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Sample records for disease-induced salivary biomarker

  1. Salivary Biomarkers of Physical Fatigue as Markers of Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Darren J.; Valle, Bianca; Cox, Jennifer; Kalns, John E.; Fogt, Donovan L.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: Determine whether a salivary biomarker of physical fatigue, referred to as the fatigue biomarker index (FBI), can discriminate a control group from a sleep deprived group when saliva is collected under controlled conditions. The study expands on previous work examining changes in the composition of saliva during periods of prolonged exercise. Methods: Thirty (30) young adults (14 Control [CON]; 16 Sleep Deprived [SDEP]) were monitored for mood state (Profile of Mood States [POMS]), cognitive performance (Stroop Color-Conflict Tests), and salivary biomarkers of physical fatigue over a 48-h period with sampling at 3-h intervals. Trials lasted from 06:00 on day 1 (time = -3 h) to 09:00 on day 3 (time = 48 h). Levels of salivary biomarkers were calculated from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data. Statistical comparisons were made using Wilcoxon rank sum tests with a Bonferroni correction to limit type 1 error. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the ability of the various parameters to distinguish the SDEP population from the CON population. Results: Longitudinal analysis demonstrated significant between-group differences in all three parameters. ROC analysis demonstrated that cognitive performance tests and salivary biomarkers of physical fatigue distinguish the SDEP population from the CON population. Conclusions: A previously identified salivary biomarker of physical fatigue may provide an alternative method for discriminating sleep deprived from rested individuals. The salivary biomarker of physical fatigue holds promise as an objective measure of sleep deprivation, perhaps eventually removing the reliance on self-reported sleep diaries and/or repeated polysomnographs for longitudinal tracking of sleep quality and/or diagnosis of sleep disorders. Citation: Michael DJ; Valle B; Cox J; Kalns JE; Fogt DL. Salivary biomarkers of physical fatigue as markers of sleep deprivation. J Clin Sleep Med 2013

  2. Salivary biomarkers in the diagnosis of breast cancer: A review.

    PubMed

    Porto-Mascarenhas, Elisa Cançado; Assad, Daniele Xavier; Chardin, Hélène; Gozal, David; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva

    2017-02-01

    Salivary biomarkers could be helpful to characterize breast cancer. Therefore, this review was performed to evaluate the capability of salivary biological markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of breast cancer. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they assessed the potential diagnostic value or other discriminatory properties of biological markers in saliva of patients with breast cancer. The search was performed in six electronic databases (Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science). In addition the biomarkers were classified according to their potential clinical application. We identified 567 pertinent studies, of which 13 met the inclusion criteria. Combined biomarker approaches demonstrated better ability to predict breast cancer patients than individual biomarkers. As single biomarker, namely proline, reported great capacity in both early and late stage breast cancer diagnosis. Taurine showed interesting capability to identify early breast cancer individuals. Furthermore, valine also demonstrated excellent diagnostic test accuracy for advanced stages of breast cancer. Only seven studies reported sensitivity and specificity (Zhang et al., 2010; Streckfus et al., 2000a; Brooks et al., 2008; Cheng et al., 2015; Bigler et al., 2002; Zhong et al., 2016; Streckfus, 2009), which varied considerably from 50% to 100%, and from 51% to 97%, respectively. In general, salivary biomarkers identified advanced stages of breast cancer better than early stages. There is currently limited evidence to confirm the putative implementation of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools for breast cancer. However, current review provides new research directions.

  3. Metabolic Disease Risk in Children by Salivary Biomarker Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, J. Max; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Hartman, Mor-Li; Denis, Gerald V.; Stephens, Danielle; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Wang, Xiaoshan; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study of obesity-related metabolic syndrome or Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in children is particularly difficult because of fear of needles. We tested a non-invasive approach to study inflammatory parameters in an at-risk population of children to provide proof-of-principle for future investigations of vulnerable subjects. Design and Methods We evaluated metabolic differences in 744, 11-year old children selected from underweight, normal healthy weight, overweight and obese categories by analyzing fasting saliva samples for 20 biomarkers. Saliva supernatants were obtained following centrifugation and used for analyses. Results Salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) was 6 times higher, salivary insulin and leptin were 3 times higher, and adiponectin was 30% lower in obese children compared to healthy normal weight children (all P<0.0001). Categorical analysis suggested that there might be three types of obesity in children. Distinctly inflammatory characteristics appeared in 76% of obese children while in 13%, salivary insulin was high but not associated with inflammatory mediators. The remaining 11% of obese children had high insulin and reduced adiponectin. Forty percent of the non-obese children were found in groups which, based on biomarker characteristics, may be at risk for becoming obese. Conclusions Significantly altered levels of salivary biomarkers in obese children from a high-risk population, suggest the potential for developing non-invasive screening procedures to identify T2D-vulnerable individuals and a means to test preventative strategies. PMID:24915044

  4. Salivary biomarkers of neural hypervigilance in trauma-exposed women

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seungyeon A.; Weierich, Mariann R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives More than half of all adults will be exposed to a traumatic event at some point in their lives, yet we do not yet have reliable biomarkers to help predict who experiences trauma-related symptoms in response to exposure. We tested the utility of salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase as markers of (1) neural reactivity to negative affective information and (2) neural hypervigilance in the absence of threat. Participants 20 women (mean age 23.6 +/− 5.8 years) with a history of trauma exposure. Measures Salivary cortisol and alpha amylase reactivity were measured in response to a trauma reminder during a clinical interview. Neural reactivity to novel and familiar affective scenes was measured in a later session using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Salivary alpha amylase, but not cortisol, increased in response to the trauma reminder. Salivary alpha amylase reactivity was associated with neural reactivity in the salience network in response to novel negative scenes and neural hypervigilance as indexed by reactivity to novel neutral scenes. Conclusions Salivary alpha amylase might serve as a more reliable marker of trauma-related reactivity to negative affective information, and also as a marker of hypervigilance in the absence of threatening information. PMID:26398002

  5. Cancer Salivary Biomarkers for Tumours Distant to the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Rapado-González, Óscar; Majem, Blanca; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; López-López, Rafa; Suarez-Cunqueiro, María Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of saliva as a diagnostic approach for systemic diseases was proposed just two decades ago, but recently great interest in the field has emerged because of its revolutionary potential as a liquid biopsy and its usefulness as a non-invasive sampling method. Multiple molecules isolated in saliva have been proposed as cancer biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, drug monitoring and pharmacogenetic studies. In this review, we focus on the current status of the salivary diagnostic biomarkers for different cancers distant to the oral cavity, noting their potential use in the clinic and their applicability in personalising cancer therapies. PMID:27626410

  6. Proteomic identification of salivary biomarkers of type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rao, Paturi V; Reddy, Ashok P; Lu, Xinfang; Dasari, Surendra; Krishnaprasad, Adiraju; Biggs, Evan; Roberts, Charles T; Nagalla, Srinivasa R

    2009-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers to noninvasively detect prediabetes/diabetes will facilitate interventions designed to prevent or delay progression to frank diabetes and its attendant complications. The purpose of this study was to characterize the human salivary proteome in type-2 diabetes to identify potential biomarkers of diabetes. Whole saliva from control and type-2 diabetic individuals was characterized by multidimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS). Label-free quantification was used to identify differentially abundant protein biomarkers. Selected potential biomarkers were then independently validated in saliva from control, diabetic, and prediabetic subjects by Western immunoblotting and ELISA. Characterization of the salivary proteome identified a total of 487 unique proteins. Approximately 33% of these have not been previously reported in human saliva. Of these, 65 demonstrated a greater than 2-fold difference in abundance between control and type-2 diabetes samples. A majority of the differentially abundant proteins belong to pathways regulating metabolism and immune response. Independent validation of a subset of potential biomarkers utilizing immunodetection confirmed their differential expression in type-2 diabetes, and analysis of prediabetic samples demonstrated a trend of relative increase in their abundance with progression from the prediabetic to the diabetic state. This comprehensive proteomic analysis of the human salivary proteome in type-2 diabetes provides the first global view of potential mechanisms perturbed in diabetic saliva and their utility in detection and monitoring of diabetes. Further characterization of these markers in a larger cohort of subjects may provide the basis for new, noninvasive tests for diabetes screening, detection, and monitoring.

  7. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Salivary Biomarkers of Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mirrielees, Jeffrey; Crofford, Leslie J.; Lin, Yushun; Kryscio, Richard J.; Dawson, Dolphus R.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Miller, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To test the hypothesis that rheumatoid arthritis influenced levels of salivary biomarkers of periodontal disease. Methods Medical assessments, periodontal examinations, and pain ratings were obtained from 35 rheumatoid arthritis, 35 chronic periodontitis and 35 age and gender-matched healthy controls in a cross-sectional, case-controlled study. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were analyzed for interleukin-1β (IL-1β), matrix-metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)-α concentrations. Results The arthritis and healthy groups had significantly less oral disease than the periodontitis group (p<0.0001), with the arthritis group having significantly more sites bleeding on probing (BOP) than matched controls (p=0.012). Salivary levels of MMP-8 and IL-1β were significantly elevated in the periodontal disease group (p≤0.002), and IL-1β was the only biomarker with significantly higher levels in the arthritis group compared with controls (p=0.002). Arthritis patients receiving anti-TNF-α antibody therapy had significantly lower IL-1β and TNF-α levels compared with arthritis patients not on anti-TNF-α therapy (p=0.016, p=0.024) and healthy controls (p<0.001, p=0.011), respectively. Conclusion Rheumatoid arthritis patients have higher levels of periodontal inflammation than healthy controls, ie. increased BOP. Systemic inflammation appears to influence levels of select salivary biomarkers of periodontal disease, and anti-TNF-α antibody-based disease modifying therapy significantly lowers salivary IL-1β and TNF-α levels in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:20880053

  8. Identification of salivary metabolomic biomarkers for oral cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Shigeo; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Kitabatake, Kenichiro; Sugano, Ayako; Nakamura, Marina; Kaneko, Miku; Ota, Sana; Hiwatari, Kana; Enomoto, Ayame; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Iino, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore salivary metabolite biomarkers by profiling both saliva and tumor tissue samples for oral cancer screening. Paired tumor and control tissues were obtained from oral cancer patients and whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and healthy controls. The comprehensive metabolomic analysis for profiling hydrophilic metabolites was conducted using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 85 and 45 metabolites showed significant differences between tumor and matched control samples, and between salivary samples from oral cancer and controls, respectively (P < 0.05 correlated by false discovery rate); 17 metabolites showed consistent differences in both saliva and tissue-based comparisons. Of these, a combination of only two biomarkers yielded a high area under receiver operating characteristic curves (0.827; 95% confidence interval, 0.726–0.928, P < 0.0001) for discriminating oral cancers from controls. Various validation tests confirmed its high generalization ability. The demonstrated approach, integrating both saliva and tumor tissue metabolomics, helps eliminate pseudo-molecules that are coincidentally different between oral cancers and controls. These combined salivary metabolites could be the basis of a clinically feasible method of non-invasive oral cancer screening. PMID:27539254

  9. Biomarkers in Autoimmune Salivary Gland Disorders: A Review.

    PubMed

    Hofauer, Benedikt; Thuermel, Klaus; Gahleitner, Constanze; Knopf, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Salivary glands are frequent sites of manifestations of autoimmune disorders in the head and neck. Sjögren syndrome, sarcoidosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and IgG4-related sialadenitis represent the most important autoimmune salivary gland disorders. Due to the lack of specific symptoms, diagnosis of these conditions remains a challenge. Diagnosis is usually based on classification criteria involving clinical tests, histopathological evaluation, and serological examinations. Depending on the disease, biomarkers are of different value and have to be interpreted carefully. In Sjögren syndrome, antibodies against Ro/SS-A and La/SS-B are essential and part of established classification criteria. In sarcoidosis, biomarkers such as angiotensin-converting enzyme, serum amyloid A, adenosine deaminase, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor are not suitable to confirm a diagnosis due to low sensitivity and specificity, but allow a differentiation between active and inactive disease. In patients with suspected granulomatosis with polyangiitis, positivity for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) allows a diagnosis without histopathological confirmation in selected cases. In the head and neck, limited manifestations are common, in which less patients are positive for ANCA and histopathological confirmation is required. Diagnosis of IgG4-related sialadenitis solely based on elevated IgG4 serum levels is not possible. The concentration of blood plasmablasts is reported to have a higher diagnostic value.

  10. Chronic psychosocial stressors and salivary biomarkers in emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Andrew W.; Mallick, Aditi; Nishita, Denise; Wei, Xin; Michel, Martha; Wacholder, Aaron; David, Sean P.; Swan, Gary E.; Reid, Mark W.; Simons, Anne; Andrews, Judy A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We investigated whole saliva as a source of biomarkers to distinguish individuals who have, and who have not, been chronically exposed to severe and threatening life difficulties. We evaluated RNA and DNA metrics, expression of 37 candidate genes, and cortisol release in response to the Trier Social Stress Test, as well as clinical characteristics, from 48 individuals stratified on chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors within the last year as measured by the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule. Candidate genes were selected based on their differential gene expression ratio in circulating monocytes from a published genome-wide analysis of adults experiencing different levels of exposure to a chronic stressor. In univariate analyses, we observed significantly decreased RNA integrity (RIN) score (P = 0.04), and reduced expression of glucocorticoid receptor-regulated genes (Ps < 0.05) in whole saliva RNA from individuals exposed to chronic stressors, as compared to those with no exposure. In those exposed, we observed significantly decreased BMI (P < 0.001), increased ever-smoking and increased lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence (P ≤ 0.03), and a reduction of cortisol release. In post hoc multivariate analyses including clinical and biospecimen-derived variables, we consistently observed significantly decreased expression of IL8 (Ps < 0.05) in individuals exposed, with no significant association to RIN score. Alcohol use disorders, tobacco use, a reduced acute stress response and decreased salivary IL8 gene expression characterize emerging adults chronically exposed to severe and threatening psychosocial stressors. PMID:22172638

  11. Salivary Proteomic and microRNA Biomarkers Development for Lung Cancer Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    biomarker discovery and definitive validation of salivary proteomic and miRNA biomarkers for detection of lung cancer based on PRoBE design...principles (prospective-specimen- collection and retrospective-blinded-evaluation). The outcome of this three-year proposal will be a panel of definitively

  12. A Pilot Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Biomarkers in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ngounou Wetie, Armand G; Wormwood, Kelly L; Russell, Stefanie; Ryan, Jeanne P; Darie, Costel C; Woods, Alisa G

    2015-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence is increasing, with current estimates at 1/68-1/50 individuals diagnosed with an ASD. Diagnosis is based on behavioral assessments. Early diagnosis and intervention is known to greatly improve functional outcomes in people with ASD. Diagnosis, treatment monitoring and prognosis of ASD symptoms could be facilitated with biomarkers to complement behavioral assessments. Mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomics may help reveal biomarkers for ASD. In this pilot study, we have analyzed the salivary proteome in individuals with ASD compared to neurotypical control subjects, using MS-based proteomics. Our goal is to optimize methods for salivary proteomic biomarker discovery and to identify initial putative biomarkers in people with ASDs. The salivary proteome is virtually unstudied in ASD, and saliva could provide an easily accessible biomaterial for analysis. Using nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we found statistically significant differences in several salivary proteins, including elevated prolactin-inducible protein, lactotransferrin, Ig kappa chain C region, Ig gamma-1 chain C region, Ig lambda-2 chain C regions, neutrophil elastase, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor and deleted in malignant brain tumors 1. Our results indicate that this is an effective method for identification of salivary protein biomarkers, support the concept that immune system and gastrointestinal disturbances may be present in individuals with ASDs and point toward the need for larger studies in behaviorally-characterized individuals.

  13. Fatigue biomarker index: an objective salivary measure of fatigue level.

    PubMed

    Michael, Darren J; Daugherty, Sheena; Santos, Adrienne; Ruby, Brent C; Kalns, John E

    2012-03-01

    Fatigue changed the composition of the small-molecular weight (sMW) proteome of saliva during a 10h session of moderate (70% of maximum ventilatory threshold) physical exertion. Saliva samples were collected from nine recreationally trained cyclists participating in a cross-over study designed to simulate prolonged manual labor, a military operation or wildfire-suppression work. During each hour of the study, participants performed an exercise program that included upper and lower body exercises separated by short periods of recovery. Over the course of the study, fatigue level increased as suggested by a significant increase in the participants' relative perceived exertion. The composition of the sMW proteome was investigated using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with mass-spectrometric detection. Isotopes of acetic anhydride were used for mass-specific labeling of samples and subsequent identification of ions with significant changes in intensity. Cluster analysis was used to identify a pair of peptides with concentrations that changed in opposite directions with fatigue level, i.e. concentration of one peptide increased while concentration of the other decreased. The sequences of the two peptides were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ratio of the ion intensities of these two peptides, referred to as the fatigue biomarker index, was calculated for subjects throughout the study. The FBI values from the start of the study likely arose from a different distribution than the FBI values measured at the end of the study (Mann-Whitney test, P<.05). While this study is restricted to a small population of recreationally trained cyclists performing exercise under controlled conditions, it holds promise for the development of an objective salivary measurement of fatigue that is applicable to a much broader population performing in uncontrolled environments.

  14. Saliva proteome profiling reveals potential salivary biomarkers for detection of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Ching; Chu, Hao-Wei; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Kai-Ping; Liu, Hao-Ping

    2015-10-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which is frequently associated with poor prognosis and mortality, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Discovery of body fluid accessible biomarkers is needed to improve OSCC screening. To this end, we profiled proteomes of saliva from the healthy volunteers, the individuals with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD), and the OSCC patients by means of SDS-PAGE coupled with LC-MS/MS. In the control, the OPMD, and the OSCC groups, 958, 845, and 1030 salivary proteins were detected, respectively. With spectral counting-based label-free quantification, 22 overexpressed salivary proteins were identified in the OSCC group compared with the healthy controls and the OPMD individuals. Among them, resistin (RETN) was subjected to further validation with an independent cohort using ELISA. The data confirmed that the salivary RETN levels in the OSCC patients were significantly higher than that in the healthy or in the OPMD group. Moreover, the elevated levels of salivary RETN were highly correlated with late-stage primary tumors, advanced overall stage, and lymph-node metastasis. Our results not only reveal that profiling of saliva proteome is feasible for discovery of OSCC biomarkers, but also identify RETN as a potential salivary biomarker for OSCC detection.

  15. The Role of Salivary Neuropeptides in Pediatrics: Potential Biomarkers for Integrated Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Gershan, Lynn A; Durham, Paul L; Skidmore, Jaci; Shimizu, Joshua; Cady, Ryan J; Sheng, Xiaoming; Maloney, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Objective measures of symptom response to integrated complementary approaches in pediatrics are evolving. The purpose of this study was to document the concentration range of salivary neuropeptides in healthy controls and in children with cancer, to explore correlations between serum and salivary measurements for Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) and Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP), and to determine whether there is a change in these salivary neuropeptide levels in response to integrated mind-body therapies. Methods A non-randomized pragmatic study with three phases: Phase 1- Healthy Control Saliva-10 healthy controls provided saliva samples; Phase 2- Cancer Diagnosis Serum-Saliva- 16 mixed-type cancer patients provided blood and saliva samples; Phase 3- Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) Saliva Intervention- 12 patients with ALL provided pre- and post-complementary intervention saliva samples. Interventions 20-minutes of structured touch or scripted relaxation breathing were administered to patients in Phase 3; Phase 1 and 2 patients did not receive this intervention. Outcome Measures cortisol, CGRP, VIP, State/Trait Anxiety Scale, visual analogue scale, vital signs. Results Salivary CGRP and VIP were similar for children in Phases 1 and 2. There was a correlation between serum and salivary VIP in the mixed cancer group, though not between serum and salivary CGRP. In Phase 3 children, following a complementary intervention, salivary CGRP, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure decreased. Discussion/Conclusions These data provide evidence of a decrease in sympathetic output after integrative/complementary therapy intervention in children with cancer. The study underscores the potential role of salivary neuropeptides as non-invasive biomarkers for integrated therapies in pediatrics. PMID:26388958

  16. Within-Day Baseline Variation in Salivary Biomarkers in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Idris, Firman Prathama; Wan, Yunxia; Zhang, Xi; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2017-02-01

    Saliva is an easily accessible sample and offers practical and noninvasive biomarker solutions as an alternative to blood and urine-based diagnostics. Saliva contains a plethora of biomolecules such as nucleic acids, hormones, proteins, and electrolytes. On the other hand, little is known on the extent to which the biomolecules in saliva vary over time within a given person. This baseline information is crucial for future development of robust saliva-based diagnostics. We have collected unstimulated whole mouth saliva from 20 healthy young men at four times during the day, including before and after a meal. We measured the salivary cortisol, testosterone, C-reactive protein (CRP), stability of genomic DNA (gDNA) and DNA methylation levels of APC, P16(INK4a), and PCQAP in these samples. We found that the salivary CRP, DNA methylation, and CD44 gDNA levels did not vary significantly across four time points (p > 0.05) while the salivary cortisol and testosterone levels significantly varied from the morning collection to the afternoon collection (p < 0.05). Furthermore, salivary cortisol levels were significantly affected by eating (p < 0.05). Our study offers a within-person baseline temporal assessment of several clinically relevant biomolecules and diagnostics, and suggests that salivary cortisol and testosterone levels vary over time in a given day whereas CRP and DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes and CD44 amplification are stable throughout the day. Future research and clinical applications of salivary biomarkers and diagnostics should take into consideration their temporal variations.

  17. Salivary and Urinary Total Antioxidant Capacity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) is a biomarker often used in order to investigate oxidative stress in many pathological conditions. Saliva and urine can be collected noninvasively and represent attractive diagnostic fluids for detecting biomarkers of various pathological conditions. The reviewed case-control and intervention studies that measured salivary or urinary TAC revealed that diseases, antioxidant foods, or supplements and age, gender, and lifestyle factors influenced salivary or urinary TAC. Salivary and urinary TAC were particularly affected by oral or renal status, respectively, as well as by infection; therefore these factors must be taken into account in both case-control and intervention studies. Furthermore, some considerations on sample collection and normalization strategies could be made. In particular, unstimulated saliva could be the better approach to measure salivary TAC, whereas 24 h or spontaneous urine collection should be chosen on the basis of the study outcome and of the creatinine clearance. Finally, the uric acid-independent TAC could be the better approach to evaluate red-ox status of body, in particular after nutritional interventions and in diseases associated with hyperuricaemia. PMID:26966611

  18. Continuous Metabolic Syndrome Scores for Children Using Salivary Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ping; Goodson, J. Max; Hartman, Mor-Li; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Background Binary definitions of the metabolic syndrome based on the presence of a particular number of individual risk factors are limited, particularly in the pediatric population. To address this limitation, we aimed at constructing composite and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cmetS) to represent an overall measure of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a large cohort of metabolically at-risk children, focusing on the use of the usual clinical parameters (waist circumference (WC) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), supplemented with two salivary surrogate variables (glucose and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Two different approaches used to create the scores were evaluated in comparison. Methods Data from 8,112 Kuwaiti children (10.00 ± 0.67 years) were used to construct two cmetS for each subject. The first cmetS (cmetS-Z) was created by summing standardized residuals of each variable regressed on age and gender; and the second cmetS (cmetS-PCA) was defined as the first principal component from gender-specific principal component analysis based on the four variables. Results There was a graded relationship between both scores and the number of adverse risk factors. The areas under the curve using cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA as predictors for severe metabolic syndrome (defined as the presence of ≥3 metabolic risk factors) were 0.935 and 0.912, respectively. cmetS-Z was positively associated with WC, SBP, and glucose, but inversely associated with HDLC. Except for the lack of association with glucose, cmetS-PCA was similar to cmetS-Z in boys, but had minimum loading on HDLC in girls. Analysis using quantile regression showed an inverse association of fitness level with cmetS-PCA (p = 0.001 for boys; p = 0.002 for girls), and comparison of cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA suggested that WC and SBP were main contributory components. Significant alterations in the relationship between cmetS and salivary adipocytokines were demonstrated in overweight and obese

  19. Can Salivary Acetylcholinesterase be a Diagnostic Biomarker for Alzheimer?

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Moghadam, Nahid Beladi; Ehsani, Marjan; Mortazavi, Hamed; Sabour, Siamak

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The loss of brain cholinergic activity is a key phenomenon in the biochemistry of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Due to the specific biosynthesis of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of cholinergic neurons, the enzyme has been proposed as a potential biochemical marker of cholinergic activity. AChE is expressed not only in the Central Nervous System (CNS), Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) and muscles, but also on the surface of blood cells and saliva. Aim This study aimed to measure salivary AChE activity in AD and to determine the feasibility of creating a simple laboratory test for diagnosing such patients. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the recorded data were obtained from 15 Alzheimer’s patients on memantine therapy and 15 healthy subjects. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from the participants and salivary levels of AChE activity were determined by using the Ellman colorimetric method. The Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the average (median) of AChE activity between AD and controls. In order to adjust for possible confounding factors, partial correlation coefficient and multivariate linear regressions were used. Results Although the average of AChE activity in the saliva of people with AD was lower compared to the control group, we found no statistically significant differences using Mann Whitney U test (138 in control group vs. 175 in Alzheimer’s patients, p value=0.25). Additionally, no significant differences were observed in the activity of this enzyme in both sexes or with increased age or duration of the disease. After adjusting for age and gender, there was no association between AChE activity and AD (regression coefficient β=0.08; p value= 0.67). conclusion Saliva AChE activity was not significantly associated with AD. This study might help in introduce a new diagnostic aid for AD or monitor patients with AD. PMID:28274046

  20. Targeted salivary biomarkers for discrimination of periodontal health and disease(s)

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Akers, David; Miller, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Generally, clinical parameters are used in dental practice for periodontal disease, yet several drawbacks exist with the clinical standards for addressing the needs of the public at large in determining the current status/progression of the disease, and requiring a significant amount of damage before these parameters can document disease. Therefore, a quick, easy and reliable method of assessing and monitoring periodontal disease should provide important diagnostic information that improves and speeds treatment decisions and moves the field closer to individualized point-of-care diagnostics. Objective: This report provides results for a saliva-based diagnostic approach for periodontal health and disease based upon the abundance of salivary analytes coincident with disease, and the significant progress already made in the identification of discriminatory salivary biomarkers of periodontitis. Methods: We evaluated biomarkers representing various phases of periodontitis initiation and progression (IL-1ß, IL-6, MMP-8, MIP-1α) in whole saliva from 209 subjects categorized with periodontal health, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Results: Evaluation of the salivary analytes demonstrated utility for individual biomarkers to differentiate periodontitis from health. Inclusion of gingivitis patients into the analyses provided a more robust basis to estimate the value of each of these analytes. Various clinical and statistical approaches showed that pairs or panels of the analytes were able to increase the sensitivity and specificity for the identification of disease. Conclusions: Salivary concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-6, MMP-8, MIP-1α alone and in combination are able to distinguish health from gingivitis and periodontitis. The data clearly demonstrated a heterogeneity in response profiles of these analytes that supports the need for refinement of the standard clinical classifications if we are to move toward precision/personalized dentistry for the twenty-first century

  1. Salivary Biomarkers Associated with Myocardial Necrosis: Results from an Alcohol Septal Ablation Model

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Joseph D.; Sneed, J. Darrell; Steinhubl, Steven R.; Kolasa, Justin R.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Lin, Yushun; Kryscio, Richard J.; McDevitt, John T.; Campbell, Charles L.; Miller, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if salivary biomarkers demonstrate utility for identifying aspects of myocardial necrosis. Methods Twenty-one patients undergoing alcohol septal ablation (ASA) for treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy provided serum and unstimulated whole saliva at baseline and incremental time points post-ASA. Samples were analyzed for seven biomarkers related to myocardial damage, inflammation and tissue remodeling using immunosorbent assays. Levels were compared to baseline and levels observed in 97 healthy controls. Results Biomarkers of myocardial damage and inflammation (i.e., troponin I, creatine kinase-MB, myoglobin, C-reactive protein) rose in serum 2 to 812-fold after ASA (p<0.01). Significant elevations of 2 to 3.5-fold were observed with C-reactive protein and troponin I in saliva (p<0.02). Significant correlations between levels in serum and saliva were observed for C-reactive protein, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and myeloperoxidase (p < 0.001). Conclusions Select salivary biomarkers reflect changes that occur during, and subsequent to, myocardial necrosis caused by ASA. PMID:23021916

  2. Dysbiosis of salivary microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease and its association with oral immunological biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Said, Heba S; Suda, Wataru; Nakagome, Shigeki; Chinen, Hiroshi; Oshima, Kenshiro; Kim, Sangwan; Kimura, Ryosuke; Iraha, Atsushi; Ishida, Hajime; Fujita, Jiro; Mano, Shuhei; Morita, Hidetoshi; Dohi, Taeko; Oota, Hiroki; Hattori, Masahira

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of microbiota in various biological and environmental samples under a variety of conditions has recently become more practical due to remarkable advances in next-generation sequencing. Changes leading to specific biological states including some of the more complex diseases can now be characterized with relative ease. It is known that gut microbiota is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), mainly Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, exhibiting symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies also showed increased frequency of oral manifestations among IBD patients, indicating aberrations in the oral microbiota. Based on these observations, we analyzed the composition of salivary microbiota of 35 IBD patients by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and compared it with that of 24 healthy controls (HCs). The results showed that Bacteroidetes was significantly increased with a concurrent decrease in Proteobacteria in the salivary microbiota of IBD patients. The dominant genera, Streptococcus, Prevotella, Neisseria, Haemophilus, Veillonella, and Gemella, were found to largely contribute to dysbiosis (dysbacteriosis) observed in the salivary microbiota of IBD patients. Analysis of immunological biomarkers in the saliva of IBD patients showed elevated levels of many inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulin A, and a lower lysozyme level. A strong correlation was shown between lysozyme and IL-1β levels and the relative abundance of Streptococcus, Prevotella, Haemophilus and Veillonella. Our data demonstrate that dysbiosis of salivary microbiota is associated with inflammatory responses in IBD patients, suggesting that it is possibly linked to dysbiosis of their gut microbiota.

  3. Impact of Insect Salivary Proteins in Blood Feeding, Host Immunity, Disease, and in the Development of Biomarkers for Vector Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V.; Guimaraes-Costa, Anderson B.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2015-01-01

    Functional genomic approaches based on expression of recombinant proteins linked to biochemical and disease model approaches resulted in the discovery of novel biological activities and the role some of these proteins play in disease transmission. Importantly, the expression of salivary proteins was recently shown to be affected by environmental factors and by the presence of the pathogen in the salivary gland. A practical application resulting from insect saliva research is the use of insect antigenic salivary protein as biomarkers of vector exposure in humans and animal reservoirs, an approach that is yielding interesting results in the field. PMID:26339571

  4. Data from human salivary proteome - A resource of potential biomarkers for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Sivadasan, Priya; Kumar Gupta, Manoj; Sathe, Gajanan J; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Palit, Priyanka; Gowda, Harsha; Suresh, Amritha; Abraham Kuriakose, Moni; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi

    2015-09-01

    Salivary proteins are an important source for developing marker-based assays for oral cancers. To get an insight into the proteins present in human saliva, we applied multiple strategies involving affinity-based depletion of abundant proteins, fractionation of the resulting proteins or their tryptic peptides followed by LC-MS/MS analysis, using high resolution mass spectrometry. By integrating the protein identifications observed by us with those from similar workflows employed in earlier investigations, we compiled an updated salivary proteome. We have mapped the salivary proteome to the published data on differentially expressed proteins from oral cancer tissues and also for their secretory features using prediction tools, SignalP 4.1, TMHMM 2c and Exocarta. Proteotypic peptides for the subset of proteins implicated in oral cancer and mapped to any two of the prediction tools for secretory potential have been listed. The data here are related to the research article "Human saliva proteome - a resource of potential biomarkers for oral cancer" in the Journal of Proteomics [1].

  5. Data from human salivary proteome – A resource of potential biomarkers for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sivadasan, Priya; Kumar Gupta, Manoj; Sathe, Gajanan J.; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Palit, Priyanka; Gowda, Harsha; Suresh, Amritha; Abraham Kuriakose, Moni; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Salivary proteins are an important source for developing marker-based assays for oral cancers. To get an insight into the proteins present in human saliva, we applied multiple strategies involving affinity-based depletion of abundant proteins, fractionation of the resulting proteins or their tryptic peptides followed by LC–MS/MS analysis, using high resolution mass spectrometry. By integrating the protein identifications observed by us with those from similar workflows employed in earlier investigations, we compiled an updated salivary proteome. We have mapped the salivary proteome to the published data on differentially expressed proteins from oral cancer tissues and also for their secretory features using prediction tools, SignalP 4.1, TMHMM 2c and Exocarta. Proteotypic peptides for the subset of proteins implicated in oral cancer and mapped to any two of the prediction tools for secretory potential have been listed. The data here are related to the research article “Human saliva proteome – a resource of potential biomarkers for oral cancer” in the Journal of Proteomics [1]. PMID:26217819

  6. Mental and Physical Workload, Salivary Stress Biomarkers and Taste Perception: Mars Desert Research Station Expedition

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Very few studies have been conducted on the effects of simulation of Mars conditions on taste. Aims: This study was planned to find the effects of physical and mental workload on taste sensitivity and salivary stress biomarkers. Materials and Methods: Twelve crew members were selected. Taste reactions and intensity of the taste sensations to quinine sulfate, citric acid, and sucrose were tested before and after mental and physical tasks for one hour. Also, psychological mood states by profile of mood state, salivary, salivary alpha amylase and cortisol, and current stress test scores were measured before and after mental and physical tasks. Results: Average time intensity evaluation showed that after the mental and physical tasks, the perceived duration of bitter, sour, and sweet taste sensations was significantly shortened relative to control group. There were good correlations between average time intensity of sweetness, bitterness, sourness and cortisol levels. Conclusions: Taste alterations due to stress can have an effect on the health and confidence of astronauts in long- term space missions. Thus, this issue remains one of the important issues for future human explorations. PMID:23181230

  7. Diagnostic capability of salivary biomarkers in the assessment of head and neck cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Leite, André Ferreira; Gozal, David; Chardin, Hélène; De Luca Canto, Graziela

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic value of salivary biological markers in the diagnosis of head and neck carcinoma. Studies were gathered by searching Cochrane, EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, and PubMed. The references were also crosschecked and a partial grey literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar. The methodology of selected studies was evaluated using the 14-item Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. After a two-step selection process, 15 articles were identified and subjected to qualitative and quantitative analyses. The studies were homogeneous, and all had high methodological quality. Combined biomarkers demonstrated better accuracy with higher sensitivity and specificity than those tested individually. Furthermore, the salivary biomarkers reviewed predicted the early stages of head and neck carcinoma better than the advanced stages. A restricted set of five single biomarkers (interleukin-8, choline, pipecolinic acid, l-phenylalanine, and S-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine) as well as combined biomarkers demonstrated excellent diagnostic test accuracy. The present systematic review confirms the potential value of a selected set of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools for head and neck carcinoma.

  8. MicroRNA Expression Profiles as Biomarkers of Minor Salivary Gland Inflammation and Dysfunction in Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alevizos, Ilias; Alexander, Stefanie; Turner, R. James; Illei, Gabor G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective MicroRNA reflect physiologic and pathologic processes and may be used as biomarkers of concurrent pathophysiologic events in complex settings such as autoimmune diseases. We generated microRNA microarray profiles from the minor salivary glands of control subjects without Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and patients with SS who had low-grade or high-grade inflammation and impaired or normal saliva production, to identify microRNA patterns specific to salivary gland inflammation or dysfunction. Methods MicroRNA expression profiles were generated by Agilent microRNA arrays. We developed a novel method for data normalization by identifying housekeeping microRNA. MicroRNA profiles were compared by unsupervised mathematical methods to test how well they distinguish between control subjects and various subsets of patients with SS. Several bioinformatics methods were used to predict the messenger RNA targets of the differentially expressed microRNA. Results MicroRNA expression patterns accurately distinguished salivary glands from control subjects and patients with SS who had low-degree or high-degree inflammation. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we validated 2 microRNA as markers of inflammation in an independent cohort. Comparing microRNA from patients with preserved or low salivary flow identified a set of differentially expressed microRNA, most of which were up-regulated in the group with decreased salivary gland function, suggesting that the targets of microRNA may have a protective effect on epithelial cells. The predicted biologic targets of microRNA associated with inflammation or salivary gland dysfunction identified both overlapping and distinct biologic pathways and processes. Conclusion Distinct microRNA expression patterns are associated with salivary gland inflammation and dysfunction in patients with SS, and microRNA represent a novel group of potential biomarkers. PMID:21280008

  9. Unhealthy Phenotype as Indicated by Salivary Biomarkers: Glucose, Insulin, VEGF-A, and IL-12p70 in Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Goodson, J. Max; Shi, Ping; Vargas, Jorel; Yaskell, Tina; Stephens, Danielle; Cugini, Maryann; Hasturk, Hatice; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Here, we investigated the relationships between obesity and the salivary concentrations of insulin, glucose, and 20 metabolic biomarkers in Kuwaiti adolescents. Previously, we have shown that certain salivary metabolic markers can act as surrogates for blood concentrations. Methods. Salivary samples of whole saliva were collected from 8,317 adolescents. Salivary glucose concentration was measured by a high-sensitivity glucose oxidase method implemented on a robotic chemical analyzer. The concentration of salivary insulin and 20 other metabolic biomarkers was assayed in 744 randomly selected saliva samples by multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Results. Obesity was seen in 26.5% of the adolescents. Salivary insulin predicting hyperinsulinemia occurred in 4.3% of normal-weight adolescents, 8.3% of overweight adolescents, and 25.7% of obese adolescents (p < 0.0001). Salivary glucose predicting hyperglycemia was found in only 3% of obese children and was not predictive (p = 0.89). Elevated salivary glucose and insulin occurring together was associated with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor and reduced salivary interleukin-12. Conclusion. Considering the surrogate nature of salivary insulin and glucose, this study suggests that elevated insulin may be a dominant sign of metabolic disease in adolescent populations. It also appears that a proangiogenic environment may accompany elevated glucose in obese adolescents. PMID:27069678

  10. Salivary MicroRNAs as Promising Biomarkers for Detection of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuchao; Li, Dongfeng; Huang, Jian; Yang, Cuiqin; Zhang, Pingyong; Qin, Yuxuan; Duan, Yifan; Gong, Bo; Li, Zijun

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Tissue microRNAs (miRNAs) can detect cancers and predict prognosis. Several recent studies reported that tissue, plasma, and saliva miRNAs share similar expression profiles. In this study, we investigated the discriminatory power of salivary miRNAs (including whole saliva and saliva supernatant) for detection of esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods By Agilent microarray, six deregulated miRNAs from whole saliva samples from seven patients with esophageal cancer and three healthy controls were selected. The six selected miRNAs were subjected to validation of their expression levels by RT-qPCR using both whole saliva and saliva supernatant samples from an independent set of 39 patients with esophageal cancer and 19 healthy controls. Results Six miRNAs (miR-10b*, miR-144, miR-21, miR-451, miR-486-5p, and miR-634) were identified as targets by Agilent microarray. After validation by RT-qPCR, miR-10b*, miR-144, and miR-451 in whole saliva and miR-10b*, miR-144, miR-21, and miR-451 in saliva supernatant were significantly upregulated in patients, with sensitivities of 89.7, 92.3, 84.6, 79.5, 43.6, 89.7, and 51.3% and specificities of 57.9, 47.4, 57.9%, 57.9, 89.5, 47.4, and 84.2%, respectively. Conclusions We found distinctive miRNAs for esophageal cancer in both whole saliva and saliva supernatant. These miRNAs possess discriminatory power for detection of esophageal cancer. Because saliva collection is noninvasive and convenient, salivary miRNAs show great promise as biomarkers for detection of esophageal cancer in areas at high risk. PMID:23560033

  11. Sputum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and Salivary cortisol as new biomarkers of depression in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-jie; Zhang, Hong-ying; Li, Bei; Wu, Xiao; Lv, Yu-bao; Jin, Hua-liang; Cao, Yu-xue; Sun, Jing; Luo, Qing-li; Gong, Wei-yi; Liu, Bao-jun; Wu, Jin-feng; Shi, Shen-xun; Dong, Jing-cheng

    2013-12-02

    Depression is common among lung cancer patients. Increasing evidence has suggested that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a key role in the pathophysiology of depression as well as cancer. This pilot study investigated the efficacy of sputum interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and salivary cortisol as new markers to support the diagnosis of depression in lung cancer patients. The diurnal rhythms of sputum IL-6, sputum TNF-α and salivary cortisol were measured in lung cancer patients with and without depression as well as depressed controls and healthy controls. The area under the diurnal variation curves (AUC) over the 24h time course and relative diurnal variation (VAR) were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. Patients with co-morbid depression and lung cancer showed highest level of sputum IL-6 AUC, sputum TNF-α AUC and lowest level of cortisol VAR (P<0.001). As a biomarker for depression, salivary cortisol VAR demonstrated an optimal cutoff point at 77.8% (AUC=0.94; 95% CI, 0.85-0.98), which is associated with a sensitivity of 82.1% and a specificity of 96.0%. Sputum IL-6 AUC demonstrated a sensitivity of 74.4% and a specificity of 92.0% (AUC=0.81; 95% CI, 0.69-0.90). These findings suggested that higher 24h overall levels of sputum IL-6, TNF-α and flattened diurnal salivary cortisol slopes were associated with depression in lung cancer patients. Sputum IL-6 AUC and salivary cortisol VAR performed best as biomarkers in the diagnosis of depression in lung cancer patients.

  12. Human salivary proteome--a resource of potential biomarkers for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Sivadasan, Priya; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Sathe, Gajanan J; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Palit, Priyanka; Gowda, Harsha; Suresh, Amritha; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi

    2015-09-08

    Proteins present in human saliva offer an immense potential for clinical applications. However, exploring salivary proteome is technically challenged due to the presence of amylase and albumin in high abundance. In this study, we used four workflows to analyze human saliva from healthy individuals which involved depletion of abundant proteins using affinity-based separation methods followed by protein or peptide fractionation and high resolution mass spectrometry analysis. We identified a total of 1256 human salivary proteins, 292 of them being reported for the first time. All identifications were verified for any shared proteins/peptides from the salivary microbiome that may conflict with the human protein identifications. On integration of our results with the analyses reported earlier, we arrived at an updated human salivary proteome containing 3449 proteins, 808 of them have been reported as differentially expressed proteins in oral cancer tissues. The secretory nature of 598 of the 808 proteins has also been supported on the basis of the presence of signal sequence, transmembrane domain or association with exosomes. From this subset, we provide a priority list of 139 proteins along with their proteotypic peptides, which may serve as a reference for targeted investigations as secretory markers for clinical applications in oral malignancies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India.

  13. Salivary Biomarker Levels and Diurnal Variation: Associations with Medications Prescribed to Control Children's Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibel, Leah C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred

    2007-01-01

    This study examined associations between medications prescribed to control children's problem behaviors and levels of, and diurnal variation in, salivary cortisol (C), testosterone (T), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Saliva was collected in the morning, midday, and afternoon from 432 children ages 6-13 years. Relative to a no-medication…

  14. Salivary Protein Glycosylation as a Noninvasive Biomarker for Assessment of Glycemia

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Paturi V.; Laurie, Amber; Bean, Eric S.; Roberts, Charles T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Assessment of short-term glycemic control can facilitate monitoring of diabetes development in at-risk individuals and monitoring response to lifestyle modification or medication. We evaluated salivary protein glycosylation levels as a novel, noninvasive, short-term glycemic index in comparison to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fructosamine, 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Methods: Ten subjects with type 2 diabetes were monitored by CGM and saliva and blood were collected at baseline and days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 for determination of salivary protein glycosylation, serum fructosamine, and serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) levels, as well as HbA1c (baseline and day 28). Weekly, 14-day, 21-day, and 28-day summary blood glucose measures from CGM were computed and matched to the time of each study visit. Results: Salivary protein glycosylation exhibited a moderate correlation with fructosamine (r = .65) and 1,5-AG (r = –.48) at baseline, and weak correlation with HbA1c (r = .3). Conclusions: Salivary protein glycosylation exhibited a stronger correlation than fructosamine and 1,5-AG with 7-, 14-, and 21-day average BG (r = .84, .84, and .69, respectively, vs –.37, –.28, and .00 [fructosamine] and .00, –.21, and –.57 [1,5-AG]), maximum BG (r = .79, .76, and .53 vs –.09, –.21, and –.05 [fructosamine] and –.32, –.27, and –.52 [1,5-AG]), and percentage of time over 140 mg/dL (r = .87, .79, and .59 vs –.26, –.32, and .07 [fructosamine] and –.04, –.10, and –.50 [1,5-AG]). Salivary protein glycosylation represents a promising noninvasive technology for monitoring short-term glycemic control. PMID:25305283

  15. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination.

  16. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination. PMID:26221370

  17. Operational Assessment of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets by Using an Anopheles Salivary Biomarker of Human-Vector Contact.

    PubMed

    Noukpo, Mahoutin H; Damien, Georgia B; Elanga-N'Dille, Emmanuel; Sagna, André B; Drame, Papa M; Chaffa, Evelyne; Boussari, Olayidé; Corbel, Vincent; Akogbéto, Martin; Remoue, Franck

    2016-12-07

    The widespread implementation of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is a major intervention method for malaria control. Although the LLINs coverage increases, information available on the physical integrity (PI) of implemented LLINs is incomplete. This study aimed to validate human IgG antibody (Ab) response to Anopheles gSG6-P1 salivary peptide antigen, previously demonstrated as a pertinent biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles bites, for evaluating the PI of LLINs in field conditions. We analyzed data from 262 randomly selected children (< 5 years of age) in health districts of Benin. Anti-gSG6-P1 IgG responses were assessed and compared with the PI of LLINs that these same children slept under, and evaluated by the hole index (HI). Specific IgG levels were positively correlated to LLINs HI (r = 0.342; P < 0.0001). According to antipeptide IgG level (i.e., intensity of vector exposure), two categories of LLINs PI were defined: 1) group "HI: [0, 100]" corresponding to LLINs with "good" PI and 2) "HI > 100" corresponding to LLINs with "bad" PI. These results suggest that human Ab response to salivary peptide could be a complementary tool to help defining a standardized threshold of efficacy for LLINs under field use.

  18. First Attempt To Validate Human IgG Antibody Response to Nterm-34kDa Salivary Peptide as Biomarker for Evaluating Exposure to Aedes aegypti Bites

    PubMed Central

    Elanga Ndille, Emmanuel; Doucoure, Souleymane; Damien, Georgia; Mouchet, François; Drame, Papa Makhtar; Cornelie, Sylvie; Noukpo, Herbert; Yamadjako, Sandra; Djenontin, Armel; Moiroux, Nicolas; Misse, Dorothee; Akogbeto, Martin; Corbel, Vincent; Henry, Marie-Claire; Chandre, Fabrice; Baldet, Thierry; Remoue, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Background Much effort is being devoted for developing new indicators to evaluate the human exposure to Aedes mosquito bites and the risk of arbovirus transmission. Human antibody (Ab) responses to mosquito salivary components could represent a promising tool for evaluating the human-vector contact. Methodology/Principal findings To develop a specific biomarker of human exposure to Aedes aegypti bites, we measured IgG Ab response to Ae. aegypti Nterm-34 kDa salivary peptide in exposed children in 7 villages of Southern Benin (West Africa). Results showed that specific IgG response presented high inter-individual heterogeneity between villages. IgG response was associated with rainfall and IgG level increased from dry (low exposure) to rainy (high exposure) seasons. These findings indicate that IgG Ab to Nterm-34 kDa salivary peptide may represent a reliable biomarker to detect variation in human exposure to Ae. aegypti bites. Conclusion/Significance This preliminary study highlights the potential use of Ab response to this salivary peptide for evaluating human exposure to Ae. aegypti. This biomarker could represent a new promising tool for assessing the risk of arbovirus transmission and for evaluating the efficacy of vector control interventions. PMID:23166852

  19. Estimation of Salivary and Serum Biomarkers in Diabetic and Non Diabetic Patients - A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ladgotra, Amit; Raj, Seetharamaiah Sunder

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Blood is the gold standard body fluid for diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) but saliva offers an alternative to serum as a biological fluid for diagnostic purposes because it contains serum constituents. Aim The study was conducted to estimate and compare serum and salivary glucose, amylase, proteins, calcium and phosphorus levels in DM and healthy subjects and to evaluate whether saliva can be used as a diagnostic fluid in DM patients. Materials and Methods Study consisted of 120 subjects from OPD of Surendera Dental College, Sriganganagar, Rajasthan, India. The study groups were divided into Group I-60 DM patients (Type I & II) and Group II-60 healthy subjects. The saliva and serum samples were collected from each subject and levels of different biochemical parameters were estimated. Results Mean serum level of glucose (211.50 ± 43.82), amylase (79.86 ± 16.23), total proteins (6.65 ± 0.84), calcium (7.17 ± 0.91) and phosphorus (3.68±0.65) as observed in Group I while in Group II, glucose (88.81±11.29), amylase (77.67±14.88), total proteins (6.35±0.76), calcium (7.52±0.97) and phosphorus (3.96 ± 0.91) were noted. Mean salivary level of glucose (14.10±6.99), amylase (1671.42±569.86), total proteins (1.33±1.11), calcium (10.06±2.76) and phosphorus (13.75±4.45) as observed in Group I while in Group II, glucose (5.87± 2.42), amylase (1397.59 ±415.97), total proteins (1.36±0.81), calcium (7.73±2.78) and phosphorus (8.39 ± 1.95) were noted. On comparing values in saliva and serum, among two groups, an insignificant difference (p>0.005) was found between few of them. Conclusion Values regarding blood and salivary biochemical parameters were distinctly different between two groups suggesting salivary parameters can be used as a diagnostic alternative to blood parameters for diabetes mellitus. PMID:27504412

  20. Salivary Biomarker Responses to Two Final Matches in Women’s Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Maya, Javiera; Marquez, Pablo; Peñailillo, Luis; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Deldicque, Louise; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the link between salivary concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as a measure of internal load after two final matches played 3 days apart by professional women football players. Saliva samples were taken before and after the two matches (M1, M2). RPE was used to monitor the exercise intensity after each match. Testosterone concentrations increased after each match (M1: +42%, p = 0.002; M2: +50%, p < 0.001) while cortisol increased only after M1 (+116%, p < 0.001). The testosterone-to-cortisol ratio decreased only after M1 (-32.4%, p < 0.001). IgA concentration did not change after any match. Testosterone concentrations were correlated with IgA concentrations after each match (M1: R = 0.59, p = 0.008; M2: R=0.51, p = 0.02). RPE was correlated with cortisol concentrations after M1 (R = 0.57; p = 0.01), but not after M2 (R = 0.38; p = 0.07). All these results suggest that salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations increase especially after the first match of a final, without affecting IgA levels. We speculate that increased testosterone concentration in women after football matches may play a protecting role against immune suppression usually observed after intense exercise. Key points In our sample space, IgA concentrations did not change for teams even, before and after separated match. Suggesting that salivary IgA determinations after physical activities remain under debate. Testosterone concentrations were the only one hormone showing a consequent increase in both matches after physical activity carrying. The T/C ratio decrease only after M1 according with a higher cortisol level reach after M1 get-together, suggesting a differential impact over anxiety-associated team performance. So M2 play gives a more stable psychological state. PMID:27274677

  1. Salivary Biomarker Responses to Two Final Matches in Women's Professional Football.

    PubMed

    Maya, Javiera; Marquez, Pablo; Peñailillo, Luis; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Deldicque, Louise; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the link between salivary concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as a measure of internal load after two final matches played 3 days apart by professional women football players. Saliva samples were taken before and after the two matches (M1, M2). RPE was used to monitor the exercise intensity after each match. Testosterone concentrations increased after each match (M1: +42%, p = 0.002; M2: +50%, p < 0.001) while cortisol increased only after M1 (+116%, p < 0.001). The testosterone-to-cortisol ratio decreased only after M1 (-32.4%, p < 0.001). IgA concentration did not change after any match. Testosterone concentrations were correlated with IgA concentrations after each match (M1: R = 0.59, p = 0.008; M2: R=0.51, p = 0.02). RPE was correlated with cortisol concentrations after M1 (R = 0.57; p = 0.01), but not after M2 (R = 0.38; p = 0.07). All these results suggest that salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations increase especially after the first match of a final, without affecting IgA levels. We speculate that increased testosterone concentration in women after football matches may play a protecting role against immune suppression usually observed after intense exercise. Key pointsIn our sample space, IgA concentrations did not change for teams even, before and after separated match. Suggesting that salivary IgA determinations after physical activities remain under debate.Testosterone concentrations were the only one hormone showing a consequent increase in both matches after physical activity carrying.The T/C ratio decrease only after M1 according with a higher cortisol level reach after M1 get-together, suggesting a differential impact over anxiety-associated team performance. So M2 play gives a more stable psychological state.

  2. A computational method for prediction of saliva-secretory proteins and its application to identification of head and neck cancer biomarkers for salivary diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Du, Wei; Zhou, Chunguang; Zhou, You; Cao, Zhongbo; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Yan

    2015-03-01

    Human saliva is rich in proteins, which have been used for disease detection such as oral diseases and systematic diseases. In this paper, we present a computational method for predicting secretory proteins in human saliva based on two sets of human proteins from published literatures and public databases. One set contains known proteins which can be secreted into saliva, and the other contains the proteins that are deemed to be not extracellular secretion. The protein features with discerning power between two sets were firstly gathered. Then a classifier was trained based on the identified features to predict whether a protein was saliva-secretory one or not. The average values of the sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy, and Matthews correlation coefficient value by 10-fold cross validation repeated 100 times were 80.67%, 90.56%, 90.09%, 85.53%, and 0.7168, respectively. These results indicated that our selected features are informative. We applied the classifier for prediction saliva-secretory proteins out of all human proteins, if a known biomarker was likely to enter into saliva, and the potential salivary biomarkers for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. We also compared the top 1000 proteins predicted by computational methods in different kind of fluids. This work provided a useful tool for effectively identifying the salivary biomarkers for various human diseases and facilitate the development of salivary diagnosis.

  3. Selection, Characterization and Application of Artificial DNA Aptamer Containing Appended Bases with Sub-nanomolar Affinity for a Salivary Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Minagawa, Hirotaka; Onodera, Kentaro; Fujita, Hiroto; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Akitomi, Joe; Kaneko, Naoto; Shiratori, Ikuo; Kuwahara, Masayasu; Horii, Katsunori; Waga, Iwao

    2017-01-01

    We have attained a chemically modified DNA aptamer against salivary α-amylase (sAA), which attracts researchers’ attention as a useful biomarker for assessing human psychobiological and social behavioural processes, although high affinity aptamers have not been isolated from a random natural DNA library to date. For the selection, we used the base-appended base (BAB) modification, that is, a modified-base DNA library containing (E)-5-(2-(N-(2-(N6-adeninyl)ethyl))carbamylvinyl)-uracil in place of thymine. After eight rounds of selection, a 75 mer aptamer, AMYm1, which binds to sAA with extremely high affinity (Kd < 1 nM), was isolated. Furthermore, we have successfully determined the 36-mer minimum fragment, AMYm1-3, which retains target binding activity comparable to the full-length AMYm1, by surface plasmon resonance assays. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis indicated that the minimum fragment forms a specific stable conformation, whereas the predicted secondary structures were suggested to be disordered forms. Thus, DNA libraries with BAB-modifications can achieve more diverse conformations for fitness to various targets compared with natural DNA libraries, which is an important advantage for aptamer development. Furthermore, using AMYm1, a capillary gel electrophoresis assay and lateral flow assay with human saliva were conducted, and its feasibility was demonstrated. PMID:28256555

  4. Selection, Characterization and Application of Artificial DNA Aptamer Containing Appended Bases with Sub-nanomolar Affinity for a Salivary Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, Hirotaka; Onodera, Kentaro; Fujita, Hiroto; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Akitomi, Joe; Kaneko, Naoto; Shiratori, Ikuo; Kuwahara, Masayasu; Horii, Katsunori; Waga, Iwao

    2017-03-03

    We have attained a chemically modified DNA aptamer against salivary α-amylase (sAA), which attracts researchers' attention as a useful biomarker for assessing human psychobiological and social behavioural processes, although high affinity aptamers have not been isolated from a random natural DNA library to date. For the selection, we used the base-appended base (BAB) modification, that is, a modified-base DNA library containing (E)-5-(2-(N-(2-(N6-adeninyl)ethyl))carbamylvinyl)-uracil in place of thymine. After eight rounds of selection, a 75 mer aptamer, AMYm1, which binds to sAA with extremely high affinity (Kd < 1 nM), was isolated. Furthermore, we have successfully determined the 36-mer minimum fragment, AMYm1-3, which retains target binding activity comparable to the full-length AMYm1, by surface plasmon resonance assays. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis indicated that the minimum fragment forms a specific stable conformation, whereas the predicted secondary structures were suggested to be disordered forms. Thus, DNA libraries with BAB-modifications can achieve more diverse conformations for fitness to various targets compared with natural DNA libraries, which is an important advantage for aptamer development. Furthermore, using AMYm1, a capillary gel electrophoresis assay and lateral flow assay with human saliva were conducted, and its feasibility was demonstrated.

  5. Salivary and serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as biomarkers of periodontitis in United States veterans with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Redman, R S; Kerr, G S; Payne, J B; Mikuls, T R; Huang, J; Sayles, H R; Becker, K L; Nylén, E S

    2016-01-01

    Serum procalcitonin (ProCT) is elevated in response to bacterial infections, whereas high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a nonspecific inflammatory marker that is increased by excess adipose tissue. We examined the efficacy of ProCT and hsCRP as biomarkers of periodontitis in the saliva and serum of patients with arthritis, which is characterized by variable levels of systemic inflammation that potentially can confound the interpretation of inflammatory biomarkers. Blood and unstimulated whole saliva were collected from 33 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 50 with osteoarthritis (OA). Periodontal status was assessed by full mouth examination and patients were categorized as having no/mild, moderate or severe periodontitis by standard parameters. Salivary and serum ProCT and hsCRP concentrations were compared. BMI, diabetes, anti-inflammatory medications and smoking status were ascertained from the patient records. Differences between OA and RA in proportionate numbers of patients were compared for race, gender, diabetes, adiposity and smoking status. Serum ProCT was significantly higher in arthritis patients with moderate to severe and severe periodontitis compared with no/mild periodontitis patients. There were no significant differences in salivary ProCT or salivary or serum hsCRP in RA patients related to periodontitis category. Most of the OA and RA patients were middle aged or older, 28.9% were diabetic, 78.3% were overweight or obese, and slightly more than half were either current or past smokers. The OA and RA groups differed by race, but not gender; blacks and males were predominant in both groups. The OA and RA groups did not differ in terms of controlled or uncontrolled diabetes, smoking status or BMI. The RA patients had been prescribed more anti-inflammatory medication than the OA patients. Our results demonstrate that circulating ProCT is a more discriminative biomarker for periodontitis than serum hsCRP in patients with

  6. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Hinhumpatch, Pantip; Navasumrit, Panida; Chaisatra, Krittinee; Promvijit, Jeerawan; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2013-12-15

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (∼ 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (∼ 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant.

  7. Immunodetection of salivary biomarkers by an optical microfluidic biosensor with polyethylenimine-modified polythiophene-C70 organic photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tao; Pires, Nuno Miguel Matos

    2017-03-06

    This work reports a novel optical microfluidic biosensor with highly sensitive organic photodetectors (OPDs) for absorbance-based detection of salivary protein biomarkers at the point of care. The compact and miniaturized biosensor has comprised OPDs made of polythiophene-C70 bulk heterojunction for the photoactive layer; whilst a calcium-free cathode interfacial layer, made of linear polyethylenimine, was incorporated to the photodetectors to enhance the low cost. The OPDs realized onto a glass chip were aligned to antibody-functionalized chambers of a poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic chip, in where immunogold-silver assays were conducted. The biosensor has detected IL-8, IL-1β and MMP-8 protein in spiked saliva with high detection specificity and short analysis time exhibiting detection limits between 80pgmL(-1) and 120pgmL(-1). The result for IL-8 was below the clinical established cut-off of 600pgmL(-1), which revealed the potential of the biosensor to early detection of oral cancer. The detection limit was also comparable to other previously reported immunosensors performed with bulky instrumentation or using inorganic photodetectors. The optical detection sensitivity of the polythiophene-C70 OPD was enhanced by optimizing the thickness of the photoactive layer and anode interfacial layer prior to the saliva immunoassays. Further, the biosensor was tested with unspiked human saliva samples, and the results of measuring IL-8 and IL-1β were in statistical agreement with those provided by two commercial assays of ELISA. The optical microfluidic biosensor reported hereby offers an attractive and cost-effective tool to diagnostics or screening purposes at the point of care.

  8. Is Salivary Chromogranin A a Valid Psychological Stress Biomarker During Sensory Stimulation in People with Advanced Dementia?

    PubMed

    Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Maseda, Ana; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Pásaro, Eduardo; Millán-Calenti, José C; Laffon, Blanca

    2017-01-01

    Salivary chromogranin A (sCgA) is gaining attention as a biomarker of psychological stress. The objective of this work was to determine whether individualized music intervention and multisensory stimulation environment (MSSE) in a Snoezelen room produce changes in sCgA in severely demented older patients, and to assess the possible existence of differences in sCgA levels between the two types of interventions. Older adults with severe dementia (n = 22) were randomly assigned to two intervention groups. They participated in MSSE or individualized music interventions in 30-min weekly sessions for 16 weeks. Levels of sCgA were evaluated before and after a session, or 30-min interval, at four different time points: before starting the trial, in the middle and end of the intervention period, and two months later. Comparison of sCgA values obtained after each session with those obtained before (or at the same hour in before trial and follow-up samplings) showed no significant differences either in the individualized music or in the MSSE group at any sampling time. Comparison between the two types of interventions, both before and after each session, in the four sampling times, did not produce any significant difference either. Furthermore, no significant correlation was obtained between agitation, anxiety, cognitive function, and dementia severity with sCgA levels. In conclusion, despite beneficial effects of both individualized music and MSSE interventions being previously reported on neuropsychiatric outcomes for older patients with dementia, sCgA seems to not be a good indicator of these benefits.

  9. Salivary Cortisol and Cortisone do not Appear to be Useful Biomarkers for Monitoring Hydrocortisone Replacement in Addison's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ross, I L; Lacerda, M; Pillay, T S; Blom, D J; Johannsson, G; Dave, J A; Levitt, N S; Haarburger, D; van der Walt, J-S

    2016-12-01

    Salivary cortisol has been used to monitor hydrocortisone replacement in patients with Addison's disease (AD). Since salivary cortisol is metabolised to salivary cortisone, it may be an adjunctive analyte to assess adequacy of hydrocortisone replacement in patients with AD. We aimed to characterise the exposure of salivary cortisol and cortisone in patients and healthy controls. We measured salivary cortisol and cortisone by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and constructed a day curve (08:00 until 24:00 h) with 16 time points in 25 AD patients taking their usual hydrocortisone dose and in 26 healthy controls. The median (interquartile range) area under the curve (AUC) for cortisol was not different for patients, compared with controls [55.63 (32.91-151.07) nmol*min*l(-1) vs. 37.49 (27.41-52.00) nmol*min*l(-1); p=0.098, respectively], whereas the peak cortisol Cmax was higher in patients [32.61 (5.75-146.19) nmol/l vs. 8.96 (6.96-12.23) nmol/l; p=0.013], compared with controls. The AUC for cortisone [23.65 (6.10-54.76) nmol*min*l(-1) vs. 227.73 (200.10-280.52) nmol*min*l(-1); p≤ 0.001, respectively], and peak cortisone Cmax was lower in patients than in controls [11.11 (2.91-35.85) nmol/l vs. 33.12 (25.97-39.95) nmol/l; p=0.002]. The AUC for salivary cortisol and salivary cortisone were not correlated with any measures of hydrocortisone dose. The time-course and AUC of salivary cortisol were similar between Addison's patients and healthy controls. Patients had substantially lower salivary cortisone AUC, compared to healthy controls. Salivary cortisol AUC and pharmacokinetics were not related to hydrocortisone dose and thus are not likely useful markers for the adequacy of hydrocortisone replacement.

  10. Salivary diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.M.; Garon, E.; Wong, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to monitor health status, disease onset and progression, and treatment outcome through non-invasive means is a most desirable goal in the health care promotion and delivery. There are three prerequisites to materialize this goal: specific biomarkers associated with a health or disease state; a non-invasive approach to detect and monitor the biomarkers; and the technologies to discriminate the biomarkers. A national initiative catalyzed by the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) has created a roadmap to achieve these goals through the use of oral fluids as the diagnostic medium to scrutinize the health and/or disease status of individuals. Progress has shown this is an ideal opportunity to bridge state of the art saliva-based biosensors, optimized to disease discriminatory salivary biomarkers, for diagnostic applications. Oral fluid being the ‘mirror of body’ is a perfect medium to be explored for health and disease surveillance. The translational applications and opportunities are enormous. PMID:19627522

  11. Association of potential salivary biomarkers with diabetic retinopathy and its severity in type-2 diabetes mellitus: a proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Subrayan, Visvaraja

    2016-01-01

    Aim/hypothesis: The aim of our study was to characterize the human salivary proteome and determine the changes in protein expression in two different stages of diabetic retinopathy with type-2 diabetes mellitus: (1) with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and (2) with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Type-2 diabetes mellitus without diabetic retinopathy (XDR) was designated as control. Method: In this study, 45 saliva samples were collected (15 samples from XDR control group, 15 samples from NPDR disease group and 15 samples from PDR disease group). Salivary proteins were extracted, reduced, alkylated, trypsin digested and labeled with an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) before being analyzed by an Orbitrap fusion tribrid mass spectrometer. Protein annotation, fold change calculation and statistical analysis were interrogated by Proteome Discoverer. Biological pathway analysis was performed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD003723–PX003725. Results: A total of 315 proteins were identified from the salivary proteome and 119 proteins were found to be differentially expressed. The differentially expressed proteins from the NPDR disease group and the PDR disease group were assigned to respective canonical pathways indicating increased Liver X receptor/Retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) activation, Farnesoid X receptor/Retinoid X receptor (FXR/RXR) activation, acute phase response signaling, sucrose degradation V and regulation of actin-based motility by Rho in the PDR disease group compared to the NPDR disease group. Conclusions/Interpretation: Progression from non-proliferative to proliferative retinopathy in type-2 diabetic patients is a complex multi-mechanism and systemic process. Furthermore, saliva was shown to be a feasible alternative sample source for diabetic retinopathy biomarkers. PMID:27280065

  12. Salivary Cortisol as a Biomarker of Stress in Mothers and their Low Birth Weight Infants and Sample Collecting Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Vujičić, Ana Đorđević; Đukić, Svjetlana Maglajić

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Salivary cortisol measurement is a non-invasive method suitable for use in neonatal research. Mother-infant separation after birth represents stress and skin-to-skin contact (SSC) has numerous benefits. The aim of the study was to measure salivary cortisol in mothers and newborns before and after SSC in order to assess the effect of SSC on mothers’ and infants’ stress and to estimate the efficacy of collecting small saliva samples in newborns. Methods Salivary cortisol was measured in 35 mother-infant pairs before and after the first and the fifth SSC in small saliva samples (50 μL) using the high sensitivity Quantitative ELISA-Kit (0.0828 nmol/L) for low cortisol levels detection. Samples were collected with eye sponge during 3 to 5 minutes. Results Cortisol level in mothers decreased after SSC: the highest levels were measured before and the lowest after SSC and the differences in values were significant during both the first (p<0.001) and the fifth SSC (p<0.001). During the first SSC the cortisol level decrease was detected in 14 (40%) and an increase in 21 (60%) newborns, and during the fifth SSC a decrease was detected in 16 (45.7%) and an increase in 19 (54.3%) newborns, without confirmed significance of the difference. Saliva sampling efficacy using eye sponge was 75%. Conclusions Cortisol level decrease in mothers proves the stress reduction during SSC, while variable cortisol levels in infants do not indicate stress reduction and imply the need for further research. The used sampling method appeared to be one of the most optimal considering the sample volume, sampling time and efficacy.

  13. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Kerémi, Beáta; Beck, Anita; Fábián, Tibor Károly; Fábián, Gábor; Szabó, Géza; Nagy, Ákos; Varga, Gábor

    2017-02-15

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion is primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients.

  14. Wound Healing and Mucosal Immunity During Short Mars Analog Environment Mission: Salivary Biomarkers and Its Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Foing, Bernard. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Wound healing in an extreme environment with micro-gravity is not well characterized, despite the likelihood that the increasing use of manned spaceflight as a research and commercial enterprise raises the probability of traumatic injury in this state. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the impact of the isolated environment of the Mars Desert Research Station on mucosal immunity and wound healing. Materials and Methods: Two punch biopsy wounds were placed on the hard palate of two crewmembers. The first wound was made during summer vacation, whereas the second was placed on the contra-lateral side 3 days before the Mars analog mission began. Thus, each crewmember served as his/her own control. Two independent methods were used to assess healing. A ten-item perceived stress scale, salivary cortisol, Immunoglobulin A, IgG and IgM were measured. Results: There were significant differences in the proportion of the wound size healed between vacation and the mission. Salivary IgA, IgM, IgG and cortisol levels showed significant differences between vacation and mission. Conclusion: These data suggest that stress can have significant consequences for wound healing. The effects of stress on wound repair could have important clinical implications, including for recovery from surgery. PMID:25610211

  15. Salivary Thiocyanate, Uric Acid and pH as Biomarkers of Periodontal Disease in Tobacco Users and Non-Users- An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Panchmal, Ganesh Shenoy; Siddique, Sabin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Biomarkers of tobacco exposure are used to confirm the absorption of specific smoke constituents in a quantitative manner. Materials and Methods: Periodontal status was measured by Community periodontal Index (WHO). Salivary thiocyanate was determined using spectrophotometric analysis, Salivary uric acid concentration was determined using the enzymatic uric acid assay reagent. pH was measured using pH strips. Results: Proportion of participants with periodontal pockets of 4-5mm was highest among tobacco smokers (80.0%) and periodontal pockets of 6mm or more were observed to be higher among tobacco chewers (26.67%). When LOA scores among tobacco chewers were recorded 26.7% of them presented with attachment loss of 0-3mm. 46.7% of them were affected with loss of attachment of 4-5mm and loss of attachment 6-8mm was found in 16.7%. 6.7% of them were found to be having loss of attachment of 9-11mm. 3.3% of them were found to be having loss of attachment of 12mm or more. The LOA scores in non- tobacco users showed 46.7% of 0-3mm, 50.0% of 4-5mm and 3.33% of 6-8mm attachment loss. The mean level of thiocyanate level detected in saliva of tobacco smokers was 172 ± 54.7 μg/ml and 203.70± 45.7 μg/ml in tobacco chewers. The mean uric acid levels was found to be 2.54 ±0.63 (μg/dl) in smokers and 2.65 ± 0.37(μg/dl) in chewers and in non tobacco users it was 2.33 ± 0.47 μg/dl. Conclusion: Tobacco users had significantly higher concentration of SCN levels than non-users. PMID:26393205

  16. A multidisciplinary approach to study a couple of monozygotic twins discordant for the chronic fatigue syndrome: a focus on potential salivary biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a severe, systemic illness characterized by persistent, debilitating and medically unexplained fatigue. The etiology and pathophysiology of CFS remains obscure, and diagnosis is formulated through the patient’s history and exclusion of other medical causes. Thereby, the availability of biomarkers for CFS could be useful for clinical research. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to evaluate the global changes in the salivary profile in a couple of monozygotic twins who were discordant for CFS. The aim was to evaluate differences of salivary protein expression in the CFS patient in respect to his healthy twin. Methods Saliva samples were submitted to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). The gels were stained with Sypro, and a comparison between CFS subject and the healthy one was performed by the software Progenesis Same Spot including the Analysis of variance (ANOVA test). The proteins spot found with a ≥2-fold spot quantity change and p<0.05 were identified by Nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. To validate the expression changes found with 2DE of 5 proteins (14-3-3 protein zeta/delta, cyclophilin A, Cystatin-C, Protein S100-A7, and zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein), we used the western blot analysis. Moreover, proteins differentially expressed were functionally analyzed using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software with the aim to determine the predominant canonical pathways and the interaction network involved. Results The analysis of the protein profiles allowed us to find 13 proteins with a different expression in CFS in respect to control. Nine spots were up-regulated in CFS and 4 down-regulated. These proteins belong to different functional classes, such as inflammatory response, immune system and metabolism. In particular, as shown by the pathway analysis, the network built with our proteins highlights the involvement of inflammatory response in CFS

  17. Associations among Inflammatory Biomarkers in the Circulating, Plasmatic, Salivary and Intraluminal Anatomical Compartments in Apparently Healthy Preschool Children from the Western Highlands of Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Méndez, María José; Romero-Abal, María Eugenia; Aguilera, Concepción María; Rico, María Cruz; Solomons, Noel W.; Schümann, Klaus; Gil, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Background Undernutrition and inflammation are related in many ways; for instance, non-hygienic environments are associated with both poor growth and immunostimulation in children. Objective To describe any existing interaction among different inflammation biomarkers measured in the distinct anatomical compartments of whole blood, feces, plasma and saliva. Methods In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, samples of whole blood, feces, plasma and saliva were collected on the 8th and last week of observation among 87 attendees (42 girls and 45 boys) of 3 daycare centers offering a common 40-day rotating menu in Guatemala’s Western Highlands. Analyses included white blood cell count (WBC), fecal calprotectin, and plasmatic and salivary cytokines including IL-1B, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α. Associations were assessed using Spearman rank-order and goodness-of-fit correlations, as indicated, followed by backwards-elimination multiple regression analyses to determine predictor variables for IL-10 in both anatomical compartments. Results Of a total of 66 cross-tabulations in the Spearman hemi-matrix, 22 (33%) were significantly associated. All 10 paired associations among the salivary cytokines had a significant r value, whereas 7 of 10 possible associations among plasma cytokines were significant. Associations across anatomical compartments, however, were rarely significant. IL-10 in both biological fluids were higher than corresponding reference values. When a multiple regression model was run in order to determine independent predictors for IL-10 in each anatomical compartment separately, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α emerged as predictors in plasma (r2 = 0.514) and IL-1B, IL-8 and TNF-α remained as independent predictors in saliva (r2 = 0.762). Significant cross-interactions were seen with WBC, but not with fecal calprotectin. Conclusion Interactions ranged from robust within the same anatomical compartment to limited to nil across distinct anatomical compartments. The

  18. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Review Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  19. Diagnostic Potential of Novel Salivary Host Biomarkers as Candidates for the Immunological Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Disease and Monitoring of Tuberculosis Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Ruschca; Maasdorp, Elizna; Malherbe, Stephanus; Loxton, Andre G.; Stanley, Kim; van der Spuy, Gian; Walzl, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for new tools for the early diagnosis of TB disease and monitoring of the response to treatment, especially in resource-constrained settings. We investigated the usefulness of host markers detected in saliva as candidate biomarkers for the immunological diagnosis of TB disease and monitoring of treatment response. Methods We prospectively collected saliva samples from 51 individuals that presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of TB disease at a health centre in Cape Town, South Africa, prior to the establishment of a clinical diagnosis. Patients were later classified as having TB disease or other respiratory disease (ORD), using a combination of clinical, radiological and laboratory findings. We evaluated the concentrations of 69 host markers in saliva samples using a multiplex cytokine platform, and assessed the diagnostic potentials of these markers by receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, and general discriminant analysis. Results Out of the 51 study participants, 18 (35.4%) were diagnosed with TB disease and 12 (23.5%) were HIV infected. Only two of the 69 host markers that were evaluated (IL-16 and IL-23) diagnosed TB disease individually with area under the ROC curve ≥0.70. A five-marker biosignature comprising of IL-1β, IL-23, ECM-1, HCC1 and fibrinogen diagnosed TB disease with a sensitivity of 88.9% (95% CI,76.7–99.9%) and specificity of 89.7% (95% CI, 60.4–96.6%) after leave-one-out cross validation, regardless of HIV infection status. Eight-marker biosignatures performed with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 83.2–100%) and specificity of 95% (95% CI, 68.1–99.9%) in the absence of HIV infection. Furthermore, the concentrations of 11 of the markers changed during treatment, indicating that they may be useful in monitoring of TB treatment response. Conclusion We have identified novel salivary biosignatures which may be useful in the diagnosis of TB disease and monitoring of the response to

  20. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  1. Plasmodium falciparum infection during dry season: IgG responses to Anopheles gambiae salivary gSG6-P1 peptide as sensitive biomarker for malaria risk in Northern Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Northern part of Senegal is characterized by a low and seasonal transmission of malaria. However, some Plasmodium falciparum infections and malaria clinical cases are reported during the dry season. This study aims to assess the relationship between IgG antibody (Ab) responses to gSG6-P1 mosquito salivary peptide and the prevalence of P. falciparum infection in children during the dry season in the Senegal River Valley. The positive association of the Ab response to gSG6-P1, as biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles vector bite, and P. falciparum infectious status (uninfected, infected-asymptomatic or infected-symptomatic) will allow considering this biomarker as a potential indicator of P. falciparum infection risk during the dry season. Methods Microscopic examination of thick blood smears was performed in 371 and 310 children at the start (January) and at the end (June) of the dry season, respectively, in order to assess the prevalence of P. falciparum infection. Collected sera were used to evaluate IgG response to gSG6-P1 by ELISA. Association between parasitological and clinical data (infected-asymptomatic or infected-symptomatic) and the anti-gSG6-P1 IgG levels were evaluated during this period. Results The prevalence of P. falciparum infection was very low to moderate according to the studied period and was higher in January (23.5%) compared to June (3.5%). Specific IgG response was also different between uninfected children and asymptomatic carriers of the parasite. Children with P. falciparum infection in the dry season showed higher IgG Ab levels to gSG6-P1 than uninfected children. Conclusions The results strengthen the hypothesis that malaria transmission is maintained during the dry season in an area of low and seasonal transmission. The measurement of IgG responses to gSG6-P1 salivary peptide could be a pertinent indicator of human malaria reservoir or infection risk in this particular epidemiological context. This promising

  2. Salivary proteome and its genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, Frank G; Salih, Erdjan; Siqueira, Walter L; Zhang, Weimin; Helmerhorst, Eva J

    2007-03-01

    Salivary diagnostics for oral as well as systemic diseases is dependent on the identification of biomolecules reflecting a characteristic change in presence, absence, composition, or structure of saliva components found under healthy conditions. Most of the biomarkers suitable for diagnostics comprise proteins and peptides. The usefulness of salivary proteins for diagnostics requires the recognition of typical features, which make saliva as a body fluid unique. Salivary secretions reflect a degree of redundancy displayed by extensive polymorphisms forming families for each of the major salivary proteins. The structural differences among these polymorphic isoforms range from distinct to subtle, which may in some cases not even affect the mass of different family members. To facilitate the use of modern state-of-the-art proteomics and the development of nanotechnology-based analytical approaches in the field of diagnostics, the salient features of the major salivary protein families are reviewed at the molecular level. Knowledge of the structure and function of salivary gland-derived proteins/peptides has a critical impact on the rapid and correct identification of biomarkers, whether they originate from exocrine or non-exocrine sources.

  3. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  4. Emerging horizons of salivary diagnostics for periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, L; Yakob, M; Wong, D T W

    2014-11-01

    The field of salivary diagnostics to allow risk determination for periodontal diseases is advancing. New technologies in proteomics, genomics and nanotechnologies have continued the discovery of discriminatory periodontal disease biomarkers. This review briefly overviews biomarker studies that have been completed in saliva for the detection of periodontal disease since 2010. Disease specific biomarkers could be used in risk determination, treatment planning and disease progression. Currently, diagnostic tests are commercially available, and the development of point-of-care tests is expanding. Even though challenges remain, salivary diagnostics for periodontal disease is promising and could facilitate the diagnostics and treatment in a clinical practice by dental practitioners.

  5. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  6. Serum and salivary cardiac analytes in acute myocardial infarction related to oral health status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Campbell, Charles; Kinane, Denis F.; McDevitt, John T.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of an increased emphasis on the potential to utilize biomarkers in saliva for systemic diseases, the issue of existing oral disease is an important consideration that could adversely affect the interpretation of diagnostic results obtained from saliva. We addressed the question does a patient's oral inflammation status confound biomarker levels used in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that multiple serum biomarkers and a few salivary biomarkers reflected the cardiac event. Importantly, oral health of the individual had minimal impact on the validity of the serum or salivary biomarker effectiveness.

  7. The salivary proteome: challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Walter L; Dawes, Colin

    2011-12-01

    We provide a brief overview of the salivary proteome but with an emphasis on the major challenges in protein identification and quantitation. Precautions are necessary to avoid proteolysis, deglycosylation and dephosphorylation of salivary proteins by microbial and host enzymes in saliva. Many proteins are differentially expressed in secretions from different salivary glands and their proportional contributions to saliva vary with the flow rate. The total protein concentration in the secretion from any one gland varies considerably, depending on factors such as flow rate, duration of stimulation, nature of the stimulus and circadian rhythms. Many plasma proteins enter saliva via gingival crevicular fluid, of which there are increased amounts in persons with gingivitis or periodontal disease. These factors must be taken into account in the identification of potential biomarkers for different oral or systemic diseases.

  8. Biotechnological implications of the salivary proteome.

    PubMed

    Castagnola, Massimo; Cabras, Tiziana; Vitali, Alberto; Sanna, Maria Teresa; Messana, Irene

    2011-08-01

    Although very attractive for noninvasive specimen collection, saliva has not yet been considered a relevant bodily fluid for the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. The functional roles of specific salivary peptides and proteins have also not yet been studied in detail. Recent proteomic analysis of human whole saliva has shown that salivary biomarkers could contribute to the detection of local and systemic diseases, provided the standardization of proper sampling procedures exists. Recently, interesting and novel functions for different families of specific secretory peptides and proteins have been demonstrated, which could be a basis for the design of peptidomimetics with relevant biotechnological applications. In this review, we focus on the most recent advances in analysing salivary proteins and their potential application in biotechnology.

  9. Salivary proteomics in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xijun

    2013-01-16

    Proteins that are important indicators of physiological or pathological states, can provide information for the identification of early and differential markers for disease. Saliva, contains an abundance of proteins, offers an easy, inexpensive, safe, and non-invasive approach for disease detection, and possesses a high potential to revolutionize the diagnostics. Discovery of salivary biomarkers could be used to scrutinize health and disease surveillance. The impact of human saliva proteome analysis in the search for clinically relevant disease biomarkers will be realized through advances made using proteomic technologies. The advancements of emerging proteomic techniques have benefited biomarker research to the point where saliva is now recognized as an excellent diagnostic medium for the detection of disease. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool and we aim to summarize the proteomic technologies currently used for global analysis of saliva proteins and to elaborate on the application of saliva proteomics to the discovery of disease biomarkers, and discuss some of the critical challenges and perspectives in this field.

  10. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... continue reading this guide. ‹ Salivary Gland Cancer - Medical Illustrations up Salivary Gland Cancer - Screening › f t k ... Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Subtypes ...

  11. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy.

  12. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  13. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland abnormalities and salivary dysfunction are important orofacial disorders. Patients with such problems are usually seen in the dental office for evaluation and therapy, and the dental practitioner is required to make a diagnosis and institute care. Therefore, it is necessary for the dentist to be knowledgeable regarding the more common pathologic entities that involve the salivary apparatus, and also be familiar with the diagnostic and therapeutic tools that are available. Successful diagnosis is dependent on the organized integration of the information derived from past history, clinical examination, salivary volume study, imaging, serology, and histopathologic examination. This article discusses the most common disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center and indicates the current approaches to diagnosis. Improvement in diagnostic skills will avoid serious complications and lead to specific and effective therapy.

  14. [Salivary gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Gudziol, H

    1995-11-01

    Only about 1% of head and neck tumors are neoplasms of the salivary glands. The majority [80%] of these tumors are benign. Pleomorphic adenomas, the most frequent benign tumors of the salivary glands, can transform into malignancy, especially after a long duration. Treatment of salivary gland tumors consists of complete surgical excision by a surgeon experienced in microsurgery of the facial nerve. Acute suppurative and viral sialadenitis is usually treated by the general practitioner either symptomatically or, if possible, specifically. Chronic sialadenitis, sialadenosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Frey's syndrome often need long-term follow-up and medical treatment, which is also usually delivered by the general practitioner, after the diagnosis has been established. Trauma to the salivary gland with transsection of the duct or facial nerve needs immediate microsurgical repair by an otolaryngologist. Sialolithiasis is also treated surgically in most cases.

  15. Salivary Stress-Related Responses in Tinnitus: A Preliminary Study in Young Male Subjects with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Alsalman, Ola A.; Tucker, Denise; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This preliminary study examined if baseline measures of stress-related biomarkers as measured by salivary secretions of specific autonomic [measured by salivary α-amylase (sAA)], endocrine (measured by salivary cortisol), and immune (measured by salivary neopterin) responses are greater in male subjects with tinnitus in response to an induced-stress task. Method: Twenty male subjects with no significant hearing loss, 10 with tinnitus, and 10 without tinnitus were enrolled in this study.Salivary secretions were collected before and after the induced stress task at four different time intervals. Results: sAA levels were lower in the tinnitus group in comparison to subjects without tinnitus, suggesting impaired sympathetic activity in the subjects with tinnitus although these levels remained stable throughout the stress experiment.While no significant effects could be obtained for salivary cortisol or neopterin, salivary neopterin levels were trending toward significance over all measurements. Behavioral measures of stress were found to correlate negatively with measures of sAA and salivary neopterin. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest impaired stress-related sAA mechanisms in male subjects with tinnitus, as evidenced by the different stress reactions induced in the endocrine system (as measured by salivary cortisol) and the immune system (as measured by salivary neopterin). PMID:27489534

  16. Variation of Human Salivary O-Glycome

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Radoslaw P.; Urbanowicz, Paulina A.; Punyadeera, Chamindie; Reiding, Karli R.; Jansen, Bas C.; Royle, Louise; Spencer, Daniel I.; Fernandes, Daryl L.; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The study of saliva O-glycosylation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential of glycans for disease biomarkers, but also due to easy access and non-invasive collection of saliva as biological fluid. Saliva is rich in glycoproteins which are secreted from the bloodstream or produced by salivary glands. Mucins, which are highly O-glycosylated proteins, are particularly abundant in human saliva. Their glycosylation is associated with blood group and secretor status, and represents a reservoir of potential disease biomarkers. This study aims to analyse and compare O-glycans released from whole human mouth saliva collected 3 times a day from a healthy individual over a 5 days period. O-linked glycans were released by hydrazinolysis, labelled with procainamide and analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UHPLC-FLR) coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The sample preparation method showed excellent reproducibility and can therefore be used for biomarker discovery. Our data demonstrates that the O-glycosylation in human saliva changes significantly during the day. These changes may be related to changes in the salivary concentrations of specific proteins. PMID:27610614

  17. Exploring salivary proteomes in edentulous patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Border, Michael B; Schwartz, Sarah; Carlson, Jim; Dibble, Christopher F; Kohltfarber, Heidi; Offenbacher, Steven; Buse, John B; Bencharit, Sompop

    2012-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes and tooth loss are linked both epidemiologically and pathophysiologically. We applied label-free differential protein expression analysis using multidimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) to explore the proteomic profile of saliva samples collected from selected type 2 diabetic edentulous patients and non-diabetic controls. Ninety-six peptides corresponding to 52 proteins were differentially expressed between the diabetic edentulous patients and controls (p < 0.05). Some diabetes-related inflammatory biomarkers including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and serum amyloid A were detected with levels increased in diabetic samples. Other biomarkers including amylase, palate, lung and nasal epithelium associated protein (PLUNC), and serotransferrin levels were decreased in diabetic samples. In contrast with previous findings, salivary carbonic anhydrase 6 and alpha-2 macroglobulin levels, however, were decreased in this diabetic patient population. Cluster analysis and principle component analysis demonstrated a differential pattern of protein biomarker expression between diabetic and control subjects. Western blot analysis was completed to confirm the relatively lower expression level of two biomarkers, including PLUNC and amylase in the diabetic group compared to control subjects. The presence of salivary biomarkers specific for diabetes in edentulous subjects mimics those in serum, especially those related to inflammatory/lipid metabolism. While this exploratory study requires further validation with a larger population, it provides proof-of-principle for salivary proteomics for edentulous subjects with diabetes.

  18. Salivary Alterations in Rats with Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Ana Carolina; Bergamaschi, Cassia Toledo; de Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to analyze changes in saliva composition and salivary secretion process of rats with chronic kidney disease induced by 5/6 nephrectomy to set the foundation for salivary studies related to CKD. Methods CKD was induced in Wistar rats via 5/6 nephrectomy. Blood and saliva samples were collected from Control, Sham and CKD groups at 8 and 12 weeks after the surgery. Salivation was stimulated via intraperitoneal injections of pilocarpine (1.0 mg/Kg body weight) or isoproterenol (5.0 mg/Kg body weight). Saliva was collected and immediately stored at -80°C until analysis. The salivary flow rate, total protein, amylase and peroxidase activities, and urea concentrations were measured. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations were also evaluated. Results Increases in BUN and serum creatinine concentrations were observed in the CKD groups. Amylase activity was significantly reduced in response to both stimuli in the CKD groups at 8 weeks and increased in the CKD groups at 12 weeks in response to isoproterenol stimulus. The peroxidase activities of the CKD groups were significantly reduced in response to isoproterenol stimulation and were increased at 12 weeks in response to pilocarpine stimulation. Salivary urea was significantly increased in the CKD groups at 8 weeks in response to the isoproterenol stimuli and at 12 weeks in response to both salivary agonists. Conclusions The pattern of alterations observed in this experimental model is similar to those observed in patients and clearly demonstrates the viability of 5/6 nephrectomy as an experimental model in future studies to understand the alterations in salivary compositions and in salivary glands that are elicited by CKD. PMID:26859883

  19. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  20. Saliva-microbe interactions and salivary gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Baker, O J; Edgerton, M; Kramer, J M; Ruhl, S

    2014-05-01

    Adequate salivary secretion is crucial to both oral and general health, since it provides a complex milieu for support of the microbial populations of the mouth, while at the same time containing antimicrobial products that help control these microbial populations. This paper summarizes several aspects of salivary component function, gland secretion mechanisms, and immunopathogenesis as related to oral health and disease. Salivary components mediate microbial attachment to oral surfaces, and also interact with planktonic microbial surfaces to facilitate agglutination and elimination of pathogens from the oral cavity. Adhesive interactions are often mediated by lectin-like bacterial proteins that bind to glycan motifs on salivary glycoproteins. An important salivary antimicrobial protein is histatin 5 (Hst 5), which shows potent and selective antifungal activity and also susceptibility to proteolytic degradation. Coupling of Hst 5 with the carrier molecule spermidine significantly enhanced killing of C. albicans and resistance to proteolytic degradation, compared with the parent peptide. Loss of salivary secretion may be caused by disorders such as Sjögren's syndrome (SS) or ectodermal dysplasia, or may be a side-effect of radiation therapy. Two new approaches to the treatment of salivary gland dysfunction include the use of resolvins and the creation of differentiated acinar structures to construct an artificial salivary gland. B-cells contribute to the pathogenesis of SS by releasing cytokines and autoantibodies and by influencing T-cell differentiation. CXCL13, a potent B-cell chemokine associated with autoimmune diseases, is elevated locally and systemically in SS and may represent a novel biomarker or therapeutic target in the management and treatment of SS.

  1. Oral Biofluid Biomarker Research: Current Status and Emerging Frontiers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Austin; Wang, Chris P.; Tu, Michael; Wong, David T.W.

    2016-01-01

    Salivary diagnostics is a rapidly advancing field that offers clinicians and patients the potential of rapid, noninvasive diagnostics with excellent accuracy. In order for the complete realization of the potential of saliva, however, extensive profiling of constituents must be conducted and diagnostic biomarkers must be thoroughly validated. This article briefly overviews the process of conducting a study of salivary biomarkers in a patient cohort and highlights the studies that have been conducted on different classes of molecules in the saliva. Emerging frontiers in salivary diagnostics research that may significantly advance the field will also be highlighted. PMID:27999326

  2. Salivary Acetylcholinesterase Activity Is Increased in Parkinson's Disease: A Potential Marker of Parasympathetic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Tatyana; Knudsen, Cindy Soendersoe; Mouridsen, Kim; Nexo, Ebba; Borghammer, Per

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Decreased salivary flow and xerostomia are frequent findings in Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly caused by alterations in the parasympathetic tonus. Here we explore salivary acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as a potential biomarker in PD. Methods. We measured salivary flow, AChE activity, and total protein concentration in 30 PD patients and 49 healthy controls. We also performed exploratory correlation analyses with disease duration, motor symptom severity, autonomic complaints, and other nonmotor symptoms. Results. PD patients displayed significantly decreased salivary flow rate, significantly increased salivary AChE activity, and total protein concentration. Importantly, the AChE activity/total protein ratio was significantly increased in PD patients, suggesting that increased AChE activity cannot be explained solely by upconcentration of saliva. The Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) score displayed significant correlation with total salivary protein (P = 0.002) and near-significant correlation with salivary flow (P = 0.07). Color vision test scores were also significantly correlated with AChE activity (P = 0.04) and total protein levels (P = 0.002). Conclusion. Salivary AChE activity is increased in PD patients compared to healthy controls. Future studies are needed to elucidate whether this parameter reflects the extent of neuronal damage and parasympathetic denervation in the salivary glands of PD patients. PMID:25767737

  3. Saliva/Pathogen Biomarker Signatures and Periodontal Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, J.S.; Morelli, T.; Braun, T.; Ramseier, C.A.; Herr, A.E.; Sugai, J.V.; Shelburne, C.E.; Rayburn, L.A.; Singh, A.K.; Giannobile, W.V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of saliva-derived biomarkers and periodontal pathogens during periodontal disease progression (PDP). One hundred human participants were recruited into a 12-month investigation. They were seen bi-monthly for saliva and clinical measures and bi-annually for subtraction radiography, serum and plaque biofilm assessments. Saliva and serum were analyzed with protein arrays for 14 pro-inflammatory and bone turnover markers, while qPCR was used for detection of biofilm. A hierarchical clustering algorithm was used to group study participants based on clinical, microbiological, salivary/serum biomarkers, and PDP. Eighty-three individuals completed the six-month monitoring phase, with 44 exhibiting PDP, while 39 demonstrated stability. Participants assembled into three clusters based on periodontal pathogens, serum and salivary biomarkers. Cluster 1 members displayed high salivary biomarkers and biofilm; 82% of these individuals were undergoing PDP. Cluster 2 members displayed low biofilm and biomarker levels; 78% of these individuals were stable. Cluster 3 members were not discriminated by PDP status; however, cluster stratification followed groups 1 and 2 based on thresholds of salivary biomarkers and biofilm pathogens. The association of cluster membership to PDP was highly significant (p < 0.0002). The use of salivary and biofilm biomarkers offers potential for the identification of PDP or stability (ClinicalTrials.gov number, CT00277745). PMID:21406610

  4. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

  5. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  6. Overexpression of DCLK1 is predictive for recurrent disease in major salivary gland malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kadletz, Lorenz; Aumayr, Klaus; Heiduschka, Gregor; Schneider, Sven; Enzenhofer, Elisabeth; Lill, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Salivary gland carcinomas are a rare malignancy. Therefore, little is known about biomarkers and cancer stem cells in salivary gland malignancies. Double cortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is a promising therapeutic target and cancer stem cell marker, predominantly investigated in pancreatic and colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of DCLK1 in major and minor salivary gland carcinomas and its influence on survival. We examined a total of 80 patients with major or minor salivary gland cancer in this retrospective study. Immunohistochemistry with anti-DCLK1 antibody was applied to assess the expression of DCLK1. Moreover, we evaluated the impact of DCLK1 on overall and disease-free survival. DCLK1 expression could be detected in 66.3 % of all examined cases. Overexpression of DCLK1 was associated with reduced overall and disease-free survival in patients with major salivary gland cancer. Disease-free survival reached statistical significance (p = 0.0107). However, expression of DCLK1 had no influence on survival in patients with minor salivary gland cancer. Since treatment of recurrent disease in oncologic patients is utterly challenging, DCLK1 may be a promising prognostic biomarker that helps to identify patients with a high risk for recurrence of major salivary gland carcinoma.

  7. Oral manifestation and salivary changes in renal patients undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Marieh; Nakhaee, Alireza; Sargolzaie, Fahimeh

    2017-01-01

    Background Salivary changes in hemodialysis patients may result in various oral manifestations. This research intended to determine oral manifestations and some salivary markers in hemodialysis patients. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 hemodialysis patients (the patient group) and 30 healthy individuals (the control group). Saliva urea and calcium levels and pH values of the participants were measured, and oral manifestations such as pale mucosa, xerostomia, halitosis, changes in the sense of taste, increased calculus formation, gingival bleeding, etc. were recorded in the information collection form. The data was analyzed using T-test and chi-square, and p<0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The mean salivary urea level and pH value in the patient group were significantly higher compared to those of the control group (P<0.05), but there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to salivary calcium. Halitosis, xerostomia, and increased calculus were the most prevalent manifestations, and gum bleeding was the least prevalent among the patients. Conclusions Advanced chronic renal insufficiency can increase salivary urea level, pH value, halitosis, xerostomia, and calculus formation, and may cause pale mucosa. Key words:Renal dialysis, biomarkers, oral manifestation, saliva. PMID:28210437

  8. Salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, PJ; Kazial, KA

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine salivary biomarker response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes. Exercise induces stress on the body and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol are useful biomarkers for activity in the sympathoadrenal medullary system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which are involved in the stress response. Fifteen college students were given 150 ml and 500 ml of water on different days and blinded to fluid condition. The exercise protocol was identical for both fluid conditions using absolute exercise intensities ranging from moderate to high. Saliva was collected prior to exercise, post moderate and post high intensities and analyzed by Salimetrics assays. Exercise was significant for sAA with values different between pre-exercise (85 ± 10 U · ml−1) and high intensity (284 ± 30 U · ml−1) as well as between moderate intensity (204 ± 32 U · ml−1) and high intensity. There was no difference in sAA values between fluid conditions at either intensity. Exercise intensity and fluid condition were each significant for cortisol. Cortisol values were different between pre-exercise (0.30 ± 0.03 ug · dL−1) and high intensity (0.45 ± 0.05 ug · dL−1) as well as between moderate intensity (0.33 ± 0.04 ug · dL−1) and high intensity. Moderate exercise intensity cortisol was lower in the 500 ml condition (0.33 ± 0.03 ug · dL−1) compared with the 150 ml condition (0.38 ± 0.03 ug · dL−1). This altered physiological response due to fluid consumption could influence sport performance and should be considered. In addition, future sport and exercise studies should control for fluid consumption. PMID:26681828

  9. Cancer Secretome May Influence BSP and DSP Expression in Human Salivary Gland Cells.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Samantha Lynn; Ferando, Blake; Eapen, Asha Sarah; Yu, Jennifer Chian; Joy, Anita Rose

    2017-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges in managing head and neck cancers, especially salivary gland cancers, is the identification of secreted biomarkers of the disease that can be evaluated noninvasively. A relevant source of enriched tumor markers could potentially be found in the tumor secretome. Although numerous studies have evaluated secretomes from various cancers, the influence of the cancer secretome derived from salivary gland cancers on the behavior of normal cells has not yet been elucidated. Our data indicate that secretome derived from salivary gland cancer cells can influence the expression of two potential biomarkers of oral cancer-namely, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP)-in normal salivary gland cells. Using routine immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting techniques, we demonstrate an enrichment of BSP and DSP in human salivary gland (HSG) cancer tissue, unique localizations of BSP and DSP in HSG cancer cells, and enriched expression of BSP and DSP in normal salivary gland cells exposed to a cancer secretome. The secretome domain of the cancer microenvironment could alter signaling cascades responsible for normal cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, thus enhancing cancer cell survival and the potential for cancer progression. The cancer secretome may be critical in maintaining and stimulating "cancer-ness," thus potentially promoting specific hallmarks of metastasis.

  10. Salivary and serum analysis in children diagnosed with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Klein Kremer, Adi; Kuzminsky, Ela; Bentur, Lea; Nagler, Rafael M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate specific markers for pneumonia by using a non-invasive assessment of inflammatory/oxidative biomarkers in saliva accompanying a routine serum analysis. No study evaluating saliva of children with pneumonia has been published previously. Salivary analysis was performed in 15 children diagnosed with lobar pneumonia and in a parallel group of 16 children matching in age and gender in whom there was no respiratory illness, and compared to the serum analysis obtained routinely in both groups of children. Salivary flow rate was lower in the patients' group as was uric acid concentration (by 60%). Increase in salivary concentrations of almost all parameters analyzed was found: Ca, P, and Mg concentrations were higher in the patients' group by 23%, 55%, and 33%, respectively, while LDH, total protein amylase and albumin concentrations were higher by 275%, 79%, and 42%, respectively. In the serum, white cell counts and neutrophils were significantly higher, and sodium level significantly lower in the patients' group. Compositional changes were in the range of 3-80% while the saliva alterations were more profound, in the range of 42-275%. The results demonstrated in the current study indicate salivary analysis as a potentially novel tool for children with pneumonia. Human salivary collection and analysis is a non-invasive tool that could provide additional information for diagnosis and follow-up of pneumonia, especially in children. This is especially beneficial for pediatric patients, as salivary collection is simple, non-invasive, and patient-friendly.

  11. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  12. Salivary testosterone as a potential indicator for risky behaviour associated with smoking-related peer pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Idris, Adi; Ghazali, Nur B; Said, Nadzirah M; Steele, Michael; Koh, David; Tuah, Nik A

    2016-04-09

    Early smoking is considered an indicator for risky behaviour in adolescents. Although social indicators predicting adolescent smoking are known, biological indicators have not been defined. This study aimed to establish whether salivary testosterone could be used as a "predictive biomarker" for smoking-associated peer pressure. Saliva samples were collected from Bruneian adolescents (aged 13-17 years) by the passive drool method. Salivary testosterone concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Salivary testosterone concentration and smoking-associated peer pressure indicators were compared between adolescent males and females and statistical significance was determined by an independent samples t-test. A significant positive relationship between smoking-associated peer pressure and salivary testosterone levels in adolescents was found. However, this relationship was not significant when males and females were considered separately. Our data suggest that students who have tried cigarette smoking and have friends who are cigarette smokers have higher salivary testosterone levels.

  13. Whole-saliva proteolysis and its impact on salivary diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Thomadaki, K; Helmerhorst, E J; Tian, N; Sun, X; Siqueira, W L; Walt, D R; Oppenheim, F G

    2011-11-01

    There is growing interest in the use of human whole saliva for diagnostics and disease monitoring as an alternative to blood samples. In contrast to blood, whole saliva is a non-sterile body fluid. Proper hand-ling and storage are required to preserve the integrity of potential biomarkers. We investigated salivary autoproteolytic degradation using a variety of approaches. We determined inhibition of protease activities by monitoring the endogenous proteome. In addition, the stability of highly protease-susceptible proteins-histatin 5, statherin, and PRP1-was assessed. Experimental variables included (a) protease inhibitors, (b) salivary pH, (c) incubation temperatures, and (d) sample heating. A cocktail containing AEBSF, aprotinin, pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, leupeptin, antipain, and EDTA could not prevent histatin 5, statherin, or PRP1 degradation in whole saliva. Among the other treatments evaluated, short-term storage of freshly collected samples on ice was effective without interfering with the chemistry of the proteome. In conclusion, whole saliva contains a unique mixture of enzymes as evidenced from their resilience to protease inhibition. Analytical evidence on protein stability is needed to ensure the validity of salivary biomarker study outcomes. Analysis of the data presented will provide help and guidance for the use of saliva samples for diagnostic purposes.

  14. Whole-saliva Proteolysis and Its Impact on Salivary Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Thomadaki, K.; Helmerhorst, E.J.; Tian, N.; Sun, X.; Siqueira, W.L.; Walt, D.R.; Oppenheim, F.G.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of human whole saliva for diagnostics and disease monitoring as an alternative to blood samples. In contrast to blood, whole saliva is a non-sterile body fluid. Proper hand-ling and storage are required to preserve the integrity of potential biomarkers. We investigated salivary autoproteolytic degradation using a variety of approaches. We determined inhibition of protease activities by monitoring the endogenous proteome. In addition, the stability of highly protease-susceptible proteins—histatin 5, statherin, and PRP1—was assessed. Experimental variables included (a) protease inhibitors, (b) salivary pH, (c) incubation temperatures, and (d) sample heating. A cocktail containing AEBSF, aprotinin, pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, leupeptin, antipain, and EDTA could not prevent histatin 5, statherin, or PRP1 degradation in whole saliva. Among the other treatments evaluated, short-term storage of freshly collected samples on ice was effective without interfering with the chemistry of the proteome. In conclusion, whole saliva contains a unique mixture of enzymes as evidenced from their resilience to protease inhibition. Analytical evidence on protein stability is needed to ensure the validity of salivary biomarker study outcomes. Analysis of the data presented will provide help and guidance for the use of saliva samples for diagnostic purposes. PMID:21917601

  15. Molecular Diversity between Salivary Proteins from New World and Old World Sand Flies with Emphasis on Bichromomyia olmeca, the Sand Fly Vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Shannon; Pasos-Pinto, Silvia; Sanchez, Laura; Rasouli, Manoochehr; B. Guimaraes-Costa, Anderson; Aslan, Hamide; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Becker, Ingeborg; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Jochim, Ryan C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sand fly saliva has been shown to have proteins with potent biological activities, salivary proteins that can be used as biomarkers of vector exposure, and salivary proteins that are candidate vaccines against different forms of leishmaniasis. Sand fly salivary gland transcriptomic approach has contributed significantly to the identification and characterization of many of these salivary proteins from important Leishmania vectors; however, sand fly vectors in some regions of the world are still neglected, as Bichromomyia olmeca (formerly known as Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca), a proven vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and Central America. Despite the importance of this vector in transmitting Leishmania parasite in Mesoamerica there is no information on the repertoire of B. olmeca salivary proteins and their relationship to salivary proteins from other sand fly species. Methods and Findings A cDNA library of the salivary glands of wild-caught B. olmeca was constructed, sequenced, and analyzed. We identified transcripts encoding for novel salivary proteins from this sand fly species and performed a comparative analysis between B. olmeca salivary proteins and those from other sand fly species. With this new information we present an updated catalog of the salivary proteins specific to New World sand flies and salivary proteins common to all sand fly species. We also report in this work the anti-Factor Xa activity of Lofaxin, a salivary anticoagulant protein present in this sand fly species. Conclusions This study provides information on the first transcriptome of a sand fly from Mesoamerica and adds information to the limited repertoire of salivary transcriptomes from the Americas. This comparative analysis also shows a fast degree of evolution in salivary proteins from New World sand flies as compared with Old World sand flies. PMID:27409591

  16. Estimation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India.

    PubMed

    Panchbhai, Arati S; Degwekar, Shirish S; Bhowte, Rahul R

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is known to influence salivary composition and function, eventually affecting the oral cavity. We thus evaluated saliva samples for levels of glucose, amylase and total protein, and assessed salivary flow rate in diabetics and healthy non-diabetics. We also analyzed these parameters with regard to duration and type of diabetes mellitus and gender, and aimed to assess the interrelationships among the variables included in the study. A total of 120 age- and sex-matched participants were divided into 3 groups of 40 each; the uncontrolled diabetic group, the controlled diabetic group and the healthy non-diabetic group. Salivary investigations were performed using unstimulated whole saliva. Mean salivary glucose levels were found to be significantly elevated in both uncontrolled and controlled diabetics, as compared to healthy non-diabetics. There were significant decreases in mean salivary amylase levels in controlled diabetics when compared to healthy non-diabetics. Other than salivary glucose, no other parameters were found to be markedly affected in diabetes mellitus. Further research is needed to explore the clinical implications of these study results.

  17. Top-down analytical platforms for the characterization of the human salivary proteome.

    PubMed

    Cabras, Tiziana; Iavarone, Federica; Manconi, Barbara; Olianas, Alessandra; Sanna, Maria Teresa; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2014-02-01

    Comprehensive analysis and characterization of the human salivary proteome is an important step towards the possible use of saliva for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The contribution of the different sources to whole saliva, and the evaluation of individual variability and physiological modifications have been investigated by top-down proteomic approaches, disclosing the faceted and complex profile of the human salivary proteome. All this information is essential to develop saliva protein biomarkers. In this Review the major results obtained in the field by top-down platforms, and the improvements required to allow a more complete picture, will be discussed.

  18. Giant salivary calculi of the submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Fowell, C; MacBean, A

    2012-01-01

    Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. A case of an unusually large sialolith arising in the submandibular gland is presented, along with a review of the management of giant salivary gland calculi. PMID:24960792

  19. Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is no universal 'working' classification system acceptable to all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with salivary gland neoplasms. The most recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours (Salivary Glands) (2005) for benign and malignant neoplasms represents the consensus of current knowledge and is considered the standard pathological classification based on which series should be reported. The TNM classification of salivary gland malignancies has stood the test of time, and using the stage groupings remains the current standard for reporting treated patients' outcomes. Many developments in molecular and genetic methods in the meantime have identified a number of new entities, and new findings for several of the well-established salivary malignancies need to be considered for inclusion in any new classification system. All clinicians involved in the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of patients with salivary gland neoplasms must understand and respect the need for the various classification systems, enabling them to work within a multidisciplinary clinical team environment.

  20. Evaluation of Parotid Salivary Glucose Level for Clinical Diagnosis and Monitoring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beibei; Du, Juan; Zhu, Zhao; Ma, Zhihong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Background. To investigate the relationships among blood glucose, mixed saliva glucose, and parotid glucose in type 2 diabetes patients and to evaluate the diagnostic and monitoring value of salivary gland glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes (type 2DM). Material and Methods. Thirty patients with type 2DM and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals were included in this study. Glucose levels in unstimulated mixed saliva and in unstimulated parotid saliva were measured by the glucose oxidase peroxidase method. Results. The blood glucose and parotid salivary glucose levels in type 2DM patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P < 0.05). The blood glucose, parotid salivary glucose, and mixed salivary glucose were 7.46 ± 1.44 mmol/L, 0.18 ± 0.19 mmol/L, and 3.17 × 10−2 ± 2.84 × 10−2 mmol/L, respectively, in the type 2DM group; the corresponding glucose levels in the control group were 5.56 ± 0.71 mmol/L, 7.70 × 10−2 ± 6.02 × 10−2 mmol/L, and 3.47 × 10−2 ± 2.79 × 10−2 mmol/L. The parotid salivary and blood glucose levels in type 2DM patients were strongly correlated; the linear regression equation for blood glucose and parotid salivary glucose was Y = 6.267X + 6.360, with r = 0.810. However, mixed salivary glucose levels were not significantly different in the type 2 diabetes group compared with the control group. Conclusion. Our results suggest that parotid salivary glucose has potential as a biomarker to monitor type 2DM and as a painless, noninvasive method for the management of type 2DM. PMID:28251153

  1. Evaluation of Parotid Salivary Glucose Level for Clinical Diagnosis and Monitoring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Du, Juan; Zhu, Zhao; Ma, Zhihong; Wang, Songlin; Shan, Zhaochen

    2017-01-01

    Background. To investigate the relationships among blood glucose, mixed saliva glucose, and parotid glucose in type 2 diabetes patients and to evaluate the diagnostic and monitoring value of salivary gland glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes (type 2DM). Material and Methods. Thirty patients with type 2DM and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals were included in this study. Glucose levels in unstimulated mixed saliva and in unstimulated parotid saliva were measured by the glucose oxidase peroxidase method. Results. The blood glucose and parotid salivary glucose levels in type 2DM patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P < 0.05). The blood glucose, parotid salivary glucose, and mixed salivary glucose were 7.46 ± 1.44 mmol/L, 0.18 ± 0.19 mmol/L, and 3.17 × 10(-2) ± 2.84 × 10(-2) mmol/L, respectively, in the type 2DM group; the corresponding glucose levels in the control group were 5.56 ± 0.71 mmol/L, 7.70 × 10(-2) ± 6.02 × 10(-2) mmol/L, and 3.47 × 10(-2) ± 2.79 × 10(-2) mmol/L. The parotid salivary and blood glucose levels in type 2DM patients were strongly correlated; the linear regression equation for blood glucose and parotid salivary glucose was Y = 6.267X + 6.360, with r = 0.810. However, mixed salivary glucose levels were not significantly different in the type 2 diabetes group compared with the control group. Conclusion. Our results suggest that parotid salivary glucose has potential as a biomarker to monitor type 2DM and as a painless, noninvasive method for the management of type 2DM.

  2. Recent advances in salivary cancer diagnostics enabled by biosensors and bioelectronics.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Saswat; Saadat, Darius; Kwon, Ohjin; Lee, Yongkuk; Choi, Woon-Seop; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2016-07-15

    There is a high demand for a non-invasive, rapid, and highly accurate tool for disease diagnostics. Recently, saliva based diagnostics for the detection of specific biomarkers has drawn significant attention since the sample extraction is simple, cost-effective, and precise. Compared to blood, saliva contains a similar variety of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and microbiota that can be compiled into a multiplex of cancer detection markers. The salivary diagnostic method holds great potential for early-stage cancer diagnostics without any complicated and expensive procedures. Here, we review various cancer biomarkers in saliva and compare the biomarkers efficacy with traditional diagnostics and state-of-the-art bioelectronics. We summarize biomarkers in four major groups: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics/microbiota. Representative bioelectronic systems for each group are summarized based on various stages of a cancer. Systematic study of oxidative stress establishes the relationship between macromolecules and cancer biomarkers in saliva. We also introduce the most recent examples of salivary diagnostic electronics based on nanotechnologies that can offer rapid, yet highly accurate detection of biomarkers. A concluding section highlights areas of opportunity in the further development and applications of these technologies.

  3. Evaluation of the salivary proteome as a surrogate tissue for systems biology approaches to understanding appetite.

    PubMed

    Harden, Charlotte J; Perez-Carrion, Kristine; Babakordi, Zara; Plummer, Sue F; Hepburn, Natalie; Barker, Margo E; Wright, Phillip C; Evans, Caroline A; Corfe, Bernard M

    2012-06-06

    Current measurement of appetite depends upon tools that are either subjective (visual analogue scales), or invasive (blood). Saliva is increasingly recognised as a valuable resource for biomarker analysis. Proteomics workflows may provide alternative means for the assessment of appetitive response. The study aimed to assess the potential value of the salivary proteome to detect novel biomarkers of appetite using an iTRAQ-based workflow. Diurnal variation of salivary protein concentrations was assessed. A randomised, controlled, crossover study examined the effects on the salivary proteome of isocaloric doses of various long chain fatty acid (LCFA) oil emulsions compared to no treatment (NT). Fasted males provided saliva samples before and following NT or dosing with LCFA emulsions. The oil component of the DHA emulsion contained predominantly docosahexaenoic acid and the oil component of OA contained predominantly oleic acid. Several proteins were present in significantly (p<0.05) different quantities in saliva samples taken following treatments compared to fasting samples. DHA caused alterations in thioredoxin and serpin B4 relative to OA and NT. A further study evaluated energy intake (EI) in response to LCFA in conjunction with subjective appetite scoring. DHA was associated with significantly lower EI relative to NT and OA (p=0.039). The collective data suggest investigation of salivary proteome may be of value in appetitive response. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link.

  4. Salivary amylase and stress during stressful environment: three Mars analog mission crews study.

    PubMed

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Foing, Bernard H

    2012-06-14

    After the establishment of the space age physicians, human factors engineers, neurologist and psychologists and their special attention to work on people's capability to meet up the physical, psychological, neuroscience and interpersonal strains of working in space, it has been regarded as an issue that seeks urgent consideration. Not study was conducted on effect of simulated Mars analog environment on stress and salivary amylase. So, this study aimed to confirm whether salivary amylase is act as stress biomarker in crew members who took part in Mars analog mission in an isolated and stressful environment. The 18 crew members were selected who took part in Mars Analog Research Station, Utah. Salivary amylase was measured using a biosensor of salivary amylase monitor and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score at pre-extravehicular activity, post-extravehicular activity and on before mission. The state and trait anxiety scores at pre-extravehicular activity for each commander were elevated as compared to after extravehicular activity. There were significant differences in the state and trait anxiety scores between before extravehicular activity and after extravehicular activity of Commander and other members, also there were significant differences in values of before-extravehicular activity between commanders and other members. There were significant differences in values of salivary amylase at before extravehicular activity and after extravehicular activity between commander group and other members. There was significant correlation between salivary amylase and state and trait anxiety scores in all groups. Measuring salivary amylase level could be useful for stress assessment of crew members and population working in a stressful and isolated environment.

  5. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase: subclinical indicators of stress as cardiometabolic risk

    PubMed Central

    Cozma, S.; Dima-Cozma, L.C.; Ghiciuc, C.M.; Pasquali, V.; Saponaro, A.; Patacchioli, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the potential for cardiovascular (CV) stress-induced risk is primarily based on the theoretical (obvious) side effects of stress on the CV system. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase, produced respectively by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system during stress response, are still not included in the routine evaluation of CV risk and require additional and definitive validation. Therefore, this article overviews studies published between 2010 and 2015, in which salivary cortisol and α-amylase were measured as stress biomarkers to examine their associations with CV/CMR (cardiometabolic risk) clinical and subclinical indicators. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus electronic databases was performed, and 54 key articles related to the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as subclinical indicators of stress and CV/CMR factors, including studies that emphasized methodological biases that could influence the accuracy of study outcomes, were ultimately identified. Overall, the biological impact of stress measured by salivary cortisol and α-amylase was associated with CV/CMR factors. Results supported the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as potential diagnostic tools for detecting stress-induced cardiac diseases and especially to describe the mechanisms by which stress potentially contributes to the pathogenesis and outcomes of CV diseases. PMID:28177057

  6. Salivary Markers of Inflammation in Response to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Slavish, Danica C.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Engeland, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the ability to detect inflammatory markers in response to stress within naturally occurring social contexts and/or across multiple time points per day within individuals. Salivary collection is a less invasive process than current methods of blood collection and enables intensive naturalistic methodologies, such as those involving extensive repeated measures per day over time. Yet the reliability and validity of saliva-based to blood-based inflammatory biomarkers in response to stress remains unclear. We review and synthesize the published studies that have examined salivary markers of inflammation following exposure to an acute laboratory stressor. Results from each study are reviewed by analyte (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, CRP) and stress type (social-cognitive and exercise-physical), after which methodological issues and limitations are addressed. Although the literature is limited, several inflammatory markers (including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) have been reliably determined from saliva and have increased significantly in response to stress across multiple studies, with effect sizes ranging from very small to very large. Although CRP from saliva has been associated with CRP in circulating blood more consistently than other biomarkers have been associated with their counterparts in blood, evidence demonstrating it reliably responds to acute stress is absent. Although the current literature is presently too limited to allow broad assertion that inflammatory biomarkers determined from saliva are valuable for examining acute stress responses, this review suggests that specific targets may be valid and highlights specific areas of need for future research. PMID:25205395

  7. Viruses and Salivary Gland Disease (SGD)

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, L.; Webster-Cyriaque, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Viral infections are often associated with salivary gland pathology. Here we review the pathogenesis of HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD), a hallmark of diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. We investigate the presence and contributions of viral diseases to the pathogenesis of salivary gland diseases, particularly HIV-SGD. We have detected BK viral shedding in the saliva of HIV-SGD patients consistent with viral infection and replication, suggesting a role for oral transmission. For further investigation of BKV pathogenesis in salivary glands, an in vitro model of BKV infection is described. Submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) gland salivary cell lines were capable of permissive BKV infection, as determined by BKV gene expression and replication. Analysis of these data collectively suggests the potential for a BKV oral route of transmission and salivary gland pathogenesis within HIV-SGD. PMID:21441486

  8. Salivary and pellicle proteome: A datamining analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schweigel, Hardy; Wicht, Michael; Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to comprehensively compare two compartmented oral proteomes, the salivary and the dental pellicle proteome. Systematic review and datamining was used to obtain the physico-chemical, structural, functional and interactional properties of 1,515 salivary and 60 identified pellicle proteins. Salivary and pellicle proteins did not differ significantly in their aliphatic index, hydrophaty, instability index, or isoelectric point. Pellicle proteins were significantly more charged at low and high pH and were significantly smaller (10–20 kDa) than salivary proteins. Protein structure and solvent accessible molecular surface did not differ significantly. Proteins of the pellicle were more phosphorylated and glycosylated than salivary proteins. Ion binding and enzymatic activities also differed significantly. Protein-protein-ligand interaction networks relied on few key proteins. The identified differences between salivary and pellicle proteins could guide proteome compartmentalization and result in specialized functionality. Key proteins could be potential targets for diagnostic or therapeutic application. PMID:27966577

  9. Salivary and pellicle proteome: A datamining analysis.

    PubMed

    Schweigel, Hardy; Wicht, Michael; Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-12-14

    We aimed to comprehensively compare two compartmented oral proteomes, the salivary and the dental pellicle proteome. Systematic review and datamining was used to obtain the physico-chemical, structural, functional and interactional properties of 1,515 salivary and 60 identified pellicle proteins. Salivary and pellicle proteins did not differ significantly in their aliphatic index, hydrophaty, instability index, or isoelectric point. Pellicle proteins were significantly more charged at low and high pH and were significantly smaller (10-20 kDa) than salivary proteins. Protein structure and solvent accessible molecular surface did not differ significantly. Proteins of the pellicle were more phosphorylated and glycosylated than salivary proteins. Ion binding and enzymatic activities also differed significantly. Protein-protein-ligand interaction networks relied on few key proteins. The identified differences between salivary and pellicle proteins could guide proteome compartmentalization and result in specialized functionality. Key proteins could be potential targets for diagnostic or therapeutic application.

  10. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salivary Gland Cancer About Salivary Gland Cancer What’s New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment? Medical ... they hope to use this information to develop new treatments that work better and cause fewer side ...

  11. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-02-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma.

  12. Sialadenosis of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Pape, S A; MacLeod, R I; McLean, N R; Soames, J V

    1995-09-01

    Sialadenosis (sialosis) is an uncommon, non-inflammatory condition which usually causes bilateral, diffuse enlargement of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid. We present a series of 7 patients with sialadenosis. Two had bilateral and 4 unilateral parotid involvement. One patient had unilateral submandibular gland sialadenosis. One patient had bilateral parotid and bilateral submandibular gland sialadenosis. The clinicopathological features and management of the condition are reviewed.

  13. Post-allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) changes in inorganic salivary components.

    PubMed

    Boer, C C; Correa, M E P; Tenuta, L M A; Souza, C A; Vigorito, A C

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have considered the qualitative and quantitative assessment of salivary flow, as well the biochemical components of saliva, as possible biomarkers that might contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGHVD) in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the inorganic salivary status at different periods of allogeneic HSCT. Saliva collection and oral examination were performed prior to the HSCT, ​between days 8 and 10, days 80 and 100, and at the cGVHD onset. Concentrations of calcium (Ca), phosphate (Pi), chloride (Cl), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) were performed using colorimetric reactions and atomic absorption. Fifty-five consecutive patients undergoing first allogeneic HSCT were included in this study. Between days 8 and 10, the salivary flow rate was significantly higher (p = 0.05), Pi concentration was decreased (p = 0.007), and Na and Cl were increased (p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively), compared with the baseline. Salivary flow rate during the same period showed a negative correlation with Pi concentration (p = 0.02) and a positive correlation with Na and Cl concentrations (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001, respectively). The salivary flow rate was decreased between days 80 and 100 (p = 0.02) and Na, Cl, and K concentrations were increased (p = 0.03, p = 0.02, and p = 0.003, respectively). Salivary flow rate showed a negative correlation with Na and Cl (p = 0.01 and p = 0.013, respectively). At cGVHD onset, the salivary flow rate showed no statistical difference compared with the other studied periods. A trend was observed in the higher Na concentration compared with the baseline (p = 0.06) and Pi concentration presented a significant decrease (p = 0.004). Ca and Mg concentrations showed no changes during all evaluation periods. The present study showed changes in inorganic

  14. Salivary Gland Development: A Template for Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vaishali N.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian salivary gland develops as a highly branched structure designed to produce and secrete saliva. This review will focus on research on mouse submandibular gland development and the translation of this basic research towards therapy for patients suffering from salivary hypofunction. Here we review the most recent literature that has enabled a better understanding of the mechanisms of salivary gland development. Additionally, we discuss approaches proposed to restore salivary function using gene and cell-based therapy. Increasing our understanding of the developmental mechanisms involved during development is critical to design effective therapies for regeneration and repair of damaged glands. PMID:24333774

  15. Differences in Salivary Flow Level, Xerostomia, and Flavor Alteration in Mexican HIV Patients Who Did or Did Not Receive Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    López-Verdín, Sandra; Andrade-Villanueva, Jaime; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Cervantes-Cabrera, José Justino

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Objective and subjective alterations related to salivary flow have been reported in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and these alterations are associated with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. The aim of the current study was to discern whether these alterations are disease induced or secondary to drug therapy. Objective. The objective was to determine the relationships between low salivary flow, xerostomia, and flavor alterations in HIV patients who did or did not receive antiretroviral therapy. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, HIV patients were divided into two groups based on whether they had received antiretroviral therapy. Those patients with a previous diagnosis of any salivary gland disease were excluded. A survey was used to assess subjective variables, and colorimetry and salivary flow rates were measured using the Schirmer global test. Results. A total of 293 patients were included. The therapy group showed a significantly lower average salivary flow than did the group without therapy, and we observed that the flow rate tended to decrease after one year of therapy. The results were not conclusive, despite significant differences in xerostomia and flavor alteration between the groups. Conclusion. The study results suggest that antiretroviral therapy can cause cumulative damage that affects the amount of salivary flow. PMID:24455222

  16. The salivary gland and salivary enzymes of the giant waterbugs (Heteroptera; Belostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Swart, C C; Deaton, L E; Felgenhauer, B E

    2006-09-01

    The giant waterbugs are predators that utilize extra-oral digestion and are known to capture a wide variety of prey. Herein we describe the differences in salivary enzyme composition between large and small species of giant waterbug (Lethocerus uhleri, Lethocerinae and Belostoma lutarium, Belostomatinae, respectively). The saliva of L. uhleri contains 3 proteolytic enzymes and no amylase, while the salivary gland of B. lutarium produces 2 proteolytic enzymes and amylase. This fundamental difference in salivary enzyme composition correlates with the difference in diet preference between the Lethocerinae and Belostomatinae. Furthermore, we describe the ultrastructure of the salivary gland complex of B. lutarium and present data on the division of labor with respect to compartmentalization of enzyme production. Proteolytic enzymes are produced in the accessory salivary gland and amylase is produced in the main salivary gland lobe. This is the first reported evidence of protease production in the accessory salivary gland in the Heteroptera.

  17. Migrating salivary stones: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Drage, Nicholas A; Brown, Jackie E; Makdissi, Jamil; Townend, John

    2005-04-01

    Patients with salivary calculi are normally managed by removal of the calculus or, if necessary, the affected gland. If it is left untreated, a stone may migrate into the adjacent tissues. We present three patients in whom salivary calculi tracked to the surface of the skin. Two were removed under local anaesthetic, and the third patient was lost to follow up.

  18. Salivary Gland Tumors: Current Concepts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R

    2017-03-01

    This current review focuses on current concepts and controversies for select key salivary gland epithelial neoplasms. Rather than the traditional organization of benign and malignant tumors, this review is structured around select key topics: biphasic tumors, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and the controversy surrounding polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and cribriform adenocarcinoma of (minor) salivary gland origin.

  19. Exercise upregulates salivary amylase in humans (Review)

    PubMed Central

    KOIBUCHI, ERI; SUZUKI, YOSHIO

    2014-01-01

    The secretion of salivary α-amylase is influenced by adrenergic regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; thus, exercise affects the levels of salivary α-amylase. Granger et al published a review in 2007 that focused attention on salivary α-amylase. In addition, a portable system for monitoring salivary α-amylase activity was launched in Japan at the end of 2005. The correlation between exercise and salivary α-amylase has since been extensively investigated. The present review summarizes relevant studies published in the English and Japanese literature after 2006. A search of the PubMed and CiNii databases identified 54 articles, from which 15 original articles were selected. The findings described in these publications indicate that exercise consistently increases mean salivary α-amylase activities and concentrations, particularly at an intensity of >70% VO2max in healthy young individuals. Thus, these studies have confirmed that salivary α-amylase levels markedly increase in response to physical stress. Salivary α-amylase levels may therefore serve as an effective indicator in the non-invasive assessment of physical stress. PMID:24669232

  20. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-10

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  1. Affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Misk, N.A.; Misk, T.N.; Semieka, M.A.; Ahmed, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine different affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes with special reference to diagnosis and treatment. The study was carried out on 39 buffaloes suffering from different affections of the salivary ducts. The recorded affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes include; ectasia of the parotid duct (21 cases), parotid duct fistula (15 cases) and sialocele (3 cases). Each case was subjected to full study including case history, clinical examination, diagnosis, and treatment whenever possible. Exploratory puncture and radiography were used for confirmation of diagnosis. Intraoral marsupialization was performed for treatment of parotid duct ectasia. Salivary fistula was corrected by one of two successful techniques; the first by reconstruction of the parotid duct and the second by ligation of the parotid duct just caudal to the fistula opening. Sialoceles were corrected by removal of the mandibular salivary gland of the affected side. PMID:26623341

  2. Proteome of human minor salivary gland secretion.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, W L; Salih, E; Wan, D L; Helmerhorst, E J; Oppenheim, F G

    2008-05-01

    Recent research efforts in oral biology have resulted in elucidation of the proteomes of major human salivary secretions and whole saliva. One might hypothesize that the proteome of minor gland secretions may show significantly different characteristics when compared with the proteomes of parotid or submandibular/sublingual secretions. To test this hypothesis, we conducted the first exploration into the proteome of minor salivary gland secretion. Minor gland secretion was obtained from healthy volunteers, and its components were subjected to liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry. This led to the identification of 56 proteins, 12 of which had never been identified in any salivary secretion. The unique characteristics of the minor salivary gland secretion proteome are related to the types as well as the numbers of components present. The differences between salivary proteomes may be important with respect to specific oral functions.

  3. Affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Misk, N A; Misk, T N; Semieka, M A; Ahmed, A F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine different affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes with special reference to diagnosis and treatment. The study was carried out on 39 buffaloes suffering from different affections of the salivary ducts. The recorded affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes include; ectasia of the parotid duct (21 cases), parotid duct fistula (15 cases) and sialocele (3 cases). Each case was subjected to full study including case history, clinical examination, diagnosis, and treatment whenever possible. Exploratory puncture and radiography were used for confirmation of diagnosis. Intraoral marsupialization was performed for treatment of parotid duct ectasia. Salivary fistula was corrected by one of two successful techniques; the first by reconstruction of the parotid duct and the second by ligation of the parotid duct just caudal to the fistula opening. Sialoceles were corrected by removal of the mandibular salivary gland of the affected side.

  4. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Salivary Gland Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Martin G.; Watson, Philip A.; Ho, Alan L.; Morris, Luc G. T.

    2017-01-01

    Salivary gland cancers comprise a small subset of human malignancies, and are classified into multiple subtypes that exhibit diverse histology, molecular biology and clinical presentation. Local disease is potentially curable with surgery, which may be combined with adjuvant radiotherapy. However, metastatic or unresectable tumors rarely respond to chemotherapy and carry a poorer prognosis. Recent molecular studies have shown evidence of androgen receptor signaling in several types of salivary gland cancer, mainly salivary duct carcinoma. Successful treatment with anti-androgen therapy in other androgen receptor-positive malignancies such as prostate and breast cancer has inspired researchers to investigate this treatment in salivary gland cancer as well. In this review, we describe the prevalence, biology, and therapeutic implications of androgen receptor signaling in salivary gland cancer. PMID:28208703

  5. Biomarkers in pediatrics: children as biomarker orphans.

    PubMed

    Savage, William J; Everett, Allen D

    2010-12-01

    Biomarkers have enormous potential to improve patient care by establishing tests of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment effects. Successfully translating a biomarker from discovery to clinical application demands high-quality discovery research and high-quality clinical studies for biomarker validation; however, there are additional challenges that face biomarker research in pediatrics. There are also additional characteristics of pediatric medicine that make biomarker research especially needed. This review focuses on the fundamentals of biomarkers, the additional considerations needed for applying biomarker research to children, and recommendations for advancing pediatric biomarker research.

  6. Salivary oxytocin in adolescents with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits.

    PubMed

    Levy, Tomer; Bloch, Yuval; Bar-Maisels, Meytal; Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Djalovski, Amir; Borodkin, Katy; Apter, Alan

    2015-12-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits correlate with the severity and prognosis of conduct disorder in youth. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been linked to prosocial behaviors, including empathy and collaboration with others. This study discusses a possible role for OT in the biology of delinquent behavior. We hypothesized that in delinquent youth OT secretion will correlate with the severity of conduct problems and specifically with the level of CU traits. The study group included 67 male adolescents (mean age 16.2 years) undergoing residential treatment, previously assessed by an open clinical interview and history for the psychiatric diagnosis. Staff based Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits for psychopathy and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were administered, and patients' medical and social personal files were systematically coded for previous history of antisocial acts using the Brown-Goodwin Questionnaire. Salivary OT was assayed by ELISA. Salivary OT levels were inversely correlated with conduct problems severity on Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (r = -0.27; p ≤ 0.01). Recorded history of antisocial acts did not correlate with current OT levels. Odds ratio (OR) for significant CU traits among subjects with conduct problems was increased in low-OT (OR = 14, p ≤ 0.05) but not in high-OT subjects (OR = 6, p ≥ 0.05). Children with conduct problems and low levels of salivary OT are at risk for significant CU traits. These results suggest a possible role for salivary OT as a biomarker for CU traits and conduct problems severity.

  7. Chewing behavior and salivary secretion.

    PubMed

    Gavião, Maria Beatriz D; Engelen, Lina; van der Bilt, Andries

    2004-02-01

    We determined the salivary flow rate in 16 healthy subjects in rest and while chewing artificial and natural foods (Parafilm, Melba toast with and without margarine, and three different volumes of breakfast cake and cheese). We also determined the duration of a chewing cycle, the number of chewing cycles until swallowing, and the time until swallowing. The physical characteristics of the foods were quantified from force-deformation experiments. The flow rates of the saliva as obtained without stimulation, with Parafilm stimulation, and with chewing on the various foods were significantly correlated. An increase in chewing cycle duration, number of chewing cycles until swallowing, and time until swallowing was observed as a function of the volume of the food. More chewing cycles were required for Melba toast than for an equal volume of cake or cheese. This may be caused by the low water and fat percentage of the Melba toast. The number of chewing cycles and the time until swallowing significantly decreased when the Melba toast was buttered. The decrease may be caused by facilitation in bolus formation and lubrication of the food due to buttering the toast. The number of chewing cycles until swallowing was not correlated to the salivary flow rate.

  8. Increased Salivary Nitric Oxide and G6PD Activity in Refugees with Anxiety and Stress.

    PubMed

    Gammoh, Omar S; Al-Smadi, Ahmed; Al-Awaida, Wajdy; Badr, Mujtaba M; Qinna, Nidal A

    2016-10-01

    Anxiety and stress are related to physiological changes in humans. Accumulating evidence suggests a cross-talk between psychiatric disorders and oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to compare oxidative stress and defensive antioxidant biomarkers in a group of refugees with acute anxiety and stress with a group of local Jordanians. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) Arabic version were used to assess anxiety and stress respectively. Salivary nitric oxide concentration, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity and total salivary protein were compared. As expected, refugees showed higher anxiety and stress scores compared with Jordanians. Also, we report a significant increase in salivary nitric oxide and G6PD activity in the refugee group while total protein concentration did not vary between the two groups. This is the first study that demonstrates an increase in nitric oxide and G6PD activity in the saliva of refugees, thus highlighting their potential role as possible biomarkers in anxiety and stress disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Patterns of salivary analytes provide diagnostic capacity for distinguishing chronic adult periodontitis from health.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Schuster, Julie L; Stevens, Jason; Dawson, Dolph; Kryscio, Richard J; Lin, Yushin; Thomas, Mark V; Miller, Craig S

    2013-01-01

    Salivary biomarker discovery requires identification of analytes with high discriminatory capacity to distinguish disease from health, including day-to-day variations that occur in analyte levels. In this study, seven biomarkers associated with inflammatory and tissue destructive processes of periodontal disease were investigated. In a prospective cohort study design, analyte expression levels were determined in unstimulated whole saliva samples collected on multiple occasions from 30 healthy adults (i.e., orally and systemically) and 50 chronic adult periodontitis patients. Salivary levels of IL-1β, IL-6, MMP-8, and albumin were significantly elevated (5.4 to 12.6X) and levels of IFNα were consistently lower (8.7X) in periodontitis patients compared with the daily variation observed in healthy adults. ROC analyses of IL-1β, IL-6 and MMP-8 yielded areas under the curves of 0.963-0.984 for discriminating periodontitis from health. These results demonstrate that levels of salivary bioanalytes of patients who have periodontitis are uniquely different from normal levels found in healthy subjects, and a panel consisting of IL-1β, MMP-8 and IL-6 shows particular diagnostic potential.

  10. Imaging Biomarkers or Biomarker Imaging?

    PubMed Central

    Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Since biomarker imaging is traditionally understood as imaging of molecular probes, we highly recommend to avoid any confusion with the previously defined term “imaging biomarkers” and, therefore, only use “molecular probe imaging (MPI)” in that context. Molecular probes (MPs) comprise all kinds of molecules administered to an organism which inherently carry a signalling moiety. This review highlights the basic concepts and differences of molecular probe imaging using specific biomarkers. In particular, PET radiopharmaceuticals are discussed in more detail. Specific radiochemical and radiopharmacological aspects as well as some legal issues are presented. PMID:24967536

  11. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma mimicking salivary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I

    2013-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid gland demonstrated features of MASC. The diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an ETV6 break-apart probe. An unusual complex pattern of ETV6 rearrangement with duplication of the telomeric/distal ETV6 probe was identified. This case illustrates that MASC may mimic salivary (cyst)adenomas. To more accurately assess true clinical and morphologic spectrum of MASC, future studies may have to include review of salivary (cyst)adenomas. The differential diagnosis of MASC may have to be expanded to include cases resembling salivary (cyst)adenomas.

  12. Porcine salivary analysis by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis in 3 models of acute stress: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Rubio, María; Cerón, José J.; de Torre, Carlos; Escribano, Damián; Gutiérrez, Ana M.; Tecles, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study changes in the salivary proteome of healthy pigs in stressful situations to identify any potential new salivary biomarker of stress. Three groups of animals were subjected to 3 stress models: snaring restraint followed by simulated sampling of vena cava blood; brief transport by road; and restriction of movement in a digestibility cage. Saliva was obtained from each animal before and 15 and 30 min after the induction of stress. The samples from the animals that showed the greatest increase in salivary cortisol concentration were pooled and run on 2-dimensional gels. Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 was used for spot detection and mass spectrometry for spot identification. Statistical analyses showed that 2 proteins had significant differences in expression before and after the induction of stress. These proteins were identified as odorant-binding protein and fragments of albumin. Further studies will be necessary to confirm the value of using these proteins as salivary biomarkers of stress in pigs. PMID:24688174

  13. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Sublingual Salivary Gland Obstructing the Submandibular Salivary Gland Duct

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Venkata Suneel; Prathi, Venkata Sarath; Manne, Rakesh Kumar; Beeraka, Swapna; Natarajan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Sublingual salivary gland malignancies are extremely rare and account for only 0.3-1% of all epithelial salivary gland tumors. Here, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the sublingual salivary gland that presented as a swelling in the right anterior floor of the mouth obstructing the submandibular duct. Sublingual salivary gland ACC obstructing the submandibular duct is rare and only three cases have been reported in the literature until date. We discuss the different patterns of ACC seen during the pathologic investigations and its radiologic features. PMID:24516773

  14. Implication of haematophagous arthropod salivary proteins in host-vector interactions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The saliva of haematophagous arthropods contains an array of anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory molecules that contribute to the success of the blood meal. The saliva of haematophagous arthropods is also involved in the transmission and the establishment of pathogens in the host and in allergic responses. This survey provides a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological activity and immunogenic properties of the main salivary proteins characterised in various haematophagous arthropod species. The potential biological and epidemiological applications of these immunogenic salivary molecules will be discussed with an emphasis on their use as biomarkers of exposure to haematophagous arthropod bites or vaccine candidates that are liable to improve host protection against vector-borne diseases. PMID:21951834

  15. Differences in Salivary Alpha-Amylase and Cortisol Responsiveness following Exposure to Electrical Stimulation versus the Trier Social Stress Tests

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Aimi; Okamoto, Shizuko; Ando, Tomoko; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Ayako; Imanaga, Junko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2012-01-01

    Background Cortisol is an essential hormone in the regulation of the stress response along the HPA axis, and salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of free circulating cortisol levels. Recently, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has also emerged as a novel biomarker for psychosocial stress responsiveness within the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM) system. Principal Findings We measured sAA and salivary cortisol in healthy volunteers after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and electric stimulation stress. One hundred forty-nine healthy volunteers participated in this study. All subjects were exposed to both the TSST and electric stimulation stress on separate days. We measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels three times immediately before, immediately after, and 20 min after the stress challenge. The State (STAI-S) and Trait (STAI-T) versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test and the Profile of Mood State (POMS) tests were administered to participants before the electrical stimulation and TSST protocols. We also measured HF, LF and LF/HF Heart Rate Variability ratio immediately after electrical stimulation and TSST exposure. Following TSST exposure or electrical stimulation, sAA levels displayed a rapid increase and recovery, returning to baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Salivary cortisol responses showed a delayed increase, which remained significantly elevated from baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Analyses revealed no differences between men and women with regard to their sAA response to the challenges (TSST or electric stimulations), while we found significantly higher salivary cortisol responses to the TSST in females. We also found that younger subjects tended to display higher sAA activity. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly correlated with the strength of the applied electrical stimulation. Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that the HPA axis (but not the SAM system) may show

  16. A Study of the Variation in the Salivary Peptide Profiles of Young Healthy Adults Acquired Using MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Henk; Imangaliyev, Sultan; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; van der Weijden, Fridus; de Jong, Ad; Paauw, Armand; Crielaard, Wim; Keijser, Bart; Veerman, Enno

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate the inter-individual variation in the MALDI-TOF MS peptide profiles of unstimulated whole saliva in a population of 268 systemically healthy adults aged 18–30 yr (150 males and 118 females) with no apparent caries lesions or periodontal disease. Using Spectral Clustering, four subgroups of individuals were identified within the study population. These subgroups were delimited by the pattern of variation in 9 peaks detected in the 2–15 kDa m/z range. An Unsupervised Feature Selection algorithm showed that P-C peptide, a 44 residue-long salivary acidic proline-rich protein, and three of its fragments (Fr. 1–25, Fr. 15–35 and Fr. 15–44) play a central role in delimiting the subgroups. Significant differences were found in the salivary biochemistry of the subgroups with regard to lysozyme and chitinase, two enzymes that are part of the salivary innate defense system (p < 0.001). These results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS salivary peptide profiles may relate information on the underlying state of the oral ecosystem and may provide a useful reference for salivary disease biomarker discovery studies. PMID:27258023

  17. Salivary cortisol results obtainable within minutes of sample collection correspond with traditional immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliff, E.A.; Buck, R.L.; Laughlin, M.; Hart, T.; Cole, C.R.; Slowey, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cortisol is frequently assayed as a stress-responsive biomarker which changes over the course of minutes to meet the demands of an individual’s social context. Salivary cortisol is often utilized as a non-invasive sampling methodology which possesses important health implications. A critical barrier to psychobiological research involving salivary cortisol is a time-delay of days to months before cortisol results are obtained via immunoassay, long after the individual is no longer proximate to the social context in which they provided the sample. The current study was designed to address this critical barrier through creation of a lateral flow technology (LFT) cortisol device capable of measuring salivary cortisol within minutes of sample collection. LFT is frequently used within commercial point-of-care settings to obtain rapid answers to the presence/absence of a biomarker. The present study extends LFT into the research domain by presenting performance characteristics of a quantitative LFT which measures salivary cortisol within 20 minutes of sample collection. Methods Saliva samples on N=29 adults (15 males) were obtained in the morning and afternoon using Passive Drool and then the Super•SAL™ Extra Collection Device (hereafter Super•SAL™) and later assayed with LFT and a commercially available enzyme-immunoassay. Findings Results show LFT correlated well with these collection methods (R=.872 with Super•SAL™; R=.739 with Passive Drool, p-values<.0001) and at comparable levels to correspondence of Super•SAL™ with Passive Drool (R=.798, p<.0001) which were measured with the same assay. Implications These results open up an exciting new possibility to integrate this technological advance into stress research, including knowing and potentially changing the individual’s social context in a time-sensitive manner. Methodological improvements such as this have the possibility of refining conceptual models of stress reactivity and regulation

  18. Molecular signature of salivary gland tumors: potential use as diagnostic and prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Sena Filho, Marcondes; Altemani, Albina; Speight, Paul M; Vargas, Pablo Agustin

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland tumors are a highly heterogeneous group of lesions with diverse microscopic appearances and variable clinical behavior. The use of clinical and histological parameters to predict patient prognosis and survival rates has been of limited utility, and the search for new biomarkers that could not only aid in a better understanding of their pathogenesis but also be reliable auxiliaries for prognostic determination and useful diagnostic tools has been performed in the last decades with very exciting results. Hence, gene rearrangements such as CRTC1-MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinomas have shown excellent specificity, and more than that, it has been strongly correlated with low-grade tumors and consequently with an increased survival rate and better prognosis of patients affected by neoplasms carrying this translocation. Moreover, MYB-NFIB and EWSR1-ATF1 gene fusions were shown to be specifically found in cases of adenoid cystic carcinomas and hyalinizing clear cell carcinomas, respectively, in the context of salivary gland tumors, becoming reliable diagnostic tools for these entities and potential therapeutic targets for future therapeutic protocols. Finally, the identification of ETV6-NTRK3 in cases previously diagnosed as uncommon acinic cell carcinomas, cystadenocarcinomas, and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified led to the characterization of a completely new and now widely accepted entity, including, therefore, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma in the list of well-recognized salivary gland carcinomas. Thus, further molecular investigations of salivary gland tumors are warranted, and the recognition of other genetic abnormalities can lead to the acknowledgment of new entities and the acquirement of reliable biomarkers.

  19. Salivary proteomics: A new adjuvant approach to the early diagnosis of familial juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Abrão, Aline Lauria P; Falcao, Denise Pinheiro; de Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista; Bezerra, Ana Cristina B; Pombeiro, Gilson Augusto N M; Guimarães, Luciano Junqueira; Fregni, Felipe; Silva, Luciano Paulino; da Mota, Licia Maria Henrique

    2016-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory disturbance. Pleomorphic manifestations are present and a potentially progressive and debilitating course can be detected. SLE rarely manifests before age 5, and its onset peaks is around puberty. Although clinical manifestations, immunological alterations and treatment do not differ between juvenile and adult SLE, children tend to present with a more aggressive disease course than adults. Hence, autoimmune rheumatic diseases are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric populations. Blood serum analysis plays an especially important role in the detection and monitoring of autoantibodies in SLE. However, since blood sampling is an uncomfortable procedure, especially in children, novel less invasive techniques and approaches are of utmost importance to evaluate pediatric subjects. In this regard, saliva samples have several advantages, such as: easy access, fast collection, painless and riskless procedure. Saliva has antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as several other relevant features. The whole saliva is a complex mixture of major and minor salivary gland secretion, gingival crevicular fluid, transudates plasma protein, keratinocyte products and oral microbiota. This biological fluid reflects the physiological state of the body, including the emotional condition, and endocrine, nutritional and metabolic changes. Therefore, salivary proteomics is becoming increasingly used for the early diagnosis of several diseases such as breast cancer, oral cancer, Sjögren's syndrome, diffuse systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, among others. Considering the detection of some potential markers related to SLE in serum and urine, this study aims to conduct an initial evaluation of the possible presence of such biomarkers in saliva. Furthermore, it is expected to track down new salivary proteins that could be

  20. New Anthocyanin-Human Salivary Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; de Freitas, Victor

    2015-08-04

    The interaction between phenolic compounds and salivary proteins is considered the basis of the poorly understood phenomenon of astringency. Furthermore, this interaction is an important factor in relation to their bioavailability. In this work, interactions between anthocyanin and human salivary protein fraction were studied by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS and FIA-ESI-MS) and saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy. Anthocyanins were able to interact with saliva proteins. The dissociation constant (KD) between malvidin 3-glucoside and salivary proline-rich proteins was 1.92 mM for the hemiketal form (pH 3.4) and 1.83 mM for the flavylium cation (pH 1.0). New soluble complexes between these salivary proteins and malvidin 3-glucoside were identified for the first time.

  1. [Radiotherapy of carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Tochet, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy for salivary glands carcinoma are presented, and the contribution of neutrons and carbon ions. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed.

  2. Neuroscience meets salivary bioscience: An integrative perspective.

    PubMed

    Segal, Sabrina K

    2016-04-01

    Advances in salivary bioscience enable unique opportunities to explore individual differences in biological mechanisms related to learning and memory, psychiatric disorders, and more recently neurodegenerative diseases, neurotrauma/stroke, pain, and sleep. Sampling oral fluid is not only minimally invasive, but specimens can be collected easily and quickly in clinical and field settings. Salivary analytes allow neuroscientists to index endocrine, autonomic, immune, metabolic, and inflammatory processes within close proximity of discrete behavioral, biological, and social events, which is particularly important to advancing our understanding of human neuroscience. This review provides an update on the advances in salivary bioscience for specialty fields within neuroscience, presents novel salivary analytes of interest to neuroscience and the status of their development, and outlines a procedural framework to facilitate integration of these concepts and methods into neuroscience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. The Relationship between Plasma and Salivary NOx

    PubMed Central

    Clodfelter, William H.; Basu, Swati; Bolden, Crystal; Dos Santos, Patricia C.; King, S. Bruce; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that fasting plasma nitrite (NO2−) is an indicator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity while plasma nitrate (NO3−) or the sum of NO2− and NO3− (NOx) do not reflect NOS function. Plasma NO2− can also be elevated through dietary NO3− where the NO3− is partially reduced to NO2− by oral bacteria and enters the plasma through the digestive system. NO3− is taken up from plasma by salivary glands and the cycle repeats itself. Thus, one may propose that salivary NO2− is an indicator of plasma NO2− and consequently of NO production. Many brands of nitric oxide (NO) saliva test strips have been developed that suggest that their product is indicative of circulatory NO availability. However, data supporting a relationship between salivary and plasma NO2− or NO bioavailability is lacking. Here we have measured basal salivary and plasma NO2− and NO3− to determine if any correlation exists between these in 13 adult volunteers. We found no significant correlation between basal salivary and plasma NO2−. Also no correlation exists between salivary NO3− and plasma NO2−. However, we did see a correlation between salivary NO3− and plasma NO3−, and between salivary NO2− and plasma NO3−. In a separate study, we compared the efficiency of salivary NO3− reduction with the efficacy of increasing plasma NO3− and NO2− after drinking beet juice, a high NO3−-containing beverage, in 10 adult volunteers. No significant correlation was observed between the ex vivo salivary reduction of NO3− to NO2− and plasma increases in NO3− or NO2−. These results suggest that measures of salivary NO3−, NO2− or NOx are not good indicators of endothelial function. In addition, the efficiency of saliva to reduce NO3− to NO2− ex-vivo does not demonstrate one’s ability to increase plasma NO2− following consumption of dietary NO3−. PMID:25910583

  4. [Non-neoplastic changes in the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Franz, P; Swoboda, H; Quint, C

    1994-05-01

    Non-neoplastic disorders of the salivary glands are divided into the following groups: malformations, salivary gland cysts, sialadenosis, sialolithiasis, sialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, oncocytosis and necrotizing sialometaplasia (salivary gland infarction). Clinically, an etiological classification of sialadenitis is mandatory. Sialadenosis is distinguishable from sialadenitis by its clinical, radiological, and morphological characteristics. Non-neoplastic cysts make up about 6% of diseases of the salivary glands. Mucoceles represent the majority of these cysts (75%). HIV-associated salivary gland disease includes lymphoepithelial lesions and cysts involving the salivary gland tissue and/or intraglandular lymph nodes, and Sjögren's syndrome-like conditions, diffuse interstitial lymphocytosis syndrome, and other reported lesions of the major salivary glands. The diagnosis, differential diagnosis, symptoms and treatment of different non-neoplastic salivary gland disorders are discussed.

  5. Mining the salivary proteome with grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance imaging and surface plasmon coupled emission microarrays.

    PubMed

    Molony, Ryan D; Rice, James M; Yuk, Jong Seol; Shetty, Vivek; Dey, Dipak; Lawrence, David A; Lynes, Michael A

    2012-08-01

    Biological indicators have numerous and widespread utility in personalized medicine, but the measurement of these indicators also poses many technological and practical challenges. Blood/plasma has typically been used as the sample source with which to measure these indicators, but the invasiveness associated with sample procurement has led to increased interest in saliva as an attractive alternative. However, there are unique issues associated with the measurement of saliva biomarkers. These issues are compounded by the imperfect correlation between saliva and plasma with respect to biomarker profiles. In this manuscript, we address the technical challenges associated with saliva biomarker quantification. We describe a high-content microarray assay that employs both grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance imaging and surface plasmon-coupled emission modalities in a highly sensitive assay with a large dynamic range. This powerful approach provides the tools to map the proteome of saliva, which in turn should greatly enhance the utility of salivary biomarker profiles in personalized medicine.

  6. Salivary gland progenitor cell biology provides a rationale for therapeutic salivary gland regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lombaert, I M A; Knox, S M; Hoffman, M P

    2011-07-01

    An irreversible loss of salivary gland function often occurs in humans after removal of salivary tumors, after therapeutic radiation of head and neck tumors, as a result of Sjögren's syndrome and in genetic syndromes affecting gland development. The permanent loss of gland function impairs the oral health of these patients and broadly affects their quality of life. The regeneration of functional salivary gland tissue is thus an important therapeutic goal for the field of regenerative medicine and will likely involve stem/progenitor cell biology and/or tissue engineering approaches. Recent reports demonstrate how both innervation of the salivary gland epithelium and certain growth factors influence progenitor cell growth during mouse salivary gland development. These advances in our understanding suggest that developmental mechanisms of mouse salivary gland development may provide a paradigm for postnatal regeneration of both mice and human salivary glands. Herein, we will discuss the developmental mechanisms that influence progenitor cell biology and the implications for salivary gland regeneration.

  7. [Sialendoscopy: endoscopic approach to obstructive salivary gland disease].

    PubMed

    van der Meij, E H; Pijpe, J; van Ingen, J M; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-09-01

    Sialendoscopy: endoscopic approach to obstructive salivary gland defects Obstructive defects of the parotid and the submandibular gland often present themselves clinically by mealtime-related swelling of the affected salivary gland, the so-called 'mealtime syndrome'. Salivary ductal obstruction of the parotid and submandibular gland is predominantly caused by the presence of a salivary stone, a mucous plug, or by ductal stenosis. Until recently, diagnostic and treatment options for these obstructive salivary gland defects were restricted. Surgical removal of the affected salivary gland was often the treatment of choice. By applying sialendoscopy, a minimally invasive, semi rigid optical technique, it is possible to diagnose and treat obstructions which are found in the salivary ductal system. In many cases, therefore, the surgical removal of the salivary gland becomes unnecessary.

  8. Advances of Salivary Proteomics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) Detection: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Sannam Khan, Rabia; Khurshid, Zohaib; Akhbar, Shazia; Faraz Moin, Syed

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer refers to malignancies that have higher morbidity and mortality rates due to the late stage diagnosis and no early detection of a reliable diagnostic marker, while oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is amongst the world’s top ten most common cancers. Diagnosis of cancer requires highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tools which can support untraceable hidden sites of OSCC, yet to be unleashed, for which plenty of biomarkers are identified; the most recommended biomarker detection medium for OSCC includes biological fluids, such as blood and saliva. Saliva holds a promising future in the search for new clinical biomarkers that are easily accessible, less complex, accurate, and cost effective as well as being a non-invasive technique to follow, by analysing the malignant cells’ molecular pathology obtained from saliva through proteomic, genomic and transcriptomic approaches. However, protein biomarkers provide an immense potential for developing novel marker-based assays for oral cancer, hence this current review offers an overall focus on the discovery of a panel of candidates as salivary protein biomarkers, as well as the proteomic tools used for their identification and their significance in early oral cancer detection. PMID:28248250

  9. Exosome analysis: a promising biomarker system with special attention to saliva.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaowen; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Jieni; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Jiuxiang

    2014-11-01

    Today, exosome-related studies have become a focus in science and technology. Recently, three scientists won the Nobel Prize for determining the mechanisms of exosomal transport, making exosomes a promising biomarker system for disease diagnosis and treatment. This review provides a general introduction of exosomes and explores the recent progress on the function, application, isolation, and identification of exosomes as biomarkers in blood and other body fluids, especially in saliva. Detailed information of exosomal proteins and RNAs is discussed in the paper because of their ability to determine the function of exosomes. Due to their noninvasive assessment for quick and convenient diagnosis of diseases, salivary exosomes may well be promising biomarkers.

  10. Deep metaproteomic analysis of human salivary supernatant.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Pratik; McGowan, Thomas; Bandhakavi, Sricharan; Tu, Zheng Jin; Seymour, Sean; Griffin, Timothy J; Rudney, Joel D

    2012-04-01

    The human salivary proteome is extremely complex, including proteins from salivary glands, serum, and oral microbes. Much has been learned about the host component, but little is known about the microbial component. Here we report a metaproteomic analysis of salivary supernatant pooled from six healthy subjects. For deep interrogation of the salivary proteome, we combined protein dynamic range compression (DRC), multidimensional peptide fractionation, and high-mass accuracy MS/MS with a novel two-step peptide identification method using a database of human proteins plus those translated from oral microbe genomes. Peptides were identified from 124 microbial species as well as uncultured phylotypes such as TM7. Streptococcus, Rothia, Actinomyces, Prevotella, Neisseria, Veilonella, Lactobacillus, Selenomonas, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Campylobacter were abundant among the 65 genera from 12 phyla represented. Taxonomic diversity in our study was broadly consistent with metagenomic studies of saliva. Proteins mapped to 20 KEGG pathways, with carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, translation, membrane transport, and signal transduction most represented. The communities sampled appear to be actively engaged in glycolysis and protein synthesis. This first deep metaproteomic catalog from human salivary supernatant provides a baseline for future studies of shifts in microbial diversity and protein activities potentially associated with oral disease.

  11. The Effect of Exercise on Salivary Viscosity

    PubMed Central

    Ligtenberg, Antoon J. M.; Liem, Erwin H. S.; Brand, Henk S.; Veerman, Enno C. I.

    2016-01-01

    A common experience after exercise is the presence of a thick and sticky saliva layer on the oral surfaces, which causes a feeling of a dry mouth. Since the salivary mucin MUC5B is responsible for the visco-elastic behavior of saliva, in the present study we explored the effect of exercise on both the salivary viscosity and the secretion of MUC5B in saliva. Twenty healthy dental students performed an aerobic exercise by cycling for 15 min on cycle-ergometers at a heart rate of 130–140 beats per minute. Saliva was collected at three time points: before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 30 min recovery. Salivary flow rate, viscosity, amylase activity, total protein, carbohydrate and MUC5B concentration were determined. Salivary flow rate, protein and amylase did not change significantly. Immediately after exercise, the salivary viscosity and carbohydrate concentration were significantly higher than at baseline and after 30 min recovery. Immediately after exercise, the MUC5B concentration was significantly higher than after 30 min recovery. It is concluded that the presence of thick saliva after exercise is at least partially due to an increased secretion of MUC5B. PMID:27854320

  12. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Mlika, Mona; Kourda, Nadia; Zidi, YSH; Aloui, Raoudha; Zneidi, Nadia; Rammeh, Soumaya; Zermani, Rachida; Jilani, Sarah Ben

    2012-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as “salivary duct carcinoma.” The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:22434951

  13. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R. Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion. PMID:26752884

  14. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  15. Salivary gland calculi – contemporary methods of imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rzymska-Grala, Iwona; Stopa, Zygmunt; Grala, Bartłomiej; Gołębiowski, Marek; Wanyura, Hubert; Zuchowska, Anna; Sawicka, Monika; Zmorzyński, Michał

    2010-01-01

    Summary Sialolithiasis is the most common disorder of major salivary glands. The main site of salivary stones’ formation is submandibular gland, followed by parotid and sublingual gland. The aim of this article was to present current diagnostic imaging modalities carried out in patients suspected with salivary stones on the basis of own material and review of literature. Current diagnostic imaging tools used in the imaging of salivary stones were described and illustrated in this paper. These are: conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy. Digital subtraction sialography and ultrasonography are the methods of choice in the imaging of salivary gland calculi. Although sialography is a very old diagnostic method, still it is the best diagnostic tool in the imaging of subtle anatomy of salivary gland duct system. Digital subtraction sialography can show the exact location of salivary stone and enables imaging of salivary ducts’ pathology (e.g. stenoses), which is especially important when sialoendoscopy is planned. Sialography is also used as the treatment method, i.e. interventional sialography. Nonenhanced computed tomography is recommended when multiple and tiny salivary stones are suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the evolving alternative diagnostic method. In this diagnostic modality there is no need for salivary ducts’ cannulation and administration of contrast material. Thus magnetic resonance sialography can also be carried out in the acute sialoadenitis. In the future, sialoendoscopy may become one of the main diagnostic and treatment procedures for salivary duct disorders, especially in salivary stone cases. PMID:22802788

  16. Salivary FOXP2 expression and oral feeding success in premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Emily; Maki, Monika; Maron, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to determine whether salivary FOXP2 gene expression levels at the initiation of oral feeding attempts are predictive of oral feeding success in the premature newborn. In this prospective study, saliva samples from 21 premature infants (13 males; birth gestational age [GA]: 30–34 wk) were collected around the initiation of oral feeding trials. Total RNA was extracted and underwent reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification for FOXP2. Oral feeding success was denoted by the days required to attain full oral feeds. A linear regression model, controlling for sex, birth GA, and weight at salivary collection, revealed that FOXP2 expression was significantly associated with oral feeding success (P = 0.002). The higher the expression level of FOXP2, the shorter the duration to feed. Salivary FOXP2 expression levels are significantly associated with oral feeding success in the preterm infant. FOXP2 may serve as a novel and informative biomarker to noninvasively assess infant feeding skills to reduce morbidities and length of stay. PMID:27148579

  17. Pathophysiology of myoepithelial cells in salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amisha Ashok Kumar; Mulla, Aamera Farouq; Mayank, Mrinal

    2016-01-01

    Myoepithelial cells (MECs) are considered to be a key participant in most salivary gland diseases, particularly tumors. MECs structurally resemble both epithelial cells and smooth muscles. Diagnostic dilemmas caused are due to inadequacy of characterizing the wide spectrum of morphologic and immunologic features which are different for both normal and neoplastic MECs. This article discusses the development, functions and structure of both normal and neoplastic MECs, their staining properties and differences in the morphologic and immunophenotypic properties of the MEC in detail. It also describes the role of MEC in pathogenesis and morphogenesis of various nonneoplastic and neoplastic salivary gland lesions and thereby are responsible for the myriad histopathology of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27721615

  18. Genetic alterations in salivary gland cancers.

    PubMed

    Yin, Linda X; Ha, Patrick K

    2016-06-15

    Salivary gland cancers are an incredibly heterogeneous group of tumors that include 24 histologically distinct tumor types. The use of new genetic methods has paved the way for promising advancements in our understanding of the molecular biology underlying each type of tumor. The objective of this review was to highlight common oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and cytogenetic and epigenetic changes associated with the most common tumor types: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, salivary duct carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, and acinic cell carcinoma. Recent insights into the pathogenesis of each cancer subtype have helped better define and classify these tumors. Further research in salivary gland cancers should focus on determining the key genes involved in the tumorigenesis of each distinct malignancy and identifying individualized chemotherapies directed at these targets. Cancer 2016;122:1822-31. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  19. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells

  20. Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis — Recent Progress and Future Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jeff Chi-feng; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2010-01-01

    Salivary glands provide saliva to maintain oral health, and a loss of salivary gland function substantially decreases quality-of-life. Understanding the biological mechanisms that generate salivary glands during embryonic development may identify novel ways to regenerate function or design artificial salivary glands. This review article summarizes current research on the process of branching morphogenesis of salivary glands, which creates gland structure during development. We highlight exciting new advances and opportunities in studies of cell-cell interactions, mechanical forces, growth factors, and gene expression patterns to improve our understanding of this important process. PMID:21125789

  1. Quantitative analysis of human salivary gland-derived intact proteome using top-down mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N; Tolić, Nikola; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Haizhen; Zhao, Rui; Moore, Ronald J; Pevzner, Pavel; Smith, Richard D; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2014-05-01

    There are several notable challenges inherent for fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, PTMs, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based LC-MS/MS approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of PTMs. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin. In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intact N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein. These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FT-ICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different proteoform profiles were resolved with high reproducibility between parotid secretion and submandibular/sublingual glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.

  2. The Salivary Glands of Adult Blackflies,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Salivary glands of adult female blackflies of known ages were examined by histological methods. These studies showed that each of the paired...secretory cells when the blackfly takes a blood meal. During the first 24 h after a blood meal the secretory cells again synthesize some PAS-positive

  3. The aminergic control of cockroach salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Walz, Bernd; Baumann, Otto; Krach, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2006-07-01

    The acinar salivary glands of cockroaches receive a dual innervation from the subesophageal ganglion and the stomatogastric nervous system. Acinar cells are surrounded by a plexus of dopaminergic and serotonergic varicose fibers. In addition, serotonergic terminals lie deep in the extracellular spaces between acinar cells. Excitation-secretion coupling in cockroach salivary glands is stimulated by both dopamine and serotonin. These monoamines cause increases in the intracellular concentrations of cAMP and Ca(2+). Stimulation of the glands by serotonin results in the production of a protein-rich saliva, whereas stimulation by dopamine results in saliva that is protein-free. Thus, two elementary secretory processes, namely electrolyte/water secretion and protein secretion, are triggered by different aminergic transmitters. Because of its simplicity and experimental accessibility, cockroach salivary glands have been used extensively as a model system to study the cellular actions of biogenic amines and to examine the pharmacological properties of biogenic amine receptors. In this review, we summarize current knowledge concerning the aminergic control of cockroach salivary glands and discuss our efforts to characterize Periplaneta biogenic amine receptors molecularly.

  4. Polygalacturonase isozymes in Lygus hesperus Salivary Glands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feeding strategy of mirids has been referred to as “lacerate or macerate and flush feeding” which supports high rates of food intake. In other words, plant bugs digest the plant tissue extra-orally, producing a liquefied brew rich in simple nutrient molecules. The insect's salivary polygalacturo...

  5. Suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kun; Duan, Zejun; Bian, Yu; Wang, Mengyang; Qi, Xueling

    2014-01-01

    Suprasellar salivary gland-Like pleomorphic adenoma is not a common disease and seldom reported so far. We are reporting a case of a 23-year-old man with recurrent suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma, who underwent an operation of subtotal, subfrontal resection under the wrong pathology diagnosis of benign teratoma in another hospital 4-year-ago. Four years later, he was admitted to our hospital for additional visual loss of the right eye (left, 1.0; right, 0.4) resulting from tumor regrowth. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that suprasellar extension and compressed optic chiasm resulted in visual disturbance of the patient. The tumor was totally excised and histological examination evidenced the pathological features of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma. The patient did not receive any further treatment and he is free from tumor recurrence for 30 months after the operation. From this point of view, clinical prognosis of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma was good after total surgical resection.

  6. Bedside-Friendly Prediction for Presence of Post-Myocardial lnfarction Systolic Dysfunction Using Multimarker Panel: Integrating Salivary Diagnostics into Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Assareh, Ahmadreza; Yoosefi, Hojjat; Bozorgmanesh, Mohammadreza

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives We investigated if a combination of plasma or salivary interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and troponin can improve estimation of the pretest probability of the left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). Subjects and Methods Eighty patients with newly-diagnosed myocardial infarction (MI) were echocardiographically examined for LVSD (ejection fraction ≤40%). Measurements included traditional MI risk factors, plasma and salivary concentrations of troponin, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β. With the LVSD as the outcome variable, we developed logistic regression models, starting with a basic model incorporating traditional risk factors and consecutively adding salivary and plasma biomarkers. Models were compared using several criteria, including (but not limited to) C statistic (discrimination) and net reclassification improvement index (NRI). Results Apart from troponin, plasma, and salivary values of the biomarkers were correlated: spearman's ρ was 0.19 (p=0.088) for troponin, 0.36 (p=0.001) for IL-2, 0.74 (p<0.001) for IL-6, 0.61 (p<0.001) for TNF-α, and 0.65 (p<0.001) for TGF-β. The predictive performances of the basic model for estimating the pretest probability of the presence of LVSD considerably improved when cytokines were added (salivary added: C-statistic from 0.77 to 0.82 and NRI 77%; plasma added: C-statistic to 0.80 and NRI 134%). Conclusion Multiple biomarkers added diagnostic value to the standard risk factors for predicting the presence of post-MI LVSD. PMID:23682284

  7. Evaluation of salivary adiponectin profile in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Nigro, E; Piombino, P; Scudiero, O; Monaco, M L; Schettino, P; Chambery, A; Daniele, A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic inflammatory disease significantly risen worldwide, especially among children. Adipokines, secreted from adipose tissue, are hormones involved in various cellular processes such as energy metabolism and inflammation. Among the others, adiponectin is gaining increasing interest for its insulin-sentitizing, anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. This adipokine undergoes different post-translational modifications, after which it circulates as oligomers of high, medium and low molecular weight (HMW, MMW, LMW); HMW are the most biologically active oligomers. Serum adiponectin levels as well as the amount of its oligomers are inversely correlated to BMI and closely associated with obesity and related diseases. In this study, we analyzed total adiponectin expression and its oligomeric profile in saliva samples from 27 obese compared to 27 age- and sex-matched controls. Moreover, we compared adiponectin oligomerization between serum and saliva samples. The analysis of the different adiponectin oligomers reveals a slightly higher expression of total, HMW and LMW salivary adiponectin in obese patients compared to controls. Finally, FPLC analysis evidenced that HMW oligomers in saliva have a higher molecular weight than in serum confirming the presence of more complex oligomers in saliva, previously identified as super HMW (S-HMW). Saliva is considered a potential source of novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of metabolic disorders. The assessment of total adiponectin and its oligomeric profiles in saliva samples may represent a promising biological marker for the analysis of metabolic diseases.

  8. Facile preparation of salivary extracellular vesicles for cancer proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Xia, Zhijun; Shang, Zhi; Sun, Kaibo; Niu, Xiaomin; Qian, Liqiang; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Xiao, Hua

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane surrounded structures released by cells, which have been increasingly recognized as mediators of intercellular communication. Recent reports indicate that EVs participate in important biological processes and could serve as potential source for cancer biomarkers. As an attractive EVs source with merit of non-invasiveness, human saliva is a unique medium for clinical diagnostics. Thus, we proposed a facile approach to prepare salivary extracellular vesicles (SEVs). Affinity chromatography column combined with filter system (ACCF) was developed to efficiently remove the high abundant proteins and viscous interferences of saliva. Protein profiling in the SEVs obtained by this strategy was compared with conventional centrifugation method, which demonstrated that about 70% more SEVs proteins could be revealed. To explore its utility for cancer proteomics, we analyzed the proteome of SEVs in lung cancer patients and normal controls. Shotgun proteomic analysis illustrated that 113 and 95 proteins have been identified in cancer group and control group, respectively. Among those 63 proteins that have been consistently discovered only in cancer group, 12 proteins are lung cancer related. Our results demonstrated that SEVs prepared through the developed strategy are valuable samples for proteomics and could serve as a promising liquid biopsy for cancer.

  9. Facile preparation of salivary extracellular vesicles for cancer proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Xia, Zhijun; Shang, Zhi; Sun, Kaibo; Niu, Xiaomin; Qian, Liqiang; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Xiao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane surrounded structures released by cells, which have been increasingly recognized as mediators of intercellular communication. Recent reports indicate that EVs participate in important biological processes and could serve as potential source for cancer biomarkers. As an attractive EVs source with merit of non-invasiveness, human saliva is a unique medium for clinical diagnostics. Thus, we proposed a facile approach to prepare salivary extracellular vesicles (SEVs). Affinity chromatography column combined with filter system (ACCF) was developed to efficiently remove the high abundant proteins and viscous interferences of saliva. Protein profiling in the SEVs obtained by this strategy was compared with conventional centrifugation method, which demonstrated that about 70% more SEVs proteins could be revealed. To explore its utility for cancer proteomics, we analyzed the proteome of SEVs in lung cancer patients and normal controls. Shotgun proteomic analysis illustrated that 113 and 95 proteins have been identified in cancer group and control group, respectively. Among those 63 proteins that have been consistently discovered only in cancer group, 12 proteins are lung cancer related. Our results demonstrated that SEVs prepared through the developed strategy are valuable samples for proteomics and could serve as a promising liquid biopsy for cancer. PMID:27091080

  10. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  11. Salivary prions in sheep and deer.

    PubMed

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2012-01-01

    Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ~17 L/day of saliva, and scrapie prions are present in tongue and salivary glands of infected sheep, we asked if scrapie prions are shed in saliva. We inoculated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ovine prion protein, Tg(OvPrP) mice, with saliva from seven Cheviot sheep with scrapie. Six of seven samples transmitted prions to Tg(OvPrP) mice with titers of -0.5 to 1.7 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Similarly, inoculation of saliva samples from two mule deer with CWD transmitted prions to Tg(ElkPrP) mice with titers of -1.1 to -0.4 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Assuming similar shedding kinetics for salivary prions as those for fecal prions of deer, we estimated the secreted salivary prion dose over a 10-mo period to be as high as 8.4 log ID₅₀ units for sheep and 7.0 log ID₅₀ units for deer. These estimates are similar to 7.9 log ID₅₀ units of fecal CWD prions for deer. Because saliva is mostly swallowed, salivary prions may reinfect tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to fecal prion shedding. Salivary prions shed into the environment provide an additional mechanism for horizontal prion transmission.

  12. Analysis of the extreme diversity of salivary alpha-amylase isoforms generated by physiological proteolysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ulla-Maja; Punyadeera, Chamindie; Cooper-White, Justin J; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2012-12-12

    Saliva is a crucial biofluid for oral health and is also of increasing importance as a non-invasive source of disease biomarkers. Salivary alpha-amylase is an abundant protein in saliva, and changes in amylase expression have been previously associated with a variety of diseases and conditions. Salivary alpha-amylase is subject to a high diversity of post-translational modifications, including physiological proteolysis in the oral cavity. Here we developed methodology for rapid sample preparation and non-targeted LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of saliva from healthy subjects and observed an extreme diversity of alpha-amylase proteolytic isoforms. Our results emphasize the importance of consideration of post-translational events such as proteolysis in proteomic studies, biomarker discovery and validation, particularly in saliva.

  13. Diurnal profiles of salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase change across the adult lifespan: evidence from repeated daily life assessments.

    PubMed

    Nater, Urs M; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Scott, Stacey B

    2013-12-01

    Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase are known to have distinctive diurnal profiles. However, little is known about systematic changes in these biomarkers across the adult lifespan. In a study of 185 participants (aged 20-81 years), time-stamped salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase were collected 7 times/day over 10 days. Samples were taken upon waking, 30 min later, and then approximately every 3 h until 9 pm. Multilevel models showed that older age was associated with increased daily cortisol secretion as indicated by greater area under the curve, attenuated wake-evening slopes, and more pronounced cortisol awakening responses. Further, older age was related to greater daily alpha-amylase output and attenuated wake-evening slopes. No age differences were observed regarding the alpha-amylase awakening response. Our findings may contribute to a better understanding of age-related differences in functioning of stress-related systems.

  14. Salivary thyroxine as an estimate of free thyroxine: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Elson, M.K.; Morley, J.E.; Shafer, R.B.

    1983-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that the levels of salivary thyroxine (T/sub 4/) reflect those of circulating free T/sub 4/, we developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) sensitive to low levels of T/sub 4/. Concurrent saliva and serum samples were obtained from 32 euthyroid volunteers, ages 19 to 64. Salivary and serum T/sub 4/ and cortisol levels were measured by RIA. Salivary albumin was measured by nephelometry. Salivary T/sub 4/ levels were higher than predicted. No correlation was found between salivary T/sub 4/ and serum levels of free T/sub 4/ and total T/sub 4/ but there was a significant correlation between salivary T/sub 4/ and albumin (r = 0.82). Salivary cortisol levels agreed with reported results and showed no correlation with salivary albumin. We conclude that salivary levels of drugs and hormones may be strongly affected by protein binding, and caution must be exercised in using salivary levels as an estimate of circulating free levels.

  15. GATA3 immunohistochemical expression in salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lauren E; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William H; Bishop, Justin A

    2013-12-01

    GATA3 is a zinc finger transcription factor that regulates the normal development of many tissues and cell types. Recent studies have shown that immunohistochemical nuclear staining for GATA3 among tumors is highly restricted to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin; however salivary gland tumors have not been tested. Given that breast and salivary gland tissues are very similar with respect to embryologic development and structure, we performed GATA3 staining on a spectrum of salivary gland neoplasms. GATA3 immunohistochemistry was performed on a diverse collection of 180 benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms including 10 acinic cell carcinomas, 2 adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified, 41 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 2 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, 1 low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, 15 mammary analogue secretory carcinomas, 7 metastatic squamous cell carcinomas, 27 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 2 oncocytic carcinomas, 5 oncocytomas, 34 pleomorphic adenomas, 4 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, 25 salivary duct carcinomas, and 5 Warthin tumors. Staining for GATA3 was observed in 92/180 (51 %) of salivary gland tumors. GATA3 staining was observed in most of the tumor types, but diffuse immunolabeling was consistently seen in salivary duct carcinoma (25 of 25) and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (15 of 15)-the two tumor types that most closely resemble breast neoplasia. Background benign salivary gland tissue was also usually weakly positive in both acini and ducts. GATA3 immunostaining is not restricted to tumors of breast and urothelial origin. Rather, it is expressed across many different types of salivary gland neoplasms. As a result, salivary gland origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a GATA3-positive carcinoma, particularly in the head and neck. Although GATA3 immunohistochemistry is not helpful in resolving the differential diagnosis between a primary salivary gland neoplasm and metastatic breast

  16. Self perceived work related stress and the relation with salivary IgA and lysozyme among emergency department nurses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y; Koh, D; Ng, V; Lee, C; Chan, G; Dong, F; Goh, S; Anantharaman, V; Chia, S

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To assess and compare the self perceived work related stress among emergency department (ED) and general ward (GW) nurses, and to investigate its relation with salivary IgA and lysozyme. Methods: One hundred and thirty two of 208 (63.5%) registered female ED and GW nurses participated in the study. A modified mental health professional stress scale (PSS) was used to measure self perceived stress. ELISA methods were used to determine the salivary IgA and lysozyme levels. Results: On PSS, ED nurses had higher scores (mean 1.51) than GW nurses (1.30). The scores of PSS subscales such as organisational structure and processes (OS), lack of resources (RES), and conflict with other professionals (COF) were higher in ED than in GW nurses. ED nurses had lower secretion rates of IgA (geometric mean (GM) 49.1 µg/min) and lysozyme (GM 20.0 µg/min) than GW nurses (68.2 µg/min, 30.5 µg/min). Significant correlations were observed between PSS and log IgA and lysozyme secretion rates. OS, RES, and COF were correlated with log IgA and lysozyme levels. Conclusion: ED nurses, who reported a higher level of professional stress, showed significantly lower secretion rates of salivary IgA and lysozyme compared to GW nurses. Salivary IgA and lysozyme were inversely correlated with self perceived work related stress. As these salivary biomarkers are reflective of the mucosal immunity, results support the inverse relation between stress and mucosal immunity. PMID:12468751

  17. Defining Pesticide Biomarkers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biomarkers are measurable substances or characteristics in the human body that can be used to monitor the presence of a chemical in the body, biological responses or harm to health. This Web page describes categories of biomarkers and provides examples.

  18. BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification and verification of anatomical, endocrine, cellular and molecular biomarkers is crucial for successful clinical diagnosis and treatment of toxicity and disease, as well as basic toxicological, epidemiological and other research. Various in situ biomarkers of repro...

  19. Biomarkers in Computational Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomarkers are a means to evaluate chemical exposure and/or the subsequent impacts on toxicity pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Computational toxicology can integrate biomarker data with knowledge of exposure, chemistry, biology, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and e...

  20. Biomarkers in Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Myers, Michael J; Smith, Emily R; Turfle, Phillip G

    2017-02-08

    This article summarizes the relevant definitions related to biomarkers; reviews the general processes related to biomarker discovery and ultimate acceptance and use; and finally summarizes and reviews, to the extent possible, examples of the types of biomarkers used in animal species within veterinary clinical practice and human and veterinary drug development. We highlight opportunities for collaboration and coordination of research within the veterinary community and leveraging of resources from human medicine to support biomarker discovery and validation efforts for veterinary medicine.

  1. Salivary defense system alters in vegetarian

    PubMed Central

    Amirmozafari, Nour; Pourghafar, Houra; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this research was investigating antimicrobial and enzymatic antioxidant activities in salivary fluids of vegetarians as compared to normal subjects. Material & Methods Antimicrobial activity of the saliva samples was evaluated against four clinically important bacteria. The biological activities of three of the main antioxidant enzymes of saliva were measured using appropriate methods of enzyme assay in both groups. Results According to the results, saliva obtained from vegetarians showed a reduced inhibitory effect on growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli as compared to those obtained from the non-vegetarian subjects. The activity of salivary peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase showed a statistically marked decrease in vegetarian group. Conclusions According to our literature survey, this is the first report on the antibacterial and antioxidant capacity in saliva of vegetarians. Results obtained from the present study have opened a new line of research with the basis of saliva as a research tool. PMID:25737889

  2. Comparative human salivary and plasma proteomes.

    PubMed

    Loo, J A; Yan, W; Ramachandran, P; Wong, D T

    2010-10-01

    The protein compositions, or the proteomes, found in human salivary and plasma fluids are compared. From recent experimental work by many laboratories, a catalogue of 2290 proteins found in whole saliva has been compiled. This list of salivary proteins is compared with the 2698 proteins found in plasma. Approximately 27% of the whole-saliva proteins are found in plasma. However, despite this apparent low degree of overlap, the distribution found across Gene Ontological categories, such as molecular function, biological processes, and cellular components, shows significant similarities. Moreover, nearly 40% of the proteins that have been suggested to be candidate markers for diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and stroke can be found in whole saliva. These comparisons and correlations should encourage researchers to consider the use of saliva to discover new protein markers of disease and as a diagnostic non-proximal fluid to detect early signs of disease throughout the body.

  3. Comparative Human Salivary and Plasma Proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Loo, J.A.; Yan, W.; Ramachandran, P.; Wong, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The protein compositions, or the proteomes, found in human salivary and plasma fluids are compared. From recent experimental work by many laboratories, a catalogue of 2290 proteins found in whole saliva has been compiled. This list of salivary proteins is compared with the 2698 proteins found in plasma. Approximately 27% of the whole-saliva proteins are found in plasma. However, despite this apparent low degree of overlap, the distribution found across Gene Ontological categories, such as molecular function, biological processes, and cellular components, shows significant similarities. Moreover, nearly 40% of the proteins that have been suggested to be candidate markers for diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and stroke can be found in whole saliva. These comparisons and correlations should encourage researchers to consider the use of saliva to discover new protein markers of disease and as a diagnostic non-proximal fluid to detect early signs of disease throughout the body. PMID:20739693

  4. Parotid salivary secretory pattern in bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Riad, M; Barton, J R; Wilson, J A; Freeman, C P; Maran, A G

    1991-01-01

    Parotid gland enlargement occurs in about 25% of patients with the binge eating syndrome of bulimia nervosa. The parotid salivary secretory patterns in 28 bulimics were determined in order to investigate the functional abnormality in the glands. Bulimia patients had a reduced resting flow rate. Bulimics who developed sialadenosis (4 patients) had reduced resting and stimulated flow rates. The salivary amylase activity was increased in both the resting and stimulated states in bulimics and the sialadenosis group. The resting total protein levels were greater in the bulimics. The electrolyte and immunoglobulin levels were within normal limits. The possibility of protein and enzymatic secretory disturbances due to autonomic nerve disorders as an explanation for the development of sialadenosis in bulimia nervosa is discussed.

  5. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  6. Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, Paola A; Morelatto, Rosana A; Benavidez, Tomás E; Baruzzi, Ana M; López de Blanc, Silvia A

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacter R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva.

  7. Effect of pilocarpine mouthwash on salivary flow.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, R; Perin, C; Becker, F L; Ramos, G Z; Gheno, G Z; Lopes, L R; Pires, M; Barros, H M T

    2002-01-01

    Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist that increases salivary flow and has been used to treat xerostomia. Oral intake is the most frequent route of administration. Adverse effects are dose-dependent and include sudoresis, facial blushing and increased urinary frequency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of topical pilocarpine solutions as mouthwashes on salivary flow and their adverse effects on healthy subjects. Forty volunteers received 10 ml 0.5, 1 and 2% pilocarpine solutions or 0.9% saline in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled manner. Salivation was measured before and 45, 60 and 75 min after mouth rinsing for 1 min with 10 ml of saline or pilocarpine solutions. Vital signs were measured and ocular, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms, anxiety and flushing were estimated using visual analog scales. There was a dose-dependent increase in salivation. Salivation measured after 1 and 2% pilocarpine (1.4 +/- 0.36 and 2.22 +/- 0.42 g, respectively) was significantly (P<0.001) higher than before (0.70 +/- 0.15 and 0.64 +/- 0.1 g), with a plateau between 45 and 75 min. Cardiovascular, visual, gastrointestinal and behavioral symptoms and signs were not changed by topical pilocarpine. Mouth rinsing with pilocarpine solutions at concentrations of 1 to 2% induced a significant objective and subjective dose-dependent increase in salivary flow, similar to the results reported by others studying the effect of oral 5 mg pilocarpine. The present study revealed the efficacy of pilocarpine mouthwash solutions in increasing salivary flow in healthy volunteers, with no adverse effects. Additional studies on patients with xerostomia are needed.

  8. Epigenetic regulation of CFTR in salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kim, Minkyoung; Choi, Se-Young; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guang-Yan; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-12-02

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plays a key role in exocrine secretion, including salivary glands. However, its functional expression in salivary glands has not been rigorously studied. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern and regulatory mechanism of CFTR in salivary glands using immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, Ussing chamber study, methylation-specific PCR, and bisulfite sequencing. Using an organ culture technique, we found that CFTR expression was first detected on the 15th day at the embryonic stage (E15) and was observed in ducts but not in acini. CFTR expression was confirmed in HSG and SIMS cell lines, which both originated from ducts, but not in the SMG C-6 cell line, which originated from acinar cells. Treatment of SMG C-6 cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) restored the expression level of CFTR mRNA in a time-dependent manner. Restoration of CFTR was further confirmed by a functional study. In the Ussing chamber study, 10 μM Cact-A1, a CFTR activator, did not evoke any currents in SMG C-6 cells. In contrast, in SMG C-6 cells pretreated with 5-Aza-CdR, Cact-A1 evoked a robust increase of currents, which were inhibited by the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh-172. Furthermore, forskolin mimicked the currents activated by Cact-A1. In our epigenetic study, SMG C-6 cells showed highly methylated CG pairs in the CFTR CpG island and most of the methylated CG pairs were demethylated by 5-Aza-CdR. Our results suggest that epigenetic regulation is involved in the development of salivary glands by silencing the CFTR gene in a tissue-specific manner.

  9. [Pleomorphic adenoma on heterotopic salivary inclusion: case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Papuzinski Aguayo, Cristian; Selamé Glena, Rodrigo; Bermeo Sanchez, Jaime; Lozano Burgos, Carlo

    2015-07-23

    Heterotopic salivary gland tissue is the presence of salivary tissue outside of the salivary glands. It is an uncommon condition but it can be the source of the full spectrum of salivary gland diseases. We present a rare case of pleomorphic adenoma developing from heterotopic salivary gland tissue in an upper neck lymph node not related to the major salivary glands. This article reviews the difficulty of the differential diagnosis with other cervical masses, embryogenesis, clinical manifestations and treatment of this condition.

  10. Optical approach to the salivary pellicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jae Ho; Krasieva, Tatiana; Tang, Shuo; Ahn, Yehchan; Kim, Chang Soo; Vu, Diana; Chen, Zhongping; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2009-07-01

    The salivary pellicle plays an important role in oral physiology, yet noninvasive in situ characterization and mapping of this layer remains elusive. The goal of this study is to develop an optical approach for the real-time, noninvasive mapping and characterization of salivary pellicles using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM). The long-term goals are to improve diagnostic capabilities in the oral cavity, gain a better understanding of physiological and pathological processes related to the oral hard tissues, and monitor treatment responses. A salivary pellicle is incubated on small enamel cubes using human whole saliva. OCT and OCM imaging occurs at 0, 10, 30, 60 min, and 24 h. For some imaging, spherical gold nanoparticles (15 nm) are added to determine whether this would increase the optical signal from the pellicle. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) provides the baseline information. In the saliva-incubated samples, a surface signal from the developing pellicle is visible in OCT images. Pellicle ``islands'' form, which increase in complexity over time until they merge to form a continuous layer over the enamel surface. Noninvasive, in situ time-based pellicle formation on the enamel surface is visualized and characterized using optical imaging.

  11. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C.

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  12. Distribution of Tight Junction Proteins in Adult Human Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Ola M.; Kim, Jung-Wan Martin; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan A.; Baum, Bruce J.; Tran, Simon D.

    2008-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are an essential structure of fluid-secreting cells, such as those in salivary glands. Three major families of integral membrane proteins have been identified as components of the TJ: claudins, occludin, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), plus the cytosolic protein zonula occludens (ZO). We have been working to develop an orally implantable artificial salivary gland that would be suitable for treating patients lacking salivary parenchymal tissue. To date, little is known about the distribution of TJ proteins in adult human salivary cells and thus what key molecular components might be desirable for the cellular component of an artificial salivary gland device. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of TJ proteins in human salivary glands. Salivary gland samples were obtained from 10 patients. Frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained using IHC methods. Claudin-1 was expressed in ductal, endothelial, and ∼25% of serous cells. Claudins-2, -3, and -4 and JAM-A were expressed in both ductal and acinar cells, whereas claudin-5 was expressed only in endothelial cells. Occludin and ZO-1 were expressed in acinar, ductal, and endothelial cells. These results provide new information on TJ proteins in two major human salivary glands and should serve as a reference for future studies to assess the presence of appropriate TJ proteins in a tissue-engineered human salivary gland. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:1093–1098, 2008) PMID:18765838

  13. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  14. Sialendoscopy-based diagnosis and treatment of salivary ductal obstructions.

    PubMed

    Liao, Gui Qing; Su, Yu Xiong; Zheng, Guang Sen; Liang, Li Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Salivary gland ductal obstruction is traditionally treated by sialoadenectomy when conservative measures fail. During the last decade, sialendoscopy has become the preferred approach in the management of salivary ductal obstructions. Sialendoscopy can provide direct, accurate and reliable visualisation of the salivary duct lumen and ductal pathologies, and can eliminate pathologies with miniaturised instrumentation. Now, sialendoscopic surgery is a promising option for patients who can be offered a satisfactory clinical outcome while avoiding sialoadenectomy. The present article briefly outlines sialendoscopy-based diagnosis and treatment of salivary ductal obstructions.

  15. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    PubMed

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  16. endoProteoFASP: a novel FASP approach to profile salivary peptidome and disclose salivary proteases.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Fábio; Amado, Francisco; Gomes, Pedro S; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The salivary peptidome, which can represent up to 20% of total secreted proteins in human saliva, is highly influenced by proteolytic events. However, the development of strategies to understand the dynamics underlying the generation of salivary peptides has been a challenging task. In order to disclose in more detail the proteolytic events taking place in saliva, we aimed to characterize salivary peptidome and predict salivary proteases by applying, for the first time, a filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) approach to saliva. Thus, as a proof-of-concept of this application, harvested saliva samples from healthy individuals were incubated in 30 kDa cut-off spin filters for 18 or 115 h, at 37 °C, to promote saliva autolysis and the attained peptidome was characterized and compared with the naturally occurring one. In ex vivo conditions, proline-rich proteins, P-B peptide, histatin 1 and statherin were found to be the most susceptible salivary proteins to proteolysis. Peptide fragments were mainly attributed to the activity of cathepsin L1 and K at 18 h, whereas at 115 h, the attained peptide fragments were attributed to the activity of cathepsins K and L1, and MEP1A. Overall, the described endoProteoFASP approach makes the most of saliva׳s own protease pool and avoids the use of synthetic peptides and exogenous proteases to understand the proteolytic events occurring in the oral fluid. Hence, it could be very helpful in future studies targeting the characterization of salivary proteases and peptidome from different pathophysiological conditions.

  17. The salivary microbiome is altered in the presence of a high salivary glucose concentration

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Shi, Ping; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Song, Xiaoqing; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Background Type II diabetes (T2D) has been associated with changes in oral bacterial diversity and frequency. It is not known whether these changes are part of the etiology of T2D, or one of its effects. Methods We measured the glucose concentration, bacterial counts, and relative frequencies of 42 bacterial species in whole saliva samples from 8,173 Kuwaiti adolescents (mean age 10.00 ± 0.67 years) using DNA probe analysis. In addition, clinical data related to obesity, dental caries, and gingivitis were collected. Data were compared between adolescents with high salivary glucose (HSG; glucose concentration ≥ 1.0 mg/d, n = 175) and those with low salivary glucose (LSG, glucose concentration < 0.1 mg/dL n = 2,537). Results HSG was associated with dental caries and gingivitis in the study population. The overall salivary bacterial load in saliva decreased with increasing salivary glucose concentration. Under HSG conditions, the bacterial count for 35 (83%) of 42 species was significantly reduced, and relative bacterial frequencies in 27 species (64%) were altered, as compared with LSG conditions. These alterations were stronger predictors of high salivary glucose than measures of oral disease, obesity, sleep or fitness. Conclusions HSG was associated with a reduction in overall bacterial load and alterations to many relative bacterial frequencies in saliva when compared with LSG in samples from adolescents. We propose that hyperglycemia due to obesity and/or T2D results in HSG and subsequent acidification of the oral environment, leading to a generalized perturbation in the oral microbiome. This suggests a basis for the observation that hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of dental erosion, dental caries, and gingivitis. We conclude that HSG in adolescents may be predicted from salivary microbial diversity or frequency, and that the changes in the oral microbial composition seen in adolescents with developing metabolic disease may the consequence

  18. Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200μm-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using

  19. Salivary Diagnostics—Point-of-Care diagnostics of MMP-8 in dentistry and medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rathnayake, Nilminie; Gieselmann, Dirk-Rolf; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Human saliva is an easily accessible biological fluid and contains a variety of disease-related biomarkers, which makes it a potential diagnostic medium. The clinical use of salivary/oral fluid biomarkers to identify oral and systemic conditions requires the development of non-invasive screening and diagnostic technologies, and is among the main goals of oral fluid researchers. The analysis of the disease-specific oral and systemic biomarkers in saliva and oral fluids (i.e., mouth-rinse, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and peri-implantitis sulcular fluid (PISF)) is demanding. Several factors influence their expression and release; these factors include the intracellular location, the molecular size and the flow characteristics of the biological fluid. The type of saliva/oral fluid utilized for the diagnostics affects the analysis. High sensitivity together with sophisticated methods and techniques are essential to get a useful outcome. We describe here a recently developed mouth-rinse that is practical, convenient and inexpensive, as well as PISF chair-side/point of care (PoC) lateral-flow active matrix metalloproteinase (aMMP-8) immunoassays to detect, predict and monitor the course and treatment of periodontitis and peri-implantitis. PMID:28117682

  20. Salivary Diagnostics-Point-of-Care diagnostics of MMP-8 in dentistry and medicine.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Nilminie; Gieselmann, Dirk-Rolf; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo

    2017-01-20

    Human saliva is an easily accessible biological fluid and contains a variety of disease-related biomarkers, which makes it a potential diagnostic medium. The clinical use of salivary/oral fluid biomarkers to identify oral and systemic conditions requires the development of non-invasive screening and diagnostic technologies, and is among the main goals of oral fluid researchers. The analysis of the disease-specific oral and systemic biomarkers in saliva and oral fluids (i.e., mouth-rinse, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and peri-implantitis sulcular fluid (PISF)) is demanding. Several factors influence their expression and release; these factors include the intracellular location, the molecular size and the flow characteristics of the biological fluid. The type of saliva/oral fluid utilized for the diagnostics affects the analysis. High sensitivity together with sophisticated methods and techniques are essential to get a useful outcome. We describe here a recently developed mouth-rinse that is practical, convenient and inexpensive, as well as PISF chair-side/point of care (PoC) lateral-flow active matrix metalloproteinase (aMMP-8) immunoassays to detect, predict and monitor the course and treatment of periodontitis and peri-implantitis.

  1. Biomarkers in clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-He; Huang, Shuwen; Kerr, David

    2011-01-01

    Biomarkers have been used in clinical medicine for decades. With the rise of genomics and other advances in molecular biology, biomarker studies have entered a whole new era and hold promise for early diagnosis and effective treatment of many diseases. A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention (1). They can be classified into five categories based on their application in different disease stages: 1) antecedent biomarkers to identify the risk of developing an illness, 2) screening biomarkers to screen for subclinical disease, 3) diagnostic biomarkers to recognize overt disease, 4) staging biomarkers to categorise disease severity, and 5) prognostic biomarkers to predict future disease course, including recurrence, response to therapy, and monitoring efficacy of therapy (1). Biomarkers can indicate a variety of health or disease characteristics, including the level or type of exposure to an environmental factor, genetic susceptibility, genetic responses to environmental exposures, markers of subclinical or clinical disease, or indicators of response to therapy. This chapter will focus on how these biomarkers have been used in preventive medicine, diagnostics, therapeutics and prognostics, as well as public health and their current status in clinical practice.

  2. Comparative salivary proteome of hepatitis B- and C-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Lorena Da Rós; Campanhon, Isabele Batista; Domingues, Romênia R; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Soares da Silva, Márcia Regina

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections are an important cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The natural history has a prominent latent phase, and infected patients may remain undiagnosed; this situation may lead to the continuing spread of these infections in the community. Compelling reasons exist for using saliva as a diagnostic fluid because it meets the demands of being an inexpensive, noninvasive and easy-to-use diagnostic method. Indeed, comparative analysis of the salivary proteome using mass spectrometry is a promising new strategy for identifying biomarkers. Our goal is to apply an Orbitrap-based quantitative approach to explore the salivary proteome profile in HBV- and HCV-infected patients. In the present study, whole saliva was obtained from 20 healthy, (control) 20 HBV-infected and 20 HCV-infected subjects. Two distinct pools containing saliva from 10 subjects of each group were obtained. The samples were ultracentrifuged and fractionated, and all fractions were hydrolyzed (trypsin) and injected into an LTQ-VELOS ORBITRAP. The identification and analyses of peptides were performed using Proteome Discoverer1.3 and ScaffoldQ + v.3.3.1. From a total of 362 distinct proteins identified, 344 proteins were identified in the HBV, 326 in the HCV and 303 in the control groups. Some blood proteins, such as flavin reductase (which converts biliverdin to bilirubin), were detected only in the HCV group. The data showed a reduced presence of complement C3, ceruloplasmin, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein and alpha(2)-acid glycoprotein in the hepatitis-infected patients. Peptides of serotransferrin and haptoglobin were less detected in the HCV group. This study provides an integrated perspective of the salivary proteome, which should be further explored in future studies targeting specific disease markers for HBV and HCV infection.

  3. Comparative Salivary Proteome of Hepatitis B- and C-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Lorena Da Rós; Campanhon, Isabele Batista; Domingues, Romênia R.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Soares da Silva, Márcia Regina

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections are an important cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The natural history has a prominent latent phase, and infected patients may remain undiagnosed; this situation may lead to the continuing spread of these infections in the community. Compelling reasons exist for using saliva as a diagnostic fluid because it meets the demands of being an inexpensive, noninvasive and easy-to-use diagnostic method. Indeed, comparative analysis of the salivary proteome using mass spectrometry is a promising new strategy for identifying biomarkers. Our goal is to apply an Orbitrap-based quantitative approach to explore the salivary proteome profile in HBV- and HCV-infected patients. In the present study, whole saliva was obtained from 20 healthy, (control) 20 HBV-infected and 20 HCV-infected subjects. Two distinct pools containing saliva from 10 subjects of each group were obtained. The samples were ultracentrifuged and fractionated, and all fractions were hydrolyzed (trypsin) and injected into an LTQ-VELOS ORBITRAP. The identification and analyses of peptides were performed using Proteome Discoverer1.3 and ScaffoldQ + v.3.3.1. From a total of 362 distinct proteins identified, 344 proteins were identified in the HBV, 326 in the HCV and 303 in the control groups. Some blood proteins, such as flavin reductase (which converts biliverdin to bilirubin), were detected only in the HCV group. The data showed a reduced presence of complement C3, ceruloplasmin, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein and alpha(2)-acid glycoprotein in the hepatitis-infected patients. Peptides of serotransferrin and haptoglobin were less detected in the HCV group. This study provides an integrated perspective of the salivary proteome, which should be further explored in future studies targeting specific disease markers for HBV and HCV infection. PMID:25423034

  4. Quantitative Salivary Proteomic Differences in Oral Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bassim, Carol W; Ambatipudi, Kiran S.; Mays, Jacqueline W.; Edwards, Dean A.; Swatkoski, Stephan; Fassil, Helen; Baird, Kristin; Gucek, Marjan; Pavletic, Steven Z.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a severe immunological complication that occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although oral cGVHD occurs in >25 % of cGVHD patients and leads to decreased quality of life, its etiology is poorly understood. The present retrospective cross-sectional analysis of oral cGVHD patients sought to (1) test the feasibility of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify protein biomarkers of oral cGVHD and (2) to gain a clearer understanding of salivary proteins impacted by oral cGVHD. Methods Using unstimulated whole saliva, we compared pooled saliva from five patients with a diagnosis of moderate or severe oral cGVHD, with a gender-and age- matched pool of five cGVHD patients with no oral mucosal findings. LC-MS/MS was used to identify salivary proteins, followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Selected mass spectrometric findings, including lactotransferrin, lactoperoxidase, and albumin, were confirmed by targeted label-free quantification. Results LC-MS/MS led to confident identification of 180 proteins. Of these proteins, 102 changed in abundance at least 2 fold, including 12 proteins identified only in the No oral cGVHD group. Downregulation of ~0.4 fold was confirmed for both lactotransferrin and lactoperoxidase in Oral cGVHD saliva using targeted label-free quantification. IPA analysis implicated pathways involved in cellular metabolism and immunoregulation. Conclusions Reduction of salivary lactoperoxidase, lactotransferrin, and several cysteine proteinase inhibitor family proteins suggests impaired oral antimicrobial host immunity in cGVHD patients. This shotgun proteomic analysis of oral cGVHD saliva using targeted label-free quantification of select proteins supports the use of mass spectrometry for future validation in a large patient population as noninvasive tests for screening, early detection, and monitoring of cGVHD. PMID:22806177

  5. Comparative Analysis of Salivary Alkaline Phosphatase in Post menopausal Women with and without Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Sophia, Khumukcham; Sudhakar, Uma; Jayakumar, Parvathee; Mathew, Danny

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Alkaline phosphatase is an intracellular destruction enzyme in the periodontium, and it takes part in the normal turnover of the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and root cementum formation and maintenance. Aim The aim of this case control study was to evaluate the enzyme Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) level in saliva of post menopausal women with and without chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods In this study, 40 individuals, satisfying the study inclusion and exclusion criteria, were recruited. They were categorically divided, on the basis of gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, into two groups: Group I (post menopausal women with a clinically healthy periodontium, n=20); and Group II (post menopausal women with generalized chronic periodontitis, n=20). Clinical parameters assessed were Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD). Unstimulated salivary samples were obtained in which the ALP concentration was measured using p-Nitrophenylphosphate, and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol reagents in Beckman and Coulter, AU 480 auto analyser. Mann-Whitney U test was used to find statistical difference with respect to all clinical parameters such as PI, GI, CAL, PPD and salivary ALP levels. Results The mean ALP in saliva was found to be higher in Group II compared to Group I and the difference was statistically significant with the p-value of 0.008. Conclusion A noteworthy increase in the ALP concentration was seen in saliva in our study (Group II) may be due to increased periodontal inflammation in post menopausal women. Thus salivary ALP can be taken as an additional biomarker to early diagnosis, development and progression of periodontitis especially among post menopausal women. PMID:28274061

  6. Quantitative study of salivary secretion in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tumilasci, Omar R; Cersósimo, M G; Belforte, Juan E; Micheli, Federico E; Benarroch, Eduardo E; Pazo, Jorge H

    2006-05-01

    We examined basal and reflex salivary flow rate and composition in 46 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), both in off and on conditions, compared to 13 age-matched controls without underlying disease or treatment affecting autonomic function. Whole saliva was collected 12 hours after withdrawal of dopaminergic drugs and at the peak of levodopa-induced motor improvement. Twenty-three of the 46 PD patients had received domperidone a week before the study. Basal salivary flow rate was significantly lower in PD patients in the off state compared to controls (P<0.005). Levodopa increased salivary flow rate (P<0.05) both in the domperidone-pretreated and untreated groups. Citric acid stimulated salivary flow rate in both the off and on states in PD patients. This effect was higher in the domperidone-pretreated patients. Salivary concentration of sodium, chloride, and amylase was higher in PD patients than in controls and was not affected by levodopa or domperidone treatment. Levodopa stimulates both basal and reflex salivary flow rate in PD. The mechanism appears to be central, as the effect is not blocked by domperidone. Domperidone may have a peripheral effect that potentiates reflex salivary secretion. Salivary composition is abnormal in PD and is not affected by levodopa treatment.

  7. Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

  8. Alterations in the Salivary Proteome and N-Glycome of Sjögren's Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Hall, Steven C; Hassis, Maria E; Williams, Katherine E; Albertolle, Matthew E; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Dykstra, Andrew B; Laurance, Megan; Ona, Katherine; Niles, Richard K; Prasad, Namrata; Gormley, Matthew; Shiboski, Caroline; Criswell, Lindsey A; Witkowska, H Ewa; Fisher, Susan J

    2017-03-24

    We used isobaric mass tagging (iTRAQ) and lectin affinity capture mass spectrometry (MS)-based workflows for global analyses of parotid saliva (PS) and whole saliva (WS) samples obtained from patients diagnosed with primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS) who were enrolled in the Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance (SICCA) as compared with two control groups. The iTRAQ analyses revealed up- and down-regulation of numerous proteins that could be involved in the disease process (e.g., histones) or attempts to mitigate the ensuing damage (e.g., bactericidal/permeability increasing fold containing family (BPIF) members). An immunoblot approach applied to independent sample sets confirmed the pSS associated up-regulation of β2-microglobulin (in PS) and down-regulation of carbonic anhydrase VI (in WS) and BPIFB2 (in PS). Beyond the proteome, we profiled the N-glycosites of pSS and control samples. They were enriched for glycopeptides using lectins Aleuria aurantia and wheat germ agglutinin, which recognize fucose and sialic acid/N-acetyl glucosamine, respectively. MS analyses showed that pSS is associated with increased N-glycosylation of numerous salivary glycoproteins in PS and WS. The observed alterations of the salivary proteome and N-glycome could be used as pSS biomarkers enabling easier and earlier detection of this syndrome while lending potential new insights into the disease process.

  9. Cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase and children's perceptions of their social networks.

    PubMed

    Ponzi, Davide; Muehlenbein, Michael P; Geary, David C; Flinn, Mark V

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of social network analysis in biobehavioral research. Despite the well-established importance of social relationships in influencing human behavior and health, little is known about how children's perception of their immediate social relationships correlates with biological parameters of stress. In this study we explore the association between two measures of children's personal social networks, perceived network size and perceived network density, with two biomarkers of stress, cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase. Forty children (mean age = 8.30, min age = 5, and max age = 12) were interviewed to collect information about their friendships and three samples of saliva were collected. Our results show that children characterized by a lower pre-interview cortisol concentration and a lower salivary alpha-amylase reactivity to the interview reported the highest density of friendships. We discuss this result in light of the multisystem approach to the study of children's behavioral outcomes, emphasizing that future work of this kind is needed in order to understand the cognitive and biological mechanisms underlying children's and adolescents' social perceptual biases.

  10. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit.

  11. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. PMID:26464855

  12. Functional genetic characterization of salivary gland development in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the devastating global impact of mosquito-borne illnesses on human health, very little is known about mosquito developmental biology. In this investigation, functional genetic analysis of embryonic salivary gland development was performed in Aedes aegypti, the dengue and yellow fever vector and an emerging model for vector mosquito development. Although embryonic salivary gland development has been well studied in Drosophila melanogaster, little is known about this process in mosquitoes or other arthropods. Results Mosquitoes possess orthologs of many genes that regulate Drosophila melanogaster embryonic salivary gland development. The expression patterns of a large subset of these genes were assessed during Ae. aegypti development. These studies identified a set of molecular genetic markers for the developing mosquito salivary gland. Analysis of marker expression allowed for tracking of the progression of Ae. aegypti salivary gland development in embryos. In Drosophila, the salivary glands develop from placodes located in the ventral neuroectoderm. However, in Ae. aegypti, salivary marker genes are not expressed in placode-like patterns in the ventral neuroectoderm. Instead, marker gene expression is detected in salivary gland rudiments adjacent to the proventriculus. These observations highlighted the need for functional genetic characterization of mosquito salivary gland development. An siRNA- mediated knockdown strategy was therefore employed to investigate the role of one of the marker genes, cyclic-AMP response element binding protein A (Aae crebA), during Ae. aegypti salivary gland development. These experiments revealed that Aae crebA encodes a key transcriptional regulator of the secretory pathway in the developing Ae. aegypti salivary gland. Conclusions The results of this investigation indicated that the initiation of salivary gland development in Ae. aegypti significantly differs from that of D. melanogaster. Despite these differences

  13. Circulating glioma biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Kros, Johan M.; Mustafa, Dana M.; Dekker, Lennard J.M.; Sillevis Smitt, Peter A.E.; Luider, Theo M.; Zheng, Ping-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Validated biomarkers for patients suffering from gliomas are urgently needed for standardizing measurements of the effects of treatment in daily clinical practice and trials. Circulating body fluids offer easily accessible sources for such markers. This review highlights various categories of tumor-associated circulating biomarkers identified in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of glioma patients, including circulating tumor cells, exosomes, nucleic acids, proteins, and oncometabolites. The validation and potential clinical utility of these biomarkers is briefly discussed. Although many candidate circulating protein biomarkers were reported, none of these have reached the required validation to be introduced for clinical practice. Recent developments in tracing circulating tumor cells and their derivatives as exosomes and circulating nuclear acids may become more successful in providing useful biomarkers. It is to be expected that current technical developments will contribute to the finding and validation of circulating biomarkers. PMID:25253418

  14. Salivary epithelial cells: an unassuming target site for gene therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Paola; Rowzee, Anne M.; Zheng, Changyu; Adriaansen, Janik; Baum, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    Salivary glands are classical exocrine glands whose external secretions result in the production of saliva. However, in addition to the secretion of exocrine proteins, salivary epithelial cells are also capable of secreting proteins internally, into the bloodstream. This brief review examines the potential for using salivary epithelial cells as a target site for in situ gene transfer, with an ultimate goal of producing therapeutic proteins for treating both systemic and upper gastrointestinal tract disorders. The review discusses the protein secretory pathways reported to be present in salivary epithelial cells, the viral gene transfer vectors shown useful for transducing these cells, model transgenic secretory proteins examined, and some clinical conditions that might benefit from such salivary gland gene transfer. PMID:20219693

  15. Measurement of salivary cortisol by a chemiluminescent organic-based immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Pires, N M M; Dong, T

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) using a sensitive organic photodetector was developed to detect human cortisol, an important biomarker for stress-related diseases. The developed CLIA was performed onto gold-coated glass chips, on which anti-cortisol antibodies were immobilised and chemiluminescent horseradish peroxidase-luminol-peroxide reactions were generated. Using cortisol-spiked artificial saliva samples, the CLIA biosensor showed a linear range of detection between 0.1 ng/mL and 175 ng/mL and a detection limit of 80 pg/mL. The sensor response was highly specific to cortisol and did not vary significantly between assays. The results indicate the potential clinical application of the CLIA sensor. Furthermore, the simple layered structure of the organic photodetector may encourage the realisation of integrated optical biosensors for point-of-use measurement of salivary cortisol levels.

  16. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    PubMed Central

    Kuennen, M.; Gourley, C.; Schneider, S.; Dokladny, K.; Moseley, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). Salivary IgA (IgA) has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys) and lactoferrin (Lac). Objective To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort), IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males) completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post) and 1.5 hrs post race (+1.5). Results Lac concentration was higher at +1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p < 0.05). Lys was unaffected by the race (p > 0.05). IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower +1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p < 0.05). Cort concentration was higher at post compared to +1.5 (p < 0.05), but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81±1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p < 0.05) compared to pre race. Conclusions The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running. PMID:24744458

  17. Biomarkers for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sherer, Todd B

    2011-04-20

    Biomarkers for detecting the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) could accelerate development of new treatments. Such biomarkers could be used to identify individuals at risk for developing PD, to improve early diagnosis, to track disease progression with precision, and to test the efficacy of new treatments. Although some progress has been made, there are many challenges associated with developing biomarkers for detecting PD in its earliest stages.

  18. Genetic salivary protein polymorphism in Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Banderas Tarabay, J A; González Begné, M

    1996-01-01

    Genetic polymorphism is the major contributor that affects human salivary composition. In order to determine the molecular phenotypes in saliva, it is important to know the distribution of proteins with specific functions which allows the clinical diagnosis of specific diseases. Unstimulated human whole saliva samples from 120 subjects were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The phenotype distribution of several molecules including MG1, MG2, alpha-Amylase, PRP-I and cystatins were similar. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics were specific in each subject.

  19. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    cells were identified in cultured cells from dispersed tissue. Biomarker studies with the salivary enzyme, alpha-amylase, and tight junction proteins, such as zonula occludens-1 and E-cadherin, confirmed the phenotype of these cells. Strong staining for laminin and perlecan/HSPG2 were noted in basement membranes and perlecan also was secreted and organized by cultured acinar populations, which formed lobular structures that mimicked intact glands when cultured on Matrigel(TM) or a bioactive peptide derived from domain IV of perlecan (PlnDIV). On either matrix, large acini-like lobular structures grew and formed connections between the lobes. alpha-Amylase secretion was confirmed by staining and activity assay. Biomarkers including tight junction protein E-cadherin and water channel protein, aquaporin 5 (AQP5) found in tissue, were expressed in cultured acinar cells. Cells cultured on Matrigel(TM) or PlnDIV peptide organized stress fibers and activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK). HA, a natural polysaccharide and a major component of the ECM, can be used to generate soft and pliable hydrogels. A culture system consisting of HA hydrogel and PlnDIV peptide was used to generate a 2.5D culture system. Acinar cells cultured on these hydrogels self-assembled into lobular structures and expressed tight junction components such as ZO-1. Acini-like structures were stained for the presence of alpha-amylase. Live/dead staining revealed the presence of apoptotic cells in the center of the acini-like structures, indicative of lumen formation. The functionality of these acini-like structures was studied by stimulating them with neurotransmitters to enhance their fluid and protein production. Acini-like structures treated with norepinephrine and isoproterenol showed increased granule formation as observed by phase contrast microscopy and alpha-amylase staining in the structures. Lobular structures on hydrogels were treated with acetylcholine to increase fluid production. The increase

  20. Assessment of salivary gland function in patients after successful kidney transplantation using (99m)Tc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Orsal, Ebru; Seven, Bedri; Keles, Mustafa; Ayan, Arif Kursad; Cankaya, Erdem; Ozkan, Ozalkan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic renal failure and its treatment can induce oral health problems and salivary glands dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess salivary glands function in patients with kidney transplantation using technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-P) salivary glands scintigraphy. We prospectively studied 34 patients with kidney transplantation (30 males and 4 females,mean age 39.76±11.6 years) and 28 healthy controls (12 males and 16 females, mean age 36.1±9.5 years). Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed nearly 4.4±2.9 years after successful kidney transplantation. Dynamic salivary glands scintigraphy was performed during 25min after the intravenous administration of 185MBq of (99m)Tc-P. Time-activity curves and glands functional parameters were calculated for the parotid and submandibular salivary glands: uptake ratio, maximum accumulation of the radionuclide, and excretion fraction. Statistical analysis of the functional parameters showed no significant differences between patients with kidney transplantation and healthy controls (P>0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that using (99m)Tc-P salivary gland scintigraphy, salivary glands function of patients with successful kidney transplantation do not differ statistically from those in healthy controls.

  1. The Biomarker Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, K. E.; Walters, C. C.; Moldowan, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Biomarkers are compounds found in crude oil with structures inherited from once-living organisms. They persist in oil spills, refinery products and archaeological artifacts, and can be used to identify the origin, geological age and environmental conditions prevalent during their formation and alteration. These two volumes will be an invaluable resource for geologists, petroleum geochemists, biogeochemists, environmental and forensic scientists, natural product chemists and archaeologists. The first of two volumes of The Biomarker Guide discusses the origins of biomarkers and introduces basic chemical principles relevant to their study. It goes on to discuss analytical techniques, and the applications of biomarkers in environmental and archaeological problems.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N.; Tolic, Nikola; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Haizhen; Zhao, Rui; Moore, Ronald J.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-05-31

    There are several notable challenges inherent to fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, post-translational modifications, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of post-translational modifications. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intact N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein (PIP) and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein (aPRP). These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid (PS) and submandibular/sublingual gland (SMSL) secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FTICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different protein and PTM patterns were resolved with high reproducibility between PS and SMSL glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.

  3. Characterization of the In Vitro Kinetic Interaction of Chlorpyrifos-Oxon with Rat Salivary Cholinesterase: A Potential Biomonitoring Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Kousba, Ahmed A. ); Poet, Torka S. ); Timchalk, Charles

    2003-02-12

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used organophosphate insecticide (OP). The primary mechanism of action for CPF involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by the active metabolite, CPF-oxon, with subsequent accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) resulting in a wide range of neutotoxicity. CPF-oxon, can likewise inhibit other non-target cholinesterases (ChE) such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which represents a detoxification mechanism and a potential biomarker of exposure/response. Biological monitoring for OPs has focused on measuring parent chemical or metabolite in blood and urine or blood ChE inhibition. Salivary biomonitoring has recently been explored as a practical method for examination of chemical exposure; however, there are a limited number of studies exploring its use for OPs. To evaluate the use of salivary ChE as a biological monitor for OP exposure, the current study characterized salivary ChE activity in Sprague-Dawley rats through its comparison with brain and plasma ChE using BW284C51 and iso-OMPA as selective inhibitors of AChE and BuChE, respectively. The study also estimated the kinetic constants describing BuChE interaction with CPF-oxon. A modified Ellman assay in conjunction with pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling was used to characterize the in vitro titration of diluted rat salivary ChE enzyme with CPF-oxon. The results indicated that, more than 95% of rat salivary ChE activity was associated with BuChE activity, total BuChE active site concentration was 0.0012 0.00013 nmol/ml saliva, reactivation rate constant (Kr) was 0.068 0.008 h-1 and inhibitory (Ki) rate constant of 8.825 and 9.80 nM-1h-1 determined experimentally and using model optimization respectively. These study results would be helpful for further evaluating the potential utility of salivary ChE as a practical tool for biological monitor of OP exposures.

  4. Glycoprofiling of the Human Salivary Proteome.

    PubMed

    Sondej, Melissa; Denny, Patricia A; Xie, Yongming; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Si, Yan; Takashima, Jona; Shi, Wenyuan; Wong, David T; Loo, Joseph A; Denny, Paul C

    2009-03-01

    Glycosylation is important for a number of biological processes and is perhaps the most abundant and complicated of the known post-translational modifications found on proteins. This work combines two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and lectin blotting to map the salivary glycome, and mass spectrometry to identity the proteins that are associated with the glycome map. A panel of 15 lectins that recognize six sugar-specific categories was used to visualize the type and extent of glycosylation in saliva from two healthy male individuals. Lectin blots were compared to 2-D gels stained either with Sypro Ruby (protein stain) or Pro-Q Emerald 488 (glycoprotein stain). Each lectin shows a distinct pattern, even those belonging to the same sugar-specific category. In addition, the glycosylation profiles generated from the lectin blots show that most of the salivary proteins are glycosylated and that the pattern is more widespread than is demonstrated by the glycoprotein stained gel. Finally, the co-reactivity between two lectins was measured to determine the glycan structures that are most and least often associated with one another along with the population variation of the lectin reactivity for 66 individuals.

  5. The human salivary proteome is radiation responsive.

    PubMed

    Moore, Heather D; Ivey, Richard G; Voytovich, Uliana J; Lin, Chenwei; Stirewalt, Derek L; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era L; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2014-05-01

    In the event of a nuclear incident in a heavily populated area, the surge in demand for medical evaluation will likely overwhelm our emergency care system, compromising our ability to care for victims with life-threatening injuries or exposures. Therefore, there exists a need for a rapidly deployable biological assay for radiation exposure that can be performed in the field by individuals with little to no medical training. Saliva is an attractive biofluid for this purpose, due to the relative ease of its collection and the wide array of biomolecules it contains. To determine whether the human salivary proteome is responsive to ionizing radiation exposure, we characterized the abundances of salivary proteins in humans before and after total body irradiation. Using an assay panel targeting 90 analytes (growth factors, chemokines and cytokines), we identified proteins that were significantly radiation responsive in human saliva. The responses of three proteins (monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1, interleukin 8 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1) were confirmed using independent immunoassay platforms and then verified and further characterized in 130 saliva samples from a completely independent set of 38 patients undergoing total body irradiation. The results demonstrate the potential for detecting radiation exposure based on analysis of human saliva.

  6. The Human Salivary Proteome is Radiation Responsive

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Heather D.; Ivey, Richard G.; Voytovich, Uliana J.; Lin, Chenwei; Stirewalt, Derek L.; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era L.; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2014-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear incident in a heavily populated area, the surge in demand for medical evaluation will likely overwhelm our emergency care system, compromising our ability to care for victims with life-threatening injuries or exposures. Therefore, there exists a need for a rapidly deployable biological assay for radiation exposure that can be performed in the field by individuals with little to no medical training. Saliva is an attractive biofluid for this purpose, due to the relative ease of its collection and the wide array of biomolecules it contains. To determine whether the human salivary proteome is responsive to ionizing radiation exposure, we characterized the abundances of salivary proteins in humans before and after total body irradiation. Using an assay panel targeting 90 analytes (growth factors, chemokines and cytokines), we identified proteins that were significantly radiation responsive in human saliva. The responses of three proteins (monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1, interleukin 8 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1) were confirmed using independent immunoassay platforms and then verified and further characterized in 130 saliva samples from a completely independent set of 38 patients undergoing total body irradiation. The results demonstrate the potential for detecting radiation exposure based on analysis of human saliva. PMID:24720749

  7. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDIES ON SALIVARY GLAND CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, J.; Sirlin, J. L.

    1963-01-01

    Salivary glands were fixed in cold 1 per cent osmium tetroxide in veronal-acetate buffer containing sucrose and embedded in methacrylate mixture or Araldite. The salivary gland nuclei of sciarids show a continuous production of nucleoli, which remain multiple and not consolidated into a single structure. The earliest recognizable nucleoli, which we call "elementary nucleoli," are aggregations of a few paired 40 A fibrils and a few 150 A particles, at many points within chromosome bands. Further development consists of the detachment of the elementary nucleoli from their points of origin and their subsequent mutual coalescence. As a result, dense patches of nucleolar material are formed which become large nucleoli at the surface of chromosomes, either attached to the band or free. The fully formed nucleoli have a characteristic dual structure with a narrow dense periphery and a broader less dense internum. Fibrils and particles are present in both regions, and the difference in density reflects differences in the packing of the two structural elements. The duality in structure is lost in later stages. The nucleolar fibrils appear to be similar to the chromosomal fibrils. The 150 A particles in nucleoli, chromosomes, and nuclear sap seem identical. The significance of these observations is discussed for nucleologenesis in general. PMID:13964284

  8. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeun J.; Hong, Hyun S.; Jeong, Sun H.; Lee, Eun H.; Jung, Min J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC) is a rare malignancy with the histopathological feature of undifferentiated carcinoma and an intermixed reactive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Although clinically significant because of its malignant nature, it is difficult to make a differential diagnosis by preoperative imaging. Here, we report 3 cases of primary LEC arising in the major salivary glands, which showed unusual imaging features unlike other malignant tumors. Patient concerns: Our first case is a 44-year-old man with LEC in the right parotid gland, the second case is a 71-year-old woman with LEC in the right submandibular gland, and the third case is a 35-year-old woman with LEC in the right parotid gland. All of the patients presented with a palpable mass of variable duration. Diagnoses: Computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a relatively well-defined, slightly hyperattenuated exophytic solid mass that had homogeneous well-enhanced regions. Ultrasonography (US) in the first 2 cases showed well-defined, hypoechoic solid masses with posterior enhancement. The CT findings seem to be benign tumors, but US features are compatible with highly cellular and hypervascular tumors. Interventions: The resection of the involved salivary gland with postoperative radiation therapy was performed. Outcomes: There was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis after 5 years in all 3 patients. Lessons: Understanding these unusual imaging findings may be helpful in detecting LEC, and may also help clinicians provide adequate management to patients, such as surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy, because of its malignant entity. PMID:28207533

  9. Promising Gene Therapeutics for Salivary Gland Radiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Renjith Parameswaran; Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan

    2017-01-01

    More than 0.5 million new cases of head and neck cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year, and approximately 75% of them are treated with radiation alone or in combination with other cancer treatments. A majority of patients treated with radiotherapy develop significant oral off-target effects because of the unavoidable irradiation of normal tissues. Salivary glands that lie within treatment fields are often irreparably damaged and a decline in function manifests as dry mouth or xerostomia. Limited ability of the salivary glands to regenerate lost acinar cells makes radiation-induced loss of function a chronic problem that affects the quality of life of the patients well beyond the completion of radiotherapy. The restoration of saliva production after irradiation has been a daunting challenge, and this review provides an overview of promising gene therapeutics that either improve the gland’s ability to survive radiation insult, or alternately, restore fluid flow after radiation. The salient features and shortcomings of each approach are discussed. PMID:28286865

  10. The salivary proteome profile in patients affected by SAPHO syndrome characterized by a top-down RP-HPLC-ESI-MS platform.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Monica; Firinu, Davide; Manconi, Paolo Emilio; Pisanu, Maria; Murgia, Giuseppe; Piras, Valentina; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene; del Giacco, Stefano Renato; Cabras, Tiziana

    2015-06-01

    SAPHO syndrome is a rare and often unrecognized disease with prominent inflammatory cutaneous and articular symptoms characterized by musculoskeletal manifestations (synovitis, hyperostosis, osteomyelitis) associated with dermatological conditions (severe acne and pustulosis). The acidic soluble fraction of whole saliva from 10 adult women affected by SAPHO syndrome and from a group of 28 healthy women was analysed by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS with the aim of discovering salivary biomarkers of the disorder. The levels of the oral proteins and peptides were correlated with clinical data. The following proteins showed a significant decreased concentration in saliva of SAPHO subjects with respect to controls: cystatin S1 and SN, histatins, the major acidic PRPs, P-C and P-B peptides. The cystatin SN abundance lowered according to the disease duration and histatins showed positive correlations with the C reactive protein. Statistical analysis performed excluding one patient with a different pattern of salivary proteins/peptides highlighted a positive relationship between cystatin S1, histatins 3, histatin 5, and the neutrophil count. Moreover, histatin 3 correlated positively with the total white cell count and negatively with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Levels and frequency of S100A12 protein showed a trend to increase in SAPHO patients. The high expression of this pro-inflammatory protein is probably related to the inflammatory response and to the altered neutrophil responses to functional stimuli that characterize SAPHO syndrome suggesting a possible application as a salivary biomarker.

  11. Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) expression and humoral response in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sumit; Parashar, Deepak; Gupta, Namita; Jagadish, Nirmala; Thakar, Alok; Suri, Vaishali; Kumar, Rajive; Gupta, Anju; Ansari, Abdul S; Lohiya, Nirmal Kumar; Suri, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland cancers are highly aggressive epithelial tumor associated with metastatic potential and high mortality. The tumors are biologically diverse and are of various histotypes. Besides, the detection and diagnosis is a major problem of salivary gland cancer for available treatment modalities. In the present study, we have investigated the association of sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) expression with salivary gland tumor (SGT). Clinical specimens of benign (n = 16) and malignant tumors (n = 86) were examined for the SPAG9 expression. In addition, the sera and adjacent non-cancerous tissues (n = 72) from available patients were obtained. Our in situ RNA hybridization and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis revealed significant difference (p = 0.0001) in SPAG9 gene and protein expression in benign (63%) and malignant tumor (84%) specimens. Further, significant association was also observed between SPAG9 expression and malignant tumors (P = 0.05). A cut-off value of >10% cells expressing SPAG9 protein designated as positive in IHC, predicted presence of malignant SGT with 83.72% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% PPV and 83.72% NPV. Humoral response against SPAG9 protein was generated in 68% of SGT patients. A cut-off value of 0.212 OD for anti-SPAG9 antibodies in ELISA predicted presence of malignant SGT with 69.23% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% PPV and 78.94% NPV. Collectively, our data suggests that the majority of SGT show significant difference and association among benign and malignant tumors for SPAG9 gene and protein expression and also exhibit humoral response against SPAG9 protein. Hence, SPAG9 may be developed as a biomarker for detection and diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. PMID:25941602

  12. Changes in the salivary protein profile of morbidly obese women either previously subjected to bariatric surgery or not.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Elsa; Simões, Carla; Rodrigues, Lénia; Costa, Ana Rodrigues; Vitorino, Rui; Amado, Francisco; Antunes, Célia; do Carmo, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Saliva is a non-invasive source of biomarkers useful in the study of physiological mechanisms. Moreover, this fluid has diverse functions, among which food perception and ingestion, making it particularly suitable for the study of obesity. The aims of this study were to assess changes in salivary proteome among morbidly obese women, with a view to provide information about mechanisms potentially related to the development of obesity, and to evaluate whether these changes persist after weight loss. Mixed saliva samples from morbidly obese women (N = 18) who had been either subjected (group O-BS) or not (group O) to bariatric surgery and women with normal weight (N = 14; group C) were compared for protein profiles, alpha-amylase abundance and enzymatic activity, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI abundance. Differences in salivary obese profiles were observed for 23 different spots. Zinc-alpha-2 glycoprotein-containing spots showed higher abundance in group O only, whereas cystatin S-containing spots presented higher abundance in the two groups of obese subjects. Most of the spots identified as salivary amylase were present at lower levels in group O-BS. With regard to the amylase enzymatic activity, increases were observed for group O and decreases for group O-BS. One interesting finding was the high correlation between levels of CA VI and body mass index in group O, which was not observed for groups O-BS or C. The differences between groups, mainly regarding salivary proteins involved in taste sensitivity and metabolism, point to the potential of using saliva in the study of obesity development.

  13. Biomarkers present in asphaltenes

    SciTech Connect

    Philp, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The significance and distribution of biomarkers in sediments, source rocks and crude oils are well documented in the literature. Little attention has been directed towards the biomarkers that are present in the asphaltene fractions of crude oils and source rock extracts. Asphaltene fractions by definition are insoluble in certain solvents and consist of high molecular components which makes them difficult to analyze by techniques commonly used to characterize the soluble extracts. Asphaltenes are ideally suited for analysis by microscale pyrolysis techniques (py) combined with gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Utilization of the multiple ion detection technique in conjunction with the py-GC-MS analyses permits the distribution of the steranes, triterpanes and other biomarker produced by pyrolysis of the asphaltenes to be easily determined. It is proposed in this paper to discuss the pyrolysis of asphaltene from a variety of source rocks and analysis of the biomarkers, released by the pyrolysis. These biomarkers distributions can be used to obtain information on source and maturity of the organic matter in a similar manner to using the soluble biomarkers. It is proposed to discuss the asphaltene biomarker distributions and also to speculate as to why certain biomarkers are present only in the extracts and asphaltenes and not produced by pyrolysis of the kerogens.

  14. Respiratory Toxicity Biomarkers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The advancement in high throughput genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques have accelerated pace of lung biomarker discovery. A recent growth in the discovery of new lung toxicity/disease biomarkers have led to significant advances in our understanding of pathological proce...

  15. The effect of social stress on salivary trace elements.

    PubMed

    Sheibaninia, Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Social stress can alter the saliva in favor of metabolism of trace elements. This study aimed to assess the effect of social stress on salivary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) contents in dental students before and after a comprehensive English test. Twelve students with an average age of 27 years were selected from three dental schools. The students were carries-free, and salivary samples were collected 1 week before the test day and right before the comprehensive English test. Unstimulated saliva was collected from the participants. The pH of the saliva samples was measured using a portable pH meter, and the salivary trace element contents were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. After checking data to be normally distributed, Student's paired t test was used for statistical analysis. Salivary pH significantly increased right before the English test. Salivary Cu concentration decreased in students after the test (P > 0.05). The level of Zn, Mn, and Fe increased, while only Mn change was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Under the limitations of this study, induction of social stress led to a significant increase in Mn concentration in the saliva. The salivary Cu, Zn, and Fe contents, however, did not exhibit significant changes. Changes in salivary inorganic trace element content, as a result of physiological stress, might influence health of teeth, enamel, and oral mucosal tissues.

  16. Evolution of the salivary apyrases of blood-feeding arthropods.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L

    2013-09-15

    Phylogenetic analyses of three families of arthropod apyrases were used to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of salivary-expressed apyrases, which have an anti-coagulant function in blood-feeding arthropods. Members of the 5'nucleotidase family were recruited for salivary expression in blood-feeding species at least five separate times in the history of arthropods, while members of the Cimex-type apyrase family have been recruited at least twice. In spite of these independent events of recruitment for salivary function, neither of these families showed evidence of convergent amino acid sequence evolution in salivary-expressed members. On the contrary, in the 5'-nucleotide family, salivary-expressed proteins conserved ancestral amino acid residues to a significantly greater extent than related proteins without salivary function, implying parallel evolution by conservation of ancestral characters. This unusual pattern of sequence evolution suggests the hypothesis that purifying selection favoring conservation of ancestral residues is particularly strong in salivary-expressed members of the 5'-nucleotidase family of arthropods because of constraints arising from expression within the vertebrate host.

  17. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-06-25

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide) is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ) by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase) -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands.

  18. Salivary and serum immunoglobulin levels in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis.

    PubMed

    Harley, R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

    2003-02-01

    The salivary and serum concentrations of immunoglobulins G, M and A (IgG, IgM and IgA), and the salivary concentrations of albumin were measured by ELISA in 30 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and 32 healthy cats. The cats with chronic gingivostomatitis had significantly higher salivary concentrations of IgG, IgM and albumin, and higher serum concentrations of IgG, IgM and IgA, but significantly lower salivary concentrations of IgA than the healthy cats. The cats with chronic gingivostomatitis were treated with either methylprednisolone, sodium aurothiomalate, metronidazole and spiramycin, or oral hygiene products. After three months of treatment, the cats receiving methylprednisolone had a significant reduction in serum IgG levels compared to the cats treated with sodium aurothiomalate or metronidazole and spiramycin, but after six months of treatment there were no significant differences between the groups. Before the treatments, the levels of oral inflammation were not correlated significantly with any of the serum or salivary immunoglobulin levels. However, the changes in oral inflammation were correlated significantly with the changes in the salivary IgM concentration after three and six months of treatment, and with the change in the salivary IgA concentration after six months of treatment.

  19. Biomarkers in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Morgan, John C; Mehta, Shyamal H; Sethi, Kapil D

    2010-11-01

    Biomarkers are objectively measured characteristics that are indicators of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or responses to therapeutic interventions. To date, clinical assessment remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and clinical rating scales are well established as the gold standard for tracking progression of PD. Researchers have identified numerous potential biomarkers that may aid in the differential diagnosis of PD and/or tracking disease progression. Clinical, genetic, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics), and neuroimaging biomarkers may provide useful tools in the diagnosis of PD and in measuring disease progression and response to therapies. Some potential biomarkers are inexpensive and do not require much technical expertise, whereas others are expensive or require specialized equipment and technical skills. Many potential biomarkers in PD show great promise; however, they need to be assessed for their sensitivity and specificity over time in large and varied samples of patients with and without PD.

  20. Biomarkers of Reflux Disease.

    PubMed

    Kia, Leila; Pandolfino, John E; Kahrilas, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) encompasses an array of disorders unified by the reflux of gastric contents. Because there are many potential disease manifestations, esophageal and extraesophageal, there is no single biomarker of the entire disease spectrum; a set of GERD biomarkers that each quantifies specific aspects of GERD-related pathology might be needed. We review recent reports of biomarkers of GERD, specifically in relation to endoscopically negative esophageal disease and excluding conventional pH-impedance monitoring. We consider histopathologic biomarkers, baseline impedance, and serologic assays to determine that most markers are based on manifestations of impaired esophageal mucosal integrity, which is based on increased ionic and molecular permeability, and/or destruction of tight junctions. Impaired mucosal integrity quantified by baseline mucosal impedance, proteolytic fragments of junctional proteins, or histopathologic features has emerged as a promising GERD biomarker.

  1. Analysis of residual saliva and minor salivary gland secretions.

    PubMed

    Won, S; Kho, H; Kim, Y; Chung, S; Lee, S

    2001-07-01

    Residual saliva and minor salivary gland secretions are important for the maintenance of oral mucosal wetness. Salivary proteins and glycoproteins are the major components of the oral mucosal film, which functions as a moisture retainer and a protective barrier. Here, the correlations between the amounts of residual saliva and minor salivary gland secretions and their protein concentrations were investigated in 30 normal healthy individuals. The thickness of the mucosal film was measured at six mucosal surfaces and minor salivary gland secretion rate was measured at two mucosal surfaces. The thickness of residual saliva was determined by placing filter-paper strips against the mucosa at each site for 5 s and then measuring the volume electronically with a Periotron 8000 micro-moisture meter. The unstimulated rate of minor salivary gland secretion was measured for 30 s by the same method. Unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was measured with the spitting method. The total protein concentration of all salivary samples was measured by bicinchoninic acid assay. Before the experiment, the intra-/inter-examiner reliability of the method using the Periotron and the filter-paper strips was investigated. With a range of 0.4256-0.8846, the intraclass correlation coefficient, measured within and between examiners, was indicative of good reliability. The oral mucosal site with the thinnest coat of residual saliva was the anterior hard palate. Mucosal wetness on the hard palate and buccal mucosa showed significant positive correlations with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate and significant negative correlations with the total protein concentration of residual saliva. Mucosal wetness on the upper and lower labial mucosa also showed significant negative correlations with the total protein concentration of residual saliva. Mucosal wetness on the soft palate was correlated with the minor salivary gland secretion rate (r=0.477, P<0.01). Among the minor salivary glands, the

  2. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  3. Idiopathic salivary gland enlargement (sialadenosis) in dogs: a microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Sozmen, M; Brown, P J; Whitbread, T J

    2000-06-01

    A histological, histochemical and morphometric study was performed on submandibular salivary glands from 13 dogs which had presented with a submandibular mass or swelling that proved to be a portion of non-inflammatory and non-neoplastic submandibular salivary gland. There were no consistent changes in lectin-binding histochemistry or immunohistochemical expression of various cell markers, and, in most cases, there was no measurable difference in acinar size in the affected gland. The possible explanation for the clinical salivary gland enlargement is therefore unclear.

  4. Causes, natural history, and incidence of salivary stones and obstructions.

    PubMed

    Harrison, John D

    2009-12-01

    Uncertainty about the causes and natural history of salivary stones (sialoliths) and other obstructions is being dispelled by clinical and experimental research. Sialoliths are now shown to be secondary to chronic obstructive sialadenitis. Microscopic stones (sialomicroliths) accumulate during secretory inactivity in normal salivary glands and produce atrophic foci by obstruction. Microbes ascend the main salivary duct during secretory inactivity and proliferate in atrophic foci and cause spreading inflammation, leading to inflammatory swelling and fibrosis that can compress large ducts. This leads to stagnation of secretory material rich in calcium that precipitates onto degenerating cellular membranes to form a sialolith.

  5. Implications of salivary protein binding to commensal and pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Seok-Mo; Ruhl, Stefan; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    An important function of salivary proteins is to interact with microorganisms that enter the oral cavity. For some microbes, these interactions promote microbial colonization. For others, these interactions are deleterious and result in the elimination of the microbe from the mouth, This paper reviews recent studies of the interaction of salivary proteins with two model bacteria; the commensal species Streptococcus gordonii, and the facultative pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. These organisms selectively interact with a variety of salivary proteins to influence important functions such as bacterial adhesion to surfaces, evasion of host defense, bacterial nutrition and metabolism and gene expression. PMID:24707190

  6. [Biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    García-Ribas, G; López-Sendón Moreno, J L; García-Caldentey, J

    2014-04-01

    The new diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) include brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, with the aim of increasing the certainty of whether a patient has an ongoing AD neuropathologic process or not. Three CSF biomarkers, Aß42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau, reflect the core pathological features of AD. It is already known that these pathological processes of AD starts decades before the first symptoms, so these biomarkers may provide means of early disease detection. At least three stages of AD could be identified: preclinical AD, mild cognitive impairment due to AD, and dementia due to AD. In this review, we aim to summarize the CSF biomarker data available for each of these stages. We also review the actual research on blood-based biomarkers. Recent studies on healthy elderly subjects and on carriers of dominantly inherited AD mutations have also found biomarker changes that allow separate groups in these preclinical stages. These studies may aid for segregate populations in clinical trials and objectively evaluate if there are changes over the pathological processes of AD. Limits to widespread use of CSF biomarkers, apart from the invasive nature of the process itself, is the higher coefficient of variation for the analyses between centres. It requires strict pre-analytical and analytical procedures that may make feasible multi-centre studies and global cut-off points for the different stages of AD.

  7. Can Biomarkers Differentiate Pain and No Pain Subgroups of Nonverbal Children with Cerebral Palsy? A Preliminary Investigation Based on Noninvasive Saliva Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Symons, Frank J.; ElGhazi, Issam; Reilly, Brian G.; Barney, Chantel C.; Hanson, Leah; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Armitage, Ian M.; Wilcox, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Assessing and treating pain in nonverbal children with developmental disabilities are a clinical challenge. Current assessment approaches rely on clinical impression and behavioral rating scales completed by proxy report. Given the growing health relevance of the salivary metabolome, we undertook a translational-oriented feasibility study using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and neuropeptide/cytokine/hormone detection to compare a set of salivary biomarkers relevant to nociception. Design Within-group observational design. Setting Tertiary pediatric rehabilitation hospital. Subjects Ten nonverbal pediatric patients with cerebral palsy with and without pain. Methods Unstimulated (passively collected) saliva was collected using oral swabs followed by perchloric acid extraction and analyzed on a Bruker Avance 700 MHz NMR spectrometer. We also measured salivary levels of several cytokines, chemokines, hormones, and neuropeptides. Results Partial least squares discriminant analysis showed separation of those children with/without pain for a number of different biomarkers. The majority of the salivary metabolite, neuropeptide, cytokine, and hormone levels were higher in children with pain vs no pain. Conclusions The ease of collection and noninvasive manner in which the samples were collected and analyzed support the possibility of the regular predictive use of this novel biomarker-monitoring method in clinical practice. PMID:25234580

  8. Commentary: statistics for biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Lovell, David P

    2012-05-01

    This short commentary discusses Biomarkers' requirements for the reporting of statistical analyses in submitted papers. It is expected that submitters will follow the general instructions of the journal, the more detailed guidance given by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the specific guidelines developed by the EQUATOR network, and those of various specialist groups. Biomarkers expects that the study design and subsequent statistical analyses are clearly reported and that the data reported can be made available for independent assessment. The journal recognizes that there is continuing debate about different approaches to statistical science. Biomarkers appreciates that the field continues to develop rapidly and encourages the use of new methodologies.

  9. Metabolic products as biomarkers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; Alscher, R.; Benson, W.; Kruzynski, G.; Lee, R.F.; Sikka, H.C.; Spies, R.B.; Huggett, Robert J.; Kimerle, Richard A.; Mehrle, Paul M.=; Bergman, Harold L.

    1992-01-01

    Ideally, endogenous biomarkers would indicate both exposure and environmental effects of toxic chemicals; however, such comprehensive biochemical and physiological indices are currently being developed and, at the present time, are unavailable for use in environmental monitoring programs. Continued work is required to validate the use of biochemical and physiological stress indices as useful components of monitoring programs. Of the compounds discussed only phytochelatins and porphyrins are currently in biomarkers in a useful state; however, glutathione,metallothioneins, stress ethylene, and polyamines are promising as biomarkers in environmental monitoring.

  10. Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Importance of Clown Doctors to Reduce Stress

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Flávia G.; Adiwardana, Natanael S.; Uehara, Eliane U.; Silvestre, Renata N.; Leite, Victor V.; Faleiros, Francisca T.V.; Padovani, Flávia H.P.; De Gobbi, Juliana I.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to correlate entertainment of clown-doctors (CD) activities on hospitalized children and aphysiological bio-marker. For this purpose we collected saliva samples and verified children satisfaction with these activities by using a visual analog scale (VAS). Children from 6 to 7 years-old, with diagnosis of any acute pathology, interned in the Pediatric Ward of the Botucatu Medical School Hospital (São Paulo, Brazil) were interviewed. Two groups were taken into consideration: lunchCD and dinnerCD. The following protocol was applied in each group (lunch and dinner): collection of the first saliva sample and presentation of VAS prior to CD activities, followed by collection of a second saliva sample and another VAS assessment after CD activities. The salivary cortisol was reduced in both groups comparing the first saliva sample. The satisfaction of the intervention was evident for lunchCD. The CD intervention is effective in decreasing an important physiological biomarker of stress factor, cortisol, in hospitalized children, been effective for the healing process. PMID:27114816

  11. Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Importance of Clown Doctors to Reduce Stress.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Flávia G; Adiwardana, Natanael S; Uehara, Eliane U; Silvestre, Renata N; Leite, Victor V; Faleiros, Francisca T V; Padovani, Flávia H P; De Gobbi, Juliana I F

    2016-03-31

    This study was designed to correlate entertainment of clown-doctors (CD) activities on hospitalized children and aphysiological bio-marker. For this purpose we collected saliva samples and verified children satisfaction with these activities by using a visual analog scale (VAS). Children from 6 to 7 years-old, with diagnosis of any acute pathology, interned in the Pediatric Ward of the Botucatu Medical School Hospital (São Paulo, Brazil) were interviewed. Two groups were taken into consideration: lunchCD and dinnerCD. The following protocol was applied in each group (lunch and dinner): collection of the first saliva sample and presentation of VAS prior to CD activities, followed by collection of a second saliva sample and another VAS assessment after CD activities. The salivary cortisol was reduced in both groups comparing the first saliva sample. The satisfaction of the intervention was evident for lunchCD. The CD intervention is effective in decreasing an important physiological biomarker of stress factor, cortisol, in hospitalized children, been effective for the healing process.

  12. Salivary Alpha-Amylase and Cortisol Among Pentecostals on a Worship and Nonworship Day

    PubMed Central

    LYNN, CHRISTOPHER DANA; PARIS, JASON; FRYE, CHERYL ANNE; SCHELL, LAWRENCE M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This investigation used a biomarker of sympathetic nervous system activity novel to biocultural research to test the hypothesis that engaging in religious worship activities would reduce baseline stress levels on a non-worship day among Pentecostals. Methods As detailed in Lynn et al. (submitted for publication), stress was measured via salivary cortisol and α-amylase among 52 Apostolic Pentecostals in New York’s mid-Hudson Valley. Saliva samples were collected at four predetermined times on consecutive Sundays and Mondays to establish diurnal profiles and compare days of worship and non-worship. These data were reanalyzed using separate analyses of covariance on α-amylase and cortisol to control for individual variation in Pentecostal behavior, effects of Sunday biomarkers on Monday, and other covariates. Results There was a significant decrease in cortisol and an increase in α-amylase on a non-worship day compared with a service day. Models including engagement in Pentecostal worship behavior explained 62% of the change in non-service day cortisol and 73% of the change in non-service day α-amylase. Conclusions Engagement in Pentecostal worship may be associated with reductions in circulatory cortisol and enhancements in α-amylase activity. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 22:819–822, 2010. PMID:20878966

  13. Biomaterials-Based Strategies for Salivary Gland Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Tugba; Fowler, Eric W.; Hao, Ying; Ravikrishan, Anitha; Harrington, Daniel A.; Witt, Robert L.; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Jia, Xinqiao

    2016-01-01

    The salivary gland is a complex, secretory tissue that produces saliva and maintains oral homeostasis. Radiation induced salivary gland atrophy, manifested as “dry mouth” or xerostomia, poses a significant clinical challenge. Tissue engineering recently has emerged as an alternative, long-term treatment strategy for xerostomia. In this review, we summarize recent efforts towards the development of functional and implantable salivary glands utilizing designed polymeric substrates or synthetic matrices/scaffolds. Although the in vitro engineering of a complex implantable salivary gland is technically challenging, opportunities exist for multidisciplinary teams to harvest the regenerative potential of stem/progenitor cells found in the adult glands and combine them with biomimetic and cell-instructive materials to assemble implantable tissue modules. PMID:26878077

  14. Alternatives for the treatment of salivary duct obstruction.

    PubMed

    McGurk, Mark; Brown, Jackie

    2009-12-01

    Minimally invasive alternatives for treatment of salivary duct obstruction are discussed. Radiologically- and endoscopically-guided interventions using wire baskets and dilating balloons, including cutting balloons, are covered as are combined endoscopic and open approaches.

  15. Antarctic Isolation and Associated Changes in Salivary Bacteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-05

    salivary oral flora of man not only may reflect overall biologic reaction, but also represent an obvious source of microbial transmission. FINDINGS...streptococci and lactobacilli make up about half of the total oral flora of virtually all hum- ans, 14 it seemed important to study these groups...characterizing the salivary flora of this population. Preliminary statis- tical analysis on individual raw count values produced variances too

  16. Function of salivary glands and sialochemistry in sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Chilla, R; Arglebe, C

    1983-01-01

    Human sialadenosis is a non-inflammatory disease affecting the cephalic salivary glands, mainly the parotid, characterized by a mostly bilateral, painless swelling due to a substantial increase of the glandular parenchyma. After the presentation of clinical, cytological and biochemical data the probable etiology of this disease is discussed. It is concluded that sialadenosis is not a disease of the salivary glands themselves but of their sympathetic innervation.

  17. Extracellular Ca(2+) sensing in salivary ductal cells.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Bidhan C; Swaim, William D; Sarkar, Ankana; Liu, Xibao; Ambudkar, Indu S

    2012-08-31

    Ca(2+) is secreted from the salivary acinar cells as an ionic constituent of primary saliva. Ions such as Na(+) and Cl(-) get reabsorbed whereas primary saliva flows through the salivary ductal system. Although earlier studies have shown that salivary [Ca(2+)] decreases as it flows down the ductal tree into the oral cavity, ductal reabsorption of Ca(2+) remains enigmatic. Here we report a potential role for the G protein-coupled receptor, calcium-sensing receptor (CSR), in the regulation of Ca(2+) reabsorption by salivary gland ducts. Our data show that CSR is present in the apical region of ductal cells where it is co-localized with transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3). CSR is activated in isolated salivary gland ducts as well as a ductal cell line (SMIE) by altering extracellular [Ca(2+)] or by aromatic amino acid, L-phenylalanine (L-Phe, endogenous component of saliva), as well as neomycin. CSR activation leads to Ca(2+) influx that, in polarized cells grown on a filter support, is initiated in the luminal region. We show that TRPC3 contributes to Ca(2+) entry triggered by CSR activation. Further, stimulation of CSR in SMIE cells enhances the CSR-TRPC3 association as well as surface expression of TRPC3. Together our findings suggest that CSR could serve as a Ca(2+) sensor in the luminal membrane of salivary gland ducts and regulate reabsorption of [Ca(2+)] from the saliva via TRPC3, thus contributing to maintenance of salivary [Ca(2+)]. CSR could therefore be a potentially important protective mechanism against formation of salivary gland stones (sialolithiasis) and infection (sialoadenitis).

  18. Salivary glands: a new player in phosphorus metabolism.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Santoro, Giuseppe; Muraca, Ugo; Davis, Paul A; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In uremic patients, hyperphosphatemia is associated with cardiovascular calcification and increased cardiovascular mortality. Despite the use of phosphate binders and dietary phosphate limitation in addition to dialysis, only 50% of dialysis patients achieve recommended serum phosphate levels. The identification of other approaches for serum phosphorus reduction is therefore necessary. We have approached this issue by taking into account the relationships between serum phosphate, kidney function, and saliva. Saliva was chosen because the anatomy and/or physiology of acini, the secretive units of salivary glands, shares similarities with that of the renal tubules. Salivary fluid contains electrolytes including phosphate that, when related with the amount of salivary secretion per day, raises the interest in identifying another possible approach for phosphorus removal in uremic patients. This article reports studies from our laboratory in the last 3 to 4 years, which have demonstrated a hyperphosphoric salivary content in patients with chronic renal failure and those with end-stage renal disease under chronic dialysis that, in patients with chronic renal failure, linearly correlates with serum phosphate in patients with chronic renal failure and negatively with GFR. The ingestion of the saliva and later its absorption in the intestinal tract starts a vicious circle between salivary phosphate secretion and fasting phosphate absorption, thereby worsening hyperphosphatemia. Therefore, salivary phosphate binding could be a useful approach to serum phosphate level reduction in dialysis patients. The reduction of salivary phosphate with the salivary phosphate binder, chitosan-loaded chewing gum, chewed during fasting periods, as an add-on to phosphate binders could lead to a better control of hyperphosphatemia, as demonstrated in our study, which confirms the importance of this approach.

  19. Increased Salivary Nitrite and Nitrate Excretion in Rats with Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Somayeh; Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Shahsavari, Fatemeh; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Grayesh-Nejad, Siyavash; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2015-11-01

    Increased nitric oxide (NO) formation is mechanistically linked to pathophysiology of the extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. NO is formed by either enzymatic or non-enzymatic pathways. Enzymatic production is catalyzed by NO synthase (NOS) while entero-salivary circulation of nitrate and nitrite is linked to non-enzymatic formation of NO under acidic pH in the stomach. There is no data on salivary excretion of nitrate and nitrite in cirrhosis. This study was aimed to investigate salivary levels of nitrate and nitrite in a rat model of biliary cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Four weeks after the operation, submandibular ducts of anesthetized BDL and control rats were cannulated with polyethylene microtube for saliva collection. Assessment of pH, nitrite and nitrate levels was performed in our research. We also investigated NOS expression by real time RT-PCR to estimate eNOS, nNOS and iNOS mRNA levels in the submandibular glands. Salivary pH was significantly lower in BDL rats in comparison to control animals. We also observed a statistically significant increase in salivary levels of nitrite as well as nitrate in BDL rats while there was no elevation in the mRNA expression of nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS in submandibular glands of cirrhotic groups. This indicates that an increased salivary level of nitrite/nitrate is less likely to be linked to increased enzymatic production of NO in the salivary epithelium. It appears that nitrate/nitrite can be transported from the blood stream by submandibular glands and excreted into saliva as entero-salivary circulation, and this mechanism may have been exaggerated during cirrhosis.

  20. In Vitro Identification of Histatin 5 Salivary Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Moffa, Eduardo B.; Machado, Maria A. A. M.; Mussi, Maria C. M.; Xiao, Yizhi; Garrido, Saulo S.; Giampaolo, Eunice T.; Siqueira, Walter L.

    2015-01-01

    With recent progress in the analysis of the salivary proteome, the number of salivary proteins identified has increased dramatically. However, the physiological functions of many of the newly discovered proteins remain unclear. Closely related to the study of a protein’s function is the identification of its interaction partners. Although in saliva some proteins may act primarily as single monomeric units, a significant percentage of all salivary proteins, if not the majority, appear to act in complexes with partners to execute their diverse functions. Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and pull-down assays were used to identify the heterotypic complexes between histatin 5, a potent natural antifungal protein, and other salivary proteins in saliva. Classical protein–protein interaction methods in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometric techniques were carried out. Co-IP using protein G magnetic Sepharose TM beads suspension was able to capture salivary complexes formed between histatin 5 and its salivary protein partners. Pull-down assay was used to confirm histatin 5 protein partners. A total of 52 different proteins were identified to interact with histatin 5. The present study used proteomic approaches in conjunction with classical biochemical methods to investigate protein–protein interaction in human saliva. Our study demonstrated that when histatin 5 is complexed with salivary amylase, one of the 52 proteins identified as a histatin 5 partner, the antifungal activity of histatin 5 is reduced. We expected that our proteomic approach could serve as a basis for future studies on the mechanism and structural-characterization of those salivary protein interactions to understand their clinical significance. PMID:26544073

  1. In Vitro Identification of Histatin 5 Salivary Complexes.

    PubMed

    Moffa, Eduardo B; Machado, Maria A A M; Mussi, Maria C M; Xiao, Yizhi; Garrido, Saulo S; Giampaolo, Eunice T; Siqueira, Walter L

    2015-01-01

    With recent progress in the analysis of the salivary proteome, the number of salivary proteins identified has increased dramatically. However, the physiological functions of many of the newly discovered proteins remain unclear. Closely related to the study of a protein's function is the identification of its interaction partners. Although in saliva some proteins may act primarily as single monomeric units, a significant percentage of all salivary proteins, if not the majority, appear to act in complexes with partners to execute their diverse functions. Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and pull-down assays were used to identify the heterotypic complexes between histatin 5, a potent natural antifungal protein, and other salivary proteins in saliva. Classical protein-protein interaction methods in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometric techniques were carried out. Co-IP using protein G magnetic Sepharose TM beads suspension was able to capture salivary complexes formed between histatin 5 and its salivary protein partners. Pull-down assay was used to confirm histatin 5 protein partners. A total of 52 different proteins were identified to interact with histatin 5. The present study used proteomic approaches in conjunction with classical biochemical methods to investigate protein-protein interaction in human saliva. Our study demonstrated that when histatin 5 is complexed with salivary amylase, one of the 52 proteins identified as a histatin 5 partner, the antifungal activity of histatin 5 is reduced. We expected that our proteomic approach could serve as a basis for future studies on the mechanism and structural-characterization of those salivary protein interactions to understand their clinical significance.

  2. Effect of a kickboxing match on salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Alexandre; Arsati, Franco; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco De Oliveira; Franchini, Emerson; De Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2010-08-01

    The hypothesis that salivary cortisol would increase and salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) decrease after a kickboxing match was tested among 20 male athletes. Saliva samples collected before and after the match were analyzed. Salivary cortisol and salivary IgA concentrations (absolute concentration, salivary IgAabs) and the secretion rate of IgA (salivary IgArate) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A Wilcoxon test for paired samples showed significant increases in salivary cortisol from pre- to postmatch. No significant changes were observed in salivary IgAabs or secretory IgArate and saliva flow rate. This study indicates that a kickboxing match might increase salivary concentration and thereafter it could be considered a significant source of exercise-related stress. On the other hand, the effect of a kickboxing match on mucosal immunity seems not to be relevant.

  3. Reliability of Potential Pain Biomarkers in the Saliva of Healthy Subjects: Inter-Individual Differences and Intersession Variability

    PubMed Central

    Sobas, Eva M.; Reinoso, Roberto; Cuadrado-Asensio, Rubén; Fernández, Itziar; Maldonado, Miguel J.; Pastor, José C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Salivary cortisol, α-amylase (sAA), secretory IgA (sIgA), testosterone, and soluble fraction of receptor II of TNFα (sTNFαRII) could serve as objective pain measures, but the normal variability of these potential biomarkers is unknown. Patients & Methods Saliva was collected with the passive secretion method from 34, pain-free subjects in two single samples at least 24 hours apart. Biomarker variation and intersession reliability were assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Also, we calculated the within-subject standard deviation (Sw) and the reproducibility (2.77 × Sw) of intersession measures. Results Salivary cortisol, sAA, sIgA, testosterone, and sTNFαRII yielded the following ICCs: 0.53, 0.003, 0.88, 0.42 and 0.83, respectively. We found no statistically significant systematic differences between sessions in any biomarker except for testosterone, which showed a decrease on the second day (p<0.001). The reproducibility for salivary cortisol, sAA, sIgA, testosterone, and sTNFαRII were 0.46 ng/ml, 12.88 U/ml, 11.7 μg/ml, 14.54 pg/ml and 18.29 pg/ml, respectively. Cortisol, testosterone and TNFαRII measurement variability showed a positive correlation with the magnitude (p<0.002), but no relationship was found for sAA and sIgA. Conclusions Salivary sIgA and sTNFαRII show a remarkable good reproducibility and, therefore, could be useful as pain biomarkers. When using the passive secretion method, intersession variations in salivary sIgA of more than 11.7 μg/ml may reflect true biomarker change. In the case of sTNFαRII this will depend of the magnitude. The estimates herein provided should help investigators and clinicians differentiate actual biomarker modification from measurement variability. PMID:27907037

  4. Minor salivary gland carcinoma: a review of 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Haymerle, Georg; Schneider, Sven; Harris, Luke; Häupl, Theresia; Schopper, Christian; Pammer, Johannes; Grasl, Matthaeus Ch; Erovic, Boban M

    2016-09-01

    Minor salivary gland carcinomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors with broad variation in clinical appearance and histopathology. Clinical data of patients with small salivary gland malignancies were collected from the medical records. Tissue microarray was constructed to determine the expression pattern of 24 proteins in 35 patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas. The choice of markers was based on involvement in neoangiogenesis, cell-to-cell contact, cell-cycle regulation and carcinogenesis. Protein expression data were correlated to patients' clinical data. Overexpression of patched (p = 0.046) and Smo (p = 0.032) was linked to a better overall survival and Glutathione S-transferase π overexpression was linked to prolonged disease-free survival (p = 0.005). Cox-1 (p = 0.035) and VEGFR2 (p = 0.009) were significantly linked to decreased survival for recurrent disease. Bcl-x (84 %), β-catenin (87 %) and Cox-2 (87 %) were significantly overexpressed in minor salivary gland carcinomas. We have shown that Smo resulted in a better overall survival, whereas Gstπ in improved disease-free survival. VEGFR2 was a prognostic factor for survival after recurrence in patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and anti-Wnt-1 antibodies might be a potential therapeutic option in an adjuvant setting or for patients with unresectable tumors of the minor salivary glands.

  5. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  6. Fusion oncogenes in salivary gland tumors: molecular and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Göran

    2013-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of uncommon diseases that pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. However, the recent discovery of a translocation-generated gene fusion network in salivary gland carcinomas as well in benign salivary gland tumors opens up new avenues for improved diagnosis, prognostication, and development of specific targeted therapies. The gene fusions encode novel fusion oncoproteins or ectopically expressed normal or truncated oncoproteins. The major targets of the translocations are transcriptional coactivators, tyrosine kinase receptors, and transcription factors involved in growth factor signaling and cell cycle regulation. Notably, several of these targets or pathways activated by these targets are druggable. Examples of clinically significant gene fusions in salivary gland cancers are the MYB-NFIB fusion specific for adenoid cystic carcinoma, the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion typical of low/intermediate-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and the recently identified ETV6-NTRK3 fusion in mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Similarly, gene fusions involving the PLAG1 and HMGA2 oncogenes are specific for benign pleomorphic adenomas. Continued studies of the molecular consequences of these fusion oncoproteins and their down-stream targets will ultimately lead to the identification of novel driver genes in salivary gland neoplasms and will also form the basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies for salivary gland cancers and, perhaps, other neoplasms.

  7. Diseases of the salivary glands in infants and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diseases of the salivary glands are rare in infants and children (with the exception of diseases such as parotitis epidemica and cytomegaly) and the therapeutic regimen differs from that in adults. It is therefore all the more important to gain exact and extensive insight into general and special aspects of pathological changes of the salivary glands in these age groups. Etiology and pathogenesis of these entities is still not yet fully known for the age group in question so that general rules for treatment, based on clinical experience, cannot be given, particularly in view of the small number of cases of the different diseases. Swellings of the salivary glands may be caused by acute and chronic inflammatory processes, by autoimmune diseases, by duct translocation due to sialolithiasis, and by tumors of varying dignity. Clinical examination and diagnosis has also to differentiate between salivary gland cysts and inflammation or tumors. Conclusion Salivary gland diseases are rare in childhood and adolescence. Their pattern of incidence differs very much from that of adults. Acute and chronic sialadenitis not responding to conservative treatment requires an appropriate surgical approach. The rareness of salivary gland tumors is particularly true for the malignant parotid tumors which are more frequent in juvenile patients, a fact that has to be considered in diagnosis and therapy. PMID:20156335

  8. Salivary Secretory Disorders, Inducing Drugs, and Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Farré, Magí

    2015-01-01

    Background: Salivary secretory disorders can be the result of a wide range of factors. Their prevalence and negative effects on the patient's quality of life oblige the clinician to confront the issue. Aim: To review the salivary secretory disorders, inducing drugs and their clinical management. Methods: In this article, a literature search of these dysfunctions was conducted with the assistance of a research librarian in the MEDLINE/PubMed Database. Results: Xerostomia, or dry mouth syndrome, can be caused by medication, systemic diseases such as Sjögren's Syndrome, glandular pathologies, and radiotherapy of the head and neck. Treatment of dry mouth is aimed at both minimizing its symptoms and preventing oral complications with the employment of sialogogues and topical acting substances. Sialorrhea and drooling, are mainly due to medication or neurological systemic disease. There are various therapeutic, pharmacologic, and surgical alternatives for its management. The pharmacology of most of the substances employed for the treatment of salivary disorders is well-known. Nevertheless, in some cases a significant improvement in salivary function has not been observed after their administration. Conclusion: At present, there are numerous frequently prescribed drugs whose unwanted effects include some kind of salivary disorder. In addition, the differing pathologic mechanisms, and the great variety of existing treatments hinder the clinical management of these patients. The authors have designed an algorithm to facilitate the decision making process when physicians, oral surgeons, or dentists face these salivary dysfunctions. PMID:26516310

  9. Salivary hypofunction: an update on aetiology, diagnosis and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Jamil; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Saliva is of paramount importance for the maintenance of oral and general homeostasis. Salivary hypofunction predispose patients to disorders such as dysgeusia, pain and burning mouth, caries and other oral infectious diseases, dysphagia and dysphonia. The aim of this study was to provide an update on the aetiology, diagnostic methods and therapeutic strategies for the management of hyposalivation and xerostomia. The present paper describes subjective and objective methods for the diagnosis of salivary dysfunctions; moreover a number of drugs, and systemic disorders associated with decreased salivary flow rate are listed. We also focused on the underlying mechanisms to radiotherapy-induced salivary damage. Therapeutics for hyposalivation and xerostomia were discussed and classified as preventive, symptomatic, topical and systemic stimulants, disease-modifying agents, and regenerative. New therapeutic modalities have been studied and involve stem cells transplantation, with special attention to regeneration of damage caused by ionizing radiation to the salivary glands. More studies in this area are needed to provide new perspectives in the treatment of patients with salivary dysfunctions.

  10. Biomarker time out.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Axel; Bowser, Robert; Calabresi, Paolo; Zetterberg, Henrik; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J

    2014-10-01

    The advancement of knowledge relies on scientific investigations. The timing between asking a question and data collection defines if a study is prospective or retrospective. Prospective studies look forward from a point in time, are less prone to bias and are considered superior to retrospective studies. This conceptual framework conflicts with the nature of biomarker research. New candidate biomarkers are discovered in a retrospective manner. There are neither resources nor time for prospective testing in all cases. Relevant sources for bias are not covered. Ethical questions arise through the time penalty of an overly dogmatic concept. The timing of sample collection can be separated from testing biomarkers. Therefore the moment of formulating a hypothesis may be after sample collection was completed. A conceptual framework permissive to asking research questions without the obligation to bow to the human concept of calendar time would simplify biomarker research, but will require new safeguards against bias.

  11. Detection of inflammatory biomarkers in saliva and urine: Potential in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Amit K; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a part of the complex biological response of inflammatory cells to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, irritants, or damaged cells. This inflammation has been linked to several chronic diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. Major biomarkers of inflammation include tumor necrosis factor, interleukins (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, chemokines, cyclooxygenase, 5-lipooxygenase, and C-reactive protein, all of which are regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB. Although examining inflammatory biomarkers in blood is a standard practice, its identification in saliva and/or urine is more convenient and non-invasive. In this review, we aim to (1) discuss the detection of these inflammatory biomarkers in urine and saliva; (2) advantages of using salivary and urinary inflammatory biomarkers over blood, while also weighing on the challenges and/or limitations of their use; (3) examine their role(s) in connection with diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and drug development for several chronic diseases with inflammatory consequences, including cancer; and (4) explore the use of innovative salivary and urine based biosensor strategies that may permit the testing of biomarkers quickly, reliably, and cost-effectively, in a decentralized setting. PMID:27013544

  12. Biomarkers in ALH84001???

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allen H.

    1999-01-01

    D. McKay and colleagues suggested that four sets of features in ALH84001 were biomarkers, signs of an ancient martian biota that once inhabited the meteorite. Subsequent work has not validated their hypothesis; each suggested biomarker has been found to be ambiguous or immaterial. Nor has their hypothesis been disproved. Rather, it is now one of many hypotheses about the alteration of ALH84001. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Biomarkers for neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuo-Hsuan; Ro, Long-Sun; Lyu, Rong-Kuo; Chen, Chiung-Mei

    2015-02-02

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an acquired, heterogeneous inflammatory disorder, which is characterized by recurrent optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions. The discovery of the serum autoantibody marker, anti-aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) antibody, revolutionizes our understanding of pathogenesis of NMO. In addition to anti-AQP4 antibody, other biomarkers for NMO are also reported. These candidate biomarkers are particularly involved in T helper (Th)17 and astrocytic damages, which play a critical role in the development of NMO lesions. Among them, IL-6 in the peripheral blood is associated with anti-AQP4 antibody production. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in CSF demonstrates good correlations with clinical severity of NMO relapses. Detecting these useful biomarkers may be useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of disease activity of NMO. Development of compounds targeting these biomarkers may provide novel therapeutic strategies for NMO. This article will review the related biomarker studies in NMO and discuss the potential therapeutics targeting these biomarkers.

  14. Pleomorphic adenoma--unusual presentation of a salivary gland tumor in the neck of a child.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, K V; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bansal, Vishal; Saxena, Susmita; Elhence, Poonam

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic salivary gland tumors are rare in children. When salivary gland tumors do develop, they preferentially affect major salivary glands and then minor salivary glands. Pleomorphic adenoma, also referred to as a benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor of the salivary glands. Approximately 90% of these tumors occur in the parotid gland, while the remaining 10% affect the minor salivary glands. However, it is uncommon to find them elsewhere in the head and neck region. We report a rare case of pleomorphic adenoma in the upper neck, an unusual site in an 8-year-old boy.

  15. Metabolic Imaging Biomarkers of Postradiotherapy Xerostomia

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Blake; Schwartz, David L.; Dong Lei

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a major complication of head and neck radiotherapy (RT). Available xerostomia measures remain flawed. [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET-CT) is routinely used for staging and response assessment of head and neck cancer. We investigated quantitative measurement of parotid gland FDG uptake as a potential biomarker for post-RT xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight locally advanced head and neck cancer patients receiving definitive RT underwent baseline and post-RT FDG-PET-CT on a prospective imaging trial. A separate validation cohort of 14 patients underwent identical imaging while prospectively enrolled in a second trial collecting sialometry and patient-reported outcomes. Radiation dose and pre- and post-RT standard uptake values (SUVs) for all voxels contained within parotid gland ROI were deformably registered. Results: Average whole-gland or voxel-by-voxel models incorporating parotid D{sub Met} (defined as the pretreatment parotid SUV weighted by dose) accurately predicted posttreatment changes in parotid FDG uptake (e.g., fractional parotid SUV). Fractional loss of parotid FDG uptake closely paralleled early parotid toxicity defined by posttreatment salivary output (p < 0.01) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer xerostomia scores (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In this pilot series, loss of parotid FDG uptake was strongly associated with acute clinical post-RT parotid toxicity. D{sub Met} may potentially be used to guide function-sparing treatment planning. Prospective validation of FDG-PET-CT as a convenient, quantifiable imaging biomarker of parotid function is warranted and ongoing.

  16. Salivary Proteomic and microRNA Biomarkers Development for Lung Cancer Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    single- end (50nt) reads were obtained for each library. We have developed customized bioinformatic pipelines to identify different types of non-coding...1cm. Publications, abstracts, and presentations Bahn JH, Zhang Q, Li FL, Chan T-M, Lin XL , Kim YK, Wong DTW, Xiao XX. The Landscape of miRNA

  17. Salivary Proteomic and microRNA Biomarkers Development for Lung Cancer Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of California Los Angeles, CA 90095-2000...dtww@ucla.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER University ...development project was spent in the obtainment of regulatory (IRB) approvals from the two performance sites of the project, University of California Los

  18. Biomarkers for antipsychotic therapies.

    PubMed

    Pich, Emilio Merlo; Vargas, Gabriel; Domenici, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Molecular biomarkers for antipsychotic treatments have been conceptually linked to the measurements of dopamine functions, mostly D(2) receptor occupancy, either by imaging using selective PET/SPECT radioactive tracers or by assessing plasma prolactin levels. A quest for novel biomarkers was recently proposed by various academic, health service, and industrial institutions driven by the need for better treatments of psychoses. In this review we conceptualize biomarkers within the Translational Medicine paradigm whose goal was to provide support to critical decision-making in drug discovery. At first we focused on biomarkers as outcome measure of clinical studies by searching into the database clinicaltrial.gov. The results were somewhat disappointing, showing that out of 1,659 antipsychotic trials only 18 used a biomarker as an outcome measure. Several of these trials targeted plasma lipids as sentinel marker for metabolic adverse effects associated with the use of atypical antipsychotics, while only few studies were aimed to new disease specific biological markers. As an example of a mechanistic biomarker, we described the work done to progress the novel class of glycine transporter inhibitors as putative treatment for negative symptoms of schizophrenia. We also review how large-scale multiplex biological assays were applied to samples from tissues of psychiatric patients, so to learn from changes of numerous analytes (metabolic products, lipids, proteins, RNA transcripts) about the substrates involved in the disease. We concluded that a stringent implementation of these techniques could contribute to the endophenotypic characterization of patients, helping in the identification of key biomarkers to drive personalized medicine and new treatment development.

  19. Kidney biomarkers in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Francoz, Claire; Nadim, Mitra K; Durand, François

    2016-10-01

    Impaired renal function due to acute kidney injury (AKI) and/or chronic kidney diseases (CKD) is frequent in cirrhosis. Recurrent episodes of AKI may occur in end-stage cirrhosis. Differential diagnosis between functional (prerenal and hepatorenal syndrome) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is crucial. The concept that AKI and CKD represent a continuum rather than distinct entities, is now emerging. Not all patients with AKI have a potential for full recovery. Precise evaluation of kidney function and identification of kidney changes in patients with cirrhosis is central in predicting reversibility. This review examines current biomarkers for assessing renal function and identifying the cause and mechanisms of impaired renal function. When CKD is suspected, clearance of exogenous markers is the reference to assess glomerular filtration rate, as creatinine is inaccurate and cystatin C needs further evaluation. Recent biomarkers may help differentiate ATN from hepatorenal syndrome. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin has been the most extensively studied biomarker yet, however, there are no clear-cut values that differentiate each of these conditions. Studies comparing ATN and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis, do not include a gold standard. Combinations of innovative biomarkers are attractive to identify patients justifying simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation. Accurate biomarkers of underlying CKD are lacking and kidney biopsy is often contraindicated in this population. Urinary microRNAs are attractive although not definitely validated. Efforts should be made to develop biomarkers of kidney fibrosis, a common and irreversible feature of CKD, whatever the cause. Biomarkers of maladaptative repair leading to irreversible changes and CKD after AKI are also promising.

  20. Lung Cancer Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    I, Hoseok; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in the world and continually leads in mortality among cancers. The overall 5-year survival rate for lung cancer has risen only 4% (from 12% to 16%) over the past 4 decades, and late diagnosis is a major obstacle in improving lung cancer prognosis. Survival of patients undergoing lung resection is greater than 80%, suggesting that early detection and diagnosis of cancers before they become inoperable and lethal will greatly improve mortality. Lung cancer biomarkers can be used for screening, detection, diagnosis, prognosis, prediction, stratification, therapy response monitoring, and so on. This review focuses on noninvasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. For that purpose, our discussion in this review will focus on biological fluid-based biomarkers. The body fluids include blood (serum or plasma), sputum, saliva, BAL, pleural effusion, and VOC. Since it is rich in different cellular and molecular elements and is one of the most convenient and routine clinical procedures, serum or plasma is the main source for the development and validation of many noninvasive biomarkers. In terms of molecular aspects, the most widely validated ones are proteins, some of which are used in the clinical sector, though in limited accessory purposes. We will also discuss the lung cancer (protein) biomarkers in clinical trials and currently in the validation phase with hundreds of samples. After proteins, we will discuss microRNAs, methylated DNA, and circulating tumor cells, which are being vigorously developed and validated as potential lung cancer biomarkers. The main aim of this review is to provide researchers and clinicians with an understanding of the potential noninvasive lung cancer biomarkers in biological fluids that have recently been discovered.

  1. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that

  2. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  3. Comparison of Serum and Salivary Antioxidants in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Disorders and Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lawaf, Shirin; Tabarestani, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) is a group of disorders in the facial region and temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Biomarkers are assumed to play a role in pain and early detection of destruction. The aim of this study was to compare the saliva and serum antioxidant levels in patients with TMD and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 28 TMD patients without pain, 28 TMD patients with pain and 28 healthy controls. The total antioxidant capacity of saliva and serum of patients was measured. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tamhane’s test. Results: The mean (±SD) total antioxidant capacity of serum (plasma TAC) was 0.8900 (±0.11627) mmol/L in TMD patients with pain, 1.2717 (±0.18711) mmol/L in TMD patients without pain and 1.7500(±0.18711) mmol/L in the control group. Based on ANOVA, the difference in this regard among the three groups was statistically significant (P=0.000). The mean salivary TAC was 1.34 (±0.06721) mmol/L in TMD patients with pain, 1.42 (±0.16677) mmol/L in TMD patients without pain and 1.35 (±0.11627) mmol/L in the control group. The difference in this respect among the three groups was not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The mean plasma TAC in TMD patients with/without pain was significantly lower than that in the control group but no significant difference was detected in salivary TAC among the three groups. PMID:26622281

  4. Acetaldehyde production capacity of salivary microflora in alcoholics during early recovery.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, P M; Joubert, G

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether a relationship exists between the acetaldehyde production capacity of salivary microflora (sAPC) in recovering alcoholics, and craving, and/or resumption of drinking within 12 weeks after embarking on an abstinence-based treatment program. Serial sAPC measurements were determined by gas chromatography on spontaneous saliva samples of 30 male alcoholics on days 2, 4, 11, and 18 during a 21-day in-patient treatment program. Craving was measured simultaneously with the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale. Outcome over 12 weeks was assessed by telephone interviews. There was no significant change in sAPC values from day 2 to day 18, while craving scores decreased markedly between day 2 to day 4. Sixteen participants remained abstinent for the full 12 weeks. Statistically significant differences were found between the sAPC values of the group that remained abstinent and the group that resumed drinking within 12 weeks. The highest sAPC value measured on day 2 had a strong predictive value for maintained abstinence at 12 weeks for beer-only drinkers or drinkers consuming less than 320 g of alcohol per week. The study is the first investigation into a potential relationship between the acetaldehyde production capacity of salivary microflora and early resumption of drinking in recovering alcoholics. The findings suggest that such a relationship indeed exists for beer-only drinkers, possibly linked to lower alcohol intake, and that it is unrelated to withdrawal craving. sAPC is proposed as a candidate biomarker with diagnostic and/or prognostic potential.

  5. Single and aggregate salivary cortisol measures during two schooldays in midadolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Folkesson, Lisa; Riva, Roberto; Östberg, Viveca; Lindfors, Petra

    2014-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, including its regulation of cortisol, is central to bodily functioning and salivary cortisol is a commonly used biomarker that reflects the functioning of the HPA axis. However, knowledge of diurnal cortisol rhythms in healthy adolescents is limited and few studies have examined patterns in midadolescent girls and boys across single and aggregate cortisol measures. To fill this gap, the present study investigated single and aggregate cortisol measures reflecting diurnal rhythms in 14 to 16-year-old girls and boys. Self-administered salivary samples from 79 girls and 42 boys were collected during two schooldays at four timepoints: (a) immediately at awakening, (b) 30 min after waking up, (c) 60 min after waking up, and (d) at 8:00 p.m. Additionally, diary data including time of awakening, sampling times, and other potential confounders were analyzed. As for single measures, both girls and boys exhibited a typical diurnal cortisol profile with high levels in the morning that decreased throughout the day. However, girls had higher morning cortisol than did boys with significant differences at time of awakening, and at 30 and 60 min postawakening. For the aggregate measures, girls had a larger total level of cortisol in terms of cortisol awakening response (CARG ), area under the curve (AUCG ), and rise over run (slopeawake to last ), while no differences emerged for reactivity measures. Taken together, these findings suggest differences in single and aggregate cortisol measures between midadolescent girls and boys. Such differences in diurnal cortisol between pubertal girls and boys may play a role for the differential health trajectories typically found among adult women and men.

  6. Biomarkers of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Faix, James D

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis is an unusual systemic reaction to what is sometimes an otherwise ordinary infection, and it probably represents a pattern of response by the immune system to injury. A hyper-inflammatory response is followed by an immunosuppressive phase during which multiple organ dysfunction is present and the patient is susceptible to nosocomial infection. Biomarkers to diagnose sepsis may allow early intervention which, although primarily supportive, can reduce the risk of death. Although lactate is currently the most commonly used biomarker to identify sepsis, other biomarkers may help to enhance lactate's effectiveness; these include markers of the hyper-inflammatory phase of sepsis, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; proteins such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin which are synthesized in response to infection and inflammation; and markers of neutrophil and monocyte activation. Recently, markers of the immunosuppressive phase of sepsis, such as anti-inflammatory cytokines, and alterations of the cell surface markers of monocytes and lymphocytes have been examined. Combinations of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers in a multi-marker panel may help identify patients who are developing severe sepsis before organ dysfunction has advanced too far. Combined with innovative approaches to treatment that target the immunosuppressive phase, these biomarkers may help to reduce the mortality rate associated with severe sepsis which, despite advances in supportive measures, remains high.

  7. Biomarkers intersect with the exposome.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Stephen M

    2012-09-01

    The exposome concept promotes use of omic tools for discovering biomarkers of exposure and biomarkers of disease in studies of diseased and healthy populations. A two-stage scheme is presented for profiling omic features in serum to discover molecular biomarkers and then for applying these biomarkers in follow-up studies. The initial component, referred to as an exposome-wide-association study (EWAS), employs metabolomics and proteomics to interrogate the serum exposome and, ultimately, to identify, validate and differentiate biomarkers of exposure and biomarkers of disease. Follow-up studies employ knowledge-driven designs to explore disease causality, prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.

  8. Levels of common salivary protein 1 in healthy subjects and periodontal patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Human saliva, as a vital part of the immune defense system, contains a number of distinct proteins and peptides. Recently human common salivary protein 1 (CSP1) has been identified as an abundant salivary protein and may play a role in promoting the binding of cariogenic bacteria to salivary pellicles. However, nothing else is known regarding the role of CSP1 in periodontology. The aim of this study was to quantify and compare CSP1 levels between healthy subjects and periodontal patients. Methods This controlled clinical study was conducted in periodontally healthy individuals and patients with chronic periodontitis Chonbuk National University Hospital, with Institutional Review Board approval. Whole saliva samples were collected from 36 healthy subjects and 33 chronic periodontitis patients and analyzed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immune blotting were conducted to ensure that anti-CSP1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) binds to CSP1 in human saliva. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system was house-fabricated using mAb-hCSP1#14 and mAb-hCSP1#4 as a capture and a detector mAb, respectively. The CSP1 concentrations in saliva from 36 healthy subjects and 33 periodontal patients were quantified using the CSP1 sandwich ELISA system, and the results were analyzed using the Student’s t-test. Results Immunoblot analysis using mAb-hCSP1 as a probe confirmed that CSP1 in human saliva existed as a single band with a molecular weight of approximately 27-kDa. The quantification of CSP1 concentrations by CSP1 ELISA showed that the median values (25th to 75th percentiles) of periodontal patients and healthy subjects were 9,474 ng/mL (range, 8,434–10,139 ng/mL) and 8,598 ng/mL (range, 7,421–9,877 ng/mL), respectively. The Student’s t-test indicated the presence of a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P=0.024). Conclusions The presence of a significant difference in CSP1 levels between healthy

  9. Enhancement of both salivary protein-enological tannin interactions and astringency perception by ethanol.

    PubMed

    Obreque-Slíer, Elías; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; López-Solís, Remigio

    2010-03-24

    Red wine astringency has been associated with interactions of tannins with salivary proteins. Tannins are active protein precipitants. Not much evidence exists demonstrating contribution of other wine components to astringency. We aimed to investigate an eventual role of ethanol both in astringency and salivary protein-enological tannin interactions. A trained sensory panel scored perceived astringency. Salivary protein-tannin interactions were assessed by observing both tannin-dependent changes in salivary protein diffusion on cellulose membranes and tannin-induced salivary protein precipitation. Proanthocyanidins and gallotannins in aqueous and hydroalcoholic solutions were assayed. A biphasic mode of diffusion on cellulose membranes displayed by salivary proteins was unaffected after dilution with water or enological concentrations of ethanol. At those concentrations ethanol was not astringent. In aqueous solution, tannins provoked both restriction of salivary protein diffusion, protein precipitation, and astringency. Those effects were exacerbated by 13% ethanol. In summary, enological concentrations of ethanol exacerbate astringency and salivary protein-tannin interactions.

  10. Use of Salivary Cortisol Measurements in Young Infants: A Note of Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnano, Catherine L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Findings indicate that high cortisol levels and interfering substances in formula and breast milk could contaminate salivary cortisol measurements in young infants. To insure accurate results, appropriate controls should be taken for salivary cortisol measurements of young infants. (RH)

  11. Is salivary gland function altered in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and obesity-insulin resistance?

    PubMed

    Ittichaicharoen, Jitjiroj; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2016-04-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction in several systemic diseases has been shown to decrease the quality of life in patients. In non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), inadequate salivary gland function has been evidenced to closely associate with this abnormal glycemic control condition. Although several studies demonstrated that NIDDM has a positive correlation with impaired salivary gland function, including decreased salivary flow rate, some studies demonstrated contradictory findings. Moreover, the changes of the salivary gland function in pre-diabetic stage known as insulin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this review is to comprehensively summarize the current evidence from in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies regarding the relationship between NIDDM and salivary gland function, as well as the correlation between obesity and salivary gland function. Consistent findings as well as controversial reports and the mechanistic insights regarding the effect of NIDDM and obesity-insulin resistance on salivary gland function are also presented and discussed.

  12. Nanoparticles: potential biomarker harvesters.

    PubMed

    Geho, David H; Jones, Clinton D; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A

    2006-02-01

    A previously untapped bank of information resides within the low molecular weight proteomic fraction of blood. Intensive efforts are underway to harness this information so that it can be used for early diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. The physicochemical malleability and high surface areas of nanoparticle surfaces make them ideal candidates for developing biomarker harvesting platforms. Given the variety of engineering strategies afforded through nanoparticle technologies, a significant goal is to tailor nanoparticle surfaces to selectively bind a subset of biomarkers, sequestering them for later study using high sensitivity proteomic tests. To date, applications of nanoparticles have largely focused on imaging systems and drug delivery vectors. As such, biomarker harvesting is an underutilized application of nanoparticle technology and is an area of nanotechnology research that will likely undergo substantial growth.

  13. Salivary Sialic Acid Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Users

    PubMed Central

    Farhad Mollashahi, Leila; Honarmand, Marieh; Nakhaee, Alireza; Mollashahi, Ghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokeless tobacco chewing is one of the known risk factors for oral cancer. It is consumed widely by residents of southeastern Iran. Objectives In this study, salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were compared in paan consumers and non-consumers. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, unstimulated saliva of 94 subjects (44 paan consumers and 50 non-consumers) who were referred to the oral medicine department of the dentistry school of Zahedan were collected. Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein concentration were measured by standard biochemical methods, and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 20 through the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results The concentration of salivary free sialic acid (23.21 ± 18.98 mg/L) was significantly increased in paan consumers. The concentration of salivary Total sialic acid (TSA) (39.57 ± 26.58 mg/L) and total protein (0.77 ± 0.81 mg/mL) showed increases in paan consumers, however, the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were higher in the paan consumers compared to non-consumers. Due to the carcinogenic effect of smokeless tobacco, measurement of these parameters in saliva may be useful in early detection of oral cancer. PMID:27622172

  14. Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid carcinoma, 14 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 3 epi-myoepithelial carcinoma, 5 salivary duct carcinoma, 5 malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 6 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 5 acinic cell carcinoma) were prepared for immunohistochemical staining with maspin and MCM2 antibodies. ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results All salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable cellular localization. There was a significant difference in the expression of each antibody between mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. No association was found between examined markers and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable levels and cellular localization, consisting important markers of biological behavior in these tumors. The level of MCM2 expression can be used in the differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Further study with large sample size is recommended to assess their value in prediction of lymph node metastasis. PMID:21943228

  15. Salivary fluoride levels after use of high-fluoride dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Vale, Glauber Campos; Cruz, Priscila Figueiredo; Bohn, Ana Clarissa Cavalcante Elvas; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary fluoride (F) availability after toothbrushing with a high-F dentifrice. Twelve adult volunteers took part in this crossover and blind study. F concentration in saliva was determined after brushing with a high-F dentifrice (5000 µg F/g) or with a conventional F concentration dentifrice (1100 µg F/g) followed by a 15 mL distilled water rinse. Samples of nonstimulated saliva were collected on the following times: before (baseline), and immediately after spit (time = 0) and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. F analysis was performed with a fluoride-sensitive electrode and the area under curve of F salivary concentration × time (µg F/mL × min(-1)) was calculated. At baseline, no significant difference was found among dentifrices (P > 0.05). After brushing, both dentifrices caused an elevated fluoride level in saliva; however salivary F concentration was significantly higher at all times, when high-F dentifrice was used (P < 0.01). Even after 120 min, salivary F concentration was still higher than the baseline values for both dentifrices (P < 0.001). High-F dentifrice enhanced the bioavailability of salivary F, being an option for caries management in patients with high caries risk.

  16. Systems analysis of salivary gland development and disease.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Melinda; Yamada, Kenneth M; Musselmann, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a crucial developmental process in which vertebrate organs generate extensive epithelial surface area while retaining a compact size. In the vertebrate submandibular salivary gland, branching morphogenesis is crucial for the generation of the large surface area necessary to produce sufficient saliva. However, in many salivary gland diseases, saliva-producing acinar cells are destroyed, resulting in dry mouth and secondary health conditions. Systems-based approaches can provide insights into understanding salivary gland development, function, and disease. The traditional approach to understanding these processes is the identification of molecular signals using reductionist approaches; we review current progress with such methods in understanding salivary gland development. Taking a more global approach, multiple groups are currently profiling the transcriptome, the proteome, and other 'omes' in both developing mouse tissues and in human patient samples. Computational methods have been successful in deciphering large data sets, and mathematical models are starting to make predictions regarding the contribution of molecules to the physical processes of morphogenesis and cellular function. A challenge for the future will be to establish comprehensive, publicly accessible salivary gland databases spanning the full range of genes and proteins; plans are underway to provide these resources to researchers in centralized repositories. The greatest challenge for the future will be to develop realistic models that integrate multiple types of data to both describe and predict embryonic development and disease pathogenesis.

  17. Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Aitken-Saavedra, Juan; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana-Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar-Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes-Coloma, Andrea; Reyes-Rojas, Montserrat; Viera -Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca-Martínez, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and the level of metabolic control of type 2 diabetes patients. Material and Methods A convenience sample of 74 voluntary patients with type 2 DM was selected, each of whom donated a sample of unstimulated saliva. Salivary parameters such as salivary flow rate, protein concentration, pH, and xerostomia were studied. Results There is a positive relationship between the level of metabolic control measured with HbA1 and the protein concentration in saliva (Spearman rho = 0.329 and p = 0.004). The same assay showed an inverse correlation between HbA1 and pH (Spearman rho = -0.225 and p = 0.05). Conclusions The protein concentration in saliva and, to a lesser extent, the pH may be useful as glandular dysfunction indicators in DM2 patients. Key words:Saliva, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pH, protein concentration, xerostomia. PMID:26535097

  18. Influence of bethanechol on salivary parameters in irradiated patients

    PubMed Central

    Cotomacio, Claudia; Campos, Luana; Simões, Alyne; Jaguar, Graziela; Crosato, Edgard-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Background Some studies have shown evidence that the prophylactic use of bethanechol chloride (BC) may be useful in preventing the incidence and/or severity of xerostomia (XT). However, the indication of BC in irradiated patients with XT needs to be better characterized. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of BC on XT, salivary flow rate, and salivary composition in patients previously submitted to head and neck radiotherapy. Material and Methods Forty five irradiated patients complaining of XT used 50 mg/day of BC for 3 months, and the salivary parameters were evaluated in 4 Phases (Before BC therapy, after one month of BC, 2 months of BC, and 3 months of BC). Biochemical analysis included buffering capacity; pH; total protein concentration (TP); amylase concentration (AM); catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (PX) activities. In addition, unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and XT was classified. Results According to the XT grading system used, patients showed improvement in XT between Phase 1, and Phases 2, 3 and 4. In addition, some changes were observed in TP concentration (decreased); AM concentration (increased); and PX and CAT activities (decreased and increased, respectively) after Phase 2, for stimulated saliva collection (p<0.05). Conclusions Our results suggested that when BC was used to treat salivary gland dysfunction induced by head and neck radiotherapy, improvement in XT symptoms, and some changes in saliva composition were shown. Key words:Radiotherapy, xerostomia, hyposalivation, saliva, biochemistry. PMID:27918737

  19. Salivary conditioning with antennal gustatory unconditioned stimulus in an insect.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Sato, Chihiro; Kuramochi, Tomokazu; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2008-07-01

    Classical conditioning of olfactory conditioning stimulus (CS) with gustatory unconditioned stimulus (US) in insects has been used as a pertinent model for elucidation of neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory. However, a conditioning system in which stable intracellular recordings from brain neurons are feasibly obtained while monitoring the conditioning effect has remained to be established. Recently, we found classical conditioning of salivation in cockroaches Periplaneta americana, in which an odor was associated with sucrose solution applied to the mouth, and this conditioning could be monitored by activities of salivary neurons. Application of gustatory US to the mouth, however, leads to feeding movement accompanying a movement of the brain that prevents stable recordings from brain neurons. Here we investigated whether a gustatory stimulus presented to an antenna could serve as an effective US for producing salivary conditioning. Presentation of sucrose or sodium chloride solution to an antenna induced salivation and also increased activities of salivary neurons. A single pairing trial of an odor with antennal presentation of sucrose or sodium chloride solution produced conditioning of salivation or of activities of salivary neurons. Five pairing trials led to a conditioning effect that lasted for one day. Water or tactile stimulus presented to an antenna was not effective for producing conditioning. The results demonstrate that gustatory US presented to an antenna is as effective as that presented to the mouth for producing salivary conditioning. This conditioning system provides a useful model for studying the neural basis of learning at the level of singly identifiable neurons.

  20. Some factors influencing salivary function when treating with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mira, J.G.; Wescott, W.B.; Starcke, E.N.; Shannon, I.L.

    1981-04-01

    Salivary flow rate was studied in 29 patients treated with external irradiation to head and neck areas. Resting saliva samples were collected before, during the radiotherapy course and follow-up. Several parameters were investigated: field arrangement, amount of salivary glands irradiated, dose to these glands, initial FR, its recovery during and after irradiation, and influence of therapy interruption in FR. It was found that the level of the upper border of the field is a critical factor when using parallel-opposed lateral fields to the upper neck area and lateral face. More than 50% of the parotids have to be outside the fields to prevent severe dryness. Neck fields which do not encompass salivary glands do not decrease salivary secretion. There is some relation between the initial FR and the dose necessary to produce dryness: patients with high initial salivary FR require higher doses. FR recovery occurs during weekend interruptions before xerostomia develops. Interruptions of therapy for more than two weeks during the radiotherapy course prior to development of dryness might decrease late xerostomia, at least in patients with high initial FR. Objective recovery of the FR has not been observed after treatment in spite of the subjective improvement in the sensation of dryness of some patients.

  1. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  2. Post-sialendoscopy ductoplasty by salivary duct stent placements.

    PubMed

    Su, Chin-Hui; Lee, Kuo-Sheng; Tseng, Te-Ming; Hung, Shih-Han

    2016-01-01

    With damage to a duct or papilla after sialendoscopy, a stent may be necessary to prevent re-stenosis and for maintaining the salivary duct open after complete sialendoscopy. However factors affecting outcomes and complications after stent placement remain unclear. This study aimed to report preliminary experiences in salivary duct stent placement after sialendoscopy. Data from 35 procedures in 33 patients who received sialendoscopy with salivary duct stent placements at Mackay Memorial Hospital between October 2013 and June 2014 were recorded and compared for clinical data, as well as procedural techniques, findings, and outcomes. In the 35 stent placement procedures, the hypospadias silastic stent tubes were used in 27 and the Fr. 5 pediatric feeding tubes were used in the remaining eight. When the hypospadias silastic stent tubes were used for stenting, the stent obstruction and irritation rates were higher compared to those who used the Fr. 5 pediatric feeding tube (100 vs. 0 % and 67 vs. 33 %, respectively). None of the stents secured by a 5-0 nylon suture were complicated by dislocation but when the stents were secured by 6-0 nylon sutures, the dislocation rate went as high as 47.4 %. The duration needed for salivary duct stent placement might be potentially shortened to only 2 weeks. If a salivary duct stent is intended to be placed for a certain period before its scheduled removal, a suture strength equivalent or stronger than the 5-0 nylon suture should be considered for stent fixation.

  3. On comparing heterogeneity across biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Steininger, Robert J; Rajaram, Satwik; Girard, Luc; Minna, John D; Wu, Lani F; Altschuler, Steven J

    2015-06-01

    Microscopy reveals complex patterns of cellular heterogeneity that can be biologically informative. However, a limitation of microscopy is that only a small number of biomarkers can typically be monitored simultaneously. Thus, a natural question is whether additional biomarkers provide a deeper characterization of the distribution of cellular states in a population. How much information about a cell's phenotypic state in one biomarker is gained by knowing its state in another biomarker? Here, we describe a framework for comparing phenotypic states across biomarkers. Our approach overcomes the current limitation of microscopy by not requiring costaining biomarkers on the same cells; instead, we require staining of biomarkers (possibly separately) on a common collection of phenotypically diverse cell lines. We evaluate our approach on two image datasets: 33 oncogenically diverse lung cancer cell lines stained with 7 biomarkers, and 49 less diverse subclones of one lung cancer cell line stained with 12 biomarkers. We first validate our method by comparing it to the "gold standard" of costaining. We then apply our approach to all pairs of biomarkers and use it to identify biomarkers that yield similar patterns of heterogeneity. The results presented in this work suggest that many biomarkers provide redundant information about heterogeneity. Thus, our approach provides a practical guide for selecting independently informative biomarkers and, more generally, will yield insights into both the connectivity of biological networks and the complexity of the state space of biological systems.

  4. Smoking and perceived stress in relation to short salivary telomere length among caregivers of children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoli; Velez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Pepper, Micah; Andrade, Asterio; Stoner, Lee; De Vivo, Immaculata; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL), the length of repeated DNA sequence that forms protective caps at the end of chromosomes, has emerged as a novel biomarker of cell aging and oxidative stress. There is increasing research exploring the associations of smoking and perceived stress with TL, and the results are inconsistent. This study aimed to examine whether smoking and perceived stress were associated with shortened salivary TL among primary caregivers of children with disabilities. Using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, salivary TL was assessed among 89 caregivers aged 19-69 years (87% were women) who took care of disabled children in the Patagonia Region, Chile. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. The 14-item Perceived Stress Scale was used to assess perceived stress. Mean relative TL was 0.92 (standard error = 0.03). Smokers had age-adjusted mean TL that was 0.07 units lower (β = -0.07, standard error = 0.03; p = 0.012) than non-smokers. Smokers were 2.17 times more likely to have shorter TL ( < 0.73, the lowest quartile of TL) than non-smokers (odds ratio = 3.17; 95% confidence interval = 1.05-9.52) with adjustment for age and perceived stress. Caregivers with higher perceived stress were 2.13 times more likely to have shorter TL (odds ratio = 3.13; 95% confidence interval = 1.03-9.55) than caregivers with lower perceived stress after adjustment for age and smoking. This study provides the first evidence of strong associations between smoking and perceived stress and shortened salivary TL among caregivers of children with disabilities. Larger studies with detailed information on smoking status are warranted to confirm our findings.

  5. [Biomarkers for anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Sjøgren, Jan Magnus

    2017-01-16

    Biomarkers for anorexia nervosa (AN) which reflect the pathophysiology and relate to the aetiology of the disease, are warranted and could bring us one step closer to targeted treatment of AN. Some leads may be found in the biochemistry which often is found disturbed in AN, although normalization in many aspects is seen at recovery from undernutrition. Recent genome-wide association studies support that genetic factors play a role in the pathophysiology of AN, of which some are independent of BMI-related mechanisms. In this review, an update on blood-based biomarkers of AN is presented.

  6. Lung Cancer Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Pamela; Wistuba, Ignacio I

    2017-02-01

    The molecular characterization of lung cancer has changed the classification and treatment of these tumors, becoming an essential component of pathologic diagnosis and oncologic therapy decisions. Through the recognition of novel biomarkers, such as epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase translocations, it is possible to identify subsets of patients who benefit from targeted molecular therapies. The success of targeted anticancer therapies and new immunotherapy approaches has created a new paradigm of personalized therapy and has led to accelerated development of new drugs for lung cancer treatment. This article focuses on clinically relevant cancer biomarkers as targets for therapy and potential new targets for drug development.

  7. Non-invasive screening for Alzheimer's disease by sensing salivary sugar using Drosophila cells expressing gustatory receptor (Gr5a) immobilized on an extended gate ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (EG-ISFET) biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lau, Hui-Chong; Lee, In-Kyu; Ko, Pan-Woo; Lee, Ho-Won; Huh, Jeung-Soo; Cho, Won-Ju; Lim, Jeong-Ok

    2015-01-01

    Body fluids are often used as specimens for medical diagnosis. With the advent of advanced analytical techniques in biotechnology, the diagnostic potential of saliva has been the focus of many studies. We recently reported the presence of excess salivary sugars, in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we developed a highly sensitive, cell-based biosensor to detect trehalose levels in patient saliva. The developed biosensor relies on the overexpression of sugar sensitive gustatory receptors (Gr5a) in Drosophila cells to detect the salivary trehalose. The cell-based biosensor was built on the foundation of an improved extended gate ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (EG-ISFET). Using an EG-ISFET, instead of a traditional ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET), resulted in an increase in the sensitivity and reliability of detection. The biosensor was designed with the gate terminals segregated from the conventional ISFET device. This design allows the construction of an independent reference and sensing region for simultaneous and accurate measurements of samples from controls and patients respectively. To investigate the efficacy of the cell-based biosensor for AD screening, we collected 20 saliva samples from each of the following groups: participants diagnosed with AD, participants diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD), and a control group composed of healthy individuals. We then studied the response generated from the interaction of the salivary trehalose of the saliva samples and the Gr5a in the immobilized cells on an EG-ISFET sensor. The cell-based biosensor significantly distinguished salivary sugar, trehalose of the AD group from the PD and control groups. Based on these findings, we propose that salivary trehalose, might be a potential biomarker for AD and could be detected using our cell-based EG-ISFET biosensor. The cell-based EG-ISFET biosensor provides a sensitive and direct approach for salivary sugar detection and

  8. Biomarkers for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, Joseph M; Liu, Chau-Ching; Kao, Amy H; Manzi, Susan

    2012-04-01

    The urgent need for lupus biomarkers was demonstrated in September 2011 during a Workshop sponsored by the Food and Drug Administration: Potential Biomarkers Predictive of Disease Flare. After 2 days of discussion and more than 2 dozen presentations from thought leaders in both industry and academia, it became apparent that highly sought biomarkers to predict lupus flare have not yet been identified. Even short of the elusive biomarker of flare, few biomarkers for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosis, monitoring, and stratification have been validated and employed for making clinical decisions. This lack of reliable, specific biomarkers for SLE hampers proper clinical management of patients with SLE and impedes development of new lupus therapeutics. As such, the intensity of investigation to identify lupus biomarkers is climbing a steep trajectory, lending cautious optimism that a validated panel of biomarkers for lupus diagnosis, monitoring, stratification, and prediction of flare may soon be in hand.

  9. Functional salivary gland regeneration as the next generation of organ replacement regenerative therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Miho; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Oral health is maintained by the coordinated function of many organs including the teeth and salivary glands. Dysfunction of these organs causes many problems, such as dental caries, swallowing dysfunction and periodontal disease. Regenerative therapy for salivary gland tissue repair and whole-salivary gland replacement is currently considered a novel therapeutic concept that may have potential for the full recovery of salivary gland function. Salivary gland tissue stem cells are thought to be candidate cell sources for salivary gland tissue repair therapies. In addition, whole-salivary gland replacement therapy may become a novel next-generation organ regenerative therapy. Almost all organs arise from reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions of the germ layers. We developed a novel bioengineering method, an organ germ method that can reproduce organogenesis through the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. A bioengineered salivary gland germ can regenerate a structurally correct salivary gland in vitro, and bioengineered salivary glands successfully secrete saliva into the oral cavity from ducts in the recipient through the reestablishment of the afferent-efferent neural network. The bioengineered salivary gland can also improve the symptoms of xerostomia, such as bacterial infection and swallowing dysfunction. In this review, we describe recent findings and technological developments of salivary gland regenerative therapy.

  10. Evaluation of salivary and serum lipid peroxidation, and glutathione in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Metgud, Rashmi; Bajaj, Saumya

    2014-06-01

    Lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in the pathogenesis of malignancy. Overall, lipid peroxidation levels are indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA), which is the most frequently used biomarker to detect oxidative changes. Antioxidant defense systems such as glutathione (GSH) limit cell injury induced by ROS. Therefore, MDA and GSH can be used to monitor oxidative stress (OS). Hence, this study aimed to evaluate and compare both salivary and serum levels of MDA and GSH in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and healthy controls. The study included 100 subjects comprising 30 apparently healthy controls, 30 patients with oral leukoplakia and 40 clinically and histologically diagnosed patients with OSCC. Saliva and blood samples were obtained and evaluated for MDA and GSH. The study revealed enhanced MDA levels in saliva and serum in oral leukoplakia and OSCC patients as compared to controls. On the other hand, significant decreases were seen in serum and salivary GSH levels in oral leukoplakia and OSCC patients as compared to controls. Augmentation of OS in blood and saliva is reflected by increase in MDA and decrease in GSH levels, indicating that tumor processes cause an imbalance of oxidant-antioxidant status in cell structures.

  11. Detection of Salivary IgA Antibodies Against the HlyE Antigen as a Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kai Ling; Redhuan, Nur Eliyana Mohd; Balaram, Prabha; Phua, Kia Kien

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) haemolysin E protein (HlyE) has been shown to be a sensitive and specific antigen for the detection of typhoid fever through the detection of anti-HlyE antibodies in sera. Saliva can also be a useful diagnostic fluid as it also contains antibodies against bacterial pathogens. Aim This study aims to evaluate the potential detection of salivary anti-HlyE antibodies as a diagnosis of typhoid fever. Materials and Methods Saliva was collected from acute typhoid patients (n=16) who presented at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia with prolonged fever of more than five days and were positive for S. Typhi blood culture. Saliva was also collected from convalescent typhoid patients (n=11), patients with other febrile fevers (n=15), and from healthy individuals (n=25). An ELISA was developed to detect the presence of IgA antibodies against HlyE in the saliva of typhoid patients. Results The acute typhoid group had a higher mean absorbance value of 1.496 compared to the convalescent typhoid (0.538), other febrile fevers (0.678), and healthy individuals (0.457) group. Conclusion This study demonstrated the utility of salivary anti-HlyE IgA antibody as a biomarker for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Follow-up studies with a larger sample size will allow the optimization of the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. This non-invasive method can be useful for mass screening programs. PMID:27504289

  12. A simple and compact smartphone accessory for quantitative chemiluminescence-based lateral flow immunoassay for salivary cortisol detection.

    PubMed

    Zangheri, Martina; Cevenini, Luca; Anfossi, Laura; Baggiani, Claudio; Simoni, Patrizia; Di Nardo, Fabio; Roda, Aldo

    2015-02-15

    We have developed a simple and accurate biosensor based on a chemiluminescent (CL)-lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) method integrated in a smartphone to quantitatively detect salivary cortisol. The biosensor is based on a direct competitive immunoassay using peroxidase-cortisol conjugate, detected by adding the chemiluminescent substrate luminol/enhancer/hydrogen peroxide. The smartphone camera is used as light detector, for image acquisition and data handling via a specific application. We 3D-printed simple accessories to adapt the smartphone. The system comprises a cartridge, which houses the LFIA strip, and a smartphone adaptor with a plano-convex lens and a cartridge-insertion slot. This provides a mini-darkbox and aligned optical interface between the camera and the LFIA membrane for acquiring CL signals. The method is simple and fast, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng/mL. It provides quantitative analysis in the range of 0.3-60 ng/mL, which is adequate for detecting salivary cortisol in the clinically accepted range. It could thus find application in the growing area of home-self-diagnostic device technology for clinical biomarker monitoring, overcoming the current difficulties in achieving sensitive and quantitative information with conventional systems taking the advantage of smartphone connectivity and the enhanced performance of the included camera.

  13. Determination of urinary and salivary cotinine using gas and liquid chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Kuo, H W; Yang, J S; Chiu, M C

    2002-03-05

    The objective of this study was to compare cotinine concentrations in urine and saliva using gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ninety-four subjects were selected (27 smokers and 67 non-smokers) and interviewed using questionnaire. Of the non-smokers, 39 had been exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and 28 had not been exposed to ETS. Cotinine levels among smokers were highest using all three measurements, followed by ETS exposed subjects and non-smokers. Cotinine levels in urine, using HPLC, correlated significantly with levels measured using ELISA (r=0.92) and GC-nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) (r=0.92). Salivary cotinine levels measured using ELISA did not correlate significantly with either HPLC (r=0.37) or GC-NPD (r=0.33) measurements. Multiple regression models were used to adjust for age, gender, drug use and health status, and it was found that cotinine levels in urine and saliva were significantly correlated with smoking pack-year. The authors conclude that urinary cotinine concentration is a more accurate biomarker for ETS than salivary cotinine concentration.

  14. Reduction in Salivary α-amylase Levels following a Mind-Body Intervention in Cancer Survivors - an Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Lipschitz, David L.; Kuhn, Renee; Kinney, Anita Y.; Donaldson, Gary W.; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Objective The main aim of this exploratory study was to assess whether salivary α-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol levels would be positively modulated by sleep-focused mind-body interventions in female and male cancer survivors. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which 57 cancer survivors with self-reported sleep disturbance received either a Sleep Hygiene Education (SHE; n=18) control, or one of two experimental mind-body interventions, namely, Mind-Body Bridging (MBB; n=19) or Mindfulness Meditation (MM; n=20). Interventions were three sessions each conducted once per week for three consecutive weeks. Saliva cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline and one week after the last session. Participants also completed a sleep scale at the same time points when saliva was collected for biomarker measurement. Results Our study revealed that at post-study assessment, mean sAA levels upon awakening (“Waking” sample) declined in MBB compared with that of SHE. Mean Waking cortisol levels did not differ among treatment groups but declined slightly in SHE. Self-reported sleep improved across the three interventions at Post-assessment, with largest improvements in the MBB intervention. Conclusion In this exploratory study, sleep focused mind-body intervention (MBB) attenuated Waking sAA levels, suggesting positive influences of a mind-body intervention on sympathetic activity in cancer survivors with sleep disturbance. PMID:23375640

  15. Prognostic Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jie; Hu, Wei; Sood, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy despite several decades of progress in diagnosis and treatment. Taking advantage of the robust development of discovery and utility of prognostic biomarkers, clinicians and researchers are developing personalized and targeted treatment strategies. This review encompasses recently discovered biomarkers of ovarian cancer, the utility of published prognostic biomarkers for EOC (especially biomarkers related to angiogenesis and key signaling pathways), and their integration into clinical practice. PMID:22045356

  16. Comparison of some salivary variables between vegetarians and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Johansson, G; Ravald, N

    1995-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare salivary variables in a group of vegetarians with a group of omnivores. Twenty-nine vegetarians, 19 women and 10 men, mean age 35 yr, and 28 omnivores, 20 women and 8 men, mean age 35 yr, were compared in terms of salivary secretion rate, pH, buffer capacity, mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. The vegetarians had a significantly higher secretion rate, but there were no other significant differences regarding the salivary variables. The difference in secretion rate may have been caused by some lifestyle factor(s) differing between vegetarians and omnivores which probably mainly include nutrient(s), texture and roughness of the food.

  17. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    SciTech Connect

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than {approx}20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than {approx}25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk.

  18. Anorexia/bulimia-related sialadenosis of palatal minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Mignogna, M D; Fedele, S; Lo Russo, L

    2004-08-01

    In patients affected by alimentary disorders sialadenosis is frequently observed. This non-inflammatory condition is described to affect major salivary glands, leading to the characteristic parotid and/or submandibular swelling. Thus fine-needle aspiration cytology or parotid open biopsy are generally required to diagnose histologically the disorder. We report the case of a 28-year-old patient affected by bulimia/anorexia nervosa who presented, in addition to parotid enlargement, a bilateral symmetric painless soft swelling of the hard palate. The lesion was biopsied and histopathological examination showed the classical features of sialadenosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of sialadenosis affecting palatal minor salivary glands. It underlines that when sialadenosis is clinically suspected, clinicians could check also patients' oral cavity for minor salivary glands involvement, in order to potentially avoid invasive extra-oral procedures and to easily confirm diagnosis with an intra-oral biopsy.

  19. Particular aspects in the cytogenetics and molecular biology of salivary gland tumours – current review of reports

    PubMed Central

    Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are a group of lesions whose heterogeneity of biological and pathological features is widely reflected in the molecular aspect. This is demonstrated by an increasing number of studies in the field of genetics of these tumours. The aim of this study was to collect the most significant scientific reports on the cytogenetic and molecular data concerning these tumours, which might facilitate the identification of potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The analysis covered 71 papers included in the PubMed database. We focused on the most common tumours, such as pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin tumour, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and others. The aim of this study is to present current knowledge about widely explored genotypic alterations (such as PLAG1 gene in pleomorphic adenoma or MECT1 gene in mucoepidermoid carcinoma), and also about rare markers, like Mena or SOX10 protein, which might also be associated with tumourigenesis and carcinogenesis of these tumours. PMID:27688723

  20. Stress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Obel, C; Hedegaard, M; Henriksen, T B; Secher, N J; Olsen, J; Levine, S

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to stressful life events was associated with changes in levels of circulating cortisol during pregnancy in a population of 603 pregnant women. The participating pregnant women filled out a questionnaire and collected a morning and evening sample of saliva in early pregnancy (median 14th gestational week) and in late pregnancy (median and 30th gestational week). They were asked to report the number of life events experienced during first and second trimester, respectively, and were asked to rate the intensity of the experienced events. Complications related to the pregnancy such as vaginal bleeding and suspected growth retardation were registered and the women were asked about concerns about their pregnancy. The salivary samples were analyzed for cortisol and the levels were higher in late than in early pregnancy. In late pregnancy women exposed to more than one life event or were concerned about pregnancy complications during second trimester had a higher evening cortisol level, whereas morning values were unaffected. After adjustment for smoking women who experienced more than one very stressful life event had 27% higher evening cortisol concentrations (95% confidence intervals: 1-59%). Women with worries about pregnancy complications had 27% (95% confidence intervals: 2-57%) higher levels. In early pregnancy women reporting stressful life events did not have higher evening cortisol levels, but tended to have a blunted morning HPA response. In conclusion, we found differences in the associations between chronic stress in early and late pregnancy and cortisol levels indicating that the response to chronic stress is dependent on the stage of the pregnancy.

  1. What interactions drive the salivary mucosal pellicle formation?

    PubMed Central

    Gibbins, Hannah L.; Yakubov, Gleb E.; Proctor, Gordon B.; Wilson, Stephen; Carpenter, Guy H.

    2014-01-01

    The bound salivary pellicle is essential for protection of both the enamel and mucosa in the oral cavity. The enamel pellicle formation is well characterised, however the mucosal pellicle proteins have only recently been clarified and what drives their formation is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the salivary pellicle on particles with different surface properties (hydrophobic or hydrophilic with a positive or negative charge), to determine a suitable model to mimic the mucosal pellicle. A secondary aim was to use the model to test how transglutaminase may alter pellicle formation. Particles were incubated with resting whole mouth saliva, parotid saliva and submandibular/sublingual saliva. Following incubation and two PBS and water washes bound salivary proteins were eluted with two concentrations of SDS, which were later analysed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Experiments were repeated with purified transglutaminase to determine how this epithelial-derived enzyme may alter the bound pellicle. Protein pellicles varied according to the starting salivary composition and the particle chemistry. Amylase, the single most abundant protein in saliva, did not bind to any particle indicating specific protein binding. Most proteins bound through hydrophobic interactions and a few according to their charges. The hydrophobic surface most closely matched the known salivary mucosal pellicle by containing mucins, cystatin and statherin but an absence of amylase and proline-rich proteins. This surface was further used to examine the effect of added transglutaminase. At the concentrations used only statherin showed any evidence of crosslinking with itself or another saliva protein. In conclusion, the formation of the salivary mucosal pellicle is probably mediated, at least in part, by hydrophobic interactions to the epithelial cell surface. PMID:24921197

  2. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOEpatents

    Dirmi, G.P.; Campisi, J.; Peacocke, M.

    1996-02-13

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, {beta}-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in in vitro cell cultures or in vivo. 1 fig.

  3. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOEpatents

    Dimri, G.P.; Campisi, J.; Peacocke, M.

    1998-08-18

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, {beta}-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in vitro cell cultures or in vivo. 1 fig.

  4. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOEpatents

    Dirmi, Goberdhan P.; Campisi, Judith; Peacocke, Monica

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, .beta.-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in in vitro cell cultures or in vivo.

  5. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOEpatents

    Dimri, Goberdhan P.; Campisi, Judith; Peacocke, Monica

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, .beta.-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in vitro cell cultures or in vivo.

  6. Cytologic characteristics and histomorphologic correlations of 21 salivary duct carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Klijanienko, J; Vielh, P

    1998-11-01

    Fine-needle samplings (FNS) of 21 salivary duct carcinomas, histologically correlated, including 19 primaries, one local recurrence, and one lymph node metastasis from 19 patients, are reported. Cytologic diagnosis of high-grade adenocarcinoma was established in 15 (71%). Five (24%) cases were misclassified as high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas and one (5%) as squamous-cell carcinoma. The histologic evaluation in all cases showed cytomorphologic features resembling mammary duct carcinoma with marked cytonuclear atypia and occasional oncocytic appearance. Our cytohistologic correlations indicate that irregular clusters of high-grade adenocarcinoma cells with necrotic background and oncocytic features suggest a cytologic diagnosis of either primary salivary duct carcinoma or metastatic mammary carcinoma.

  7. [Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands. Report of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    BenJelloun, H; Jouhadi, H; Maazouzi, A; Benchakroun, N; Acharki, A; Tawfiq, N; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

    2005-09-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands is rare. Tumours develop mostly in children and young patients but can be diagnosed in older people. We report three new cases in women 7, 14 and 75 years old. Tumefaction of the parotid region and facial paralysis were the principle clinical symptoms. Two patients underwent a total parotidectomy and radiotherapy. The third patient had a locally advanced tumour and received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Loco-regional recurrence was observed in all cases and median survival was 12 months. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands is locally aggressive. Treatments include surgery and radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy remains to be discussed.

  8. Retroauricular Pleomorphic Adenoma Arising from Heterotopic Salivary Gland Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bacaj, Patrick; Borah, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A 38-year-old woman is described who presented with a slowly growing mass on the posterior aspect of the left ear. Excision and histopathologic evaluation revealed a pleomorphic adenoma (PA) originating from heterotopic salivary gland tissue. Many authors have presented cases of PAs originating from ceruminous glands in the external auditory canal or of so-called chondroid syringoma originating from apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. This is the only case in the recent literature of a PA originating from a heterotopic rest of salivary gland tissue in the retroauricular region. The 3 main sources of PAs, their embryologic derivation, and treatment are described. PMID:27757344

  9. Inflammatory Cytokines Interleukin-1β and Tumour Necrosis Factor-α - Novel Biomarkers for the Detection of Periodontal Diseases: a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Francisco Isaac Fernandes; Aragão, Maria Gerusa Brito; Barbosa, Francisco Cesar Barroso; Bezerra, Mirna Marques; de Paulo Teixeira Pinto, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The article aims to discuss the IL-1β and TNF-α potential use as salivary biomarkers of periodontal diseases pathogenesis and progression. Material and Methods This literature review has been registered in PROSPERO database with following number: CRD42016035729. Data investigation was performed on PubMed database as the main source of studies. The following search terms were used: “salivary biomarkers”, “periodontal diseases”, “TNF-alpha”, “Interleukin-1 beta”. Clinical trials and animal experimental models of periodontal disease were included in the discussion. In regards to inclusive dates, published studies from January 2006 to December 2015 were considered in this review along with the mentioned inclusion criteria. Results IL-1β and TNF-α salivary levels increased in diseased groups, they were associated with onset and disease severity, and their levels reduced in response to periodontal therapy. IL-1β and TNF-α could be promising biomarkers in the detection of periodontal diseases. Conclusions The use of a salivary cytokine-based diagnosis appears to be a screening method capable of diagnosing periodontal diseases in an early fashion, establishing an era of individualized clinical decisions. PMID:27489606

  10. Multiplexed Salivary Protein Profiling for Patients with Respiratory Diseases using Fiber-Optic Bundles and Fluorescent Antibody-Based Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shuai; Benito-Peña, Elena; Zhang, Huaibin; Wu, Yue; Walt, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the incidence and prevalence of respiratory diseases have increased significantly throughout the world, damaging economic productivity and challenging health care systems. Current diagnoses of different respiratory diseases generally involve invasive sampling methods such as induced sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage that are uncomfortable, or even painful, for the patient. In this paper, we present a platform incorporating fiber-optic bundles and antibody based microarrays to perform multiplexed protein profiling of a panel of six salivary biomarkers for asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. The platform utilizes an optical fiber bundle containing approximately 50,000 individual 4.5 μm diameter fibers that are chemically etched to create microwells in which modified microspheres decorated with monoclonal capture antibodies can be deposited. Based on a sandwich immunoassay format, the array quantifies human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interleukin 8 (IL-8), epidermal growth factor (EGF), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) salivary biomarkers in the sub-picomolar range. Saliva supernatants collected from 291 individuals (164 asthmatics, 71 CF patients, and 56 healthy controls (HC)) were analyzed on the platform to profile each group of patients using this six-analyte suite. It was found that four of the six proteins were observed to be significantly elevated (p<0.01) in asthma and CF patients compared with HC. These results demonstrate the potential to use the multiplexed protein array platform for respiratory disease diagnosis. PMID:23972398

  11. Effect of adsorption time on the adhesion strength between salivary pellicle and human tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y F; Zheng, J; Zheng, L; Zhou, Z R

    2015-02-01

    Salivary pellicle is a biofilm that is formed by the selective adsorption of salivary proteins. Almost all the functions of the salivary pellicle (lubricating properties, anti-caries properties, etc.) are closely associated with its adhesion strength to tooth surface. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of adsorption time on the adhesion strength between salivary pellicle and human tooth enamel, aiming to understand what act as the determinant of the interfacial adhesion. In this study, human tooth enamel samples were immersed in human whole saliva in vitro to obtain a salivary pellicle on the surface of enamel. Immersion treatments lasting up to 1, 3, 10 and 60 min were conducted, respectively. Nano-scratch tests were conducted on the surface of enamel after different adsorption times. The wettability of enamel surface was measured through water contact angle. Results showed that the shear energy between salivary pellicle and enamel surface increased exponentially with the adsorption time. The adhesion force between salivary pellicle and bare enamel surface was more than twice that between salivary pellicle and salivary pellicle. It was found that both the wettability and zeta potential of enamel increased obviously after 1 min saliva-adsorption treatment, and then they almost kept stable as the adsorption time further increased. In summary, the adhesion strength between initial salivary pellicle and enamel surface was much higher than that between initial salivary pellicle and outer salivary pellicle. It seemed that electrostatic interaction contributed to the adhesion between the initial salivary pellicle and enamel surface, but not to the adhesion between the initial and outer salivary pellicle. The results would be helpful to extend the understanding of the adhesion mechanism of salivary pellicle and then to develop new artificial saliva and dental restorative materials.

  12. BluePen Biomarkers LLC: integrated biomarker solutions.

    PubMed

    Blair, Ian A; Mesaros, Clementina; Lilley, Patrick; Nunez, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    BluePen Biomarkers provides a unique comprehensive multi-omics biomarker discovery and validation platform. We can quantify, integrate and analyze genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and lipidomics biomarkers, alongside clinical data, demographics and other phenotypic data. A unique bio-inspired signal processing analytic approach is used that has the proven ability to identify biomarkers in a wide variety of diseases. The resulting biomarkers can be used for diagnosis, prognosis, mechanistic studies and predicting treatment response, in contexts from core research through clinical trials. BluePen Biomarkers provides an additional groundbreaking research goal: identifying surrogate biomarkers from different modalities. This not only provides new biological insights, but enables least invasive, least-cost tests that meet or exceed the predictive quality of current tests.

  13. Effect of chronic training on heart rate variability, salivary IgA and salivary alpha-amylase in elite swimmers with a disability.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Rohan; Burkett, Brendan; Leicht, Anthony; McKean, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to a) determine the heart rate variability (HRV) and saliva markers of immunity (salivary immunoglobulin A; sIgA) and stress (salivary alpha-amylase; sAA) responses to chronic training in elite swimmers with a disability; and b) identify the relationships between HRV, sIgA, sAA and training volume. Eight members of a high performance Paralympic swimming program were monitored for their weekly resting HRV, sIgA and sAA levels in the 14 weeks leading up to a major international competition. The 14 week training program included aerobic, anaerobic, power and speed, and taper training phases, while also incorporating two swimming step tests and two swimming competitions. Specific time (root mean square of the successive differences; RMSSD) and frequency (high frequency normalized units [HFnu]) domain measures, along with non-linear indices (standard deviation of instantaneous RR variability; SD1 and short term fractal scaling exponent; α1) of HRV were used for all analyses with effects examined using magnitude-based inferences. Relationships between HRV and saliva markers were identified by Spearman rank rho (ρ) correlation coefficients. Compared with week 1, SD1 was very likely lower (96/4/0, ES = -2.21), while sAA was very likely elevated (100/0/0, ES = 2.32) at the beginning of week 7 for all athletes. The training program did not alter HRV or saliva whereas competition did. There were also no apparent differences observed for HRV, sIgA and sAA between each of the training phases during the 14 week swimming program. Correlations were observed between sAA and SD1 (ρ = -0.212, p<0.05), along with sAA and mean HR (ρ = 0.309, p<0.05). These results show that high level national competition influences depresses HRV (SD1) and increases saliva biomarkers of stress (sAA). It appears that a well-managed and periodised swimming program can maintain these indices within normal baseline levels. The study also highlighted the parasympathetic

  14. Biomarkers of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fengming, Yi; Jianbing, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease mostly involved with intestine with unknown etiology. Diagnosis, evaluation of severity, and prognosis are still present as challenges for physicians. An ideal biomarker with the characters such as simple, easy to perform, noninvasive or microinvasive, cheap, rapid, and reproducible is helpful for patients and clinicians. Currently biomarkers applied in clinic include CRP, ESR, pANCA, ASCA, and fecal calprotectin. However, they are far from ideal. Lots of studies are focused on seeking for ideal biomarker for IBD. Herein, the paper reviewed recent researches on biomarkers of IBD to get advances of biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24963213

  15. Pleomorphic Adenoma of Minor Salivary Gland in a 14 year Old Child.

    PubMed

    Pramod Krishna, B

    2013-06-01

    Salivary gland tumours are rare in childhood, and almost all of them occur in parotid gland. Minor salivary gland tumours are even rarer, pleomorphic adenoma being the most frequently found tumour. Only seventeen cases of pleomorphic adenoma arising in the minor salivary gland tumour have been reported in children and adolescents. Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland represents about 45% of all the tumours of the minor salivary glands. Pleomorphic adenoma is slowly enlarging tumour indistinguishable from adenoid cystic carcinoma clinically, except for pain and ulceration, which is more common in the latter. Carcinoma arising from pleomorphic adenoma has been reported in 3% cases amongst the minor salivary gland tumours. This report presents a case of pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland in a 14 year old female patient with a brief review of literature.

  16. [Effect of dietary VE on the contents of salivary acid and MDA in RBC membrane].

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Dong, Z; Zhang, Y; Chen, Y

    1997-05-01

    Vitamin E can protect membrane from the damage of lipid peroxidation, Salivary acid is the residual of carbohydrate on the membrane. To evaluate the effect of dietary VE on salivary acid, the contents of MDA and salivary acid of erythrocyte (RBC) membrane of rats were measured. The rats were fed with different amounts of dietary VE and stayed at different temperatures. The results revealed that the content of salivary acid of RBC membrane reduced markly (P < 0.01) and the content of MDA of RBC membrane was stable (P > 0.05) after the rats were exposed to cold for 10 days. High dietary VE intake increased the content of salivary acid of RBC membrane (P < 0.01). There was no correlation between the content of salivary acid and MDA of RBC membrane. It suggested that dietary VE could raise the content of salivary acid in RBC membrane, but it can not be explained by the reduction of LPO.

  17. The Salivary Microbiome and Oral Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Furquim, C P; Soares, G M S; Ribeiro, L L; Azcarate-Peril, M A; Butz, N; Roach, J; Moss, K; Bonfim, C; Torres-Pereira, C C; Teles, F R F

    2017-03-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease characterized by chromosomal instability and impaired DNA damage repair. FA patients develop oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) earlier and more frequently than the general population, especially after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although evidence of an etiological role of the local microbiome and carcinogenesis has been mounting, no information exists regarding the oral microbiome of FA patients. The aim of this study was to explore the salivary microbiome of 61 FA patients regarding their oral health status and OSCC risk factors. After answering a questionnaire and receiving clinical examination, saliva samples were collected and analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region. The microbial profiles associated with medical and clinical parameters were analyzed using general linear models. Patients were young (mean age, 22 y) and most had received HSCT ( n = 53). The most abundant phyla were Firmicutes [mean relative abundance (SD), 42.1% (10.1%)] and Bacteroidetes [(25.4% (11.4%)]. A history of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) ( n = 27) was associated with higher proportions of Firmicutes (43.8% × 38.5%, P = 0.05). High levels of gingival bleeding were associated with the genera Prevotella (22.25% × 20%), Streptococcus (19.83% × 17.61%), Porphyromonas (3.63% × 1.42%, P = 0.03), Treponema (1.02% × 0.28%, P = 0.009), Parvimonas (0.28% × 0.07%, P = 0.02) and Dialister (0.27% × 0.10%, P = 0.04). Finally, participants transplanted over 11 y ago showed the highest levels of Streptococcus (18.4%), Haemophilus (12.7%) and Neisseria (6.8%). In conclusion, FA patients that showed poor oral hygiene harbored higher proportions of the genera of bacteria compatible with gingival disease. Specific microbial differences were associated with a history of oral GVHD and a history of oral mucositis.

  18. Collection of salivary proteins of psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phloem-feeding insects discharge into the phloem of host plants copious amounts of enzymatically active saliva which prevents phloem occlusion and suppresses plant defenses. Although previous reports have documented the composition and roles of salivary proteins from aphids, there are no published ...

  19. Standards for the assessment of salivary glands – an update

    PubMed Central

    Ochal-Choińska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with particular emphasis on lesions indicating high risk of malignancy. In acute bacterial inflammation, the salivary glands appear as hypoechoic, enlarged or normal-sized, with increased parenchymal flow. The echogenicity is significantly increased in viral infections. Degenerative lesions may be seen in chronic inflammations. Hyperechoic deposits with acoustic shadowing can be visualized in lithiasis. Parenchymal fibrosis is a dominant feature of sialosis. Sjögren syndrome produces different pictures of salivary gland parenchymal lesions at different stages of the disease. Pleomorphic adenomas are usually hypoechoic, well-defined and polycyclic in most cases. Warthin tumor usually presents as a hypoechoic, oval-shaped lesion with anechoic cystic spaces. Malignancies are characterized by blurred outlines, irregular shape, usually heterogeneous echogenicity and pathological neovascularization. The accompanying metastatic lesions are another indicator of malignancy, however, final diagnosis should be based on biopsy findings. PMID:27446602

  20. Salivary microbiota in individuals with different levels of caries experience

    PubMed Central

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Kirkby, Nikolai; Kokaras, Alexis; Paster, Bruce J.; Bardow, Allan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study compared salivary bacterial profiles in two groups having a 10-fold difference in levels of caries experience, as it was hypothesized that the composition of the salivary microbiota might associate with the levels of caries experience. Bacterial profiles in stimulated saliva samples from 85 individuals with low levels of caries experience (healthy group) and 79 individuals with high levels of caries experience (caries group) were analyzed by means of the Human Oral Microbiome Identification Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique. Subsequently, saliva samples from caries-free individuals in the healthy group (n = 57) and the caries group (n = 31) were compared. A significantly higher α-diversity (p < 0.0001) and a twofold higher relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, and Fusobacterium were recorded in saliva samples from the healthy group compared with the caries group. Differences observed were more pronounced when limiting the analyses to caries-free individuals in each group. Data from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that low levels of caries experience might associate with a characteristic salivary bacterial composition different from that in individuals with high caries experience. Consequently, longitudinal studies are required to determine if the composition of the salivary microbiota might be a predictive factor of caries risk at the individual level. PMID:28326153

  1. Insight into the salivary transcriptome and proteome of Dipetalogaster maxima.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Teresa C F; Charneau, Sébastien; Santiago, Paula B M; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Meng, Zhaojing; Araújo, Carla N; Pham, Van M; Queiroz, Rayner M L; de Castro, Cleudson Nery; Ricart, Carlos André; Santana, Jaime M; Ribeiro, José M C

    2011-02-04

    Dipetalogaster maxima is a blood-sucking Hemiptera that inhabits sylvatic areas in Mexico. It usually takes its blood meal from lizards, but following human population growth, it invaded suburban areas, feeding also on humans and domestic animals. Hematophagous insect salivary glands produce potent pharmacologic compounds that counteract host hemostasis, including anticlotting, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory molecules. To obtain further insight into the salivary biochemical and pharmacologic complexity of this insect, a cDNA library from its salivary glands was randomly sequenced. Salivary proteins were also submitted to one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DE and 2DE) followed by mass spectrometry analysis. We present the analysis of a set of 2728 cDNA sequences, 1375 of which coded for proteins of a putative secretory nature. The saliva 2DE proteome displayed approximately 150 spots. The mass spectrometry analysis revealed mainly lipocalins, pallidipins, antigen 5-like proteins, and apyrases. The redundancy of sequence identification of saliva-secreted proteins suggests that proteins are present in multiple isoforms or derive from gene duplications.

  2. Does diet influence salivary enzyme activities in elephant species?

    PubMed

    Boehlke, Carolin; Pötschke, Sandra; Behringer, Verena; Hannig, Christian; Zierau, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are herbivore generalists; however, Asian elephants might ingest a higher proportion of grasses than Africans. Although some studies have investigated nutrition-specific morphological adaptations of the two species, broader studies on salivary enzymes in both elephant species are lacking. This study focuses on the comparison of salivary enzymes activity profiles in the two elephant species; these enzymes are relevant for protective and digestive functions in humans. We aimed to determine whether salivary amylase (sAA), lysozyme (sLYS), and peroxidase (sPOD) activities have changed in a species-specific pattern during evolutionary separation of the elephant genera. Saliva samples of 14 Asian and eight African elephants were collected in three German zoos. Results show that sAA and sLYS are salivary components of both elephant species in an active conformation. In contrast, little to no sPOD activity was determined in any elephant sample. Furthermore, sAA activity was significantly higher in Asian compared with African elephants. sLYS and sPOD showed no species-specific differences. The time of food provision until sample collection affected only sAA activity. In summary, the results suggest several possible factors modulating the activity of the mammal-typical enzymes, such as sAA, sLYS, and sPOD, e.g., nutrition and sampling procedure, which have to be considered when analyzing differences in saliva composition of animal species.

  3. Effect of Caffeinated Soft Drinks on Salivary Flow

    PubMed Central

    Tantbirojn, Daranee; Augustson, David G.; Guo, Hongfei

    2013-01-01

    Background Soft drinks containing caffeine have been associated with more aggressive forms of dental decay. Cariogenicity of caffeinated soft drinks may be attributed to the effect of caffeine on salivary flow. This study assessed whether caffeinated soft drinks produced short-term oral dryness in healthy adults. Methods The authors collected saliva on two separate days from 35 participants before and one hour after drinking a soft drink. On one of the days the soft drink was caffeinated and on the other day it was not. Saliva collection involved 15 minutes unstimulated whole saliva, 5 minutes paraffin-stimulated whole saliva, and 10 seconds labial minor salivary gland output. Results Unstimulated and stimulated flow rates slightly increased and minor gland output slightly decreased one hour after the soft drink consumption regardless of caffeine content. These changes were not statistically significant (two-period two-treatment crossover trial using two-stage Grizzle model, p>0.05). A linear mixed model statistic did not show the caffeine effect on salivary flow rate. Conclusions Caffeinated soft drink consumption had no significant effect on salivary flow rate after one hour by any of the three measures employed in this study. Caffeine's contribution to the cariogenicity of soft drinks is likely by centrally-mediated effects on consumption patterns. PMID:24761280

  4. Immunosensor with fluid control mechanism for salivary cortisol analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample solution. A calibration curve using the relative detected current showed a R(2)=0.98 and CV=14% for a range of standard cortisol solutions corresponding to the concentrations of native salivary cortisol (0.1-10 ng/ml). The measurement could be accomplished within 35 min and the cortisol immunosensor could be reused. These results show promise for realizing an on-site and easy-to-use biosensor for cortisol. Used for evaluation of human salivary cortisol levels, the cortisol immunosensor measurement corresponded closely with commercially available ELISA method (R(2)=0.92). Our results indicate the promise of the new cortisol immunosensor for noninvasive, point of care measurement of human salivary cortisol levels.

  5. Insight into the Salivary Transcriptome and Proteome of Dipetalogaster maxima

    PubMed Central

    Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Charneau, Sébastien; Santiago, Paula B. M.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Meng, Zhaojing; Araújo, Carla N.; Pham, Van M.; Queiroz, Rayner M. L.; de Castro, Cleudson Nery; Ricart, Carlos André; Santana, Jaime M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Dipetalogaster maximais a blood-sucking Hemiptera that inhabits sylvatic areas in Mexico. It usually takes its blood meal from lizards, but following human population growth, it invaded suburban areas, feeding also on humans and domestic animals. Hematophagous insect salivary glands produce potent pharmacologic compounds that counteract host hemostasis, including anticlotting, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory molecules. To obtain further insight into the salivary biochemical and pharmacologic complexity of this insect, a cDNA library from its salivary glands was randomly sequenced. Salivary proteins were also submitted to one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DE and 2DE) followed by mass spectrometry analysis. We present the analysis of a set of 2728 cDNA sequences, 1375 of which coded for proteins of a putative secretory nature. The saliva 2DE proteome displayed approximately 150 spots. The mass spectrometry analysis revealed mainly lipocalins, pallidipins, antigen 5-like proteins, and apyrases. The redundancy of sequence identification of saliva-secreted proteins suggests that proteins are present in multiple isoforms or derive from gene duplications. Supplemental files can be downloaded from http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_maxima/Dm-S1-web.xls and http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_maxima/Dm-S2-web.xls. PMID:21058630

  6. Rabies viral antigen in human tongues and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Feng, Z; Ye, H

    1995-10-01

    Lingual and major salivary tissue samples from three cases of rabies were stained with the immunoperoxidase (ABC) technique. All tissue blocks had been embedded in paraffin 4-10 years before. The first antibody used was monoclonal antirabies nucleocapsin (N) mouse antibody (HAM). Four out of five pieces of tongue from two cases showed a large amount of granular staining indicating rabies antigen (RVAg) inside serous glandular cells, terminal nerves, muscle cells and covering epithelial cells including taste cells. In the tissue probes from the third case only minimal granular staining was found, probably due to complete absence of the serous gland. In contrast to the tongue, only a little weakly reacting material was found in 4 out of 9 probes of salivary gland, either in acini or in nerve fibres. The amount of RVAg is evidently much greater in the human tongue than in major salivary glands, whereas major salivary glands from infected dogs, foxes and skunks reportedly contain much RVAg. As the human tongue's serous gland appears to be a preferred location for RVAg, it may be a source of oral infection.

  7. Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?

    PubMed

    Gurzu, S; Krause, M; Ember, I; Azamfirei, L; Gobel, G; Feher, K; Jung, I

    2012-02-07

    Mena (mammalian Ena) is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG) and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10) and also benign (n=20) and malignant (n=35) lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin's tumors) were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5), carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5), acinic cell carcinomas (n=5), squamous cell carcinomas (n=10) and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2) were positive. The lymphomas (n=5) and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1) were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  8. Evaluation of radioprotective effect of pilocarpine ingestion on salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Marcele Jardim; Filho, Mário Márcio Vasconcelos Batista; Araújo, Mariângela; Gomes, Daliana Queiroga; DA Costa, Lino João

    2014-04-01

    There is controversy concerning the effect of pilocarpine in the reversal of radio-induced xerostomia; however, the tests are usually performed at the end of radiotherapy. The present study evaluated the radioprotective effects of pilocarpine when ingested during radiation treatment. Eleven patients (recently diagnosed with head and neck cancer who were not undergoing radiotherapy) were divided into two groups: the control group (saline solution intake n=6) and the pilocarpine-treated (5 mg pilocarpine three times daily, n=5) group, in a prospective and double-blinded study. For five weeks, oral conditions, unstimulated salivary flow and stimulated saliva flow were collected weekly, with the first collection occurring prior to radiation therapy. As early as the second week, the control group exhibited oral complications and greater reduction in salivary flow rate. At the end of the study, the pilocarpine-treated group presented mean values of salivary flow greater than those of the control group. Pilocarpine intake applied simultaneously with radiotherapy demonstrated encouraging results with regard to lowering salivary flow reduction and incidence of xerostomia, as well as of oral complications.

  9. Approaches to salivary cortisol collection and analysis in infants.

    PubMed

    Tryphonopoulos, Panagiota D; Letourneau, Nicole; Azar, Rima

    2014-10-01

    Salivary cortisol is becoming more commonly utilized as a biologic marker of stress in observational studies and intervention research. However, its use with infants (12 months of age or younger) is less widespread and poses some special challenges to researchers. In order to decide on the most suitable collection procedure for salivary cortisol in infants, a number of criteria should be considered. This article will aid investigators interested in integrating salivary cortisol measurement into their research studies by presenting (1) an overview of the patterns of cortisol secretion in infancy including the development of diurnal rhythm and response to stress; (2) a comparison of the most commonly used approaches for collecting salivary cortisol samples in infants including cotton rope, syringe aspiration technique, filter paper, hydrocellulose microsponge, and the Salimetrics children's swab; (3) a discussion of the factors contributing to heightened cortisol variability in infancy and how these can be limited; (4) analytical issues associated with cortisol measurement; and (5) examples of criteria to consider when choosing a saliva sampling method and lab for conducting assays.

  10. Inflammatory Biomarkers in Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Daghestani, Hikmat N.; Kraus, Virginia B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Osteoarthritis (OA) is highly prevalent and a leading cause of disability worldwide. Despite the global burden of OA, diagnostic tests and treatments for the molecular or early subclinical stages are still not available for clinical use. In recent years, there has been a large shift in the understanding of OA as a “wear and tear” disease to an inflammatory disease. This has been demonstrated through various studies using MRI, ultrasound, histochemistry, and biomarkers. It would of great value to be able to readily identify subclinical and/or sub-acute inflammation, particularly in such a way as to be appropriate for a clinical setting. Here we review several types of biomarkers associated with OA in human studies that point to a role of inflammation in OA. PMID:26521734

  11. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K. A. Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4–5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and

  12. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K A Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4-5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39-4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51-4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94-6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and T

  13. Potential uses of human salivary protein and peptide analysis in the diagnosis of disease.

    PubMed

    Al Kawas, Sausan; Rahim, Zubaidah H A; Ferguson, David B

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid containing a complex mixture of proteins, peptides and other substances. These are not only important in maintaining the health of the oral cavity but also may yield information about oral and systemic disease. Comprehensive analysis and identification of the proteomic content of human saliva may contribute to the understanding of oral pathophysiology and provide a foundation for the recognition of potential biomarkers of human disease. The collection of saliva samples is non-invasive, safe, and inexpensive. It seems likely that testing methods can be developed which can be used in general medical or dental practice. However, it is important to realize that the collection of saliva must be carefully controlled. In this paper we review the progress in the analysis of the human salivary proteome and summarise the diagnostic possibilities that have been explored. The precautions in collecting saliva, and some of the factors which would have to be considered if a diagnostic test were to be generally adopted are discussed.

  14. Magnetic bead-based salivary peptidome profiling analysis during orthodontic treatment durations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jieni; Zhou, Shaonan; Zheng, Hui; Zhou, Yanheng; Chen, Feng; Lin, Jiuxiang

    2012-05-18

    Orthodontic treatment induces various biological responses, including tooth movement and remodeling of alveolar bone. Although some studies have investigated the contribution of orthodontic procedures to changes in saliva conditions, little is known about the effects of different treatment durations on the saliva proteome. To identify the discriminating protein profiles in unstimulated whole saliva of orthodontic patients with different treatment durations, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) combined with magnetic bead, and peptide mass fingerprints were created by scanning MS signals. Saliva samples from 40 patients (10 in each of four groups: the group without an appliance and groups under treatment for 2, 7, and 12 months) were analyzed. The results showed eight mass peaks with significant differences. Furthermore, mass peak intensities at proteins 1817.7, 2010.7, 2744 and 2710.2 Da represented a steady time-dependent increasing trend, whereas protein 4134 Da exhibited a decreasing tendency. Differential expression of the peptidome profile also occurred in the multiple comparisons, and we established a fitting model. Thus, the potential discriminating biomarkers investigated in this study reflected the complicated changes in periodontal tissues during orthodontic treatment and indicated dynamic interactions between orthodontic treatment and the saliva proteome. The results provide novel insights into alterations in salivary proteins due to different orthodontic treatment durations and may lead to the development of a therapeutic monitoring strategy for orthodontics.

  15. DEVELOPMENTAL VALIDATION OF A POINT-OF-CARE, SALIVARY α-AMYLASE BIOSENSOR

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Vivek; Zigler, Corwin; Robles, Theodore F.; Elashoff, David; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2010-01-01

    The translation of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) to the ambulatory assessment of stress hinges on the development of technologies capable of speedy and accurate reporting of sAA levels. Here, we describe the developmental validation and usability testing of a point-of-care, colorimetric, sAA biosensor. A disposable test strip allows for streamlined sample collection and a corresponding hand-held reader with integrated analytic capabilities permits rapid analysis and reporting of sAA levels. Bioanalytical validation utilizing saliva samples from 20 normal subjects indicates that, within the biosensor’s linear range (10–230 U/ml), its accuracy (R2 = 0.989), precision (CV < 9%), and measurement repeatability (range −3.1% to + 3.1%) approach more elaborate laboratory-based, clinical analyzers. The truncated sampling-reporting cycle (< 1 minute) and the excellent performance characteristics of the biosensor has the potential to take sAA analysis out of the realm of dedicated, centralized laboratories and facilitate future sAA biomarker qualification studies. PMID:20696529

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Age Specific Variation in the Abundance of Human Female Parotid Salivary Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ambatipudi, Kiran S.; Lu, Bingwen; Hagen, Fred K; Melvin, James E.; Yates, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Human saliva is a protein-rich, easily accessible source of potential local and systemic biomarkers to monitor changes that occur under pathological conditions; however little is known about the changes in abundance associated with normal aging. In this study, we performed a comprehensive proteomic profiling of pooled saliva collected from the parotid glands of healthy female subjects, divided into two age groups 1 and 2 (20–30 and 55–65 years old, respectively). Hydrophobic charge interaction chromatography was used to separate high from low abundant proteins prior to characterization of the parotid saliva using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Collectively, 532 proteins were identified in the two age groups. Of these proteins, 266 were identified exclusively in one age group, while 266 proteins were common to both groups. The majority of the proteins identified in the two age groups belonged to the defense and immune response category. Of note, several defense related proteins (e.g. lysozyme, lactoferrin and histatin-1) were significantly more abundant in group 2 as determined by G-test. Selected representative mass spectrometric findings were validated by western blot analysis. Our study reports the first quantitative analysis of differentially regulated proteins in ductal saliva collected from young and older female subjects. This study supports the use of high-throughput proteomics as a robust discovery tool. Such results provide a foundation for future studies to identify specific salivary proteins which may be linked to age-related diseases specific to women. PMID:19764810

  17. Mass spectrometry-based salivary proteomics for the discovery of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jarai, Tamas; Maasz, Gabor; Burian, Andras; Bona, Agnes; Jambor, Eva; Gerlinger, Imre; Mark, Laszlo

    2012-07-01

    The 5-year survival rates for cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are only some 60%, mainly because 20%-40% of the patients develop a local relapse in the same or an adjacent anatomic region, even when the surgical margins are histologically tumour-free. Tumours are often discovered in an advanced stage because of the lack of specific symptoms and the diagnostic difficulties. The more advanced the stage of the tumour, the more invasive the diagnostic and treatment interventions needed. An early molecular diagnosis is therefore of vital importance in order to increase the survival rate. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient rapid and sensitive mass spectrometric method for the detection of differentially expressed proteins as tumour-specific biomarkers in saliva from HNSCC patients. Whole saliva samples were collected from patients with HNSCC and from healthy subjects. The proteins were profiled by using SDS PAGE, MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and the Mascot database search engine. Several potential tumour markers were identified, including annexin A1, beta- and gamma-actin, cytokeratin 4 and 13, zinc finger proteins and P53 pathway proteins. All of these proteins play a proven role in tumour genesis, and have not been detected previously in saliva. Salivary proteomics is a non-invasive specific method for cancer diagnosis and follow-up treatment. It provides facilities for the readily reproducible and reliable detection of tumours in early stages.

  18. Cytokeratin-14 contributes to collective invasion of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiao-lei; Wu, Jia-shun; Cao, Min-xin; Gao, Shi-yu; Cen, Xiao; Jiang, Ya-ping; Wang, Sha-sha; Tang, Ya-jie; Chen, Qian-ming; Liang, Xin-hua; Tang, Yaling

    2017-01-01

    Collective invasion of cells plays a fundamental role in tissue growth, wound healing, immune response and cancer metastasis. This paper aimed to investigate cytokeratin-14 (CK14) expression and analyze its association with collective invasion in the invasive front of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) to uncover the role of collective invasion in SACC. Here, in the clinical data of 121 patients with SACC, the positive expression of CK14 was observed in 35/121(28.93%) of the invasive front of SACC. CK14 expression in the invasive front, local regional recurrence and distant metastasis were independent and significant prognostic factors in SACC patients. Then, we found that in an ex vivo 3D culture assay, CK14 siRNA receded the collective invasion, and in 2D monolayer culture, CK14 overexpression induced a collective SACC cell migration. These data indicated that the presence of characterized CK14+ cells in the invasive front of SACC promoted collective cell invasion of SACC and may be a biomarker of SACC with a worse prognosis. PMID:28152077

  19. Biomarkers of Selenium Status

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Gerald F.

    2015-01-01

    The essential trace element, selenium (Se), has multiple biological activities, which depend on the level of Se intake. Relatively low Se intakes determine the expression of selenoenzymes in which it serves as an essential constituent. Higher intakes have been shown to have anti-tumorigenic potential; and very high Se intakes can produce adverse effects. This hierarchy of biological activities calls for biomarkers informative at different levels of Se exposure. Some Se-biomarkers, such as the selenoproteins and particularly GPX3 and SEPP1, provide information about function directly and are of value in identifying nutritional Se deficiency and tracking responses of deficient individuals to Se-treatment. They are useful under conditions of Se intake within the range of regulated selenoprotein expression, e.g., for humans <55 μg/day and for animals <20 μg/kg diet. Other Se-biomarkers provide information indirectly through inferences based on Se levels of foods, tissues, urine or feces. They can indicate the likelihood of deficiency or adverse effects, but they do not provide direct evidence of either condition. Their value is in providing information about Se status over a wide range of Se intake, particularly from food forms. There is need for additional Se biomarkers particularly for assessing Se status in non-deficient individuals for whom the prospects of cancer risk reduction and adverse effects risk are the primary health considerations. This would include determining whether supranutritional intakes of Se may be required for maximal selenoprotein expression in immune surveillance cells. It would also include developing methods to determine low molecular weight Se-metabolites, i.e., selenoamino acids and methylated Se-metabolites, which to date have not been detectable in biological specimens. Recent analytical advances using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry suggest prospects for detecting these metabolites. PMID:25835046

  20. Biomarkers for PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    smaller dentate/ CA3 hippocampal subfield volumes, lower ambient cortisol levels, and greater cortisol suppression following dexamethasone...administration. It is also predicted that lower neuropeptide Y levels will be associated with smaller Dentate/ CA3 volumes, and that APO E4 polymorphisms will be...associated with smaller Dentate/ CA3 volumes. 5 BODY: The Biomarkers for PTSD study is in the implementation phase. In year 2 of the grant

  1. [Biomarkers of Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Rachel, Wojciech; Grela, Agatha; Zyss, Tomasz; Zieba, Andrzej; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the most abundant age-related psychiatric disorders. The outcome of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease has both individual (the patients and their families) and socio-economic effects. The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease doubles after the age of 65 years, every 4.5 years. An etiologically heterogenic group of disorders related to aging as well as genetic and environmental interactions probably underlie the impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Those factors cause the degeneration of brain tissue which leads to significant cognitive dysfunction. There are two main hypotheses that are linked to the process of neurodegeneration: (i) amyloid cascade and (ii) the role of secretases and dysfunction of mitochondria. From the therapeutic standpoint it is crucial to get an early diagnosis and start with an adequate treatment. The undeniable progress in the field of biomarker research should lead to a better understanding of the early stages of the disorder. So far, the best recognised and described biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease, which can be detected in both cerebrospinal fluid and blood, are: beta-amyloid, tau-protein and phosphorylated tau-protein (phospho-tau). The article discusses the usefulness of the known biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease in early diagnosis.

  2. Stemina biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Cezar, Gabriela G; Donley, Elizabeth L R

    2008-09-01

    Stemina Biomarker Discovery was established in 2006 to commercialize technology developed by Dr Gabriela Cezar at the University of Wisconsin (WI, USA). Stemina's cell-based assays arise from the strategic convergence of two cutting edge technologies: metabolomics and human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Stemina analyzes the small molecules secreted by hES cells and differentiated cell types such as neural and heart cells derived from hES cells by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry at its state-of-the-art facilities in Madison, WI, USA. Stemina's first technology platform has identified a dynamic set of small molecules in the extracellular secretome of hES cells secreted in response to exposure to a library of known teratogens. Alterations to small molecules in the biochemical pathway(s) of hES cells are mapped in silico to identify biomarkers of toxicity for drug screening and development in an all human system. These small human molecules may then be translated in vivo as biomarkers of toxic response and disease.

  3. IDBD: infectious disease biomarker database.

    PubMed

    Yang, In Seok; Ryu, Chunsun; Cho, Ki Joon; Kim, Jin Kwang; Ong, Swee Hoe; Mitchell, Wayne P; Kim, Bong Su; Oh, Hee-Bok; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Biomarkers enable early diagnosis, guide molecularly targeted therapy and monitor the activity and therapeutic responses across a variety of diseases. Despite intensified interest and research, however, the overall rate of development of novel biomarkers has been falling. Moreover, no solution is yet available that efficiently retrieves and processes biomarker information pertaining to infectious diseases. Infectious Disease Biomarker Database (IDBD) is one of the first efforts to build an easily accessible and comprehensive literature-derived database covering known infectious disease biomarkers. IDBD is a community annotation database, utilizing collaborative Web 2.0 features, providing a convenient user interface to input and revise data online. It allows users to link infectious diseases or pathogens to protein, gene or carbohydrate biomarkers through the use of search tools. It supports various types of data searches and application tools to analyze sequence and structure features of potential and validated biomarkers. Currently, IDBD integrates 611 biomarkers for 66 infectious diseases and 70 pathogens. It is publicly accessible at http://biomarker.cdc.go.kr and http://biomarker.korea.ac.kr.

  4. Epidemiological and histopathological patterns of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sando, Zacharie; Fokouo, Jean Valentin; Mebada, Arlette Onomo; Djomou, François; NDjolo, Alexis; Oyono, Jean Louis Essame

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tumors of salivary glands are rare. According to Johns and Goldsmith in 1989, their annual incidence is less than 1/100000 without noteworthy geographical gap. But other authors suggest that their distribution may vary according to the race and geographical location. In Cameroon, existing studies give incomplete data. Hence, we underwent this study in order to draw the general profile of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on the period spanning from January 2000 to December 2010 (11 years). It was done in nine Pathology services of different hospitals in Yaoundé, Douala and Bamenda. We consulted the archive registers of those services, retaining any patient with salivary gland tumor, whatever the histological type or location. Information gathered was the year of diagnosis, the service, the age and sex, the site of the tumor (gland) the histological type and the benign/ malignant character. Results We recruited a total of 275 files. Women were 56% (154/275) and men 44% (121/275) of the sample. Fifty eight tumors were malignant (21.9%) while 217 were benign (78.1%). The overall mean age was 37.44 years, with extremes between 1 and 84 years. Pleomorphic adenoma (60.36%) was the most common benign tumor. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (31%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (22.4%) and adenocarcinoma (19%) were the most common malignant tumors. Palate (66.7%), cheek (30%) and lips (3.3%) were the sites were the minor salivary glands were mostly involved. Conclusion The differences with western world authors suggest a geographical variability of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27217890

  5. Salivary lactate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Malicka, Barbara; Skoskiewicz-Malinowska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases resulting from impaired insulin secretion and/or action. DM is characterized by hyperglycemia that can lead to the dysfunction or damage of organs, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in diabetic patients. The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (Poland). The study comprised 90 adults of both sexes, aged 21 to 57 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups: type 1 diabetics (D1), type 2 diabetics (D2), and a healthy control group (C). Each group consisted of 30 age- and sex-matched subjects. Total protein (P, by Lowry method), LDH, AST, ALT (with Alpha Diagnostics kits), and salivary flow rate were measured in unstimulated mixed saliva. The level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured with DCA 2000 Reagent Kit. The obtained data were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test and the Spearman rank at a significance level of P < 0.05 with the use of STATISTICA 9.0 software. In comparison with C, D1 presented a significantly higher activity of LDH (P < 0.001), AST (P < 0.001), and ALT (P < 0.01), whereas D2 indicated higher levels of LDH (P < 0.001) and ALT (P < 0.05) compared with C. Comparing D1 to D2, approximately 3-fold higher activity of AST (P < 0.01) and approximately 4.5-fold higher activity of ALT (P < 0.01) was observed. Higher levels of salivary LDH, AST, and ALT in D1 compared with D2 and C confirm that salivary glands of D1 might be attributed to autoimmunological damage associated with the pathomechanism of DM. PMID:27893660

  6. Tennis, incidence of URTI and salivary IgA.

    PubMed

    Novas, A M P; Rowbottom, D G; Jenkins, D G

    2003-04-01

    Tennis played at an elite level requires intensive training characterized by repeated bouts of brief intermittent high intensity exercise over relatively long periods of time (1 - 3 h or more). Competition can place additional stress on players. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal association between specific components of tennis training and competition, the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), and salivary IgA, in a cohort of seventeen elite female tennis players. Timed, whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after selected 1-h training sessions at 2 weekly intervals, over 12 weeks. Salivary IgA concentration was measured by ELISA and IgA secretion rate calculated (microg IgA x ml -1 x ml saliva x min -1). Players reported URTI symptoms and recorded training and competition in daily logs. Data analysis showed that higher incidence of URTI was significantly associated with increased training duration and load, and competition level, on a weekly basis. Salivary IgA secretion rate (S-IgA) dropped significantly after 1 hour of tennis play. Over the 12-week period, pre-exercise salivary IgA concentration and secretion rate were directly associated with the amount of training undertaken during the previous day and week (p < 0.05). However, the decline in S-IgA after 1 h of intense tennis play was also positively related to the duration and load of training undertaken during the previous day and week (p < 0.05). Although exercise-induced suppression of salivary IgA may be a risk factor, it could not accurately predict the occurrence of URTI in this cohort of athletes.

  7. Replication of Oral BK Virus in Human Salivary Gland Cells

    PubMed Central

    Burger-Calderon, Raquel; Madden, Victoria; Hallett, Ryan A.; Gingerich, Aaron D.; Nickeleit, Volker

    2014-01-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is the most common viral pathogen among allograft patients. Increasing evidence links BKPyV to the human oral compartment and to HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIVSGD). To date, few studies have analyzed orally derived BKPyV. This study aimed to characterize BKPyV isolated from throat wash (TW) samples from HIVSGD patients. The replication potential of HIVSGD-derived clinical isolates HIVSGD-1 and HIVSGD-2, both containing the noncoding control region (NCCR) architecture OPQPQQS, were assessed and compared to urine-derived virus. The BKPyV isolates displayed significant variation in replication potential. Whole-genome alignment of the two isolates revealed three nucleotide differences that were analyzed for a potential effect on the viral life cycle. Analysis revealed a negligible difference in NCCR promoter activity despite sequence variation and emphasized the importance of functional T antigen (Tag) for efficient replication. HIVSGD-1 encoded full-length Tag, underwent productive infection in both human salivary gland cells and kidney cells, and expressed viral DNA and Tag protein. Additionally, HIVSGD-1 generated DNase-resistant particles and by far surpassed the replication potential of the kidney-derived isolate in HSG cells. HIVSGD-2 encoded a truncated form of Tag and replicated much less efficiently. Quantitation of infectious virus, via the fluorescent forming unit assay, suggested that HIVSGD BKPyV had preferential tropism for salivary gland cells over kidney cells. Similarly, the results suggested that kidney-derived virus had preferential tropism for kidney cells over salivary gland cells. Evidence of HIVSGD-derived BKPyV oral tropism and adept viral replication in human salivary gland cells corroborated the potential link between HIVSGD pathogenesis and BKPyV. PMID:24173219

  8. Putative salivary allergens of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis.

    PubMed

    Lee, S E; Johnstone, I P; Lee, R P; Opdebeeck, J P

    1999-08-02

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis, is the major initiator of flea bite hypersensitivity in dogs. Previous analyses of whole extracts of the flea and flea salivary secretions have failed to identify the allergens responsible. We dissected >2000 salivary glands from adult female fleas, extracted them into buffered saline containing protease inhibitors and fractionated the extract using gel permeation HPLC. Dogs were classified as hypersensitive to fleas (flea-feeding positive, FF+) or insensitive (flea-feeding negative, FF-) using a provocative test with live fleas. The allergenicity of the components of the salivary gland extract was tested by intradermal injection of samples of the column eluates. Dogs were also injected intradermally with a sample of whole salivary gland extract, and with histamine as a positive control. Negative control injections consisted of eluate from the column collected prior to fractions containing any protein. The skin of FF- dogs either did not respond or had a minimal response (a bleb approximately 2 mm larger than the injection blebs at the negative control injection sites) to all fractions and to the whole extract; histamine control injections produced positive responses (defined as wheals 5 mm greater than the blebs at the negative control injection sites) in all dogs. The skin of three of the nine FF+ dogs reacted positively to injection of a fraction containing protein/s with apparent MW 40k. Five other FF+ dogs reacted positively to the fractions containing proteins with apparent MW 12-8k. A single dog responded with very large, red wheals to injection of both the approximately MW 40k and MW12-8k fractions. These findings suggest that proteins with apparent MW 40k and MW 12k-8k are important in flea bite hypersensitivity. This work also supports a previous finding that mice which had been exposed to flea bites had antibodies to proteins with approximately MW 40k that were detected in salivary secretions of the flea.

  9. S-100 protein antibodies do not label normal salivary gland myoepithelium. Histogenetic implications for salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Dardick, I.; Stratis, M.; Parks, W. R.; DeNardi, F. G.; Kahn, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Neoplastically modified myoepithelial cells have a key role in developing the histologic characteristics of some salivary gland tumors. S-100 protein expressed in certain of these tumors is suggested to support this role, as the principal component in the human salivary gland reported to be S-100 protein-positive is myoepithelium. Confirmation of such an important aspect is required. Immunoperoxidase staining of parotid salivary gland shows considerably different patterns obtained with antibodies to S-100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, and neurofilaments compared with those for muscle-specific actin and cytokeratin 14; many more cells and their processes associated with acini and ducts are evident with the latter two antibodies. Double immunofluorescent staining with antibodies to either S-100 protein or neuron-specific enolase combined with muscle-specific actin does not reveal colocalization of these antigens in myoepithelial cells. The former localize only to nerve fibers adjacent to, but separate from, acini, and the latter only to myoepithelial cells. It is apparent that S-100 protein staining of the rich network of unmyelinated nerves in the interstitial tissues, evident ultrastructurally, has been misinterpreted as myoepithelium. This result has important implications for histogenetic classifications of salivary gland tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2000939

  10. Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Alicia J; Joglekar, Mugdha V; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A; Keech, Anthony C; O'Neal, David N; Januszewski, Andrzej S

    2015-01-01

    There is a global diabetes epidemic correlating with an increase in obesity. This coincidence may lead to a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. There is also an as yet unexplained increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes, which is not related to adiposity. Whilst improved diabetes care has substantially improved diabetes outcomes, the disease remains a common cause of working age adult-onset blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes; it is greatly feared by many diabetes patients. There are multiple risk factors and markers for the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy, yet residual risk remains. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is recommended to facilitate early detection and treatment. Common biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy and its risk in clinical practice today relate to the visualization of the retinal vasculature and measures of glycemia, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, smoking, and pregnancy status. Greater knowledge of novel biomarkers and mediators of diabetic retinopathy, such as those related to inflammation and angiogenesis, has contributed to the development of additional therapeutics, in particular for late-stage retinopathy, including intra-ocular corticosteroids and intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors ('anti-VEGFs') agents. Unfortunately, in spite of a range of treatments (including laser photocoagulation, intraocular steroids, and anti-VEGF agents, and more recently oral fenofibrate, a PPAR-alpha agonist lipid-lowering drug), many patients with diabetic retinopathy do not respond well to current therapeutics. Therefore, more effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy are necessary. New analytical techniques, in particular those related to molecular markers, are accelerating progress in diabetic retinopathy research. Given the increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, and the limited capacity of healthcare systems to screen and treat

  11. Cancer biomarker discovery and validation

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Nicolas; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Sun, Xiaochen; Hoshida, Yujin

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of genomic profiling technologies and selective molecular targeted therapies, biomarkers play an increasingly important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Single gene/protein or multi-gene “signature”-based assays have been introduced to measure specific molecular pathway deregulations that guide therapeutic decision-making as predictive biomarkers. Genome-based prognostic biomarkers are also available for several cancer types for potential incorporation into clinical prognostic staging systems or practice guidelines. However, there is still a large gap between initial biomarker discovery studies and their clinical translation due to the challenges in the process of cancer biomarker development. In this review we summarize the steps of biomarker development, highlight key issues in successful validation and implementation, and overview representative examples in the oncology field. We also discuss regulatory issues and future perspectives in the era of big data analysis and precision medicine. PMID:26213686

  12. Altered expression of apoptosis-regulating miRNAs in salivary gland tumors suggests their involvement in salivary gland tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Flores, Bianca de Cássia Troncarelli de Campos Parra; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa; Damascena, Aline Santos; Kowaslki, Luiz Paulo; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Coutinho-Camillo, Cláudia Malheiros

    2017-03-01

    Salivary gland tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions with different histological features and diverse clinical pathophysiology. They account for about 3% of all head and neck tumors. Apoptosis plays an important role during morphogenesis of glandular structures, including that of the salivary gland. Recent studies have demonstrated that several microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the control of apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of apoptosis-related miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-17-5p, miR-20a, miR-21, miR-29, and miR-34) and their target mRNAs in 25 pleomorphic adenomas, 23 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and 10 non-neoplastic salivary gland samples by real-time RT-PCR. We observed upregulation of miR-15a, miR-16, miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-29, and miR-34a in pleomorphic adenomas. The expression of miR-21 and miR-34a was upregulated in 91 and 74% of mucoepidermoid carcinomas, respectively. Downregulation of miR-20a was observed in 75% of pleomorphic adenomas and in 57% of mucoepidermoid carcinomas. APAF1, BAX, BCL2, BID, CASP2, CASP8, DIABLO , and TP53 transcripts were upregulated in both tumor types. BAD transcripts were upregulated in pleomorphic adenomas. CASP3 and CASP6 transcripts were upregulated in mucoepidermoid carcinomas. BCL2, CASP2, CASP6, and CASP8 proteins were mostly absent in mucoepidermoid carcinomas but expressed in few cells in pleomorphic adenomas. Our study provides evidence of alterations in the expression of apoptosis-regulating miRNAs in salivary gland tumors, suggesting possible involvement of these microRNAs in salivary gland tumorigenesis.

  13. Early diagnosis of complex diseases by molecular biomarkers, network biomarkers, and dynamical network biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Xiangdong; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Chen, Luonan

    2014-05-01

    Many studies have been carried out for early diagnosis of complex diseases by finding accurate and robust biomarkers specific to respective diseases. In particular, recent rapid advance of high-throughput technologies provides unprecedented rich information to characterize various disease genotypes and phenotypes in a global and also dynamical manner, which significantly accelerates the study of biomarkers from both theoretical and clinical perspectives. Traditionally, molecular biomarkers that distinguish disease samples from normal samples are widely adopted in clinical practices due to their ease of data measurement. However, many of them suffer from low coverage and high false-positive rates or high false-negative rates, which seriously limit their further clinical applications. To overcome those difficulties, network biomarkers (or module biomarkers) attract much attention and also achieve better performance because a network (or subnetwork) is considered to be a more robust form to characterize diseases than individual molecules. But, both molecular biomarkers and network biomarkers mainly distinguish disease samples from normal samples, and they generally cannot ensure to identify predisease samples due to their static nature, thereby lacking ability to early diagnosis. Based on nonlinear dynamical theory and complex network theory, a new concept of dynamical network biomarkers (DNBs, or a dynamical network of biomarkers) has been developed, which is different from traditional static approaches, and the DNB is able to distinguish a predisease state from normal and disease states by even a small number of samples, and therefore has great potential to achieve "real" early diagnosis of complex diseases. In this paper, we comprehensively review the recent advances and developments on molecular biomarkers, network biomarkers, and DNBs in particular, focusing on the biomarkers for early diagnosis of complex diseases considering a small number of samples and high

  14. senseless is necessary for the survival of embryonic salivary glands in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beckendorf, Steven K

    2003-10-01

    Apoptosis in developing Drosophila embryos is rare and confined to specific groups of cells. We explain how one organ, salivary glands, of Drosophila embryos avoids apoptosis. senseless (sens), a Zn-finger transcription factor, is expressed in the salivary primordium and later in the differentiated salivary glands. The regulation of sens expression in the salivary placodes is more complex than observed in the embryonic PNS. We have shown that sens expression is initiated in the salivary placodes by fork head (fkh), a winged helix transcription factor. The expression of sens is maintained in the salivary glands by fkh and by daughterless (da), a bHLH family member. In this study, we have identified sage, a salivary-specific bHLH protein as a new heterodimeric partner for da protein in the salivary glands. In addition, our data suggest that sage RNAi embryos have a phenotype similar to sens and that sage is necessary to maintain expression of sens in the embryonic salivary glands. Furthermore, we show that in the salivary glands, sens acts as an anti-apoptotic protein by repressing reaper and possibly hid.

  15. Acute salivary gland hypofunction in the duct ligation model in the absence of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Correia, PN; Carpenter, GH; Osailan, SM; Paterson, KL; Proctor, GB

    2008-01-01

    Objective The commonly associated aetiology of salivary gland inflammation and salivary hypofunction has led to the widely held belief that inflammation causes salivary gland hypofunction. Indeed, our own recent study seemed to support this contention. Here, we tested the hypothesis that, in an acute duct ligation model, eliminating inflammation the submandibular gland would recover normal function. Materials and methods Ligation of the rat submandibular gland excretory duct for 24 h was used to induce inflammation and salivary gland hypofunction. A group of duct ligated rats was compared with a second group given dexamethasone, on the day of duct ligation. Twenty-four hours later salivary gland function was assessed and salivary glands were collected. Results Histology and myeloperoxidase activity assay revealed a profound decrease in inflammatory cell infiltration of ligated glands from rats given dexamethasone, compared with ligated glands in the absence of dexamethasone. Salivary flow rate evoked by methacholine was decreased (P < 0.01) by approximately 56% (ligated vs control, 79 ± 9 μl min−1 g−1vs 177 ± 11 μl min−1 g−1) and salivary flow from ligated dexamethasone-treated and ligated glands was similar. Conclusion Despite eliminating the inflammatory reaction in the ligated gland, salivary hypofunction was not reversed, suggesting that other mechanisms must be at work in the ligation-induced salivary hypofunction. PMID:18221457

  16. Orchestration of salivary secretion mediated by two different dopamine receptors in the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghun; Šimo, Ladislav; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-01-01

    Salivary secretion is crucial for successful tick feeding, and it is the mediator of pathogen transmission. Salivation functions to inhibit various components of the host immune system and remove excess water and ions during the ingestion of large blood meals. Control of salivary glands involves autocrine/paracrine dopamine, which is the most potent inducer of tick salivation. Previously, we reported the presence of two dopamine receptors in the salivary glands of the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis): dopamine receptor (D1) and invertebrate specific D1-like dopamine receptor (InvD1L). Here, we investigated the different physiological roles of the dopamine receptors in tick salivary glands by using pharmacological tools that discriminate between the two distinct receptors. Heterologous expressions followed by reporter assays of the dopamine receptors identified receptor-specific antagonists and agonists. These pharmacological tools were further used to discriminate the physiological role of each receptor by using in vitro assays: measuring salivary secretions of isolated salivary glands and monitoring dynamic changes in the size of individual salivary gland acini. We propose that the D1 receptor acts on salivary gland acini epithelial cells for inward fluid transport. InvD1L controls (or modulates) each acinus for expelling saliva from the acini to the salivary ducts, presumably through the actions of myoepithelial cells and valves for pumping/gating. We conclude that dopamine acts on the D1 and the InvD1L receptors and leads different physiological actions to orchestrate tick salivary secretion. PMID:25320269

  17. Blueprint of quartz crystal microbalance biosensor for early detection of breast cancer through salivary autoantibodies against ATP6AP1.

    PubMed

    Arif, Sania; Qudsia, Syeda; Urooj, Samina; Chaudry, Nazia; Arshad, Aneeqa; Andleeb, Saadia

    2015-03-15

    Breast cancer represents a significant health problem because of its high prevalence. Tests like mammography, which are used abundantly for the detection of breast cancer, suffer from serious limitations. Mammography correctly detects malignancy about 80-90% of the times, failing in places when (1) the tumor is small at early stage, (2) breast tissue is dense or (3) in women of less than 40 years. Serum-based detection of biomarkers involves risk of disease transfer, along with other concerns. These techniques compromise in the early detection of breast cancer. Early detection of breast cancer is a crucial factor to enhance the survival rate of patient. Development of regular screening tests for early diagnosis of breast cancer is a challenge. This review highlights the design of a handy and household biosensor device aimed for self-screening and early diagnosis of breast cancer. The design makes use of salivary autoantibodies for specificity to develop a noninvasive procedure, breast cancer specific biomarkers for precision for the development of device, and biosensor technology for sensitivity to screen the early cases of breast cancer more efficiently.

  18. Biomarkers of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hak; Lin, Eugenia; Pimentel, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has not been regarded as an organic disease, and the pathophysiology of IBS is heterogeneous. Currently, the diagnosis of IBS is based upon the Rome diagnostic criteria. The performance of these criteria is only modest in predicting IBS, and moreover their validation is lacking. Additionally, as functional symptoms are common in the general population, healthy controls or volunteers are difficult to define and there is currently no definition of “normal” in the Rome criteria. Due to the weaknesses of the current diagnostic criteria, patients and doctors expect new gold standard diagnostic tools. Various etiologic mechanisms result in potential biomarkers. The focus of this research has been to find non-invasive biomarkers from serum, breath gas, and fecal materials. Though biomarkers should be based on biological and pathogenic processes, most biomarkers for IBS have been developed to identify organic diseases and therefore eliminate IBS. To date, these types of biomarkers for IBS have been disappointing. The purposes of developing biomarkers include improvement of diagnosis, differentiation from other organic diseases, and discrimination of IBS subtypes. A true mechanistic biomarker would make it possible to rule in IBS, rather than to rule out other organic diseases. New serologic biomarkers for diarrhea-predominant IBS have been introduced based on the pathophysiologic findings from a rat model and validation in a large-scale clinical trial. Further investigations of abnormal organic findings from each subtype of IBS would enable the development of new, simple subtype-specific biomarkers. PMID:27817184

  19. Molecular Biomarkers of Knee Pathology.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Vanessa; Strauss, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers has become increasingly important in our fundamental understanding of the molecular basis for disease and subsequently in the advancement of modern medicine. Biomarkers have been identified in a plethora of normal and pathologic conditions and are most often found in blood, tissue, or synovial fluid. Orthopaedic research has more recently focused on biomarkers of cartilage and joint diseases, with an emphasis on understanding the molecular underpinnings of their pathophysiology. This article focuses on the biomarkers identified to date in several select knee pathologies and how further research can contribute to new diagnostic tools and targeted therapeutics.

  20. Salivary Alpha-Amylase Activity and Salivary Flow Rate in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arhakis, Aristidis; Karagiannis, Vasilis; Kalfas, Sotirios

    2013-01-01

    The secretion of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is more associated with psychoneuroendocrinological response to stress than with the flow rate and age. The aim of this cross sectional study is to build an explanatory model based on patterns of relationship between age 20-39 in resting and stimulated saliva under no stressful condition in healthy volunteers. Both resting and stimulated saliva were collected from 40 subjects. The sAA values were log-transformed, the normality assumption was verified with the Shapiro-Wilk test and the reliability of the measurements was estimated by the Pearsons’ r correlation coefficient. The estimated model was based on the theory of the Linear Mixed Models. Significant mean changes were observed in flow rate and sAA activity between resting and stimulated saliva. The final model consists of two components, the first revealed a positive correlation between age and sAA while the second one revealed a negative correlation between the interaction of age × flow rate in its condition (resting or stimulated saliva), with sAA. Both flow rate and age influence sAA activity. PMID:23524385

  1. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Stokman, Monique A; van Gosliga, Djoke; Zwart, Erik; Witjes, Max J H; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob P

    2016-03-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) stem/progenitor cells and demonstrate at the single cell level in vitro self-renewal and differentiation into multilineage organoids. We also show in vivo functionality, long-term engraftment, and functional restoration in a xenotransplantation model. Indeed, transplanted human salisphere-derived cells restored saliva production and greatly improved the regenerative potential of irradiated SGs. Further selection for c-Kit expression enriched for cells with enhanced regenerative potencies. Interestingly, interaction of transplanted cells with the recipient SG may also be involved in functional recovery. Thus, we show for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia.

  2. Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be

  3. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland associated with salivary calculi: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vijendra S; Kamath, M Panduranga; Sreedharan, Suja; Suhas, S S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of the head and neck are relatively rare tumors, consisting of approximately 10-15% of all salivary gland neoplasms. ACC, a slow-growing aggressive malignant tumor of salivary gland commonly seen in the submandibular, sublingual, minor salivary glands is seldom found in the parotid. Calculus, the common cause of salivary gland dysfunction is usually identified in submandibular salivary gland because of its duct anatomy and physiochemical characteristic serous secretion. We report an unusual case of co-existent presentation of ACC with salivary calculi in the parotid gland which is never been reported in the literature. Co-existence of ductal calculi and ACC is rare. Presence of parotid calculus could be due to long standing ductal obstruction by the slow-growing ACC of the parotid or other possibility is that the malignancy could have developed because of chronic irritation by parotid calculi. Confirmatory studies are required to understand its mutual pathological association.

  4. SOX10-positive salivary gland tumors: a growing list, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, sialoblastoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, and a subgroup of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factor SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) is an important marker for melanocytic, schwannian, myoepithelial, and some salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX10 expression more thoroughly in the salivary gland neoplasms, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma harboring specific genetic rearrangements. A new rabbit monoclonal anti-SOX10 antibody (clone EP268) was used to examine SOX10 expression in 14 different types of salivary gland tumors. We found that acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, sialoblastoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma, and pleomorphic adenoma were SOX10 positive. Salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma were SOX10 negative. Earlier, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was considered a SOX10-negative tumor. This study identified a subgroup of SOX10-positive MEC cases with characteristic polygonal epithelial cells, pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, and colloid-like dense eosinophilic material. Our data show SOX10 expression can be observed in salivary gland tumors with either one of the 4 cell types: acinic cells, cuboidal ductal cells with low-grade cytologic features, basaloid cells, and myoepithelial cells. In this article we thoroughly evaluated SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors. SOX10 is useful in the differential diagnosis between myoepithelial carcinoma with clear cell features and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. It can also be used to discriminate low-grade salivary duct carcinoma from high-grade ones. Pathologists should be cautious with the interpretation of SOX10 positivity in salivary gland tumors, and correlation with histologic feature is mandatory.

  5. Primary Salivary Gland Type Tumors of the Thymus.

    PubMed

    Kalhor, Neda; Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

    2017-01-01

    The existence of primary salivary gland type tumors (SGTs), similar to those occurring in the major salivary glands, is well known in the thoracic cavity. When they occur in this anatomic area, these tumors more commonly arise from the lung. However, the existence of these tumors primarily affecting the thymus, although recognized in the literature, is rather not well documented or known. In addition, contrary to the primary lung SGTs, which are predominantly of the malignant type, these tumors when occur in thymus encompass a wider spectrum of biology ranging from benign to low grade, and high grade malignancy. The recognition of SGTs in the thymus, even though rare, is important to properly address treatment and prognosis. Herein, we will discuss the numerous benign a malignant SGTs that have been described in the thymus and highlight the difficulty that these tumors may pose when occurring in the thymic area.

  6. Transepithelial ion transport across duct cells of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Ohana, E

    2015-10-01

    Fluid and electrolyte secretions are vital for all epithelia and when aberrant lead to numerous pathophysiological conditions. Electrolyte transport across epithelia generates the osmotic force for fluid movement and is mediated by several membrane proteins expressed on both apical and basolateral poles of epithelial cells. Sodium and chloride are crucial for regulation of fluid secretion, thus regulating salivary volume. Bicarbonate (HCO3-), on the other hand, is the major pH buffer; hence, aberrant HCO3- secretion is a major factor in diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF) causing altered mucin hydration and solubilization. Here, the structure-function mechanisms of the major membrane transporters involved in salivary duct electrolyte transport are reviewed focusing on transepithelial movement of Cl(-) and HCO3-.

  7. Relationship between Salivary Oxytocin Levels and Generosity in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takayuki; Schug, Joanna; Nishina, Kuniyuki; Takahashi, Taiki; Okada, Hiroyuki; Takagishi, Haruto

    2016-12-08

    This study examined the association between salivary oxytocin (sOT) levels and generosity in preschoolers. Fifty preschoolers played two dictator games (DG) by deciding how to allocate 10 chocolates between themselves and another child, who was either from the same class as the participant (ingroup member), or an unknown child from another class (outgroup member). sOT levels were assessed in saliva collected from the children immediately prior to the DG tasks. While sOT levels were negatively associated with allocations made to both ingroup and outgroup members by boys, among girl sOT levels were positively related to allocations made to ingroup members, and unrelated to allocations made to outgroup members. These results suggest sex differences in the association between salivary oxytocin and generosity.

  8. The morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of Zoraptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Mercati, D; Mashimo, Y; Machida, R; Beutel, R G

    2017-03-02

    The salivary glands of two species of Zoraptera, Zorotypus caudelli and Zorotypus hubbardi, were examined and documented mainly using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results obtained for males and females of the two species are compared and functional aspects related to ultrastructural features are discussed. The salivary glands are divided into two regions: the secretory cell region and the long efferent duct, the latter with its distal end opening in the salivarium below the hypopharyngeal base. The secretory region consists of a complex of secretory cells provided with microvillated cavities connected by short ectodermal ducts to large ones, which are connected with the long efferent duct. The secretory cell cytoplasm contains a large system of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus producing numerous dense secretions. The cells of the efferent duct, characterized by reduced cytoplasm and the presence of long membrane infoldings associated with mitochondria, are possibly involved in fluid uptaking from the duct lumen.

  9. Histology and mucosubstance histochemistry of mongoose salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Poddar, S; Jacob, S

    1978-01-01

    The histology and mucosubstance histochemistry of the mongoose salivary glands were studied. Histologically, the mongoose salivary glands were generally similar to those in other carnivores (dog, cat and ferret). The mucosubstance histochemistry demonstrated considerable variations in the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands in comparison to the other carnivores. The partoid gland contained carboxylated mucin which was sialidase-resistant. Granules in a few cells also contained sulphated mucin. Both submandibular and sublingual glands contained mainly carboxylated sialomucin which was sialidase-labile except in a few cell, some neutral mucin but no sulphated mucin. The molar and zygomatic glands were similar to those in the other carnivores. They contained both sulphated and carboxylated mucins but no neutral mucin. The carboxylated mucin was sialidase-resistant.

  10. The salivary gland chromosomes of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis pseudopunctipennis*

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard H.; Kitzmiller, J. B.; Chowdaiah, B. N.

    1965-01-01

    The authors present a salivary chromosome map of Anopheles p. pseudopunctipennis, an important malaria vector in the Americas. The salivary chromosomes appear as a short metacentric X and two metacentric autosomes. The arms of chromosome 2 are of almost equal length, but the right arm of chromosome 3 is almost twice as long as the left. The metacentric X is the first to be described in the subgenus Anopheles. The banding patterns of the autosomes show many similarities to those of the North American maculipennis complex and to those of the Central American A. vestitipennis and A. neomaculipalpus. Three chromosomal aberrations, one in the X and two in the right arm of chromosome 3, occur commonly in several different populations. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:5295407

  11. Maternal trait anxiety, emotional distress, and salivary cortisol in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pluess, Michael; Bolten, Margarete; Pirke, Karl-Martin; Hellhammer, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    Animal models suggest that stress-induced hormonal changes in the mother during pregnancy lead to enduring changes in the fetus and empirical links between prenatal maternal stress and negative child development have been discerned repeatedly in human studies. But the role of heritable personality traits has received little attention in the latter work. The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between maternal personality, psychological measures of maternal distress and maternal salivary cortisol during pregnancy. Maternal reports of personality (16 PF) and stress-related psychological measures (depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived stress, negative life events) as well as salivary cortisol samples of 66 healthy pregnant women were collected in early and late pregnancy. Maternal trait anxiety proved related to all stress-related psychological measures and high anxiety predicted low baseline cortisol awakening levels in early pregnancy. Maternal trait anxiety is related to both psychological and biological stress measures during pregnancy.

  12. Relationship between Salivary Oxytocin Levels and Generosity in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Takayuki; Schug, Joanna; Nishina, Kuniyuki; Takahashi, Taiki; Okada, Hiroyuki; Takagishi, Haruto

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between salivary oxytocin (sOT) levels and generosity in preschoolers. Fifty preschoolers played two dictator games (DG) by deciding how to allocate 10 chocolates between themselves and another child, who was either from the same class as the participant (ingroup member), or an unknown child from another class (outgroup member). sOT levels were assessed in saliva collected from the children immediately prior to the DG tasks. While sOT levels were negatively associated with allocations made to both ingroup and outgroup members by boys, among girl sOT levels were positively related to allocations made to ingroup members, and unrelated to allocations made to outgroup members. These results suggest sex differences in the association between salivary oxytocin and generosity. PMID:27929138

  13. The Potential Role for Early Biomarker Testing as Part of a Modern, Multidisciplinary Approach to Sjögren's Syndrome Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Kenneth A; Luchs, Jodi; Milner, Mark S; Ambrus, Julian L

    2017-03-10

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic and progressive multisystem autoimmune disease typically managed by rheumatologists. Diagnostic delays are common, due in large part to the non-specific and variable nature of SS symptoms and the slow progression of disease. The hallmark characteristics of SS are dry eye and dry mouth, but there are a broad range of other possible symptoms such as joint and muscle pain, skin rashes, chronic dry cough, vaginal dryness, extremity numbness or tingling, and disabling fatigue. Given that dry eye and dry mouth are typically the earliest presenting complaints, eye care clinicians and dental professionals are often the first point of medical contact and can provide critical collaboration with rheumatologists to facilitate both timely diagnosis and ongoing care of patients with SS. Current diagnostic criteria advocated by the American College of Rheumatology are predicated on the presence of signs/symptoms suggestive of SS along with at least two objective factors such as traditional biomarker positivity, salivary gland biopsy findings, and/or presence of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Traditional biomarkers for SS include the autoantibodies anti-Sjögren's syndrome-related antigen A (SS-A/Ro), anti-Sjögren's syndrome-related antigen B (SS-B/La), antinuclear antibody (ANA) titers, and rheumatoid factor (RF). While diagnostically useful, these biomarkers have low specificity for SS and are not always positive, especially in early cases of SS. Several newly-identified biomarkers for SS include autoantibodies to proteins specific to the salivary and lacrimal glands [SP-1 (salivary gland protein-1), PSP (parotid secretory protein), CA-6 (carbonic anhydrase VI)]. Data suggest that these novel biomarkers may appear earlier in the course of disease and are often identified in cases that test negative to traditional biomarkers. The Sjö(®) test is a commercially available diagnostic panel that incorporates testing for traditional SS biomarkers

  14. Comparing older and younger Japanese primiparae: fatigue, depression and biomarkers of stress.

    PubMed

    Mori, Emi; Maehara, Kunie; Iwata, Hiroko; Sakajo, Akiko; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Ozawa, Harumi; Morita, Akiko; Maekawa, Tomoko; Saeki, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    This cohort study of primiparae was conducted to answer the following questions: Do older (≧ 35 years) and younger (20-29 years) Japanese primiparous mothers differ when comparing biomarkers of stress and measures of fatigue and depression? Are there changes in fatigue, depression and stress biomarkers when comparing older and younger mothers during the postpartum period? The Postnatal Accumulated Fatigue Scale and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were administered in a time-series method four times: shortly after birth and monthly afterwards. Assays to measure biomarkers of stress, urinary 17-ketosteroids, urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and salivary chromogranin-A, were collected shortly after delivery and at 1 month postpartum in both groups and a third time in older mothers at the 4th month. Statistical testing showed very little difference in fatigue, depression or stress biomarkers between older and younger mothers shortly after birth or 1 month later. Accumulated fatigue and depression scores of older mothers were highest 1 month after delivery. Additional cohort studies are required to characterize physical/psychological well-being of older Japanese primiparae.

  15. Quantitative proteomic analysis of microdissected oral epithelium for cancer biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hua; Langerman, Alexander; Zhang, Yan; Khalid, Omar; Hu, Shen; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Lingen, Mark W; Wong, David T W

    2015-11-01

    Specific biomarkers are urgently needed for the detection and progression of oral cancer. The objective of this study was to discover cancer biomarkers from oral epithelium through utilizing high throughput quantitative proteomics approaches. Morphologically malignant, epithelial dysplasia, and adjacent normal epithelial tissues were laser capture microdissected (LCM) from 19 patients and used for proteomics analysis. Total proteins from each group were extracted, digested and then labelled with corresponding isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). Labelled peptides from each sample were combined and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for protein identification and quantification. In total, 500 proteins were identified and 425 of them were quantified. When compared with adjacent normal oral epithelium, 17 and 15 proteins were consistently up-regulated or down-regulated in malignant and epithelial dysplasia, respectively. Half of these candidate biomarkers were discovered for oral cancer for the first time. Cornulin was initially confirmed in tissue protein extracts and was further validated in tissue microarray. Its presence in the saliva of oral cancer patients was also explored. Myoglobin and S100A8 were pre-validated by tissue microarray. These data demonstrated that the proteomic biomarkers discovered through this strategy are potential targets for oral cancer detection and salivary diagnostics.

  16. Measuring Stress and Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary Alpha-Amylase Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary α- Amylase Levels Authors Brandon L. Mulrine Michael F. Sheehan Lolita M. Burrell Michael...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Stress and Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary Alpha Amylase Levels 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...stress-related conditions. The findings suggest that measuring salivary α- amylase levels may help to determine a Soldier’s resilience or risk of

  17. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for salivary calculi in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, F; Marchisio, P; Arisi, E; Capaccio, P

    2001-10-01

    Salivary gland lithiasis is uncommon in pediatric patients. Color Doppler ultrasonography (US) enables an accurate diagnosis of lithiasis to be made without exposure to the radiation of traditional imaging techniques. The development of minimally invasive techniques in the ENT field has made salivary lithotripsy a feasible alternative to traditional invasive surgery. The safety and efficacy of shock wave lithotripsy for salivary calculi were evaluated in pediatric patients. Seven children (5 males; age 4-15 years) with single calculi (mean diameter 4.4 mm) of the submandibular (n = 4) and parotid glands (n = 3) underwent extracorporeal electromagnetic shock wave lithotripsy (EESWL). In four cases the stone was intraductal (two submandibular and two parotideal) and in the remaining three cases it was intraparenchymal (two submandibular and one parotideal). In one case sedative anesthesia was performed. The mean number of therapeutic sessions was five. Patients were followed up clinically and with US for 6-72 months (mean 32 months). Complete disintegration of the calculi was achieved in five cases while in two cases a residual fragment < 2 mm in diameter was observed. None of the patients had recurrence of calculi in the treated gland. Mild self-limited adverse effects (pain, swelling of the gland, self-limiting bleeding from the duct, cutaneous petechiae) were observed in four cases. Our data suggest that EESWL is effective, safe and well tolerated; the minimal invasiveness of the technique suggests that EESWL should be used as the primary approach to salivary calculi in pediatric patients. The continuous US monitoring enables the efficacy of EESWL to be evaluated during both treatment and follow-up, with only slight discomfort for the pediatric patient.

  18. Lithium Induces Glycogen Accumulation in Salivary Glands of the Rat.

    PubMed

    Souza, D N; Mendes, F M; Nogueira, F N; Simões, A; Nicolau, J

    2016-02-01

    Lithium is administered for the treatment of mood and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to verify whether treatment with different concentrations of lithium may affect the glycogen metabolism in the salivary glands of the rats when compared with the liver. Mobilization of glycogen in salivary glands is important for the process of secretion. Two sets of experiments were carried out, that is, in the first, the rats received drinking water supplemented with LiCl (38,25 and 12 mM of LiCl for 15 days) and the second experiment was carried out by intraperitoneal injection of LiCl solution (12 mg/kg and 45 mg LiCl/kg body weight) for 3 days. The active form of glycogen phosphorylase was not affected by treatment with LiCl considering the two experiments. The active form of glycogen synthase presented higher activity in the submandibular glands of rats treated with 25 and 38 mM LiCl and in the liver, with 25 mM LiCl. Glycogen level was higher than that of control in the submandibular glands of rats receiving 38 and 12 mM LiCl, in the parotid of rats receiving 25 and 38 mM, and in the liver of rats receiving 12 mM LiCl. The absolute value of glycogen for the submandibular treated with 25 mM LiCl, and the liver treated with 38 mM LiCl, was higher than the control value, although not statistically significant for these tissues. No statistically significant difference was found in the submandibular and parotid salivary glands for protein concentration when comparing experimental and control groups. We concluded that LiCl administered to rats influences the metabolism of glycogen in salivary glands.

  19. Biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Mattes, William; Yang, Xi; Orr, Michael S; Richter, Patricia; Mendrick, Donna L

    2014-01-01

    Diseases and death caused by exposure to tobacco smoke have become the single most serious preventable public health concern. Thus, biomarkers that can monitor tobacco exposure and health effects can play a critical role in tobacco product regulation and public health policy. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco toxicants are well established and have been used in population studies to establish public policy regarding exposure to second-hand smoke, an example being the nicotine metabolite cotinine, which can be measured in urine. Biomarkers of biological response to tobacco smoking range from those indicative of inflammation to mRNA and microRNA patterns related to tobacco use and/or disease state. Biomarkers identifying individuals with an increased risk for a pathological response to tobacco have also been described. The challenge for any novel technology or biomarker is its translation to clinical and/or regulatory application, a process that requires first technical validation of the assay and then careful consideration of the context the biomarker assay may be used in the regulatory setting. Nonetheless, the current efforts to investigate new biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure promise to offer powerful new tools in addressing the health hazards of tobacco product use. This review will examine such biomarkers, albeit with a focus on those related to cigarette smoking.

  20. Prevalence and associated survival of high-risk HPV-related adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xu; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Chen, Chao; Tzamalis, Georgios; Hofmann, Veit M; Keilholz, Ulrich; Hummel, Michael; Albers, Andreas E

    2016-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) is a rare malignancy, but a frequent subtype in minor and major salivary glands. The molecular alterations or biomarkers that underlie its development and progression as well as therapy outcomes are poorly characterized. The main study goal was to investigate reliable biomarkers and patient-related factors that may have impact on recurrence and long-term survival of SACC. The prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in SACC was determined by HPV-DNA genotyping and p16 immunostaining. Epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), p53 and Ki-67 expression were also evaluated. Twenty-eight (42%) of 67 patients were HPV-DNA positive. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that SACC patients with metastases (P=0.03) had a poor overall survival (OS) and a shorter recurrence-free survival (P<0.001). Positive resection margins significantly predicted shorter recurrence-free survival (P=0.01). In the multivariate analysis, non-metastatic disease (P=0.033) and p16 positivity (P=0.005) have shown their prediction value for OS while non-metastatic disease (P=0.002), HPV positivity (P=0.041) and negative resection margin predicted a better recurrence-free survival. The present study documents for the first time the positivity for HPV infection and overexpression of certain markers (p16, Ki-67, EGFR and p53) used in diagnostics in SACC as well as characterizes clinical entities. These factors might be exploited in the future as biomarkers for its prognostic value. Using the clinical and pathological basis for predicting different outcomes could significantly facilitate SACC stratification and potentially directing treatment.

  1. Rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors: the state-of-the-art - part two.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karolina; Niklas, Arkadiusz A; Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases and are associated with autoantibody production. Their etiology is not fully understood. Certain medications and environmental factors may have an influence on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases. Establishing a cause-effect relationship between a certain factor and disease induction is not always simple. It is important to administer the drug continuously or monitor exposure to a given factor in the period preceding the onset of symptoms. The lack of early diagnosed autoimmune disease, or finally the lack of symptoms within a few weeks/months after discontinuation of the drug/cessation of exposure, is also important. The most frequently mentioned rheumatic diseases caused by drugs and environmental factors include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma, systemic vasculitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. The objective of this study is to summarize current knowledge on rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors.

  2. Rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors: the state-of-the-art - part one.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karolina; Niklas, Arkadiusz A; Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases and are associated with autoantibody production. Their etiology is not fully understood. Certain medications and environmental factors may have an influence on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases. Establishing a cause-effect relationship between a certain factor and disease induction is not always simple. It is important to administer the drug continuously or monitor exposure to a given factor in the period preceding the onset of symptoms. The lack of previously diagnosed autoimmune disease, or finally the lack of symptoms within a few weeks/months after discontinuation of the drug/cessation of exposure, is also important. The most frequently mentioned rheumatic diseases caused by drugs and environmental factors include systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, systemic vasculitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. The objective of this study is to summarize current knowledge on rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors.

  3. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tóthová, L'ubomíra; Kamodyová, Natália; Červenka, Tomáš; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is an interesting alternative diagnostic body fluid with several specific advantages over blood. These include non-invasive and easy collection and related possibility to do repeated sampling. One of the obstacles that hinders the wider use of saliva for diagnosis and monitoring of systemic diseases is its composition, which is affected by local oral status. However, this issue makes saliva very interesting for clinical biochemistry of oral diseases. Periodontitis, caries, oral precancerosis, and other local oral pathologies are associated with oxidative stress. Several markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species can be measured in saliva. Clinical studies have shown an association with oral pathologies at least for some of the established salivary markers of oxidative stress. This association is currently limited to the population level and none of the widely used markers can be applied for individual diagnostics. Oxidative stress seems to be of local oral origin, but it is currently unclear whether it is caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species due to inflammation or by the lack of antioxidants. Interventional studies, both, in experimental animals as well as humans indicate that antioxidant treatment could prevent or slow-down the progress of periodontitis. This makes the potential clinical use of salivary markers of oxidative stress even more attractive. This review summarizes basic information on the most commonly used salivary markers of oxidative damage, antioxidant status, and carbonyl stress and the studies analyzing these markers in patients with caries or periodontitis. PMID:26539412

  4. Enamel Defects and Salivary Methylmalonate in Methylmalonic Acidemia

    PubMed Central

    Bassim, CW; Wright, JT; Guadagnini, JP; Muralidharan, R; Sloan, J; Domingo, DL; Venditti, CP; Hart, TC

    2009-01-01

    Introduction and Objective To characterize enamel defects in patients with methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and cobalamin metabolic disorders and to examine salivary methylmalonate levels in MMA. Subjects and Methods Teeth from patients (n=32) were evaluated for enamel defects and compared with age- and gender-matched controls (n=55). Complementation class (mut, cblA, cblB, cblC) and serum methylmalonate levels were examined. Primary teeth from two patients were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy and salivary methylmalonate levels from two patients were analyzed. Results Enamel defects were significantly more prevalent per tooth in the affected group than the control group, across complementation types (p<0.0001). The mut MMA subgroup had a significantly higher prevalence per individual of severe enamel defects than controls (p=0.021), and those with enamel defects exhibited higher serum methylmalonate levels than those without (p=0.017). Salivary methylmalonate levels were extremely elevated and were significantly higher than controls (p=0.002). Primary teeth were free of enamel defects except for two cblC patients who exhibited severe enamel hypoplasia. One primary tooth from a cblC patient manifested markedly altered crystal microstructure. Conclusion Enamel anomalies represent a phenotypic manifestation of MMA and cobalamin metabolic disorders. These findings suggest an association between enamel developmental pathology and disordered metabolism. PMID:19143946

  5. Salivary proteins associated with hyperglycemia in diabetes: a proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Bencharit, Sompop; Baxter, Sarah Schwartz; Carlson, Jim; Byrd, Warren C; Mayo, Mary Virginia; Border, Michael B; Kohltfarber, Heidi; Urrutia, Eugene; Howard-Williams, Escher L; Offenbacher, Steven; Wu, Michael C; Buse, John B

    2013-11-01

    Effective monitoring of glucose levels is necessary for patients to achieve greater control over their diabetes. However, only about a quarter of subjects with diabetes who requires close serum glucose monitoring, regularly check their serum glucose daily. One of the potential barriers to patient compliance is the blood sampling requirement. Saliva and its protein contents can be altered in subjects with diabetes, possibly due to changes in glycemic control. We propose here that salivary proteomes of subjects with diabetes may be different based on their glycemic control as reflected in A1C levels. A total of 153 subjects with type 1 or 2 diabetes were recruited. Subjects in each type of diabetes were divided into 5 groups based on their A1C levels; <7, 7-8, 8-9, 9-10, >10. To examine the global proteomic changes associated with A1C, the proteomic profiling of pooled saliva samples from each group was created using label-free quantitative proteomics. Similar proteomic analysis for individual subjects (N=4, for each group) were then applied to examine proteins that may be less abundant in pooled samples. Principle component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (p<0.01 and p<0.001) were used to define the proteomic differences. We, therefore, defined the salivary proteomic changes associated with A1C changes. This study demonstrates that differences exist between salivary proteomic profiles in subjects with diabetes based on the A1C levels.

  6. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    SciTech Connect

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

  7. Factors affecting the secretion of submandibular salivary kallikrein in cats.

    PubMed

    Garrett, J R; Smith, R E; Kyriacou, K; Kidd, A; Liao, J

    1987-07-01

    Glandular kallikrein has been assessed in submandibular saliva, homogenates and plasma by the fluorimetric substrate D-Val-Leu-Arg-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (AFC) and histochemically in tissue sections by the 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamide (MNA) analogue. Nerve stimulation was used to produce salivary secretion. Parasympathetic saliva contained low concentrations of kallikrein, independently of any circulating catecholamines from the adrenals. Sympathetic saliva contained very high concentrations of kallikrein; the amounts in individual drops rapidly reached a peak then declined gradually. Adrenergic blocking drugs during mixed parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulation showed that beta-adrenergic effects normally increase the secretion of kallikrein in response to the alpha-adrenergic influence from sympathetic nerve impulses. Small amounts of a glandular kallikrein-like activity are present in the plasma. Effluent blood from the submandibular gland before, during and after stimulation of either nerve gave no indication that submandibular kallikrein passes from the glandular compartment to the blood under conditions of unobstructed salivary flow. Excision of the chorda tympani indicated that parasympathetic nerve impulses are required for the normal resynthesis of submandibular kallikrein. The secretion of salivary kallikrein is essentially an exocrine function but its role in the saliva remains obscure. The results suggest that sudden mobilization of kallikrein may occur at times into the saliva and that a separate population of adrenergic axons, under separate central control, may pass to the striated ducts specially for this purpose.

  8. Acute stress induces increases in salivary IL-10 levels.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Yvette Z; Newton, Tamara L; Miller, James J; Lyle, Keith B; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress-reactivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in saliva and to determine how salivary IL-10 levels change in relation to those of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, following stress. Healthy young adults were randomly assigned to retrieve a negative emotional memory (n = 46) or complete a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 45). Saliva samples were taken 10 min before (baseline) and 50 min after (post-stressor) onset of a 10-min stressor, and were assayed using a high sensitivity multiplex assay for cytokines. Measurable IL-10 levels (above the minimum detectable concentration) were found in 96% of the baseline samples, and 98% of the post-stressor samples. Flow rate-adjusted salivary IL-10 levels as well as IL-1β/IL-10 ratios showed moderate but statistically significant increases in response to stress. Measurement of salivary IL-10 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios may be useful, noninvasive tools, in stress research.

  9. Drugs or disease: evaluating salivary function in RA patients.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sandra Regina; Pedrazas, Carlos Henrique Silva; Correia, Marcos Paulo Veloso; Azevedo, Mario Newton Leitão de; Zamprogno, Thaís; Silva, Arley; Gonçalves, Lucio Souza; Papi, José Angelo de Souza

    2016-10-10

    Oral complications of RA may include temporomandibular joint disorders, mucosa alterations and symptoms of dry mouth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salivary gland function of subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) comparing it to healthy controls. Subjects with other systemic conditions known to affect salivary functions were excluded. A questionnaire was applied for the evaluation of xerostomia. Resting and chewing-stimulated salivary flow rates (SFR) were obtained under standard conditions. There were 145 subjects included of the study (104 RA and 38 controls). About 66.7% of the RA subjects and 2.4% in control group presented xerostomia. The median resting SFR were 0.24 ml/min for RA subjects and 0.40 mL/min for controls (p = 0.04). The median stimulated SFR were 1.31 mL/min for RA subjects and 1.52 ml/min for controls (p = 0.33). No significant differences were found between resting and stimulated SFR of RA subjects not using xerogenic medications and controls. There was significantly higher number of subjects presenting hyposalivation in the RA group than among controls, even when subjects using xerogenic medications were eliminated from the analysis. In conclusion, hyposalivation and xerostomia were more frequent among RA subjects not using xerogenic medication than among controls, although there were no significant differences in the median SFR between groups.

  10. Salivary proteins associated with hyperglycemia in diabetes: a proteomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bencharit, Sompop; Baxter, Sarah Schwartz; Carlson, Jim; Byrd, Warren C.; Mayo, Mary Virginia; Border, Michael B.; Kohltfarber, Heidi; Urrutia, Eugene; Howard-Williams, Escher L.; Offenbacher, Steven; Wu, Michael C.; Buse, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Effective monitoring of glucose levels is necessary for patients to achieve greater control over their diabetes. However, only about a quarter of subjects with diabetes who requires close serum glucose monitoring, regularly check their serum glucose daily. One of the potential barriers to patient compliance is the blood sampling requirement. Saliva and its protein contents can be altered in subjects with diabetes, possibly due to changes in glycemic control. We propose here that salivary proteomes of subjects with diabetes may be different based on their glycemic control as reflected in A1C levels. A total of 153 subjects with type 1 or 2 diabetes were recruited. Subjects in each type of diabetes were divided into 5 groups based on their A1C levels; <7, 7–8, 8–9, 9–10, >10. To examine the global proteomic changes associated with A1C, the proteomic profiling of pooled saliva samples from each group was created using label-free quantitative proteomics. Similar proteomic analysis for individual subjects (N=4, for each group) were then applied to examine proteins that may be less abundant in pooled samples. Principle component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (p<0.01 and p<0.001) were used to define the proteomic differences. We, therefore, defined the salivary proteomic changes associated with A1C changes. This study demonstrates that differences exist between salivary proteomic profiles in subjects with diabetes based on the A1C levels. PMID:24056972

  11. Assessing salivary cortisol in large-scale, epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Kumari, Meena

    2009-11-01

    Salivary cortisol measures are increasingly being incorporated into large-scale, population-based, or epidemiological research, in which participants are selected to be representative of particular communities or populations of interest, and sample sizes are in the order of hundreds to tens of thousands of participants. These approaches to studying salivary cortisol provide important advantages but pose a set of challenges. The representative nature of sampling, and large samples sizes associated with population-based research offer high generalizability and power, and the ability to examine cortisol functioning in relation to: (a) a wide range of social environments; (b) a diverse array individuals and groups; and (c) a broad set of pre-disease and disease outcomes. The greater importance of high response rates (to maintain generalizability) and higher costs associated with this type of large-scale research, however, requires special adaptations of existing ambulatory cortisol protocols. These include: using the most efficient sample collection protocol possible that still adequately address the specific cortisol-related questions at hand, and ensuring the highest possible response and compliance rates among those individuals invited to participate. Examples of choices made, response rates obtained, and examples of results obtained from existing epidemiological cortisol studies are offered, as are suggestions for the modeling and interpretation of salivary cortisol data obtained in large-scale epidemiological research.

  12. Minor intraoral salivary gland tumors: a clinical-pathological study

    PubMed Central

    Sarmento, Dmitry José de Santana; Morais, Maria de Lourdes Silva de Arruda; Costa, Antonio de Lisboa Lopes; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the clinical-pathological profile of patients with minor salivary gland neoplasms. Methods A retrospective study of specific cases diagnosed as benign and malignant tumors of the minor salivary glands was performed. The data were collected from medical records of patients seen at a hospital over a period of 15 years. The sample was made up of 37 cases. For the pathological study, slides containing 5μm thick sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin were used. The data were tabulated using descriptive statistics. Results Malignant neoplasms represented 70.3% of cases. The mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common neoplasm (45.9%), followed by pleomorphic adenoma (24.4%). Most patients were female (70.3%), aged between 71 and 80 years. The palate (67.6%) and the retromolar region (10.8%) were the most affected sites. Conclusion Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common tumor in minor salivary glands. These tumors are more common in females aged over 40 years. The palate was the most common affected site. PMID:28076598

  13. [Rabies virus isolation in the salivary glands of insectivorous bats].

    PubMed

    Gury Dohmen, F; Beltrán, F

    2009-12-01

    This study determined the presence of the rabies virus in salivary glands, as well as its titre and antigenic characterisation and the level of exposure to the virus from contact between domestic animals and humans. Twenty-six positive brain samples were selected, 80% of which were from the Brazilian free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis, corresponding to the period 1999-2005. Antigenic characterisation was conducted on a panel of 19 monoclonal antibodies targeting the rabies virus nucleoprotein supplied by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta in the United States of America. The results revealed a high percentage of isolations in salivary glands (76.9%). Their average titres were compared in a batch of positive samples of brain and salivary glands, giving values of 4.75 and 3.81 respectively (expressed as log LD50/0.03 ml). The isolated viruses corresponded principally to variant 4 associated with T brasiliensis and variant 6 associated with the hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus, and the red bat, L. borealis, and their respective subvariants. The level of exposure in domestic animals and humans was 50% during the period under study.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of the salivary glands of Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukiko; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Hattori, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    The green rice leafhopper (GRH), Nephotettix cincticeps, is one of the most important pests of rice in temperate Asian countries. GRH, a vascular feeder, secretes watery and gelling saliva in the process of feeding on phloem and xylem sap. It is known that GRH saliva contains several bioactive proteins, including enzymes such as laccase and beta-glucosidase. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis of salivary glands of GRH using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Of 51,788 assembled contigs, 16,017 (30.9%) showed significant similarity to known proteins in the NCBI nr database, while 34,978 (67.5%) could not be annotated by similarity search, Pfam, or gene ontology (GO). Contigs (905) with predicted signal peptides and no putative transmembrane domains are suggested to represent secreted protein coding genes. Among the 76 most highly expressed putative secretory protein contigs, 68 transcripts were found to be salivary gland-specific or at least -dominant, but not expressed in stomach or Malpighian tubules. However, 45 of the 68 transcripts were unknown proteins. These findings suggest that most of the GRH transcripts encoding secreted proteins expressed in salivary glands are species and/or tissue specific. Our results provide a fundamental list of genes involved in GRH-Poaceae host plant interactions including successful feeding and plant pathogen transmission.

  15. Therapeutic effects of isoflavones on impaired salivary secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ryo, Koufuchi; Takahashi, Ayako; Tamaki, Yoh; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Inoue, Hiroko; Saito, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Dry mouth, which is characterized by decreased salivation, has a number of causes; the involvement of estrogen has been suggested as symptoms typically develop in middle-aged females. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the treatment of this condition. Soy isoflavones, a subgroup of flavonoids, are abundantly found in the soy germ. They are thought to exert a number of effects by specifically binding to estrogen receptors due to their structural similarity to estrogen. Recently, soy isoflavones have been found to exert antioxidant effects, ameliorating disorders caused by reactive oxygen/free radicals. Based on these observations, the effects of soybean isoflavones on impaired salivary secretion were studied in patients with dry mouth. Soy isoflavone aglycones were administered at 25 mg per day to 15 subjects with an average age of 67.9 ± 8.0 years for 2 months, and salivary secretion was analyzed. The results showed a significant improvement based on the saliva flow rate and self-completed questionnaire, thus suggesting the usefulness of isoflavones in improving the symptoms of salivary gland hypofunction. PMID:25411521

  16. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Azimi, Somayyeh; Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Amini, Somayyeh; Elmi, Zahra; Namazi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Cigarette smoke can induce oral cancer by its free radicals and oxidative damage. Salivary anti-oxidants system is believed to have an important role in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. This study was compared total antioxidant capacity (TAoC) of saliva in smokers and nonsmokers. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional study, 30 male smokers with mean age of 45.23 years and 30 nonsmokers with mean age of 45.30 years participated. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected in the morning in two groups by spitting method. TAoC of saliva was measured with the special kit in two groups at the same time. Statistical analysis was performed by covariance test. Results. The mean salivary TAoC in nonsmokers (0.741±0.123 U/ml) was higher than that in smokers (0.529±0.167 U/ml). This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion. Smoking can alter salivary antioxidant capacity. PMID:26889367

  17. Management of obstructive salivary disorders by sialendoscopy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Atienza, G; López-Cedrún, J L

    2015-07-01

    Our aim was to assess the effectiveness and safety of sialendoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic technique in the management of obstructive salivary disorders. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, The Cochrane Library, and the National Health Service Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (up to April 2014). References from the studies included and from review articles were scanned. A study was eligible for inclusion if it was a fully published peer-reviewed report with original data, if participants included adult patients with obstructive disease of the major salivary glands, if the outcome variables gave information about the success rates of the procedure in terms of freedom from symptoms and absence of residual obstruction, and if the paper was published in English, French, Italian, Portuguese, or Spanish. The data were extracted and summarised in tables of evidence. We report weighted pooled proportions, 95% CI, and test results for heterogeneity. The weighted pooled proportion of success rates of the obstruction's resolution was 76% (95% CI 71 to 82) for 40 studies involving 2654 patients undergoing sialendoscopy alone, and 91% (95% CI 88 to 94) for the 23 studies and 1480 procedures made with sialendoscopy and a combined surgical approach. In general, few complications were reported and the rate of sialadenectomy was low (4.6%). This systematic review suggests that sialendoscopy is effective and safe for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with obstructive salivary gland disease.

  18. Emerging biomarkers in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Paek, So Yeon; Han, Ling; Weiland, Matthew; Lu, Chuan-Jian; McKinnon, Kathleen; Zhou, Li; Lim, Henry W; Elder, James T; Mi, Qing-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disease which affects 2-4% of the worldwide population. Approximately 20-30% of patients with psoriasis develop psoriatic arthritis (PsA), a frequently destructive and disabling condition. As skin manifestations precede joint symptoms in nearly all patients with PsA, identification of biomarkers for early prediction of joint damage is an important clinical need. Because not all patients with PsA respond to treatment in the same fashion, identification of biomarkers capable of predicting therapeutic response is also imperative. Here, we review existing literature and discuss current investigations to identify potential biomarkers for PsA disease activity, with particular emphasis on microRNAs as novel markers of interest. Serum (soluble) biomarkers, peripheral osteoclast precursor as cellular biomarkers, and genetic loci associated with skin and joint disease are also reviewed.

  19. Effects of red wine intake on human salivary antiradical capacity and total polyphenol content.

    PubMed

    Varoni, Elena Maria; Vitalini, Sara; Contino, Daniele; Lodi, Giovanni; Simonetti, Paolo; Gardana, Claudio; Sardella, Andrea; Carrassi, Antonio; Iriti, Marcello

    2013-08-01

    The protective effects of grape polyphenols have been reported on oral health, though unreasonable alcohol consumption represents a risk factor for developing oral cancer. The possible effects of red wine consumption on salivary antiradical activity were investigated in healthy volunteers for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Time-course (from 0 min to 240 min) changes of salivary radical-scavenging capacity were measured by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, in twelve healthy volunteers, after the intake of red wine (125 mL), a capsule of red wine extract (300 mg) or water (125 mL). Furthermore, time-course of salivary total polyphenol levels, detected by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, was also determined. Both ABTS and DPPH tests showed that red wine consumption did not increase salivary antiradical activity in volunteers. Conversely, red wine extract administration caused a marked rise in salivary ABTS radical-scavenging capacity within 30 min, followed by a plateau up to 240 min. The same treatment also raised salivary DPPH radical-scavenging activity at any time point, though to a minor extent. The highest salivary polyphenol concentration was reached 30 min after wine drinking, followed by a steady decrease up to 240 min. Wine drinking was not associated to a reduced salivary antiradical capacity. However, wine extract greatly improved the salivary antioxidant status.

  20. Pleomorphic adenoma of an accessory submandibular salivary gland: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajiv S; Meshram, Deepashree; Jangam, Sagar S; Singh, Jatinder S

    2015-10-01

    An accessory submandibular salivary gland is a rare anatomical variant, and a tumour within one is even rarer. We describe a 54-year-old man who presented with a slowly-enlarging mass in the right submandibular region which on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seemed to be close to, but not arising from, the right submandibular salivary gland. This was found to be a benign pleomorphic adenoma arising from an accessory submandibular salivary gland. To our knowledge it is only the second report of a pleomorphic adenoma that developed within an accessory submandibular salivary gland.

  1. Effects of season, age, sex, and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Aurich, J; Wulf, M; Ille, N; Erber, R; von Lewinski, M; Palme, R; Aurich, C

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Because spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies, proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of the factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analyzed salivary cortisol concentration for 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state, and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P < 0.001). This rhythm was disrupted in individual groups on individual days; however, alterations remained within the range of diurnal changes. Comparison between months showed highest cortisol concentrations in December (P < 0.001). Cortisol concentrations increased in breeding stallions during the breeding season (P < 0.001). No differences in salivary cortisol concentrations between nonpregnant mares with and without a corpus luteum existed. In stallions, mean daily salivary cortisol and plasma testosterone concentrations were weakly correlated (r = 0.251, P < 0.01). No differences in salivary cortisol between female and male young horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva.

  2. Neurons Self-Organize Around Salivary Epithelial Cells in Novel Co-Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Sommakia, Salah; Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland bioengineering requires understanding the interaction between salivary epithelium and surrounding tissues. An important component of salivary glands is the presence of neurons. No previous studies have investigated how neurons and salivary epithelial cells interact in an in vitro co-culture model. In this study, we describe the self-organization of neurons around salivary epithelial cells in co-culture, in a similar fashion to what occurs in native tissue. We cultured primary mouse cortical neurons (m-CN) with a salivary epithelial cell line (Par-C10) on growth factor-reduced Matrigel (GFR-MG) for 4 days. After this time, co-cultures were compared with native salivary glands using confocal microscopy. Our findings indicate that m-CN were able to self-organize basolaterally to salivary epithelial cell clusters in a similar manner to what occurs in native tissue. These results indicate that this model can be developed as a potential platform for studying neuron-salivary epithelial cell interactions for bioengineering purposes. PMID:27833941

  3. Salivary epidermal growth factor (EGF) in Sjögren's syndrome: association between salivary EGF levels and the severity of intraoral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Naoto; Katada, Yoshinori; Kitano, Sachie; Nishioka, Aki; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Kitano, Masayasu; Hashimoto, Naoaki; Matsui, Kiyoshi; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Sano, Hajime

    2016-01-01

      Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine glands, especially the salivary and lacrimal glands. As a result of salivary gland dysfunction, most patients with SS have xerostomia, related to a reduced salivary flow rate. In addition to the discomfort due to xerostomia, dry mouth can cause various intraoral manifestations such as refractory stomatitis, ulcer and atrophic changes in the oral mucosa and tongue, and patients' quality of life (QOL) is impaired severely. These manifestations are believed to be caused mainly by a decrease in the clearance in the oral cavity owing to hyposalivation. However, since saliva has several beneficial physiological effects on the intraoral environment, qualitative changes in sialochemistry should also be considered a cause of the refractory intraoral manifestations in SS. Salivary epidermal growth factor (EGF) is considered an important cytoprotective factor against injuries, and it contributes to wound healing in the oral cavity. We evaluated changes in salivary EGF levels and assessed the association between salivary EGF levels and the severity of intraoral manifestations in SS patients. The results showed that the salivary EGF levels decreased with the progression of SS, and this deterioration in saliva quality as well as hyposalivation could play a role in the pathogenesis of refractory intraoral manifestations in SS patients. Our findings provide new target for therapeutic intervention in SS.

  4. Reduction of VSC and salivary bacteria by a multibenefit mouthrinse.

    PubMed

    Boyd, T; Vazquez, J; Williams, M

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multibenefit mouthrinse containing 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and 0.025% sodium fluoride in reducing volatile sulfur compound (VSC) levels and total cultivable salivary bacteria, at both 4 h and overnight. In vitro analysis of efficacy was performed using saliva-coated hydroxyapatite disc substrates first treated with the mouthrinse, then exposed to whole human saliva, followed by overnight incubation in air-tight vials. Headspace VSC was quantified by gas chromatography (GC). A clinical evaluation was conducted with 14 subjects using a crossover design. After a seven-day washout period, baseline clinical measurement of VSC was performed by GC analysis of mouth air sampled in the morning prior to eating, drinking or performing any oral hygiene. A 10 mL saline rinse was used to sample and enumerate cultivable salivary bacterial levels via serial dilution and plating. Subjects were instructed to use the treatment rinse twice daily in combination with a controlled brushing regimen. After one week the subjects returned in the morning prior to eating, drinking or performing oral hygiene to provide samples of overnight mouth air and salivary bacteria. The subjects were then immediately rinsed with the test product, and provided additional mouth air and saliva rinse samples 4 h later. A multibenefit rinse containing 0.05% CPC and 0.025% sodium fluoride was found to reduce VSC in vitro by 52%. The rinse also demonstrated a significant clinical reduction in breath VSC (p < 0.05) of 55.8% at 4 h and 23.4% overnight relative to baseline VSC levels. At both time points, the multibenefit rinse was more effective than the control; this difference was statistically significant at the overnight time point (p < 0.05). Total cultivable salivary bacteria levels were also reduced significantly (p < 0.05) at 4 h and overnight by this mouthrinse compared to baseline levels and the control. A multibenefit mouthrinse was shown to reduce in

  5. Salivary Composition Is Associated with Liking and Usual Nutrient Intake

    PubMed Central

    Méjean, Caroline; Morzel, Martine; Neyraud, Eric; Issanchou, Sylvie; Martin, Christophe; Bozonnet, Sophie; Urbano, Christine; Schlich, Pascal; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine; Feron, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Salivary flow and composition have an impact on flavor perception. However, very few studies have explored the relationship between saliva, individual liking and usual dietary intake. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of salivary flow and composition with both a liking for fat, saltiness and sweetness and the usual nutrient intake in an adult French population. Liking for fat, saltiness, and sweetness were inferred from liking scores obtained during hedonic tests on 32 food products among 282 French adults participating in the Nutrinet-Santé Study. Before assessing liking, resting saliva was collected. Standard biochemical analyses were performed to assess specific component concentrations and enzymatic activities. Dietary data were collected using three web-based 24h records. Relationships between salivary flow and composition, sensory liking and nutrient intake were assessed using linear regression. Total antioxidant capacity was positively associated with simple carbohydrate intake (β = 31.3, 95% CI = 1.58; 60.99) and inversely related to complex carbohydrate consumption (β = -52.4, 95% CI = -87.51; -19.71). Amylolysis was positively associated with both total (β = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.38) and simple carbohydrate intake (β = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.39). Salivary flow was positively associated with liking for fat (β = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.03; 0.25). Proteolysis was positively associated with liking for saltiness and for fat (β = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.02; 0.59; β = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.56, respectively). Amylolysis was inversely associated with liking for sweetness (β = -10.13, 95% CI = -19.51; -0.75). Carbonic anhydrase 6 was inversely associated with liking for saltiness (β = -46.77, 95% CI = -86.24; -7.30). Saliva does not substantially vary according to a usual diet, except for carbohydrate intake, whereas the specific association between salivary flow/composition and sensory liking suggests the influence of saliva characteristics in

  6. Biomarkers for lymphoma

    DOEpatents

    Zangar, Richard C.; Varnum, Susan M.

    2014-09-02

    A biomarker, method, test kit, and diagnostic system for detecting the presence of lymphoma in a person are disclosed. The lymphoma may be Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The person may be a high-risk subject. In one embodiment, a plasma sample from a person is obtained. The level of at least one protein listed in Table S3 in the plasma sample is measured. The level of at least one protein in the plasma sample is compared with the level in a normal or healthy subject. The lymphoma is diagnosed based upon the level of the at least one protein in the plasma sample in comparison to the normal or healthy level.

  7. Molecular biomarkers of neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Höglund, Kina; Salter, Hugh

    2013-11-01

    Neuronal dysfunction and degeneration are central events of a number of major diseases with significant unmet need. Neuronal dysfunction may not necessarily be the result of cell death, but may also be due to synaptic damage leading to impaired neuronal cell signaling or long-term potentiation. Once degeneration occurs, it is unclear whether axonal or synaptic loss comes first or whether this precedes neuronal cell death. In this review we summarize the pathophysiology of four major neurodegenerative diseases; Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease) For each of these diseases, we describe how biochemical biomarkers are currently understood in relation to the pathophysiology and in terms of neuronal biology, and we discuss the clinical and diagnostic utility of these potential tools, which are at present limited. We discuss how markers may be used to drive drug development and clinical practice.

  8. Inflammatory biomarkers for AMD.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Chloe M; Wright, Alan F

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, affecting an estimated 50 million individuals aged over 65 years.Environmental and genetic risk-factors implicate chronic inflammation in the etiology of AMD, contributing to the formation of drusen, retinal pigment epithelial cell dysfunction and photoreceptor cell death. Consistent with a role for chronic inflammation in AMD pathogenesis, several inflammatory mediators, including complement components, chemokines and cytokines, are elevated at both the local and systemic levels in AMD patients. These mediators have diverse roles in the alternative complement pathway, including recruitment of inflammatory cells, activation of the inflammasome, promotion of neovascularisation and in the resolution of inflammation. The utility of inflammatory biomarkers in assessing individual risk and progression of the disease is controversial. However, understanding the role of these inflammatory mediators in AMD onset, progression and response to treatment may increase our knowledge of disease pathogenesis and provide novel therapeutic options in the future.

  9. Imaging Biomarkers in Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Juergens, Rosalyn A.; Zukotynski, Katherine A.; Singnurkar, Amit; Snider, Denis P.; Valliant, John F.; Gulenchyn, Karen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Immune-based therapies have been in use for decades but recent work with immune checkpoint inhibitors has now changed the landscape of cancer treatment as a whole. While these advances are encouraging, clinicians still do not have a consistent biomarker they can rely on that can accurately select patients or monitor response. Molecular imaging technology provides a noninvasive mechanism to evaluate tumors and may be an ideal candidate for these purposes. This review provides an overview of the mechanism of action of varied immunotherapies and the current strategies for monitoring patients with imaging. We then describe some of the key researches in the preclinical and clinical literature on the current uses of molecular imaging of the immune system and cancer. PMID:26949344

  10. Significant modifications of the salivary proteome potentially associated with complications of Down syndrome revealed by top-down proteomics.

    PubMed

    Cabras, Tiziana; Pisano, Elisabetta; Montaldo, Caterina; Giuca, Maria Rita; Iavarone, Federica; Zampino, Giuseppe; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2013-07-01

    People with Down syndrome, a frequent genetic disorder in humans, have increased risk of health problems associated with this condition. One clinical feature of Down syndrome is the increased prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in comparison with the general population. Because saliva plays an important role in maintaining oral health, in the present study the salivary proteome of Down syndrome subjects was investigated to explore modifications with respect to healthy subjects. Whole saliva of 36 Down syndrome subjects, divided in the age groups 10-17 yr and 18-50 yr, was analyzed by a top-down proteomic approach, based on the high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-MS analysis of the intact proteins and peptides, and the qualitative and quantitative profiles were compared with sex- and age-matched control groups. The results showed the following interesting features: 1) as opposed to controls, in Down syndrome subjects the concentration of the major salivary proteins of gland origin did not increase with age; as a consequence concentration of acidic proline rich proteins and S cystatins were found significantly reduced in older Down syndrome subjects with respect to matched controls; 2) levels of the antimicrobial α-defensins 1 and 2 and histatins 3 and 5 were significantly increased in whole saliva of older Down syndrome subjects with respect to controls; 3) S100A7, S100A8, and S100A12 levels were significantly increased in whole saliva of Down syndrome subjects in comparison with controls. The increased level of S100A7 and S100A12 may be of particular interest as a biomarker of early onset Alzheimer's disease, which is frequently associated with Down syndrome.

  11. Significant Modifications of the Salivary Proteome Potentially Associated with Complications of Down Syndrome Revealed by Top-down Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Cabras, Tiziana; Pisano, Elisabetta; Montaldo, Caterina; Giuca, Maria Rita; Iavarone, Federica; Zampino, Giuseppe; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2013-01-01

    People with Down syndrome, a frequent genetic disorder in humans, have increased risk of health problems associated with this condition. One clinical feature of Down syndrome is the increased prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in comparison with the general population. Because saliva plays an important role in maintaining oral health, in the present study the salivary proteome of Down syndrome subjects was investigated to explore modifications with respect to healthy subjects. Whole saliva of 36 Down syndrome subjects, divided in the age groups 10–17 yr and 18–50 yr, was analyzed by a top-down proteomic approach, based on the high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization–MS analysis of the intact proteins and peptides, and the qualitative and quantitative profiles were compared with sex- and age-matched control groups. The results showed the following interesting features: 1) as opposed to controls, in Down syndrome subjects the concentration of the major salivary proteins of gland origin did not increase with age; as a consequence concentration of acidic proline rich proteins and S cystatins were found significantly reduced in older Down syndrome subjects with respect to matched controls; 2) levels of the antimicrobial α-defensins 1 and 2 and histatins 3 and 5 were significantly increased in whole saliva of older Down syndrome subjects with respect to controls; 3) S100A7, S100A8, and S100A12 levels were significantly increased in whole saliva of Down syndrome subjects in comparison with controls. The increased level of S100A7 and S100A12 may be of particular interest as a biomarker of early onset Alzheimer's disease, which is frequently associated with Down syndrome. PMID:23533003

  12. Contribution of Human Oral Cells to Astringency by Binding Salivary Protein/Tannin Complexes.

    PubMed

    Soares, Susana; Ferrer-Galego, Raúl; Brandão, Elsa; Silva, Mafalda; Mateus, Nuno; Freitas, Victor de

    2016-10-10

    The most widely accepted mechanism to explain astringency is the interaction and precipitation of salivary proteins by food tannins, in particular proline-rich proteins. However, other mechanisms have been arising to explain astringency, such as binding of tannins to oral cells. In this work, an experimental method was adapted to study the possible contribution of both salivary proteins and oral cells to astringency induced by grape seed procyanidin fractions. Overall, in the absence of salivary proteins, the extent of procyanidin complexation with oral cells increased with increasing procyanidin degree of polymerization (mDP). Procyanidin fractions rich in monomers were the ones with the lowest ability to bind to oral cells. In the presence of salivary proteins and for procyanidins with mDP 2 the highest concentrations (1.5 and 2.0 mM) resulted in an increased binding of procyanidins to oral cells. This was even more evident for fractions III and IV at 1.0 mM and upper concentrations. Regarding the salivary proteins affected, it was possible to observe a decrease of P-B peptide and aPRP proteins for fractions II and III. This decrease is greater as the procyanidins' mDP increases. In fact, for fraction IV an almost total depletion of all salivary proteins was observed. This decrease is due to the formation of insoluble salivary protein/procyanidin complexes. Altogether, these data suggest that some procyanidins are able to bind to oral cells and that the salivary proteins interact with procyanidins forming salivary protein/procyanidin complexes that are also able to link to oral cells. The procyanidins that remain unbound to oral cells are able to bind to salivary proteins forming a large network of salivary protein/procyanidin complexes. Overall, the results presented herein provide one more step to understand food oral astringency onset.

  13. Transcriptomic and Expression Analysis of the Salivary Glands in White-Backed Planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; An, Xing-Kui; Liu, Yu-Di; Hou, Mao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), is one of the serious rice pests because of its destructive feeding. The salivary glands of the WBPH play an important role in the feeding behaviour. Currently, however, very little is known about the salivary glands at the molecular level. We sequenced the salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscripome) of adult WBPHs using the Illumina sequencing. A total of 65,595 transcripts and 51,842 unigenes were obtained from salivary glands. According to annotations against the Nr database, many of the unigenes identified were associated with the most studied enzymes in hemipteran saliva. In the present study, we identified 32 salivary protein genes from the WBPH sialotranscripome, which were categorized as those involved in sugar metabolism, detoxification, suppression of plant defense responses, immunity-related responses, general digestion, and other phytophagy processes. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that four of 32 salivary protein genes (multicopper oxidase 4, multicopper oxidase 6, carboxylesterase and uridine phosphorylase 1 isform X2) were primarily expressed in the salivary gland, suggesting that they played putative role in insect-rice interactions. 13 of 32 salivary protein genes were primarily expressed in gut, which might play putative role in digestive and detoxify mechanism. Development expression profiles analysis revealed that the expression level of 26 of 32 salivary protein genes had no significant difference, suggesting that they may play roles in every developmental stages of salivary gland of WBPH. The other six genes have a high expression level in the salivary gland of adult. 31 of 32 genes (except putative acetylcholinesterase 1) have no significant difference in male and female adult, suggesting that their expression level have no difference between sexes. This report analysis of the sialotranscripome for the WBPH, and the transcriptome provides a foundational

  14. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas

    PubMed Central

    Qayyum, Sohail; Meacham, Ryan; Sebelik, Merry; Zafar, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77%) and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%). All lesions were well circumscribed and contained mature adipose tissue intimately admixed with benign salivary gland components. Ductal dilatation was found in 100% of minor salivary gland sialolipomas but in only 28% of major salivary gland tumors. Nerve entrapment has also rarely been noted in major salivary glands (14%) whereas myxoid degeneration has been identified in rare minor salivary glands tumors (13%). Treatment is surgical excision and is curative with no reports of recurrence. PMID:23798838

  15. Development of Parkinson's disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Kumar M; Tan, Eng-King

    2010-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, affecting over 6 million people worldwide. It is anticipated that the number of affected individuals may increase significantly in the most populous nations by 2030. During the past 20 years, much progress has been made in identifying and assessing various potential clinical, biochemical, imaging and genetic biomarkers for PD. Despite the wealth of information, development of a validated biomarker for PD is still ongoing. It is hoped that reliable and well-validated biomarkers will provide critical clues to assist in the diagnosis and management of Parkinson's disease patients in the near future.

  16. Urinary Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Ross, Ashley E; Sokoll, Lori J; Partin, Alan W; Pavlovich, Christian P

    2016-02-01

    In light of the overdiagnosis and overtreatment associated with widespread prostate-specific antigen-based screening, controversy persists surrounding the detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). Given its anatomic proximity to the prostate, urine has been proposed as a noninvasive substrate for prostatic biomarkers. With greater understanding of the molecular pathways of carcinogenesis and significant technological advances, the breadth of potential biomarkers is substantial. In this review, the authors aim to provide an evidence-based assessment of current and emerging urinary biomarkers used in the detection and prognostication of PCa and high-grade PCa, with particular attention on clinically relevant findings.

  17. Radioprotective Effect of Thymol Against Salivary Glands Dysfunction Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Yarmand, Fateme; Motallebnejad, Mina; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Moslemi, Dariush; Bijani, Ali; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of thymol as a natural product against salivary glands dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation in rats. The rats were treated with thymol at dose of 50 mg/Kg before exposure to ionizing radiation at dose 15 Gy. Salivary gland function was evaluated with radioisotope scintigraphy and then salivary gland to background counts ratio was calculated. Ionizing radiation caused significant salivary glands dysfunction at the 3th and the 70th days with reduction in radioactivity uptake in salivary glands. Ratios of salivary gland to background radioactivities were 2.0 ± 0.05, 1.58 ± 0.62 and 1.99 ± 0.07 at 3th days for control, radiation, and thymol plus radiation groups, respectively. Thymol significantly protected acute and chronic salivary gland dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation in the rats.This finding may have been a promising application of thymol for the protection of salivary glands dysfunction induced by ionizing irradiation in patients exposed to radiation in head and neck cancer therapy. PMID:28243283

  18. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Evaluate Major Salivary Gland Function Before and After Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet Keyzer, Frederik de; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Stroobants, Sigrid; Hermans, Robert; Nuyts, Sandra

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI as a noninvasive tool to investigate major salivary gland function before and after radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: DW-MRI was performed in 8 HNC patients before and after parotid-sparing RT (mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland <26 Gy). A DW sequence was performed once at rest and then repeated continuously during salivary stimulation. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for both parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Findings were compared with salivary gland scintigraphy. Results: Before RT, the mean ADC value at rest was significantly lower in the parotid than in the submandibular glands. During the first 5 min of stimulation, the ADC value of the salivary glands showed a decrease, followed by a steady increase until a peak ADC, significantly higher than the baseline value, was reached after a median of 17 min. The baseline ADC value at rest was significantly higher after RT than before RT in the nonspared salivary glands but not in the spared parotid glands. In the contralateral parotid glands, the same response was seen as before RT. This pattern was completely lost in the nonspared glands. These results corresponded with remaining or loss of salivary function, respectively, as confirmed by salivary gland scintigraphy. Conclusions: Diffusion-weighted-MRI allows noninvasive evaluation of functional changes in the major salivary glands after RT and is a promising tool for investigating radiation-induced xerostomia.

  19. Unraveling dual feeding associated molecular complexity of salivary glands in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Punita; Sharma, Swati; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Thomas, Tina; Das De, Tanwee; Rohilla, Suman Lata; Singh, Namita; Pandey, Kailash C.; Valecha, Neena; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mosquito salivary glands are well known to facilitate meal acquisition, however the fundamental question on how adult female salivary gland manages molecular responses during sugar versus blood meal uptake remains unanswered. To investigate these responses, we analyzed a total of 58.5 million raw reads generated from two independent RNAseq libraries of the salivary glands collected from 3–4 day-old sugar and blood fed Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. Comprehensive functional annotation analysis of 10,931 contigs unraveled that salivary glands may encode diverse nature of proteins in response to distinct physiological feeding status. Digital gene expression analysis and PCR validation indicated that first blood meal significantly alters the molecular architecture of the salivary glands. Comparative microscopic analysis also revealed that first blood meal uptake not only causes an alteration of at least 12–22% of morphological features of the salivary glands but also results in cellular changes e.g. apoptosis, confirming together that adult female salivary glands are specialized organs to manage meal specific responses. Unraveling the underlying mechanism of mosquito salivary gene expression, controlling dual feeding associated responses may provide a new opportunity to control vector borne diseases. PMID:26163527

  20. Do counts of salivary sheath flanges predict food consumption in herbivorous stink bugs [Hemiptera: Pentatomidae]?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For Pentatomid stink bug agricultural pests, the number of salivary sheaths and sheath flanges—the portion of the sheath visible on the exterior surface of a food item—are good predictors of the loss of crop yield or quality from stink bug feeding. As the often assumed relationship between salivary ...

  1. Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Dysfunction Results From p53-Dependent Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, Jennifer L.; Grundmann, Oliver; Burd, Randy; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer causes adverse secondary side effects in the salivary glands and results in diminished quality of life for the patient. A previous in vivo study in parotid salivary glands demonstrated that targeted head-and-neck irradiation resulted in marked increases in phosphorylated p53 (serine{sup 18}) and apoptosis, which was suppressed in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Methods and Materials: Transgenic and knockout mouse models were exposed to irradiation, and p53-mediated transcription, apoptosis, and salivary gland dysfunction were analyzed. Results: The proapoptotic p53 target genes PUMA and Bax were induced in parotid salivary glands of mice at early time points after therapeutic radiation. This dose-dependent induction requires expression of p53 because no radiation-induced expression of PUMA and Bax was observed in p53-/- mice. Radiation also induced apoptosis in the parotid gland in a dose-dependent manner, which was p53 dependent. Furthermore, expression of p53 was required for the acute and chronic loss of salivary function after irradiation. In contrast, apoptosis was not induced in p53-/- mice, and their salivary function was preserved after radiation exposure. Conclusions: Apoptosis in the salivary glands after therapeutic head-and-neck irradiation is mediated by p53 and corresponds to salivary gland dysfunction in vivo.

  2. Salivary gland choristoma in the buccinator muscle: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sotorra-Figuerola, Dídac; Almendros-Marqués, Nieves; Espana-Tost, Antonio-Jesús; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland choristoma (SGCh) is defined as the presence of normal salivary tissue in an abnormal location. It is a rare entity in oral and maxillofacial region and its ethiology is unknown. The typical presentation of salivary gland heterotopia is an asymptomatic mass that may or may not produce saliva. Some examples of ectopic salivary tissue in the pituitary gland, in the lymph nodes, in the middle ear, in the neck, in the jaw, in the thyroid gland, in the mediastinum and in the rectum have been documented in literature. We report the case of a 61-year-old male presented with a bilateral tumorlike mass in the cheek. The mass was painless, of fibrous consistency and had size change with time. The histological diagnosis was salivary gland choristoma in the buccinator muscle. In this article, we will revise the characteristic of salivary gland heterotopias and we present a report case that has not been described in literature: a bilateral choristoma of salivary gland in the buccinator muscle, which should be included in the differential diagnosis of head and neck masses. Key words:Choristoma, heterotopias, ectopic tissue, salivary gland, buccinator muscle. PMID:26535104

  3. Comparative behavioral and protein study of salivary secretions in Homalodisca spp. sharpshooters (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel brush-induced method to physically stimulate salivation was applied to the glassy-winged and smoke tree sharpshooters. This technique enabled the direct observation of salivary secretion processes, solidification of saliva and for collection of salivary secretions. For both species, brush...

  4. Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs): a novel group of insect pathogenic viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) are a unique, unclassified group of entomopathogenic, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been reported from three genera of Diptera. These viruses replicate in nuclei of salivary gland cells in adult flies, inducing gland enlargement with little obvious ...

  5. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow and its effect on sialolithogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, P; Lin, Y; Lin, H; Xu, Y; Zheng, QY; Han, Y

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Sialolithiasis is a common disease caused by intraductal stones, formed by reduction in salivary flow, salivary stagnation, and metabolic events. We used computational fluid dynamics to investigate changes in salivary flow field around parotid stones of different shapes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three-dimensional configurations of the Stensen’s duct were reconstructed from computed tomography sialographic images. Fluid dynamics modeling was used to analyze the salivary flow field around stones under unstimulated and stimulated conditions. RESULTS The majority of sialoliths were oval-shaped (59/98), followed by irregular (24/98) and round (15/98). Salivary velocity was significantly higher around streamlined stones, compared with round (P = 0.013) and oval (P = 0.025) types. Changes in salivary flow field around sialoliths were found to affect the pattern of mineral deposition in saliva. The area of low velocity around the round stone was double the size observed around the streamlined stone during the unstimulated state, whereas in the stimulated state, local vortexes were formed on the downstream side of round and oval stones. CONCLUSIONS Salivary flow field around sialoliths plays an important role in the progression of multicentric stones, and analysis of the salivary dynamics during sialolithiasis may provide deeper understandings of the condition and aid in developing successful treatment strategies. PMID:24164693

  6. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  7. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role

  8. A Robust Biomarker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, F.; Steele, A.; Toporski, J.; Walsh, M. M.; Allen, C. C.; Guidry, S.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Chafetz, H. S.

    2000-01-01

    containing fossil biofilm, including the 3.5 b.y..-old carbonaceous cherts from South Africa and Australia. As a result of the unique compositional, structural and "mineralisable" properties of bacterial polymer and biofilms, we conclude that bacterial polymers and biofilms constitute a robust and reliable biomarker for life on Earth and could be a potential biomarker for extraterrestrial life.

  9. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    An, Manxia; Gao, Youhe

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome. PMID:26751805

  10. Biomarkers in localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Matteo; Buonerba, Carlo; Terracciano, Daniela; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Bottero, Danilo; Deliu, Victor M; Ditonno, Pasquale; Perdonà, Sisto; Autorino, Riccardo; Coman, Ioman; De Placido, Sabino; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; De Cobelli, Ottavio

    2016-02-01

    Biomarkers can improve prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment. Accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early diagnosis of prostate cancer is not satisfactory, as it is an organ- but not cancer-specific biomarker, and it can be improved by using models that incorporate PSA along with other test results, such as prostate cancer antigen 3, the molecular forms of PSA (proPSA, benign PSA and intact PSA), as well as kallikreins. Recent reports suggest that new tools may be provided by metabolomic studies as shown by preliminary data on sarcosine. Additional molecular biomarkers have been identified by the use of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. We review the most relevant biomarkers for early diagnosis and management of localized prostate cancer.

  11. New procyanidin B3-human salivary protein complexes by mass spectrometry. Effect of salivary protein profile, tannin concentration, and time stability.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gregorio, Maria Rosa; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Victor

    2014-10-15

    Several factors could influence the tannin-protein interaction such as the human salivary protein profile, the tannin tested, and the tannin/protein ratio. The goal of this study aims to study the effect of different salivas (A, B, and C) and different tannin concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg/mL) on the interaction process as well as the complex's stability over time. This study is focused on the identification of new procyanidin B3-human salivary protein complexes. Thus, 48 major B3-human salivary protein aggregates were identified regardless of the saliva and tannin concentration tested. A higher number of aggregates was found at lower tannin concentration. Moreover, the number of protein moieties involved in the aggregation process was higher when the tannin concentration was also higher. The selectivity of the different groups of proteins to bind tannin was also confirmed. It was also verified that the B3-human salivary protein complexes formed evolved over time.

  12. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Cees; Blom, Wendy A M; Smeets, Paul A M; Stafleu, Annette; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2004-06-01

    This review's objective is to give a critical summary of studies that focused on physiologic measures relating to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety may be used as a tool for assessing the satiating efficiency of foods and for understanding the regulation of food intake and energy balance. We made a distinction between biomarkers of satiation or meal termination and those of meal initiation related to satiety and between markers in the brain [central nervous system (CNS)] and those related to signals from the periphery to the CNS. Various studies showed that physicochemical measures related to stomach distension and blood concentrations of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1 are peripheral biomarkers associated with meal termination. CNS biomarkers related to meal termination identified by functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography are indicators of neural activity related to sensory-specific satiety. These measures cannot yet serve as a tool for assessing the satiating effect of foods, because they are not yet feasible. CNS biomarkers related to satiety are not yet specific enough to serve as biomarkers, although they can distinguish between extreme hunger and fullness. Three currently available biomarkers for satiety are decreases in blood glucose in the short term (<5 min), which have been shown to be involved in meal initiation; leptin changes during longer-term (>2-4 d) negative energy balance; and ghrelin concentrations, which have been implicated in both short-term and long-term energy balance. The next challenge in this research area is to identify food ingredients that have an effect on biomarkers of satiation, satiety, or both. These ingredients may help consumers to maintain their energy intake at a level consistent with a healthy body weight.

  13. Disordered salivary immunoglobulin secretion and sodium transport in human chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, K T; Sullivan, K M; Schubert, M M; Truelove, E L; Shulman, H M; Sale, G E; Morton, T H; Rice, J C; Witherspoon, R P; Storb, R; Thomas, E D

    1983-05-01

    Whole saliva samples and lip biopsies were collected from 12 allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients who developed extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and from 10 healthy allogeneic and syngeneic recipients without GVHD. Six of ten biopsies from patients with chronic GVHD had lichenoid stomatitis or sialadenitis, or both, with sialodochitis. Seven of nine biopsies from patients free of chronic GVHD were entirely normal, and two had either mild glandular or mucosal changes. Salivary gland involvement in chronic GVHD was associated with decreased or absent levels of salivary IgA and inorganic phosphate, decreased salivary flow rates, and increased concentrations of salivary sodium, albumin, and IgG. The most striking abnormalities were found in patients with histologic evidence of sialadenitis. In contrast, marrow transplant recipients without chronic GVHD had normal salivary immunoglobulin and electrolyte levels. Secretory IgA deficiency may contribute to the frequent sinobronchial infections observed in patients with chronic GVHD.

  14. Feline immunodeficiency virus replicates in salivary gland ductular epithelium during the initial phase of infection.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Kyaw-Tanner, M; Thomas, J; Robinson, W F

    1995-09-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antigen was detected by immunochemistry in salivary glands of cats experimentally inoculated with West Australian isolate T91. Six cats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1.0 ml of tissue culture supernatant fluid from a feline T-lymphoblastoid cell line (MYA-1) infected with T91. FIV antigens were detected in the interlobular ducts of the salivary gland of cats infected with FIV 2, 4 and 6 weeks previously. FIV antigen was not detected in the salivary glands of three FIV negative cats and one naturally infected cat. Further, FIV antigen was located only in interlobular duct epithelial cells. The distribution of FIV in the interlobular ducts confirms the important role of salivary glands as a major reservoir of FIV in the early phase of infection and strengthens suggestions that the salivary route is an important mode of transmission of FIV.

  15. Salivary gland accumulation of meta-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajo, M.; Shapiro, B.; Sisson, J.C.; Swanson, D.P.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    Intense uptake of m-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) has been observed in the salivary glands of patients undergoing scintigraphy for the location of suspected pheochromocytomas. This uptake of radioativity was not due to free I-131 derived from the I-131 MIBG but rather to uptake of I-131 MIBG by sympathetic neuronal elements in the salivary glands. In keeping with this, administration of tricycle antidepressants reversibly blocked salivary uptake of I-131 MIBG. Furthermore, I-131 MIBG uptake was markedly diminished by the ipsilateral salivary glands in a patient with Horner's syndrome, and was bilaterally diminished in a patient with severe idiopathic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. The salivary gland uptake of I-131 MIBG may provide a means for the study of sympathetic innervation of these organs, and thus for the study of generalized disorders of autonomic innervation.

  16. Frequency and Histopathology by Site, Major Pathologies, Symptoms and Signs of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    The frequency distribution of salivary gland neoplasms (SGNs) is, in decreasing order, parotid neoplasms, submandibular gland neoplasms, minor SGNs, and sublingual gland neoplasms. The larger the salivary gland (e.g. parotid), the more likely a neoplasm is benign, and the smaller the gland (e.g. minor salivary gland), the more likely the neoplasm is malignant. The majority of SGNs, benign and/or malignant, irrespective of site, present as a painless swelling or mass. Definitive symptoms and signs of salivary gland malignancy are the presence of named nerve palsy in anatomical proximity to the gland and/or the presence of cervical lymphadenopathy. All discrete major salivary gland masses and non-ulcerated submucosal masses presenting in the head and neck region, irrespective of age, should be investigated, with the aim of excluding an SGN.

  17. Use of anti-Aedes aegypti salivary extract antibody concentration to correlate risk of vector exposure and dengue transmission risk in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Cardenas, Jenny C; Cardenas, Lucio D; Christofferson, Rebecca C; Chisenhall, Daniel M; Wesson, Dawn M; McCracken, Michael K; Carvajal, Daisy; Mores, Christopher N

    2013-01-01

    Norte de Santander is a region in Colombia with a high incidence of dengue virus (DENV). In this study, we examined the serum concentration of anti-Aedes salivary gland extract (SGE) antibodies as a biomarker of DENV infection and transmission, and assessed the duration of anti-SGE antibody concentration after exposure to the vector ceased. We also determined whether SGE antibody concentration could differentiate between positive and negative DENV infected individuals and whether there are differences in exposure for each DENV serotype. We observed a significant decrease in the concentration of IgG antibodies at least 40 days after returning to an "Ae. aegypti-free" area. In addition, we found significantly higher anti-SGE IgG concentrations in DENV positive patients with some difference in exposure to mosquito bites among DENV serotypes. We conclude that the concentration of IgG antibodies against SGE is an accurate indicator of risk of dengue virus transmission and disease presence.

  18. No Detectable Hypoxia in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wijffels, Karien; Hoogsteen, Ilse J.; Lok, Jasper; Rijken, Paulus F.J.W.; Marres, Henri A.M.; Wilde, Peter C.M. de; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Hypoxia is detected in most solid tumors and is associated with malignant progression and adverse treatment outcomes. However, the oxygenation status of malignant salivary gland tumors has not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical relevance of hypoxia in this tumor type. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients scheduled for surgical resection of a salivary gland tumor were preoperatively injected with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole and the proliferation marker iododeoxyuridine. Tissue samples of the dissected tumor were immunohistochemically stained for blood vessels, pimonidazole, carbonic anhydrase-IX, glucose transporters-1 and -3 (Glut-1, Glut-3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}, iododeoxyuridine, and epidermal growth factor receptor. The tissue sections were quantitatively assessed by computerized image analysis. Results: The tissue material from 8 patients was of sufficient quality for quantitative analysis. All tumors were negative for pimonidazole binding, as well as for carbonic anhydrase-IX, Glut-1, Glut-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}. The vascular density was high, with a median value of 285 mm{sup -2} (range, 209-546). The iododeoxyuridine-labeling index varied from <0.1% to 12.2% (median, 2.2%). Epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels were mostly moderate to high. In one-half of the cases, nuclear expression of epidermal growth factor receptor was observed. Conclusion: The absence of detectable pimonidazole binding, as well as the lack of expression of hypoxia-associated proteins in all tumors, indicates that malignant salivary gland tumors are generally well oxygenated. It is unlikely that hypoxia is a relevant factor for their clinical behavior and treatment responsiveness.

  19. Multiscale Feature Analysis of Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Baydil, Banu; Daley, William P.; Larsen, Melinda; Yener, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Pattern formation in developing tissues involves dynamic spatio-temporal changes in cellular organization and subsequent evolution of functional adult structures. Branching morphogenesis is a developmental mechanism by which patterns are generated in many developing organs, which is controlled by underlying molecular pathways. Understanding the relationship between molecular signaling, cellular behavior and resulting morphological change requires quantification and categorization of the cellular behavior. In this study, tissue-level and cellular changes in developing salivary gland in response to disruption of ROCK-mediated signaling by are modeled by building cell-graphs to compute mathematical features capturing structural properties at multiple scales. These features were used to generate multiscale cell-graph signatures of untreated and ROCK signaling disrupted salivary gland organ explants. From confocal images of mouse submandibular salivary gland organ explants in which epithelial and mesenchymal nuclei were marked, a multiscale feature set capturing global structural properties, local structural properties, spectral, and morphological properties of the tissues was derived. Six feature selection algorithms and multiway modeling of the data was performed to identify distinct subsets of cell graph features that can uniquely classify and differentiate between different cell populations. Multiscale cell-graph analysis was most effective in classification of the tissue state. Cellular and tissue organization, as defined by a multiscale subset of cell-graph features, are both quantitatively distinct in epithelial and mesenchymal cell types both in the presence and absence of ROCK inhibitors. Whereas tensor analysis demonstrate that epithelial tissue was affected the most by inhibition of ROCK signaling, significant multiscale changes in mesenchymal tissue organization were identified with this analysis that were not identified in previous biological studies. We

  20. Evaluating Biomarkers in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Fittall, Matthew; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has more than doubled over the last decades making it one of the fastest rising cancers worldwide. Improved awareness and early detection of malignant moles now permit earlier diagnosis aiming to decrease the likelihood of recurrence. However, it is difficult to identify those patients initially diagnosed with localized melanoma who subsequently develop metastatic disease. For this group, prognosis remains poor and clinical outcomes are variable and challenging to predict. Considerable efforts have focused on the search for novel prognostic tools, with numerous markers evaluated in the circulation and in tumor lesions. The most reliable predictors of patient outcome are the clinical and histological features of the primary tumor such as Breslow thickness, ulceration status, and mitotic rate. Elevated serum levels of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, likely to indicate active metastatic disease, are also routinely used to monitor patients. The emergence of novel immune and checkpoint antibody treatments for melanoma and increasing appreciation of key roles of the immune system in promoting or halting cancer progression have focused attention to immunological biomarkers. Validation of the most promising of these may have clinical applications in assisting prognosis, assessing endpoints in therapy, and monitoring responses during treatment. PMID:25667918

  1. Biomarkers of opiate use.

    PubMed

    Stefanidou, M; Athanaselis, S; Spiliopoulou, C; Dona, A; Maravelias, C

    2010-11-01

    The interpretation of toxicological findings is critical for the thorough investigation of the use and abuse of psychoactive substances. A positive analytical result for a sample taken could usually result in criminal proceedings and a punitive outcome for the defendant whose sample was analysed. The detection of markers of illicit opiate misuse is important both in the management of substance misuse and in the postmortem identification of illicit opiate use. The aim of this study was to emphasise the role of opiate biomarkers available at the laboratory and in the clinical environment. Urine remains the biological tool of choice for qualitative detection of illicit drug use in a clinical setting, while quantitative accuracy remains strictly the domain of blood. Accurate interpretation of the screening tests within a clinical setting alongside other relevant information remains the key to the usefulness of any test. Moreover, the finding of a morphine/codeine concentration ratio in blood exceeding unity is a strong evidence that the person had used heroin, as opposed to having taken a prescription analgesic drug containing codeine.

  2. BIOMARKERS for CHRONIC FATIGUE

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Gordon; Fletcher, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue that persists for 6 months or more is termed chronic fatigue. Chronic fatigue (CF) in combination with a minimum of 4 of 8 symptoms and the absence of diseases that could explain these symptoms, constitute the case definition for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Inflammation, immune system activation, autonomic dysfunction, impaired functioning in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and neuroendocrine dysregulation have all been suggested as root causes of fatigue. The identification of objective markers consistently associated with CFS/ME is an important goal in relation to diagnosis and treatment, as the current case definitions are based entirely on physical signs and symptoms. This review is focused on the recent literature related to biomarkers for fatigue associated with CFS/ME and, for comparison, those associated with other diseases. These markers are distributed across several of the body’s core regulatory systems. A complex construct of symptoms emerges from alterations and/or dysfunctions in the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. We propose that new insight will depend on our ability to develop and deploy an integrative profiling of CFS/ME pathogenesis at the molecular level. Until such a molecular signature is obtained efforts to develop effective treatments will continue to be severely limited. PMID:22732129

  3. A lysosomal storage disease induced by Ipomoea carnea in goats in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    de Balogh, K K; Dimande, A P; van der Lugt, J J; Molyneux, R J; Naudé, T W; Welman, W G

    1999-05-01

    A novel plant-induced lysosomal storage disease was observed in goats from a village in Mozambique. Affected animals were ataxic, with head tremors and nystagmus. Because of a lack of suitable feed, the animals consumed an exotic hedge plant growing in the village that was identified as Ipomoea carnea (shrubby morning glory, Convolvulaceae). The toxicosis was reproduced by feeding I. carnea plant material to goats. In acute cases, histologic changes in the brain and spinal cord comprised widespread cytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons and glial cells in association with axonal spheroid formation. Ultrastructurally, cytoplasmic storage vacuoles in neurons were membrane bound and consistent with lysosomes. Cytoplasmic vacuolation was also found in neurons in the submucosal and mesenteric plexuses in the small intestine, in renal tubular epithelial cells, and in macrophage-phagocytic cells in the spleen and lymph nodes in acute cases. Residual alterations in the brain in chronic cases revealed predominantly cerebellar lesions characterized by loss of Purkinje neurons and gliosis of the Purkinje cell layer. Analysis of I. carnea plant material by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry established the presence of the mannosidase inhibitor swainsonine and 2 glycosidase inhibitors, calystegine B2 and calystegine C1, consistent with a plant-induced alpha-mannosidosis in the goats. The described storage disorder is analogous to the lysosomal storage diseases induced by ingestion of locoweeds (Astragalus and Oxytropis) and poison peas (Swainsona).

  4. Pathobiology and subgroup specificity of disease induced by Rous associated virus 7 (RAV-7)

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.Y.

    1983-01-01

    When Rous associated virus 7 (RAV-7) was injected intravenously into 10-day old chicken embryos, a disease syndrome developed which was characterized by stunting, hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism, and hyperinsulinemia. Stocks of RAV-7, a subgroup C avian leukosis virus, were obtained by end-point purification on chick embryo fibroblast cells. The size of the viral RNA was 8.2 kb and the protein banding pattern on polyacrylamide gels was typical of avian leukosis viruses. These results indicated that RAV-7 was a non-defective avian leukosis virus and no sarcoma or defective leukemia viruses were present in the RAV-7 stock. RAV-7 induced a unique disease syndrome although infection by three other subgroup C avian leukosis viruses (tdB77, tdPrC, and RAV-49) resulted in an identical lymphoblastoid infiltration of the thyroid and pancreas. An examination of disease induced by avian leukosis viruses from subgroups A, B, D, and F showed that infection by any of these subgroups did not result in the typical RAV-7 disease syndrome.

  5. Salivary Gland Pathology in Sjögren's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Campos, Joana; Hillen, Maarten R; Barone, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) can be considered a systemic autoimmune disease with a strong organ bias. The involvement of the exocrine glands is prevalent and drives the pathognomonic manifestations of dryness that define the sicca syndrome. The salivary glands also represent the hub of pSS pathology. Elements belonging to both innate and acquired immune responses have been described at this site that contribute to disease establishment and progression. The interaction between those elements and their relative contributions to the clinical manifestations and lymphoma progression largely remain to be addressed.

  6. The oral-systemic connection: role of salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Utilizing saliva instead of blood for diagnosis of both local and systemic health is a rapidly emerging field. Recognition of oral-systemic interrelationships for many diseases has fostered collaborations between medicine and dentistry, and many of these collaborations rely on salivary diagnostics. The oral cavity is easily accessed and contains most of the analytes present in blood. Saliva and mucosal transudate are generally utilized for oral diagnostics, but gingival crevicular fluid, buccal swabs, dental plaque and volatiles may also be useful depending on the analyte being studied. Examples of point-of-care devices capable of detecting HIV, TB, and Malaria targets are being developed and discussed in this overview.

  7. The use of laser CO2 in salivary gland diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciolfi, C.; Rocchetti, F.; Fioravanti, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Romeo, U.

    2016-03-01

    Salivary gland diseases can include reactive lesions, obstructive lesions, and benign tumors. All these clinical entities are slow growing. Salivary glands reactive lesions, such as mucoceles, can result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissue or from retention of saliva within the duct. Sialolithiasis, one of the most common obstructive lesions, is generally due to calculi, which are attributed to retention of saliva. Monomorphic adenoma is a salivary gland benign tumor, which is exclusively resulted from proliferation of epithelial cells, with no alterations interesting the connective tissue. The elective therapy of these lesions is surgical excision because sometimes they can be accompained by difficulties during chewing and phonation and can interfere with prosthesis's stability. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of CO2 laser in the treatment of patients with salivary gland diseases. Three different cases - a mucocele, a scialolithiasis and a monomorphic adenoma - were treated with CO2 laser excision (CW and 4W), under local anesthesia. Two different techniques were used: circumferential incision for the adenoma, and mucosa preservation technique for mucocele and sialolithiasis. In each case final haemostasis was obtained by thermocoagulation, but suture was applied to guarantee good healing by sewing up the flaps. The patients were checked after twenty days and the healing was good. The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas laser to be developed, and is still the highest-power continuous wave laser that is currently available. In dentistry the CO2 laser produces a beam of infrared light with the principal wavelength bands centering around 9.4 and 10.6 micrometers. Laser excision can be very useful in oral surgery. In the cases presented CO2 laser offered, differently from traditional surgery, simplified surgical technique, shorter duration of operation, minimal postoperative pain, minimal scarring

  8. Dispatches from the interface of salivary bioscience and neonatal research.

    PubMed

    Voegtline, Kristin M; Granger, Douglas A

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the interdisciplinary field of salivary bioscience has created opportunity for neonatal researchers to measure multiple components of biological systems non-invasively in oral fluids. The implications are profound and potentially high impact. From a single oral fluid specimen, information can be obtained about a vast array of biological systems (e.g., endocrine, immune, autonomic nervous system) and the genetic polymorphisms related to individual differences in their function. The purpose of this review is to describe the state of the art for investigators interested in integrating these unique measurement tools into the current and next generation of research on gonadal steroid exposure during the prenatal and neonatal developmental periods.

  9. The Salivary Protein Repertoire of the Polyphagous Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae: A Quest for Effectors.

    PubMed

    Jonckheere, Wim; Dermauw, Wannes; Zhurov, Vladimir; Wybouw, Nicky; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Villarroel, Carlos A; Greenhalgh, Robert; Grbić, Mike; Schuurink, Rob C; Tirry, Luc; Baggerman, Geert; Clark, Richard M; Kant, Merijn R; Vanholme, Bartel; Menschaert, Gerben; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is an extremely polyphagous crop pest. Alongside an unparalleled detoxification potential for plant secondary metabolites, it has recently been shown that spider mites can attenuate or even suppress plant defenses. Salivary constituents, notably effectors, have been proposed to play an important role in manipulating plant defenses and might determine the outcome of plant-mite interactions. Here, the proteomic composition of saliva from T. urticae lines adapted to various host plants-bean, maize, soy, and tomato-was analyzed using a custom-developed feeding assay coupled with nano-LC tandem mass spectrometry. About 90 putative T. urticae salivary proteins were identified. Many are of unknown function, and in numerous cases belonging to multimembered gene families. RNAseq expression analysis revealed that many genes coding for these salivary proteins were highly expressed in the proterosoma, the mite body region that includes the salivary glands. A subset of genes encoding putative salivary proteins was selected for whole-mount in situ hybridization, and were found to be expressed in the anterior and dorsal podocephalic glands. Strikingly, host plant dependent expression was evident for putative salivary proteins, and was further studied in detail by micro-array based genome-wide expression profiling. This meta-analysis revealed for the first time the salivary protein repertoire of a phytophagous chelicerate. The availability of this salivary proteome will assist in unraveling the molecular interface between phytophagous mites and their host plants, and may ultimately facilitate the development of mite-resistant crops. Furthermore, the technique used in this study is a time- and resource-efficient method to examine the salivary protein composition of other small arthropods for which saliva or salivary glands cannot be isolated easily.

  10. Tooth wear and the role of salivary measures in general practice patients

    PubMed Central

    Rothen, Marilynn; Scott, JoAnna; Cunha-Cruz, Joana

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the association between tooth wear and salivary measures in a random sample of patients from practices of dentist members of a practice-based research network. Materials and methods Patients completed a questionnaire on oral self-care, health, dietary habits, medications, and socio-demographic variables. Six salivary characteristics (consistency, resting salivary flow, resting salivary pH, stimulated salivary flow, stimulated salivary pH, and buffering capacity) were measured, and a dental examination included categorizing patients according to the dentist’s judgment of the degree of tooth wear (i.e., none/minimal, some, or severe/extreme). Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression models were used to relate salivary characteristics and other factors to the outcome of tooth wear. Results Data are reported from 1,323 patients (age range 16–97 years) from 61 practices. Patient age, gender, number of teeth, and perception of dry mouth were associated with tooth wear, but salivary and dietary factors were either weakly or not related. Conclusions The findings of this cross-sectional assessment suggest that using these salivary tests and dietary assessments in real-life clinical settings is unlikely to be useful in assessing tooth wear risk. Suggestions are offered about risk assessment for tooth wear. Clinical relevance Assessing a dental patient’s risk of tooth wear using salivary measures and dietary assessments as described is not recommended for general dental practice until stronger evidence exists indicating its utility. PMID:24647789

  11. Salivary Concentration of Progesterone and Cortisol Significantly Differs Across Individuals After Correcting for Blood Hormone Values

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Shoko; Brindle, Eleanor; Guyton, Amanda; O’Connor, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Between-individual variation of salivary progesterone (P4) and cortisol levels does not always closely reflect blood hormone concentrations. This may be partly a function of individual differences in salivary hormone excretion. We tested whether time of day at sampling and ethnicity contributed to individual variation in salivary hormones after adjusting for blood hormone levels. Forty-three Caucasian and 15 Japanese women (18–34 years) collected four sets of matched dried blood spot (DBS) and saliva specimens across a menstrual cycle (N = 232 specimen sets). Linear fixed-effects (LFE) models were used to estimate the effects of diurnal variation and ethnicity on salivary P4 and cortisol while adjusting for DBS levels. For each hormone, women with exclusively positive or negative residuals (unexplained variance) from the LFE models were categorized as high- or low-saliva-to-DBS hormone ratio (SDR; high or low salivary secretors), respectively. We found that salivary P4 (P < 0.05) was significantly higher in early morning compared to the afternoon, after controlling for DBS levels, ethnicity, and BMI. After further adjusting for this diurnal effect, significant individual variation in salivary P4 and cortisol remained: sixteen and nine women, respectively were categorized as low or high salivary secretors for both hormones (P < 0.001), suggesting systematic individual-specific variation of salivary hormonal concentration. We conclude that when saliva is used to quantify P4 or cortisol levels, time of day at sampling should be controlled. Even with this adjustment, salivary P4 and cortisol do not closely mirror between-individual variation of serum P4 and cortisol in a substantial proportion of individuals. PMID:22826025

  12. Correlation between Salivary Glucose and Blood Glucose and the Implications of Salivary Factors on the Oral Health Status in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Puttaswamy, Kavitha A.; Puttabudhi, Jaishankar H.; Raju, Shashidara

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to estimate and assess any correlation between random capillary blood glucose (RCBG) and unstimulated whole salivary glucose (UWSG), as well as to estimate various salivary parameters, such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and the influence of these factors on the oral health status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and Methods: Sixty individuals suffering from type 2 DM and 40 healthy individuals in the age group of 30–60 years were included in the study. RCBG was estimated using glucometer and UWSG was estimated using photocolorimeter. Salivary parameters such as flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity were assessed using GC® Saliva kit. Oral health status was recorded using the Russell's periodontal index (RPI) and the Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT) index. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Type 2 diabetics had higher mean values for RCBG levels and UWSG. Type 2 diabetics had low mean salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. Type 2 diabetics had higher mean values for RPI. Conclusion: Among the salivary factors studied, salivary glucose significantly influenced the periodontal status in Type 2 diabetics. PMID:28316946

  13. Mature salivary gland rests within sonic hedgehog-positive medulloblastoma: case report and insights into the molecular genetics and embryopathology of ectopic intracranial salivary gland analogs.

    PubMed

    Shammassian, Berje; Manjila, Sunil; Cox, Efrem; Onwuzulike, Kaine; Wang, Dehua; Rodgers, Mark; Stearns, Duncan; Selman, Warren R

    2016-12-01

    Intracranial ectopic salivary gland rests within dural-based lesions are reported very infrequently in the literature. The authors report the unique case of a 12-year-old boy with a cerebellar medulloblastoma positive for sonic hedgehog (Shh) that contained intraaxial mature ectopic salivary gland rests. The patient underwent clinical and radiological monitoring postoperatively, until he died of disseminated disease. An autopsy showed no evidence of salivary glands within disseminated lesions. The intraaxial presence of salivary gland rests and concomitant Shh positivity of the described tumor point to a disorder in differentiation as opposed to ectopic developmental foci, which are uniformly dural based in the described literature. The authors demonstrate the characteristic "papilionaceous" appearance of the salivary glands with mucicarmine stain and highlight the role of Shh signaling in explaining the intraaxial presence of seromucous gland analogs. This article reports the first intraaxial posterior fossa tumor with heterotopic salivary gland rests, and it provides molecular and embryopathological insights into the development of these lesions.

  14. Human IgG Antibody Response to Aedes Nterm-34kDa Salivary Peptide, an Epidemiological Tool to Assess Vector Control in Chikungunya and Dengue Transmission Area

    PubMed Central

    Elanga Ndille, Emmanuel; Doucoure, Souleymane; Poinsignon, Anne; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; D’Ortenzio, Eric; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Remoue, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Background Arboviral diseases are an important public health concerns. Vector control remains the sole strategy to fight against these diseases. Because of the important limits of methods currently used to assess human exposure to Aedes mosquito bites, much effort is being devoted to develop new indicators. Recent studies have reported that human antibody (Ab) responses to Aedes aegypti Nterm-34kDa salivary peptide represent a promising biomarker tool to evaluate the human-Aedes contact. The present study aims investigate whether such biomarker could be used for assessing the efficacy of vector control against Aedes. Methodology/Principal findings Specific human IgG response to the Nterm-34kDa peptide was assessed from 102 individuals living in urban area of Saint-Denis at La Reunion Island, Indian Ocean, before and after the implementation of vector control against Aedes mosquitoes. IgG response decreased after 2 weeks (P < 0.0001), and remained low for 4 weeks post-intervention (P = 0.0002). The specific IgG decrease was associated with the decline of Aedes mosquito density, as estimated by entomological parameters and closely correlated to vector control implementation and was not associated with the use of individual protection, daily commuting outside of the house, sex and age. Our findings indicate a probable short-term decrease of human exposure to Aedes bites just after vector control implementation. Conclusion/Significance Results provided in the present study indicate that IgG Ab response to Aedes aegypti Nterm-34kDa salivary peptide could be a relevant short-time indicator for evaluating the efficacy of vector control interventions against Aedes species. PMID:27906987

  15. Gross morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of the mute cicada Karenia caelatata Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hai-ying; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Ya-lin

    2013-02-01

    Salivary glands of the cicada Karenia caelatata Distant were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands are paired structures and consist of principal glands and accessory glands. The principal gland is subdivided into anterior lobe and posterior lobe; the former contains about 34-39 long digitate lobules, while the latter contains approximately 30-33 long digitate lobules and 13-22 short digitate lobules. These short digitate lobules, about one fifth or sixth as long as the long digitate lobules, locate at the base of the long digitate lobules of posterior lobe. All of these digitate lobules vary in size, disposition, length and shape. The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe are connected by an anterior-posterior duct. Two efferent salivary ducts, which connect with the posterior lobe, fuse to form a common duct. The accessory gland is composed of three parts: a greatly tortuous and folded accessory salivary tube, a circlet of gular gland constituting of several acini of the same size, and a non-collapsible accessory salivary duct. The digitate lobules and gular glands possess secretory cells containing abundant secretory granules vary in size, shape, and electron density, as might indicate different materials are synthesized in different secretory regions. The anterior-posterior duct lines with a player of cuticular lining, and cells beneath the cuticular lining lack of basal infoldings, as suggests the duct serves just to transport secretions. The accessory salivary duct is lined with cuticular lining; cells of the duct have well developed basal infoldings associated with abundant mitochondria, as probably suggests the duct is a reabsorptive region of ions. The cells of the accessory salivary tube possess deep basal infoldings and well developed apical dense microvilli, indicating the cells of the tube are secretory in function. Concentric lamellar structures and a peculiar structure with abundant membrane

  16. Reduced chromosomal puffing in Chironomus tentans as a biomarker for potentially genotoxic substances

    SciTech Connect

    Bentivegna, C.S. . Dept. of Environmental Sciences); Cooper, K.R. . Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology)

    1993-06-01

    Chromosomal puffing in the salivary glands of larval Chironomus tentans was developed as a biomarker for genotoxic substances. Reduced chromosomal puffing was considered an indication of decreased RNA synthesis. Third- or fourth-instar larvae were exposed to test chemicals in an artificial substrate under static conditions. Chromosomes from glands of individual larvae were stained with methyl green and pyronin Y. The widths of Balbiani rings 1 and 2 were measured. Three carcinogens with different mechanisms of action were tested, benzo[a] pyrene(BaP), actinomycin D(Act D), and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). Puff size was statistically reduced by all three chemicals with varying potency. Lowest-observable-effect levels were 0.5 nmol BaP, 6.0 nmol Act D, and 24443,000 nmol DMN. The degree of response was influenced by exposure time, applied dose, individual sensitivity, and possibly chemical hydrophobicity. Biomarker specificity was determined by testing a weak carcinogen, benzo[e]pyrene(BeP), and an acutely toxic noncarcinogen, naphthalene(NP). The effective dose of BaP was four orders of magnitude higher than that of BaP. Only lethal doses of NP had statistically significant effects on puff size, LD50 = 25,000 nmol. Approximately 40% of the larvae in the laboratory population appeared tolerant to the effects of BaP. Advantages of this biomarker were its association with a known mechanism of action and measurement of the whole-organism integrated response.

  17. Use of Saliva Biomarkers to Monitor Efficacy of Vitamin C in Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Levi W.; Omaye, Stanley T.

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is easily obtainable for medical research and requires little effort or training for collection. Because saliva contains a variety of biological compounds, including vitamin C, malondialdehyde, amylase, and proteomes, it has been successfully used as a biospecimen for the reflection of health status. A popular topic of discussion in medical research is the potential association between oxidative stress and negative outcomes. Systemic biomarkers that represent oxidative stress can be found in saliva. It is unclear, however, if saliva is an accurate biospecimen as is blood and/or plasma. Exercise can induce oxidative stress, resulting in a trend of antioxidant supplementation to combat its assumed detriments. Vitamin C is a popular antioxidant supplement in the realm of sports and exercise. One potential avenue for evaluating exercise induced oxidative stress is through assessment of biomarkers like vitamin C and malondialdehyde in saliva. At present, limited research has been done in this area. The current state of research involving exercise-induced oxidative stress, salivary biomarkers, and vitamin C supplementation is reviewed in this article. PMID:28085082

  18. Statistical considerations when analyzing biomarker data.

    PubMed

    Beam, Craig A

    2015-11-01

    Biomarkers have become, and will continue to become, increasingly important to clinical immunology research. Yet, biomarkers often present new problems and raise new statistical and study design issues to scientists working in clinical immunology. In this paper I discuss statistical considerations related to the important biomarker problems of: 1) The design and analysis of clinical studies which seek to determine whether changes from baseline in a biomarker are associated with changes in a metabolic outcome; 2) The conditions that are required for a biomarker to be considered a "surrogate"; 3) Considerations that arise when analyzing whether or not a predictive biomarker could act as a surrogate endpoint; 4) Biomarker timing relative to the clinical endpoint; 5) The problem of analyzing studies that measure many biomarkers from few subjects; and, 6) The use of statistical models when analyzing biomarker data arising from count data.

  19. Influence of dietary nutritional composition on caterpillar salivary enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Babic, Branislav; Poisson, Alexandre; Darwish, Shireef; Lacasse, Jean; Merkx-Jacques, Magali; Despland, Emma; Bede, Jacqueline C

    2008-01-01

    Caterpillars are faced with nutritional challenges when feeding on plants. In addition to harmful secondary metabolites and protein- and water-limitations, tissues may be carbohydrate-rich which may attenuate optimal caterpillar performance. Therefore, caterpillars have multiple strategies to cope with surplus carbohydrates. In this study, we raise the possibility of a pre-ingestive mechanism to metabolically deal with excess dietary sugars. Many Noctuid caterpillars secrete the labial salivary enzyme glucose oxidase (GOX), which oxidizes glucose to hydrogen peroxide and gluconate, a nutritionally unavailable carbohydrate to the insect. Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, larvae were restricted to diets varying in protein to digestible carbohydrate (P:C) ratio (42p:21c; 33p:30c; 21p:42c) and total nutrient concentration (42% and 63%). High mortality and longer developmental time were observed when caterpillars were reared on the C-biased, P-poor diet (21p:42c). As the carbohydrate content of the diet increased, caterpillars egested excess glucose and a diet-dependent difference in assimilated carbohydrates and pupal biomass was not observed, even though caterpillars restricted to the C-biased diet (21p:42c) accumulated greater pupal lipid reserves. Larval labial salivary GOX activity was also diet-dependent and gluconate, the product of GOX activity, was detected in the frass. Unexpectedly, GOX activity was strongly and positively correlated with dietary protein content.

  20. Plasma and salivary amoxicillin concentrations and effect against oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Baglie, S; Del Ruenis, A P Bortolo; Motta, R H Lopes; Baglie, R C Catelli; Franco, G C Nobre; Franco, L M; Rosalen, P L; Silva, P; Groppo, F C

    2007-10-01

    Plasma and salivary amoxicillin (AMO) concentrations were quantified following a single oral dose (875 mg) of two formulations of AMO (Amoxicillin-EMS Sigma Pharma and Amoxil BD 875 mg). In addition, the effect of amoxicillin against oral microorganisms was accessed. The open, randomized, two-period crossover study was carried out in 20 volunteers. Saliva and blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h after drug administration, and quantified using HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC, respectively. Streptococci counts, anaerobe counts and total microorganism counts were obtained. No differences were observed between formulations (p > 0.05) in the plasma and salivary AMO concentrations and the pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), t(max), AUC(0-8), and AUC(0-infinity)) also showed no statistically significant differences between formulations (p > 0.05). Microorganism counts for the two formulations at all sampling times did not differ (p > 0.05) but all microorganism counts at 60 min post-dose showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05). Amoxicillin was effective in reducing oral microorganism levels up to 12 h post-dose.

  1. Salivary duct carcinoma: A clinopathological report of 11 cases

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, XIAOFENG; HAO, JING; CHEN, SHENG; DENG, RUNZHI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to summarize the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) and to evaluate the currently available treatment modalities. Between 2001 and 2011, 11 patients with SDC were diagnosed and treated at the Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology of Nanjing University (Nanjing, Jiangsu, China). The present study retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical data of these 11 patients and the results indicated that the parotid gland was the most commonly affected site, followed by the submandibular gland and the palate. Furthermore, the mean age of onset was 58.8 years and all cases were treated with surgery, with 72.7% receiving post-operative radiation therapy. The range for the follow-up period was 10–89 months and of the 11 patients investigated, only two succumbed to the disease. In addition, the two-year overall survival rate was 75% according to Kaplan-Meier analysis and the mean overall survival time was 72.8 months. In conclusion, the present study determined that the site of the malignancy is the best predictor of survival in patients with the rare salivary malignancy SDC, while age, gender, T stage, N stage, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, nerve paralysis, post-operative radiation, neck dissection, and protein expression levels of Ki-67, androgen receptor and human epidermal growth factor-2/neu are less influential factors. PMID:26171026

  2. Recent evolution of the salivary mucin MUC7

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Duo; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Thamadilok, Supaporn; Redwood, Emilie; Fox, Sara; Blekhman, Ran; Ruhl, Stefan; Gokcumen, Om