searched three electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Database) with no date limit. All of the articles selected investigated PON enzymatic activity and/or PON gene polymorphisms. The selection focused on PON in relation to atherosclerosis, CAD and myocardial infarction. The exclusion criteria were a sample size <100 patients, non-human studies, editorials and systematic reviews without restrictions on the country of origin. With these criteria, we identified thirty-five prospective studies published between 1986 and 2014 with a total of 28,164 participants. The relationship between PON gene polymorphisms and CAD was not conclusive, but most studies support the concept that alterations in PON1 enzymatic activity levels do influence atheroma formation. Conversely, relationships between PON2 and PON3 vs. CAD have not been extensively investigated. Our review of the current data concludes that the bases of paraoxonases involvement in atherosclerosis are poorly understood and that this issue requires future comprehensive, multi-centered studies.
Saltychev, Mikhail; Bärlund, Esa; Paltamaa, Jaana; Katajapuu, Niina; Laimi, Katri
Objectives To investigate if there is evidence on effectiveness of progressive resistance training in rehabilitation of Parkinson disease. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources: Central, Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Web of Science, Pedro until May 2014. Randomised controlled or controlled clinical trials. The methodological quality of studies was assessed according to the Cochrane Collaboration's domain-based evaluation framework. Data synthesis: random effects meta-analysis with test for heterogeneity using the I² and pooled estimate as the raw mean difference. Participants Adults with primary/idiopathic Parkinson's disease of any severity, excluding other concurrent neurological condition. Interventions Progressive resistance training defined as training consisting of a small number of repetitions until fatigue, allowing sufficient rest between exercises for recovery, and increasing the resistance as the ability to generate force improves. Comparison Progressive resistance training versus no treatment, placebo or other treatment in randomised controlled or controlled clinical trials. Primary and secondary outcome measures Any outcome. Results Of 516 records, 12 were considered relevant. Nine of them had low risk of bias. All studies were randomised controlled trials conducted on small samples with none or 1 month follow-up after the end of intervention. Of them, six were included in quantitative analysis. Pooled effect sizes of meta-analyses on fast and comfortable walking speed, the 6 min walking test, Timed Up and Go test and maximal oxygen consumption were below the level of minimal clinical significance. Conclusions There is so far no evidence on the superiority of progressive resistance training compared with other physical training to support the use of this technique in rehabilitation of Parkinson's disease. Systematic review registration number PROSPERO 2014:CRD42014009844. PMID:26743698
Paramsothy, Sudarshan; Paramsothy, Ramesh; Rubin, David T; Kamm, Michael A; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Mitchell, Hazel M; Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia
Faecal microbiota transplantation [FMT] has been investigated as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. We thus performed a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the effectiveness and safety of FMT in IBD. A systematic review was conducted until January 2017. Studies were excluded if patients had co-infection or data were pooled across disease subtypes (ulcerative colitis [UC], Crohn's disease [CD], pouchitis). Clinical remission was established as the primary outcome. Pooled effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals were obtained using the random effects model. In all, 53 studies were included [41 in UC, 11 in CD, 4 in pouchitis]. Overall, 36% [201/555] of UC, 50.5% [42/83] of CD, and 21.5% [5/23] of pouchitis patients achieved clinical remission. Among cohort studies, the pooled proportion achieving clinical remission was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 23%-43%] for UC and 52% [95% CI = 31%-72%] for CD, both with moderate risk of heterogeneity. For four RCTs in UC, significant benefit in clinical remission (pooled odds ratios [[P-OR] = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.36-6.13, p = 0.006) with moderate heterogeneity [Cochran's Q, p = 0.188; I2 = 37%] was noted. Sub-analyses suggest remission in UC improved with increased number of FMT infusions and lower gastrointestinal tract administration. Most adverse events were transient gastrointestinal complaints. Microbiota analysis was performed in 24 studies, with many identifying increased diversity and a shift in recipient microbiota profile towards the donor post-FMT. FMT appears effective in UC remission induction, but long-term durability and safety remain unclear. Additional well-designed controlled studies of FMT in IBD are needed, especially in CD and pouchitis.
Dean, B. J. F.; Franklin, S. L.; Carr, A. J.
Introduction The pathogenesis of rotator cuff disease (RCD) is complex and not fully understood. This systematic review set out to summarise the histological and molecular changes that occur throughout the spectrum of RCD. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 101 studies met the inclusion criteria: 92 studies used human subjects exclusively, seven used animal overuse models, and the remaining two studies involved both humans and an animal overuse model. A total of 58 studies analysed supraspinatus tendon exclusively, 16 analysed subacromial bursal tissue exclusively, while the other studies analysed other tissue or varying combinations of tissue types including joint fluid and muscle. The molecular biomarkers that were altered in RCD included matrix substances, growth factors, enzymes and other proteins including certain neuropeptides. Conclusions The pathogenesis of RCD is being slowly unravelled as a result of the significant recent advances in molecular medicine. Future research aimed at further unlocking these key molecular processes will be pivotal in developing new surgical interventions both in terms of the diagnosis and treatment of RCD. PMID:23610686
Reljic, Tea; Kumar, Ambuj; Klocksieben, Farina A; Djulbegovic, Benjamin
Objective To assess the efficacy of active treatment targeted at underlying disease (TTD)/potentially curative treatments versus palliative care (PC) in improving overall survival (OS) in terminally ill patients. Design We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT). Methodological quality of included RCTs was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data sources Medline and Cochrane databases were searched, with no language restriction, from inception to 19 October 2016. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Any RCT assessing the efficacy of any active TTD versus PC in adult patients with terminal illness with a prognosis of <6-month survival were eligible for inclusion. Results Initial search identified 8252 citations of which 10 RCTs (15 comparisons, 1549 patients) met inclusion criteria. All RCTs included patients with cancer. OS was reported in 7 RCTs (8 comparisons, 1158 patients). The pooled results showed no statistically significant difference in OS between TTD and PC (HR (95% CI) 0.85 (0.71 to 1.02)). The heterogeneity between pooled studies was high (I2=62.1%). Overall rates of adverse events were higher in the TTD arm. Conclusions Our systematic review of available RCTs in patients with terminal illness due to cancer shows that TTD compared with PC did not demonstrably impact OS and is associated with increased toxicity. The results provide assurance to physicians, patients and family that the patients' survival will not be compromised by referral to hospice with focus on PC. PMID:28062473
Dretzke, Janine; Ensor, Joie; Bayliss, Sue; Hodgkinson, James; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Riley, Richard D; Fitzmaurice, David; Moore, David
Prognostic factors are associated with the risk of future health outcomes in individuals with a particular health condition. The prognostic ability of such factors is increasingly being assessed in both primary research and systematic reviews. Systematic review methodology in this area is continuing to evolve, reflected in variable approaches to key methodological aspects. The aim of this article was to (i) explore and compare the methodology of systematic reviews of prognostic factors undertaken for the same clinical question, (ii) to discuss implications for review findings, and (iii) to present recommendations on what might be considered to be 'good practice' approaches. The sample was comprised of eight systematic reviews addressing the same clinical question, namely whether 'aspirin resistance' (a potential prognostic factor) has prognostic utility relative to future vascular events in patients on aspirin therapy for secondary prevention. A detailed comparison of methods around study identification, study selection, quality assessment, approaches to analysis, and reporting of findings was undertaken and the implications discussed. These were summarised into key considerations that may be transferable to future systematic reviews of prognostic factors. Across systematic reviews addressing the same clinical question, there were considerable differences in the numbers of studies identified and overlap between included studies, which could only partially be explained by different study eligibility criteria. Incomplete reporting and differences in terminology within primary studies hampered study identification and selection process across reviews. Quality assessment was highly variable and only one systematic review considered a checklist for studies of prognostic questions. There was inconsistency between reviews in approaches towards analysis, synthesis, addressing heterogeneity and reporting of results. Different methodological approaches may ultimately affect
Machado, Roberta Ismael Lacerda; Braz, Alessandra de Sousa; Freire, Eutilia Andrade Medeiros
This article is a systematic review of the literature about the coexistence of cancer and autoimmune rheumatic diseases, their main associations, cancers and possible risk factors associated, with emphasis on existing population-based studies, besides checking the relation of this occur with the use of the drugs used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. A search was conducted of scientific articles indexed in the Cochrane / BVS, Pubmed / Medline and Scielo / Lilacs in the period from 2002 to 2012. Also consulted was the IB-ICT (Brazilian digital library of theses and Masters), with descriptors in Portuguese and English for "Systemic sclerosis", "Rheumatoid Arthritis", " Systemic Lupus Erythematosus" and "Sjögren's syndrome", correlating each one with the descriptor AND "neoplasms". The results showed that in the database IBICT a thesis and a dissertation for the descriptor SLE met the inclusion criteria, none met RA one thesis to SS. Lilacs in the database/Scielo found two articles on "Rheumatoid Arthritis" AND "neoplasms". In Pubmed/Medline the inicial search resulted in 118 articles, and 41 were selected. The review noted the relationship between cancer and autoimmune rheumatic diseases, as well as a risk factor for protection, although the pathophysiological mechanisms are not known.
Tanaka, K.; Galduróz, R. F. S.-; Gobbi, L. T. B.; Galduróz, J. C. F.
Although the exact cause of neuronal loss in Parkinson’s disease is not known, evidence points to oxidative stress and the production of reactive oxygen species as the main events that occur in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the brain of parkinsonians. EGb761 is an extract of the leaves from the Ginkgo biloba tree that has been reported as an antioxidant and neuroprotective agent. The objective of this work was to perform a systematic review of the studies that analysed the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on Parkinson’s disease or Parkinsonism. This research was conducted using the following databases: Medline, PsycInfo, Cinahl, Sigle, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane Library, and Embase. Initially, we selected 32 articles. After a more detailed analysis, only 10 articles remained. One of the hypotheses for the positive effect of EGb761 on Parkinson’s disease is the reduction or inhibition of monoamine-oxidase activity. This enzyme metabolises dopamine, inducing the formation of free radicals, which in turn damage nigrostriatal neurons. Another hypothesis is that the neuroprotective effect of EGb761 against 6-hydroxydopamine, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and MPP+ toxins. As there are few studies on the effect of EGb761 on humans, this review could contribute new data to further the discussion of this issue. PMID:24381532
Haagsma, Juanita A; Polinder, Suzanne; Stein, Claudia E; Havelaar, Arie H
Burden of disease (BoD) studies aim to identify the public health impact of different health problems and risk factors. To assess BoD, detailed knowledge is needed on epidemiology, disability and mortality in the population under study. This is particularly challenging for foodborne disease, because of the multitude of causative agents and their health effects. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the methodology of foodborne BoD studies. Three key questions were addressed: 1) which data sources and approaches were used to assess mortality, morbidity and disability?, 2) which methodological choices were made to calculate Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), and 3) were uncertainty analyses performed and if so, how? Studies (1990-June 2012) in international peer-reviewed journals and grey literature were identified with main inclusion criteria being that the study assessed disability adjusted life years related to foodborne disease. Twenty-four studies met our inclusion criteria. To assess incidence or prevalence of foodborne disease in the population, four approaches could be distinguished, each using a different data source as a starting point, namely 1) laboratory-confirmed cases, 2) cohort or cross-sectional data, 3) syndrome surveillance data and 4) exposure data. Considerable variation existed in BoD methodology (e.g. disability weights, discounting, age-weighting). Almost all studies analyzed the effect of uncertainty as a result of possible imprecision in the parameter values. Awareness of epidemiological and methodological rigor between foodborne BoD studies using the DALY approach is a critical priority for advancing burden of disease studies. Harmonization of methodology that is used and of modeling techniques and high quality data can enlarge the detection of real variation in DALY outcomes between pathogens, between populations or over time. This harmonization can be achieved by identifying substantial data gaps and uncertainty and
Lantos, Paul M; Wormser, Gary P
Often, the controversial diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease is given to patients with prolonged, medically unexplained physical symptoms. Many such patients also are treated for chronic coinfections with Babesia, Anaplasma, or Bartonella in the absence of typical presentations, objective clinical findings, or laboratory confirmation of active infection. We have undertaken a systematic review of the literature to evaluate several aspects of this practice. Five systematic literature searches were performed using Boolean operators and the PubMed search engine. The literature searches did not demonstrate convincing evidence of: 1) chronic anaplasmosis infection; 2) treatment-responsive symptomatic chronic babesiosis in immunocompetent persons in the absence of fever, laboratory abnormalities, and detectable parasitemia; 3) either geographically widespread or treatment-responsive symptomatic chronic infection with Babesia duncani in the absence of fever, laboratory abnormalities, and detectable parasitemia; 4) tick-borne transmission of Bartonella species; or 5) simultaneous Lyme disease and Bartonella infection. The medical literature does not support the diagnosis of chronic, atypical tick-borne coinfections in patients with chronic, nonspecific illnesses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alves Da Rocha, P; McClelland, J; Morris, M E
The growth and popularity of complementary physical therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) attempt to fill the gap left by conventional exercises, which does not always directly target wellbeing, enjoyment and social participation. To evaluate the effects of complementary physical therapies on motor performance, quality of life and falls in people living with PD. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Outpatients--adults diagnosed with idiopathic PD, male or female, modified Hoehn and Yahr scale I-IV, any duration of PD, any duration of physical treatment or exercise. Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials and case series studies were identified by systematic searching of health and rehabilitation electronic databases. A standardized form was used to extract key data from studies by two independent researchers. 1210 participants from 20 randomized controlled trials, two non-randomized controlled trials and 13 case series studies were included. Most studies had moderately strong methodological quality. Dancing, water exercises and robotic gait training were an effective adjunct to medical management for some people living with PD. Virtual reality training, mental practice, aerobic training, boxing and Nordic walking training had a small amount of evidence supporting their use in PD. On balance, alternative physical therapies are worthy of consideration when selecting treatment options for people with this common chronic disease. Complementary physical therapies such as dancing, hydrotherapy and robotic gait training appear to afford therapeutic benefits, increasing mobility and quality of life, in some people living with PD.
Disease management programs (DMPs) for chronic diseases are being increasingly implemented worldwide. To present a systematic overview of the economic effects of DMPs with Markov models. The quality of the models is assessed, the method by which the DMP intervention is incorporated into the model is examined, and the differences in the structure and data used in the models are considered. A literature search was conducted; the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement was followed to ensure systematic selection of the articles. Study characteristics e.g. results, the intensity of the DMP and usual care, model design, time horizon, discount rates, utility measures, and cost-of-illness were extracted from the reviewed studies. Model quality was assessed by two researchers with two different appraisals: one proposed by Philips et al. (Good practice guidelines for decision-analytic modelling in health technology assessment: a review and consolidation of quality asessment. Pharmacoeconomics 2006;24:355-71) and the other proposed by Caro et al. (Questionnaire to assess relevance and credibility of modeling studies for informing health care decision making: an ISPOR-AMCP-NPC Good Practice Task Force report. Value Health 2014;17:174-82). A total of 16 studies (9 on chronic heart disease, 2 on asthma, and 5 on diabetes) met the inclusion criteria. Five studies reported cost savings and 11 studies reported additional costs. In the quality, the overall score of the models ranged from 39% to 65%, it ranged from 34% to 52%. Eleven models integrated effectiveness derived from a clinical trial or a meta-analysis of complete DMPs and only five models combined intervention effects from different sources into a DMP. The main limitations of the models are bad reporting practice and the variation in the selection of input parameters. Eleven of the 14 studies reported cost-effectiveness results of less than $30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year and
Chaker, Layal; Falla, Abby; van der Lee, Sven J; Muka, Taulant; Imo, David; Jaspers, Loes; Colpani, Veronica; Mendis, Shanthi; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Bramer, Wichor M; Pazoki, Raha; Franco, Oscar H
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have large economic impact at multiple levels. To systematically review the literature investigating the economic impact of NCDs [including coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer (lung, colon, cervical and breast), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)] on macro-economic productivity. Systematic search, up to November 6th 2014, of medical databases (Medline, Embase and Google Scholar) without language restrictions. To identify additional publications, we searched the reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted authors in the field. Randomized controlled trials, cohort, case-control, cross-sectional, ecological studies and modelling studies carried out in adults (>18 years old) were included. Two independent reviewers performed all abstract and full text selection. Disagreements were resolved through consensus or consulting a third reviewer. Two independent reviewers extracted data using a predesigned data collection form. Main outcome measure was the impact of the selected NCDs on productivity, measured in DALYs, productivity costs, and labor market participation, including unemployment, return to work and sick leave. From 4542 references, 126 studies met the inclusion criteria, many of which focused on the impact of more than one NCD on productivity. Breast cancer was the most common (n = 45), followed by stroke (n = 31), COPD (n = 24), colon cancer (n = 24), DM (n = 22), lung cancer (n = 16), CVD (n = 15), cervical cancer (n = 7) and CKD (n = 2). Four studies were from the WHO African Region, 52 from the European Region, 53 from the Region of the Americas and 16 from the Western Pacific Region, one from the Eastern Mediterranean Region and none from South East Asia. We found large regional differences in DALYs attributable to NCDs but especially for cervical and lung cancer. Productivity losses in the USA ranged from 88 million
Elbert, Niels J; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; van Renselaar, Wilco; Ekeland, Anne G; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Raat, Hein; Nijsten, Tamar EC
Background eHealth potentially enhances quality of care and may reduce health care costs. However, a review of systematic reviews published in 2010 concluded that high-quality evidence on the benefits of eHealth interventions was still lacking. Objective We conducted a systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the effectiveness/cost-effectiveness of eHealth interventions in patients with somatic diseases to analyze whether, and to what possible extent, the outcome of recent research supports or differs from previous conclusions. Methods Literature searches were performed in PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and Scopus for systematic reviews and meta-analyses on eHealth interventions published between August 2009 and December 2012. Articles were screened for relevance based on preset inclusion and exclusion criteria. Citations of residual articles were screened for additional literature. Included papers were critically appraised using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement before data were extracted. Based on conclusions drawn by the authors of the included articles, reviews and meta-analyses were divided into 1 of 3 groups: suitable, promising, or limited evidence on effectiveness/cost-effectiveness. Cases of uncertainty were resolved by consensus discussion. Effect sizes were extracted from papers that included a meta-analysis. To compare our results with previous findings, a trend analysis was performed. Results Our literature searches yielded 31 eligible reviews, of which 20 (65%) reported on costs. Seven papers (23%) concluded that eHealth is effective/cost-effective, 13 (42%) underlined that evidence is promising, and others found limited or inconsistent proof. Methodological quality of the included reviews and meta-analyses was generally considered high. Trend analysis showed a considerable accumulation of literature on eHealth. However, a similar percentage of papers concluded that e
Elbert, Niels J; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; van Renselaar, Wilco; Ekeland, Anne G; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Raat, Hein; Nijsten, Tamar E C; Pasmans, Suzanne G M A
eHealth potentially enhances quality of care and may reduce health care costs. However, a review of systematic reviews published in 2010 concluded that high-quality evidence on the benefits of eHealth interventions was still lacking. We conducted a systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the effectiveness/cost-effectiveness of eHealth interventions in patients with somatic diseases to analyze whether, and to what possible extent, the outcome of recent research supports or differs from previous conclusions. Literature searches were performed in PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and Scopus for systematic reviews and meta-analyses on eHealth interventions published between August 2009 and December 2012. Articles were screened for relevance based on preset inclusion and exclusion criteria. Citations of residual articles were screened for additional literature. Included papers were critically appraised using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement before data were extracted. Based on conclusions drawn by the authors of the included articles, reviews and meta-analyses were divided into 1 of 3 groups: suitable, promising, or limited evidence on effectiveness/cost-effectiveness. Cases of uncertainty were resolved by consensus discussion. Effect sizes were extracted from papers that included a meta-analysis. To compare our results with previous findings, a trend analysis was performed. Our literature searches yielded 31 eligible reviews, of which 20 (65%) reported on costs. Seven papers (23%) concluded that eHealth is effective/cost-effective, 13 (42%) underlined that evidence is promising, and others found limited or inconsistent proof. Methodological quality of the included reviews and meta-analyses was generally considered high. Trend analysis showed a considerable accumulation of literature on eHealth. However, a similar percentage of papers concluded that eHealth is effective/cost-effective or
Sun, Xin; Lu, Li; Yang, Rong; Li, Yanbin; Shan, Ling; Wang, Yang
The prevalence of thyroid disease is likely increased among individuals with celiac disease (CD). In addition, exposure to gluten-free treatment may be associated with a risk of thyroid disease, but this association remains controversial. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the association between thyroid disease and CD. The articles were obtained from the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Chinese WanFang bibliographical databases for the period up to May 2016. The results were analysed in a meta-analysis with odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). There were 13 articles in this meta-analysis, including 15629 CD cases and 79342 controls. Overall, the prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with CD was significantly increased compared with that in the control groups (OR 3.08, 95% CI 2.67–3.56, P<0.001). Moreover, there was no significant difference in the OR between the gluten-treated and untreated groups (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.61–1.92, P = 0.786). The results of our meta-analysis support the hypothesis that the prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with CD is increased compared with that in controls, which suggests that CD patients should be screened for thyroid disease. The effect of gluten-free treatment on thyroid disease needs further investigation. PMID:28030626
Frei, Anja; Svarin, Anna; Steurer-Stey, Claudia; Puhan, Milo A
Background Measurement of self-efficacy requires carefully developed and validated instruments. It is currently unclear whether available self-efficacy instruments for chronic diseases fulfill these requirements. Our aim was to systematically identify all existing self-efficacy scales for five major chronic diseases and to assess their development and validation process. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search in electronic databases (MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, and EMBASE) to identify studies describing the development and/or validation process of self-efficacy instruments for the five chronic diseases diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, arthritis, and heart failure. Two members of the review team independently selected articles meeting inclusion criteria. The self-efficacy instruments were evaluated in terms of their development (aim of instrument, a priori considerations, identification of items, selection of items, development of domains, answer options) and validation (test-retest reliability, internal consistency reliability, validity, responsiveness) process. Results Of 584 potentially eligible papers we included 25 (13 for diabetes, 5 for asthma, 4 for arthritis, 3 for COPD, 0 for heart failure) which covered 26 different self-efficacy instrument versions. For 8 instruments (30.8%), the authors described the aim before the scales were developed whereas for the other instruments the aim was unclear. In one study (3.8%) a priori considerations were specified. In none of the studies a systematic literature search was carried out to identify items. The item selection process was often not clearly described (38.5%). Test-retest reliability was assessed for 9 instruments (34.6%), validity using a correlational approach for 18 (69.2%), and responsiveness to change for 3 (11.5%) instruments. Conclusion The development and validation process of the majority of the self-efficacy instruments had major limitations. The aim of the
Huang, Vivian W; Reich, Krista M; Fedorak, Richard N
AIM: To review the effectiveness of distance management methods in the management of adult inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing distance management and standard clinic follow-up in the management of adult IBD patients. Distance management intervention was defined as any remote management method in which there is a patient self-management component whereby the patient interacts remotely via a self-guided management program, electronic interface, or self-directs open access to clinic follow up. The search strategy included electronic databases (Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, KTPlus, Web of Science, and SCOPUS), conference proceedings, and internet search for web publications. The primary outcome was the mean difference in quality of life, and the secondary outcomes included mean difference in relapse rate, clinic visit rate, and hospital admission rate. Study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were completed by two independent reviewers. RESULTS: The search strategy identified a total of 4061 articles, but only 6 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the systematic review and meta-analysis. Three trials involved telemanagement, and three trials involved directed patient self-management and open access clinics. The total sample size was 1463 patients. There was a trend towards improved quality of life in distance management patients with an end IBDQ quality of life score being 7.28 (95%CI: -3.25-17.81) points higher than standard clinic follow-up. There was a significant decrease in the clinic visit rate among distance management patients mean difference -1.08 (95%CI: -1.60--0.55), but no significant change in relapse rate or hospital admission rate. CONCLUSION: Distance management of IBD significantly decreases clinic visit utilization, but does not significantly
Franciosi, Sonia; Shim, Yaein; Lau, Margaret; Hayden, Michael R; Leavitt, Blair R
Treatment effect in Huntington disease (HD) clinical trials has relied on primary outcome measures such as total motor score or functional rating scales. However, these measures have limited sensitivity, particularly in pre- to early stages of the disease. We performed a systematic review of HD clinical studies to identify endpoints that correlate with disease severity. Using standard HD keywords and terms, we identified 749 published studies from 1993 to 2011 based on the availability of demographic, biochemical, and clinical measures. The average and variability of each measure was abstracted and stratified according to pre-far, pre-close, early, mild, moderate, and severe HD stages. A fixed-effect meta-analysis on selected variables was conducted at various disease stages. A total of 1,801 different clinical variables and treatment outcomes were identified. Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) Motor, UHDRS Independence, and Trail B showed a trend toward separation between HD stages. Other measures, such as UHDRS Apathy, Verbal Fluency, and Symbol Digit, could only distinguish between pre- and early stages of disease and later stages, whereas other measures showed little correlation with increasing HD stages. Using cross-sectional data from published HD clinical trials, we have identified potential endpoints that could be used to track HD disease progression and treatment effect. Longitudinal studies, such as TRACK-HD, are critical for assessing the value of potential markers of disease progression for use in future HD therapeutic trials. A list of variables, references used in this meta-analysis, and database is available at http://www.cmmt.ubc.ca/research/investigators/leavitt/publications. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.
Njie, Gibril J; Finnie, Ramona K C; Acharya, Sushama D; Jacob, Verughese; Proia, Krista K; Hopkins, David P; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Goetzel, Ron Z; Kottke, Thomas E; Rask, Kimberly J; Lackland, Daniel T; Braun, Lynne T
Hypertension and hyperlipidemia are major cardiovascular disease risk factors. To modify them, patients often need to adopt healthier lifestyles and adhere to prescribed medications. However, patients' adherence to recommended treatments has been suboptimal. Reducing out-of-pocket costs (ROPC) to patients may improve medication adherence and consequently improve health outcomes. This Community Guide systematic review examined the effectiveness of ROPC for medications prescribed for patients with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. We assessed effectiveness and economics of ROPC for medications to treat hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or both. Per Community Guide review methods, reviewers identified, evaluated, and summarized available evidence published from January 1980 through July 2015. Eighteen studies were included in the analysis. ROPC interventions resulted in increased medication adherence for patients taking blood pressure and cholesterol medications by a median of 3.0 percentage points; proportion achieving 80% adherence to medication increased by 5.1 percentage points. Blood pressure and cholesterol outcomes also improved. Nine studies were included in the economic review, with a median intervention cost of $172 per person per year and a median change in health care cost of -$127 per person per year. ROPC for medications to treat hypertension and hyperlipidemia is effective in increasing medication adherence, and, thus, improving blood pressure and cholesterol outcomes. Most ROPC interventions are implemented in combination with evidence-based health care interventions such as team-based care with medication counseling. An overall conclusion about the economics of the intervention could not be reached with the small body of inconsistent cost-benefit evidence.
Foulon, Arthur; Dupas, Jean-Louis; Sabbagh, Charles; Chevreau, Julien; Rebibo, Lionel; Brazier, Franck; Bouguen, Guillaume; Gondry, Jean; Fumery, Mathurin
High cesarean section (CS) rates are observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but limited data are available to support this decision. We conducted a comprehensive review to evaluate the most appropriate mode of delivery in women with IBD according to disease phenotype and activity, as well as surgical history. We searched MEDLINE (source PubMed) and international conference abstracts, and included all studies that evaluated digestive outcome after delivery in patients with IBD. A total of 41 articles or abstracts were screened, and 18 studies were considered in this review, with sample sizes ranging from 4 to 229 patients and follow-up ranging from 2 months to 7.7 years. Pooled CS rates in patients without Perianal Crohn's disease (PCD), healed PCD or active PCD, were 27%, 43%, and 46%, respectively. Regarding the median rate of new PCD (3.0% [IQR, 1.5-11.5] versus 6.5% [0-19.7]) or PCD recurrence (13.5% [3.2-32.7] versus 45% [0-58]), no increase was observed in patients with vaginal delivery compared to CS, but for patients with an active disease, worsening of symptoms was noted in two-thirds of cases. Episiotomy, perianal tears, and instrumental delivery did not influence the incidence of PCD. In patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, uncomplicated vaginal delivery seemed to moderately influence pouch function, with no significant difference in terms of overall continence, daytime, or night-time stool frequency, or incontinence. However, these parameters seemed negatively impacted by a complicated vaginal delivery. New long-term data from well-designed studies are needed, but our review suggests that systematic CS in patients suffering from IBD should probably be limited to women at risk of perineal tears and obstetric injuries, with an active PCD, or with ileal pouch anal anastomosis.
Younge, John O; Gotink, Rinske A; Baena, Cristina P; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Hunink, M G Myriam
Due to new treatment modalities in the last decades, a decline in cardiovascular deaths has been observed. There is an emerging field of secondary prevention and behavioural programmes with increased interest in the use of mind-body practices. Until now, these have not been established in cardiovascular disease treatment programmes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence on the effectiveness of mind-body practices for patients with diagnosed cardiac disease. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published in English, reporting mind-body practices for patients with diagnosed cardiac disease. EMBASE, MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PsycINFO were searched up to July 2013. Two reviewers independently identified studies for inclusion and extracted data on study characteristics, outcomes (Quality of Life, anxiety, depression, physical parameters and exercise tolerance) and quality assessment. Standardized effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated comparing the outcomes between the intervention and control group and random effects meta-analysis was conducted. We identified 11 unique RCTs with an overall low quality. The studies evaluated mindfulness-based stress reduction, transcendental meditation, progressive muscle relaxation and stress management. Pooled analyses revealed effect sizes of 0.45 (95%CI 0.20-0.72) for physical quality of life, 0.68 (95%CI 0.10-1.26) for mental quality of life, 0.61 (95%CI 0.23-0.99) for depression, 0.52 (95%CI 0.26-0.78) for anxiety, 0.48 (95%CI 0.27-0.69) for systolic blood pressure and 0.36 (95%CI 0.15-0.57) for diastolic blood pressure. Mind-body practices have encouraging results for patients with cardiac disease. Our review demonstrates the need for high-quality studies in this field. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.
Palin, Oliver; Herd, Clare; Morrison, Karen E; Jagielski, Alison C; Wheatley, Keith; Thomas, G Neil; Clarke, Carl E
There is no consensus on the association between exposure to hydrocarbons and the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise the epidemiological evidence and included a new large case-control study. Data were extracted following a predefined protocol. Risk estimates regarding the association between hydrocarbon exposure and PD were consolidated to produce a summary odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and p-value. In our case-control study, 1463 PD patients and 685 controls were recruited from clinical trials and completed a structured questionnaire describing their previous working exposure to hydrocarbons and other demographic measures. The association between exposure to hydrocarbons and risk of PD was evaluated using logistic regression. The systematic search identified 13 case-control studies matching the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis included 3020 PD cases and 6494 controls. The summary OR was 1.32 (95% CI 1.08-1.62, p = 0.006) for hydrocarbon exposure (ever versus never). In the PD GEN study, occupational exposure to hydrocarbons significantly increased the risk of PD (OR = 1.61; 95% CI 1.10-2.36, p = 0.014), and risk dose-dependently increased for subjects exposed greater than 10 years compared to subjects never exposed (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.13-4.26, p = 0.021). The addition of PD GEN data increased the total numbers to 4483 PD cases and 7179 controls and strengthened the significant association (summary OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.13-1.63, p = 0.001). This systematic review supports a positive association between hydrocarbon exposure and PD. Data from prospective studies are required to reinforce the relationship between hydrocarbon exposure and PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stuber, Kent; Sajko, Sandy; Kristmanson, Kevyn
Background: Nutritional supplements are commonly used for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions, including knee and hip degenerative joint disease. Although these supplements are occasionally recommended for patients with degenerative disc disease and spinal degenerative joint disease, the evidence supporting this use is unknown. Objective: To systematically search and assess the quality of the literature on the use of glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and methylsulfonylmethane for the treatment of spinal osteoarthritis / degenerative joint disease, and degenerative disc disease. Data Sources: The Index of Chiropractic Literature, AMED, Medline, and CINAHL were searched for randomized controlled trials in English from 1984 to July 2009. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data from studies meeting the inclusion criteria was extracted and reviewed by three reviewers. The Jadad scale was used to assess study quality. No attempts were made at meta-analysis due to variation in study design. Results: Two articles met the inclusion criteria. One study was found to have good quality but reported negative results for the supplemented group compared with placebo, the other study had low quality but reported significant positive results for the supplemented group when compared with a no intervention control group. Conclusion: There was little literature found to support the use of common nutritional supplements for spinal degeneration, making it difficult to determine whether clinicians should recommend them. PMID:21403782
Sun, Gavin; Hazlewood, Glen; Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Eksteen, Bertus
Objective. Environmental risk factors, such as air pollution, have been studied in relation to the risk of development of rheumatic diseases. We performed a systematic literature review to summarize the existing knowledge. Methods. MEDLINE (1946 to September 2016) and EMBASE (1980 to 2016, week 37) databases were searched using MeSH terms and keywords to identify cohort, case-control, and case cross-over studies reporting risk estimates for the development of select rheumatic diseases in relation to exposure of measured air pollutants (n = 8). We extracted information on the population sample and study period, method of case and exposure determination, and the estimate of association. Results. There was no consistent evidence of an increased risk for the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with exposure to NO2, SO2, PM2.5, or PM10. Case-control studies in systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) indicated higher odds of diagnosis with increasing PM2.5 exposure, as well as an increased relative risk for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in American children <5.5 years of age. There was no association with SARDs and NO2 exposure. Conclusion. There is evidence for a possible association between air pollutant exposures and the development of SARDs and JIA, but relationships with other rheumatic diseases are less clear. PMID:27847517
Rowinski, Sara Anna; Christensen, Erik
Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is a rare and severe malabsorptive disease. The condition has two subtypes: RCDI and RCDII. Different treatments have been tested: and because RCD has a poor prognosis due to progress to enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma, the aim was to review the epidemiologic aspects and the therapeutic options for RCD. A systematic literature search was performed in 18 databases, and 122 records were identified. Incidence, prevalence, treatment methods and their efficacy were evaluated. Among coeliac disease patients, the cumulative incidence of RCD is 1-4% per ten-year period and the prevalence is 0.31-0.38%. In the general population, the prevalence of RCD is 0.002%. Treatment of RCDI is azathioprine (effect 100%), mesalamine (effect 60%) or tioguanine (effect 83%). Treatment for RCDII is the antimetabolite cladribine (effect 81%) and autologous haematopoetic stem cell transplantation (effect 85%). RCD is a very rare disease. The current evidence for RCDI treatment includes prednisolone in combination with the immunosuppressants azathioprine, mesalamine or tioguanine. The current evidence for RCDII treatment documents use of the antimetabolite cladribine, and if there is no effect, autologous haematopoetic stem cell transplantation may be attempted. In the future, there is a need for more effective treatments which will also prevent further progression to enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma.
Song, Jae Kyeong; Park, Hwa Yeon; Hyon, Joon Young; Oh, Seung-Won; Bae, Woo Kyung; Han, Jong-Soo; Jung, Se Young; Um, Yoo Jin; Lee, Ga-Hye; Yang, Ji Hye
Background The efficacy of two artificial tears, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and hyaluronate (HA), was compared in the treatment of patients with dry eye disease. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases. The efficacy was compared in terms of the mean change from baseline in tear break-up time. The meta-analysis was conducted using both random and fixed effect models. The quality of the selected studies was assessed for risk of bias. Results Five studies were included involving 251 participants. Random effect model meta-analysis showed no significant difference between CMC and HA in treating dry eye disease (pooled standardized mean difference [SMD]=-0.452; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.911 to 0.007; P=0.053). In contrast, fixed effect model meta-analysis revealed significant improvements in the CMC group when compared to the HA group (pooled SMD=-0.334; 95% CI, -0.588 to -0.081; P=0.010). Conclusion The efficacy of CMC appeared to be better than that of HA in treating dry eye disease, although meta-analysis results were not statistically significant. Further research is needed to better elucidate the difference in efficacy between CMC and HA in treating dry eye disease. PMID:28197326
Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare
Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to confirm the association.
Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare
Introduction Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. Methods We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Results Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Conclusion Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to
Rijnsburger, Adriana J.; Severens, Johan L.
Background Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) not only cause health and life expectancy loss, but can also lead to economic consequences including reduced ability to work. This article describes a systematic literature review of the effect on the economic productivity of individuals affected by one of the five worldwide most prevalent NTDs: lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infection) and trachoma. These diseases are eligible to preventive chemotherapy (PCT). Methodology/Principal Findings Eleven bibliographic databases were searched using different names of all NTDs and various keywords relating to productivity. Additional references were identified through reference lists from relevant papers. Of the 5316 unique publications found in the database searches, thirteen papers were identified for lymphatic filariasis, ten for onchocerciasis, eleven for schistosomiasis, six for soil-transmitted helminths and three for trachoma. Besides the scarcity in publications reporting the degree of productivity loss, this review revealed large variation in the estimated productivity loss related to these NTDs. Conclusions It is clear that productivity is affected by NTDs, although the actual impact depends on the type and severity of the NTD as well as on the context where the disease occurs. The largest impact on productivity loss of individuals affected by one of these diseases seems to be due to blindness from onchocerciasis and severe schistosomiasis manifestations; productivity loss due to trachoma-related blindness has never been studied directly. However, productivity loss at an individual level might differ from productivity loss at a population level because of differences in the prevalence of NTDs. Variation in estimated productivity loss between and within diseases is caused by differences in research methods and setting. Publications should provide enough information to enable
Clark, R C; Mytton, J
The prevalence of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), HIV and hepatitis B in the UK asylum seeker and refugee population is currently uncertain. Systematic review of published and unpublished studies. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies reported the prevalence of TB with rates ranging from 1.33 to 10.42 per 1000. The three studies reporting hepatitis B estimated rates from 57 to 118 per 1000. One study reported a prevalence rate for HIV of 38.19 per 1000. A small number of studies have been identified reporting prevalence rates for TB, hepatitis B and HIV that vary widely where comparisons are available. These differences may reflect true variation in risk between study populations, but are likely to be affected by sampling difficulties encountered when researching these population groups. Efforts are required to improve these difficulties which are currently limiting the validity of prevalence findings and generalizability to comparable asylum seeker and refugee populations.
Johnson, T; Gerson, L; Hershcovici, T; Stave, C; Fass, R
Carbonated beverages have unique properties that may potentially exacerbate gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), such as high acidity and carbonation. Cessation of carbonated beverage consumption is commonly recommended as part of lifestyle modifications for patients with GERD. To evaluate the relationship of carbonated beverages with oesophageal pH, oesophageal motility, oesophageal damage, GERD symptoms and GERD complications. A systematic review. Carbonated beverage consumption results in a very short decline in intra-oesophageal pH. In addition, carbonated beverages may lead to a transient reduction in lower oesophageal sphincter basal pressure. There is no evidence that carbonated beverages directly cause oesophageal damage. Carbonated beverages have not been consistently shown to cause GERD-related symptoms. Furthermore, there is no evidence that these popular drinks lead to GERD complications or oesophageal cancer. Based on the currently available literature, it appears that there is no direct evidence that carbonated beverages promote or exacerbate GERD.
Garlovsky, Jack K; Overton, Paul G; Simpson, Jane
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, affecting the motor system with psychological difficulties also frequently reported. While explanations for psychological difficulties are historically situated within a biomedical framework, more recently the relevance of psychological determinants has become a research focus. This review therefore examines this relationship with the two most commonly reported psychological difficulties (anxiety and depression) in people with PD. Databases were systematically searched up to December 17, 2013, identifying 24 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Significant predictors of heightened anxiety and depression included increased emotion-focused coping; less problem-focused coping; lower perceived control; more dominant beliefs about PD as part of a person's identity and influence on life; less social support and more avoidant personality types. Relationships between some specific psychological predictors and depression and anxiety seem well supported. The complexity of relationships between these psychological determinants should be taken into consideration when delivering psychological interventions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hoepers, Andrea Thives de Carvalho; Menezes, Marcia Margarete; Fröde, Tânia Silvia
This systematic review synthesizes the relevant published articles on the prevalence of anaemia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its relationship with inflammatory markers. The upregulation of erythropoietin in anaemia maintains homeostasis. However, anaemic COPD patients do not respond to increased levels of erythropoietin. The increased levels could be an indicator of the peripheral erythropoietin resistance in COPD. Anaemia and inflammation are associated with an increased risk of hospitalization and mortality in these patients. The understanding of anaemia in chronic inflammation is that anaemia is at least partially due to the excessive production of inflammatory cytokines, which can contribute to improvements in the management, prognosis, and survival of patients with COPD and anaemia.
Annweiler, Cédric; Beauchet, Olivier; Celle, Sébastien; Roche, Frédéric; Annweiler, Thierry; Allali, Gilles; Bartha, Robert; Montero-Odasso, Manuel
Although gait disorders are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD), determining which brain structures and related lesions are specifically involved is a goal yet to be reached. Our objective was to systematically review all published data that examined associations between gait disorders and brain imaging in AD. Of 486 selected studies, 4 observational studies met the selection criteria. The number of participants ranged from 2 to 61 community dwellers (29%-100% female) with prodromal or dementia-stage AD. Quantitative gait disorders (ie, slower gait velocity explained by shorter stride length) were associated with white matter lesions, mainly in the medial frontal lobes and basal ganglia. The nigrostriatal dopamine system was unaffected. Qualitative gait disorders (ie, higher stride length variability) correlated with lower hippocampal volume and function. Gait disorders in AD could be explained by a high burden of age-related subcortical hyperintensities on the frontal-subcortical circuits (nonspecific) together with hippocampal atrophy and hypometabolism (specific).
Borisovskaya, Anna; Bryson, William Culbertson; Buchholz, Jonathan; Samii, Ali; Borson, Soo
We performed a systematic review of evidence regarding treatment of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) utilizing electroconvulsive therapy. The search led to the inclusion of 43 articles, mainly case reports or case series, with the largest number of patients totaling 19. The analysis included 116 patients with depression and PD; depression improved in 93.1%. Where motor symptoms' severity was reported, 83% of patients improved. Cognition did not worsen in the majority (94%). Many patients experienced delirium or transient confusion, sometimes necessitating discontinuation of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Little is known about maintenance ECT in this population. ECT can benefit patients suffering from PD and depression. We recommend an algorithm for treatment of depression in PD, utilizing ECT sooner rather than later.
Dean, Anna S.; Crump, Lisa; Greter, Helena; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob
Background This report presents a systematic review of scientific literature published between 1990–2010 relating to the frequency of human brucellosis, commissioned by WHO. The objectives were to identify high quality disease incidence data to complement existing knowledge of the global disease burden and, ultimately, to contribute towards the calculation of a Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) estimate for brucellosis. Methods/Principal Findings Thirty three databases were searched, identifying 2,385 articles relating to human brucellosis. Based on strict screening criteria, 60 studies were selected for quality assessment, of which only 29 were of sufficient quality for data analysis. Data were only available from 15 countries in the regions of Northern Africa and Middle East, Western Europe, Central and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Central Asia. Half of the studies presented incidence data, six of which were longitudinal prospective studies, and half presented seroprevalence data which were converted to incidence rates. Brucellosis incidence varied widely between, and within, countries. Although study biases cannot be ruled out, demographic, occupational, and socioeconomic factors likely play a role. Aggregated data at national or regional levels do not capture these complexities of disease dynamics and, consequently, at-risk populations or areas may be overlooked. In many brucellosis-endemic countries, health systems are weak and passively-acquired official data underestimate the true disease burden. Conclusions High quality research is essential for an accurate assessment of disease burden, particularly in Eastern Europe, the Asia-Pacific, Central and South America and Africa where data are lacking. Providing formal epidemiological and statistical training to researchers is essential for improving study quality. An integrated approach to disease surveillance involving both human health and veterinary services would allow a better understanding
Didsbury, Madeleine S; Kim, Siah; Medway, Meredith M; Tong, Allison; McTaggart, Steven J; Walker, Amanda M; White, Sarah; Mackie, Fiona E; Kara, Tonya; Craig, Jonathan C; Wong, Germaine
Reduced quality of life (QoL) is a known consequence of chronic disease in children, and this association may be more evident in those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. The aims of this systematic review were to assess the association between socio-economic disadvantage and QoL among children with chronic disease, and to identify the specific socio-economic factors that are most influential. MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO were searched to March 2015. Observational studies that reported the association between at least one measure of social disadvantage in caregivers and at least one QoL measure in children and young people (age 2-21 years) with a debilitating non-communicable childhood disease (asthma, chronic kidney disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus and epilepsy) were eligible. A total of 30 studies involving 6957 patients were included (asthma (six studies, n = 576), chronic kidney disease (four studies, n = 796), epilepsy (14 studies, n = 2121), type 1 diabetes mellitus (six studies, n = 3464)). A total of 22 (73%) studies reported a statistically significant association between at least one socio-economic determinant and QoL. Parental education, occupation, marital status, income and health insurance coverage were associated with reduced QoL in children with chronic disease. The quality of the included studies varied widely and there was a high risk of reporting bias. Children with chronic disease from lower socio-economic backgrounds experience reduced QoL compared with their wealthier counterparts. Initiatives to improve access to and usage of medical and psychological services by children and their families who are socio-economically disadvantaged may help to mitigate the disparities and improve outcomes in children with chronic illnesses.
Miyazaki, Celine; Koyama, Momoko; Ota, Erika; Swa, Toshiyuki; Mlunde, Linda B; Amiya, Rachel M; Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto-Hanada, Kiwako; Mori, Rintaro
Reports of frequent manifestation of allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been the subject of mounting clinical interest. However, evidence supporting the association between ADHD and allergies is inconsistent and has yet to be systematically reviewed. The objective of this study was to compile and assess available studies on the association between ADHD and allergic diseases in children. A comprehensive search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and CINAHL databases was completed in 23 November 2015. The inclusion criteria for studies were that the research assessed allergic diseases in children, 18 years of age and younger, with a diagnosis of ADHD and that a distinct comparison group was incorporated. Any comparative studies, encompassing both randomized controlled trials and observational studies, were considered for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed the quality of the selected studies by the use of validated assessment tools, performed data extraction and conducted meta-analysis according to Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Five eligible studies were included in this systematic review. Of these studies, three were case-control and two were cross sectional studies. A majority of information from the five studies was classified as having low or unclear risk of bias. The meta-analysis showed an association between children with ADHD and asthma compared with the control groups (OR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.57 - 2.07; five studies, low quality of evidence), but did not indicate an association between food allergy and ADHD (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.88 - 1.47; three studies very low quality of evidence). The odds of experiencing allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and allergic conjunctivitis were slightly higher in children with ADHD compared with control groups, though a substantial statistical heterogeneity was notable in the overall effect estimates. The findings from this review and meta
Ierodiakonou, Despo; Khan, Tasnia; Chivinge, Jennifer; Robinson, Zoe; Geoghegan, Natalie; Jarrold, Katharine; Afxentiou, Thalia; Reeves, Tim; Cunha, Sergio; Trivella, Marialena; Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Leonardi-Bee, Jo
Objective To determine whether feeding infants with hydrolysed formula reduces their risk of allergic or autoimmune disease. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis, as part of a series of systematic reviews commissioned by the UK Food Standards Agency to inform guidelines on infant feeding. Two authors selected studies by consensus, independently extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data sources Medline, Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and LILACS searched between January 1946 and April 2015. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Prospective intervention trials of hydrolysed cows’ milk formula compared with another hydrolysed formula, human breast milk, or a standard cows’ milk formula, which reported on allergic or autoimmune disease or allergic sensitisation. Results 37 eligible intervention trials of hydrolysed formula were identified, including over 19 000 participants. There was evidence of conflict of interest and high or unclear risk of bias in most studies of allergic outcomes and evidence of publication bias for studies of eczema and wheeze. Overall there was no consistent evidence that partially or extensively hydrolysed formulas reduce risk of allergic or autoimmune outcomes in infants at high pre-existing risk of these outcomes. Odds ratios for eczema at age 0-4, compared with standard cows’ milk formula, were 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.07; I2=30%) for partially hydrolysed formula; 0.55 (0.28 to 1.09; I2=74%) for extensively hydrolysed casein based formula; and 1.12 (0.88 to 1.42; I2=0%) for extensively hydrolysed whey based formula. There was no evidence to support the health claim approved by the US Food and Drug Administration that a partially hydrolysed formula could reduce the risk of eczema nor the conclusion of the Cochrane review that hydrolysed formula could prevent allergy to cows’ milk. Conclusion These findings do not support current guidelines
Dang-Tan, Tam; Ismaila, Afisi; Zhang, Shiyuan; Zarotsky, Victoria; Bernauer, Mark
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, irreversible disease and a leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. In Canada, COPD is the fourth leading cause of death. This systematic review was undertaken to update healthcare professionals and decision makers regarding the recent clinical, humanistic and economic burden evidence in Canada. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases to identify original research published January 2000 through December 2012 on the burden of COPD in Canada. Each search was conducted using controlled vocabulary and key words, with "COPD" as the main search concept and limited to Canadian studies, written in English and involving human subjects. Selected studies included randomized controlled trials, observational studies and systematic reviews/meta-analyses that reported healthcare resource utilization, quality of life and/or healthcare costs. Of the 972 articles identified through the literature searches, 70 studies were included in this review. These studies were determined to have an overall good quality based on the quality assessment. COPD patients were found to average 0-4 annual emergency department visits, 0.3-1.5 annual hospital visits, and 0.7-5 annual physician visits. Self-care management was found to lessen the overall risk of emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalization and unscheduled physician visits. Additionally, integrated care decreased the mean number of hospitalizations and telephone support reduced the number of annual physician visits. Overall, 60-68 % of COPD patients were found to be inactive and 60-72 % reported activity restriction. Pain was found to negatively correlate with physical activity while breathing difficulties resulted in an inability to leave home and reduced the ability to handle activities of daily living. Evidence indicated that treating COPD improved patients' overall quality of life. The average total cost per patient
Canhada, Scheine; Castro, Kamila; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Luft, Vivian Cristine
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegeneration disorder characterized by progressive impairments of memory, language, reasoning, and other cognitive functions. Evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may act as a possible protection factor in AD. To evaluate the results available in the literature involving omega-3 fatty acids supplementation and its effect on cognitive function in AD patients. A systematic review of MEDLINE (from PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Inclusion criteria consisted in original intervention studies, controlled by placebo, that assessed the impact of supplementation or dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive function, in humans with AD, without limitation for prime date of publication. Initial search resulted in 361 articles. Seven studies fully met the inclusion criteria. Most studies did not find statistically significant results for the omega-3 fatty acids supplementation compared to placebo, and those who show some benefit do it only in a few cognitive assessment scales. However, the effects of omega-3 fatty acids appear to be most effectively demonstrated in patients with very mild AD. The effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in mild AD corroborate epidemiological observational studies showing that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in disease onset, when there is slight impairment of brain function. Although some studies have shown changes in scales of cognitive function in more severe cases, they are not enough to support omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in the treatment of AD.
Ghouri, Yezaz A; Richards, David M; Rahimi, Erik F; Krill, Joseph T; Jelinek, Katherine A; DuPont, Andrew W
Background Probiotics are microorganisms that are ingested either in combination or as a single organism in an effort to normalize intestinal microbiota and potentially improve intestinal barrier function. Recent evidence has suggested that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may result from an inappropriate immunologic response to intestinal bacteria and a disruption in the balance of the gastrointestinal microbiota in genetically susceptible individuals. Prebiotics, synbiotics, and probiotics have all been studied with growing interest as adjuncts to standard therapies for IBD. In general, probiotics have been shown to be well-tolerated with few side effects, making them a potential attractive treatment option in the management of IBD. Aim To perform a systematic review of randomized controlled trials on the use of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in IBD. Results In our systematic review we found 14 studies in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), 21 studies in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and five studies in patients with pouchitis. These were randomized controlled trials using probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics. In patients with CD, multiple studies comparing probiotics and placebo showed no significant difference in clinical outcomes. Adding a probiotic to conventional treatment improved the overall induction of remission rates among patients with UC. There was also a similar benefit in maintaining remission in UC. Probiotics have also shown some efficacy in the treatment of pouchitis after antibiotic-induced remission. Conclusions To date, there is insufficient data to recommend probiotics for use in CD. There is evidence to support the use of probiotics for induction and maintenance of remission in UC and pouchitis. Future quality studies are needed to confirm whether probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have a definite role in induction or maintenance of remission in CD, UC, and pouchitis. Similar to probiotics, fecal microbiota
Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Sun, Ling; Wen, Yi Feng; McGrath, Colman P
The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and periodontal status in children and adolescents. We searched PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, and 7 additional databases, following the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, up to December 2014. Observational studies reporting data on the association between anthropometric measurements and periodontal diseases in 2-18-y-old participants were included. An initial search identified 4191 papers; 278 potentially effective studies (k = 0.82) and 16 effective studies (k = 0.83) were included after screening. The mean quality of evidence among the studies was 20.3, according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology checklist (k = 0.79). Meta-analyses showed that obesity (measured by body mass index) was significantly associated with visible plaque index (OR: 4.75; 95% CI: 2.42, 9.34), bleeding on probing (OR: 5.41; 95% CI: 2.75, 10.63), subgingival calculus (OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.10, 8.62), probing depth (OR: 14.15; 95% CI: 5.10, 39.25) and flow rate of salivary secretion (standardized mean difference: -0.89; 95% CI: -1.18, -0.61). However, various results were reported in the effective studies that were not included in meta-analyses. In conclusion, obesity is associated with some signs of periodontal disease in children and adolescents. Further studies with a comprehensive prospective cohort design and more potential variables are recommended.
San Giorgi, Michel R M; Helder, Herman M; Lindeman, Robbert-Jan S; de Bock, Geertruida H; Dikkers, Frederik G
Antireflux therapy is incorporated in many treatment protocols for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) because gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) is thought to worsen the disease course of RRP. It is unclear if GERD really aggravates the disease course. The aims of this systematic review were to 1) evaluate incidence of GERD among RRP patients and 2) report if GERD changes the clinical course or tissue properties of RRP. A search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar, following the methods of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Articles with original data, published after January 1, 1990, on RRP with GERD as a determinant were eligible. There was no language restriction. Data on study design, study population, statistics, outcomes (incidence and influence of GERD), and risk of bias were collected and evaluated following PRISMA protocols. Of 1,277 articles, 19 were selected. Gastroesophageal reflux was objectified in 25% to 100% of RRP patients. Subjective GERD was present in 0% to 70% of patients. There is no proof that GERD aggravated the clinical course or tissue properties of RRP, as measured by the number of surgeries, severity scoring systems, or dysplasia. One study did find a higher chance of web formation in patients with anterior or posterior glottic papillomas who did not receive antireflux therapy, but these results should be interpreted with care due to the study's quality. There is insufficient proof that GERD does or does not aggravate the clinical course or tissue properties of RRP. Laryngoscope, 126:2330-2339, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Beth; Barry, Adam E; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Tennant, Bethany; Walsh-Childers, Kim; Sriram, P S; Zagora, Justin
Participatory Web 2.0 interventions promote collaboration to support chronic disease self-management. Growth in Web 2.0 interventions has led to the emergence of e-patient communication tools that enable older adults to (1) locate and share disease management information and (2) receive interactive healthcare advice. The evolution of older e-patients contributing to Web 2.0 health and medical forums has led to greater opportunities for achieving better chronic disease outcomes. To date, there are no review articles investigating the planning, implementation, and evaluation of Web 2.0 chronic disease self-management interventions for older adults. To review the planning, implementation, and overall effectiveness of Web 2.0 self-management interventions for older adults (mean age ≥ 50) with one or more chronic disease(s). A systematic literature search was conducted using six popular health science databases. The RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) model was used to organize findings and compute a study quality score (SQS) for 15 reviewed articles. Most interventions were adopted for delivery by multidisciplinary healthcare teams and tested among small samples of white females with diabetes. Studies indicated that Web 2.0 participants felt greater self-efficacy for managing their disease(s) and benefitted from communicating with health care providers and/or website moderators to receive feedback and social support. Participants noted asynchronous communication tools (eg, email, discussion boards) and progress tracking features (eg, graphical displays of uploaded personal data) as being particularly useful for self-management support. Despite high attrition being noted as problematic, this review suggests that greater Web 2.0 engagement may be associated with improvements in health behaviors (eg, physical activity) and health status (eg, HRQoL). However, few studies indicated statistically significant improvements in medication
Chaney, Beth; Barry, Adam E; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Tennant, Bethany; Walsh-Childers, Kim; Sriram, P.S; Zagora, Justin
Background Participatory Web 2.0 interventions promote collaboration to support chronic disease self-management. Growth in Web 2.0 interventions has led to the emergence of e-patient communication tools that enable older adults to (1) locate and share disease management information and (2) receive interactive healthcare advice. The evolution of older e-patients contributing to Web 2.0 health and medical forums has led to greater opportunities for achieving better chronic disease outcomes. To date, there are no review articles investigating the planning, implementation, and evaluation of Web 2.0 chronic disease self-management interventions for older adults. Objective To review the planning, implementation, and overall effectiveness of Web 2.0 self-management interventions for older adults (mean age ≥ 50) with one or more chronic disease(s). Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using six popular health science databases. The RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) model was used to organize findings and compute a study quality score (SQS) for 15 reviewed articles. Results Most interventions were adopted for delivery by multidisciplinary healthcare teams and tested among small samples of white females with diabetes. Studies indicated that Web 2.0 participants felt greater self-efficacy for managing their disease(s) and benefitted from communicating with health care providers and/or website moderators to receive feedback and social support. Participants noted asynchronous communication tools (eg, email, discussion boards) and progress tracking features (eg, graphical displays of uploaded personal data) as being particularly useful for self-management support. Despite high attrition being noted as problematic, this review suggests that greater Web 2.0 engagement may be associated with improvements in health behaviors (eg, physical activity) and health status (eg, HRQoL). However, few studies indicated statistically
Zhu, Jin-Zhou; Hollis-Hansen, Kelseanna; Wan, Xing-Yong; Fei, Su-Juan; Pang, Xun-Lei; Meng, Fan-Dong; Yu, Chao-Hui; Li, You-Ming
AIM To perform a systematic review to grade guidelines and present recommendations for clinical management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS A database search was conducted on PubMed for guidelines published before May 2016, supplemented by reviewing relevant websites. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (ARGEE) Instrument II was a tool designed to appraise the methodological rigor and transparency in which a clinical guideline is developed and it is used internationally. It was used to appraise the quality of guidelines in this study. The inclusion criteria include: clinical NAFLD guidelines for adults, published in English, and released by governmental agencies or key organizations. RESULTS Eleven guidelines were included in this study. Since 2007, guidelines have been released in Asia (3 in China, 1 in South Korea, and 1 in Japan), Europe (1 in Italy), America (1 in United States and 1 in Chile) and three international agencies [European associations joint, Asia-Pacific Working Party and World Gastroenterology Organization (WGO)]. Using the ARGEE II instrument, we found US 2012 and Europe 2016 had the highest scores, especially in the areas of rigor of development and applicability. Additionally, Italy 2010 and Korea 2013 also presented comprehensive content, rigorous procedures and good applicability. And WGO 2014 offered various algorithms for clinical practice. Lastly, a practical algorithm for the clinical management was developed, based on the recommended guidelines. CONCLUSION This is the first systematic review of NAFLD guidelines. It may yield insights for physicians and policy-makers in the development and application of guidelines. PMID:27688665
Friedenreich, Christine M.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Siddiqi, Sameer M.; McTiernan, Anne; Alfano, Catherine M.
Background Cancer survivors often seek information about how lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, may influence their prognosis. We systematically reviewed studies that examined relationships between physical activity and mortality (cancer-specific and all-cause) and/or cancer biomarkers. Methods We identified 45 articles published from January 1950 to August 2011 through MEDLINE database searches that were related to physical activity, cancer survival, and biomarkers potentially relevant to cancer survival. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement to guide this review. Study characteristics, mortality outcomes, and biomarker-relevant and subgroup results were abstracted for each article that met the inclusion criteria (ie, research articles that included participants with a cancer diagnosis, mortality outcomes, and an assessment of physical activity). Results There was consistent evidence from 27 observational studies that physical activity is associated with reduced all-cause, breast cancer–specific, and colon cancer–specific mortality. There is currently insufficient evidence regarding the association between physical activity and mortality for survivors of other cancers. Randomized controlled trials of exercise that included biomarker endpoints suggest that exercise may result in beneficial changes in the circulating level of insulin, insulin-related pathways, inflammation, and, possibly, immunity; however, the evidence is still preliminary. Conclusions Future research directions identified include the need for more observational studies on additional types of cancer with larger sample sizes; the need to examine whether the association between physical activity and mortality varies by tumor, clinical, or risk factor characteristics; and the need for research on the biological mechanisms involved in the association between physical activity and survival after a cancer diagnosis. Future randomized
Kellesarian, S V; Malignaggi, V R; Kellesarian, T V; Al-Kheraif, A A; Alwageet, M M; Malmstrom, H; Romanos, G E; Javed, F
The purpose of the present study was to review systematically the association between periodontal diseases (PDs) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). To address the focused question, 'Is there a relationship between PD and PCOS?' indexed databases were searched up to October 2016 without time or language restrictions using different combinations of the following key words: PCOS, ovarian cysts, PD, periodontitis, gingival diseases and gingivitis. Letters to the Editor, commentaries, historic reviews, case-report, unpublished articles and animal/experimental studies were excluded. Seven case-control studies were included. The number of study participants ranged between 52 and 196 females aged between 15 and 45 years. In three and three studies, proinflammatory cytokines were assessed in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva samples, respectively. In one study, salivary microbes were investigated. All studies reported that a positive association exists between PD and PCOS. In conclusion, there is a positive association between PD and PCOS; however, further well-designed longitudinal controlled clinical trials are needed in this regard. It is recommended that physicians should refer patients with PCOS to oral health-care providers for comprehensive oral evaluation and treatment.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 9 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ijir.2017.7.
Marouen, Sarah; Barnetche, Thomas; Combe, Bernard; Morel, Jacques; Daïen, Claire I
To assess body composition of patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease and the effect of TNF inhibitors on it. This was systematic review with meta-analysis of studies consulted on PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMBASE and assessing body composition in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or spondyloarthritis. We compared i) patients with healthy controls and ii) body components before and after TNF inhibitors. Among the 703 articles reviewed, 19 met the inclusion criteria. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a significant increase in fat mass (+1.85 kg, p=0.02), adiposity (+3.53%, p<0.00001) and android mass (+1.7 kg, p<0.00001) and a significant decrease in lean mass (-3.03 kg, p=0.01), were observed. In patients with spondyloarthritis, a significant but modest increase in fat mass (+0.69 kg, p=0.03) and a significant decrease in lean mass (-3.74 kg, p=0.03) were observed. Nine studies assessed impact of TNF inhibitors on body composition, with an increase of fat mass in the short and long term in all studies. Data on lean mass were controversial. Two studies found an increase in visceral or android mass under TNF inhibitors. Patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease have a significant decrease in lean mass and increase in fat mass. The use of TNF inhibitors is associated with a further increase in fat mass including android fat, which could potentially have cardiovascular consequences.
Jones, A; Rowe, B H
This study had two objectives: (1) to examine the effects of bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis; (2) to determine any differences between manual and mechanical techniques for bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy. The study design was a systematic review of the literature that used an exhaustive search for trials and review methods prescribed by the Cochrane Collaboration. Randomized controlled trials examined patient groups, interventions, and dependent variables. Patients included those with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (emphysema or chronic bronchitis) or bronchiectasis. Any of the following interventions or combinations thereof were included: manual interventions, such as postural drainage, chest percussion, vibration, chest shaking, directed coughing, or forced exhalation technique. Controls of the study were as follows: no intervention; placebo; coughing; and mechanical interventions, such as mechanical vibration. The search identified 99 potential trials; inclusion or exclusion analysis left 7, which examined a total of 126 patients. Mean score on trial quality was 1.4 (5 = greatest). Three separate trials (N = 51) found statistically significant effects for bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy on sputum production and radioaerosol clearance. No trials (N = 126) found statistically significant effects on pulmonary function variables or differences between manual and mechanical techniques. Considering the small sizes, low quality, and mixed results from the trials, the research on bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy is inconclusive. There is a need for adequately sized, high-quality, randomized controlled trials with uniform patient populations to examine the effects of bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy.
Carlton, Elizabeth J; Woster, Andrew P; DeWitt, Peter; Goldstein, Rebecca S; Levy, Karen
Background: Global climate change is expected to increase the risk of diarrhoeal diseases, a leading cause of childhood mortality. However, there is considerable uncertainty about the magnitude of these effects and which populations bear the greatest risks. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using defined search terms across four major databases and, additionally, examined the references of 54 review articles captured by the search. We evaluated sources of heterogeneity by pathogen taxon, exposure measure, study quality, country income level and regional climate, and estimated pooled effect estimates for the subgroups identified in the heterogeneity analysis, using meta-analysis methods. Results: We identified 26 studies with 49 estimates. Pathogen taxa were a source of heterogeneity. There was a positive association between ambient temperature and all-cause diarrhoea (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.10) and bacterial diarrhoea (IRR 1.07; 95% CI 1.04, 1.10), but not viral diarrhoea (IRR 0.96; 95% CI 0.82, 1.11). These associations were observed in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Only one study of protozoan diarrhoea was identified. Conclusions: Changes in temperature due to global climate change can and may already be affecting diarrhoeal disease incidence. The vulnerability of populations may depend, in part, on local pathogen distribution. However, evidence of publication bias and the uneven geographical distribution of studies limit the precision and generalizability of the pooled estimates. PMID:26567313
Júnior, José Cleosmaque Leite; Ramos, Regina Terse Trindade; Robazzi, Teresa Cristina Martins Vicente
Children and adolescents with rheumatic diseases receiving TNF blockers are at risk for the activation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Although LTBI treatment is indicated in this group, there are different therapeutic regimens in the literature, without a definite consensus. To review in the literature therapeutic schemes used and indicated for the treatment of LTBI in these patients. Systematic review of the literature, using health databases, selecting studies that addressed the treatment of LTBI in patients with juvenile rheumatic diseases using TNF blockers, from 1990 to 2015. All study designs were considered. A total of 162 studies were identified through the electronic databases and one was found through a manual search by the author, totaling 163 articles. We excluded studies that did not meet the mentioned inclusion criteria, and included a retrospective cohort study and two prospective cohort studies. The three studies addressed treatment with isoniazid (INH) for 9 months and one of them also addressed INH treatment associated with rifampicin for 3 months. Only one case of LTBI activation was observed; there was good treatment adherence and absence of complications during follow-up. More studies are necessary to evaluate the response to the other available therapeutic regimens, with better tolerability assessment and a larger sample. However, the results showed that INH therapy for 9 months and INH therapy plus rifampicin for 3 months had a low rate of LTBI activation and complications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.
Leite Júnior, José Cleosmaque; Ramos, Regina Terse Trindade; Robazzi, Teresa Cristina Martins Vicente
Children and adolescents with rheumatic diseases receiving TNF blockers are at risk for the activation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Although LTBI treatment is indicated in this group, there are different therapeutic regimens in the literature, without a definite consensus. To review in the literature therapeutic schemes used and indicated for the treatment of LTBI in these patients. Systematic review of the literature, using health databases, selecting studies that addressed the treatment of LTBI in patients with juvenile rheumatic diseases using TNF blockers, from 1990 to 2015. All study designs were considered. A total of 162 studies were identified through the electronic databases and one was found through a manual search by the author, totaling 163 articles. We excluded studies that did not meet the mentioned inclusion criteria, and included a retrospective cohort study and two prospective cohort studies. The three studies addressed treatment with isoniazid (INH) for 9 months and one of them also addressed INH treatment associated with rifampicin for 3 months. Only one case of LTBI activation was observed; there was good treatment adherence and absence of complications during follow-up. More studies are necessary to evaluate the response to the other available therapeutic regimens, with better tolerability assessment and a larger sample. However, the results showed that INH therapy for 9 months and INH therapy plus rifampicin for 3 months had a low rate of LTBI activation and complications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.
Cagnin, Annachiara; Bandmann, Oliver; Venneri, Annalena
Patients with Lewy body disease (LBD) frequently experience visual hallucinations (VH), well-formed images perceived without the presence of real stimuli. The structural and functional brain mechanisms underlying VH in LBD are still unclear. The present review summarises the current literature on the neural correlates of VH in LBD, namely Parkinson’s disease (PD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Following a systematic literature search, 56 neuroimaging studies of VH in PD and DLB were critically reviewed and evaluated for quality assessment. The main structural neuroimaging results on VH in LBD revealed grey matter loss in frontal areas in patients with dementia, and parietal and occipito-temporal regions in PD without dementia. Parietal and temporal hypometabolism was also reported in hallucinating PD patients. Disrupted functional connectivity was detected especially in the default mode network and fronto-parietal regions. However, evidence on structural and functional connectivity is still limited and requires further investigation. The current literature is in line with integrative models of VH suggesting a role of attention and perception deficits in the development of VH. However, despite the close relationship between VH and cognitive impairment, its associations with brain structure and function have been explored only by a limited number of studies. PMID:28714891
Lin, Huamao Mark; Gao, Xin; Cooke, Catherine E; Berg, Deborah; Labotka, Richard; Faller, Douglas V; Seal, Brian; Hari, Parameswaran
A systematic literature review on AL amyloidosis was conducted in order to understand the disease burden, and identify unmet medical needs and knowledge gaps. MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE databases were searched for English language studies published in the last 10 years using search terms that focused on the clinical, economic, and patient-reported outcome (PRO) aspects of AL amyloidosis. There was a low yield of articles in the economic and PRO categories and additional searches were conducted in clinical conference proceedings, and using Google and Google Scholar. After review, there were 65 articles included for data extraction. AL amyloidosis is a rare disorder without any FDA or EMA approved indications for drug therapy. Using off-label therapies, there is a high rate, 42-64%, of non-response or progression, and an associated high mortality. Toxicities during therapy are common with estimates of up to 30-40% of patients experiencing severity of grade 3 or higher. Patients with AL amyloidosis report severe psychological distress, anxiety and clinical depression. There is a deficiency in the literature on the economic costs associated with AL amyloidosis, and information on costs has been derived from studies that examined multiple myeloma or other disease or treatment components common to AL amyloidosis.
Schneider, Allaire; Hossain, Ivy; VanderMolen, Julia; Nicol, Kara
The aim of this study was to review the literature to assess if there is evidence to support the use of Curcumin as a safe complementary therapy in treating Crohn's Disease (CD) in conjunction with Remicade. Systematic searches were performed by three researchers using electronic databases (ProQuest Medical Library, CINAHL Complete, and PUBMED) to locate and identify articles to meet a predetermined set of inclusion criteria. Specifically full text, peer-reviewed articles published after 2007 were included if they studied human participants 18 years or older. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and Interleukin-1 (IL-1) levels increase in CD patients. Remicade reduces TNF-a in adults with CD. The issues are eventual loss of response (LOR) once IL-1 increases, and severe risks such as malignancy. CD patients using Curcumin saw a 55 point mean reduction in the Crohn's Disease Activity Index, reducing IL-1 and Crp. Plus it reduced TNF-a and PPMTase which improved colorectal cancer outcomes. LOR of Remicade occurs when IL-1 increases, and it can cause malignancy. Research shows Curcumin reduces IL-1 and improves cancer outcomes. Future research, using both Remicade and Curcumin, would have to be done, but preliminary data would suggest using both would reduce LOR. Curcumin, even by itself, was found to be a cheap and safe way to reduce CD symptoms and inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reardon, Jillian; Hussaini, Trana; Alsahafi, Majid; Azalgara, Vladimir Marquez; Erb, Siegfried R.; Partovi, Nilufar; Yoshida, Eric M.
Abstract Aims: To systematically evaluate the literature for evidence to support the use of bile acids in non-cholestatic liver conditions. Methods: Searches were conducted on the databases of Medline (1948-March 31, 2015), Embase (1980-March 31, 2015) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and on Google and Google Scholar to identify articles describing ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its derivatives for non-cholestatic hepatic indications. Combinations of the following search terms were used: ursodeoxycholic acid, ursodiol, bile acids and/or salts, non alcoholic fatty liver, non alcoholic steatohepatitis, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol, liver disease, autoimmune, autoimmune hepatitis, liver transplant, liver graft, transplant rejection, graft rejection, ischemic reperfusion injury, reperfusion injury, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, viral hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, transaminases, alanine transaminase, liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase. No search limits were applied. Additionally, references of the included studies were reviewed to identify additional articles. Results: The literature search yielded articles meeting inclusion criteria for the following indications: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (n = 5); alcoholic liver disease (n = 2); autoimmune hepatitis (n = 6), liver transplant (n = 2) and viral hepatitis (n = 9). Bile acid use was associated with improved normalization of liver biochemistry in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis B and C infections. In contrast, liver biochemistry normalization was inconsistent in alcoholic liver disease and liver transplantation. The majority of studies reviewed showed that normalization of liver biochemistry did not correlate to improvement in histologic disease. In the prospective trials reviewed, adverse effects associated with the bile acids
Jenkins, Helen E.; Tolman, Arielle W.; Yuen, Courtney M.; Parr, Jonathan B.; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Pérez-Vélez, Carlos M.; Pagano, Marcello; Becerra, Mercedes C.; Cohen, Ted
Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) threatens to reverse recent reductions in global tuberculosis (TB) incidence. Although children under 15 years of age constitute >25% of the worldwide population, the global incidence of MDR-TB disease in children has never been quantified. Methods Our approach for estimating regional and global annual incidence of MDR-TB in children required development of two models: one to estimate the setting-specific risk of MDR-TB among child TB cases, and a second to estimate the setting-specific incidence of TB disease in children. The model for MDR-TB risk among children with TB required a systematic literature review. We multiplied the setting-specific estimates of MDR-TB risk and TB incidence to estimate regional and global incidence of MDR-TB disease in children in 2010. Findings We identified 3,403 papers, of which 97 studies met inclusion criteria for the systematic review of MDR-TB risk. Thirty-one studies reported the risk of MDR-TB among both children and treatment-naïve adults with TB and were used for evaluating the linear association between MDR-TB risk in these two patient groups. We found that the setting-specific risk of MDR-TB was nearly identical in children and treatment-naïve adults with TB, consistent with the assertion that MDR-TB in both groups reflects the local risk of transmitted MDR-TB. Applying these calculated risks, we estimated that around 1,000,000 (95% Confidence Interval: 938,000 – 1,055,000) children developed TB disease in 2010, among whom 32,000 (95% Confidence Interval: 26,000 – 39,000) had MDR-TB. Interpretation Our estimates highlight a massive detection gap for children with TB and MDR-TB disease. Future estimates can be refined as more and better TB data and new diagnostic tools become available. PMID:24671080
Cup, Edith H; Pieterse, Allan J; Ten Broek-Pastoor, Jessica M; Munneke, Marten; van Engelen, Baziel G; Hendricks, Henk T; van der Wilt, Gert J; Oostendorp, Rob A
To summarize and critically appraise the available evidence on exercise therapy and other types of physical therapies for patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMD). Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE (Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine), and reference lists of reviews and articles. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), and other designs were included. Study participants had to have any of the following types of NMD: motoneuron diseases, disorders of the motor nerve roots or peripheral nerves, neuromuscular transmission disorders, or muscle diseases. All types of exercise therapy and other physical therapy modalities were included. Outcome measures had to be at the level of body functions, activities, or participation according to the definitions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Two reviewers independently decided on inclusion or exclusion of articles and rated the methodologic quality of the studies included. All RCTs, CCTs, and other designs only if of sufficient methodologic quality were included in a best evidence synthesis. A level of evidence was attributed for each subgroup of NMD and each type of intervention. Initially 58 studies were included: 12 RCTs, 5 CCTs, and 41 other designs. After methodologic assessment, 19 other designs were excluded from further analysis. There is level II evidence ("likely to be effective") for strengthening exercises in combination with aerobic exercises for patients with muscle disorders. Level III evidence ("indications of effectiveness") was found for aerobic exercises in patients with muscle disorders and for the combination of muscle strengthening and aerobic exercises in a heterogeneous group of muscle disorders. Finally, there is level III evidence for breathing exercises for patients with myasthenia gravis and for patients with myotonic muscular dystrophy
Emukule, Gideon O.; Paget, John; van der Velden, Koos; Mott, Joshua A.
Background In Kenya data on the burden of influenza disease are needed to inform influenza control policies. Methods We conducted a systematic review of published data describing the influenza disease burden in Kenya using surveillance data collected until December 2013. We included studies with laboratory confirmation of influenza, well-defined catchment populations, case definitions used to sample patients for testing and a description of the laboratory methods used for influenza testing. Studies with or without any adjustments on the incidence rates were included. Results Ten studies reporting the incidence of medically-attended and non-medically attended influenza were reviewed. For all age groups, the influenza positive proportion ranged from 5–10% among hospitalized patients, and 5–27% among all medically-attended patients (a combination of in- and outpatients). The adjusted incidence rate of hospitalizations with influenza among children <5 years ranged from 2.7–4.7 per 1,000 [5.7 per 1,000 in children <6 months old], and were 7–10 times higher compared to persons aged ≥5 years. The adjusted incidence of all medically-attended influenza among children aged <5 years ranged from 13.0–58.0 per 1,000 compared to 4.3–26.0 per 1,000 among persons aged ≥5 years. Conclusions Our review shows an expanding set of literature on disease burden associated with influenza in Kenya, with a substantial burden in children under five years of age. Hospitalizations with influenza in these children were 2–3 times higher than reported in the United States. These findings highlight the possible value of an influenza vaccination program in Kenya, with children <5 years and pregnant women being potentially important targets. PMID:26398196
Ishii, Hiro; Griffin, Stephen; Somani, Bhaskar K
The aim of the present review was to look at the role of ureteroscopy (URS) for treatment of paediatric stone disease. We conducted a systematic review using studies identified by a literature search between January 1990 and May 2013. All English-language articles reporting on a minimum of 50 patients aged ≤ 18 years treated with URS for stone disease were included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data from each study. A total of 14 studies (1718 procedures) were reported in patients with a mean (range) age of 7.8 (0.25-18.0) years. The mean (range) stone burden was 9.8 (1-30) mm and the mean (range) stone-free rate (SFR) 87.5 (58-100)% with initial therapeutic URS. The majority of these stones were in the ureter (n = 1427, 83.4%). There were 180 (10.5%) Clavien I-III complications and 38 cases (2.2%) where there was a failure to complete the initial ureteroscopic procedure and an alternative procedure was performed. To assess the impact of age on failure rate and complications, studies were subcategorized into those that included children with either a mean age <6 years (four studies, 341 procedures) or a mean age >6 years. (10 studies, 1377 procedures). A higher failure rate (4.4 vs 1.7%) and a higher complication rate (24.0 vs 7.1%) were observed in children whose mean age was <6 years. URS for paediatric stone disease is a relatively safe procedure with a reasonably good SFR, but there seems to be a higher failure and complication rate in children aged <6 years. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.
Straus, Sharon E.
BACKGROUND Studies indicate a gap between evidence and clinical practice in osteoporosis management. Tools that facilitate clinical decision making at the point of care are promising strategies for closing these practice gaps. OBJECTIVE To systematically review the literature to identify and describe the effectiveness of tools that support clinical decision making in osteoporosis disease management. DATA SOURCES Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and EBM Reviews (CDSR, DARE, CCTR, and ACP J Club), and contact with experts in the field. REVIEW METHODS Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in any language from 1966 to July 2006 investigating disease management interventions in patients at risk for osteoporosis. Outcomes included fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) testing. Two investigators independently assessed articles for relevance and study quality, and extracted data using standardized forms. RESULTS Of 1,246 citations that were screened for relevance, 13 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Reported study quality was generally poor. Meta-analysis was not done because of methodological and clinical heterogeneity; 77% of studies included a reminder or education as a component of their intervention. Three studies of reminders plus education targeted to physicians and patients showed increased BMD testing (RR range 1.43 to 8.67) and osteoporosis medication use (RR range 1.60 to 8.67). A physician reminder plus a patient risk assessment strategy found reduced fractures [RR 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37 to 0.90] and increased osteoporosis therapy (RR 2.44, CI 1.43 to 4.17). CONCLUSION Multi-component tools that are targeted to physicians and patients may be effective for supporting clinical decision making in osteoporosis disease management. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0812-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18836782
Usher-Smith, Juliet A; Silarova, Barbora; Schuit, Ewoud; Moons, Karel G M; Griffin, Simon J
To systematically review whether the provision of information on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk to healthcare professionals and patients impacts their decision-making, behaviour and ultimately patient health. A systematic review. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE and PubMed from 01/01/2004 to 01/06/2013 with no language restriction and manual screening of reference lists of systematic reviews on similar topics and all included papers. (1) Primary research published in a peer-reviewed journal; (2) inclusion of participants with no history of CVD; (3) intervention strategy consisted of provision of a CVD risk model estimate to either professionals or patients; and (4) the only difference between the intervention group and control group (or the only intervention in the case of before-after studies) was the provision of a CVD risk model estimate. After duplicates were removed, the initial electronic search identified 9671 papers. We screened 196 papers at title and abstract level and included 17 studies. The heterogeneity of the studies limited the analysis, but together they showed that provision of risk information to patients improved the accuracy of risk perception without decreasing quality of life or increasing anxiety, but had little effect on lifestyle. Providing risk information to physicians increased prescribing of lipid-lowering and blood pressure medication, with greatest effects in those with CVD risk >20% (relative risk for change in prescribing 2.13 (1.02 to 4.63) and 2.38 (1.11 to 5.10) respectively). Overall, there was a trend towards reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure and a statistically significant reduction in modelled CVD risk (-0.39% (-0.71 to -0.07)) after, on average, 12 months. There seems evidence that providing CVD risk model estimates to professionals and patients improves perceived CVD risk and medical prescribing, with little evidence of harm on psychological well-being. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group
Usher-Smith, Juliet A; Silarova, Barbora; Schuit, Ewoud; GM Moons, Karel; Griffin, Simon J
Objective To systematically review whether the provision of information on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk to healthcare professionals and patients impacts their decision-making, behaviour and ultimately patient health. Design A systematic review. Data sources An electronic literature search of MEDLINE and PubMed from 01/01/2004 to 01/06/2013 with no language restriction and manual screening of reference lists of systematic reviews on similar topics and all included papers. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies (1) Primary research published in a peer-reviewed journal; (2) inclusion of participants with no history of CVD; (3) intervention strategy consisted of provision of a CVD risk model estimate to either professionals or patients; and (4) the only difference between the intervention group and control group (or the only intervention in the case of before-after studies) was the provision of a CVD risk model estimate. Results After duplicates were removed, the initial electronic search identified 9671 papers. We screened 196 papers at title and abstract level and included 17 studies. The heterogeneity of the studies limited the analysis, but together they showed that provision of risk information to patients improved the accuracy of risk perception without decreasing quality of life or increasing anxiety, but had little effect on lifestyle. Providing risk information to physicians increased prescribing of lipid-lowering and blood pressure medication, with greatest effects in those with CVD risk >20% (relative risk for change in prescribing 2.13 (1.02 to 4.63) and 2.38 (1.11 to 5.10) respectively). Overall, there was a trend towards reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure and a statistically significant reduction in modelled CVD risk (−0.39% (−0.71 to −0.07)) after, on average, 12 months. Conclusions There seems evidence that providing CVD risk model estimates to professionals and patients improves perceived CVD risk and medical prescribing
Haaksma, Miriam L; Vilela, Lara R; Marengoni, Alessandra; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Melis, René J F
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by multiple dimensions including cognitive decline, decreased daily functioning and psychiatric symptoms. This systematic review aims to investigate the relation between somatic comorbidity burden and progression in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). We searched four databases for observational studies that examined cross-sectional or longitudinal associations of cognitive or functional or neuropsychiatric outcomes with comorbidity in individuals with LOAD. From the 7966 articles identified originally, 11 studies were included in this review. The Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment was used. The large variation in progression measures, comorbidity indexes and study designs hampered the ability to perform a meta-analysis. This review was registered with PROSPERO under DIO: 10.15124/CRD42015027046. Nine studies indicated that comorbidity burden was associated with deterioration in at least one of the three dimensions of LOAD examined. Seven out of ten studies investigating cognition found comorbidities to be related to decreased cognitive performance. Five out of the seven studies investigating daily functioning showed an association between comorbidity burden and decreased daily functioning. Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) increased with increasing comorbidity burden in two out of three studies investigating NPS. Associations were predominantly found in studies analyzing the association cross-sectionally, in a time-varying manner or across short follow-up (≤2 years). Rarely baseline comorbidity burden appeared to be associated with outcomes in studies analyzing progression over longer follow-up periods (>2 years). This review provides evidence of an association between somatic comorbidities and multifaceted LOAD progression. Given that time-varying comorbidity burden, but much less so baseline comorbidity burden, was associated with the three dimensions prospectively, this relationship cannot be
Vos, Alinda G.; Idris, Nikmah S.; Barth, Roos E.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Grobbee, Diederick E.
Background In the past years many inflammatory markers have been studied in association with clinically manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in HIV-infected patients, to obtain insights in the increased cardiovascular risk observed in HIV infection. This systematic review provides an oversight of the current knowledge. Methods A search was performed in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane in July 2014, identifying all articles from 1996 onwards addressing the relation between inflammatory markers and CVD or CIMT in HIV-positive adults. Two authors, using predefined criteria, independently conducted the selection of articles, critical appraisal and extraction of the data. Analysis was focused on the immune markers that were most frequently assessed. The review protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database at 11 July 2014 (registration number CRD42014010516). This review was performed according to the PRISMA guideline. Findings Forty articles were selected; eight addressing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and thirty-two addressing CIMT. C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and d-dimer were assessed most frequently in relation to the occurrence of CVD; in four out of eight studies. All three markers were positively related to CVD in three out of four studies. Studies addressing CIMT were too heterogeneous with respect to patient populations, inflammatory markers, CIMT measurement protocols and statistical methods to allow for a formal meta-analysis to obtain summary statistics. CRP, IL-6 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1) were the most studied markers in relation to CIMT. None of the inflammatory markers showed an association with CIMT. Interpretation This review showed a relation between some inflammatory markers and CVD, however, no consistent relation is observed for CIMT. Statistical approaches that yields effect estimates and standardized CIMT protocols should be chosen. Further research should focus
Rumman, Rawan K; Nickel, Cheri; Matsuda-Abedini, Mina; Lorenzo, Armando J; Langlois, Valerie; Radhakrishnan, Seetha; Amaral, Joao; Mertens, Luc; Parekh, Rulan S
Middle aortic syndrome (MAS) is a rare clinical entity in childhood, characterized by a severe narrowing of the distal thoracic and/or abdominal aorta, and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. MAS remains a relatively poorly defined disease. This paper systematically reviews the current knowledge on MAS with respect to etiology, clinical impact, and therapeutic options. A systematic search of 3 databases (Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) yielded 1,252 abstracts that were screened based on eligibility criteria resulting in 184 full-text articles with 630 reported cases of childhood MAS. Data extracted included patient characteristics, clinical presentation, vascular phenotype, management, and outcomes. Most cases of MAS are idiopathic (64%), 15% are associated with Mendelian disorders, and 17% are related to inflammatory diseases. Extra-aortic involvement including renal (70%), superior mesenteric (30%), and celiac (22%) arteries is common, especially among those with associated Mendelian disorders. Inferior mesenteric artery involvement is almost never reported. The majority of cases (72%) undergo endovascular or surgical management with residual hypertension reported in 34% of cases, requiring medication or reintervention. Clinical manifestations and extent of extra-aortic involvement are lacking. MAS presents with significant involvement of visceral arteries with over two thirds of cases having renal artery stenosis, and one third with superior mesenteric artery stenosis. The extent of disease is worse among those with genetic and inflammatory conditions. Further studies are needed to better understand etiology, long-term effectiveness of treatment, and to determine the optimal management of this potentially devastating condition. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Malinowski, Ann Kinga; Shehata, Nadine; D'Souza, Rohan; Kuo, Kevin H M; Ward, Richard; Shah, Prakesh S; Murphy, Kellie
Pregnancy in women with sickle cell disease is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Studies assessing the effects of prophylactic red blood cell transfusions on these outcomes have drawn inconsistent conclusions. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of prophylactic compared with on-demand red blood cell transfusions on maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with sickle cell disease. A systematic search of several medical literature databases was conducted. Twelve studies involving 1291 participants met inclusion criteria. The studies had moderate to high risk of bias. Meta-analysis demonstrated that prophylactic transfusion was associated with a reduction in maternal mortality (7 studies, 955 participants; odds ratio [OR], 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.91), vaso-occlusive pain episodes (11 studies, 1219 participants; OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09-0.76), pulmonary complications (9 studies, 1019 participants; OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.09-0.72), pulmonary embolism (3 studies, 237 participants; OR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01-0.41), pyelonephritis (6 studies, 455 participants; OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07-0.51), perinatal mortality (8 studies, 1140 participants; OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.19-0.99), neonatal death (5 studies, 374 participants; OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.07-0.93), and preterm birth (9 studies, 1123 participants; OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.37-0.96). Event rates for most of the results were low. Prophylactic transfusions may positively impact several adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with sickle cell disease; however, the evidence stems from a relatively small number of studies with methodologic limitations. A prospective, multicenter, randomized trial is needed to determine whether the potential benefits balance the risks of prophylactic transfusions. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.
Lan, Yu-Long; Zou, Shuang; Zhang, Changfu; Li, Jun; Xu, Yinghui; Li, Shao
Estradiol (E2) has been used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) for many years but with various responses. Evidence from clinical studies, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), and observational studies further underscores the importance of E2 in postmenopause women diagnosed with AD. The purpose of this article is to review all clinical trials to date focusing on the E2 in AD patients to explore the evidence regarding use of E2 in AD treatments. To achieve this objective, clinical studies regarding E2 levels in AD patients and RCTs assessing AD treatment in postmenopause women were identified through searches of MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, Ovid, and Google Scholar. E2 has demonstrated good therapeutic effectiveness in AD patients, however, further larger scale, double-blind RCTs are required before a definitive conclusion can be reached and the results need to be compared with other drugs. This update reviews the newest clinical information regarding the role of E2 in postmenopause women with AD. To our knowledge, this is the only systematic review of this area.
Cahill, Suzanne; Pierce, Maria; Werner, Perla; Darley, Andrew; Bobersky, Andrea
This paper reports findings from a systematic review of the literature on the general public's knowledge and understanding of dementia/Alzheimer's disease. The key purpose of the review was to evaluate existing literature with specific attention paid to conceptual and methodological issues and to key findings. Over a 20-year period, 40 published articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. Only 4 of these were qualitative and 5 were cross-national. The review revealed a lack of consistency across studies regarding how knowledge was operationalized, approaches to sampling, response rates, and data collection instruments used including validated scales. A consistent finding across the vast majority of studies was the only fair to moderate knowledge and understanding the general public had. The most common misconception was that dementia was a normal part of aging and there was a lack of clarity about at which point normal age-related memory loss problems become severe enough to indicate dementia. Knowledge of dementia was found to be particularly poor among racial and ethnic minority groups where several myths about causes of dementia were found. Findings point to the need for more educational and advocacy programmes on dementia to be developed particularly in low-income to middle-income countries.
Coentrão, Luís; Van Biesen, Wim; Nistor, Ionut; Tordoir, Jan; Gallieni, Maurizio; Marti Monros, Anna; Bolignano, Davide
Vascular access problems are one of the main concerns in the diabetic end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) population. However, the optimal strategy for the establishment of vascular access in this population remains to be solved. We performed a systematic review in order to clarify the most advisable approach of vascular access planning in diabetic patients with ESKD. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases were searched for English-language articles without time restriction through focused, high-sensitive search strategies. We included all studies providing outcome data on diabetics starting chronic haemodialysis treatment on the basis of the type of primary placed vascular access. A total of 13 studies comprising over 2,800 participants with diabetes were reviewed in detail and included in the review. We found that diabetic patients using a dialysis catheter apparently experience a higher risk of death and infection compared with patients who successfully achieved and maintained an arteriovenous fistula as dialysis access. The comparison between the use of a graft or an autogenous fistula as dialysis access generated conflicting results. Primary patency rates appeared to be lower in diabetics versus non-diabetics. Our study suggests that diabetic ESKD patients with dialysis catheters incur a higher risk of death in comparison to those who achieve an arteriovenous access. It is however unclear whether this is caused by residual selection bias or by a true advantage of native vascular access.
Zhang, Yan-Peng; Zhao, Ya-Lei; Sun, Yu-Ling; Zhu, Rong-Tao; Wang, Wei-Jie; Li, Jian
The role of physical activity in preventing gallstone disease independent of its effect on the body weight has not been well established. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies to analyze this potential association. We searched PubMed and EMBASE to identify all published studies in English through April 2016. We pooled the relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from individual studies using a random-effects model to investigate associations between physical activity and the risk of gallstone disease. A total of 16 studies comprising 19 independent reports of approximately 260,000 participants met the inclusion criteria, including 6 case-control studies and 13 cohort studies. In a pooled analysis of cohort studies, physical activity (in a comparison of the highest-level and the lowest-level groups) was associated with a reduced risk of gallstone disease (RR=0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.92; I=79.5%). For men, the RR was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.60-0.97), and for women, the RR was similar (RR=0.77; 95% CI, 0.66-0.91). In a dose-response analysis, the RR of gallstone disease was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83-0.92; I=1.0%) per 20 metabolic equivalent-hours of recreational physical per week. In comparison, case-control studies yielded a stronger significant risk reduction for gallstone disease (OR=0.64; 95% CI, 0.46-0.90; I=76.6%). This study suggests an inverse association between physical activity and gallstone disease in both men and women; however, these findings should be interpreted cautiously because of study heterogeneity.
Valery, Patricia C; Powell, Elizabeth; Moses, Neta; Volk, Michael L; McPhail, Steven M; Clark, Paul J; Martin, Jennifer
Objective People with chronic liver disease, particularly those with decompensated cirrhosis, experience several potentially debilitating complications that can have a significant impact on activities of daily living and quality of life. These impairments combined with the associated complex treatment mean that they are faced with specific and high levels of supportive care needs. We aimed to review reported perspectives, experiences and concerns of people with chronic liver disease worldwide. This information is necessary to guide development of policies around supportive needs screening tools and to enable prioritisation of support services for these patients. Design Systematic searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO from the earliest records until 19 September 2014. Data were extracted using standardised forms. A qualitative, descriptive approach was utilised to analyse and synthesise data. Results The initial search yielded 2598 reports: 26 studies reporting supportive care needs among patients with chronic liver disease were included, but few of them were patient-reported needs, none used a validated liver disease-specific supportive care need assessment instrument, and only three included patients with cirrhosis. Five key domains of supportive care needs were identified: informational or educational (eg, educational material, educational sessions), practical (eg, daily living), physical (eg, controlling pruritus and fatigue), patient care and support (eg, support groups), and psychological (eg, anxiety, sadness). Conclusions While several key domains of supportive care needs were identified, most studies included hepatitis patients. There is a paucity of literature describing the supportive care needs of the chronic liver disease population likely to have the most needs—namely those with cirrhosis. Assessing the supportive care needs of people with chronic liver disease have potential utility in clinical practice for facilitating timely referrals
Svensson, Camilla Kara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Backer, Vibeke
Background Fabry disease is an X-linked disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase A, resulting in accumulation of glycosphingolipids in multiple organs, primarily heart, kidneys, skin, CNS, and lungs. Materials and method A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database, leading to a total number of 154 hits. Due to language restriction, this number was reduced to 135; 53 papers did not concern Fabry disease, 19 were either animal studies or gene therapy studies, and 36 papers did not have lung involvement in Fabry disease as a topic. The remaining 27 articles were relevant for this review. Results The current literature concerning lung manifestations describes various respiratory symptoms such as dyspnoea or shortness of breath, wheezing, and dry cough. These symptoms are often related to cardiac involvement in Fabry disease as respiratory examinations are seldom performed. Pulmonary function tests primarily show obstructive airway limitation, but a few articles also report of patients with restrictive limitation and a mixture of both. No significant association has been found between smoking and the development of symptoms or spirometry abnormalities in patients with Fabry disease. Electron microscopy of lung biopsy and induced sputum show lamellar inclusion bodies (Zebra bodies) in the cytoplasm of cells in the airway wall. X-ray and CT scan have shown patchy ground-glass pulmonary infiltrations, fibrosis, and air trapping. Fibrosis diagnosed by high-resolution CT has not been significantly correlated with lung spirometry. Conclusion Consistent findings have not been shown in the current literature. Pulmonary function tests and registration of symptoms showed various results; however, there is a trend towards obstructive airway limitation in patients with Fabry disease. Further studies are needed to evaluate pathogenesis, progression, and the effects of treatment. PMID:26557248
Memba, Robert; Duggan, Sinead N; Ni Chonchubhair, Hazel M; Griffin, Oonagh M; Bashir, Yasir; O'Connor, Donal B; Murphy, Anne; McMahon, Jean; Volcov, Yuri; Ryan, Barbara M; Conlon, Kevin C
Several studies have suggested a link between microbiota imbalance and some gastrointestinal, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. However, the role in pancreatic diseases remain unclear. To evaluate the available evidence for pancreatic diseases, we undertook a systematic review. OVID Medline (1946-2017), EMBASE (1980-2017) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 3, 2017) were searched for studies on microbiota in pancreatic disease. We also searched the reference lists of retrieved papers, and conference proceedings. We excluded animal studies, reviews, and case reports. A total of 2833 articles were retrieved. After screening and applying the exclusion criteria, 10 studies were included. Three studies showed lower levels of Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus and higher levels of Enterobacteriaceae in chronic pancreatitis. Two of these studies were uncontrolled, and the third (controlled) study which compared patients with endocrine and exocrine insufficiency, reported that Bacteroidetes levels were lower in those patients without diabetes, while Bifidobacteria levels were higher in those without exocrine insufficiency. Only one study investigated acute pancreatitis, showing higher levels of Enterococcus and lower levels of Bifidobacterium versus healthy participants. There was an overall association between pancreatic cancer and lower levels of Neisseria elongate, Streptococcus mitis and higher levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Granulicatella adiacens. Current evidence suggests a possible link between microbiota imbalance and pancreatic cancer. Regarding acute and chronic pancreatitis, data are scarce, dysbiosis appears to be present in both conditions. However, further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to explore therapeutic possibilities. Copyright © 2017 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schmitt, J; Buske-Kirschbaum, A; Roessner, V
The increase in prevalence and burden of atopic diseases, i.e. eczema, rhinitis, and asthma over the past decades was paralleled by a worldwide increase in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses. We systematically reviewed epidemiologic studies investigating the relationship between atopic diseases and ADHD. Electronic literature search in PubMed and PsycINFO (until 02/2010) supplemented by handsearch yielded 20 relevant studies totaling 170,175 individuals. Relevant data were abstracted independently by two reviewers. Six studies consistently reported a positive association between eczema and ADHD with one study suggesting effect modification by sleeping problems. Twelve studies consistently found a positive association between asthma and ADHD, which, however, appeared to be at least partly explained (confounded) by concurrent or previous eczema. Rhinitis and serum-IgE level were not related to ADHD symptomatology. We conclude that not atopic disease in general, but rather that eczema appears to be independently related to ADHD. Conclusions about temporality and whether the observed association constitutes a causal relationship are impossible, as most studies were cross-sectional (n = 14; 70%) or case-control studies without incident exposure measurement (n = 5; 25%). Another methodological concern is that the criteria to define atopic disease and ADHD were inadequate in most studies. A failure to adjust for confounders in the majority of studies was an additional limitation so that meta-analysis was not indicated. Future interdisciplinary high-quality prospective research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between eczema and ADHD and to eventually establish targeted preventive and treatment strategies.
Background Continuous exposure to many chemicals, including through air, water, food, or other media and products results in health impacts which have been well assessed, however little is known about the total disease burden related to chemicals. This is important to know for overall policy actions and priorities. In this article the known burden related to selected chemicals or their mixtures, main data gaps, and the link to public health policy are reviewed. Methods A systematic review of the literature for global burden of disease estimates from chemicals was conducted. Global disease due to chemicals was estimated using standard methodology of the Global Burden of Disease. Results In total, 4.9 million deaths (8.3% of total) and 86 million Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) (5.7% of total) were attributable to environmental exposure and management of selected chemicals in 2004. The largest contributors include indoor smoke from solid fuel use, outdoor air pollution and second-hand smoke, with 2.0, 1.2 and 0.6 million deaths annually. These are followed by occupational particulates, chemicals involved in acute poisonings, and pesticides involved in self-poisonings, with 375,000, 240,000 and 186,000 annual deaths, respectively. Conclusions The known burden due to chemicals is considerable. This information supports decision-making in programmes having a role to play in reducing human exposure to toxic chemicals. These figures present only a number of chemicals for which data are available, therefore, they are more likely an underestimate of the actual burden. Chemicals with known health effects, such as dioxins, cadmium, mercury or chronic exposure to pesticides could not be included in this article due to incomplete data and information. Effective public health interventions are known to manage chemicals and limit their public health impacts and should be implemented at national and international levels. PMID:21255392
Brenner, Darren R.; McLaughlin, John R.; Hung, Rayjean J.
Background In order to review the epidemiologic evidence concerning previous lung diseases as risk factors for lung cancer, a meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted. Methods Relevant studies were identified through MEDLINE searches. Using random effects models, summary effects of specific previous conditions were evaluated separately and combined. Stratified analyses were conducted based on smoking status, gender, control sources and continent. Results A previous history of COPD, chronic bronchitis or emphysema conferred relative risks (RR) of 2.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66, 2.97) (from 16 studies), 1.52 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.84) (from 23 studies) and 2.04 (95% CI: 1.72, 2.41) (from 20 studies), respectively, and for all these diseases combined 1.80 (95% CI: 1.60, 2.11) (from 39 studies). The RR of lung cancer for subjects with a previous history of pneumonia was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.22–1.68) (from 22 studies) and for subjects with a previous history of tuberculosis was 1.76 (95% CI = 1.49, 2.08), (from 30 studies). Effects were attenuated when restricting analysis to never smokers only for COPD/emphysema/chronic bronchitis (RR = 1.22, 0.97–1.53), however remained significant for pneumonia 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.69) (from 8 studies) and tuberculosis 1.90 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.50) (from 11 studies). Conclusions Previous lung diseases are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer with the evidence among never smokers supporting a direct relationship between previous lung diseases and lung cancer. PMID:21483846
Canestaro, W J; Edwards, T C; Patrick, D L
New therapeutics are moving into phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment of coeliac disease, a condition with no established therapies other than gluten-free diet. These trials will require a meaningful, validated and fit for purpose patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to quantify the symptomatic improvement of patients. To evaluate existing PROMs for suitability in a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval trial for a coeliac disease therapeutic. We performed a systematic search in five online databases (MedLine, EmBase, Web of Science, CENTRAL, CINAHL) for studies that enrolled patients with coeliac disease and used PROMs. Studies included in this review had to measure some PROM concept, be patient administered and based upon a previously validated instrument with published measurement properties. Our literature search identified 2706 unique records of which 199 ultimately qualified for abstraction. The majority of PROMs used in studies of coeliac disease was generic and did not measure numerous symptoms or concerns of interest to patients. Four PROMs were found to contain appropriate content for use in an FDA trial: the coeliac disease-specific modification of the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale (CeD-GSRS), Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB), the Celiac Disease Symptom Diary (CDSD) and the Celiac Disease Patient Reported Outcome (CeD-PRO). The GSRS and PGWB are most often used together and are two of the most extensively used measures in coeliac disease. The CDSD and CeD-PRO were developed exclusively for trials in coeliac disease but have much less published information on their measurement properties. While we did not find PROMs that currently meet the stated expectations of the FDA for regulatory purposes, four PROMs (CeD-GSRS, PGWB, CDSD and CeD-PRO) appear to contain appropriate content and with modest additional validation work could meet scientific standards for valid and sensitive measures of disease and treatment outcome
Tadrous, Mina; Gagne, Joshua J.; Stürmer, Til; Cadarette, Suzanne M.
Purpose To systematically examine trends and applications of the disease risk score (DRS) as a confounder summary method. Methods We completed a systematic search of MEDLINE and Web of Science® to identify all English language articles that applied DRS methods. We tabulated the number of publications by year and type (empirical application, methodological contribution, or review paper) and summarized methods used in empirical applications overall and by publication year (<2000, ≥2000). Results Of 714 unique articles identified, 97 examined DRS methods and 86 were empirical applications. We observed a bimodal distribution in the number of publications over time, with a peak 1979-1980, and resurgence since 2000. The majority of applications with methodological detail derived DRS using logistic regression (47%), used DRS as a categorical variable in regression (93%), and applied DRS in a non-experimental cohort (47%) or case-control (42%) study. Few studies examined effect modification by outcome risk (23%). Conclusion Use of DRS methods has increased yet remains low. Comparative effectiveness research may benefit from more DRS applications, particularly to examine effect modification by outcome risk. Standardized terminology may facilitate identification, application, and comprehension of DRS methods. More research is needed to support the application of DRS methods, particularly in case-control studies. PMID:23172692
Tapper, Elliot B
Quality indicators are the measurable components of clinical standards. Data are limited about the design and impact of interventions to improve quality indicators for patients with chronic liver disease. A systematic review of PubMed, Web of Science, and conference proceedings was performed to find reports of quality improvement (QI) interventions. Data regarding the several indicators were collected. The search focused on vaccination against hepatitis A or hepatitis B virus, management of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, screening for varices, management of acute variceal hemorrhage, hepatocellular carcinoma screening, and 30-day readmissions. Fifteen studies reported on the results of QI interventions. Ten focused on specific quality indicators (1 specific to vaccination, 2 spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, 3 gastrointestinal bleeding, and 4 hepatocellular carcinoma screening); 5 focused on clinical outcomes. Most studies used a pre-post study design. Interventions included checklists, educational conferences, electronic decision supports, nurse coordinators, and systematic changes to facilitate specialist co-management. Successful interventions optimized clinical workflow, closed knowledge gaps among frontline providers, created forced functions in the electronic ordering system, added dedicated staff to manage specific indicators, and provided viable alternatives to hospitalization to reduce readmission. Unsuccessful interventions included case management, phone calls, and home visits to reduce readmissions, checklists, and educational programs. Past experience with QI provides generalizable rules for successful future interventions aimed at improved quality indicator adherence and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boyle, Robert J; Ierodiakonou, Despo; Khan, Tasnia; Chivinge, Jennifer; Robinson, Zoe; Geoghegan, Natalie; Jarrold, Katharine; Afxentiou, Thalia; Reeves, Tim; Cunha, Sergio; Trivella, Marialena; Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Leonardi-Bee, Jo
To determine whether feeding infants with hydrolysed formula reduces their risk of allergic or autoimmune disease. Systematic review and meta-analysis, as part of a series of systematic reviews commissioned by the UK Food Standards Agency to inform guidelines on infant feeding. Two authors selected studies by consensus, independently extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Medline, Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and LILACS searched between January 1946 and April 2015. Prospective intervention trials of hydrolysed cows' milk formula compared with another hydrolysed formula, human breast milk, or a standard cows' milk formula, which reported on allergic or autoimmune disease or allergic sensitisation. 37 eligible intervention trials of hydrolysed formula were identified, including over 19,000 participants. There was evidence of conflict of interest and high or unclear risk of bias in most studies of allergic outcomes and evidence of publication bias for studies of eczema and wheeze. Overall there was no consistent evidence that partially or extensively hydrolysed formulas reduce risk of allergic or autoimmune outcomes in infants at high pre-existing risk of these outcomes. Odds ratios for eczema at age 0-4, compared with standard cows' milk formula, were 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.07; I(2)=30%) for partially hydrolysed formula; 0.55 (0.28 to 1.09; I(2)=74%) for extensively hydrolysed casein based formula; and 1.12 (0.88 to 1.42; I(2)=0%) for extensively hydrolysed whey based formula. There was no evidence to support the health claim approved by the US Food and Drug Administration that a partially hydrolysed formula could reduce the risk of eczema nor the conclusion of the Cochrane review that hydrolysed formula could allergy to cows' milk. These findings do not support current guidelines that recommend the use of hydrolysed formula to prevent allergic disease in high risk infants. PROSPERO CRD
Heo, Hyun-Hee; Braun, Kathryn L.
Objective Because little is known about promising interventions to prevent and control chronic disease in Korean Americans, we conducted a systematic literature review to investigate: (1) theoretical frameworks and strategies employed by interventions targeting Korean Americans; (2) cultural factors considered by these interventions; and (3) the extent of their success in engaging Korean participants and improving their health. Design Following the PRISMA guidelines, PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Science were searched to identify primary research articles evaluating interventions to prevent or control chronic disease, tailored to Korean Americans, and published from 1980 through 2011. Of 238 articles identified, 21 articles describing16 unique intervention tests met inclusion criteria. These interventions targeted cancer (10), hypertension (2), diabetes (1), mental health (1), tobacco cessation (1), and general health (1). Results All included studies were published since 2000, reflecting the relatively recent establishment of intervention research with Korean Americans. All 16 programs delivered linguistically appropriate messages and education. The 11 programs that realized significant intervention effects also provided or coordinated social support from culturally relevant and well-trained lay health workers, nurses, or family members during an intervention and/or follow-up period. Conclusions Culturally matched and linguistically appropriate messages and education may not be enough to prevent or control chronic disease among immigrant Korean Americans. Culturally sensitive and committed social support should be provided to catalyze behavioral changes and sustain the effect of the interventions. PMID:24261698
Srivastava, Kunal; Thakur, Deepika; Sharma, Sheetal; Punekar, Yogesh Suresh
An understanding of the humanistic and economic burden of individuals with symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is required to inform payers and healthcare professionals about the disease burden. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and present humanistic [health-related quality of life (HRQoL)] and economic burdens of symptomatic COPD. A comprehensive search of online databases (reimbursement or claims databases/other databases), abstracts from conference proceedings, published literature, clinical trials, medical records, health ministries, financial reports, registries, and other sources was conducted. Adult patients of any race or gender with symptomatic COPD were included. Humanistic and economic burdens included studies evaluating HRQoL and cost and resource use, respectively, associated with symptomatic COPD. Thirty-two studies reporting humanistic burden and 74 economic studies were identified. Symptomatic COPD led to impairment in the health state of patients, as assessed by HRQoL instruments. It was also associated with high economic burden across all countries. The overall, direct, and indirect costs per patient increased with an increase in symptoms, dyspnoea severity, and duration of disease. Across countries, the annual societal costs associated with symptomatic COPD were higher among patients with comorbidities. Symptomatic COPD is associated with a substantial economic burden. The HRQoL of patients with symptomatic COPD is, in general, low and influenced by dyspnoea.
Crozier, S; Robertson, N; Dale, M
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic condition for which a predictive genetic test by mutation analysis has been available since 1993. However, whilst revealing the future presence of the disease, testing may have an adverse psychological impact given that the disease is progressive, incurable and ultimately fatal. This review seeks to systematically explore the psychological impact of genetic testing for individuals undergoing pre-symptomatic mutation analysis. Three databases (Medline, PsycInfo and Scopus) were interrogated for studies utilising standardised measures to assess psychological impact following predictive genetic testing for HD. From 100 papers initially identified, eight articles were eligible for inclusion. Psychological impact of predictive genetic testing was not found to be associated with test result. No detrimental effect of predictive genetic testing on non-carriers was found, although the process was not found to be psychologically neutral. Fluctuation in levels of distress was found over time for carriers and non-carriers alike. Methodological weaknesses of published literature were identified, notably the needs of individuals not requesting genetic testing, as well as inadequate support for individuals registering elevated distress and declining post-test follow-up. Further assessment of these vulnerable individuals is warranted to establish the extent and type of future psychological support.
Fang, Shona C.; Cassidy, Adrian; Christiani, David C.
Exposure to ambient particulate air pollution is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however the link between occupational particulate exposures and adverse cardiovascular events is less clear. We conducted a systematic review, including meta-analysis where appropriate, of the epidemiologic association between occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Out of 697 articles meeting our initial criteria, 37 articles published from January 1990 to April 2009 (12 mortality; 5 morbidity; and 20 intermediate cardiovascular endpoints) were included. Results suggest a possible association between occupational particulate exposures and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality as well as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and stronger evidence of associations with heart rate variability and systemic inflammation, potential intermediates between occupational PM exposure and IHD. In meta-analysis of mortality studies, a significant increase in IHD was observed (meta-IRR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06–1.26), however these data were limited by lack of adequate control for smoking and other potential confounders. Further research is needed to better clarify the magnitude of the potential risk of the development and aggravation of IHD associated with short and long-term occupational particulate exposures and to clarify the clinical significance of acute and chronic changes in intermediate cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:20617059
Missala, I.; Kassner, U.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E.
Objective. To investigate the association of lipoprotein(a) and atherosclerosis-related autoimmune diseases, to provide information on possible pathophysiologic mechanisms, and to give recommendations for Lp(a) determination and therapeutic options. Methods. We performed a systematic review of English language citations referring to the keywords “Lp(a)” AND “autoimmune disease” AND “atherosclerosis,” “Lp(a)” AND “immune system” OR “antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS)” OR “rheumatoid arthritis” OR “Sjögren's syndrome” OR “systemic lupus erythematosus” OR “systemic sclerosis” OR “systemic vasculitis” published between 1991 and 2011 using Medline database. Results. 22 out of 65 found articles were identified as relevant. Lp(a) association was highest in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), followed by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), moderate in APS and lowest in systemic sclerosis (SSc). There was no association found between Lp(a) and systemic vasculitis or Sjögren's syndrome. Conclusion. Immune reactions are highly relevant in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, and patients with specific autoimmune diseases are at high risk for CVD. Elevated Lp(a) is an important risk factor for premature atherosclerosis and high Lp(a) levels are also associated with autoimmune diseases. Anti-Lp(a)-antibodies might be a possible explanation. Therapeutic approaches thus far include niacin, Lp(a)-apheresis, farnesoid x-receptor-agonists, and CETP-inhibitors being currently under investigation. PMID:23304154
Behpour, Amir M; Shah, Prakesh S; Mikulis, David J; Kassner, Andrea
A systematic review was performed to assess whether cerebral blood flow with different imaging modalities could identify brain abnormalities in children with sickle cell disease where structural magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial Doppler velocity appeared normal. A total of 11 studies were identified which reported cerebral blood flow abnormalities alongside structural magnetic resonance imaging or transcranial Doppler velocity abnormalities in patients with sickle cell disease. Potential for bias was assessed with the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies scale in addition to treatment bias. Subjects of each study were categorized into patients with and without stroke. The prevalence of abnormalities for each modality was then separately calculated in each group. The included studies had mostly moderate degrees of bias. The prevalence of blood flow abnormalities compared with structural magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities was equal to or lower in patients with stroke and equal to or greater in patients without stroke. Blood flow abnormalities were more prevalent than transcranial Doppler abnormalities in four studies of patients without stroke and in one study of patients with stroke. The studies suggest that the assessment of cerebral blood flow in sickle cell disease can be of potential value in addressing brain abnormalities at the tissue level; however, further studies are warranted.
Smith, Selina A.; Ansa, Benjamin
Background Rural Americans suffer disproportionately from lifestyle-related chronic diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and breast cancer). Interventions that consider the distinctive characteristics of rural communities (e.g., access to healthcare, income, and education) are needed. As an initial step in planning future research, we completed a systematic review of dietary intake and physical activity interventions targeting rural populations. Methods Manuscripts focused on dietary intake and physical activity and published through March 15, 2016, were identified by use of PubMed and CINAHL databases and MeSH terms and keyword searches. Results A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria. Six involved randomized controlled trials; 7 used quasi-experimental designs; 4 had a pre-/post-design; and 1 was an observational study. Eight studies were multi-site (or multi-county), and 3 focused on churches. Primary emphasis by racial/ethnic group included: African Americans (6); Whites (2); Hispanics (3); and two or more groups (7). Most studies (17) sampled adults; one included children. Two studies targeted families. Conclusions Additional lifestyle intervention research is needed to identify effective approaches promoting healthy diet and exercise and chronic disease prevention in rural communities. Studies that include rigorous designs, adequate sample sizes, and generalizable results are needed to overcome the limitations of published studies. PMID:27376159
Sánchez-Ferro, Álvaro; Elshehabi, Morad; Godinho, Catarina; Salkovic, Dina; Hobert, Markus A; Domingos, Josefa; van Uem, Janet Mt; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Maetzler, Walter
The past decade has witnessed a highly dynamic and growing expansion of novel methods aimed at improving the assessment of Parkinson's disease with technology (NAM-PD) in laboratory, clinical, and home environments. However, the current state of NAM-PD regarding their maturity, feasibility, and usefulness in assessing the main PD features has not been systematically evaluated. A systematic review of articles published in the field from 2005 to 2015 was performed. Of 9,503 publications identified in PubMed and the Web of Science, 848 full papers were evaluated, and 588 original articles were assessed to evaluate the technological, demographic, clinimetric, and technology transfer readiness parameters of NAM-PD. Of the studies, 65% included fewer than 30 patients, < 50% employed a standard methodology to validate diagnostic tests, 8% confirmed their results in a different dataset, and 87% occurred in a clinic or lab. The axial features domain was the most frequently studied, followed by bradykinesia. Rigidity and nonmotor domains were rarely investigated. Only 6% of the systems reached a technology level that justified the hope of being included in clinical assessments in a useful time period. This systematic evaluation provides an overview of the current options for quantitative assessment of PD and what can be expected in the near future. There is a particular need for standardized and collaborative studies to confirm the results of preliminary initiatives, assess domains that are currently underinvestigated, and better validate the existing and upcoming NAM-PD. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Kuenzli, Esther; Neumayr, Andreas; Chaney, Matthew; Blum, Johannes
Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara catis, is a worldwide occurring parasitic disease, reaching high prevalences especially in tropical and subtropical countries. The clinical presentation can range from asymptomatic seropositivity to life threatenting disease, depending on the organ system involved. Cardiac involvement, one of the possible manifestations of human Toxocara spp. infection, is rarely reported in case reports. As far as we know, no systematic reviews of clinical presentations have been published till now and no clear recommendations regarding the treatment of Toxocara spp. infection involving the heart exist. In a systematic review of the literature, 24 published cases of Toxocara spp. infection involving the heart were identified. The cardiac entities described included myocarditis, pericarditis, and Loeffler's endocarditis. The clinical presentation ranged from asymptomatic or mild disease to life threatening myocarditis/pericarditis with heart failure or cardiac tamponade, leading to death. In most cases, the diagnosis was based on a combination of clinical, laboratory and radiological findings. Only in three of the nine cases in which histological analysis was performed (either pre- or post-mortem), granulomas or remnants of the parasite were detected. In the other six cases, findings were non-specific; the damage of the heart was equally caused by direct invasion of the larvae and by immunological reactions, either caused by the systemic hypereosinophilia or by the presence of the larvae in the tissue. The treatment regimen described mostly consisted of anthelmintic drugs in combination with corticosteroids. Even though dosage and duration of treatment varied widely, ranging from days to months, most patients were treated successfully. Cardiac involvement in Toxocara spp. infection is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of a very common disease. The therapeutic regimens vary widely especially with regard to the
Alvarez, Carolina; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Verdonck, Kristien
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that produces a persistent infection. Two transmission routes (from mother to child and via sexual intercourse) favor familial clustering of HTLV-1. It is yet unknown why most HTLV-1 carriers remain asymptomatic while about 10% of them develop complications. HTLV-1 associated diseases were originally described as sporadic entities, but familial presentations have been reported. To explore what is known about family aggregation of HTLV-1-associated diseases we undertook a systematic review. We aimed at answering whether, when, and where family aggregation of HTLV-1-associated diseases was reported, which relatives were affected and which hypotheses were proposed to explain aggregation. We searched MEDLINE, abstract books of HTLV conferences and reference lists of selected papers. Search terms used referred to HTLV-1 infection, and HTLV-1-associated diseases, and family studies. HTLV-1-associated diseases considered are adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), HTLV-1-associated uveitis, and infective dermatitis. Seventy-four records reported HTLV-1-associated diseases in more than one member of the same family and were included. Most reports came from HTLV-1-endemic countries, mainly Japan (n = 30) and Brazil (n = 10). These reports described a total of 270 families in which more than one relative had HTLV-1-associated diseases. In most families, different family members suffered from the same disease (n = 223). The diseases most frequently reported were ATLL (115 families) and HAM/TSP (102 families). Most families (n = 144) included two to four affected individuals. The proportion of ATLL patients with family history of ATLL ranged from 2 to 26%. The proportion of HAM/TSP patients with family history of HAM/TSP ranged from 1 to 48%. The predominant cluster types for ATLL were clusters of siblings and parent-child pairs and for HAM/TSP, an affected
Alvarez, Carolina; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Verdonck, Kristien
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that produces a persistent infection. Two transmission routes (from mother to child and via sexual intercourse) favor familial clustering of HTLV-1. It is yet unknown why most HTLV-1 carriers remain asymptomatic while about 10% of them develop complications. HTLV-1 associated diseases were originally described as sporadic entities, but familial presentations have been reported. To explore what is known about family aggregation of HTLV-1-associated diseases we undertook a systematic review. We aimed at answering whether, when, and where family aggregation of HTLV-1-associated diseases was reported, which relatives were affected and which hypotheses were proposed to explain aggregation. We searched MEDLINE, abstract books of HTLV conferences and reference lists of selected papers. Search terms used referred to HTLV-1 infection, and HTLV-1-associated diseases, and family studies. HTLV-1-associated diseases considered are adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), HTLV-1-associated uveitis, and infective dermatitis. Seventy-four records reported HTLV-1-associated diseases in more than one member of the same family and were included. Most reports came from HTLV-1-endemic countries, mainly Japan (n = 30) and Brazil (n = 10). These reports described a total of 270 families in which more than one relative had HTLV-1-associated diseases. In most families, different family members suffered from the same disease (n = 223). The diseases most frequently reported were ATLL (115 families) and HAM/TSP (102 families). Most families (n = 144) included two to four affected individuals. The proportion of ATLL patients with family history of ATLL ranged from 2 to 26%. The proportion of HAM/TSP patients with family history of HAM/TSP ranged from 1 to 48%. The predominant cluster types for ATLL were clusters of siblings and parent-child pairs and for HAM/TSP, an affected
Anderson, Lindsey; Taylor, Rod S
Overviews are a new approach to summarising evidence and synthesising results from related systematic reviews. To conduct an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews to provide a contemporary review of the evidence for delivery of cardiac rehabilitation, to identify opportunities for merging or splitting existing Cochrane reviews, and to identify current evidence gaps to inform new cardiac rehabilitation systematic review titles. We searched The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2014, Issue 10) to identify systematic reviews that addressed the objectives of this overview. We assessed the quality of included reviews using the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (R-AMSTAR) measurement tool and the quality of the evidence for reported outcomes using the GRADE framework. The focus of the data presentation was descriptive with detailed tabular presentations of review level and trial level characteristics and results. We found six Cochrane systematic reviews and judged them to be of high methodological quality. They included 148 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in 98,093 participants. Compared with usual care alone, the addition of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in low-risk people after myocardial infarction or percutaneous coronary intervention or with heart failure appeared to have no impact on mortality, but did reduce hospital admissions and improved health-related quality of life. Psychological- and education-based interventions alone appeared to have little or no impact on mortality or morbidity but may have improved health-related quality of life. Home- and centre-based programmes were equally effective in improving quality of life outcomes at similar healthcare costs. Selected interventions can increase the uptake of cardiac rehabilitation programmes whilst there is currently only weak evidence to support interventions that improve adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programmes. The quality of the primary RCTs in the included
Drejet, Sarah; Halum, Stacey; Brigger, Matthew; Skopelja, Elaine; Parker, Noah P
Objectives (1) To systematically identify studies evaluating the use of intralesional cidofovir or bevacizumab as an adjunct in adult recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, determine disease severity and functional outcomes, and assess study quality. (2) To compare outcomes between the 2 adjuncts. Data Sources Ovid Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, and Clinical-Trials.gov . Review Methods Data sources were systematically searched. A priori inclusion and exclusion criteria were instituted. Quality was evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. A priori criteria were instituted to select studies suitable for comparison. Results A total of 254 identified studies led to 16 for full-text review, including 14 for cidofovir and 2 for bevacizumab. Disease severity outcomes were reported in all studies, including remission rate, Derkay scores, time interval between operations, and/or lesion volume reduction. Remission rate was the most commonly reported (14 studies). Functional outcomes were reported in 5 studies (36%), including quality-of-lif