Science.gov

Sample records for diseases

  1. Neurologic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscular dystrophy Problems with the way the nervous system develops, such as spina bifida Degenerative diseases, where nerve cells are damaged or die, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease Diseases of the blood vessels that supply ...

  2. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... small intestine. People with celiac disease cannot eat gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. ... Disease Doctors treat celiac disease by prescribing a gluten-free diet. Symptoms significantly improve for most people ...

  3. Huntington's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes certain nerve cells in the brain to waste ... express emotions. If one of your parents has Huntington's disease, you have a 50 percent chance of ...

  4. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share External Link Disclaimer Digestive Diseases Wilson Disease Alternate Versions Wilson Disease (444 KB) You can also ... things psychosis—when a person loses contact with reality Other Signs and Symptoms Other signs and symptoms ...

  5. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn's can affect any area from the mouth to the anus. It often affects the lower part of the small intestine called the ileum. The cause of Crohn's disease ...

  6. Pick disease

    MedlinePlus

    Semantic dementia; Dementia - semantic; Frontotemporal dementia; FTD; Arnold Pick disease; 3R tauopathy ... can help doctors tell Pick disease apart from Alzheimer disease. (Memory loss is often the main, and earliest, ...

  7. Bladder Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... frequent, urgent urination Bladder cancer Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x- ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  8. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... re like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. ... disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is ...

  9. Kimura disease

    PubMed Central

    AlGhamdi, Fares E.; Al-Khatib, Talal A.; Marzouki, Hani Z.; AlGarni, Mohammed A

    2016-01-01

    Kimura disease is a chronic inflammatory disease that mainly manifests as a lump in the cervical region. Although the underlying pathophysiology is not clear yet, the diagnosis can be established based on specific histopathological characteristics. The first case of this disease was described in China, as well as the majority of subsequent cases that were also described in the Far East countries made Kimura disease traditionally a disease of adult patients of Asian descent. This report describes the occurrence of Kimura disease in pediatric non-Asian patient with a similar clinicopathologic presentation. PMID:26905356

  10. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune disease in which people can't eat gluten because it will damage their small intestine. If you have celiac disease and eat foods with gluten, your immune system responds by damaging the small ...

  11. Menkes Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy approaches to Menkes disease. 3 1. Kaler, SG. The neurology of STPAT copper transporter disease: emerging ... Reviews Neurology , 2001:7:15-19.. 2. Kaler SG, et al. Neonatal Diagnosis and Treatment of Menkes ...

  12. Sandhoff Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sandhoff Disease? Sandhoff disease is a rare, inherited lipid storage disorder that progressively destroys nerve cells in ... results in the harmful accumulation of certain fats (lipids) in the brain and other organs of the ...

  13. Gaucher Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... one of the inherited metabolic disorders known as lipid storage diseases. Lipids are fatty materials that include oils, fatty acids, ... research to find ways to treat and prevent lipid storage disorders such as Gaucher disease. For example, ...

  14. Huntington disease

    MedlinePlus

    Huntington chorea ... Huntington disease is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 4. The defect causes a part of ... 10 to 28 times. But in persons with Huntington disease, it is repeated 36 to 120 times. ...

  15. Digestive diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007447.htm Digestive diseases To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Digestive diseases are disorders of the digestive tract, which ...

  16. Tickborne Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... for tickborne diseases ranges from studying the basic biology of the microbes that cause these diseases to ... Nucleotide Polymorphism Phylogenetics & Ontology Proteomics & Protein Analysis Systems Biology Data Portals Software Applications BCBB Mobyle Interface Designer ( ...

  17. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... our online catalog. ​ Additional Links Hashimoto's Disease Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Pregnancy & Thyroid Disease Thyroid Tests Find a Specialist ... everyone who receives radioactive iodine treatment eventually develops hypothyroidism, which occurs when the thyroid does not make ...

  18. Fifth disease

    MedlinePlus

    Parvovirus B19; Erythema infectiosum; Slapped cheek rash ... Fifth disease is caused by human parvovirus B19. It often affects preschoolers or school-age children during the spring. The disease spreads through the fluids in the nose and ...

  19. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... having celiac disease? Yes, you can have gluten sensitivity without the immune system attack on the small ... gluten causes in celiac disease. Symptoms of gluten sensitivity are generally milder than those seen in celiac ...

  20. Kawasaki disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... pubmed/23283289 . Mason JC. Rheumatic diseases of the cardiovascular system. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014: ...

  1. Bone Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  2. Gaucher Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Gaucher disease is a rare, inherited disorder. It is a type of lipid metabolism disorder. If you have it, ... It usually starts in childhood or adolescence. Gaucher disease has no cure. Treatment options for types 1 ...

  3. Raynaud's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. It causes the ... secondary Raynaud's, which is caused by injuries, other diseases, or certain medicines. People in colder climates are ...

  4. Meniere's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear. It can cause severe dizziness, a roaring sound in your ... together over several days. Some people with Meniere's disease have "drop attacks" during which the dizziness is ...

  5. Legionnaires' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Legionnaires' disease is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. You usually get it by breathing in mist from ... spread from person to person. Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease include high fever, chills, a cough, and sometimes ...

  6. Chagas Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United States. ... nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood ...

  7. Mitochondrial Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Mitochondrial diseases are a group of metabolic disorders. Mitochondria are ... cells and cause damage. The symptoms of mitochondrial disease can vary. It depends on how many mitochondria ...

  8. Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  9. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  10. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis A, ... the skin, can be one sign of liver disease. Cancer can affect the liver. You could also ...

  11. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond ... In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are ...

  12. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. You need ... copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, and ...

  13. Addison Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make ... problem with your immune system usually causes Addison disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, ...

  14. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  15. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a type of movement disorder. It happens when nerve cells in the brain don't ... coordination As symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple ...

  16. Fifth Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Fifth disease is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19. The virus only infects humans; it's not the same parvovirus that dogs and cats can get. Fifth disease mostly affects children. Symptoms can include a low ...

  17. Binswanger's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Information What is Binswanger's Disease? Binswanger's disease (BD), also called subcortical vascular dementia , is a type ... and brain tissue dies. A characteristic pattern of BD-damaged brain tissue can be seen with modern ...

  18. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Kidney Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Kidney Disease Print A ... Syndrome Coping With Kidney Conditions What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  19. Addison disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the adrenal glands (autoimmune disease) Infections such as tuberculosis , HIV, or fungal infections Hemorrhage into the adrenal glands Tumors Risk factors for the autoimmune type of Addison disease include ...

  20. Behcet's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... neurological disorders such as Behcet's disease. The National Human Genome Research Institute, another Institute of the National Institutes of Health, conducts research into the genomic basis of Behcet's disease. This research is aimed ...

  1. Lyme disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... The same disease occurs in many parts of Europe and Asia. In the United States, most Lyme ... Risk factors for Lyme disease include: Doing outside activities that increase tick exposure (for example, gardening, hunting, ...

  2. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lyme disease is a bacterial infection you get from the bite of an infected tick. The first symptom ... Muscle and joint aches A stiff neck Fatigue Lyme disease can be hard to diagnose because you may ...

  3. Colonic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... where your body makes and stores stool. Many disorders affect the colon's ability to work properly. Some ... abdominal cramping and other symptoms Treatment for colonic diseases varies greatly depending on the disease and its ...

  4. Pneumococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... pneumococcal disease. Quick Facts About Pneumococcal Disease and Vaccination According to WHO, pneumococcal pneumonia and meningitis are ... of antibiotic treatment. (9, 10, 11) Conjugate pneumococcal vaccination is safe and effective for preventing severe childhood ...

  5. Gilbert disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000301.htm Gilbert disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gilbert disease is a common disorder passed down through ...

  6. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the liver ...

  7. Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Teri; Terzakis, Kristina

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects one million people in the United States. This article reviews the etiology and pathophysiology of PD, risk factors, clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria, and treatment of this common disease. Implications for home care clinicians are included.

  8. Crinkle Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crinkle disease of hop was first described in Europe in 1930, and subsequent reports of the disease appear in literature published in the 1960s and 1970s. The disease appears to be of little importance in most regions of hop production. A fastidious rickettsia-like organism (RLO) is thought to cau...

  9. Rare Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are often very complex Are often caused by changes in genes It can be hard to find a specialist who knows how to treat your rare disease. Disease advocacy groups, rare disease organizations, and genetics clinics may help you to find ...

  10. Behcet's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Behçet’s disease keep their joints strong and flexible. What Is the Prognosis for a Person With Behçet’s Disease? Most people with Behçet’s disease can lead productive lives and control symptoms with proper medicine, rest, and exercise. Doctors ...

  11. Lyme Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, George C.

    1991-01-01

    This overview of the public health significance of Lyme disease includes the microbiological specifics of the infectious spirochete, the entomology and ecology of the ticks which are the primary disease carrier, the clinical aspects and treatment stages, the known epidemiological patterns, and strategies for disease control and for expanded public…

  12. Meniere's Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schessel, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Meniere's disease is characterized by unpredictable spells of severe vertigo and fluctuations in hearing and tinnitus. This article discusses the incidence of Meniere's disease, the present status of our understanding of this disease, controversies in its diagnosis, and the multiple therapeutic modalities recruited in its treatment. (Contains…

  13. Prion Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article presents an update on the clinical aspects of human prion disease, including the wide spectrum of their presentations. Recent Findings Prion diseases, a group of disorders caused by abnormally shaped proteins called prions, occur in sporadic (Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease), genetic (genetic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia), and acquired (kuru, variant Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, and iatrogenic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease) forms. This article presents updated information on the clinical features and diagnostic methods for human prion diseases. New antemortem potential diagnostic tests based on amplifying prions in order to detect them are showing very high specificity. Understanding of the diversity of possible presentations of human prion diseases continues to evolve, with some genetic forms progressing slowly over decades, beginning with dysautonomia and neuropathy and progressing to a frontal-executive dementia with pathology of combined prionopathy and tauopathy. Unfortunately, to date, all human prion disease clinical trials have failed to show survival benefit. A very rare polymorphism in the prion protein gene recently has been identified that appears to protect against prion disease; this finding, in addition to providing greater understanding of the prionlike mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders, might lead to potential treatments. Summary Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease is the most common form of human prion disease. Genetic prion diseases, resulting from mutations in the prion-related protein gene (PRNP), are classified based on the mutation, clinical phenotype, and neuropathologic features and can be difficult to diagnose because of their varied presentations. Perhaps most relevant to this Continuum issue on neuroinfectious diseases, acquired prion diseases are caused by accidental transmission to humans, but fortunately, they are the least common form and

  14. Glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Vaden, Shelly L

    2011-08-01

    Glomerular diseases are a leading cause of chronic kidney disease in dogs but seem to be less common in cats. Glomerular diseases are diverse, and a renal biopsy is needed to determine the specific glomerular disease that is present in any animal. Familial glomerulopathies occur in many breeds of dogs. However, most dogs with glomerular disease have acquired glomerular injury that is either immune-complex mediated or due to systemic factors, both of which are believed to be the result of a disease process elsewhere in the body (i.e., neoplastic, infectious, and noninfectious inflammatory disorders). A thorough clinical evaluation is indicated in all dogs suspected of having glomerular disease and should include an extensive evaluation for potential predisposing disorders. Nonspecific management of dogs with glomerular disease can be divided into 3 major categories: (1) treatment of potential predisposing disorders, (2) management of proteinuria, and (3) management of uremia and other complications of glomerular disease and chronic kidney disease. Specific management of specific glomerular diseases has not been fully studied in dogs. However, it may be reasonable to consider immunosuppressive therapy in dogs that have developed a form of glomerulonephritis secondary to a steroid-responsive disease (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus) or have immune-mediated lesions that have been documented in renal biopsy specimens. Appropriate patient monitoring during therapy is important for maximizing patient care. The prognosis for dogs and cats with glomerular disease is variable and probably dependent on a combination of factors. The purpose of this article is to discuss the general diagnosis and management of dogs with glomerular disease. PMID:21782143

  15. [Social diseases, civilization diseases or lifestyle diseases?].

    PubMed

    Betlejewski, Stansław

    2007-01-01

    In general, the development of civilization is viewed as a positive step for the well-being of the human species, leading to an increased duration and quality of life. The accelerated progress of civilization (mainly industrialization, urbanization and nutrition) has lead to new possibilities for adverse effects on human health. In former high civilization--like old Egypt, Greece, Roman, Chinese, Indian, Maya civilizations--the "modem civilization diseases" were unknown. Modem science through improved sanitation, vaccination and antibiotics as well as improved social and economical conditions, has eliminated the threat of death from most infectious diseases. In the years after World War II the social, economic and health conditions changed. Most deaths have resulted from heart disease, stroke, cancer and other diseases as a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment and changed lifestyle. Lifestyle diseases are different from other diseases because they are potentially preventable and can be lowered with changes in diet, lifestyle and environment. PMID:18350729

  16. Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Nagral, Aabha

    2014-03-01

    Gaucher disease is the commonest lysosomal storage disease seen in India and worldwide. It should be considered in any child or adult with an unexplained splenohepatomegaly and cytopenia which are seen in the three types of Gaucher disease. Type 1 is the non-neuronopathic form and type 2 and 3 are the neuronopathic forms. Type 2 is a more severe neuronopathic form leading to mortality by 2 years of age. Definitive diagnosis is made by a blood test-the glucocerebrosidase assay. There is no role for histological examination of the bone marrow, liver or spleen for diagnosis of the disease. Molecular studies for mutations are useful for confirming diagnosis, screening family members and prognosticating the disease. A splenectomy should not be performed except for palliation or when there is no response to enzyme replacement treatment or no possibility of getting any definitive treatment. Splenectomy may worsen skeletal and lung manifestations in Gaucher disease. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has completely revolutionized the prognosis and is now the standard of care for patients with this disease. Best results are seen in type 1 disease with good resolution of splenohepatomegaly, cytopenia and bone symptoms. Neurological symptoms in type 3 disease need supportive care. ERT is of no benefit in type 2 disease. Monitoring of patients on ERT involves evaluation of growth, blood counts, liver and spleen size and biomarkers such as chitotriosidase which reflect the disease burden. Therapy with ERT is very expensive and though patients in India have so far got the drug through a charitable access programme, there is a need for the government to facilitate access to treatment for this potentially curable disease. Bone marrow transplantation is an inferior option but may be considered when access to expensive ERT is not possible. PMID:25755533

  17. Parathyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hong Yan; Schumacher, H Ralph; Zhang, Li Yun

    2010-11-01

    Patients with parathyroid disease can have important musculoskeletal problems.Hypoparathyroidism can cause subcutaneous calcifications, tetany, muscle cramps,and paresthesias, but also myopathies and an ankylosing spondylitis-like back disease. Hypoparathyroidism can occur in SLE caused by antiparathyroid antibodies.Patients with hyperparathyroidism can develop bone disease with cysts, erosions,and deformities. They can also develop pseudogout, gout, myopathies, and tendon ruptures.

  18. Infectious disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on infectious disease. It addresses their major concern over outbreaks of infectious disease that could jeopardize the health, safety and/or performance of crew members engaged in long duration space missions. The Antarctic environment is seen as an analogous location on Earth and a good place to carry out such infectious disease studies and methods for proposed studies as suggested.

  19. Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Finkbeiner, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is the most common inherited neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by uncontrolled excessive motor movements and cognitive and emotional deficits. The mutation responsible for HD leads to an abnormally long polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the huntingtin (Htt) protein, which confers one or more toxic functions to mutant Htt leading to neurodegeneration. The polyQ expansion makes Htt prone to aggregate and accumulate, and manipulations that mitigate protein misfolding or facilitate the clearance of misfolded proteins tend to slow disease progression in HD models. This article will focus on HD and the evidence that it is a conformational disease. PMID:21441583

  20. [Wilson's disease].

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Veikko; Mäkisalo, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    Wilson's disease is a disorder of the liver's copper metabolism. Accumulation of copper causes liver and central nervous system damage. Wilson's disease should always be suspected, when a liver disease is detected in a child or an adolescent. The disease may also manifest itself as severe neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders. The diagnosis is often delayed despite the fact that the accumulation of copper in the body can be shown by various means. Early started medication will stop the accumulation of copper into the body. If the treatment is delayed or ineffective, liver transplantation is required.

  1. [Cardiovascular disease in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Nasonov, E L; Popkova, T V; Novikova, D S

    2016-01-01

    The representatives of immunoinflammatory diseases are rheumatic ones, such as primarily rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, spondyloarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and other systemic connective diseases, which are characterized by a high risk for untimely death. The high risk of untimely death in these diseases has been found to be associated with the severity of an immunoinflammatory process that gives rise to severe irreversible damage to vital organs and systems and with the development of a wide spectrum of comorbidities (infections, interstitial lung disease, malignant tumors, osteoporotic fractures, etc.). Among them, diseases of the cardiovascular system, which are most commonly caused by the early development and.accelerated progression of atherosclerotic coronary lesions, hold a central.position. The paper gives the data available in the recent literature on the impact.of antirheumatic therapy (disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biological agents) on' the cardiovascular system. PMID:27458622

  2. Alpers' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by mutation in the gene for the mitochondrial DNA polymerase POLG. The disease occurs in about one in 100,000 persons. ... typically occur months before tissue samples show the mitochondrial DNA depletion, so ... with Alpers' disease develop symptoms in the first two years of ...

  3. Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, I; Cantarini, L; Filippou, G; Frediani, B

    2014-01-01

    Paget's disease of bone is the most common metabolic bone disease after osteoporosis and affects 2-4% of adults over 55 years of age. Its etiology is only partly understood and includes both genetic and environmental factors. The disease may be asymptomatic and can be uncovered incidentally on x-ray or in biochemical tests performed for another condition. It can also manifest itself with bone pain, deformity, fracture or other complications. Paget's disease is diagnosed by x-rays and in general has very typical radiological features, but occasionally the clinical picture may be unusual and a differential diagnosis of sclerotic or lytic metastases needs to be considered. Plasma total alkaline phosphatase activity is the most clinically useful indicator of disease activity. It is elevated in most untreated patients, but may be within the normal range in patients with monostotic or limited disease. Bisphosphonate therapy is indicated for patients with symptoms and should also be considered in patients with disease sites that suggest a risk of complications, such as long bones, vertebrae or base of the skull. Orthopedic surgery in Paget's disease patients includes almost exclusively the correction of fractures and arthroplasty. PMID:25069498

  4. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Kidney Disease What is Kidney Disease? What the Kidneys Do Click for more information You have two ... damaged, wastes can build up in the body. Kidney Function and Aging Kidney function may be reduced ...

  5. Addison's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Addison’s disease? Addison’s disease affects your body’s adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system. The endocrine ... your moods, growth, metabolism, and tissue function. The adrenal glands are located just above your kidneys. They produce ...

  6. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... high or too low, you may have an endocrine disease or disorder. Endocrine diseases and disorders also occur if your body does not respond to hormones the way it is supposed to. Featured Topics Adrenal Insufficiency ... Topics Research Discoveries & News Children with Cushing ...

  7. Gaucher disease

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Tamer M.; Ariganjoye, Rafiu O.; Alsaeed, Gihad I.

    2015-01-01

    We aim to describe an 8-year-old boy with an unusual clinical presentation of Gaucher disease (GD). Gaucher disease is a progressive lysosomal storage disorder due to deficiency of the specific enzyme glucocerebrosidase with varying clinical features, but often involving the monocytes-macrophages systems. This child ran a progressive course with a devastating outcome. Three distinct GD subtypes have been described with varying clinical features based on the presence or absence of neurologic involvement. Gaucher disease diagnosis is obtained via: enzyme activity assay, gene mutation study, bone marrow aspiration in addition to multiple other tests that have been successfully used in diagnosis of cases of GD. Treatment modalities include enzyme replacement treatment, substrate reduction therapy, bone marrow transplantation, blood transfusion, and surgery are available management modalities for GD. Gaucher disease is a chronic disease requiring a multidisciplinary team approach with regular follow up with multiple subspecialties. PMID:26166597

  8. Beryllium disease.

    PubMed Central

    Jones Williams, W.

    1988-01-01

    The increasing use of beryllium in a variety of industries continues to be a hazard. New cases are still being reported to the UK Beryllium Case Registry, now numbering 60 in the period 1945-1988. The majority of cases follow inhalation which results in acute beryllium disease (chemical pneumonitis) or more commonly chronic beryllium disease--a granulomatous pneumonitis. Granulomatous skin nodules also occur following local implantation. The clinical and radiological features are briefly described with the emphasis on pathology and immunology. Laser microprobe mass spectrometry analysis of tissue sections is a major advance in diagnosis. Detection of beryllium distinguishes the granulomas of chronic beryllium disease from other diseases, in particular sarcoidosis. The role of beryllium lymphocyte transformation tests is discussed. Chronic beryllium disease is steroid dependent and local excision of skin lesions appears to be curative. There is no evidence that beryllium is carcinogenic. Images Figure 1 PMID:3074283

  9. Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Scheltens, Philip; Blennow, Kaj; Breteler, Monique M B; de Strooper, Bart; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Salloway, Stephen; Van der Flier, Wiesje Maria

    2016-07-30

    Although the prevalence of dementia continues to increase worldwide, incidence in the western world might have decreased as a result of better vascular care and improved brain health. Alzheimer's disease, the most prevalent cause of dementia, is still defined by the combined presence of amyloid and tau, but researchers are gradually moving away from the simple assumption of linear causality as proposed in the original amyloid hypothesis. Age-related, protective, and disease-promoting factors probably interact with the core mechanisms of the disease. Amyloid β42, and tau proteins are established core cerebrospinal biomarkers; novel candidate biomarkers include amyloid β oligomers and synaptic markers. MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose PET are established imaging techniques for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid PET is gaining traction in the clinical arena, but validity and cost-effectiveness remain to be established. Tau PET might offer new insights and be of great help in differential diagnosis and selection of patients for trials. In the search for understanding the disease mechanism and keys to treatment, research is moving increasingly into the earliest phase of disease. Preclinical Alzheimer's disease is defined as biomarker evidence of Alzheimer's pathological changes in cognitively healthy individuals. Patients with subjective cognitive decline have been identified as a useful population in whom to look for preclinical Alzheimer's disease. Moderately positive results for interventions targeting several lifestyle factors in non-demented elderly patients and moderately positive interim results for lowering amyloid in pre-dementia Alzheimer's disease suggest that, ultimately, there will be a future in which specific anti-Alzheimer's therapy will be combined with lifestyle interventions targeting general brain health to jointly combat the disease. In this Seminar, we discuss the main developments in Alzheimer's research. PMID:26921134

  10. Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Scheltens, Philip; Blennow, Kaj; Breteler, Monique M B; de Strooper, Bart; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Salloway, Stephen; Van der Flier, Wiesje Maria

    2016-07-30

    Although the prevalence of dementia continues to increase worldwide, incidence in the western world might have decreased as a result of better vascular care and improved brain health. Alzheimer's disease, the most prevalent cause of dementia, is still defined by the combined presence of amyloid and tau, but researchers are gradually moving away from the simple assumption of linear causality as proposed in the original amyloid hypothesis. Age-related, protective, and disease-promoting factors probably interact with the core mechanisms of the disease. Amyloid β42, and tau proteins are established core cerebrospinal biomarkers; novel candidate biomarkers include amyloid β oligomers and synaptic markers. MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose PET are established imaging techniques for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid PET is gaining traction in the clinical arena, but validity and cost-effectiveness remain to be established. Tau PET might offer new insights and be of great help in differential diagnosis and selection of patients for trials. In the search for understanding the disease mechanism and keys to treatment, research is moving increasingly into the earliest phase of disease. Preclinical Alzheimer's disease is defined as biomarker evidence of Alzheimer's pathological changes in cognitively healthy individuals. Patients with subjective cognitive decline have been identified as a useful population in whom to look for preclinical Alzheimer's disease. Moderately positive results for interventions targeting several lifestyle factors in non-demented elderly patients and moderately positive interim results for lowering amyloid in pre-dementia Alzheimer's disease suggest that, ultimately, there will be a future in which specific anti-Alzheimer's therapy will be combined with lifestyle interventions targeting general brain health to jointly combat the disease. In this Seminar, we discuss the main developments in Alzheimer's research.

  11. Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Nat, Laura Bogdana; Simiti, Adriana Liana; Poanta, Laura Irina

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease (Borreliosis), also called the "disease of 1000 faces", is produced by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by the Ixodes tick. The clinical picture is non-specific and polymorph, with multisystemic involvement. Diagnosis is most often one of exclusion, and certain diagnosis is based on the presence of Borellia antibodies. The treatment is done differently depending on the stage of the disease and the severity of injuries, being used antibiotics like Doxycycline, Amoxicillin, Erythromycin or Penicillin. Under treatment the disease quickly heals without sequel, in the early stages, but advanced stages are usually resistant to treatment and chronic injuries can occur. Symptoms get worse without treatment and become chronic. We present the case of a woman of 66-year-old with a complex history of disease, which began one year prior to admission, through multiple and nonspecific symptoms; she presented herself in numerous medical services (gastroenterology, rheumatology--where an immunosuppressive treatment was initiated, hematology) without determining a final diagnosis. She was admitted in our service with altered general state and worsening symptoms, predominantly fever, muscle pain, joint pain, the patient being immobilized in bed. After multiple investigations and the problem of differential diagnosis with multiple pathologies, we finally established the diagnosis of Lyme disease. The peculiarities of the case are represented by the severity of the clinical manifestations and fulminant disease evolution under the unjustified administration of immunosuppressive treatment, and atypical joint involvement regarding localization and evolution that raised the issue of differential diagnosis with osteosarcoma or bone tuberculosis. PMID:25726630

  12. Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Playfer, J R

    1997-05-01

    Parkinson's disease is a common disabling disease of old age. The diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease is based on clinical signs and has poor sensitivity, with about 25% of patients confidently diagnosed as having the disease actually having other conditions such as multi-system atrophy and other parkinsonism-plus syndromes. Benign essential tremor and arteriosclerotic pseudo-parkinsonism can easily be confused with Parkinson's disease. The cause of Parkinson's disease remains unknown. Speculative research highlights the role of oxidative stress and free radical mediated damage to dopaminergic cells. Parkinson's disease is the one neurodegenerative disorder in which drugs have been demonstrated to be of value. There is now a wide variety of drugs and formulations available, including anticholinergics, amantidine, L-dopa, dopamine agonists including apomorphine, selegiline and soon to be available catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors. Disabling side-effects of treatment, fluctuations, dyskinesias and psychiatric problems require strategic use of the drugs available. There is an increasing potential for neurosurgical intervention. PMID:9196696

  13. [Castleman disease].

    PubMed

    Sánchez de Toledo Sancho, J; Fàbrega Sabaté, J; Marhuenda Irastorza, C; Lucaya Layret, X; Torán Fuentes, N; Gros Subias, L; Sábado Alvarez, C

    2005-07-01

    Castleman disease or angiofollicular hyperplasia is a rare disorder included in the group of lymphoproliferative disorders. This entity was originally described by Castleman in 1956. The etiology remains unknown but it is postulated to be a reactive lymphoid hyperplasia due to chronic antigenic stimulation caused by a viral infection. The disease presents in young adults and is more frequent in women; it is exceptionally rare in the pediatric age group. It is classified into two clinical groups (localized disease and disseminated disease) and there are two histologic variants (hyaline-vascular and plasma cell Castleman disease). Localized disease is usually asymptomatic, has a good prognosis, and is the most common presentation in pediatric patients, usually corresponding to highly vascularized mediastinal masses. Resection of the mass, which is curative, is associated with a high risk of blood loss. Recently, preoperative arteriography with embolization has been used satisfactorily in the preoperative management of these tumors. We present a case of localized Castleman disease in a 12-year-old girl satisfactorily treated with embolization before curative resection.

  14. Kummell disease

    PubMed Central

    Schucany, William G.; Opatowsky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Kummell disease, or avascular necrosis of a vertebral body, presents as vertebral osteonecrosis typically affecting a thoracic vertebra with compression deformity, intravertebral vacuum cleft, and exaggerated kyphosis weeks to months after a minor traumatic injury. This rare disease is increasing in prevalence secondary to an aging population and the associated rise in osteoporosis. Treatment with vertebroplasty or surgical decompression and fusion is often required. We present a classic case of Kummell disease to illustrate the salient features of the condition, with associated imaging findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:23814399

  15. Kummell disease.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Larry T; Schucany, William G; Opatowsky, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    Kummell disease, or avascular necrosis of a vertebral body, presents as vertebral osteonecrosis typically affecting a thoracic vertebra with compression deformity, intravertebral vacuum cleft, and exaggerated kyphosis weeks to months after a minor traumatic injury. This rare disease is increasing in prevalence secondary to an aging population and the associated rise in osteoporosis. Treatment with vertebroplasty or surgical decompression and fusion is often required. We present a classic case of Kummell disease to illustrate the salient features of the condition, with associated imaging findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Gaucher's disease.

    PubMed

    Bohra, Vijay; Nair, Velu

    2011-07-01

    Gaucher's disease (GD) is the most common amongst the various disorders classified under the lysosomal storage disorders. GD is a model for applications of molecular medicine to clinical delineation, diagnosis, and treatment. The multiorgan and varied presentation of the disease makes it a challenge to diagnose GD early. The advent of enzyme replacement therapy in the early 1990s changed the management, and survival, of patients with GD. In addition to this, development of substrate reduction, pharmacological chaperone, and gene therapies has broadened the horizon for this rare disease. However, in resource-poor countries like ours, optimal management is still a distant dream. PMID:21897894

  17. Gaucher disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... harmful substances to build up in the liver, spleen, bones, and bone marrow. These substances prevent cells ... common. It involves bone disease, anemia, an enlarged spleen and low platelets (thrombocytopenia). Type I affects both ...

  18. Fabry Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys may become progressively impaired, leading to renal failure. Other signs include decreased sweating, fever, and gastrointestinal ... of complications from strokes, heart disease, or kidney failure. What research is being done? The mission of ...

  19. Planning Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Medard

    1984-01-01

    To solve societal problems, both local and global, a global approach is needed. Serious diseases that are crippling present-day problem solving and planning are discussed, and the characteristics of a healthy, effective planning approach are described. (RM)

  20. Stargardt Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ways to prevent it. A decrease in color perception also occurs in Stargardt disease. This is because photoreceptor cells involved in color perception are concentrated in the macula. Back to top ...

  1. Legionnaire disease

    MedlinePlus

    Legionella pneumonia; Pontiac fever; Legionellosis ... Edelstein PH, Roy CR. Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ...

  2. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sever's Disease KidsHealth > ...

  3. Prion Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... and sometimes polymerize in neurodegenerative disorders. Credit: NIAID Biology & Genetics Scientists are examining how abnormal prion protein ... the abnormal form. Read more about prion diseases biology and genetics Therapeutic Approaches Although there are no ...

  4. Canavan disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... want to have children and have a family history of Canavan disease. Counseling should be considered if both parents are of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. For this group, DNA testing can almost always tell if the parents ...

  5. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Carcinogens: Captafol A Human Health Perspective on Climate Change (Full Report) (4MB) Certain Glass Wool Fibers (Inhalable) ( ... Environmental Public Health (PEPH) (1MB) Programs and Initiatives: Climate Change and Human Health Respiratory Disease and the Environment ( ...

  6. Lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. People with this type of lung disorder often ... the lungs to take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. These diseases may also affect heart function. An ...

  7. Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... at increased risk of meningococcal disease. This includes college students, military personnel, international travelers to areas where meningococcal ... You May Also Like An 18-Year-Old College Student’s Battle with Meningitis Meningococcal Serogroup B Cases and ...

  8. Whipple's disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... fatal. Treatment relieves symptoms and can cure the disease. ... Brain damage Heart valve damage (from endocarditis ) Nutritional deficiencies Symptoms return (which may be because of drug resistance) Weight loss

  9. Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk of urinary tract and other serious infections. Malnutrition or dehydration: People who have Alzheimer’s disease may ... swallow. It’s important to watch for signs of malnutrition. If you think that a loved one might ...

  10. Zoonotic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov . One Health About One Health Zoonotic Diseases History of One Health One Health in Action The Story of the Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine Lead Poisoning Investigation in Northern Nigeria Domestic One Health Activities "Friends" Magazine Global One ...

  11. Pilonidal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content ASCRS Patients Educational Resources Diseases and Conditions Patient Education Library Patient Success Stories Treatments and Screening Resources Find a Surgeon Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Registries Helpful Links Physicians ...

  12. Batten Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gene codes has not been identified. In addition, research scientists are working with NCL animal models to improve understanding and treatment of these disorders. One research team, for example, is ... for scientists to study the genetics of these diseases. NIH ...

  13. Vascular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart and blood vessels, such as diabetes or high cholesterol Smoking Obesity Losing weight, eating healthy foods, being active and not smoking can help vascular disease. Other treatments include medicines and surgery.

  14. Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... with heart disease? What do my cholesterol and triglyceride numbers mean? How can I lower my cholesterol? ... weight Know your numbers (blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides) You can reduce your chances of getting heart ...

  15. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wilson disease. Growing knowledge of the copper transporting gene ATP7B, which in its mutated form causes WD, should lead to the design of better therapies for this disorder. NIH Patient Recruitment for Wilson ...

  16. Crohn disease

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Rioux, John D.; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Huett, Alan; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Wileman, Tom; Mizushima, Noboru; Carding, Simon; Akira, Shizuo; Parkes, Miles; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2011-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic and debilitating inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract.1 Prevalence in western populations is 100–150/100,000 and somewhat higher in Ashkenazi Jews. Peak incidence is in early adult life, although any age can be affected and a majority of affected individuals progress to relapsing and chronic disease. Medical treatments rely significantly on empirical corticosteroid therapy and immunosuppression, and intestinal resectional surgery is frequently required. Thus, 80% of patients with CD come to surgery for refractory disease or complications. It is hoped that an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms, for example by studying the genetic basis of CD and other forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), will lead to improved therapies and possibly preventative strategies in individuals identified as being at risk. PMID:20729636

  17. Behcet's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Silk Route,” which spans the region from Japan and China in the Far East to the ... the disease’s epidemiology is not well understood. In Japan, Behcet’s disease ranks as a leading cause of ...

  18. Alzheimer disease

    MedlinePlus

    Senile dementia - Alzheimer type (SDAT); SDAT; Dementia - Alzheimer ... The exact cause of Alzheimer disease (AD) is not known. Research shows that certain changes in the brain lead to AD. You are more likely ...

  19. Chagas disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... will help control the spread of the disease. Blood banks in Central and South America screen donors for ... discarded if the donor has the parasite. Most blood banks in the United States began screening for Chagas ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells make and use a brain chemical called dopamine (say: DOH-puh-meen) to send messages to ... coordinate body movements. When someone has Parkinson's disease, dopamine levels are low. So, the body doesn't ...

  1. [Kawasaki disease].

    PubMed

    Gliwińska, E

    1995-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD), first described in Japan in 1967 by Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki, is an acute multi system vasculitis of infancy and early childhood characterised by high fever, rash, conjunctivitis, inflammation of the mucous membranes, erythematous induration of the hands and feet and cervical lymphadenopathy. Synonyms for Kawasaki disease include "Kawasaki syndrome" and "mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome" (MCLS, MLNS, MCLNS). Kawasaki disease was initially presumed to occur only in Japan; but now this disease is known in the whole world. The first cases in the United States were reported in Hawaii in 1976. In poland 5 cases were recognized, and first time described in 1981. The etiology of Kawasaki disease remains unknown. Toxic, allergic and immunologic causes have been suspected, but most investigators favor an infectious cause or an immune response to an infectious agent. Among classes of microorganism suspected of causing Kawasaki disease were bacteria, leptospires, fungi, rickettsiae and a number of viruses. Recently, there has been considerable interest in the possibility, that Kawasaki disease is caused by RETROVIRUSES. Although the disease is generally benign and self-limited, about 20% of children develop coronary artery aneurysms. In 5% of cases, giant aneurysm/more then 8 mm/develop, predisposing the patient to acute coronary artery thrombosis, myocardial infarction and sudden death. This is the most serious complication of KD. Other manifestations of hearth involvement, include pericarditis, myocarditis, myocardial failure and mitral regurgitation. Besides this many other clinical findings are commonly noted in KD; such as: pneumonia, diarrhea, arthritis, aseptic meningitis, otitis media, obstructive jaundice, hydrops of gallbladder and others.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7545822

  2. [Kawasaki's disease].

    PubMed

    Cortes, J; Martínez, B; Montini, C; Barraza, P; Reyes, A

    1989-08-01

    We described a case of Kawasaki's disease in a chilean girl, one year and 5 months old of age, who presented the oral characteristics, cutaneous and systemic manifestation of the condition, that is not very common for the dentist but that it is necessary to know due to the heart complications and the mortality associated with the disease, and it is necessary that the dentist recognize early this condition.

  3. [Devic disease].

    PubMed

    Papeix, Caroline

    2006-11-01

    Devic disease, also known as neuromyelitis optica, is a severe rare condition characterized clinically by one or more episodes of optical neuritis and myelitis. Pathologically, it is characterized by extensive demyelination associated with axon loss and deposits of complement and immunoglobulins (IgM) within the lesions. Specific antibodies for this disease (IgG NMO) were recently identified. Immunosuppressive treatment is currently the best option for preventing relapse. PMID:17086129

  4. Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Fabry disease, an X-linked disorder of glycosphingolipids that is caused by mutations of the GLA gene that codes for α-galactosidase A, leads to dysfunction of many cell types and includes a systemic vasculopathy. As a result, patients have a markedly increased risk of developing ischemic stroke, small-fiber peripheral neuropathy, cardiac dysfunction and chronic kidney disease. Virtually all complications of Fabry disease are non-specific in nature and clinically indistinguishable from similar abnormalities that occur in the context of more common disorders in the general population. Recent studies suggested a much higher incidence of mutations of the GLA gene, suggesting that this disorder is under-diagnosed. However, some of the gene variants may be benign. Although the etiology of Fabry disease has been known for many years, the mechanism by which the accumulating α-D-galactosyl moieties cause this multi organ disorder has only recently been studied and is yet to be completely elucidated. Specific therapy for Fabry disease has been developed in the last few years but its role in the management of the disorder is still being investigated. Fortunately, standard 'non-specific' medical and surgical therapy is effective in slowing deterioration or compensating for organ failure in patients with Fabry disease. PMID:26564084

  5. Whipple's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaike, R.

    2000-01-01

    Whipple's disease is a systemic bacterial infection and the common though not invariable manifestations are diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, and arthralgia. Arthritis or arthralgia may be the only presenting symptom, predating other manifestations by years. Virtually all organs in the body may be affected, with protean clinical manifestations. Various immunological abnormalities, some of which may be epiphenomena, are described. The causative organism is Tropheryma whippelii.
The disease is uncommon though lethal if not treated. Recent data suggest the disease occurs in an older age group than previously described. The characteristic histopathological features are found most often in the small intestine. These are variable villous atrophy and distension of the normal villous architecture by an infiltrate of foamy macrophages with a coarsely granular cytoplasm, which stain a brilliant magenta colour with PAS. These pathognomonic PAS positive macrophages may also be present in the peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes and various other organs. The histological differential diagnoses include histoplasmosis and Mycobacterium avium-intercellulare complex.
The clinical diagnosis of Whipple's disease may be elusive, especially if gastrointestinal symptoms are not present. A unique sign of CNS involvement, if present, is oculofacial-skeletal myorhythmia or oculomasticatory myorhythmia, both diagnostic of Whipple's disease. A small bowel biopsy is often diagnostic, though in about 30% of patients no abnormality is present. In patients with only CNS involvement, a stereotactic brain biopsy can be done under local anaesthetic. A recent important diagnostic test is polymerase chain reaction of the 16S ribosomal RNA of Tropheryma whippelii.
Whipple's disease is potentially fatal but responds dramatically to antibiotic treatment. In this review the current recommended treatments are presented. The response to treatment should be monitored closely, as relapses are

  6. Aortic Valve Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Tricuspid Valve Disease Cardiac Rhythm Disturbances Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Heart abnormalities that ... Disease Tricuspid Valve Disease Cardiac Rhythm Disturbances Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Aortic Valve Disease Overview The human heart has ...

  7. Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Suzuki Kurokawa, M; Suzuki, N

    2004-09-01

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a systemic disorder of recurrent acute inflammation, characterized by major symptoms of oral aphthous ulcers, uveitis, skin lesions and genital ulcers. Involvement of intestines, vessels, and central nervous system (CNS) sometimes leads to a poor prognosis. Patients with BD are known to distribute along the ancient Silk Road. The incidence is relatively higher from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean area as roughly 1-10 patients in 10,000 people, whereas only 1-2 patients in 1,000,000 people in UK and North America. Although etiology of the disease is still unknown, high prevalence of HLA-B51, increased expression of heat shock protein 60 and Th1 dominant immune responses in the patients are considered important in its pathogenesis. Non-infectious neutrophil activation and infection with Streptococcus sanguis and herpes simplex virus would also be associated. Because BD lacks any pathognomonic symptoms and laboratory findings, the diagnosis relies largely upon the criteria proposed by the International Study Group for Behcet's disease in 1990. In Japan, the diagnosis was also made according to the Japanese criteria revised in 1987. Recently, the Behcet's Disease Research Committee of Japan again revised the Japanese criteria in 2003 to avoid overdiagnosis. The new Japanese criteria are introduced in this review. Differential diagnosis excluding Sweet's disease, pemphigus, erythema nodosum and Crohn's disease is important, and positive laboratory data for pathergy test, prick test for dead Streptococci and HLA-B51 are emphasized to make appropriate diagnosis in these criteria. Pathological findings of the disease-affected site such as erythematous nodosum is also stressed. Treatment for the disease has been chosen according to the clinical symptoms. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants, corticosteroids and colchicine are basically introduced. Recently, effects of interferon-alpha/beta, anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody

  8. Cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Portegies, M L P; Koudstaal, P J; Ikram, M A

    2016-01-01

    With 16.9 million people who suffered a first-ever stroke in 2010 worldwide, stroke is a very common vascular disease. Epidemiologic studies have played an essential role in assessing this burden and in detecting the risk factors for stroke. Primary prevention of these risk factors, primarily hypertension, smoking, diabetes, and atrial fibrillation, has reduced the incidence in high-income countries. However, stroke remains a major cause of death and disability, and therefore research should be continued. Subarachnoid hemorrhages are less prevalent than strokes but have an even higher risk of death. Similar to stroke, epidemiologic studies identified smoking and hypertension as its most important risk factors, together with excessive alcohol intake. Although rare, arterial dissections, CADASIL, arteriovenous malformations, venous sinus thrombosis, moyamoya disease, and vasculitis can lead to serious symptoms. The burden and risk factors of those rare diseases are more challenging to assess. Whenever possible, they should be recognized in a timely manner for their increased risk of stroke, but most often they are diagnosed only at the time of stroke. Some cerebrovascular abnormalities do not result in immediate symptoms. This subclinical cerebrovascular disease includes silent infarcts, white-matter lesions, and microbleeds, and is incidentally found by neuroimaging. These lesions are not innocent, as several epidemiologic studies have associated subclinical cerebrovascular disease with an increased risk of stroke, cognitive decline, dementia, and death. PMID:27637962

  9. [Eales' disease].

    PubMed

    Errera, M-H; Pratas, A; Goldschmidt, P; Sedira, N; Sahel, J-A; Benesty, J

    2016-05-01

    The syndrome of recurrent vitreous hemorrhages in young men was described for the first time by Henry Eales in 1880. The association with a clinical manifestation of ocular inflammation was reported 5years later. Eales disease affects young adults who present with ischemic retinal vasculitis, with the peripheral retina most commonly affected. Most cases have been reported in South Asia. Although the etiology of this abnormality is unknown, it may be related to an immune sensitivity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. Its pathogenesis is related to extensive ischemia that affects the retina, secondary to an obliterative retinal vasculopathy with release of angiogenic factors of the VEGF type. Involvement of the retina is the hallmark of the disease, which manifests as follows: periphlebitis, retinal capillary ischemia most often affecting the periphery with secondary proliferative retinopathy and retinal and/or papillary neovascularization, recurrent vitreous hemorrhages and tractional retinal detachment. These complications are potentially blinding. The natural history of Eales disease varies, with temporary or permanent remission in some cases and continuous progression in others. Progression is often bilateral, which necessitates regular follow-up. The treatment of Eales disease depends on the stage of the disease and is not well defined. Observation only, pars plana vitrectomy surgery and/or intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF are recommended in cases of vitreous hemorrhage, associated with corticosteroids when retinal vasculitis is present. Laser pan-retinal photocoagulation is necessary when neovascularization is present. PMID:27185661

  10. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  11. Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Newburger, Jane W; Takahashi, Masato; Burns, Jane C

    2016-04-12

    Kawasaki disease is an acute, self-limited vasculitis of unknown etiology that occurs predominantly in infants and children. If not treated early with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, 1 in 5 children develop coronary artery aneurysms; this risk is reduced 5-fold if intravenous immunoglobulin is administered within 10 days of fever onset. Coronary artery aneurysms evolve dynamically over time, usually reaching a peak dimension by 6 weeks after illness onset. Almost all the morbidity and mortality occur in patients with giant aneurysms. Risk of myocardial infarction from coronary artery thrombosis is greatest in the first 2 years after illness onset. However, stenosis and occlusion progress over years. Indeed, Kawasaki disease is no longer a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome presenting in young adults. Both coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous intervention have been used to treat Kawasaki disease patients who develop myocardial ischemia as a consequence of coronary artery aneurysms and stenosis. PMID:27056781

  12. [Refsum disease].

    PubMed

    Hochner, I; Blickle, J F; Brogard, J M

    1996-01-01

    Refsum's disease, firstly described almost 50 years ago by the Norvegian neurologist Sigvald Refsum, is an autosomic recessive disease affecting mostly the Scandinavians and the populations originating from Northern Europe. The disease results from a specific enzyme deficiency of the first step of phytanic acid catabolism pathway. This deficiency leads to an accumulation of this C20 fatty acid in the serum and the tissues with a preference for adipose tissue, liver and kidneys. The clinical picture includes retinitis pigmentosa, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia and elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration. Other less frequent manifestations include cranial nerves deficiency, myocardiopathy, renal tubular dysfunction and ichtyosis. The diagnosis relies on serum phytanic acid measurement. The treatment consists of a phytanic-acid free diet sometimes associated with plasmapheresis. This treatment is generally effective on neuropathy but not on cranial nerves dysfunction and retinitis pigmentosa.

  13. Dent's disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Dent's disease is a renal tubular disorder characterized by manifestations of proximal tubule dysfunction, including low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and progressive renal failure. These features are generally found in males only, and may be present in early childhood, whereas female carriers may show a milder phenotype. Prevalence is unknown; the disorder has been reported in around 250 families to date. Complications such as rickets or osteomalacia may occur. The disease is caused by mutations in either the CLCN5 (Dent disease 1) or OCRL1 (Dent disease 2) genes that are located on chromosome Xp11.22 and Xq25, respectively. CLCN5 encodes the electrogenic Cl-/H+ exchanger ClC-5, which belongs to the CLC family of Cl- channels/transporters. OCRL1 encodes a phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) 5-phosphatase and mutations are also associated with Lowe Syndrome. The phenotype of Dent's disease is explained by the predominant expression of ClC-5 in the proximal tubule segments of the kidney. No genotype-phenotype correlation has been described thus far, and there is considerable intra-familial variability in disease severity. A few patients with Dent's disease do not harbour mutations in CLCN5 and OCRL1, pointing to the involvement of other genes. Diagnosis is based on the presence of all three of the following criteria: low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and at least one of the following: nephrocalcinosis, kidney stones, hematuria, hypophosphatemia or renal insufficiency. Molecular genetic testing confirms the diagnosis. The differential diagnosis includes other causes of generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubules (renal Fanconi syndrome), hereditary, acquired, or caused by exogenous substances. Antenatal diagnosis and pre-implantation genetic testing is not advised. The care of patients with Dent's disease is supportive, focusing on the treatment of hypercalciuria and the prevention of

  14. Autoinflammatory Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Behçet’s Disease Progress and Promise Key Words The Immune System When your body is attacked—perhaps by a virus or other germs—your immune system defends you. It “sees” and kills the germs ...

  15. Foodborne Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Foodsafety.gov ​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Top ...

  16. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... or 414–961–0533 Email: info@wilsonsdisease.org Internet: www.wilsonsdisease.org National Organization for Rare Disorders ... or 203–744–0100 Fax: 203–798–2291 Internet: www.rarediseases.org Office of Rare Diseases Research ...

  17. SMUT DISEASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF MOST ASPECTS OF COMMON BUNT AND DWARF BUNT DISEASES OF WHEAT IS PRESENTED. INCLUDED ARE SECTIONS ON HISTORY, DISTRIBUTION AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE, TAXONOMY, MORPHOLOGY, SPORE GERMINATION, CULTURE, AND PHYSIOLOGY. EXTENSIVE SECTIONS DEAL WITH RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DISEA...

  18. Sunflower diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower disease chapter is part of the Sunflower Oilseeds Monograph, which will be a new publication in the AOCS Oilseeds Monograph series. The monograph contains an overview and history of sunflower crop development, how the oilseed is cultivated, how the oilseed is produced, how the seed is...

  19. Blount Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I ...

  20. [Autoinflammatory diseases].

    PubMed

    Russo, Ricardo A G; Katsicas, María M

    2016-01-01

    The monogenic autoinflammatory diseases are rare, genetic disorders resulting in constitutive innate immune defects leading to excessive response to danger signals, spontaneous activation of inflammatory mediators or loss of inhibitory regulators. During the past 15 years, a growing number of monogenic inflammatory diseases have been described and their respective responsible genes identified. The proteins encoded by these genes are involved in the regulatory pathways of inflammation and are mostly expressed in cells of the innate immune system. Although a group of patients exhibit episodic systemic inflammation (periodic fevers), these disorders are mediated by continuous overproduction and release of pro-inflammatory mediators, notably IL-1β, and are best considered as autoinflammatory diseases rather than periodic fevers. The most common autoinflammatory diseases are familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), mevalonate kinase deficiency/hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome (MKD/HIDS) and the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). Clinical features often include fever, cutaneous rash, serosal involvement and acute phase reactants. Autoantibodies are usually absent but may accompany certain syndromes. Diagnosis remains clinical and is based on the different phenotypic features. Genetic diagnosis is of utmost importance, but must be performed judiciously and interpreted cautiously. Treatment with biologic agents that block proinflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-1, has proved to be dramatically effective in many patients. Still, in many cases of autoinflammation no genetic abnormalities are detected and treatment remains suboptimal, raising the question of novel pathogenic mutations in unexplored genes and pathways. PMID:27295706

  1. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  2. Celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Rivera, E; Assiri, A; Guandalini, S

    2013-10-01

    Celiac disease, with a prevalence around 1% of the general population, is the most common genetically-induced food intolerance in the world. Triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals, this enteropathy may appear at any age, and is characterized by a wide variety of clinical signs and symptoms. Among them, gastrointestinal presentations include chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss or failure to thrive in children; but extra-intestinal manifestations are also common, and actually appear to be on the rise. They include a large variety of ailments, such as dermatitis Herpetiformis, anemia, short stature, osteoporosis, arthritis, neurologic problems, unexplained elevation of transaminases, and even female infertility. For the clinician interested in oral diseases, celiac disease can lead to delayed tooth eruption, dental enamel hypoplasia, recurrent oral aphthae. Diagnosing celiac disease requires therefore a high degree of suspicion followed by a very sensitive screening test: serum levels of the autoantibody anti-tissue transglutaminase. A positive subject will then be confirmed by an intestinal biopsy, and will then be put on a strict gluten-free diet, that in most cases will bring a marked improvement of symptoms. Newer forms of treatment which in the future will probably be available to the non-responsive patients are currently being actively pursued. PMID:23496382

  3. Celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Green, Peter H R; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Greywoode, Ruby

    2015-05-01

    This review will focus on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of celiac disease (CD). Given an increasing awareness of gluten-related disorders, medical professionals of all varieties are encountering patients with a diagnosis of CD or who are thought to have food intolerance to gluten. The prevalence of CD among the general population is estimated to be 1% in Western nations, and there is growing evidence for underdiagnosis of the disease, especially in non-Western nations that were traditionally believed to be unaffected. The development of serologic markers specific to CD has revolutionized the ability both to diagnose and monitor patients with the disease. Additionally, understanding of the clinical presentations of CD has undergone a major shift over the past half century. Although it is well understood that CD develops in genetically predisposed subjects exposed to gluten, the extent of other environmental factors in the pathogenesis of the disease is an area of continued research. Currently, the main therapeutic intervention for CD is a gluten-free diet; however, novel nondietary agents are under active investigation. Future areas of research should also help us understand the relationship of CD to other gluten-related disorders.

  4. Huntington's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... rather than by the loss of individual cells, scientists are using cutting-edge methods such as optogenetics (where neurons are activated or silenced in the brains of living animals using light beams) to probe the cause ... defects in HD. Scientists are also using stem cells to study disease ...

  5. Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B

    2015-08-01

    Lyme disease is among the most frequently diagnosed zoonotic tick-borne diseases worldwide. The number of human cases has been on the increase since the first recognition of its aetiological agent. Lyme disease is caused by spirochete bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia, with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) found in the Americas, and B. afzelii and B. garinii, in addition to B. burgdorferi s.s., in Europe and Asia. Environmental factors, such as human encroachment onto habitats favourable to ticks and their hosts, reduced deforestation, increased human outdoor activities, and climatic factors favouring a wider distribution of tick vectors, have enhanced the impact of the disease on both humans and animals. Clinical manifestations in humans include, in the early phases, erythema migrans, followed several weeks later by neuro-borreliosis (meningo-radiculitis, meningitis or meningo-encephalitis), Lyme arthritis and/or Borrelia lymphocytoma. In dogs, acute signs include fever, general malaise, lameness, lymph node enlargement and polyarthritis, as well as neuro-borreliosis in the chronic form. Diagnosis is mainly serological in both humans and animals, based on either a two-tier approach (an immunoenzymatic test followed by a Western blot confirmatory test) in humans or C(6) peptide, only in dogs. Early treatment with antibiotics, such as doxycycline or amoxicillin, for three weeks usually reduces the risk of chronic disease. Tick control, including the use of tick repellents for both humans and animals, particularly dogs, is highly reliable in preventing transmission. Vaccines are not available to prevent human infection, whereas several vaccines are available to reduce transmission and the clinical manifestations of infection in dogs.

  6. Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B

    2015-08-01

    Lyme disease is among the most frequently diagnosed zoonotic tick-borne diseases worldwide. The number of human cases has been on the increase since the first recognition of its aetiological agent. Lyme disease is caused by spirochete bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia, with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) found in the Americas, and B. afzelii and B. garinii, in addition to B. burgdorferi s.s., in Europe and Asia. Environmental factors, such as human encroachment onto habitats favourable to ticks and their hosts, reduced deforestation, increased human outdoor activities, and climatic factors favouring a wider distribution of tick vectors, have enhanced the impact of the disease on both humans and animals. Clinical manifestations in humans include, in the early phases, erythema migrans, followed several weeks later by neuro-borreliosis (meningo-radiculitis, meningitis or meningo-encephalitis), Lyme arthritis and/or Borrelia lymphocytoma. In dogs, acute signs include fever, general malaise, lameness, lymph node enlargement and polyarthritis, as well as neuro-borreliosis in the chronic form. Diagnosis is mainly serological in both humans and animals, based on either a two-tier approach (an immunoenzymatic test followed by a Western blot confirmatory test) in humans or C(6) peptide, only in dogs. Early treatment with antibiotics, such as doxycycline or amoxicillin, for three weeks usually reduces the risk of chronic disease. Tick control, including the use of tick repellents for both humans and animals, particularly dogs, is highly reliable in preventing transmission. Vaccines are not available to prevent human infection, whereas several vaccines are available to reduce transmission and the clinical manifestations of infection in dogs. PMID:26601457

  7. Fabry disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal α-galactosidase A activity. FD is pan-ethnic and the reported annual incidence of 1 in 100,000 may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. Classically affected hemizygous males, with no residual α-galactosidase A activity may display all the characteristic neurological (pain), cutaneous (angiokeratoma), renal (proteinuria, kidney failure), cardiovascular (cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia), cochleo-vestibular and cerebrovascular (transient ischemic attacks, strokes) signs of the disease while heterozygous females have symptoms ranging from very mild to severe. Deficient activity of lysosomal α-galactosidase A results in progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide within lysosomes, believed to trigger a cascade of cellular events. Demonstration of marked α-galactosidase A deficiency is the definitive method for the diagnosis of hemizygous males. Enzyme analysis may occasionnally help to detect heterozygotes but is often inconclusive due to random X-chromosomal inactivation so that molecular testing (genotyping) of females is mandatory. In childhood, other possible causes of pain such as rheumatoid arthritis and 'growing pains' must be ruled out. In adulthood, multiple sclerosis is sometimes considered. Prenatal diagnosis, available by determination of enzyme activity or DNA testing in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic cells is, for ethical reasons, only considered in male fetuses. Pre-implantation diagnosis is possible. The existence of atypical variants and the availability of a specific therapy singularly complicate genetic counseling. A disease-specific therapeutic option - enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human α-galactosidase A - has been recently introduced and its long term outcome is currently still being investigated. Conventional management consists of pain relief with analgesic drugs

  8. Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Walker, Francis O

    2007-04-01

    Huntington's disease may present at any age, but most typically manifests between the ages of 35 and 45 years as a slowly progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder with cognitive and behavioral impairment. It is an autosomal-dominant disorder that has a substantial impact on family structure and dynamics in terms of providing care for affected family members and, for the offspring of an affected parent, dealing with at-risk status. Therapy that slows the progressive neuronal dysfunction or degeneration is unavailable, so pharmacotherapy is currently aimed primarily at managing behavioral and psychiatric symptoms, and, in selected cases, controlling severe chorea. Effective intervention by clinicians is possible, however, in terms of providing patients and families with accurate information about the disease, counseling them about availability of genetic testing at specialized centers, and in giving them sound advice regarding work, driving, relationships, finances, research participation, and support groups.

  9. Thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

  10. Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Mignot, Cyril; Gelot, Antoinette; De Villemeur, Thierry Billette

    2013-01-01

    Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive condition due to glucocerebrosidase deficiency responsible for the lysosomal accumulation of glucosylceramide, a complex lipid derived from cell membranes, mainly in macrophages. It is due to mutations mostly in the GBA gene, although saposine C deficiency is due to mutations in the PSAP gene. It encompasses an extremely heterogeneous spectrum of clinical involvement from the fetus to adulthood. Splenomegaly, blood cytopenia, and bone involvement are the main manifestations of Gaucher disease, but nervous system degeneration is observed in about 5-10% of patients. The accumulation in neurons of glucosylceramide and its derivative, psychosine, are thought to underlie neuronal dysfunction and death, although Gaucher cells that mostly accumulate such substances are mainly macrophages. Enzyme replacement therapy dramatically improves the outcome of patients because of its extreme efficacy in the treatment of the systemic involvement. However, it has only limited effects on most neurological signs. PMID:23622393

  11. Morgellons disease?

    PubMed

    Accordino, Robert E; Engler, Danielle; Ginsburg, Iona H; Koo, John

    2008-01-01

    Morgellons disease, a pattern of dermatologic symptoms very similar, if not identical, to those of delusions of parasitosis, was first described many centuries ago, but has recently been given much attention on the internet and in the mass media. The present authors present a history of Morgellons disease, in addition to which they discuss the potential benefit of using this diagnostic term as a means of building trust and rapport with patients to maximize treatment benefit. The present authors also suggest "meeting the patient halfway" and creating a therapeutic alliance when providing dermatologic treatment by taking their cutaneous symptoms seriously enough to provide both topical ointments as well as antipsychotic medications, which can be therapeutic in these patients. PMID:18318880

  12. Morgellons disease?

    PubMed

    Accordino, Robert E; Engler, Danielle; Ginsburg, Iona H; Koo, John

    2008-01-01

    Morgellons disease, a pattern of dermatologic symptoms very similar, if not identical, to those of delusions of parasitosis, was first described many centuries ago, but has recently been given much attention on the internet and in the mass media. The present authors present a history of Morgellons disease, in addition to which they discuss the potential benefit of using this diagnostic term as a means of building trust and rapport with patients to maximize treatment benefit. The present authors also suggest "meeting the patient halfway" and creating a therapeutic alliance when providing dermatologic treatment by taking their cutaneous symptoms seriously enough to provide both topical ointments as well as antipsychotic medications, which can be therapeutic in these patients.

  13. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... down or stop. A risk factor for heart disease is something that increases your chance of getting ...

  14. [Wilsons disease].

    PubMed

    Mareček, Z; Brůha, R

    2013-07-01

    Wilsons disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder in which copper accumulates in tissues, especially in the liver and the brain. The genetic defect affects the P type ATPase gene (ATP7B). More than 500 mutations causing Wilsons disease have been described. The most common mutation in Central Europe concerns H1069Q. The symptoms of Wilsons disease include hepatic or neurological conditions. The hepatic condition is manifested as steatosis, acute or chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis. The neurological conditions are most often manifested after the age of 20 as motor disorders (tremor, speech and writing disorders), which may result in severe extrapyramidal syndrome with rigidity, dysarthria and muscle contractions. The dia-gnosis is based on clinical and laboratory assessments (neurological signs, liver lesions, low ceruloplasmin, increased free serum copper, high Cu volumes in urine, KayserFleischer ring). The dia-gnosis is confirmed by a high Cu level in liver tissue or genetic proof. Untreated Wilsons disease causes death of the patient. If treated properly the survival rate approximates to the survival rate of the common population. The treatment concerns either removal of copper from the body using chelating agents excreted into the urine (Penicillamine, Trientine) or limitation of copper absorption from the intestine and reducing the toxicity of copper (zinc, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate). In the Czech Republic, Penicillamine or zinc is used. A liver transplant is indicated in patients with fulminant hepatic failure or decompensated liver cirrhosis. In the family all siblings of the affected individual need to be screened in order to treat any asymptomatic subjects.

  15. [Wilsons disease].

    PubMed

    Mareček, Z; Brůha, R

    2013-07-01

    Wilsons disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder in which copper accumulates in tissues, especially in the liver and the brain. The genetic defect affects the P type ATPase gene (ATP7B). More than 500 mutations causing Wilsons disease have been described. The most common mutation in Central Europe concerns H1069Q. The symptoms of Wilsons disease include hepatic or neurological conditions. The hepatic condition is manifested as steatosis, acute or chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis. The neurological conditions are most often manifested after the age of 20 as motor disorders (tremor, speech and writing disorders), which may result in severe extrapyramidal syndrome with rigidity, dysarthria and muscle contractions. The dia-gnosis is based on clinical and laboratory assessments (neurological signs, liver lesions, low ceruloplasmin, increased free serum copper, high Cu volumes in urine, KayserFleischer ring). The dia-gnosis is confirmed by a high Cu level in liver tissue or genetic proof. Untreated Wilsons disease causes death of the patient. If treated properly the survival rate approximates to the survival rate of the common population. The treatment concerns either removal of copper from the body using chelating agents excreted into the urine (Penicillamine, Trientine) or limitation of copper absorption from the intestine and reducing the toxicity of copper (zinc, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate). In the Czech Republic, Penicillamine or zinc is used. A liver transplant is indicated in patients with fulminant hepatic failure or decompensated liver cirrhosis. In the family all siblings of the affected individual need to be screened in order to treat any asymptomatic subjects. PMID:23909262

  16. Beryllium disease

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-20

    After two workers at the nuclear weapons plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee were diagnosed earlier this year with chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a rare and sometimes fatal scarring of the lungs, the Department of Energy ordered up a 4-year probe. Now, part of that probe has begun - tests conducted by the Oak Ridge Associated Universities' Center for Epidemiological Research measuring beryllium sensitivity in 3,000 people who've been exposed to the metal's dust since Manhattan Project managers opened the Y-12 plant at Oak Ridge in 1943. Currently, 119 Y-12 employees process beryllium, which has a number of industrial uses, including rocket heat shields and nuclear weapon and electrical components. The disease often takes 20 to 25 years to develop, and the stricken employees haven't worked with beryllium for years. There is no cure for CBD, estimated to strike 2% of people exposed to the metal. Anti-inflammatory steroids alleviate such symptoms as a dry cough, weight loss, and fatigue. Like other lung-fibrosis diseases that are linked to lung cancer, some people suspect CBD might cause some lung cancer. While difficult to diagnose, about 900 cases of CBD have been reported since a Beryllium Case Registry was established in 1952. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that about 10,000 DOE employees and 800,000 people in private industry have worked with beryllium.

  17. Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Loudianos, G; Gitlin, J D

    2000-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism resulting from the absence or dysfunction of a copper transporting P-type ATPase encoded on chromosome 13. This ATPase is expressed in hepatocytes where it is localized to the trans-Golgi network and transports copper into the secretory pathway for incorporation into ceruloplasmin and excretion into the bile. Under physiologic circumstances, biliary excretion represents the sole mechanism for copper excretion, and thus affected individuals have progressive copper accumulation in the liver. When the capacity for hepatic storage is exceeded, cell death ensues with copper release into the plasma, hemolysis, and tissue deposition. Presentation in childhood may include chronic hepatitis, asymptomatic cirrhosis, or acute liver failure. In young adults, neuropsychiatric symptoms predominate and include dystonia, tremor, personality changes, and cognitive impairments secondary to copper accumulation in the central nervous system. The laboratory diagnosis of Wilson's disease is confirmed by decreased serum ceruloplasmin, increased urinary copper content, and elevated hepatic copper concentration. Molecular genetic analysis is complex as more than 100 unique mutations have been identified and most individuals are compound heterozygotes. Copper chelation with penicillamine is an effective therapy in most patients and hepatic transplantation is curative in individuals presenting with irreversible liver failure. Elucidation of the molecular genetic basis of Wilson's disease has permitted new insights into the mechanisms of cellular copper homeostasis.

  18. Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Sherry L; Fry, Rick; Cheung, Angela; Stewart, Donna E

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely to be investigated and treated with evidence-based medications, angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft than men. Key Findings In 1998, 78,964 Canadians died from CVD, almost half (39,197) were women. Acute myocardial infarction, which increases significantly after menopause, was the leading cause of death among women. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 21% of all hospital admissions for Canadian women over age 50 in 1999. Admissions to hospital for ischemic heart disease were more frequent for men, but the mean length of hospital stay was longer for women. Mean blood pressure increases with age in both men and women. After age 65, however, high blood pressure is more common among Canadian women. More than one-third of postmenopausal Canadian women have hypertension. Diabetes increases the mortality and morbidity associated with CVD in women more than it does in men. Depression also contributes to the incidence and recovery from CVD, particularly for women who experience twice the rate of depression as men. Data Gaps and Recommendations CVD needs to be recognized as a woman's health issue given Canadian mortality projections (particularly heart failure). Health professionals should be trained to screen, track, and address CVD risk factors among women, including hypertension, elevated lipid levels, smoking, physical inactivity, depression, diabetes and low socio-economic status. PMID:15345078

  19. [Renal disease].

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-09-01

    Chronic renal failure in its various stages, requires certain nutritional restrictions associated with the accumulation of minerals and waste products that cannot be easily eliminated by the kidneys. Some of these restrictions modify the intake of proteins, sodium, and phosphorus. Milk and dairy products are sources of these nutrients. This article aims to inform the reader about the benefits including milk and dairy products relying on a scientific and critical view according to the clinical conditions and the stage of renal disease in which the patient is. PMID:27603894

  20. [Renal disease].

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-09-01

    Chronic renal failure in its various stages, requires certain nutritional restrictions associated with the accumulation of minerals and waste products that cannot be easily eliminated by the kidneys. Some of these restrictions modify the intake of proteins, sodium, and phosphorus. Milk and dairy products are sources of these nutrients. This article aims to inform the reader about the benefits including milk and dairy products relying on a scientific and critical view according to the clinical conditions and the stage of renal disease in which the patient is.

  1. [Bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw.

  2. Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Goldings, E A; Jericho, J

    1986-08-01

    Although initially considered a localized epidemic form of arthritis. Lyme disease is now known to have protean manifestation (skin, joint, heart, nervous system) and worldwide distribution. It is caused by infection with the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted by a variety of hard ticks and, in some localities, fleas. Antigenic variation between isolates may determine the differences in clinical expression observed between cases in North America and Europe. The reservoir in the animal kingdom is primarily in deer and mice but house pets have also been implicated. The disease is easily treated with oral antibiotics (tetracycline or penicillin) at an early stage but requires parenteral penicillin and can become refractory to medication at late stages. Prompt diagnosis assures the best outcome. Whereas the classic rash, erythema chronicum migrans, is pathognomonic, diagnosis in its absence may rest on serological tests. Bacteriological isolation is seldom successful and is lengthy (Shrestha et al, 1985). Since cloning of the DNA for several of B. burgdorferi antigens has been accomplished, utilization of hybridization techniques may allow rapid detection of the presence of the organism and confirm difficult cases in the future.

  3. Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Murray, Joseph A

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize recent advances in celiac disease (CD) published between August 2008 and July 2009. Recent findings CD affects ~1% of most populations but remains largely unrecognized. In the last year, work has shown that the prevalence of CD has increased dramatically, not simply due to increased detection. Also, undiagnosed CD may be associated with increased mortality. Significant progress has been made in understanding how gliadin peptides can cross the intestinal border and access the immune system. New genetic loci and candidate genes that may contribute to the risk of CD and its overlap with type 1 diabetes mellitus have been identified. New deamidated gliadin peptides antibodies have better diagnostic accuracy over native gliadin-based tests. The inclusion of duodenal bulb biopsy specimens may increase the rate of CD detection. The spectrum of CD likely includes a minority of patients with mild enteropathy. A practical 7-item instrument may facilitate standardized evaluation of gluten-free diet adherence. Finally, refractory CD, whilst rare, is associated with a poor prognosis. Summary Celiac disease is a global health problem that requires a multidisciplinary and increasingly cooperative multinational research effort. PMID:20040864

  4. [Refsum disease].

    PubMed

    Bernscherer, G; Berényi, E; Karabélyos, C; László, A; Dávid, Z; Hollódy, K; Tóth, E Z

    2000-01-01

    For the first time in literature the authors interpret the pathography of Refsum's disease, in the case of their patient, as pseudo-hypervitaminosis A. The biochemical basis of the clinical picture is a defect in the activity of phytanic-acid-alpha-hydrolase belonging to the peroxisomal system. As a consequence, phytanic acid accumulates in the serum and in the parenchymal tissues. Retinol, an alcohol with high molecular weight, is a natural ligand of nuclear RXR (retinoid-X-receptor), which plays an important role in the regulation of peroxisoma synthesis. In Refsum's disease the phytanic acid accumulated because of the enzyme defect competes with the biotransformation derivates (all-trans-retinoic acid, 9-cis-retinoic acid) of the all-trans-retinol (vitamin A) for the nuclear RX receptor binding sites, and as a very potent receptoractivator it causes the intestinal symptoms of hypervitaminosis A. The authors review the procedure of fatty-acid chromatography necessary for the establishment of the diagnosis and discuss--in addition to dietary restrictions--recent therapeutic possibilities, like plasmapheresis, cascade filtration, lipapheresis and oral batylalcohol treatment.

  5. Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tanowitz, H B; Kirchhoff, L V; Simon, D; Morris, S A; Weiss, L M; Wittner, M

    1992-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of morbidity in many countries in Latin America. The important modes of transmission are by the bite of the reduviid bug and blood transfusion. The organism exists in three morphological forms: trypomastigotes, amastigotes, and epimastigotes. The mechanism of transformation and differentiation is currently being explored, and signal transduction pathways of the parasites may be involved in this process. Parasite adherence to and invasion of host cells is a complex process involving complement, phospholipase, penetrin, neuraminidase, and hemolysin. Two clinical forms of the disease are recognized, acute and chronic. During the acute stage pathological damage is related to the presence of the parasite, whereas in the chronic stage few parasites are found. In recent years the roles of tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, and the interleukins in the pathogenesis of this infection have been reported. The common manifestations of chronic cardiomyopathy are arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. Autoimmune, neurogenic, and microvascular factors may be important in the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathy. The gastrointestinal tract is another important target, and "mega syndromes" are common manifestations. The diagnosis and treatment of this infection are active areas of investigation. New serological and molecular biological techniques have improved the diagnosis of chronic infection. Exacerbations of T. cruzi infection have been reported for patients receiving immuno-suppressive therapy and for those with AIDS. Images PMID:1423218

  6. Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    De-Paula, Vanessa J; Radanovic, Marcia; Diniz, Breno S; Forlenza, Orestes V

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with well-defined pathophysiological mechanisms, mostly affecting medial temporal lobe and associative neocortical structures. Neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles represent the pathological hallmarks of AD, and are respectively related to the accumulation of the amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) in brain tissues, and to cytoskeletal changes that arise from the hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated Tau protein in neurons. According to the amyloid hypothesis of AD, the overproduction of Aβ is a consequence of the disruption of homeostatic processes that regulate the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Genetic, age-related and environmental factors contribute to a metabolic shift favoring the amyloidogenic processing of APP in detriment of the physiological, secretory pathway. Aβ peptides are generated by the successive cleavage of APP by beta-secretase (BACE-1) and gamma-secretase, which has been recently characterized as part of the presenilin complex. Among several beta-amyloid isoforms that bear subtle differences depending on the number of C-terminal amino acids, Aβ (1-42) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. The neurotoxic potential of the Aβ peptide results from its biochemical properties that favor aggregation into insoluble oligomers and protofibrils. These further originate fibrillary Aβ species that accumulate into senile and neuritic plaques. These processes, along with a reduction of Aβ clearance from the brain, leads to the extracellular accumulation of Aβ, and the subsequent activation of neurotoxic cascades that ultimately lead to cytoskeletal changes, neuronal dysfunction and cellular death. Intracerebral amyloidosis develops in AD patients in an age-dependent manner, but recent evidence indicate that it may be observed in some subjects as early as in the third or fourth decades of life, with increasing magnitude in late middle age

  7. [Pancreatic Diseases].

    PubMed

    Schöfl, Rainer

    2016-06-22

    The author presents his personal choice of practical relevant papers of pancreatic diseases from 2014 to 2015. Nutritional factors and hypertriglycidemia are discussed as causes of acute pancreatitis. Tools to avoid post-ERCP(endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) pancreatitis are described and the natural course of fluid collections and pseudocysts is demonstrated. The value of secretin-MRCP(magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) for diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is illustrated. Data help to choose the minimally effective prednisolone dose in autoimmune pancreatitis. The increased prevalence of fractures in patients with chronic pancreatitis highlights the necessity of screening for bone density loss. The association of vitamin D intake with pancreatic cancer is described. The probability of cancer in IPNM is shown and innovative surgical concepts to reduce the loss of pancreatic function are presented. Finally neoadjuvant concepts for the treatment of pancreatic cancer are highlighted. PMID:27329710

  8. Disease Activity Measures in Paediatric Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Nadia J.; Feldman, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Disease activity refers to potentially reversible aspects of a disease. Measurement of disease activity in paediatric rheumatic diseases is a critical component of patient care and clinical research. Disease activity measures are developed systematically, often involving consensus methods. To be useful, a disease activity measure must be feasible, valid, and interpretable. There are several challenges in quantifying disease activity in paediatric rheumatology; namely, the conditions are multidimensional, the level of activity must be valuated in the context of treatment being received, there is no gold standard for disease activity, and it is often difficult to incorporate the patient's perspective of their disease activity. To date, core sets of response variables are defined for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus, and juvenile dermatomyositis, as well as definitions for improvement in response to therapy. Several specific absolute disease activity measures also exist for each condition. Further work is required to determine the optimal disease activity measures in paediatric rheumatology. PMID:24089617

  9. Vibroacoustic disease.

    PubMed

    Branco, N A A Castelo; Alves-Pereira, M

    2004-01-01

    Vibroacoustic disease (VAD) is a whole-body, systemic pathology, characterized by the abnormal proliferation of extra-cellular matrices, and caused by excessive exposure to low frequency noise (LFN). VAD has been observed in LFN-exposed professionals, such as, aircraft technicians, commercial and military pilots and cabin crewmembers, ship machinists, restaurant workers, and disk-jockeys. VAD has also been observed in several populations exposed to environmental LFN. This report summarizes what is known to date on VAD, LFN-induced pathology, and related issues. In 1987, the first autopsy of a deceased VAD patient was performed. The extent of LFN induced damage was overwhelming, and the information obtained is, still today, guiding many of the associated and ongoing research projects. In 1992, LFN-exposed animal models began to be studied in order to gain a deeper knowledge of how tissues respond to this acoustic stressor. In both human and animal models, LFN exposure causes thickening of cardiovascular structures. Indeed, pericardial thickening with no inflammatory process, and in the absence of diastolic dysfunction, is the hallmark of VAD. Depressions, increased irritability and aggressiveness, a tendency for isolation, and decreased cognitive skills are all part of the clinical picture of VAD. LFN is a demonstrated genotoxic agent, inducing an increased frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in both human and animal models. The occurrence of malignancies among LFN-exposed humans, and of metaplastic and displastic appearances in LFN-exposed animals, clearly corroborates the mutagenic outcome of LFN exposure. The inadequacy of currently established legislation regarding noise assessments is a powerful hindrance to scientific advancement. VAD can never be fully recognized as an occupational and environmental pathology unless the agent of disease--LFN--is acknowledged and properly evaluated. The worldwide suffering of LFN-exposed individuals is staggering and it is

  10. [Thyroid disease].

    PubMed

    Ashitaka, Y

    1990-08-01

    The incidence of pregnant women with thyroid dysfunction has been reported to be around 0.1-0.4%. Graves' disease accounts for more than half of these disorders. The main cause of thyroid disease in pregnancy and puerperium is autoimmune dysfunction. Whether there may be goitre or exophthalmus present, clinical signs as inappropriate weight gain, high systolic pressure, palpitation (greater than or equal to 110/min), emotional lability, fatigue, acceleration of suppression of the Achilles' tendon reflex should induce changes in the biochemical thyroid function tests. Parameters for the diagnosis and management for hyperthyroidism are serum levels of free T4 and TSH, while those of T3, reverse T3, and TSH are for hypothyroidism. Serum anti-microsomal antibodies and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies which have no effect on the fetus are also good markers for severity. The transplacental transfer of maternal TSH receptor antibodies consisting of stimulatory and inhibitory immunoglobulins and maternal thyroid-binding inhibiting immunoglobulins play roles in the development of transient neonatal hyper- or hypothyroidism. Fetal control is achieved by optimal maternal management. Untreated hyperthyroidism may be associated with fetal malformations. This risk may be reduced by antithyroid drug treatment of up to 150 mg/day of propylthiouracil which has less chance of placental passage and less secretion into the mother's milk than methyl-mercapto-imidazol. Maternal thyroid function should be kept in the upper limit of normal range, taking into consideration the fetal dysfunction induced by over-administration of the drug which passes through placenta. Children of hypothyroid women taking inadequate replacement therapy manifested lower IQ values compared to the progeny of euthyroid or hypothyroid women taking adequate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... L. Goldstein, MD, MMSc (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  12. American Lyme Disease Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infectious Diseases, 35: 451-464, 2002) What is Lyme Disease? Lyme disease (LD) is an infection caused by ... mission with your own tax-deductible contribution. American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. PO Box 466 Lyme, CT 06371 ...

  13. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Motor Neuron Diseases Information Page Condensed from Motor Neuron Diseases ... and Information Publicaciones en Español What are Motor Neuron Diseases? The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a ...

  14. Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Tsutomu; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Arroll, Megan A; Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Foster, Carol A; Manzoor, Nauman F; Megerian, Cliff A; Naganawa, Shinji; Young, Yi-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Meniere's disease (MD) is a disorder of the inner ear that causes vertigo attacks, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus and aural fullness. The aetiology of MD is multifactorial. A characteristic sign of MD is endolymphatic hydrops (EH), a disorder in which excessive endolymph accumulates in the inner ear and causes damage to the ganglion cells. In most patients, the clinical symptoms of MD present after considerable accumulation of endolymph has occurred. However, some patients develop symptoms in the early stages of EH. The reason for the variability in the symptomatology is unknown and the relationship between EH and the clinical symptoms of MD requires further study. The diagnosis of MD is based on clinical symptoms but can be complemented with functional inner ear tests, including audiometry, vestibular-evoked myogenic potential testing, caloric testing, electrocochleography or head impulse tests. MRI has been optimized to directly visualize EH in the cochlea, vestibule and semicircular canals, and its use is shifting from the research setting to the clinic. The management of MD is mainly aimed at the relief of acute attacks of vertigo and the prevention of recurrent attacks. Therapeutic options are based on empirical evidence and include the management of risk factors and a conservative approach as the first line of treatment. When medical treatment is unable to suppress vertigo attacks, intratympanic gentamicin therapy or endolymphatic sac decompression surgery is usually considered. This Primer covers the pathophysiology, symptomatology, diagnosis, management, quality of life and prevention of MD. PMID:27170253

  15. [Castleman disease].

    PubMed

    Belletti, Gerardo A; Savio, Verónica; Minoldo, Daniel; Caminos, Susana; Yorio, Marcelo A

    2004-01-01

    A 66 years female, who was since last year under astenia, arthralgias, pimply lesions in spread plates and tests showing eritrosedimentation over 100 mm, anemi, leucocitosis with neutrofilia, policlonal hypergammaglobulinemia, slight proteinuria and IgE on 900. This patient was sporadically treated with corticoids. When made the medical consult had lost 34lb., was under anorexy, as well as dyspepsia. Hemoglobyn 6.9 gr/dl, leucocytes 20000/mm3, neutrofils at 90%, proteinogram the same as former, with hypoalbuminemia. She was taking prednisona, 16 mg/day. When examined showed depress of conscience, astenia, and dermic lesions already quoted. 4 cm nonpainful right axillary adenopaty adhered to deep planes. Medulogram with increased iron, hyperegenerative. Ganglionar biopsia: linfoid hyperplasic process linked to inmune response. Toracoabdominal tomography with adenomegalia in torax and retroperitoneo. Skin biopsia: neutrofilic vasculitis. The patient suspends the 16 mg of prednisona and fever as well as generalized adenopatias come up. After laying aside other ethiologies, and understanding as Castleman Multicentric disease, it is started to supply prednisona 1 mg/kg of weight with a clinical and biochemical fast and outstanding response. After 7 months it was progressively suspended the esteroids and 60 days later, the process fall back; for that, corticoids are restarted, with a good evolution. The illness of Castleman although it is not very frequent, it should be considered as differential diagnosis in those clinical cases that are accompanied with important general commitment, linphadenopaties and respons to steroid therapy.

  16. Inflammatory bowel disease and airway diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vutcovici, Maria; Brassard, Paul; Bitton, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Airway diseases are the most commonly described lung manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the similarities in disease pathogenesis and the sharing of important environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility suggest that there is a complex interplay between IBD and airway diseases. Recent evidence of IBD occurrence among patients with airway diseases and the higher than estimated prevalence of subclinical airway injuries among IBD patients support the hypothesis of a two-way association. Future research efforts should be directed toward further exploration of this association, as airway diseases are highly prevalent conditions with a substantial public health impact. PMID:27678355

  17. Association between periodontal diseases and systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Weidlich, Patrícia; Cimões, Renata; Pannuti, Claudio Mendes; Oppermann, Rui Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that periodontal disease may be associated with systemic diseases. This paper reviewed the published data about the relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular diseases, adverse pregnancy outcomes, diabetes and respiratory diseases, focusing on studies conducted in the Brazilian population. Only a few studies were found in the literature focusing on Brazilians (3 concerning cardiovascular disease, 7 about pregnancy outcomes, 9 about diabetes and one regarding pneumonia). Although the majority of them observed an association between periodontitis and systemic conditions, a causal relationship still needs to be demonstrated. Further studies, particularly interventional well-designed investigations, with larger sample sizes, need to be conducted in Brazilian populations. PMID:19838549

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease and airway diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vutcovici, Maria; Brassard, Paul; Bitton, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Airway diseases are the most commonly described lung manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the similarities in disease pathogenesis and the sharing of important environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility suggest that there is a complex interplay between IBD and airway diseases. Recent evidence of IBD occurrence among patients with airway diseases and the higher than estimated prevalence of subclinical airway injuries among IBD patients support the hypothesis of a two-way association. Future research efforts should be directed toward further exploration of this association, as airway diseases are highly prevalent conditions with a substantial public health impact.

  19. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  20. Treatment of Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mission Statement Press Releases 2015 CSA Youth Ambassador PEER Grants Awarded Bountiful Pantry DNI Group, LLC Earth ... for Celiac Disease International Symposium Celiac Disease 2013 Peer Review Research Application History of Gluten Induced Diseases ...

  1. Lipid Storage Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Lipid Storage Diseases Information Page Condensed from Lipid Storage ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Lipid Storage Diseases? Lipid storage diseases are a group ...

  2. Tay-Sachs Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... metabolic disease caused by the harmful buildup of lipids (fatty materials such as oils and acids) in ... management, and therapy of rare diseases, including the lipid storage diseases. Additional research funded by the NINDS ...

  3. Tay-Sachs Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Tay-Sachs disease is a rare, inherited disease. It is a type of lipid metabolism disorder. It causes too ... cells, causing mental and physical problems. . Infants with Tay-Sachs disease appear to develop normally for the first few ...

  4. Sickle Cell Disease Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... False: People with sickle cell disease cannot get malaria. A True B False 4. True or False: ... False: People with sickle cell disease cannot get malaria. False People with sickle cell disease can get ...

  5. Digestive Diseases Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIDDK Health Information NIDDK Home NIDDK Image Library Digestive Disease, Nutrition, and Weight-control Materials Healthy eating, ... Materials Statistics Tip Sheets Catalog Home | Diabetes Materials | Digestive Diseases Materials | Kidney and Urologic Diseases Materials Online ...

  6. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider ...

  7. Parkinson disease - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Your doctor has told you that you have Parkinson disease . This disease affects the brain and leads to ... have you take different medicines to treat your Parkinson disease and many of the problems that may come ...

  8. Peripheral Vascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Center Back to previous page En español Aneurysms and Dissections Angina Arrhythmia Bundle Branch Block Cardiomyopathy ... blockage including peripheral artery disease or PAD Aortic aneurysms Buerger's Disease Raynaud's Phenomenon Disease of the veins ...

  9. Fibrocystic breast disease

    MedlinePlus

    Fibrocystic breast disease; Mammary dysplasia; Diffuse cystic mastopathy; Benign breast disease; Glandular breast changes ... FF, Fort GG, et al, eds. Fibrocystic breast disease. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015 . ...

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    MedlinePlus

    COPD; Chronic obstructive airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... can do to relieve symptoms and keep the disease from getting worse. If you smoke, now is ...

  11. Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Ebola virus disease Fact sheet Updated January 2016 Key ... for survivors of Ebola virus disease Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the ...

  12. Lyme disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Lyme disease is an acute inflammatory disease characterized by skin changes, joint inflammation and symptoms similar to the ... that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of a deer ...

  13. Kidney disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - kidney disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on kidney disease: National Kidney Disease Education Program -- www.nkdep.nih.gov National Kidney Foundation -- www.kidney.org National ...

  14. Heart disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association -- www.heart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/heartdisease

  15. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  16. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Kidney Disease What are my kidneys and ... urine until releasing it through urination. How can diabetes affect my kidneys? Too much glucose , also called ...

  17. Adult Still's disease

    MedlinePlus

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  18. Cholestatic liver disease masquerading as Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Sood, Vikrant; Rawat, Dinesh; Khanna, Rajeev; Alam, Seema

    2015-03-01

    Wilson disease and cholestatic liver diseases may present as a diagnostic dilemma if standard guidelines incorporating markers of copper overload are followed. We hereby present a series of four cases of sclerosing cholangitis masquerading as Wilson disease. True Wilson disease cases had significantly lower ceruloplasmin (6 vs. 16 mg/dL) and higher 24-hour urinary copper (322.3 vs. 74.5 μg/day) as compared to mimickers. Initial low serum ceruloplasmin levels normalized in mimickers on follow up, and this may used as a diagnostic indicator. Standard Wilson disease diagnostic criteria thus need further modification especially in developing countries to help avoid mismanagement.

  19. Atheroembolic renal disease

    MedlinePlus

    Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - renal; Atherosclerotic disease - renal ... disorder of the arteries. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls ...

  20. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-25

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  1. The integrated disease network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Buchan, Natalie; Larminie, Chris; Pržulj, Nataša

    2014-11-01

    The growing body of transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and genomic data generated from disease states provides a great opportunity to improve our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving diseases and shared between diseases. The use of both clinical and molecular phenotypes will lead to better disease understanding and classification. In this study, we set out to gain novel insights into diseases and their relationships by utilising knowledge gained from system-level molecular data. We integrated different types of biological data including genome-wide association studies data, disease-chemical associations, biological pathways and Gene Ontology annotations into an Integrated Disease Network (IDN), a heterogeneous network where nodes are bio-entities and edges between nodes represent their associations. We also introduced a novel disease similarity measure to infer disease-disease associations from the IDN. Our predicted associations were systemically evaluated against the Medical Subject Heading classification and a statistical measure of disease co-occurrence in PubMed. The strong correlation between our predictions and co-occurrence associations indicated the ability of our approach to recover known disease associations. Furthermore, we presented a case study of Crohn's disease. We demonstrated that our approach not only identified well-established connections between Crohn's disease and other diseases, but also revealed new, interesting connections consistent with emerging literature. Our approach also enabled ready access to the knowledge supporting these new connections, making this a powerful approach for exploring connections between diseases.

  2. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  3. [Wilson's disease: clinical spectrum of liver disease].

    PubMed

    Ochoa Palominos, Alejandra; Ibáñez Samaniego, Luis; Catalina Rodríguez, María-Vega; Pajares Díaz, José; Clemente Ricote, Gerardo

    2013-02-01

    Wilson's disease is a hereditary autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism,characterized by copper accumulation in the liver and brain. This rare entity, which has a broad clinical spectrum, is often difficult to diagnose and should therefore always be suspected in patients with liver disease of unclear cause. We describe two types of manifestation of liver disease in two patients; the first developed fulminant hepatic failure requiring urgent liver transplantation and the second showed advanced chronic liver disease and received standard medical treatment. The objective of this clinical observation is to analyze the diagnosis of Wilson's disease in two patients with distinct onset, illustrating the broad clinical spectrum of the disease, and its treatment.

  4. Cardiovascular disease biomarkers across autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, Joseph; Shields, Kelly J; Liu, Chau-Ching; Manzi, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is increasingly recognized as a major cause of premature mortality among those with autoimmune disorders. There is an urgent need to identify those patients with autoimmune disease who are at risk for CVD so as to optimize therapeutic intervention and ultimately prevention. Accurate identification, monitoring and stratification of such patients will depend upon a panel of biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. This review will discuss some of the most recent biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases in autoimmune disease, including lipid oxidation, imaging biomarkers to characterize coronary calcium, plaque, and intima media thickness, biomarkers of inflammation and activated complement, genetic markers, endothelial biomarkers, and antiphospholipid antibodies. Clinical implementation of these biomarkers will not only enhance patient care but also likely accelerate the pharmaceutical pipeline for targeted intervention to reduce or eliminate cardiovascular disease in the setting of autoimmunity.

  5. Human disease genes.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Sanchez, G; Childs, B; Valle, D

    2001-02-15

    The complete human genome sequence will facilitate the identification of all genes that contribute to disease. We propose that the functional classification of disease genes and their products will reveal general principles of human disease. We have determined functional categories for nearly 1,000 documented disease genes, and found striking correlations between the function of the gene product and features of disease, such as age of onset and mode of inheritance. As knowledge of disease genes grows, including those contributing to complex traits, more sophisticated analyses will be possible; their results will yield a deeper understanding of disease and an enhanced integration of medicine with biology.

  6. [Periodontal disease in pediatric rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Fabri, Gisele M C; Savioli, Cynthia; Siqueira, José T; Campos, Lucia M; Bonfá, Eloisa; Silva, Clovis A

    2014-01-01

    Gingivitis and periodontitis are immunoinflammatory periodontal diseases characterized by chronic localized infections usually associated with insidious inflammation This narrative review discusses periodontal diseases and mechanisms influencing the immune response and autoimmunity in pediatric rheumatic diseases (PRD), particularly juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (C-SLE) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Gingivitis was more frequently observed in these diseases compared to health controls, whereas periodontitis was a rare finding. In JIA patients, gingivitis and periodontitis were related to mechanical factors, chronic arthritis with functional disability, dysregulation of the immunoinflammatory response, diet and drugs, mainly corticosteroids and cyclosporine. In C-SLE, gingivitis was associated with longer disease period, high doses of corticosteroids, B-cell hyperactivation and immunoglobulin G elevation. There are scarce data on periodontal diseases in JDM population, and a unique gingival pattern, characterized by gingival erythema, capillary dilation and bush-loop formation, was observed in active patients. In conclusion, gingivitis was the most common periodontal disease in PRD. The observed association with disease activity reinforces the need for future studies to determine if resolution of this complication will influence disease course or severity.

  7. Prion diseases as transmissible zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-02-01

    Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531

  8. Prion Diseases as Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531

  9. Obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, E

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

  10. Toponymous diseases of Australia.

    PubMed

    Appuhamy, Ranil D; Tent, Jan; Mackenzie, John S

    Names are more than just labels used to identify diseases. They can be windows into the discovery, characteristics and attributes of the disease. Toponymous diseases are diseases that are named after places. Hendra, Ross River, Bairnsdale, Murray Valley and Barmah Forest are all examples of Australian places that have had diseases named after them. They all have unique and interesting stories that provide a glimpse into their discovery, history and culture. Because of perceived negative connotations, the association of diseases with placenames has sometimes generated controversy. PMID:21143049

  11. Celiac disease - sprue

    MedlinePlus

    Sprue; Nontropical sprue; Gluten intolerance; Gluten-sensitive enteropathy; Gluten-free diet celiac disease ... When people with celiac disease eat foods with gluten, their immune system reacts by damaging the villi. ...

  12. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... seen under a very powerful microscope called an electron microscope. Minimal change disease is the most common ... biopsy and examination of the tissue with an electron microscope can show signs of minimal change disease.

  13. Chronic granulomatous disease

    MedlinePlus

    CGD; Fatal granulomatosis of childhood; Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood; Progressive septic granulomatosis ... In chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), immune system cells called phagocytes are unable to kill some types of bacteria and fungi. This ...

  14. McArdle disease

    MedlinePlus

    Glycogen storage disease type V (GSDV); Myophosphorylase deficiency; Muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency; PYGM deficiency ... the body cannot break down glycogen in the muscles. The disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder. ...

  15. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  16. Collagen vascular disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on ... were previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many ...

  17. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  18. Mitral Valve Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease occurs when the mitral valve doesn’t work properly. Types of Mitral Valve Disease Types of ... until you are able to go back to work, depending on your job. Everyday activities such as ...

  19. Peri-Implant Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... and flossing and regular check-ups from a dental professional. Other risks factors for developing peri-implant disease include previous periodontal disease diagnosis, poor plaque control, smoking , and diabetes . It is essential to routinely ...

  20. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  1. Men and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  2. Polycystic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cysts - kidneys; Kidney - polycystic; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ADPKD ... Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is passed down through families (inherited). The 2 inherited forms of PKD are autosomal dominant ...

  3. Blood and Lymph Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine, National Institutes of Health. National Center for Biotechnology Information (US). Genes and Disease [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 1998-. Genes and Disease [Internet]. Show ...

  4. Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Balance › Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease January 2014 Download PDFs English ... nervous system, body temperature, and weight. What is hypothyroidism and what are its symptoms? Hypothyroidism, also called ...

  5. Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wars & Operations Exposure Categories A-Z Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects ... Veterans Health Initiative Veterans Health Initiative Home Agent Orange Gulf War Infectious Diseases of Southwest Asia War ...

  6. Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) Fact sheet Updated March 2016 Key facts About ... is essential. Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by ...

  7. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  8. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

  9. Bone Marrow Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or ... marrow makes too many white blood cells Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone ...

  10. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, degenerative brain disorder. Symptoms usually start around age 60. Memory problems, behavior changes, vision ... during a medical procedure Cattle can get a disease related to CJD called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) ...

  11. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring ... United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other ...

  12. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The causes of STDs ... often help with the symptoms and keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  13. Lewy Body Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss of mental ... to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, build ...

  14. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  15. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  16. Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged and ... don't have any symptoms until their kidney disease is very advanced. Blood and urine tests are ...

  17. Rheumatoid lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules; Rheumatoid lung ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 65. Lake F, Proudman S. Rheumatoid arthritis and lung disease: from mechanisms to a practical approach. Semin Respir ...

  18. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... be the same one that causes vCJD in humans. Varient CJD causes less than 1% of all ... Scrapie (found in sheep) Other very rare inherited human diseases, such as Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease and ...

  19. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  20. Liver Disease and IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... 34% of Crohn’s patients with disease of the terminal ileum (the last segment of the small intestine). ... increased risk for developing gallstones because the diseased terminal ileum cannot absorb bile salts, which are necessary ...

  1. Aspirin and heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology ... NE, et al. Antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy for ischemic ... of coronary heart disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, et ...

  2. Congenital heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... about genetic counseling and screening if you have a family history of cogenital heart disease. ... Fraser CD, Carberry KE. Congenital heart disease. In: Townsend CM ... Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  3. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic ...

  4. Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3900 Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? ... and move closer to a cure. Treatments for Alzheimer's disease Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer's. But ...

  5. [Emerging noninfectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Consiglio, Ezequiel

    2008-11-01

    In recent years, emerging diseases were defined as being infectious, acquiring high incidence, often suddenly, or being a threat or an unexpected phenomenon. This study discusses the hallmarks of emerging diseases, describing the existence of noninfectious emerging diseases, and elaborating on the advantages of defining noninfectious diseases as emerging ones. From the discussion of various mental health disorders, nutritional deficiencies, external injuries and violence outcomes, work injuries and occupational health, and diseases due to environmental factors, the conclusion is drawn that a wide variety of noninfectious diseases can be defined as emergent. Noninfectious emerging diseases need to be identified in order to improve their control and management. A new definition of "emergent disease" is proposed, one that emphasizes the pathways of emergence and conceptual traits, rather than descriptive features.

  6. Head Lice: Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  7. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Patient Health Information ... with a hearing loss. How Does the Healthy Ear Work? The ear has three main parts: the ...

  8. Celiac Disease: Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Greg; Feighery, Conleth F

    2015-01-01

    Historically the diagnosis of celiac disease has relied upon clinical, serological, and histological evidence. In recent years the use of sensitive serological methods has meant an increase in the diagnosis of celiac disease. The heterogeneous nature of the disorder presents a challenge in the study and diagnosis of the disease with patients varying from subclinical or latent disease to patients with overt symptoms. Furthermore the related gluten-sensitive disease dermatitis herpetiformis, while distinct in some respects, shares clinical and serological features with celiac disease. Here we summarize current best practice for the diagnosis of celiac disease and briefly discuss newer approaches. The advent of next-generation assays for diagnosis and newer clinical protocols may result in more sensitive screening and ultimately the possible replacement of the intestinal biopsy as the gold standard for celiac disease diagnosis.

  9. Parkinson disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Parkinson disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Parkinson disease : The Michael J. Fox Foundation -- www.michaeljfox.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www. ...

  10. Lung disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association -- www.lung.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  11. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services -- www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

  12. Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview of CDC’s work. Advancements in Sickle Cell Disease New supplement from the American Journal of Preventive Medicine describes the state of sickle cell disease related care in the United States. Read Supplement ...

  13. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Mar 23,2016 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  14. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... an immune response or “allergy” to beryllium metal, ceramic or alloy, termed beryllium sensitization (BeS). Beryllium sensitization ... Mroz MM, Newman LS. Beryllium disease screening in ceramics industry: Blood test performance and exposure-disease relations. ...

  15. HIV and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... FOR KIDNEY DISEASE? HIV MEDICATIONS AND THE KIDNEYS DIALYSIS AND KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION THE BOTTOM LINE WHY SHOULD ... disease (ESRD) or kidney failure. This can require dialysis or a kidney transplant. The rate of kidney ...

  16. Metastatic Bone Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bone Disease cont. Page ( 4 ) MBD vs. Primary Bone Cancer The diagnosis of metastatic bone disease should not ... from an unknown primary carcinoma or a primary bone cancer (sarcoma). For example, if an area of bone ...

  17. Carotenoids and chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, S; Rao, A V

    2000-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases are the major causes of deaths in North America. Dietary intake of fruits and vegetables has been suggested to have protective effects against such chronic diseases. Carotenoids are important plant pigments which are thought to contribute towards the beneficial effects of fruit and vegetable consumption. This review focuses on the role of carotenoids and particularly lycopene in chronic diseases.

  18. Chemokines and disease.

    PubMed

    Gerard, C; Rollins, B J

    2001-02-01

    We examine here several diseases that are associated with inappropriate activation of the chemokine network. Detailed comment has been restricted to pathological states for which there are compelling data either from clinical observations or animal models. These include cardiovascular disease, allergic inflammatory disease, transplantation, neuroinflammation, cancer and HIV-associated disease. Discussion focuses on therapeutic directions in which the rapidly evolving chemokine field appears to be headed. PMID:11175802

  19. Whipple's disease revisited

    PubMed Central

    Misbah, S; Mapstone, N

    2000-01-01

    Whipple's disease has traditionally been considered to be a rare multisystem disorder dominated by malabsorption. The recent identification of the Whipple's disease bacillus has, using polymerase chain reaction based assays, fuelled advances in the investigation, diagnosis, and management of this disease. This leader reviews the aetiology, clinical manifestations, investigation, and treatment of Whipple's disease in the light of this new information. Key Words: Tropheryma whippelii • immune system • polymerase chain reaction PMID:11064667

  20. Genetics of complex diseases.

    PubMed

    Motulsky, Arno G

    2006-02-01

    Approaches to the study of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and their clinical applications are considered. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance in such conditions is infrequent but its elucidation may help to detect pathogenic mechanisms in the more common variety of complex diseases. Involvement by multiple genes in complex diseases usually occurs but the isolation and identification of specific genes so far has been exceptional. The role of common polymorphisms as indicators of disease risk in various studies is discussed.

  1. Learn About Neuromuscular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Muscular Atrophy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease) Phosphofructokinase Deficiency Phosphoglycerate Kinase Deficiency Phosphoglycerate Mutase Deficiency Phosphorylase Deficiency Phosphorylase Deficiency Polymyositis ( ...

  2. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Overview of Infectious Diseases Page Content Article Body I nfectious diseases are ... worms Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy ...

  3. Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... sickle cell disease? Sickle cell disease, also called sickle cell anemia, is a hereditary condition (which means it runs ... or blocks blood and oxygen reaching nearby tissues. Sickle cell disease ... the whites of the eyes) Anemia (the decreased ability of the blood to carry ...

  4. Cardiovascular disease among firefighters.

    PubMed

    Melius, J M

    1995-01-01

    The author reviews the literature of the past 20 years on heart disease among firefighters, covering the specific aspects of firefighting that may be related to potential cardiovascular disease. The author then outlines steps that can be taken to reduce the risks of developing cardiovascular disease.

  5. Disease control operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian

    1987-01-01

    Individual disease outbreaks have killed many thousands of animals on numerous occasions. Tens of thousands of migratory birds have died in single die-offs with as many as 1,000 birds succumbing in 1 day. In mammals, individual disease outbreaks have killed hundreds to thousands of animals with, for example, hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer, distemper in raccoon, Errington's disease in muskrat, and sylvatic plague in wild rodents. The ability to successfully combat such explosive situations is highly dependent n the readiness of field personnel to deal with them. Because many disease agents can spread though wildlife populations very fast, advance preparation is essential in preventing infected animals from spreading disease to additional species and locations. Carefully though-out disease contingency plans should be developed as practical working documents for field personnel and updated as necessary. Such well-designed plans can prove invaluable in minimizing wildlife losses and costs associated with disease control activities. Although requirements for disease control operations vary and must be tailored to each situation, all disease contingency planning involved general concepts and basic biological information. This chapter, intended as a practical guide, identifies the major activities and needs of disease control operations, and relates them to disease contingency planning.

  6. Enteric Redmouth Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), is a disease of salmonid fish species that is endemic in areas of the world where salmonids are intensively cultured. The disease causes a chronic to acute hemorrhagic septicemia which can lead to high rates of mortality partic...

  7. Chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging prion disease of deer, elk, and moose in North America. This fatal neurodegenerative disease was first recognized 50 years ago and its distribution was limited to the Rocky Mountains for several decades. In the past few years, CWD has been found in the ea...

  8. Heart Disease in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing or ... the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and it happens slowly over time. It's the ...

  9. Small animal disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Jones, Philip H; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Radford, Alan D; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Noble, Peter J M; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J; McConnell, Katie

    2015-12-12

    This is the first UK small animal disease surveillance report from SAVSNET. Future reports will expand to other syndromes and diseases. As data are collected for longer, the estimates of changes in disease burden will become more refined, allowing more targeted local and perhaps national interventions. Anonymised data can be accessed for research purposes by contacting the authors. SAVSNET welcomes feedback on this report.

  10. Spinal Cord Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... damages the vertebrae or other parts of the spine, this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include Tumors Infections such as meningitis and polio Inflammatory diseases Autoimmune diseases Degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal ...

  11. Lyme Disease (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Lyme Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Lyme Disease Print A A A Text Size What's in ... and summer, you might hear about something called Lyme disease. It has nothing to do with limes, but ...

  12. Metastatic Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Lanka, Padmavathy; Lanka, Lakshmana Rao; Sylvester, N; Lakshmi, M Dhana; Ethirajan, N

    2014-01-01

    Crohn's disease, first described in 1922, is characterized by segmental granulomatous inflammation of the intestinal tract and frequently involves the cutaneous tissues as well. Cutaneous Crohn's disease (CCD) is synonymous with metastatic Crohn's disease (MSD). A case of CCD, without any gastrointestinal involvement is reported for its rarity.

  13. Venereal Disease. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Stephen J.

    This book is one in a series of contemporary topics in health science for students. The first chapter deals with the behavioral aspects of venereal disease and how the disease has been affected by our changing society. Chapter 2 discusses the magnitude of the problem, presenting various maps and charts. The history of venereal disease and the…

  14. Gene therapy for CNS diseases - Krabbe disease.

    PubMed

    Rafi, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    This is a brief report of the 19th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy that took place from May 4th through May 7th, 2016 in Washington, DC, USA. While the meeting provided many symposiums, lectures, and scientific sessions this report mainly focuses on one of the sessions on the "Gene Therapy for central nervous system (CNS) Diseases" and specifically on the "Gene Therapy for the globoid cell leukodystrophy or Krabbe disease. Two presentations focused on this subject utilizing two animal models of this disease: mice and dog models. Different serotypes of adeno-associate viral vectors (AAV) alone or in combination with bone marrow transplantations were used in these research projects. The Meeting of the ASGCT reflected continuous growth in the fields of gene and cell therapy and brighter forecast for efficient treatment options for variety of human diseases. PMID:27525222

  15. Mechanisms of disease: defensins in gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Wehkamp, Jan; Fellermann, Klaus; Herrlinger, Klaus R; Bevins, Charles L; Stange, Eduard F

    2005-09-01

    Defensins are endogenous antibiotics with microbicidal activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa. In the gastrointestinal tract, defensins help regulate the composition and number of colonizing microbes, and protect the host from food-borne and water-borne pathogens. In health, the normal host relationship with the commensal luminal microbiota is beneficial, but the same commensal bacteria could have a pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases. A disturbance in antimicrobial defense, as provided by Paneth cells of the small intestine, seems to be a critical factor in the pathogenesis of ileal Crohn's disease, an inflammatory disease of the intestinal tract. The disruption of the critical balance between antimicrobial peptides and luminal bacteria might also explain other gastrointestinal infections and diseases. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms involved in the regulation and biology of defensins could open up new therapeutic avenues.

  16. Cerebrovascular disease in ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Love, Seth; Miners, J Scott

    2016-05-01

    Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have more in common than their association with ageing. They share risk factors and overlap neuropathologically. Most patients with AD have Aβ amyloid angiopathy and degenerative changes affecting capillaries, and many have ischaemic parenchymal abnormalities. Structural vascular disease contributes to the ischaemic abnormalities in some patients with AD. However, the stereotyped progression of hypoperfusion in this disease, affecting first the precuneus and cingulate gyrus, then the frontal and temporal cortex and lastly the occipital cortex, suggests that other factors are more important, particularly in early disease. Whilst demand for oxygen and glucose falls in late disease, functional MRI, near infrared spectroscopy to measure the saturation of haemoglobin by oxygen, and biochemical analysis of myelin proteins with differential susceptibility to reduced oxygenation have all shown that the reduction in blood flow in AD is primarily a problem of inadequate blood supply, not reduced metabolic demand. Increasing evidence points to non-structural vascular dysfunction rather than structural abnormalities of vessel walls as the main cause of cerebral hypoperfusion in AD. Several mediators are probably responsible. One that is emerging as a major contributor is the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (EDN1). Whilst there is clearly an additive component to the clinical and pathological effects of hypoperfusion and AD, experimental and clinical observations suggest that the disease processes also interact mechanistically at a cellular level in a manner that exacerbates both. The elucidation of some of the mechanisms responsible for hypoperfusion in AD and for the interactions between CVD and AD has led to the identification of several novel therapeutic approaches that have the potential to ameliorate ischaemic damage and slow the progression of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26711459

  17. [Is Parkinson's disease a prion disease?].

    PubMed

    Brandel, J-P; Corbillé, A-G; Derkinderen, P; Haïk, S

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation of a specific protein in aggregated form is a common phenomenon in human neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, this protein is α-synuclein which is a neuronal protein of 143 amino acids. With a monomeric conformation in solution, it also has a natural capacity to aggregate into amyloid structures (dimers, oligomers, fibrils and Lewy bodies or neurites). It therefore fulfils the characteristics of a prion protein (different conformations, seeding and spreading). In vitro and in vivo experimental evidence in transgenic and wild animals indicates a prion-like propagation of Parkinson's disease. The sequential and predictive distribution of α-synuclein demonstrated by Braak et al. and its correlation with non-motor signs are consistent with the prion-like progression. Although the triggering factor causing the misfolding and aggregation of the target protein is unknown, Parkinson's disease is a highly relevant model for the study of these mechanisms and also to test specific treatments targeting the assemblies of α-synuclein and propagation from pre-motor phase of the disease. Despite this prion-like progression, there is currently no argument indicating a risk of human transmission of Parkinson's disease. PMID:26563663

  18. Disease-modifying strategies for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Lorraine V; Kalia, Suneil K; Lang, Anthony E

    2015-09-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an increasingly prevalent and progressively disabling neurodegenerative disease. The impact of PD on patients and their families as well as its burden on health care systems could be substantially reduced by disease-modifying therapies that slow the rate of neurodegeneration or stop the disease process. Multiple agents have been studied in clinical trials designed to assess disease modification in PD, but all have failed. Over the last 3 years, clinical trials investigating the potential of adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV)-neuturin, coenzyme Q10, creatine, pramipexole, and pioglitazone reported negative findings or futility. Despite these disappointments, progress has been made by expanding our understanding of molecular pathways involved in PD to reveal new targets, and by developing novel animal models of PD for preclinical studies. Currently, at least eight ongoing clinical trials are testing the promise of isradipine, caffeine, nicotine, glutathione, AAV2-glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), as well as active and passive immunization against α-synuclein (α-Syn). In this review, we summarize the clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies for PD that were published since 2013 as well as clinical trials currently in progress. We also discuss promising approaches and ongoing challenges in this area of PD research.

  19. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.

  20. Epidemiology of Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sandler, R S; Golden, A L

    1986-04-01

    Although our current understanding is limited, epidemiologic investigation of Crohn's disease holds great promise. Certain aspects of the epidemiology are clear. The incidence of Crohn's disease, which has increased over the past few decades, may have reached a plateau. The disease has its peak onset in early life, with a second peak among the elderly. It is more common in the developed countries and among Jews. Whether the disease is related to occupation, social class, marital status, stress, infection, diet, smoking, and oral contraceptives is less certain. This paper reviews the epidemiology of Crohn's disease and proposes areas in which further research is needed.

  1. Meditation and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Newberg, Andrew B; Serruya, Mijail; Wintering, Nancy; Moss, Aleezé Sattar; Reibel, Diane; Monti, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases pose a significant problem for the healthcare system, doctors, and patients. With an aging population, more and more individuals are developing neurodegenerative diseases and there are few treatment options at the present time. Meditation techniques present an interesting potential adjuvant treatment for patients with neurodegenerative diseases and have the advantage of being inexpensive, and easy to teach and perform. There is increasing research evidence to support the application of meditation techniques to help improve cognition and memory in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses the current data on meditation, memory, and attention, and the potential applications of meditation techniques in patients with neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Lyme disease in athletes.

    PubMed

    DuPrey, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease, a bacterial infection transmitted by ticks, is the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Athletes who train or compete in wooded environments in endemic regions are at increased risk of contracting Lyme disease. Variability in clinical presentation, masquerading symptoms, and limitations in testing may lead to misdiagnosis. Early diagnosis and treatment result in full recovery for most patients with Lyme disease; however symptoms may persist for months to years, especially when diagnosis is delayed. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, with focus on the athletic population.

  3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation response plays an important role in host survival, and it also leads to acute and chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, bowel diseases, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and various neurodegenerative diseases. During the course of inflammation, the ROS level increases. In addition to ROS, several inflammatory mediators produced at the site lead to numerous cell-mediated damages. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a chronic intestinal disorder resulting from a dysfunctional epithelial, innate and adaptive immune response to intestinal microorganisms. The methods involving indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats with macroscopic changes of IBD, myeloperoxidase assay, microscopic (histologic) characters and biochemical parameters are discussed.

  4. [Combatting Lyme disease].

    PubMed

    Hovius, Joppe W R; Sprong, Hein

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of ticks seems to have increased with time, and the number of patients with Lyme disease in the Netherlands is also increasing. Lyme disease and other tick-transmitted diseases now attract a lot of attention. Several national initiatives at different levels are now in progress, with the aim of suppressing Lyme disease and providing better care for patients with indications of having these diseases. A more uniform approach between different treatment centres, joint research and further expansion of education and continuing education for physicians and the public could lead to further improvement.

  5. Huntington's disease gene located.

    PubMed

    Kolata, G

    1983-11-25

    Investigators have found a restriction enzyme marker, a piece of DNA that can be located with recombinant DNA techniques, that is so close to the Huntington's disease gene that its presence can be used as an indicator for that gene. If this marker is used as a diagnostic test for Huntington's disease, people at risk for getting the disease will be able to learn whether or not they will in fact develop the disease. The ability to predict the inevitable onset of this progressive, degenerative disease raises ethical questions about counseling, screening, and disclosure of risk status to patients and family members.

  6. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  7. Prion diseases. An overview.

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, Niels Jørn

    2002-01-01

    Prion disease is the new designation of a group of spongiform encephalopathies, all invariably fatal, which show similar clinical and neuropathological changes. They comprise a range of distinct diseases in both animals and man, and spontaneous, hereditary and transmissible forms are recognized. Until the sudden occurrence in the mid-1980s of an epizootic of a formerly unknown disease, popularly named 'mad cow disease', in cattle in the UK, very little attention had been paid to these rather obscure diseases. Concurrently it was asserted that the disease-causing agent appeared to be a ubiquitous mammalian brain constituent, and the disease mechanism a conformational change of its structure. These events have not only led to a new understanding of these extraordinary diseases, but have also provided insight into both neurodegeneration and disease mechanisms at the molecular level. Moreover, in 1997 the prion concept earned its originator the second Nobel price for medicine within this scientific field. In this introduction and overview of prion diseases, historical and philosophical perspectives are presented along with descriptions of the diseases in both animals and man. Epidemiology, genetics and transmissibility are also covered. PMID:12064253

  8. Prioritising Infectious Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Wiebe, Antoinette; Battle, Katherine E.; Golding, Nick; Gething, Peter W.; Dowell, Scott F.; Farag, Tamer H.; Garcia, Andres J.; Kimball, Ann M.; Krause, L. Kendall; Smith, Craig H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing volumes of data and computational capacity afford unprecedented opportunities to scale up infectious disease (ID) mapping for public health uses. Whilst a large number of IDs show global spatial variation, comprehensive knowledge of these geographic patterns is poor. Here we use an objective method to prioritise mapping efforts to begin to address the large deficit in global disease maps currently available. Methodology/Principal Findings Automation of ID mapping requires bespoke methodological adjustments tailored to the epidemiological characteristics of different types of diseases. Diseases were therefore grouped into 33 clusters based upon taxonomic divisions and shared epidemiological characteristics. Disability-adjusted life years, derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study, were used as a globally consistent metric of disease burden. A review of global health stakeholders, existing literature and national health priorities was undertaken to assess relative interest in the diseases. The clusters were ranked by combining both metrics, which identified 44 diseases of main concern within 15 principle clusters. Whilst malaria, HIV and tuberculosis were the highest priority due to their considerable burden, the high priority clusters were dominated by neglected tropical diseases and vector-borne parasites. Conclusions/Significance A quantitative, easily-updated and flexible framework for prioritising diseases is presented here. The study identifies a possible future strategy for those diseases where significant knowledge gaps remain, as well as recognising those where global mapping programs have already made significant progress. For many conditions, potential shared epidemiological information has yet to be exploited. PMID:26061527

  9. [Coeliac disease and dentistry].

    PubMed

    van Gils, T; de Boer, N K H; Bouma, G

    2015-09-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic autoimmune enteropathy, which is caused by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically pre-disposed individuals. -Approximately 0.5-1% of the Dutch population has coeliac disease, diag-nosed at both younger and older age. Treatment consists of a strict gluten-free diet. Symptoms can be diverse, including dental and oral manifestations. These dental and oral manifestations are often seen in patients with coeliac disease, although most of them are nonspecific. This is not the case for the symmetric enamel defects described by Aine and colleagues, which are very specific for coeliac disease. Early diagnosing of coeliac disease is important to prevent complications by (vitamin) deficiencies or rare (pre) malignant forms of coeliac disease. There seems to be a role for dentists in early diagnosing of coeliac disease.

  10. [Autoimmune thyroid disease and associated diseases].

    PubMed

    Lapcević, Mirjana

    2005-10-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) is a multifactorial, genetic disease. It is the sequelae of the impaired immunoregulation, tolerance and poor recognition of one's own proteins, oligopolysaccharides and polypeptides, due to development of somatic lymphocyte mutations. It is manifested by different clinical and morphological entities, inter-related by etiopathogenetic association, i.e., all of them are caused by disorder of immune system regulation. Chronic autoimmune thyroidism (Thyreoiditis lymphocytaria Hashimoto, HT), as well as immunogenic hyperthyroidism (Morbus Graves Basedow, MGB) are frequently associated with autoimmune diseases of other organs, such as: chronic insufficiency of salivary glands (Sy Sjögren), autoimmune hemolytic anemia, megalocytic pernicious anemia, thrombocytopenia, Rheumatoid arthritis, Diabetes mellitus (more often type 2, but also type 1), Morbus Addison, Coeliakia, and other autoimmune diseases such as systemic diseases of connecting tissue (Lupus erythematosus-SLE, Sclerodermia, Vasculitis superficialis). The incidence of autoimmune diseases has been at increase in all age groups of our population. The prevalence of organ-specific and organ-nonspecific antibodies increases with the age. Antigenicity of thyroid epithelial cell may be triggered by different chemical and biological agents (repeated viral infections), repeated stress, and in individuals with genetic propensity. Unrecognized ATD progressively leads to hypothyroidism with hyperlipidemia, blood vessel changes, osteoporosis, deformities, invalidity which substantially reduces the quality of life of patient and requires medical attention and expensive treatment on what account it is medically and socio-economically significant. Multiple diagnostic procedures contribute to faster recognition of this condition. The goal of the primary health care physician (given that preclinical phase of ATD and other associated diseases have different duration) and other specialists is to

  11. Disease monitoring in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shannon; Malter, Lisa; Hudesman, David

    2015-01-01

    The optimal method for monitoring quiescent disease in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis is yet to be determined. Endoscopic evaluation with ileocolonoscopy is the gold standard but is invasive, costly, and time-consuming. There are many commercially available biomarkers that may be used in clinical practice to evaluate disease status in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the most widely adopted biomarkers are C-reactive protein (CRP) and fecal calprotectin (FC). This review summarizes the evidence for utilizing CRP and FC for monitoring IBD during clinical remission and after surgical resection. Endoscopic correlation with CRP and FC is evaluated in each disease state. Advantages and drawbacks of each biomarker are discussed with special consideration of isolated ileal CD. Fecal immunochemical testing, traditionally used for colorectal cancer screening, is mentioned as a potential new alternative assay in the evaluation of IBD. Based on a mixture of information gleaned from biomarkers, clinical status, and endoscopic evaluation, the best treatment decisions can be made for the patient with IBD. PMID:26523100

  12. Epigenetic Inheritance of Disease and Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Bohacek, Johannes; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic marks in an organism can be altered by environmental factors throughout life. Although changes in the epigenetic code can be positive, some are associated with severe diseases, in particular, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent evidence has indicated that certain epigenetic marks can be inherited, and reshape developmental and cellular features over generations. This review examines the challenging possibility that epigenetic changes induced by environmental factors can contribute to some of the inheritance of disease and disease risk. This concept has immense implications for the understanding of biological functions and disease etiology, and provides potential novel strategies for diagnosis and treatment. Examples of epigenetic inheritance relevant to human disease, such as the detrimental effects of traumatic stress or drug/toxic exposure on brain functions, are reviewed. Different possible routes of transmission of epigenetic information involving the germline or germline-independent transfer are discussed, and different mechanisms for the maintenance and transmission of epigenetic information like chromatin remodeling and small noncoding RNAs are considered. Future research directions and remaining major challenges in this field are also outlined. Finally, the adaptive value of epigenetic inheritance, and the cost and benefit of allowing acquired epigenetic marks to persist across generations is critically evaluated. PMID:22781843

  13. Genetics of proteasome diseases.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Aldrin V

    2013-01-01

    The proteasome is a large, multiple subunit complex that is capable of degrading most intracellular proteins. Polymorphisms in proteasome subunits are associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurological diseases, and cancer. One polymorphism in the proteasome gene PSMA6 (-8C/G) is associated with three different diseases: type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. One type of proteasome, the immunoproteasome, which contains inducible catalytic subunits, is adapted to generate peptides for antigen presentation. It has recently been shown that mutations and polymorphisms in the immunoproteasome catalytic subunit PSMB8 are associated with several inflammatory and autoinflammatory diseases including Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, CANDLE syndrome, and intestinal M. tuberculosis infection. This comprehensive review describes the disease-related polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with human diseases and the physiological modulation of proteasome function by these polymorphisms. Given the large number of subunits and the central importance of the proteasome in human physiology as well as the fast pace of detection of proteasome polymorphisms associated with human diseases, it is likely that other polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with diseases will be detected in the near future. While disease-associated polymorphisms are now readily discovered, the challenge will be to use this genetic information for clinical benefit. PMID:24490108

  14. Genetics of Proteasome Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Aldrin V.

    2013-01-01

    The proteasome is a large, multiple subunit complex that is capable of degrading most intracellular proteins. Polymorphisms in proteasome subunits are associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurological diseases, and cancer. One polymorphism in the proteasome gene PSMA6 (−8C/G) is associated with three different diseases: type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. One type of proteasome, the immunoproteasome, which contains inducible catalytic subunits, is adapted to generate peptides for antigen presentation. It has recently been shown that mutations and polymorphisms in the immunoproteasome catalytic subunit PSMB8 are associated with several inflammatory and autoinflammatory diseases including Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, CANDLE syndrome, and intestinal M. tuberculosis infection. This comprehensive review describes the disease-related polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with human diseases and the physiological modulation of proteasome function by these polymorphisms. Given the large number of subunits and the central importance of the proteasome in human physiology as well as the fast pace of detection of proteasome polymorphisms associated with human diseases, it is likely that other polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with diseases will be detected in the near future. While disease-associated polymorphisms are now readily discovered, the challenge will be to use this genetic information for clinical benefit. PMID:24490108

  15. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Lu, Hong-Yun

    2014-07-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are two diseases that are common in the general population. To date, many studies have been conducted and demonstrate a direct link between NAFLD and CVD, but the exact mechanisms for this complex relationship are not well established. A systematic search of the PubMed database revealed that several common mechanisms are involved in many of the local and systemic manifestations of NAFLD and lead to an increased cardiovascular risk. The possible mechanisms linking NAFLD and CVD include inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, ectopic adipose tissue distribution, dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, and adiponectin, among others. The clinical implication is that patients with NAFLD are at an increased risk of CVD and should undergo periodic cardiovascular risk assessment. PMID:25024598

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Pompe disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Pompe disease: Baby's First Test GeneReview: Glycogen Storage Disease Type II (Pompe Disease) Genetic Testing Registry: Glycogen storage disease type II, infantile Genetic Testing Registry: Glycogen ...

  17. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  18. What Causes Coronary Microvascular Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors ... Microvascular Disease? The same risk factors that cause atherosclerosis may cause coronary microvascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Alzheimer disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Kathleen Bryan Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Duke University Medical Center MalaCards: alzheimer disease MalaCards: alzheimer disease risk factor Merck Manual Consumer Version: Alzheimer Disease Quick Facts ...

  20. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    de Villemeur, Thierry Billette

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are rare in children. Three types are known: kuru, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), and iatrogenic CJD. All three affect children and young adults, and are transmitted by infectious contamination. Kuru was the result of ritual funeral practices similar to cannibalism; variant CJD affects young people who have eaten meat from cows with mad cow disease (mostly in the UK); and iatrogenic CJD is secondary to graft of human tissues performed in the 1980s (dura mater, pituitary extracted growth hormone). The disease appears after 4-30 years of incubation. The initial symptomatology is frequently neurological (cerebellar ataxia, oculomotor disturbance, peripheral nerve pain, pyramidal syndrome) followed by dementia. There is no biological test available that can give a definite diagnosis of prion disease apart from neuropathology, although prion accumulation in vCJD can be demonstrated in pharyngeal tonsil by immunohistochemical techniques. This devastating disease results inevitably in death. No specific treatment is available. PMID:23622328

  1. Sulfadiazine for kidney disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, R.R.; Bernier, A.F.; Whipple, W.J.; Burrows, R.E.

    1951-01-01

    The blueback salmon fingerlings (Oncorhynchus nerka) at the U.S. Fish-Cultural Station at Winthrop, Washington, underwent an infection that was caused by a very short, Gram-positive, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacterium. A further description is impossible at this time, as the organism has not been grown satisfactorily for proper identification. The disease was characterized by white, raised areas of dead tissue mainly in the kidney: for this reason it is referred to as kidney disease. Belding and Merrill (1935) described a disease among the brook, brown, and rainbow trout at a State hatchery in Massachusetts which, from the description, might be the same as kidney disease. J.H. Wales of the California Division of Fish and Game described (unpublished manuscript, 1941) a disease in hatchery trout in California which seems to be identical to kidney disease.

  2. [Update on Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Dubois, B

    2009-03-01

    As the general population ages, the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease increases steadily. In France, 850,000 people are affected, with an annual incidence of 165,000 new cases. It is estimated that in 2020, 1.2 million people will be concerned in France. Nearly half of these patients, about 400,000, will have moderate to severe disease. These figures, issuing from the Eurodem group and the Paquid study, are estimates but clearly forecast an increase in upcoming years. While the disease generally affects elderly subjects, it is also known to occur early, before the age of 60. Nearly 20,000 patients will have an early onset form of the disease. Alzheimer's disease is first and foremost a brain disease, with lesions starting early in life. These early onset forms raise difficult diagnostic problems since these patients' problems are often mistakenly thought to arise from psychiatric disorders and treated as such in institutions inadapted to the patients' conditions.

  3. Viral Disease Networks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  4. Collecting rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This editorial introduces the F1000Research rare disease collection. It is common knowledge that for new treatments to be successful there has to be a partnership between the many interested parties such as the patient, advocate, disease foundations, the academic scientists, venture funding organizations, biotech companies, pharmaceutical companies, NIH, and the FDA. Our intention is to provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of any rare disease related topics that will advance scientific understanding and progress to treatments. PMID:25580231

  5. Metastatic Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Sangüeza, O P; Davis, L S; Gourdin, F W

    1997-09-01

    Metastatic Crohn's disease is the term used for granulomatous lesions of Crohn's disease involving sites other than the gastrointestinal tract. Metastatic Crohn's disease has been considered uncommon, when in actuality it may simply be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed since the clinical findings can be different. We report on three patients with this condition: one with generalized plaques, another with perineal and perianal ulcerations, and a third with a painless forearm nodule. PMID:9305298

  6. Pancytopenia in Lyme disease

    PubMed Central

    Mehrzad, Raman; Bravoco, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    We present a 49-year-old man with subacute onset of fever, weakness, shortness of breath, unilateral lower extremity oedema and pancytopenia who was found to have positive serology for Lyme disease. The patient presented with an intravascular haemolytic pattern on laboratory findings where an extensive infectious disease and haematological workup ruled out ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, HIV, hepatitis B and other parasitic infections. This left a very atypical presentation of Lyme disease. PMID:24596410

  7. Optogenetics for neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vann, Kiara T; Xiong, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are devastating conditions that lead to progressive degeneration of neurons. Neurodegeneration may result in ataxia, dementia, and muscle atrophies, etc. Despite enormous research efforts that have been made, there is lack of effective therapeutic interventions for most of these diseases. Optogenetics is a recently developed novel technique that combines optics and genetics to modulate the activity of specific neurons. Optogenetics has been implemented in various studies including neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on the recent advance in using this technique for the studies of common neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27186317

  8. "Diseases and natural kinds".

    PubMed

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2005-01-01

    David Thomasma called for the development of a medical ethics based squarely on the philosophy of medicine. He recognized, however, that widespread anti-essentialism presented a significant barrier to such an approach. The aim of this article is to introduce a theory that challenges these anti-essentialist objections. The notion of natural kinds presents a modest form of essentialism that can serve as the basis for a foundationalist philosophy of medicine. The notion of a natural kind is neither static nor reductionistic. Disease can be understood as making necessary reference to living natural kinds without invoking the claim that diseases themselves are natural kinds. The idea that natural kinds have a natural disposition to flourish as the kinds of things that they are provides a telos to which to tether the notion of disease - an objective telos that is broader than mere survival and narrower than subjective choice. It is argued that while nosology is descriptive and may have therapeutic implications, disease classification is fundamentally explanatory. Sickness and illness, while referring to the same state of affairs, can be distinguished from disease phenomenologically. Scientific and diagnostic fallibility in making judgments about diseases do not diminish the objectivity of this notion of disease. Diseases are things, not kinds. Injury is a concept parallel to disease that also makes necessary reference to living natural kinds. These ideas provide a new possibility for the development of a philosophy of medicine with implications for medical ethics. PMID:16292605

  9. [Update Chagas disease].

    PubMed

    Molina, Israel; Salvador, Fernando; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián

    2016-02-01

    The constant migration flows have favored the presence of people with Chagas disease in regions traditionally regarded as non-endemic, such as North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania. This has forced both health authorities and professionals to be updated in order to respond to such a demand for assistance. Recent years have led to significant progress in the field of diagnosis and treatment of Chagas disease, one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Recent clinical trials are providing new evidence that makes the management of these patients, a constant challenge for the professionals involved. Innovative diagnostic tools and therapeutic regimens, allow us to face the future of Chagas disease with optimism.

  10. [Weber-Christian disease].

    PubMed

    Shamov, I A

    2013-01-01

    In pursuance of the Federal law "On the fundamentals of health protection in RF", the Russian Ministry of Health approved the list of so-called orphan diseases, i.e. rare pathologies of great medical and social significance due to their life-threatening nature and immense burden on health budget. Weber-Christian disease is a chronic recurrent orphan diseases characterized by formation of painful dense nodes in subcutaneous fat free from suppuration and accompanied by episodic temperature changes, chill, muscular pain and sometimes damage to internal organs. The disease recurs at irregular intervals. PMID:24417073

  11. Inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, R M; Croft, N M; Fell, J M; Afzal, N A; Heuschkel, R B

    2006-01-01

    Twenty five per cent of inflammatory bowel disease presents in childhood. Growth and nutrition are key issues in the management with the aim of treatment being to induce and then maintain disease remission with minimal side effects. Only 25% of Crohn's disease presents with the classic triad of abdominal pain, weight loss, and diarrhoea. Most children with ulcerative colitis have blood in the stool at presentation. Inflammatory markers are usually although not invariably raised at presentation (particularly in Crohn's disease). Full investigation includes upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and ileocolonoscopy. Treatment requires multidisciplinary input as part of a clinical network led by a paediatrician with special expertise in the management of the condition. PMID:16632672

  12. [Viral exanthematic childhood diseases].

    PubMed

    Allwinn, R; Doerr, H W

    1997-01-01

    Exanthem is defined as multiple, inflammatory skin alteration with a hematogenic, lymphogenic or neurogenic origin. Typically, so called exanthematic children's diseases are measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) and in the past small pox. The pathogenesis of the viral-caused diseases primarily occurs in the vascular connective tissue. The cytopathogenetic effects result in inflammatory tissue reactions with activation of defence mechanism and producing of immune complexes. First symptoms are hyperemia, edema and inflammatory infiltrates with itchy swellings. Virological laboratory diagnosis are necessary especially for the progress of atypical infectious diseases, for persons with immunological or chronical illness and under chemotherapeutical or immunosuppressival treatment.

  13. Smallpox Disease Images

    MedlinePlus

    ... Case Definition: Caustic or Corrosive Agents Incapacitating Agents Metals Nerve ... Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) / Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) , National Center for Injury ...

  14. Interstitial lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease; Alveolitis; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis (IPP) ... The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each ...

  15. Progress in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio

    2012-02-01

    After more than one century from Alois Alzheimer and Gaetano Perusini's first report, progress has been made in understanding the pathogenic steps of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as in its early diagnosis. This review discusses recent findings leading to the formulation of novel criteria for diagnosis of the disease even in a preclinical phase, by using biological markers. In addition, treatment options will be discussed, with emphasis on new disease-modifying compounds and future trial design suitable to test these drugs in an early phase of the disease.

  16. Lyme disease and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  17. Glycosphingolipids and kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mather, Andrew R; Siskind, Leah J

    2011-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids, derived from the addition of sugar-moieties to the sphingolipid ceramide, are highly abundant in the kidney. Glycosphingolipids are known to play an important role in organ function at least in part from inherited lipid storage diseases such as Anderson-Fabry disease (Fabry's disease; FD) that results from a mutation in alpha-galactosidase a (α-GLA or α-Gal A), the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the removal of terminal galactose residues from glycosphingolipids. The inactivation in α-GLA in FD results in the accumulation of glycosphingolipids, including globosides and lactosylceramides, which manifests as several common pathologies including end-stage kidney disease. More recently, glycosphingolipids and other sphingolipids have become increasingly recognized for their roles in a variety of other kidney diseases including polycystic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy and kidney cancer. This chapter reviews evidence supporting a mechanistic role for glycosphingolipids in kidney disease and discusses data implicating a role for these lipids in kidney disease resulting from metabolic syndrome. Importantly, inhibitors of glycosphingolipid synthesis are well tolerated in animal models as well as in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of the mechanisms by which altered renal glycosphingolipid metabolism leads to kidney disease has great therapeutic potential.

  18. Tropical parasitic lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, V K

    2008-01-01

    Though parasitic lung diseases are frequently seen in tropical countries, these are being increasingly reported from many parts of the world due to globalisation and travel across the continents. In addition, the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the frequent use of immunosuppressive drugs in many diseases and the increasing numbers of organ transplantations have resulted in a renewed interest in many tropical parasitic lung diseases. This review outlines the recent developments in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of common and rare parasitic lung diseases.

  19. [Consensus statement haemorrhoidal disease].

    PubMed

    Aigner, Felix; Conrad, Friedrich; Haunold, Ingrid; Pfeifer, Johann; Salat, Andreas; Wunderlich, Max; Fortelny, Rene; Fritsch, Helga; Glöckler, Markus; Hauser, Hubert; Heuberger, Andreas; Karner-Hanusch, Judith; Kopf, Christoph; Lechner, Peter; Riss, Stefan; Roka, Sebastian; Scheyer, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    Haemorrhoidal disease belongs to the most common benign disorders in the lower gastrointestinal tract. Treatment options comprise conservative as well as surgical therapy still being applied arbitrarily in accordance with the surgeon's expertise. The aim of this consensus statement was therefore to assess a stage-dependent approach for treatment of haemorrhoidal disease to derive evidence-based recommendations for clinical routine. The most common methods are discussed with respect of haemorrhoidal disease in extraordinary conditions like pregnancy or inflammatory bowel disease and recurrent haemorrhoids. Tailored haemorrhoidectomy is preferable for individualized treatment with regard to the shortcomings of the traditional Goligher classification in solitary or circular haemorrhoidal prolapses.

  20. Epigenetics of cartilage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gabay, Odile; Clouse, Kathleen A

    2016-10-01

    Osteoarticular diseases, such as arthritis or osteoarthritis, are multifactorial diseases with an underlying genetic etiology that are challenging to study. Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS) have identified several genetic loci associated with these diseases. Epigenetics is a complex mechanism of chromatin and gene modulation through DNA methylation, histone deacetylation or microRNA, which might contribute to the inheritability of disease. Some of these mechanisms have been studied for decades in other diseases or as part of the aging process, where epigenetic changes seem to play an important role. With the implementation of better technological tools, such as the Illumina next generation sequencing, altered methylation of DNA has been linked to articular diseases and these mechanisms have been shown to regulate metalloprotease (MMP) expression and cartilage matrix integrity. Some miRNA have also been identified and more extensively characterized, such as delineation of the role played by miR-140 in chondrogenesis, followed by the discovery of numerous miRNA potentially involved in the epigenetic regulation of osteoarthritic disease. Histone deacetylases have long been linked to aging, particularly with respect to the Sirtuin family with Sirt1 as the major player. Because aging is the major risk factor for osteoarthritis, the involvement of Sirtuins in the etiology of osteoarthritis has been suggested and investigated. All of these fine regulations together shed new light on cartilage disease pathophysiology. We present in this short review an update of the role of these pathways in articular diseases.

  1. [Psoriasis and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Torres, Tiago; Sales, Rita; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Selores, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic and systemic inflammatory disease associated with several comorbidities, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome, but also with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, like myocardial infarction or stroke. The chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis has been suggested to be a contributing and potentially independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular comorbidities and precocious atherosclerosis. Aiming at alerting clinicians to the need of screening and monitoring cardiovascular diseases and its risk factors in psoriatic patients, this review will focus on the range of cardiometabolic comorbidities and increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with psoriasis.

  2. Neurodegenerative disease. Genetic discrimination in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Pulst, Stefan M

    2009-10-01

    A survey conducted in Canada examined the prevalence of perceived genetic discrimination against patients with Huntington disease. The respondents reported discrimination not only by insurance or mortgage companies, but also in family and social contexts. Discrimination was more frequently attributed to family history than to genetic test results. PMID:19794509

  3. Defining an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future. PMID:26470448

  4. Defining an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  5. Raspberry Mosaic Disease Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raspberry mosaic disease (RMD) is an overarching term used to describe a range of diseases caused by various combinations of different viruses that are each transmitted by aphids. In the scientific literature RMD has been given various alternative names, including red raspberry mosaic, type b mosaic...

  6. Thyroid Disease Definitions

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Thyroid Disease Definitions KidsHealth > For Teens > Thyroid Disease Definitions Print A A A Text Size ... sweat, mucous, and tears. goiter: This is a thyroid gland that is enlarged to the point that ...

  7. Management of diverticular disease.

    PubMed

    Pfützer, Roland H; Kruis, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Diverticular disease is a common condition in Western countries and the incidence and prevalence of the disease is increasing. The pathogenetic factors involved include structural changes in the gut that increase with age, a diet low in fibre and rich in meat, changes in intestinal motility, the concept of enteric neuropathy and an underlying genetic background. Current treatment strategies are hampered by insufficient options to stratify patients according to individual risk. One of the main reasons is the lack of an all-encompassing classification system of diverticular disease. In response, the German Society for Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases (DGVS) has proposed a classification system as part of its new guideline for the diagnosis and management of diverticular disease. The classification system includes five main types of disease: asymptomatic diverticulosis, acute uncomplicated and complicated diverticulitis, as well as chronic diverticular disease and diverticular bleeding. Here, we review prevention and treatment strategies stratified by these five main types of disease, from prevention of the first attack of diverticulitis to the management of chronic complications and diverticular bleeding.

  8. Ethics in Prion Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Kendra; Geschwind, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is intended to discuss some of the scientific and ethical issues that are created by increased research efforts towards earlier diagnosis, as well as to treatment of, human prion diseases (and related dementias), including the resulting consequences for individuals, their families, and society. Most patients with prion disease currently are diagnosed when they are about 2/3 of the way through their disease course (Geschwind, Kuo et al. 2010; Paterson, Torres-Chae et al. 2012), when the disease has progressed so far that even treatments that stop the disease process would probably have little benefit. Although there are currently no treatments available for prion diseases, we and others have realized that we must diagnose patients earlier and with greater accuracy so that future treatments have hope of success. As approximately 15% of prion diseases have a autosomal dominant genetic etiology, this further adds to the complexity of ethical issues, particularly regarding when to conduct genetic testing, release of genetic results, and when or if to implement experimental therapies. Human prion diseases are both infectious and transmissible; great care is required to balance the needs of the family and individual with both public health needs and strained hospital budgets. It is essential to proactively examine and address the ethical issues involved, as well as to define and in turn provide best standards of care. PMID:23906487

  9. Controlling Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

  10. Ethics in prion disease.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, Kendra; Geschwind, Michael D

    2013-11-01

    This paper is intended to discuss some of the scientific and ethical issues that are created by increased research efforts towards earlier diagnosis, as well as to treatment of, human prion diseases (and related dementias), including the resulting consequences for individuals, their families, and society. Most patients with prion disease currently are diagnosed when they are about 2/3 of the way through their disease course (Geschwind et al., 2010a; Paterson et al., 2012b), when the disease has progressed so far that even treatments that stop the disease process would probably have little benefit. Although there are currently no treatments available for prion diseases, we and others have realized that we must diagnose patients earlier and with greater accuracy so that future treatments have hope of success. As approximately 15% of prion diseases have a autosomal dominant genetic etiology, this further adds to the complexity of ethical issues, particularly regarding when to conduct genetic testing, release of genetic results, and when or if to implement experimental therapies. Human prion diseases are both infectious and transmissible; great care is required to balance the needs of the family and individual with both public health needs and strained hospital budgets. It is essential to proactively examine and address the ethical issues involved, as well as to define and in turn provide best standards of care.

  11. Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... on ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links​ Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases (PIDDs) Immune System National Library of Medicine, Genetics Home Reference ​​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain ... and Infectious Diseases web site to work incorrectly. Please visit your ...

  12. Swimming Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabelli, V. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of recreational waterborne outbreaks and cases of disease, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies; (2) predictive models of the risk of recreational waterborn disease. A list of 35 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Lesch-Nyhan Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabas, Gabor, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This special edition explores the serious genetic disorder, Lesch-Nyhan Disease (LND), which is characterized by severe dystonia, spasticity, speech impairment, renal disease, varying degrees of cognitive deficit, and, especially, compulsive self-injury. The information provided is based on experience at the Matheny School and Hospital (New…

  14. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Narayan, S K; Dutta, J K

    2005-09-01

    Cruetzfeldt-Jakob disease is a prion protein disease causing a transmissible, subacute, fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by a spongiform encephalopathy. Though rare, ever since Pruisner described the pathogenesis in 1982, this disease kept the clinicians as well as biologists spellbound, because of its distinct clinical picture and the novel mechanism of transmission. There was a further quantum leap in the interest in the disease with the establishment of its new clinical variant, the so called 'mad cow disease' in the late 1990s and had led to more stringent measures to ensure the quality of cattle-feeds and cattle-derived food products. The sporadic genetic variants, the commonest form of the disease, continue to challenge the genetic scientists. Advances in neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid marker proteins and genetic linkage studies now offer excellent diagnostic methods, while advances in therapeutic medicine which use products from cadaveric extracts such as growth hormone for treatment of hypopituitarism, dural grafts for neurosurgical procedures and cornea for transplantation etc. have thrown new challenges in controlling this serious disease. PMID:16334625

  15. Vaccines in dermatological diseases.

    PubMed

    Magel, G D; Mendoza, N; Digiorgio, C M; Haitz, K A; Lapolla, W J; Tyring, S K

    2011-06-01

    Vaccines have been a cornerstone in medicine and public health since their inception in the 18th century by Edward Jenner. Today, greater than 20 vaccines are used worldwide for the prevention of both viral and bacterial diseases. This article will review the vaccines used for the following dermatological diseases: smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, shingles, and human papillomavirus.

  16. Treating Pompe Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokor, Julie; Joseph, Drew; Darwiche, Houda

    2015-01-01

    One of the crosscutting concepts in science is cause and effect. A disease model can provide understanding of cause and effect, as teachers scaffold student thinking from molecular changes in the DNA to visible traits in the organism. The project described in this article uses Pompe disease, a rare recessive disorder, as a model of cause and…

  17. Mortality and pituitary disease.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Paul M; Sherlock, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Outcome data from large series confirm increased mortality of patients with pituitary tumours, predominantly due to vascular disease. Control of cortisol secretion and growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion (together with cardiovascular risk factor reduction) is key in the normalisation of mortality rates in patients with Cushing's disease and acromegaly, respectively, though some excess mortality may persist even in "cured" patients.

  18. Vaccines in dermatological diseases.

    PubMed

    Magel, G D; Mendoza, N; Digiorgio, C M; Haitz, K A; Lapolla, W J; Tyring, S K

    2011-06-01

    Vaccines have been a cornerstone in medicine and public health since their inception in the 18th century by Edward Jenner. Today, greater than 20 vaccines are used worldwide for the prevention of both viral and bacterial diseases. This article will review the vaccines used for the following dermatological diseases: smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, shingles, and human papillomavirus. PMID:21566552

  19. Respiratory Diseases of Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new Respiratory Diseases of Poultry CRIS will be established effective October 1, 2006. Initially, the disease agents to be studied will include Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium (BART) and Pasteurella multocida. The research will focus on development of more effective vacc...

  20. Neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Perl, Daniel P

    2010-01-01

    Alois Alzheimer first pointed out that the disease which would later bear his name has a distinct and recognizable neuropathological substrate. Since then, much has been added to our understanding of the pathological lesions associated with the condition. The 2 primary cardinal lesions associated with Alzheimer's disease are the neurofibrillary tangle and the senile plaque. The neurofibrillary tangle consists of abnormal accumulations of abnormally phosphorylated tau within the perikaryal cytoplasm of certain neurons. The senile plaque consists of a central core of beta-amyloid, a 4-kD peptide, surrounded by abnormally configured neuronal processes or neurites. Other neuropathological lesions are encountered in cases of Alzheimer's disease, but the disease is defined and recognized by these 2 cardinal lesions. Other lesions include poorly understood changes such as granulovacuolar degeneration and eosinophilic rodlike bodies (Hirano bodies). The loss of synaptic components is a change that clearly has a significant impact on cognitive function and represents another important morphological alteration. It is important to recognize that distinguishing between Alzheimer's disease, especially in its early stages, and normal aging may be very difficult, particularly if one is examining the brains of patients who died at an advanced old age. It is also noted that instances of pure forms of Alzheimer's disease, in the absence of other coexistent brain disease processes, such as infarctions or Parkinson's disease-related lesions, are relatively uncommon, and this must be taken into account by researchers who employ postmortem brain tissues for research.

  1. AUTOINFLAMMATORY PUSTULAR NEUTROPHILIC DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Haley B.; Cowen, Edward W.

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The inflammatory pustular dermatoses constitute a spectrum of non-infectious conditions ranging from localized involvement to generalized disease with associated acute systemic inflammation and multi-organ involvement. Despite the variability in extent and severity of cutaneous presentation, each of these diseases is characterized by non-infectious neutrophilic intra-epidermal microabscesses. Many share systemic findings including fever, elevated inflammatory markers, inflammatory bowel disease and/or osteoarticular involvement, suggesting potential common pathogenic links (Figure 1). The recent discoveries of several genes responsible for heritable pustular diseases have revealed a distinct link between pustular skin disease and regulation of innate immunity. These genetic advances have led to a deeper exploration of common pathways in pustular skin disease and offer the potential for a new era of biologic therapy which targets these shared pathways. This chapter provides a new categorization of inflammatory pustular dermatoses in the context of recent genetic and biologic insights. We will discuss recently-described monogenic diseases with pustular phenotypes, including deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), deficiency of the IL-36 receptor antagonist (DITRA), CARD14-associated pustular psoriasis (CAMPS), and pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne (PAPA). We will then discuss how these new genetic advancements may inform how we view previously described pustular diseases, including pustular psoriasis and its clinical variants, with a focus on historical classification by clinical phenotype. PMID:23827244

  2. Ribosomopathies: mechanisms of disease.

    PubMed

    Nakhoul, Hani; Ke, Jiangwei; Zhou, Xiang; Liao, Wenjuan; Zeng, Shelya X; Lu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomopathies are diseases caused by alterations in the structure or function of ribosomal components. Progress in our understanding of the role of the ribosome in translational and transcriptional regulation has clarified the mechanisms of the ribosomopathies and the relationship between ribosomal dysfunction and other diseases, especially cancer. This review aims to discuss these topics with updated information. PMID:25512719

  3. [Infectious diseases research].

    PubMed

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge. PMID:19195467

  4. Management of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Kammermeier, Jochen; Morris, Mary-Anne; Garrick, Vikki; Furman, Mark; Rodrigues, Astor; Russell, Richard K

    2016-05-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is rapidly increasing in children so an up to date knowledge of diagnosis, investigation and management is essential. Exclusive enteral nutrition is the first line treatment for active disease. The vast majority of children will need immunosuppressant treatment and around 20% will need treatment with biologics. Recent guidelines have helped make best use of available therapies.

  5. HIV Disease: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Describes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), newly characterized human retrovirus which causes chronic, progressive, immune deficiency disease, the most severe phase of which is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Reviews most important current epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic information about HIV and HIV disease and provides…

  6. [Infectious diseases research].

    PubMed

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  7. The human disease network.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kwang-Il; Cusick, Michael E; Valle, David; Childs, Barton; Vidal, Marc; Barabási, Albert-László

    2007-05-22

    A network of disorders and disease genes linked by known disorder-gene associations offers a platform to explore in a single graph-theoretic framework all known phenotype and disease gene associations, indicating the common genetic origin of many diseases. Genes associated with similar disorders show both higher likelihood of physical interactions between their products and higher expression profiling similarity for their transcripts, supporting the existence of distinct disease-specific functional modules. We find that essential human genes are likely to encode hub proteins and are expressed widely in most tissues. This suggests that disease genes also would play a central role in the human interactome. In contrast, we find that the vast majority of disease genes are nonessential and show no tendency to encode hub proteins, and their expression pattern indicates that they are localized in the functional periphery of the network. A selection-based model explains the observed difference between essential and disease genes and also suggests that diseases caused by somatic mutations should not be peripheral, a prediction we confirm for cancer genes. PMID:17502601

  8. Clinimetrics of Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Gates, G A

    2000-03-01

    Two clinically useful measures to quantify the morbidity of Meniere's disease are the daily vertigo diary card and the Meniere's Disease Patient-Oriented Severity Index (MD POSI). The development and application of these outcomes instruments for patients with vertigo are discussed.

  9. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Narayan, S K; Dutta, J K

    2005-09-01

    Cruetzfeldt-Jakob disease is a prion protein disease causing a transmissible, subacute, fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by a spongiform encephalopathy. Though rare, ever since Pruisner described the pathogenesis in 1982, this disease kept the clinicians as well as biologists spellbound, because of its distinct clinical picture and the novel mechanism of transmission. There was a further quantum leap in the interest in the disease with the establishment of its new clinical variant, the so called 'mad cow disease' in the late 1990s and had led to more stringent measures to ensure the quality of cattle-feeds and cattle-derived food products. The sporadic genetic variants, the commonest form of the disease, continue to challenge the genetic scientists. Advances in neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid marker proteins and genetic linkage studies now offer excellent diagnostic methods, while advances in therapeutic medicine which use products from cadaveric extracts such as growth hormone for treatment of hypopituitarism, dural grafts for neurosurgical procedures and cornea for transplantation etc. have thrown new challenges in controlling this serious disease.

  10. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  11. Advances in tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramos-E-Silva, M; Silveira Lima, T

    2011-10-01

    There are six diseases that WHO considers as the major threat in developing countries, leprosy, filariasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis; and of these only malaria does not present skin lesions. These diseases are among the so called tropical diseases found in countries of tropical climate, usually infections and infestations considered exotic and rare in European and North American countries. It is extremely important for doctors of all countries to be able to provide correct pre travel counseling and to make early diagnosis and treatment, thus avoiding dissemination of these dieases to non endemic areas. The authors review some important tropical diseases seen in Brazil, as paracoccidiodomycosis, lobomycosis, myiasis, tungiasis, and cutaneous schistosomiasis and discuss new information about them. PMID:21956272

  12. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Heneka, Michael T; Carson, Monica J; El Khoury, Joseph; Landreth, Gary E; Brosseron, Frederic; Feinstein, Douglas L; Jacobs, Andreas H; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Vitorica, Javier; Ransohoff, Richard M; Herrup, Karl; Frautschy, Sally A; Finsen, Bente; Brown, Guy C; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Yamanaka, Koji; Koistinaho, Jari; Latz, Eicke; Halle, Annett; Petzold, Gabor C; Town, Terrence; Morgan, Dave; Shinohara, Mari L; Perry, V Hugh; Holmes, Clive; Bazan, Nicolas G; Brooks, David J; Hunot, Stéphane; Joseph, Bertrand; Deigendesch, Nikolaus; Garaschuk, Olga; Boddeke, Erik; Dinarello, Charles A; Breitner, John C; Cole, Greg M; Golenbock, Douglas T; Kummer, Markus P

    2015-04-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment, but includes strong interactions with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and astroglia, and trigger an innate immune response characterised by release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to disease progression and severity. Genome-wide analysis suggests that several genes that increase the risk for sporadic Alzheimer's disease encode factors that regulate glial clearance of misfolded proteins and the inflammatory reaction. External factors, including systemic inflammation and obesity, are likely to interfere with immunological processes of the brain and further promote disease progression. Modulation of risk factors and targeting of these immune mechanisms could lead to future therapeutic or preventive strategies for Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality. PMID:27194895

  14. Hyperparathyroidism of Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Noah K; Ananthakrishnan, Shubha; Campbell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Renal hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. Patients with rHPT experience increased rates of cardiovascular problems and bone disease. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend that screening and management of rHPT be initiated for all patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Since the 1990s, improving medical management with vitamin D analogs, phosphate binders, and calcimimetic drugs has expanded the treatment options for patients with rHPT, but some patients still require a parathyroidectomy to mitigate the sequelae of this challenging disease. PMID:27479950

  15. Autoimmune diseases and vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Vial, Thierry; Descotes, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    The potential association between vaccination and autoimmune diseases has been largely questioned in the past few years, but this assumption has mostly been based on case reports. The available evidence derived from several negative epidemiological studies is reassuring and at least indicates that vaccines are not a major cause of autoimmune diseases. However, there are still uncertainties as to whether a susceptible subpopulation may be at a higher risk of developing an autoimmune disease without causing an overall increase in the disease incidence. Based on selected examples, this review highlights the difficulties in assessing this issue. We suggest that a potential link between vaccines and autoimmune diseases cannot be definitely ruled out and should be carefully explored during the development of new candidate vaccines. PMID:15196997

  16. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  17. Diseases of echinoderms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangoux, M.

    1984-03-01

    Diseases of echinoderms are poorly documented. Most reports concern biotic diseases caused by animal agents. While parasites on echinoderms have been described in increasing numbers of papers for more than one century, the host-parasite relationship and the effects of parasitism on echinoderm life-cycles were rarely considered. The parasitic fauna differs markedly according to the echinoderm group concerned, depending on various factors such as feeding-habits or symbiogenesis. Microorganismic diseases undoubtedly occur in echinoderms but they were not investigated until recently. Microorganisms have frequently been assumed to act as agents causing mass mortalities. As for stress-caused diseases, the only — and very preliminary — data available concern almost exclusively those induced by pollution. Since echinoderms are major components of benthic ecosystems, echinoderm diseases may be expected to exert prominent ecological effects.

  18. Endocrine diseases of rodents.

    PubMed

    Collins, Bobby R

    2008-01-01

    The frequency of documented endocrine diseases in rodents and other small mammals varies considerably among the species maintained as pets, biomedical research animals, or display animals in zoos. The clinical diagnosis of endocrine diseases almost never occurs in free-ranging animals in their native habitat. Feral animals that have clinical endocrine disease, such as neoplasia, adrenal cortical hyperplasia, or diabetes, would exhibit clinical signs of altered behavior that would result in their removal by predators. The diagnosis of endocrine disease thus takes place in the relatively protective environment of captivity. This observation should forewarn pet owners and clinicians caring for these animals that the environment contributes to the development of endocrine diseases in these animals.

  19. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Heneka, Michael T; Carson, Monica J; El Khoury, Joseph; Landreth, Gary E; Brosseron, Frederic; Feinstein, Douglas L; Jacobs, Andreas H; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Vitorica, Javier; Ransohoff, Richard M; Herrup, Karl; Frautschy, Sally A; Finsen, Bente; Brown, Guy C; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Yamanaka, Koji; Koistinaho, Jari; Latz, Eicke; Halle, Annett; Petzold, Gabor C; Town, Terrence; Morgan, Dave; Shinohara, Mari L; Perry, V Hugh; Holmes, Clive; Bazan, Nicolas G; Brooks, David J; Hunot, Stéphane; Joseph, Bertrand; Deigendesch, Nikolaus; Garaschuk, Olga; Boddeke, Erik; Dinarello, Charles A; Breitner, John C; Cole, Greg M; Golenbock, Douglas T; Kummer, Markus P

    2015-04-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment, but includes strong interactions with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and astroglia, and trigger an innate immune response characterised by release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to disease progression and severity. Genome-wide analysis suggests that several genes that increase the risk for sporadic Alzheimer's disease encode factors that regulate glial clearance of misfolded proteins and the inflammatory reaction. External factors, including systemic inflammation and obesity, are likely to interfere with immunological processes of the brain and further promote disease progression. Modulation of risk factors and targeting of these immune mechanisms could lead to future therapeutic or preventive strategies for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25792098

  20. [Childhood diseases with exanthema].

    PubMed

    Opstelten, Wim; Eekhof, Just A H; Knuistingh Neven, Arie

    2011-01-01

    - Due to high vaccination coverage, measles and rubella (German measles) are now rarely seen in the Netherlands, which makes recognition of these diseases difficult. - Measles can also occur in people who have been immunized, as a result of vaccination failure. - Swift recognition of measles and rubella is necessary in order to manage them adequately and to prevent spreading of the disease. - Measles, rubella, and erythema infectiosum ('fifth disease') may result in complications during pregnancy. - Measles, rubella, scarlet fever, erythema infectiosum, and roseola ('sixth disease') can be difficult to differentiate. - In the Netherlands, diagnosis of a patient with measles or rubella, or of more than 1 patient with erythema infectiosum within one institution, must be reported to the local health authority within 1 working day. - Exclusion from school or a day-care facility is not required for any if the diseases discussed.

  1. Celiac disease in children.

    PubMed

    Garnier-Lengliné, Hélène; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Ruemmele, Frank M

    2015-10-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy, triggered by ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Since the use of anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium antibodies in the early 1990s, two main groups of clinical presentation can be identified: patients with a symptomatic form of the disease, and patients with a pauci (a)-symptomatic form detected during the work-up of another autoimmune disease or due to a family history of celiac disease. The prevalence of both forms of the disease is currently estimated between 1/100 and 1/400. Classical form of the disease is characterized by occurrence of diarrhoea, failure to thrive, and abdominal bloating in young infants in the months following gluten introduction. Serological tests show high level of anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium antibodies. Until recently, the diagnosis required duodenal biopsies that show villous atrophy. HLA genotype can help for diagnosis: the absence of the HLA-DQ2 or DQ8 alleles has a high negative predictive value. European guidelines recently proposed to reconsider the need for systematic endoscopy in typical symptomatic forms with high level of anti-transglutaminase and positive anti-endomysium. These recommendations are being assessed now. Currently, the gluten-free diet remains the only effective treatment for celiac disease. Children with celiac disease have to exclude from their diet all products containing wheat, barley and rye. Gluten-free diet causes clinical remission within a few weeks, but normalization of the small bowel mucosa and negativity of anti-transglutaminase antibodies are obtained in several months or even years. Gluten-free diet is useful to obtain clinical assessment, but also to prevent long-term complications of celiac disease, mainly osteoporosis, other autoimmune diseases, decreased fertility and cancers. PMID:26186878

  2. Celiac disease in children.

    PubMed

    Garnier-Lengliné, Hélène; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Ruemmele, Frank M

    2015-10-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy, triggered by ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Since the use of anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium antibodies in the early 1990s, two main groups of clinical presentation can be identified: patients with a symptomatic form of the disease, and patients with a pauci (a)-symptomatic form detected during the work-up of another autoimmune disease or due to a family history of celiac disease. The prevalence of both forms of the disease is currently estimated between 1/100 and 1/400. Classical form of the disease is characterized by occurrence of diarrhoea, failure to thrive, and abdominal bloating in young infants in the months following gluten introduction. Serological tests show high level of anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium antibodies. Until recently, the diagnosis required duodenal biopsies that show villous atrophy. HLA genotype can help for diagnosis: the absence of the HLA-DQ2 or DQ8 alleles has a high negative predictive value. European guidelines recently proposed to reconsider the need for systematic endoscopy in typical symptomatic forms with high level of anti-transglutaminase and positive anti-endomysium. These recommendations are being assessed now. Currently, the gluten-free diet remains the only effective treatment for celiac disease. Children with celiac disease have to exclude from their diet all products containing wheat, barley and rye. Gluten-free diet causes clinical remission within a few weeks, but normalization of the small bowel mucosa and negativity of anti-transglutaminase antibodies are obtained in several months or even years. Gluten-free diet is useful to obtain clinical assessment, but also to prevent long-term complications of celiac disease, mainly osteoporosis, other autoimmune diseases, decreased fertility and cancers.

  3. Autoimmune disease and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jones, W R

    1994-06-01

    Autoimmune diseases are relatively common in women, and tend to occur in the childbearing years. These disorders fall broadly into two groups: (i) Multisystem diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and related connective tissue disorders (CTD). This group includes the 'pre-clinical' antiphospholipid or lupus obstetric syndrome which may first manifest itself as a pregnancy disorder causing recurrent abortion, fetal death, fetal growth retardation and early onset severe pre-eclampsia. (ii) Tissue- or organ-specific disorders such as autoimmune thrombocytopaenic purpura (ATP), autoimmune thyroid disease (Graves' disease, Hashimoto's autoimmune thyroiditis, and post-postum thyroiditis), autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, and the very rare myasthenia gravis. The study of autoimmune diseases against the background of pregnancy as an experimental system of nature has provided important insights into the nature of the disease processes and the relevance or otherwise of circulating autoantibodies to pathological effects. Thus, for example, if neonatal manifestations of adult disease are causally related to the transfer of autoantibodies across the placenta, they will disappear over a time course consistent with the catabolism of IgG, providing no permanent damage is produced. Conversely, if autoantibodies are demonstrable in the neonate, in the absence of clinical effects, they may only be an epiphenomenon of the maternal disease. In addition, on occasions, disease manifestations may be seen in the baby when the mother shows none. This may occur when the mother is in remission, but still has circulating antibodies, or when she has an occult form of the disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Metabolic bone disease in gut diseases.

    PubMed

    Lipkin, E W

    1998-06-01

    A wide spectrum of gastrointestinal illnesses impairs bone health and can result in bone pain, demineralization, and fracture. This article summarizes current knowledge of the skeletal pathology exhibited in patients with diseases of the liver, biliary tree, pancreas, and bowel. Mechanisms responsible for these syndromes and treatment options are discussed. This article enhances the practicing gastroenterologist's knowledge of the implications of gastrointestinal illness for bone. PMID:9650030

  5. Peyronie's Disease: Still a Surgical Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Daniel; Ercole, Cesar E.; Hakky, Tariq S.; Kramer, Andrew; Carrion, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Peyronie's Disease (PD) remains a challenging and clinically significant morbid condition. Since its first description by François Gigot de la Peyronie, much of the treatment for PD remains nonstandardized. PD is characterized by the formation of fibrous plaques at the level of the tunica albuginea. Clinical manifestations include morphologic changes, such as curvatures and hourglass deformities. Here, we review the common surgical techniques for the management of patients with PD. PMID:22956943

  6. Somatic mosaicism and disease.

    PubMed

    Frank, Steven A

    2014-06-16

    The large number of cell divisions required to make a human body inevitably leads to the accumulation of somatic mutations. Such mutations cause individuals to be somatic mosaics. Recent advances in genomic technology now allow measurement of somatic diversity. Initial studies confirmed the expected high levels of somatic mutations within individuals. Going forward, the big questions concern the degree to which those somatic mutations influence disease. Theory predicts that the frequency of mutant cells should vary greatly between individuals. Such somatic mutational variability between individuals could explain much of the diversity in the risk of disease. But how variable is mosaicism between individuals in reality? What is the relation between the fraction of cells carrying a predisposing mutation and the risk of disease? What kinds of heritable somatic change lead to disease besides classical DNA mutations? What molecular processes connect a predisposing somatic change to disease? We know that predisposing somatic mutations strongly influence the onset of cancer. Likewise, neurodegenerative diseases may often begin from somatically mutated cells. If so, both neurodegeneration and cancer may be diseases of later life for which much of the risk may be set by early life somatic mutations.

  7. [Parkinson disease and cognition].

    PubMed

    Kulisevsky, J; Pascual-Sedano, B

    1999-05-01

    Parkinson's Disease patients may have cognitive deficits, which may vary from mild focal specific deficits to global dementia. Executive functions, working memory, visuoespatial functions and internal control of attention are the main affected cognitive areas. The dopaminergic hypothesis suggests that dopaminergic transmission is involved in most altered cognitive processes. However, other neuronal systems are probably implicated, and the improvement of the cognitive function after dopaminergic replacement is incomplete and not seen in all cognitive tasks. The prevalence of dementia in Parkinson's disease is estimated in 15-25%. The pathologic hallmarks may be similar to that seen in Alzheimer's disease. However, in Parkinson's disease patients pure subcortical alterations are able to produce a severe cognitive impairment, such as lost of dopaminergic neurones from substantia nigra to caudate nucleus and frontal areas. Comprehension of the relationship between depression and dementia in Parkinson's disease patients is incomplete. Parkinson's disease patients with depression show poor neuropsychological performance, especially in frontal tasks, but it is unclear whether depression can be considered a risk factor for the development of dementia in Parkinson's disease.

  8. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease).

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Chris

    2004-02-17

    Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) is a parasitic disease that is limited to remote, rural villages in 13 sub-Saharan African countries that do not have access to safe drinking water. It is one the next diseases targeted for eradication by the World Health Organization. Guinea worm disease is transmitted by drinking water containing copepods (water fleas) that are infected with Dracunculiasis medinensis larvae. One year after human ingestion of infected water a female adult worm emerges, typically from a lower extremity, producing painful ulcers that can impair mobility for up to several weeks. This disease occurs annually when agricultural activities are at their peak. Large proportions of economically productive individuals of a village are usually affected simultaneously, resulting in decreased agricultural productivity and economic hardship. Eradication of guinea worm disease depends on prevention, as there is no effective treatment or vaccine. Since 1986, there has been a 98% reduction in guinea worm disease worldwide, achieved primarily through community-based programs. These programs have educated local populations on how to filter drinking water to remove the parasite and how to prevent those with ulcers from infecting drinking-water sources. Complete eradication will require sustained high-level political, financial and community support.

  9. Dynamics of Interacting Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, Joaquín; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2014-10-01

    Current modeling of infectious diseases allows for the study of complex and realistic scenarios that go from the population to the individual level of description. However, most epidemic models assume that the spreading process takes place on a single level (be it a single population, a metapopulation system, or a network of contacts). In particular, interdependent contagion phenomena can be addressed only if we go beyond the scheme-one pathogen-one network. In this paper, we propose a framework that allows us to describe the spreading dynamics of two concurrent diseases. Specifically, we characterize analytically the epidemic thresholds of the two diseases for different scenarios and compute the temporal evolution characterizing the unfolding dynamics. Results show that there are regions of the parameter space in which the onset of a disease's outbreak is conditioned to the prevalence levels of the other disease. Moreover, we show, for the susceptible-infected-susceptible scheme, that under certain circumstances, finite and not vanishing epidemic thresholds are found even at the limit for scale-free networks. For the susceptible-infected-removed scenario, the phenomenology is richer and additional interdependencies show up. We also find that the secondary thresholds for the susceptible-infected-susceptible and susceptible-infected-removed models are different, which results directly from the interaction between both diseases. Our work thus solves an important problem and paves the way toward a more comprehensive description of the dynamics of interacting diseases.

  10. [Erdheim-Chester disease].

    PubMed

    Haroche, J; Cohen-Aubart, F; Arnaud, L; Hervier, B; Charlotte, F; Drier, A; Gorochov, G; Grenier, P A; Cluzel, P; Maksud, P; Emile, J-F; Amoura, Z

    2014-11-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare and orphan disease. Despite having been overlooked previously, numerous new cases have been diagnosed more recently. The number of Erdheim-Chester disease cases reported has increased substantially: more than 300 new cases have been published in the past 10 years. This situation is mainly a result of the generally better awareness among pathologists, radiologists, and clinicians of various aspects of this rare disease. The field has been particularly active in the last few years, with evidence of the efficacy of interferon-α, the description of a systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine signature, and most recently, reports of the dramatic efficacy of BRAF inhibition in severe, BRAF(V600E) mutation-associated cases of Erdheim-Chester disease. Also, BRAF mutations have been found in more than half of the patients with Erdheim-Chester disease who were tested. Detailed elucidation of the pathogenesis of the disease is likely to lead to the development of better targeted and more effective therapies.

  11. Domoic acid epileptic disease.

    PubMed

    Ramsdell, John S; Gulland, Frances M

    2014-03-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  12. [Erdheim-Chester disease].

    PubMed

    Haroche, J; Cohen-Aubart, F; Arnaud, L; Hervier, B; Charlotte, F; Drier, A; Gorochov, G; Grenier, P A; Cluzel, P; Maksud, P; Emile, J-F; Amoura, Z

    2014-11-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare and orphan disease. Despite having been overlooked previously, numerous new cases have been diagnosed more recently. The number of Erdheim-Chester disease cases reported has increased substantially: more than 300 new cases have been published in the past 10 years. This situation is mainly a result of the generally better awareness among pathologists, radiologists, and clinicians of various aspects of this rare disease. The field has been particularly active in the last few years, with evidence of the efficacy of interferon-α, the description of a systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine signature, and most recently, reports of the dramatic efficacy of BRAF inhibition in severe, BRAF(V600E) mutation-associated cases of Erdheim-Chester disease. Also, BRAF mutations have been found in more than half of the patients with Erdheim-Chester disease who were tested. Detailed elucidation of the pathogenesis of the disease is likely to lead to the development of better targeted and more effective therapies. PMID:24878295

  13. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdell, John S.; Gulland, Frances M.

    2014-01-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  14. Aging and liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee; Kisseleva, Tatiana; Brenner, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Aging is a condition in which a person gradually loses the ability to maintain homeostasis, due to structural alteration or dysfunction. Aging is a major risk factor for most chronic diseases. As the liver has a remarkable ability to regenerate, this review assessed the effect of aging on clinical liver disease with references to preclinical models when relevant to pathogenesis. Recent findings Aging has been shown to not only enhance vulnerability to acute liver injury but also increase susceptibility of the fibrotic response. Aging is associated with the severity and poor prognosis of various liver diseases including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, hepatitis C, and liver transplantation. Summary Treatment of older patients with liver disease may require different or longer interventions. Transplantation of an older liver will be less tolerant of subsequent injury. Future studies are needed to understand more about the molecular mechanism of aging and contribute to the development of a noble treatment strategy that can block the progression of aging-induced liver diseases. PMID:25850346

  15. Cardiovascular disease mortality.

    PubMed

    Onwuanyi, Anekwe E; Clarke, Aubrey; Vanderbush, Eric

    2003-12-01

    Although mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has been declining, it remains the leading cause of death among urban U.S. blacks. McCord and Freeman reported CVD as the major contributor to excess mortality in Central Harlem. However the disease-specific CVD mortality was not assessed. Thus, it was unclear what the distribution of specific CVDs was in Central Harlem and their contribution to excess mortality. We reviewed the vital statistics records of New York City (NYC) Department of Health for 1990 and identified all cases in which the cause of death was coded as cardiovascular (International Classification of Diseases-ICD, 9th Revision, codes 391, 393-398, 401-404, 410, 411, 414-417, 420-438 and 440-444). The total and disease-specific CVD mortality for NYC and Central Harlem were calculated using the appropriate 1990 census data as the denominator. Central Harlem residents aged between 25-64 years were at least twice as likely to die from cardiovascular causes, compared to NYC residents. Hypertension-related deaths, ICD codes 401 (essential hypertension), 402 (hypertensive heart disease), 403 (hypertensive renal disease), and 404 (hypertensive heart and renal disease), were the major cause of excess death for men and women in Central Harlem. These findings show the importance of hypertension as the main determinant of the excess cardiovascular mortality in urban blacks and suggest an increased risk of cardiovascular death in blacks residing in Central Harlem.

  16. Ethics and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude

  17. [Upper extremity arterial diseases].

    PubMed

    Becker, F

    2007-02-01

    Compared to lower limb arterial diseases, upper limb arterial diseases look rare, heterogeneous with various etiologies and a rather vague clinical picture, but with a negligible risk of amputation. Almost all types of arterial diseases can be present in the upper limb, but the anatomical and hemodynamic conditions particular to the upper limb often confuse the issue. Thus, atherosclerosis affects mainly the subclavian artery in its proximal segment where the potential of collateral pathway is high making the symptomatic forms not very frequent whereas the prevalence of subclavian artery stenosis or occlusion is relatively high. The clinical examination and the etiologies are discussed according to the clinical, anatomical and hemodynamic context.

  18. Chronic Wasting Disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

  19. Rheumatic Diseases and Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    BOJINCA, Violeta; JANTA, Iustina

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are many studies which demonstrate a higher risk for malignancy in patients with rheumatic diseases. There have been a number of possible explanations for the differences in the risk of certain malignancies in patients with rheumatic disease, compared with general population, but a clear mechanism is difficult to identify. Rheumatoid syndromes may be associated with malignancy as paraneoplastic conditions, which can antedate the neoplasm diagnosis. On the other hand, autoimmune rheumatic diseases have a higher risk of malignancy by themselves or because of the immunosuppressant treatments. PMID:23482881

  20. Lung disease in farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, C. P.

    1977-01-01

    Lung diseases in farmers attributable to their occupation include (a) farmer's lung, caused by exposure to mouldy hay, (b) the asthma caused by exposure to grain dust and (c) silo-filler's disease. Their prevalence in Canada is unknown. Farmer's lung results from inhalation of mould spores in hay; the mechanism is immunologic. The exact cause and mechanism of grain dust asthma are unknown but may be immunologic. Silo-filler's disease is caused by the toxic effects of inhaled nitrogen dioxide. PMID:321110

  1. Neuroinfectious diseases in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kelly Jo; Roos, Karen L

    2011-09-01

    Pregnancy is associated with impaired T-cell-mediated immunity putting the woman at risk for infectious diseases not typically seen in immunocompetent individuals. When maternal infection is severe, and when a primary herpesvirus infection is acquired during pregnancy, there is a risk of fetal loss, maternal death, neonatal death, or congenital abnormalities from intrauterine infection. In this review, the authors emphasize specific neurologic infectious diseases that occur in pregnancy, the safety of the antimicrobial therapy of these diseases during pregnancy, as well as the congenital and neonatal sequelae of infection. PMID:22113513

  2. Glycomics and Disease Markers

    PubMed Central

    An, Hyun Joo; Kronewitter, Scott R.; de Leoz, Maria Lorna A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary of Recent Advances Glycomics is the comprehensive study of all glycans expressed in biological systems. The biosynthesis of glycan relies on a number of highly competitive processes involving glycosyl transferase. Glycosylation is therefore highly sensitive to the biochemical environment and has been implicated in many diseases including cancer. Recently, interest in profiling the glycome has increased due to the potential of glycans for disease markers. In this regard, mass spectrometry is emerging as a powerful technique for profiling the glycome. Global glycan profiling of human serum based on mass spectrometry has already led to several potentially promising markers for several types of cancer and diseases. PMID:19775929

  3. Gorham's disease: clinical case.

    PubMed

    Sá, Pedro; Marques, Pedro; Oliveira, Carolina; Rodrigues, André Sá; Amorim, Nelson; Pinto, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Gorham's disease, also known as idiopathic massive osteolysis, is a rare pathological condition characterized by vascular proliferation that results in destruction and reabsorption of the bone matrix, of unknown etiology. It was first described by Jackson in 1838, but it was Gorham and Stout, in 1955, who defined this disease as a specific entity. It has variable clinical presentation and generally has progressive behavior. Controversy continues regarding the treatment and there is no standard treatment. This pathological condition generally presents a favorable prognosis. Here, a case of Gorham's disease with involvement of the left hip is presented, in a male patient without relevant antecedents.

  4. [Interferons and autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Niino, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Yusei

    2013-11-01

    Interferons are widely expressed cytokines that have potent antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects. Type I interferons show complex biology; in some cases, they promote autoimmunity and inflammation, and in other cases, exhibit homeostatic functions by controlling inflammation and tissue destruction. This complexity is exemplified in the 2 major autoimmune diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus, in which type I interferons play an important role in the pathogenesis, and multiple sclerosis, in which interferon beta, a type I interferon, exhibits protective and therapeutic roles. This article reviews the basic clinical data on type I interferons in autoimmune diseases and type I interferons as potential targets for therapies in autoimmune diseases.

  5. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    ScienceCinema

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2016-07-12

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  6. Gorham's disease: clinical case☆

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Pedro; Marques, Pedro; Oliveira, Carolina; Rodrigues, André Sá; Amorim, Nelson; Pinto, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Gorham's disease, also known as idiopathic massive osteolysis, is a rare pathological condition characterized by vascular proliferation that results in destruction and reabsorption of the bone matrix, of unknown etiology. It was first described by Jackson in 1838, but it was Gorham and Stout, in 1955, who defined this disease as a specific entity. It has variable clinical presentation and generally has progressive behavior. Controversy continues regarding the treatment and there is no standard treatment. This pathological condition generally presents a favorable prognosis. Here, a case of Gorham's disease with involvement of the left hip is presented, in a male patient without relevant antecedents. PMID:26229923

  7. Genetic pediatric retinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Say, Emil Anthony T.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary pediatric retinal diseases are a diverse group of disorders with pathologies affecting different cellular structures or retinal development. Many can mimic typical pediatric retinal disease such as retinopathy of prematurity, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment and cystoid macular edema. Multisystem involvement is frequently seen in hereditary pediatric retinal disease. A thorough history coupled with a good physical examination can oftentimes lead the ophthalmologist or pediatrician to the correct genetic test and correct diagnosis. In some instances, evaluation of parents or siblings may be required to determine familial involvement when the history is inconclusive or insufficient and clinical suspicion is high.

  8. Respiratory System Disease.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Danielle M; Singh, Shipra

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory system involvement in cystic fibrosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene throughout the sinopulmonary tract result in recurrent infections with a variety of organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Lung disease occurs earlier in life than once thought and ideal methods of monitoring lung function, decline, or improvement with therapy are debated. Treatment of sinopulmonary disease may include physiotherapy, mucus-modifying and antiinflammatory agents, antimicrobials, and surgery. In the new era of personalized medicine, CFTR correctors and potentiators may change the course of disease. PMID:27469180

  9. [Epidemiology of Kawasaki disease].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiologic features of Kawasaki disease, in particular in Japan, were summarized. There were three aspects of the epidemiology: (1) frequency(descriptive epidemiology), (2) risk factors(e.g. case-control studies), and (3) natural history(follow-up studies). The nationwide surveys, which was established in 1970, revealed the epidemiologic features of the disease. The number of patients and incidence rate have elevated since mid-1990s. Descriptive features indicates the association between disease onset and both infection and the hosts' factors. A follow-up study over 20 years has been conducted, but it should be continued till all the participants pass away.

  10. Zygomycetes in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ribes, Julie A.; Vanover-Sams, Carolyn L.; Baker, Doris J.

    2000-01-01

    The Zygomycetes represent relatively uncommon isolates in the clinical laboratory, reflecting either environmental contaminants or, less commonly, a clinical disease called zygomycosis. There are two orders of Zygomycetes containing organisms that cause human disease, the Mucorales and the Entomophthorales. The majority of human illness is caused by the Mucorales. While disease is most commonly linked to Rhizopus spp., other organisms are also associated with human infection, including Mucor, Rhizomucor, Absidia, Apophysomyces, Saksenaea, Cunninghamella, Cokeromyces, and Syncephalastrum spp. Although Mortierella spp. do cause disease in animals, there is no longer sufficient evidence to suggest that they are true human pathogens. The spores from these molds are transmitted by inhalation, via a variety of percutaneous routes, or by ingestion of spores. Human zygomycosis caused by the Mucorales generally occurs in immunocompromised hosts as opportunistic infections. Host risk factors include diabetes mellitus, neutropenia, sustained immunosuppressive therapy, chronic prednisone use, iron chelation therapy, broad-spectrum antibiotic use, severe malnutrition, and primary breakdown in the integrity of the cutaneous barrier such as trauma, surgical wounds, needle sticks, or burns. Zygomycosis occurs only rarely in immunocompetent hosts. The disease manifestations reflect the mode of transmission, with rhinocerebral and pulmonary diseases being the most common manifestations. Cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and allergic diseases are also seen. The Mucorales are associated with angioinvasive disease, often leading to thrombosis, infarction of involved tissues, and tissue destruction mediated by a number of fungal proteases, lipases, and mycotoxins. If the diagnosis is not made early, dissemination often occurs. Therapy, if it is to be effective, must be started early and requires combinations of antifungal drugs, surgical intervention, and reversal of the underlying risk

  11. Chronic Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Lantos, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic Lyme disease is a poorly defined diagnosis that is usually given to patients with prolonged, unexplained symptoms or with alternative medical diagnoses. Data do not support the proposition that chronic, treatment-refractory infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is responsible for the many conditions that get labeled as chronic Lyme disease. Prolonged symptoms after successful treatment of Lyme disease are uncommon, but in rare cases may be severe. Prolonged courses of antibiotics neither prevent nor ameliorate these symptoms and are associated with considerable harm.

  12. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  13. Sleep in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Disorders of sleep are an integral part of neurodegenerative diseases and include insomnia, sleep-wake cycle disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness that may be manifested as persistent somnolence or sudden onset of sleep episodes, obstructive and central sleep apnea, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome. The origin of these sleep disorders is multifactorial including degeneration of the brain areas that modulate sleep, the symptoms of the disease, and the effect of medications. Treatment of sleep disorders in patients with neurodegenerative diseases should be individualized and includes behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene, bright light therapy, melatonin, hypnotics, waking-promoting agents, and continuous positive airway pressure. PMID:26972029

  14. Chronic Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Lantos, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic Lyme disease is a poorly defined diagnosis that is usually given to patients with prolonged, unexplained symptoms or with alternative medical diagnoses. Data do not support the proposition that chronic, treatment-refractory infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is responsible for the many conditions that get labeled as chronic Lyme disease. Prolonged symptoms after successful treatment of Lyme disease are uncommon, but in rare cases may be severe. Prolonged courses of antibiotics neither prevent nor ameliorate these symptoms and are associated with considerable harm. PMID:25999227

  15. Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease).

    PubMed

    Klein-Weigel, Peter F; Richter, Jutta G

    2014-09-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO, Buerger's disease) is an inflammatory vascular disease affecting small and medium sized arteries and veins. It is characterized by segmental thrombotic occlusions by highly mononuclear cellular thrombi. Its occurrence and re-occurrence is closely related to tobacco use. Immunohistological examinations and the detections of various autoantibodies led to the new paradigm of an immunopathogenesis of TAO. Clinically it is characterized by distal ischemia syndromes in young people and high amputation rates. This article summarizes the disease characteristics, clinical features, and diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and focuses on new therapeutic options, i.e. stem cell derived therapies, immunoadsorption, and the endothelin-receptor-blocking agent bosentan.

  16. Genetic pediatric retinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Say, Emil Anthony T

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary pediatric retinal diseases are a diverse group of disorders with pathologies affecting different cellular structures or retinal development. Many can mimic typical pediatric retinal disease such as retinopathy of prematurity, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment and cystoid macular edema. Multisystem involvement is frequently seen in hereditary pediatric retinal disease. A thorough history coupled with a good physical examination can oftentimes lead the ophthalmologist or pediatrician to the correct genetic test and correct diagnosis. In some instances, evaluation of parents or siblings may be required to determine familial involvement when the history is inconclusive or insufficient and clinical suspicion is high. PMID:27625880

  17. Pituitary diseases and bone.

    PubMed

    Mazziotti, Gherardo; Chiavistelli, Silvia; Giustina, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Pituitary hormones have direct and indirect effects on bone remodeling, and skeletal fragility is a frequent complication of pituitary diseases. Fragility fractures may occur in many patients with prolactinomas, acromegaly, Cushing disease, and hypopituitarism. As in other forms of secondary osteoporosis, pituitary diseases generally affect bone quality more than bone quantity, and fractures may occur even in the presence of normal or low-normal bone mineral density, making difficult the prediction of fractures in these settings. Treatment of excess and defective pituitary hormone generally improves skeletal health, although some patients remain at high risk for fractures, necessitating treatment with bone-active drugs.

  18. Autoinflammatory bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Stern, Sara M; Ferguson, Polly J

    2013-11-01

    Autoinflammatory bone disease is a new branch of autoinflammatory diseases caused by seemingly unprovoked activation of the innate immune system leading to an osseous inflammatory process. The inflammatory bone lesions in these disorders are characterized by chronic inflammation that is typically culture negative with no demonstrable organism on histopathology. The most common autoinflammatory bone diseases in childhood include chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO), synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis syndrome, Majeed syndrome, deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, and cherubism. In this article, the authors focus on CNO and summarize the distinct genetic autoinflammatory bone syndromes.

  19. Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits - Diseases of Vegetable Crops - Diseases of Grapes - Diseases of Tree Nuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Donald H.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of four sections on plant disease recognition and control. The titles of these four sections are: (1) Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits; (2) Diseases of Vegetable Crops; (3) Diseases of Crops; and (4) Diseases of Tree Nuts. The first section discusses…

  20. Respiratory diseases of global consequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory diseases are one of the two major categories of poultry diseases that cause the most severe economic losses globally (the other being enteric disease). The economic impact of respiratory disease is both direct, from the production losses caused by primary disease and indirect from preve...

  1. Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  2. Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease)

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Chavarría, Ignacio J.; Brenes-Gutiérrez, José D.

    2016-01-01

    Thromboangiitis Obliterans is a non-atherosclerotic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, which has a strong association with tobacco. We present current concepts on the pathophysiology and diagnosis, as well as a review in treatments. PMID:27144003

  3. Peptic Ulcer Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... stomach and duodenum to diagnose or treat disease. Erosion – a very shallow sore, similar to an abrasion ... Ulcer – an open sore. Ulcers are deeper than erosions. Author(s) and Publication Date(s) Sean P. Caufield, MD, ...

  4. Lipid Storage Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Symptoms include an enlarged liver and spleen, abnormal eye movement, extensive and progressive brain damage, spasticity, seizures, limb ... or Type 2 Gaucher disease. Major symptoms include eye movement disorders, cognitive deficit, poor coordination, an enlarged spleen ...

  5. Machado-Joseph Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... for drunkenness, difficulty with speech and swallowing, impaired eye movements sometimes accompanied by double vision or bulging eyes, ... color and/or contrast, and inability to control eye movements. Some individuals also experience prominent Parkinson’s disease-like ...

  6. Von Gierke disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... may show signs of: Delayed puberty Enlarged liver Gout Inflammatory bowel disease Liver tumors Severe low blood ... in the blood and decrease the risk for gout may be prescribed. Your provider may also prescribe ...

  7. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifestyle changes also help. These include a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight, being physically active, and quitting smoking. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  8. Tick-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Doan-Wiggins, L

    1991-05-01

    Ticks may transmit a variety of human pathogens and are second in importance only to the mosquito as a vector of human disease. The majority of tick-borne diseases are nonspecific in their initial clinical and laboratory presentation and may be confused with a variety of more common illnesses. A history of tick exposure is frequently not available. Although specific serologic tests exist for confirming the diagnosis of many of these diseases, the time required for confirmation of results makes them of little use in the acute situation. Recognition of the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens and clinical suspicion are of key importance in making the appropriate diagnosis. Early and specific therapy is a principal factor in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. PMID:1893895

  9. Emerging foodborne diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Altekruse, S. F.; Cohen, M. L.; Swerdlow, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is rapidly changing. Recently described pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the epidemic strain of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium Definitive Type 104 (which is resistant to at least five antimicrobial drugs), have become important public health problems. Well-recognized pathogens, such as Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, have increased in prevalence or become associated with new vehicles. Emergence in foodborne diseases is driven by the same forces as emergence in other infectious diseases: changes in demographic characteristics, human behavior, industry, and technology; the shift toward a global economy; microbial adaptation; and the breakdown in the public health infrastructure. Addressing emerging foodborne diseases will require more sensitive and rapid surveillance, enhanced methods of laboratory identification and subtyping, and effective prevention and control. PMID:9284372

  10. Associated Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... only. Other helpful information is available at www.GLUTEN.net. Advances in celiac disease are fast-paced. ... should not be used to diagnose or treat gluten-related disorders or other medical conditions. For questions ...

  11. Symptoms of Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... before they can generate an autoimmune response to gluten and have their blood tested. 3.Any individual ... act in unpredictable ways. Some people can eat gluten for fifty years and then develop celiac disease, ...

  12. [Gestational trophoblastic disease].

    PubMed

    Allias, Fabienne; Bolze, Pierre-Adrien; Gaillot-Durand, Lucie; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan

    2014-12-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease encompresses a group of interrelated diseases, following a pregnancy after a variable period of time. Hydatiform mole corresponds to premalignant disorders composed of villi with excess of paternal genetic material, with a malignant potential more important for complete mole than partial mole. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia includes invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblatic tumor and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. Their histological diagnosis may be problematic on curettage material and needs to be correlated to serum hCG level and radiological findings. The use of chemotherapy has dramatically improved the prognosis of these lesions. All patients with this rare disease need to be registered in the national service for gestational trophoblastic disease (http://www.mole-chorio.com), which coordinates their management at the national level.

  13. Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Dementia Types of Dementia Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Dementia with Lewy Bodies Down ... Research Traumatic Brain Injury and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) Awardees Year Researcher Study Name 2015 Jesse Mez ...

  14. Thyroid Diseases Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... of thyroiditis and identify autoimmune thyroid conditions Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody—a marker for autoimmune thyroid disease; ... for thyroid gland abnormalities and to evaluate thyroid function (for iodine) in different areas of the thyroid ...

  15. Diabetes and periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Rajkumar; Gokulanathan, Subramanium; Shanmugasundaram, Natarajan; Lakshmigandhan, Mahalingam; Kavin, Thangavelu

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease characterized by increased blood glucose levels and abnormalities of lipid metabolism due to absence or decreased level of insulin. It affects all the body organs and their functions either directly or indirectly. Every dentist should have a basic understanding of the etiopathogenesis, oral and systemic manifestations of this disease. The periodontal diseases are a consequence of extension of the gingival inflammation into the underlying supporting structures of the periodontium, initiated by the presence of plaque and its products on the surfaces of the teeth and the adjoining structures. The progression of periodontal disease is influenced by variety of factors like microorganisms, host response, systemic background, and genetic makeup of the host. Amongst them, diabetes mellitus tops the list. Diabetes and periodontitis influence the clinical outcome of each other and control of both influences the clinical improvement of each. PMID:23066270

  16. Diphtheria Disease Villain

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease villain from BAM! Body and Mind . Case file: tissue trolls Real name: diphtheria Known aliases: Corynebacterium ... Action Coalition (IAC) Diphtheria and the Alaskan Iditarod File Formats Help: How do I view different file ...

  17. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the burden of neurological disease. The leading scientific theory at this time maintains that CJD is caused ... All NINDS-prepared information is in the public domain and may be freely copied. Credit to the ...

  18. [Update on celiac disease].

    PubMed

    Moscoso J, Felipe; Quera P, Rodrigo

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of Celiac disease in the general population is approximately 1% and remains undiagnosed in a significant proportion of individuals. Its clinical presentation includes the classical malabsorption syndrome, unspecific and extra-intestinal manifestations, and silent celiac disease. The serologic diagnosis has an elevated sensitivity and specificity and, at least in adult population, it must be confirmed by biopsy in every case. Diagnosis in subjects already on gluten free diet includes HLA typing and gluten challenge with posterior serologic and histologic evaluation. The core of the treatment is the gluten free diet, which must be supervised by an expert nutritionist. Monitoring must be performed with serology beginning at 3-6 months, and with histology two years after the diagnosis, unless the clinical response is poor. Poor disease control is associated with complications such as lymphoma and small bowel adenocarcinoma. In the future, it is likely that new pharmacologic therapies will be available for the management of celiac disease. PMID:27092676

  19. Parkinson's Disease Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... by stereotactic methods. They are connected to the operating room computer and used to measure the electrical ... categorized as movement disorders include essential tremor , multiple system atrophy , progressive supranuclear palsy , Huntington's disease, Tourette's syndrome ...

  20. Graves disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder that involves overactivity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). Hallmarks of the condition are bulging eyes (exophthalmos), heat intolerance, increased energy, difficulty sleeping, diarrhea, and anxiety.

  1. Cilia and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jason M.; Witman, George B.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, cilia have moved from relative obscurity to a position of importance for understanding multiple complex human diseases. Now termed the ciliopathies, these diseases inflict devastating effects on millions of people worldwide. In this review, written primarily for teachers and students who may not yet be aware of the recent exciting developments in this field, we provide a general overview of our current understanding of cilia and human disease. We start with an introduction to cilia structure and assembly and indicate where they are found in the human body. We then discuss the clinical features of selected ciliopathies, with an emphasis on primary ciliary dyskinesia, polycystic kidney disease, and retinal degeneration. The history of ciliopathy research involves a fascinating interplay between basic and clinical sciences, highlighted in a timeline. Finally, we summarize the relative strengths of individual model organisms for ciliopathy research; many of these are suitable for classroom use. PMID:25960570

  2. Disease and Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Calvin

    1978-01-01

    Discusses disease and genetic disorders as evolutionary mechanisms. Emphasizes the archeological evidence from past human populations and societies, mentioning albinism, scurvy, sleeping sickness, bone conditions, various host-parasite relationships, rickets, sickle-cell anemia, diabetes, and influenza. (CS)

  3. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... very fast, but steady, heartbeat. Sick Sinus Syndrome ( SSS ) Sick sinus syndrome is not a disease, but ... the sinus node, is not working properly. In SSS , the heart rate can alternate between slow ( bradycardia ) ...

  4. Understanding Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autoimmune Diseases Progress and Promise Key Words The Immune System Your immune system is the network of cells and tissues throughout ... having two parts: the acquired and the innate immune systems. The acquired (or adaptive) immune system develops as ...

  5. Epigenomics and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Cat-Scratch Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ( ... play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected Kitten playing with a ...

  7. Kidney Disease Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Albumin Children and Kidney Disease Additional Kidney Information Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... to share this content freely. March 1, 2012​ Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  8. Testing for Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Albumin Children and Kidney Disease Additional Kidney Information Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... to share this content freely. September 17, 2014​​ Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  9. Chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. You may not notice any symptoms for some ...

  10. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...

  11. Kennedy's Disease Association

    MedlinePlus

    Kennedy's Disease Association A Public Benefit, Non-Profit Organization Register GTranslate GTranslate Javascript is required to use GTranslate multilingual website and translation delivery network Select Language English Afrikaans Albanian Arabic ...

  12. Hypersplenism in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Strickland, G T; Chang, N K; Beckner, W M

    1972-03-01

    Thirteen patients with Wilson's disease were compared with seven cirrhotic and 13 normal controls to define better the haematological abnormalities in this condition. Hypersplenism (anaemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and reduced red cell survival) commonly occurred in patients with both Wilson's disease and cirrhosis. These abnormalities correlated with splenic enlargement. Despite reduced haematocrits, red cell mass was greater in these two groups than in normal controls. Plasma volume and the body haematocrit/peripheral haematocrit ratios were also greater in patients with Wilson's disease and cirrhosis. Increased splenic sequestration of (51)Cr-tagged red blood cells was not demonstrated in any subjects. The hypersplenism in patients with Wilson's disease is similar to that found in patients with cirrhosis from other causes.

  13. United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Mitochondrial Disease FAQ's MitoFirst Handbook More Information Mito 101 Symposium Archives Get Connected Find an Event Adult Advisory Council Team Ask The Mito Doc Grand Rounds Kids & Teens Medical Child Abuse ...

  14. Cat-scratch disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sometimes, an infected lymph node may form a tunnel ( fistula ) through the skin and drain (leak fluid). ... disease: Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after playing with your cat. Especially wash any ...

  15. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your ... in the body's arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis . Over time, plaque can harden and narrow the ...

  16. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes and medication . View an animation of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up ... of an artery. PAD is usually caused by atherosclerosis in the peripheral arteries (or outer regions away ...

  17. [Nail diseases in cosmetology].

    PubMed

    Maleszka, Romuald; Ratajczak-Stefańska, Violetta; Boer, Magdalena; Kiedrowicz, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Clinical symptoms attributed to the nail apparatus and observed in cosmetology include atrophic or hypertrophic lesions, pathologic nail coloration, abnormalities of the nail surface, and disorders of the nail plate and bed junction. These symptoms may reflect pathologic processes limited to the nail apparatus or may be the consequence of a dermal or systemic disease. Even though the etiology of nail lesions is variegated, diseases of the nails are simply classified as infectious or non-infectious. The aim of this work was to present the most common diseases of the nail apparatus encountered in cosmetology. Often, nail diseases worsen the quality of life of the patient. In addition, the variegated symptomatology demonstrates that nail lesions should be viewed in a wider perspective because they often are important signs of pathologic processes taking place in the organism of the patient. PMID:21427814

  18. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... MIDAS models require a breadth of knowledge, the network draws together an interdisciplinary team of researchers with expertise in epidemiology, infectious diseases, computational biology, statistics, social sciences, physics, computer sciences and informatics. In 2006, MIDAS modelers simulated ...

  19. Gum (Periodontal) Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of gum disease are gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis and Periodontitis In gingivitis, the gums become red, swollen and can bleed easily. Gingivitis can usually be reversed with daily brushing and ...

  20. [Skin diseases and obesity].

    PubMed

    Guerra-Segovia, Carolina; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem worldwide. It predominates in industrialized countries; however, it is prevalent in all nations. It is defined as a condition of excess adipose tissue and is the result of changes in lifestyle, excessive consumption of energy-dense foods with poor nutritional value, physical inactivity and the reduction of open space where one can practice a sport. Although obesity is associated with multiple diseases, it is important to stress that the metabolic changes caused by it affect skin physiology and play a predisposing factor for the development of skin diseases. Very little has been studied on the impact of obesity on the skin. The purpose of this article is to review the most frequently skin diseases in obesity. Some skin pathologies in obesity are caused by changes in skin physiology, others are related to insulin resistance or constitute an exacerbating factor for dermatitis. This article covers the clinical features of obesity related skin disease and its management.

  1. Asbestos-related disease.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, E; de Klerk, N; Musk, A W

    2011-05-01

    Inhalation of airborne asbestos fibres causes several diseases. These include asbestosis, lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma as well as pleural effusion, discrete (plaques) or diffuse benign pleural fibrosis and rolled atelectasis. The lag time between exposure and the development of disease may be many decades, thus the health risks of asbestos continue to be relevant despite bans on the use of asbestos and improvements in safety regulations for those who are still exposed. Asbestos was mined and used extensively in Australia for over 100 years and Australia is now experiencing part of a worldwide epidemic of asbestos-related disease. This review provides insight into the history and epidemiology of asbestos-related disease in Australia and discusses relevant clinical aspects in their diagnosis and management. The past and current medico-legal aspects of asbestos as well as currently evolving areas of research and future projections are summarized.

  2. [Smoking and alimentary diseases].

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Masahiko; Iijima, Hideki; Nishida, Tsutomu; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2013-03-01

    Tobacco smoking directly or hematogenously acts on digestive organ and induces benign and malignant alimentary diseases. Nicotine, nitrosamines, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons included in tobacco smoke are major causative agents of tobacco smoking-related alimentary diseases. These agents have harmful effects on digestive organ through compromised blood circulation, impaired neural regulation, and cell dysfunction. These malfunctions cause tissue destruction, such as chronic inflammation and ulcer formation. Besides forming DNA adducts, they also act on endogenous signal transduction, leading to gene mutation and abnormal cell death and growth. Interestingly, in inflammatory diseases, smoking improves symptoms of ulcerative colitis, while it worsens the condition of Crohn diseases. Smoking is also involved in lately increasing Barrette's esophagus. Future studies are needed. PMID:23631231

  3. Celiac Disease Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... the complications a person may experience, such as malnutrition , malabsorption , and the involvement of other organs. Tests ... someone has signs and symptoms suggesting celiac disease, malnutrition , and/or malabsorption . The symptoms are often nonspecific ...

  4. What Is Crohn's Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... trial of experimental treatments. Interactive Disease Tracker Use GI Buddy to keep a daily log of your ... but the areas affected in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) are different. Crohn’s most commonly affects the ...

  5. Lung Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Lung Diseases and Conditions Breathing is a complex process. ... your bronchial tubes ( bronchitis ) or deep in your lungs ( pneumonia ). These infections cause a buildup of mucus ...

  6. Scabies: Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Scabies Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Submit Button Information For: Institutions Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  7. Genetic Disease Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newly Diagnosed Patients There are over 6,000 genetic disorders that can be passed down through the ... mission to help prevent, manage and treat inherited genetic diseases. View our latest News Brief here . You ...

  8. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery. Such people should seek medical care immediately. Did You Know... When people suddenly develop a painful, ... In This Article Animation 1 Peripheral Arterial Disease Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Figure 1 ...

  9. Diseases of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Aaron R; Torgerson, Rochelle R; Rogers, Roy S

    2016-01-01

    The tongue is a complex organ involved in speech and expression as well as in gustation, mastication, and deglutition. The oral cavity, along with the tongue, are sites of neoplasms, reactive processes, and infections, and may be a harbinger of systemic diseases. This review includes both common and rare diseases that occur on the tongue, including: vascular and lymphatic lesions (infantile hemangiomas and oral varices), reactive and inflammatory processes (hairy tongue, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, benign migratory glossitis, and fissured tongue), infections (oral hairy leukoplakia, herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections, human papillomavirus, and candidiasis), premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and erythroplakia), malignant lesions (squamous cell carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma, and lymphoproliferative diseases), and signs of systemic disease (nutritional deficiency and systemic amyloidosis). PMID:27343960

  10. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... food instead of salt. DO NOT use salt substitutes because they contain potassium. People with chronic kidney disease also need to limit their potassium. POTASSIUM Normal blood levels of potassium help keep your heart beating ...

  11. Carotid artery disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery, Society for Vascular Medicine, and Society for Vascular Surgery. Vasc Med . 2011;16:35-77. PMID: 23281092 ... disease. In: Cronenwett JL, Johnston KW, eds. Rutherford's Vascular Surgery . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  12. Hemoglobin C disease

    MedlinePlus

    Clinical hemoglobin C ... Hemoglobin C is an abnormal type of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. It is ... Americans. You are more likely to have hemoglobin C disease if someone in your family has had ...

  13. Wilson's Disease Association International

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connect with Wilson Disease Association Send Email Physician Contacts List of Physicians and Institutions in Your Area View Contacts Support Contacts Individuals who can offer Support and Information View ...

  14. What Is Batten Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awareness Bracelet $40.00 BDSRA Bag $5.00 Golf Balls (Set of Three) $10.00 Choose Your ... Research and News Past Grant Awards BDSRA Conference Learn About Clinical Trials Advocacy Batten Disease Advocacy and ...

  15. Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home Water Pollution Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Print this Page Air Pollution ...

  16. Asbestos-related disease.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, E; de Klerk, N; Musk, A W

    2011-05-01

    Inhalation of airborne asbestos fibres causes several diseases. These include asbestosis, lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma as well as pleural effusion, discrete (plaques) or diffuse benign pleural fibrosis and rolled atelectasis. The lag time between exposure and the development of disease may be many decades, thus the health risks of asbestos continue to be relevant despite bans on the use of asbestos and improvements in safety regulations for those who are still exposed. Asbestos was mined and used extensively in Australia for over 100 years and Australia is now experiencing part of a worldwide epidemic of asbestos-related disease. This review provides insight into the history and epidemiology of asbestos-related disease in Australia and discusses relevant clinical aspects in their diagnosis and management. The past and current medico-legal aspects of asbestos as well as currently evolving areas of research and future projections are summarized. PMID:21309996

  17. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... CVD. ART can increase blood fats (cholesterol and triglycerides, see fact sheet 123.) It can also help ... disease. HIV infection decreases good cholesterol and increases triglycerides. HIV causes inflammation. This can also contribute to ...

  18. Reflux and Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reflux and Lung Disease Proper Hydration Sodium Dangers Plant-Based Diets Why Breakfast Matters Patients & Visitors Giving For Professionals About Us Treatment & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make an Appointment Make a Donation ...

  19. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of plaque. Narrow arteries reduce or block blood flow. When blood and oxygen can't get to the legs, it can injure nerves and tissue. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a cardiovascular disease that ...

  20. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests to determine thyroid function include: Free T4 test Serum TSH T3 Thyroid autoantibodies Imaging studies and fine needle biopsy are generally not needed to diagnose Hashimoto thyroiditis. This disease may ...

  1. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Sleep and Sleep Disorders Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep and Chronic Disease How Much Sleep Do ...

  2. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ve started to help the medicine work. Other Organizations American Heart Association Questions to Ask Your Doctor Am I at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD)? What lifestyle changes should I make to decrease my risk of ...

  3. Parkinson's Disease Foundation Newsletter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletters These include monthly e-newsletters and quarterly science-specific e-newsletters. Read the latest issue below or browse the archives. National Parkinson Foundation and the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation Complete Merger to ...

  4. Women and Vascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Patient information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Women and Vascular Disease Early Warning Symptom for ... major public health issue, the Society of Interventional Radiology recommends greater screening efforts by the medical community ...

  5. Gum Disease and Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... health is another way to reduce this risk. IMPOTENCE Men with periodontal disease, especially those younger than ... than 70, are at increased risk of developing impotence, according to research. Researchers believe that inflammation may ...

  6. [Lyme disease: an update].

    PubMed

    García Meléndez, Martha Elena; Skinner Taylor, Cassandra; Salas Alanís, Julio César; Ocampo Candiani, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease is an emerging infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. It is the most common vector-borne disease in the USA and Europe, and it is transmitted to humans through the bite of ticks of the genus Ixodes. Its animal reservoirs are the white-tailed deer, the white-footed mouse, and other small mammals. It is considered the new "great imitator", with its diagnosis being a major challenge. Traditionally it is divided into four stages, early localized disease, early disseminated, late disease, and the post-Lyme syndrome. Clinical manifestations may be both cutaneous and systemic, and can have cardiovascular, neurological, and musculoskeletal involvement. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings and can be confirmed by serologic studies (ELISA and Western Blot). The best preventive method is to avoid exposure to vectors. The aim of treatment with antibiotics (doxycycline and cephalosporins) is to relieve symptoms and prevent sequelae.

  7. [Probiotics in liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Soriano, Germán; Sánchez, Elisabet; Guarner, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in intestinal microbiota and inflammatory response play a key role in disease progression and development of complications in liver diseases, mainly in cirrhosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Probiotics can be useful to delay disease progression and to prevent development of complications due to their ability to modulate intestinal flora, intestinal permeability and inflammatory response. Several studies have shown the efficacy of probiotics in the treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy and the prevention of episodes of overt hepatic encephalopathy. Probiotics have also been observed to prevent postoperative bacterial infections and to improve liver damage in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. However, more studies are needed in order to confirm the efficacy and safety of probiotics in patients with liver diseases, and to better understanding of the mechanisms implicated in their effects.

  8. The autoimmune diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, N.R.; Mackay, I.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 25 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Genetic Predisposition to Autoimmune Diseases; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Autoimmune Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis; Immunology of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes; and Adrenal Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes.

  9. Paget's Disease of Bone

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment can prevent some symptoms from getting worse. Treatments include medicines and sometimes surgery. A good diet and exercise might also help. NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

  10. Epigenomics and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24283882

  11. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... nutrients . Nutrients include proteins , carbohydrates , fats , vitamins , and minerals . The body needs nutrients for energy and to ... of diarrhea may be treated with fluids and minerals. People with Crohn's disease are sometimes given nutritional ...

  12. IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE SURVEILLANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health surveillance has played a key role in controlling the spread of communicable disease and identifying the need for specific publich health practices, such as the filteration and chlorination of drinking water supplies. However, the characteristics of waterborne ou...

  13. [Metastatic Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Romero Gutiérrez, Marta; Alcántara Torres, Mariano; Muñoz Rosas, Concepción; Gómez Moreno, Ana Zaida; Guardiola Arévalo, Antonio; Rodríguez Merlo, Rufo; Carrobles Jiménez, José María

    2010-01-01

    Metastatic Crohn's disease is a granulomatous cutaneous lesion that appears in patients with Crohn's disease and is located in any skin area, separated from the lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. This entity is characterized by its heterogeneous behavior, both in its localization and clinical expression and in its effect on patients' quality of life. Histology is essential for diagnosis and shows non-caseating granulomas. There are no treatment guidelines and various therapeutic strategies have been employed, with variable response. In most patients, treatment with biological agents is highly effective. We describe three cases of metastatic Crohn's disease with the aim of analyzing the characteristics of this entity, which should always be included in the differential diagnosis of skin lesions in patients with Crohn's disease. A literature review is also provided.

  14. Bile Duct Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... reason for liver transplants in children in the United States. Inflammation, which can cause scarring. Over time, this can lead to liver failure. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  15. Kidney Disease (Nephropathy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or to have the blood filtered by machine (dialysis). Who Gets Kidney Disease? Not everyone with diabetes ... health care team. Kidney Failure Once kidneys fail, dialysis is necessary. The person must choose whether to ...

  16. [Hand and occupational diseases].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Choudat, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Hand is frequently the site of work accidents or occupational diseases. The musculoskeletal upper limb is the first recognized occupational disease and carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common of them. The most common location of occupational dermatoses is the hand. Their causes are often multifactorial, involving chemical irritants, physical, allergens and endogenous factors (mainly atopic dermatitis). Occupational exposure to microtrauma and iterative use of vibrating tools may also be the cause of hypothenar hammer syndrome and acrosyndromes. The frequent chronicity and functional impairment induced by these attacks can cause lasting disabilities, an inability to source workstation. Occupational physician is a focal point for helping to maintain the position and the prevention of socioprofessional disinsertion. Many pathologies of the hand related to professional activity may benefit from a statement in occupational disease and thus allow the patient to obtain compensation and employment protection. Prevention of occupational hand diseases should be made by all health actors, especially in occupations and industries at risk.

  17. Pediatric Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sprue Association/USA Gluten Intoloerance Group of North America NASPGHAN Foundation Supporters Educational support for the NASPGHAN ... NASPGHAN) Celiac Disease Eosinophilic Esophagitis Pediatric IBD Nutrition & Obesity Reflux & GERD Research & Grants Our Supporters Site Map © ...

  18. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... acquired CJD. CJD belongs to a family of human and animal diseases known as the transmissible spongiform ... CJD is the most common of the known human TSEs. Other human TSEs include kuru, fatal familial ...

  19. Pregnancy and Fifth Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Pregnancy and Fifth Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... half of pregnancy. Testing for Parvovirus B19 during Pregnancy A blood test for parvovirus B19 can show ...

  20. [Interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Carughi, Stefano; De Cata, Angelo; Giuliani, Antonio; Masciale, Nunzia; La Viola, Marco; Puzzolante, Felice; Balzanelli, Mario

    2003-05-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are an heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases characterized by an anatomical distortion of peripheral airways and interstitium, determined by a first stage of alveolitis and a following stage of fibrosis. Natural history of several ILD is characterized by slow and progressive destruction of alveolar-capillary functional units, often with respiratory failure and death. For their smoldering evolution and not specificity of symptoms (exertional dyspnea and cough) ILD may remain not diagnosed and not treated for a long time.

  1. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  2. Smoking and Pancreatic Disease.

    PubMed

    Edderkaoui, Mouad; Thrower, Edwin

    2013-11-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms through which it causes the diseases remain unknown. In the present manuscript we reviewed the latest knowledge gained on the effect of cigarette smoke and smoking compounds on cell signaling pathways mediating both diseases. We also reviewed the effect of smoking on the pancreatic cell microenvironment including inflammatory cells and stellate cells.

  3. [Sleep and neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Mayer, G

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the physiology of sleep-wake regulation can contribute to an understanding of the pathophysiology and symptoms of neurological diseases and is helpful for initiating specific therapies for sleep-wake cycle stabilization. Based on historically important observations on the close relationship between sleep and neurological diseases, new insights and developments in selected neurological entities are presented in this review article. PMID:27167889

  4. Gallbladder disease in children.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, David H; Harmon, Carroll M

    2016-08-01

    Biliary disease in children has changed over the past few decades, with a marked rise in incidence-perhaps most related to the parallel rise in pediatric obesity-as well as a rise in cholecystectomy rates. In addition to stone disease (cholelithiasis), acalculous causes of gallbladder pain such as biliary dyskinesia, also appear to be on the rise and present diagnostic and treatment conundrums to surgeons. PMID:27521713

  5. [Celiac disease and malocclusion].

    PubMed

    Bilello, Giuseppa; Ciulla, Claudia; Caradonna, Carola

    2010-04-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease, caused by a permanent intolerance to gluten, that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. It causes enteropathy. In these individuals a prolonged exposure to gluten increases the risk of developing other pathologies, which may affect both developing dentition and oral mucosa. Clinical presentations are various and atypical. Celiac patients may have enamel hypoplasia, higher prevalence of dental caries, delayed eruption of teeth and lower jaw growth. These factors predispose to malocclusion. PMID:20540401

  6. Dengue disease outbreak detection.

    PubMed

    Dayama, Pankaj; Sampath, Kameshwaran

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of outbreak of a disease may help in timely and effective public health interventions. Our motivation for this work is to assist EHD planning officer to analyze the incidence data and based on it declare whether there is an outbreak or not. In this paper, we develop ensemble of multiple techniques for detecting dengue disease outbreak. These techniques are applied to dengue incidence data from Singapore and results are summarized.

  7. Frailty and heart disease.

    PubMed

    von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Stefan D; Doehner, Wolfram; Morley, John E; Vellas, Bruno

    2013-10-01

    Frailty is emerging as a syndrome of pre-disability that can identify persons at risk for negative outcomes. Its presence places the individual at risk for rapid deterioration when a major event such as myocardial infarction or hospitalization occurs. In patients with cardiovascular disease, frailty is about three times more prevalent than among elderly persons without. Screening for frailty in heart disease is important not only because of its prognostic value, but also because a variety of therapeutic interventions are available.

  8. Coeliac disease and autoimmune disease-genetic overlap and screening.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Knut E A; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2015-09-01

    Coeliac disease is a treatable, gluten-induced disease that often occurs concurrently with other autoimmune diseases. In genetic studies since 2007, a partial genetic overlap between these diseases has been revealed and further insights into the pathophysiology of coeliac disease and autoimmunity have been gained. However, genetic screening is not sensitive and specific enough to accurately predict disease development. The current method to diagnose individuals with coeliac disease is serological testing for the presence of autoantibodies whilst the patient is on a regular, gluten-containing diet, followed by gastroduodenoscopy with duodenal biopsy. Serological test results can also predict the probability of coeliac disease development, even if asymptomatic. In patients with autoimmune diseases known to occur alongside coeliac disease (particularly type 1 diabetes mellitus or thyroid disorders), disease screening-and subsequent treatment if coeliac disease is detected-could have beneficial effects on progression or potential complications of both diseases, owing to the effectiveness of gluten-free dietary interventions in coeliac disease. However, whether diagnosis of coeliac disease and subsequent dietary treatment can prevent autoimmune diseases is debated. In this Review, the genetic and immunological features of coeliac disease, overlap with other autoimmune diseases and implications for current screening strategies will be discussed.

  9. Serotonin in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Politis, Marios; Niccolini, Flavia

    2015-01-15

    Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the motor symptoms of bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity and postural instability. However, non-motor symptoms such as chronic fatigue, depression, dementia and sleep disturbances are also frequent and play a significant role with negative consequences in the quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease. Although the progressive dopaminergic denervation is the cardinal pathology in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease, others systems such as the serotonergic are affected as well. Over the last decade, several lines of evidence suggest that a progressive and non-linear loss of serotonergic terminals takes place in Parkinson's disease, though this is at a slower pace compared to the dopaminergic loss. Several studies have indicated that serotonergic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is associated with the development of motor and non-motor symptoms and complications. Here, we aim to review the current evidence with regards to the serotonergic pathology in Parkinson's disease and its relevance to the development of clinical symptoms. We are primarily revising in vivo human studies from research with positron emission tomography molecular imaging.

  10. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  11. Genetics of Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Romina A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    The allergic diseases are complex phenotypes for which a strong genetic basis has been firmly established. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been widely employed in the field of allergic disease, and to date significant associations have been published for nearly 100 asthma genes/loci, in addition to multiple genes/loci for AD, AR and IgE levels, for which the overwhelming number of candidates are novel and have given a new appreciation for the role of innate as well as adaptive immune-response genes in allergic disease. A major outcome of GWAS in allergic disease has been the formation of national and international collaborations leading to consortia meta-analyses, and an appreciation for the specificity of genetic associations to sub-phenotypes of allergic disease. Molecular genetics has undergone a technological revolution, leading to next generation sequencing (NGS) strategies that are increasingly employed to hone in on the causal variants associated with allergic diseases. Unmet needs in the field include the inclusion of ethnically and racially diverse cohorts, and strategies for managing ‘big data’ that is an outcome of technological advances such as sequencing. PMID:25459575

  12. Cat-scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Stephen A; Ianas, Voichita; Elliott, Sean P

    2011-01-15

    Cat-scratch disease is a common infection that usually presents as tender lymphadenopathy. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and any lymphadenopathy syndrome. Asymptomatic, bacteremic cats with Bartonella henselae in their saliva serve as vectors by biting and clawing the skin. Cat fleas are responsible for horizontal transmission of the disease from cat to cat, and on occasion, arthropod vectors (fleas or ticks) may transmit the disease to humans. Cat-scratch disease is commonly diagnosed in children, but adults can present with it as well. The causative microorganism, B. henselae, is difficult to culture. Diagnosis is most often arrived at by obtaining a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titers (greater than 1:256) of immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, azithromycin has been shown in one small study to speed recovery. Infrequently, cat-scratch disease may present in a more disseminated form with hepatosplenomegaly or meningoencephalitis, or with bacillary angiomatosis in patients with AIDS.

  13. Curcumin and neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Monroy, Adriana; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Alavez, Silvestre

    2013-01-01

    Over the last ten years curcumin has been reported to be effective against a wide variety of diseases and is characterized as having anti-carcinogenic, hepatoprotective, thrombosuppressive, cardioprotective, anti-arthritic, and anti-infectious properties. Recent studies performed in both vertebrate and invertebrate models have been conducted to determine whether curcumin was also neuroprotective. The efficacy of curcumin in several pre-clinical trials for neurodegenerative diseases has created considerable excitement mainly due to its lack of toxicity and low cost. This suggests that curcumin could be a worthy candidate for nutraceutical intervention. Since aging is a common risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, it is possible that some compounds that target aging mechanisms could also prevent these kinds of diseases. One potential mechanism to explain several of the general health benefits associated with curcumin is that it may prevent aging-associated changes in cellular proteins that lead to protein insolubility and aggregation. This loss in protein homeostasis is associated with several age-related diseases. Recently, curcumin has been found to help maintain protein homeostasis and extend lifespan in the model invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we review the evidence from several animal models that curcumin improves healthspan by preventing or delaying the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23303664

  14. Vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Gubler, D J

    2009-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have been the scourge of man and animals since the beginning of time. Historically, these are the diseases that caused the great plagues such as the 'Black Death' in Europe in the 14th Century and the epidemics of yellow fever that plagued the development of the New World. Others, such as Nagana, contributed to the lack of development in Africa for many years. At the turn of the 20th Century, vector-borne diseases were among the most serious public and animal health problems in the world. For the most part, these diseases were controlled by the middle of the 20th Century through the application of knowledge about their natural history along with the judicious use of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and other residual insecticides to interrupt the transmission cycle between arthropod and vertebrate host. However, this success initiated a period of complacency in the 1960s and 1970s, which resulted in the redirection of resources away from prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. The 1970s was also a time in which there were major changes to public health policy. Global trends, combined with changes in animal husbandry, urbanisation, modern transportation and globalisation, have resulted in a global re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases affecting both humans and animals over the past 30 years. PMID:20128467

  15. [Thyroid diseases in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Medina, José Luís; Neves, Celestino; Magalhães, Angela; Pereira-Monteiro, Lídia; Marques, Luís

    2002-01-01

    The thyroid diseases are more frequent in women, which is probably related to the fact that many thyroid diseases are of the autoimmune type, secondary to the effects of sexual steroids in the immunological system; although it had never been completely cleared up, it seems that estrogens and progestogens may modulate the lymphocyte differentiation as well as the induction of the autoimmune response. After delivery, the thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune type often occurs, even in women without previous history of thyroid disease. Some authors assume that the cytokines, produced by the mother, fetus or placenta, inhibit the autoimmune reaction during pregnancy. The subsequent reduction in the inhibiting cytokines, after delivery, allows the aggravation or the beginning of the autoimmune disease. Although autoimmunity is traditionally considered as a major cause for thyroid disease during pregnancy, recent studies indicate that the most common aetiology of disturbance of thyroid tests during pregnancy is the hyperthyroidism due to the inadequate production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). However, from the clinical point of view, the hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease is the most important cause for maternal and fetal morbidity.

  16. Vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Gubler, D J

    2009-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have been the scourge of man and animals since the beginning of time. Historically, these are the diseases that caused the great plagues such as the 'Black Death' in Europe in the 14th Century and the epidemics of yellow fever that plagued the development of the New World. Others, such as Nagana, contributed to the lack of development in Africa for many years. At the turn of the 20th Century, vector-borne diseases were among the most serious public and animal health problems in the world. For the most part, these diseases were controlled by the middle of the 20th Century through the application of knowledge about their natural history along with the judicious use of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and other residual insecticides to interrupt the transmission cycle between arthropod and vertebrate host. However, this success initiated a period of complacency in the 1960s and 1970s, which resulted in the redirection of resources away from prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. The 1970s was also a time in which there were major changes to public health policy. Global trends, combined with changes in animal husbandry, urbanisation, modern transportation and globalisation, have resulted in a global re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases affecting both humans and animals over the past 30 years.

  17. Coeliac disease in children.

    PubMed

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Kirkham, Emily Natasha; Pidgeon, Sarah; Sandmann, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated systemic disorder caused by ingestion of gluten. The condition presents classically with gastrointestinal signs including diarrhoea, bloating, weight loss and abdominal pain, but presentations can include extra-intestinal symptoms such as iron-deficiency anaemia, faltering growth, delayed puberty and mouth ulcers. Some children are at higher risk of developing coeliac disease, for example those with a strong family history, certain genetic disorders and other autoimmune conditions. If coeliac disease is suspected, serological screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase titres should be performed and the diagnosis may be confirmed by small bowel biopsy while the child remains on a normal (gluten-containing) diet. Modified European guidelines recommend that symptomatic children with anti-tissue transglutaminase titres more than ten times the upper limit of normal, and positive human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 status, do not require small bowel biopsy for diagnosis of coeliac disease. Management of the disease involves strict adherence to a lifelong gluten-free diet, which should lead to resolution of symptoms and prevention of long-term complications. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the varied presentations of coeliac disease to ensure timely screening and early initiation of a gluten-free diet.

  18. Small animal disease surveillance: respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Daly, Janet M; Jones, Philip H; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J; McConnell, Katie; Noble, Peter J M; Radford, Alan D

    2016-04-01

    Presentation for respiratory disease comprised 1.7 per cent, 2.3 per cent and 2.5 per cent of canine, feline and rabbit consultations, respectively, between January 2014 and December 2015. Coughing was the most frequent respiratory sign reported in dogs (71.1 per cent of consultations); in cats it was sneezing (42.6 per cent). Mean percentage of samples testing positive for feline calicivirus (FCV) was 30.1 per cent in 2014 and 27.9 per cent in 2015. January was the month with the highest percentage of FCV-positive samples in both 2014 and 2015.

  19. Small animal disease surveillance: respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Daly, Janet M; Jones, Philip H; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J; McConnell, Katie; Noble, Peter J M; Radford, Alan D

    2016-04-01

    Presentation for respiratory disease comprised 1.7 per cent, 2.3 per cent and 2.5 per cent of canine, feline and rabbit consultations, respectively, between January 2014 and December 2015. Coughing was the most frequent respiratory sign reported in dogs (71.1 per cent of consultations); in cats it was sneezing (42.6 per cent). Mean percentage of samples testing positive for feline calicivirus (FCV) was 30.1 per cent in 2014 and 27.9 per cent in 2015. January was the month with the highest percentage of FCV-positive samples in both 2014 and 2015. PMID:27056810

  20. Myocardial diseases of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this review we have attempted a comprehensive compilation of the cardiac morphologic changes that occur in spontaneous and experimental myocardial diseases of animals. Our coverage addresses diseases of mammals and birds and includes these diseases found in both domesticated and wild animals. A similar review of the myocardial diseases in this broad range of animal species has not been attempted previously. We have summarized and illustrated the gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural alterations for these myocardial diseases; and, whenever possible, we have reviewed their biochemical pathogenesis. We have arranged the myocardial diseases for presentation and discussion according to an etiologic classification with seven categories. These include a group of idiopathic or primary cardiomyopathies recognized in man (hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive types) and a large group of secondary cardiomyopathies with known causes, such as inherited tendency; nutritional deficiency; toxicity; physical injury and shock; endocrine disorders, and myocarditides of viral, bacterial, and protozoal causation. Considerable overlap exists between each of the etiologic groups in the spectrum of pathologic alterations seen in the myocardium. These include various degenerative changes, myocyte necrosis, and inflammatory lesions. However, some diseases show rather characteristic myocardial alterations such as vacuolar degeneration in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, myofibrillar lysis in furazolidone cardiotoxicity, calcification in calcinosis of mice, glycogen accumulation in the glycogenoses, lipofuscinosis in cattle, fatty degeneration in erucic acid cardiotoxicity, myofiber disarray in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and lymphocytic inflammation with inclusion bodies in canine parvoviral myocarditis. The myocardial diseases represent the largest group in the spectrum of spontaneous cardiac diseases of animals. Pericardial and endocardial diseases and congential cardiac diseases are

  1. FastStats: Infectious Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Infectious Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Health, United States trend tables with data on infectious disease Seroprevalence of six infectious diseases among adults in ...

  2. Digestive Diseases A-Z

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Information Digestive Diseases English English Español Digestive Diseases The digestive system made up of the ... Upper GI Endoscopy Upper GI Series Virtual Colonoscopy Digestive Disease Topics Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) ...

  3. Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases NIAID conducts and supports basic research to better ... diagnose, treat, and prevent a wide range of infectious diseases, whether those diseases emerge naturally or are deliberately ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Danon disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Danon disease Danon disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Danon disease is a condition characterized by weakening of the ...

  5. What is Sickle Cell Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Sickle Cell Disease? Español The term sickle cell disease (SCD) ... common forms of SCD. Some Forms of Sickle Cell Disease Hemoglobin SS Hemoglobin SC Hemoglobin Sβ 0 thalassemia ...

  6. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  7. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... With #25FOR25 Campaign During National Autoimmune Disease Awareness Month AARDA officially kicks of National Autoimmune Disease Awareness ... Click here to read more. Autoimmune Disease Awareness Month AARDA and the NCAPG held two important events ...

  8. Dementia: Depression and Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Dementia | Depression and Alzheimer’s Disease What is depression? When doctors talk about ... time Thoughts about death or suicide What is Alzheimer's disease? Alzheimer's disease is the most common type ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: moyamoya disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Frequency Moyamoya disease was first identified in Japan, where it is most prevalent, affecting about 5 ... unilateral moyamoya disease and quasi-moyamoya disease in Japan. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013 Jul;115(7):930- ...

  10. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease that makes it difficult to empty air out of the lungs. This difficulty in ...

  11. The prion diseases of animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect several species of animals and include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, and transmissible mink encephalopat...

  12. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Having diabetes or prediabetes ... can help prevent future health problems. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disorder of metabolismthe way our ...

  13. Lyme Disease: Fact or Fiction?

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Lyme Disease Lyme Disease Preventing tick bites On people On pets In ... What you need to know about Lyme carditis Lyme Disease Rashes and Look-alikes Diagnosis and testing Two- ...

  14. [Alzheimer's disease and depression].

    PubMed

    Gallarda, T

    1999-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most frequent cause of dementia (60% of all dementias) and affects nearly 300,000 people in France. Alzheimer's disease is a disease of the elderly which generally begins after 60 years and whose prevalence increases markedly after age 75 years. The elderly population is increasing in all Western countries. Alzheimer's disease thus constitutes a veritable emergent public health problem. The rapid inflation of the epidemiological and etiopathogenetic data have contributed to enhanced nosographic definition and finer semiological characterization of the disease. Thus, the classic concept of senile dementia has been totally abandoned. In contrast, the concept of depressive pseudodementia as defined by Kiloh (1961) remains present in the "psychiatric culture". The concept refers to rare clinical situations in which the controversial concept of "test therapy" with antidepressants retains, in the author's opinion, some utility. Depressive or psychobehavioral signs and symptoms frequently inaugurate Alzheimer's disease giving rise to first-line psychiatric management. The use of multidimensional evaluation instruments such as the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) has enabled demonstration of the signs and symptoms and their quantification through the course of the disease. In the dementia stage, the psychobehavioral symptoms are related to the patient's awareness of the degradation in his intellectual functions and the loss of independence and to specific neuropathological lesions responsible for "frontal deafferentation". Certain clinical forms of depression of late onset are also characterized by symptoms reflecting hypofrontal signs (blunted affect, apathy, defective initiative, etc.) and severe cognitive disorders. Those depressions are associated with risk factors shared with Alzheimer's disease (sex, age, vascular function, APOE 4) and constitute a risk factor for progression to dementia, requiring regular clinical and neuropsychological

  15. Metabolic disease network and its implication for disease comorbidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Deok-Sun; Oltvai, Zoltan; Christakis, Nicholas; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2008-03-01

    Given that most diseases are the result of the breakdown of some cellular processes, a key aim of modern medicine is to establish the relationship between disease phenotypes and the various disruptions in the underlying cellular networks. Here we show that our current understanding of the structure of the human metabolic network can provide insight into potential relationships among often distinct disease phenotypes. Using the known enzyme-disease associations, we construct a human metabolic disease network in which nodes are diseases and two diseases are linked if the enzymes associated with them catalyze adjacent metabolic reactions. We find that the more connected a disease is, the higher is its prevalence and the chance that it is associated with a high mortality. The results indicate that the cellular network-level relationships between metabolic pathways and the associated disease provide insights into disease comorbidity, with potential important consequences on disease diagnosis and prevention.

  16. Is Alzheimer's disease a homogeneous disease entity?

    PubMed

    Korczyn, Amos D

    2013-10-01

    The epidemic proportions of dementia in old age are a cause of great concern for the medical profession and the society at large. It is customary to consider Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the most common cause of dementia, and vascular dementia (VaD) as being the second. This dichotomous view of a primary neurodegenerative disease as opposed to a disorder where extrinsic factors cause brain damage led to separate lines of research in these two entities. New biomarkers, particularly the introduction of modern neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid changes, have, in recent years, helped to identify anatomical and chemical changes of VaD and of AD. Nevertheless, there is a substantial difference between the two entities. While it is clear that VaD is a heterogeneous entity, AD is supposed to be a single disorder. Nobody attempts to use CADASIL as a template to develops treatment for sporadic VaD. On the other hand, early-onset AD is used to develop therapy for sporadic AD. This paper will discuss the problems relating to this false concept and its consequences. PMID:23933662

  17. Cytokine Therapies in Neurological Disease.

    PubMed

    Azodi, Shila; Jacobson, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Cytokines are a heterogeneous group of glycoproteins that coordinate physiological functions. Cytokine deregulation is observed in many neurological diseases. This article reviews current research focused on human clinical trials of cytokine and anticytokine therapies in the treatment of several neurological disease including stroke, neuromuscular diseases, neuroinfectious diseases, demyelinating diseases, and neurobehavioral diseases. This research suggests that cytokine therapy applications may play an important role in offering new strategies for disease modulation and treatment. Further, this research provides insights into the causal link between cytokine deregulation and neurological diseases. PMID:27388288

  18. Castleman Disease Collaborative Network Biobank

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-17

    Castleman Disease; Castleman's Disease; Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia; Angiofollicular Lymph Hyperplasia; Angiofollicular Lymph Node Hyperplasia; Angiofollicular Lymphoid Hyperplasia; GLNH; Hyperplasia; Giant Lymph Node

  19. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm Risk & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Ringworm Risk & Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Who gets ringworm? Ringworm is very common. Anyone can get ringworm, ...

  20. Rickettsiae and rickettsial diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brezina, R.; Murray, E. S.; Tarizzo, M. L.; Bögel, K.

    1973-01-01

    This paper summarizes present knowledge on rickettsiae and rickettsial diseases, and on their epidemiological characteristics, control, and public health significance. There are many natural foci of rickettsial diseases, from where the disease may spread to other areas in the world under changing socioeconomic conditions. Because of rapid long-distance travel, sporadic cases of serious rickettsial diseases may today appear far from endemic areas where the infection occurred. Even in endemic areas the disease may be misdiagnosed and deaths may occur as a result of inadequate treatment. Rapid treatment of rickettsial infections (preferably with tetracyclines) is therefore most important. Epidemic louse-borne typhus, though no longer subject to the International Health Regulations, remains one of the diseases in the WHO epidemiological surveillance programme. This disease continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in some parts of Africa and it is present also in parts of the Americas and of Asia. Scrub typhus remains a continuing and serious public health problem in areas of South-East Asia and in the Western Pacific. The annual number of reported cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the USA showed an increase during the last two decades, which may be due to improved recognition as well as to increased outdoor activities and migration of people from the city centres to the suburbs. Related forms of tick-borne typhus occur in South America, the Mediterranean region, Africa, South-East Asia, the Far East, and the Western Pacific. Increasing in number, though still sporadic, are reports of serious illness from chronic Q fever infection in many parts of the world. PMID:4547297