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Sample records for disintegrins integrin selective

  1. The disintegrin domain of ADAM9: a ligand for multiple β1 renal integrins

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Renal tubular epithelial cells in all nephron segments express a distinct member of the metalloprotease-disintegrin family, ADAM9 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 9), in a punctate basolateral distribution co-localized to the β1 integrin chain [Mahimkar, Baricos, Visaya, Pollock and Lovett (2000) J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11, 595–603]. Discrete segments of the nephron express several defined β1 integrins, suggesting that ADAM9 interacts with multiple renal integrins and thereby regulates epithelial cell–matrix interactions. Intact ADAM9 and a series of deletion constructs sequentially lacking the metalloprotease domain and the disintegrin domain were assembled as chimaeras with a C-terminal GFP (green fluorescent protein) tag. Stable expression of the ADAM9/GFP protein on the surface of HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells) significantly decreased adhesion to types I and IV collagen, vitronectin and laminin, but had little effect on adhesion to fibronectin. Expression of the disintegrin/cysteine-rich/GFP construct yielded a similar, but more marked pattern of decreased adhesion. Expression of the cysteine-rich/GFP construct had no effect on adhesion, indicating that the disintegrin domain was responsible for the competitive inhibition of cell–matrix binding. To define the specific renal tubular β1 integrins interacting with the ADAM9 disintegrin domain, a recombinant GST (glutathione S-transferase)-disintegrin protein was used as a substrate in adhesion assays in the presence or absence of specific integrin-blocking antibodies. Inclusion of antibodies to α1, α3, α6, αv and β1 blocked adhesion of HEK-293 cells to GST-disintegrin protein. Immobilized GST-disintegrin domain perfused with renal cortical lysates specifically recovered the α3, α6, αv and β1 integrin chains by Western analysis. It is concluded that ADAM9 is a polyvalent ligand, through its disintegrin domain, for multiple renal integrins of the β1 class. PMID:15361064

  2. The disintegrin domain of ADAM9: a ligand for multiple beta1 renal integrins.

    PubMed

    Mahimkar, Rajeev M; Visaya, Orvin; Pollock, Allan S; Lovett, David H

    2005-01-15

    Renal tubular epithelial cells in all nephron segments express a distinct member of the metalloprotease-disintegrin family, ADAM9 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 9), in a punctate basolateral distribution co-localized to the beta1 integrin chain [Mahimkar, Baricos, Visaya, Pollock and Lovett (2000) J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11, 595-603]. Discrete segments of the nephron express several defined beta1 integrins, suggesting that ADAM9 interacts with multiple renal integrins and thereby regulates epithelial cell-matrix interactions. Intact ADAM9 and a series of deletion constructs sequentially lacking the metalloprotease domain and the disintegrin domain were assembled as chimaeras with a C-terminal GFP (green fluorescent protein) tag. Stable expression of the ADAM9/GFP protein on the surface of HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells) significantly decreased adhesion to types I and IV collagen, vitronectin and laminin, but had little effect on adhesion to fibronectin. Expression of the disintegrin/cysteine-rich/GFP construct yielded a similar, but more marked pattern of decreased adhesion. Expression of the cysteine-rich/GFP construct had no effect on adhesion, indicating that the disintegrin domain was responsible for the competitive inhibition of cell-matrix binding. To define the specific renal tubular beta1 integrins interacting with the ADAM9 disintegrin domain, a recombinant GST (glutathione S-transferase)-disintegrin protein was used as a substrate in adhesion assays in the presence or absence of specific integrin-blocking antibodies. Inclusion of antibodies to alpha1, alpha3, alpha6, alphav and beta1 blocked adhesion of HEK-293 cells to GST-disintegrin protein. Immobilized GST-disintegrin domain perfused with renal cortical lysates specifically recovered the alpha3, alpha6, alphav and beta1 integrin chains by Western analysis. It is concluded that ADAM9 is a polyvalent ligand, through its disintegrin domain, for multiple renal integrins of the beta1

  3. All-trans-retinoic acid induces integrin-independent B-cell adhesion to ADAM disintegrin domains.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Lance C; Lingo, Joshuah D; Grandon, Rachel A; Kelley, Melissa D

    2008-04-15

    Cell adhesion is an integral aspect of immunity facilitating extravasation of immune cells during homing and activation. All -trans-Retinoic acid ( t-RA) regulates leukocyte differentiation, proliferation, and transmigration. However, the role of t-RA in immune cell adhesion is poorly defined. In this study, we evaluated the impact of t-RA and its metabolism on B and T cell adhesion. Specifically, we address the impact of t-RA on the adhesive properties of the human mature B and T cell lines RPMI 8866, Daudi and Jurkats. The effect of t-RA exposure on cell adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), a well-established integrin counter receptor involved in immunity, and to nonconventional ADAM integrin ligands was assessed. We show for the first time that t-RA potently induces B cell adhesion in an integrin-independent manner to both VCAM-1 and select ADAM disintegrin domains. Using retinoid extraction and reverse-phase HPLC analysis, we identify the retinoid that is functionally responsible for this augmented adhesion. We also provide evidence that this novel t-RA adhesive response is not prototypical of lymphocytes since both Daudi and Jurkats do not alter their adhesive properties upon t-RA treatment. Further, the t-RA metabolic profiles between these lineages is distinct with 9- cis-retinoic acid being exclusively detected in Jurkat media. This study is the first to demonstrate that t-RA directly induces B cell adhesion in an integrin-independent manner and is not contingent upon t-RA metabolism.

  4. ADAM 23/MDC3, a Human Disintegrin That Promotes Cell Adhesion via Interaction with the αvβ3 Integrin through an RGD-independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cal, Santiago; Freije, José M.P.; López, José M.; Takada, Yoshikazu; López-Otín, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    ADAM 23 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain)/MDC3 (metalloprotease, disintegrin, and cysteine-rich domain) is a member of the disintegrin family of proteins expressed in fetal and adult brain. In this work we show that the disintegrin-like domain of ADAM 23 produced in Escherichia coli and immobilized on culture dishes promotes attachment of different human cells of neural origin, such as neuroblastoma cells (NB100 and SH-Sy5y) or astrocytoma cells (U373 and U87 MG). Analysis of ADAM 23 binding to integrins revealed a specific interaction with αvβ3, mediated by a short amino acid sequence present in its putative disintegrin loop. This sequence lacks any RGD motif, which is a common structural determinant supporting αvβ3-mediated interactions of diverse proteins, including other disintegrins. αvβ3 also supported adhesion of HeLa cells transfected with a full-length cDNA for ADAM 23, extending the results obtained with the recombinant protein containing the disintegrin domain of ADAM 23. On the basis of these results, we propose that ADAM 23, through its disintegrin-like domain, may function as an adhesion molecule involved in αvβ3-mediated cell interactions occurring in normal and pathological processes, including progression of malignant tumors from neural origin. PMID:10749942

  5. Snake venom disintegrins: novel dimeric disintegrins and structural diversification by disulphide bond engineering.

    PubMed Central

    Calvete, Juan J; Moreno-Murciano, M Paz; Theakston, R David G; Kisiel, Dariusz G; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary

    2003-01-01

    We report the isolation and amino acid sequences of six novel dimeric disintegrins from the venoms of Vipera lebetina obtusa (VLO), V. berus (VB), V. ammodytes (VA), Echis ocellatus (EO) and Echis multisquamatus (EMS). Disintegrins VLO4, VB7, VA6 and EO4 displayed the RGD motif and inhibited the adhesion of K562 cells, expressing the integrin alpha5beta1 to immobilized fibronectin. A second group of dimeric disintegrins (VLO5 and EO5) had MLD and VGD motifs in their subunits and blocked the adhesion of the alpha4beta1 integrin to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 with high selectivity. On the other hand, disintegrin EMS11 inhibited both alpha5beta1 and alpha4beta1 integrins with almost the same degree of specificity. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the dimeric disintegrins with those of other disintegrins by multiple-sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, in conjunction with current biochemical and genetic data, supports the view that the different disintegrin subfamilies evolved from a common ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-like) scaffold and that structural diversification occurred through disulphide bond engineering. PMID:12667142

  6. The disintegrin echistatin in combination with doxorubicin targets high-metastatic human osteosarcoma overexpressing αvβ3 integrin in chick embryo and nude mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Tome, Yasunori; Kimura, Hiroaki; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kanaya, Fuminori; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Echistatin, a cyclic RGD peptide, which is an antagonist of αvβ3 integrin (disintegrin), inhibited human osteosarcoma in the chick chorioallontoic membrane (CAM) model and tumor growth and pulmonary metastases in a nude mouse orthotopic model. A high-metastatic variant of human osteosarcoma, 143B-LM4, overexpressing αvβ3 integrin was used. Tumor angiogenesis by high-metastatic variant 143B-LM4 cells in the CAM was significantly inhibited by echistatin (P<0.05) as was overall growth. A doxorubicin (DOX)-echistatin combination inhibited orthotopic tumor growth compared to untreated control (P<0.01) or DOX alone (P<0.05) in nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice treated with the DOX-echistatin combination survived longer than those treated with DOX alone or control PBS (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). Echistatin also inhibited experimental lung metastasis of 143B-LM4 cells in nude mice. These results suggest that DOX in combination with a disintegrin has potential to treat osteosarcoma and that αvβ3 integrin may be a target for osteosarcoma. PMID:27894082

  7. Vicrostatin – An Anti-Invasive Multi-Integrin Targeting Chimeric Disintegrin with Tumor Anti-Angiogenic and Pro-Apoptotic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Minea, Radu O.; Helchowski, Corey M.; Zidovetzki, Samuel J.; Costa, Fritz K.; Swenson, Stephen D.; Markland, Francis S.

    2010-01-01

    Similar to other integrin-targeting strategies, disintegrins have previously shown good efficacy in animal cancer models with favorable pharmacological attributes and translational potential. Nonetheless, these polypeptides are notoriously difficult to produce recombinantly due to their particular structure requiring the correct pairing of multiple disulfide bonds for biological activity. Here, we show that a sequence-engineered disintegrin (called vicrostatin or VCN) can be reliably produced in large scale amounts directly in the oxidative cytoplasm of Origami B E. coli. Through multiple integrin ligation (i.e., αvβ3, αvβ5, and α5β1), VCN targets both endothelial and cancer cells significantly inhibiting their motility through a reconstituted basement membrane. Interestingly, in a manner distinct from other integrin ligands but reminiscent of some ECM-derived endogenous anti-angiogenic fragments previously described in the literature, VCN profoundly disrupts the actin cytoskeleton of endothelial cells (EC) inducing a rapid disassembly of stress fibers and actin reorganization, ultimately interfering with EC's ability to invade and form tubes (tubulogenesis). Moreover, here we show for the first time that the addition of a disintegrin to tubulogenic EC sandwiched in vitro between two Matrigel layers negatively impacts their survival despite the presence of abundant haptotactic cues. A liposomal formulation of VCN (LVCN) was further evaluated in vivo in two animal cancer models with different growth characteristics. Our data demonstrate that LVCN is well tolerated while exerting a significant delay in tumor growth and an increase in the survival of treated animals. These results can be partially explained by potent tumor anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic effects induced by LVCN. PMID:20532165

  8. NMR structure of bitistatin – a missing piece in the evolutionary pathway of snake venom disintegrins.

    PubMed

    Carbajo, Rodrigo J; Sanz, Libia; Perez, Alicia; Calvete, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    Extant disintegrins, as found in the venoms of Viperidae and Crotalidae snakes (vipers and rattlesnakes, represent a family of polypeptides that block the function of β1 and β3 integrin receptors, both potently and with a high degree of selectivity. This toxin family owes its origin to the neofunctionalization of the extracellular region of an ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) molecule recruited into the snake venom gland proteome in the Jurassic. The evolutionary structural diversification of the disintegrin scaffold, from the ancestral long disintegrins to the more recently evolved medium-sized, dimeric and short disintegrins, involved the stepwise loss of pairs of class-specific disulfide linkages and the processing of the N-terminal region. NMR and crystal structures of medium-sized, dimeric and short disintegrins have been solved. However, the structure of a long disintegrin remained unknown. The present study reports the NMR solution structures of two disulfide bond conformers of the long disintegrin bitistatin from the African puff adder Bitis arietans. The findings provide insight into how a structural domain of the extracellular region of an ADAM molecule, recruited into and selectively expressed in the snake venom gland proteome as a PIII metalloprotease in the Jurassic, has subsequently been tranformed into a family of integrin receptor antagonists.

  9. Disintegrins from Hematophagous Sources

    PubMed Central

    Assumpcao, Teresa C. F.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins) which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. Here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. Disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. In hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland of ticks and leeches. A limited number have also been found in hookworms and horseflies, and none identified in mosquitoes or sand flies. The vast majority of salivary disintegrins reported display a RGD motif and were described as platelet aggregation inhibitors, and few others as negative modulator of neutrophil or endothelial cell functions. This notably low number of reported disintegrins is certainly an underestimation of the actual complexity of this family of proteins in hematophagous secretions. Therefore an algorithm was created in order to identify the tripeptide motifs RGD, KGD, VGD, MLD, KTS, RTS, WGD, or RED (flanked by cysteines) in sialogenins deposited in GenBank database. The search included sequences from various blood-sucking animals such as ticks (e.g., Ixodes sp., Argas sp., Rhipicephalus sp., Amblyommasp.), tabanids (e.g., Tabanus sp.), bugs (e.g., Triatoma sp., Rhodnius prolixus), mosquitoes (e.g., Anopheles sp., Aedes sp., Culex sp.), sand flies (e.g., Lutzomyia sp., Phlebotomus sp.), leeches (e.g., Macrobdella sp., Placobdella sp.) and worms (e.g., Ancylostoma sp.). This approach allowed the identification of a remarkably high number of novel putative sialogenins with tripeptide motifs typical of disintegrins (>450 sequences) whose biological activity remains to be verified. This database is accessible online as a hyperlinked worksheet and displays biochemical, taxonomic, and gene ontology aspects for each putative disintegrin. It is also freely

  10. Disintegrins from hematophagous sources.

    PubMed

    Assumpcao, Teresa C F; Ribeiro, José M C; Francischetti, Ivo M B

    2012-05-01

    Bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins) which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. Here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. Disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. In hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland of ticks and leeches. A limited number have also been found in hookworms and horseflies, and none identified in mosquitoes or sand flies. The vast majority of salivary disintegrins reported display a RGD motif and were described as platelet aggregation inhibitors, and few others as negative modulator of neutrophil or endothelial cell functions. This notably low number of reported disintegrins is certainly an underestimation of the actual complexity of this family of proteins in hematophagous secretions. Therefore an algorithm was created in order to identify the tripeptide motifs RGD, KGD, VGD, MLD, KTS, RTS, WGD, or RED (flanked by cysteines) in sialogenins deposited in GenBank database. The search included sequences from various blood-sucking animals such as ticks (e.g., Ixodes sp., Argas sp., Rhipicephalus sp., Amblyommasp.), tabanids (e.g., Tabanus sp.), bugs (e.g., Triatoma sp., Rhodnius prolixus), mosquitoes (e.g., Anopheles sp., Aedes sp., Culex sp.), sand flies (e.g., Lutzomyia sp., Phlebotomus sp.), leeches (e.g., Macrobdella sp., Placobdella sp.) and worms (e.g., Ancylostoma sp.). This approach allowed the identification of a remarkably high number of novel putative sialogenins with tripeptide motifs typical of disintegrins (>450 sequences) whose biological activity remains to be verified. This database is accessible online as a hyperlinked worksheet and displays biochemical, taxonomic, and gene ontology aspects for each putative disintegrin. It is also freely

  11. Selective integrin endocytosis is driven by interactions between the integrin α-chain and AP2

    PubMed Central

    De Franceschi, Nicola; Arjonen, Antti; Elkhatib, Nadia; Denessiouk, Konstantin; Wrobel, Antoni G; Wilson, Thomas A; Pouwels, Jeroen; Montagnac, Guillaume; Owen, David J; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface adhesion molecules comprising one of possible 18 α-chains and one of possible 8 β-chains. They control a range of cell functions in a matrix- and ligand-specific manner. Integrins can be internalised by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) through β subunit-based motifs found in all integrin heterodimers. However, whether specific integrin heterodimers can be selectively endocytosed was unknown. Here, we found that a subset of α subunits contain an evolutionarily conserved and functional YxxΦ motif directing integrins to selective internalisation by the most abundant endocytic clathrin adaptor, AP2. We determined the structure of the human integrin α4-tail motif in complex with AP2 C-µ2 subunit and confirmed the interaction by isothermal titration calorimetry. Mutagenesis of the motif impaired selective heterodimer endocytosis and attenuated integrin-mediated cell migration. We propose that integrins evolved to enable selective integrin-receptor turnover in response to changing matrix conditions. PMID:26779610

  12. Snake Venom Disintegrins and Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa S.; Pontes, Carmen L. S.; Montenegro, Cyntia F.; Martin, Ana Carolina B. M.

    2010-01-01

    Cell migration is a key process for the defense of pluricellular organisms against pathogens, and it involves a set of surface receptors acting in an ordered fashion to contribute directionality to the movement. Among these receptors are the integrins, which connect the cell cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix components, thus playing a central role in cell migration. Integrin clustering at focal adhesions drives actin polymerization along the cell leading edge, resulting in polarity of cell movement. Therefore, small integrin-binding proteins such as the snake venom disintegrins that inhibit integrin-mediated cell adhesion are expected to inhibit cell migration. Here we review the current knowledge on disintegrin and disintegrin-like protein effects on cell migration and their potential use as pharmacological tools in anti-inflammatory therapy as well as in inhibition of metastatic invasion. PMID:22069567

  13. A novel family of RGD-containing disintegrin (Tablysin-15) from the salivary gland of the horsefly Tabanus yao targets integrins αIIbβ3 and αVβ3 and inhibits platelet aggregation and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dongying; Xu, Xueqing; An, Su; Liu, Huan; Yang, Xuening; Andersen, John F.; Wang, Yipeng; Tokumasu, Fuyuki; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Lai, Ren

    2012-01-01

    A novel family of RGD-containing molecule (Tablysin-15) has been molecularly characterized from the salivary gland of the hematophagous horsefly Tabanus yao. Tablysin-15 does not share primary sequence homology to any disintegrin discovered so far, and displays an RGD motif in the N-terminus of the molecule. It is also distinct from disintegrins from Viperidae since its mature form is not released from a metalloproteinase precursor. Tablysin-15 exhibits high affinity for platelet αIIbβ3 and endothelial cell αvβ3 integrins, but not for α5β1 or α2β1. Accordingly, it blocks endothelial cell adhesion to vitronectin (IC50 ~ 1 nM) and marginally to fibronectin (IC50 ~ 1 µM), but not to collagen. It also inhibits FGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, and attenuates tube formation in vitro. In platelets, Tablysin-15 inhibits aggregation induced by collagen, ADP and convulxin, and prevents static platelet adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen. In addition, solid-phase assays and flow cytometry demonstrates that αIIbβ3 binds to Tablysin-15. Moreover, immobilized Tablysin-15 supports platelet adhesion by a mechanism which was blocked by anti-integrin αIIbβ3 monoclonal antibody (e.g. abciximab) or by EDTA. Furthermore, Tablysin-15 dose-dependently attenuates thrombus formation to collagen under flow, without affecting platelet adhesion to collagen fibrils. Consistent with these findings, Tablysin-15 displays antithrombotic properties in vivo suggesting that it is a useful tool to block αIIbβ3, or as a prototype to develop antithrombotics. The RGD motif in the unique sequence of Tablysin-15 represents a novel template for studying the structure-function relationship of the disintegrin family of inhibitors. PMID:21475772

  14. Sequence-specific interaction between the disintegrin domain of mouse ADAM 2 (fertilin beta) and murine eggs. Role of the alpha(6) integrin subunit.

    PubMed

    Bigler, D; Takahashi, Y; Chen, M S; Almeida, E A; Osbourne, L; White, J M

    2000-04-21

    Little is yet known about the biological and biochemical properties of the disintegrin-like domains of ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) proteins. Mouse ADAM 2 (mADAM 2; fertilin beta) is a sperm surface protein involved in murine fertilization. We produced recombinant proteins containing the disintegrin-like domain of mADAM 2 in both insect cells and in bacteria. The protein produced in insect cells (baculo D+C) contained a signal sequence followed by the disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains; it was purified from the medium of recombinant baculovirus-infected cells. A bacterial construct containing the disintegrin-like domain was produced in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase chimera. Baculo D+C, as well as the D domain of the bacterial construct (released with thrombin), bound to the microvillar surface of murine eggs. Using concentrations in the range of 1 to 5 microM, both recombinant proteins strongly inhibited sperm-egg binding and fusion; the baculovirus-produced protein exhibited a somewhat greater extent of inhibition (approximately 75 versus approximately 55% maximal inhibition). Substitution of alanine for each of the five charged residues within the disintegrin loop of mADAM 2 revealed a critical importance for the aspartic acid at position nine. Binding of both recombinant proteins to the egg was inhibited by the function blocking anti-alpha(6) monoclonal antibody, GoH3, but not by a nonfunction-blocking anti-alpha(6) monoclonal antibody. Binding was also inhibited by a peptide analogue of, and with an antibody against, the disintegrin loop of mADAM 2.

  15. Effects of Blocking αvβ₃ integrin by a recombinant RGD disintegrin on remodeling of wound healing after induction of incisional hernia in rats.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Claudio Ricardo de; Marqueti, Rita de Cassia; Cominetti, Marcia Regina; Vieira, Estela Sant Ana; Ribeiro, Juliana Uema; Pontes, Carmen Lucia Salla; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa Sobreiro

    2014-01-01

    Incisional hernia (IH) is characterized by defective wound healing process. Disba-01, a αvb₃ integrin blocker has shown to control the rate of wound repair and therefore it could be a target for new wound healing therapies.The objective of the study was to determine the changes induced by Disba-01 on repair of wound healing after induced IH in rats. Thirty two male albino rats were submitted to IH and divided into 4 experimental groups: G1, placebo control; G2, DisBa-01-treated; G3, anti-αvβ₃ antibodies-treated and G4, anti-α₂ antibodies-treated. Histological. biochemical and extracellular matrix remodeling analysis of abdominal wall were evaluated. After 14 days, 100% of the G2 did not present hernia, and the hernia ring was closed by a thin membrane. In contrast, all groups maintained incisional hernia. DisBa-01 also increased the number macrophages and fibroblasts and induced the formation of new vessels. Additionally, MMP-2 was strongly activated only in G2 (P<0.05). Anti- αvβ₃-integrin antibodies produced similar results than Disba-01 but not anti-α₂ integrin blocking antibodies. These results strongly indicate that Disba-01 has an important role in the control of wound healing and the blocking of this integrin may be an interesting therapeutical strategy in IH.

  16. Identification of stepped changes of binding affinity during interactions between the disintegrin rhodostomin and integrin αIIbβ3 in living cells using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chia-Fen; Chang, Bo-Jui; Pai, Chyi-Huey; Chen, Hsuan-Yi; Chi, Sien; Hsu, Long; Tsai, Jin-Wu; Lin, Chi-Hung

    2004-10-01

    Integrin receptors serve as both mechanical links and signal transduction mediators between the cell and its environment. Experimental evidence demonstrates that conformational changes and lateral clustering of the integrin proteins may affect their binding to ligands and regulate downstream cellular responses; however, experimental links between the structural and functional correlations of the ligand-receptor interactions are not yet elucidated. In the present report, we utilized optical tweezers to measure the dynamic binding between the snake venom rhodostomin, coated on a microparticle and functioned as a ligand, and the membrane receptor integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) expressed on a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell. A progressive increase of total binding affinity was found between the bead and CHO cell in the first 300 sec following optical tweezers-guided contact. Further analysis of the cumulative data revealed the presence of "unit binding force" presumably exerted by a single rhodostomin-integrin pair. Interestingly, two such units were found. Among the measurements of less total binding forces, presumably taken at the early stage of ligand-receptor interactions, a unit of 4.15 pN per molecule pair was derived. This unit force dropped to 2.54 pN per molecule pair toward the later stage of interactions when the total binding forces were relatively large. This stepped change of single molecule pair binding affinity was not found when mutant rhodostomin proteins were used as ligands (a single unit of 1.81 pN per pair was found). These results were interpreted along with the current knowledge about the conformational changes of integrins during the "molecule activation" process.

  17. Arg-Tyr-Asp (RYD) and Arg-Cys-Asp (RCD) motifs in dendroaspin promote selective inhibition of beta1 and beta3 integrins.

    PubMed

    Wattam, B; Shang, D; Rahman, S; Egglezou, S; Scully, M; Kakkar, V; Lu, X

    2001-05-15

    Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) is a unique minimal integrin-binding sequence that is found within several glycoprotein ligands. This sequence has also been found in snake-venom anti-platelet proteins, including the disintegrins and dendroaspin, a natural variant of short-chain neurotoxins isolated from the venom of Dendroaspis jamesonii. In the present study, the motifs RYD and RCD were introduced into the dendroaspin scaffold to replace RGD. Both motifs in dendroaspin caused inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation with IC(50) values of 200 and 300 nM respectively, similar to that of the wild-type RGD motif (170 nM). In comparison with wild-type dendroaspin, both RYD- and RCD-containing dendroaspins were more selective in the inhibition of the adhesion of K562 cells to laminin rather than to fibrinogen and fibronectin, even though they were 10-30-fold less potent at inhibiting K562 cell (containing alpha(5)beta(1) integrin) adhesion to laminin compared with wild-type. Interestingly, the RYD motif produced a similar IC(50) value to the RGD motif at inhibiting A375-SM cell (beta(3) integrin) adhesion to collagen, whereas the RCD motif was approx. 2-6-fold less potent compared with either RGD or RYD. These findings show that the selectivity of dendroaspin binding to beta(1) and beta(3) integrins can be modulated by the introduction of alternative cell recognition sequences.

  18. Recombinant expression of mutants of the Frankenstein disintegrin, RTS-ocellatusin. Evidence for the independent origin of RGD and KTS/RTS disintegrins.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Soler, Raquel; Lorente, Carolina; Company, Beatriz; Sanz, Libia; Juárez, Paula; Pérez, Alicia; Zhang, Yun; Jin, Yang; Chen, Runqiang; Eble, Johannes A; Calvete, Juan J; Bolás, Gema

    2012-09-15

    The requirements to transform a short disintegrin of the RGD clade into an RTS disintegrin, were investigated through the generation of recombinant mutants of ocellatusin in which the RGD tripeptide was substituted for RTS in different positions along the integrin-specificity loop. Any attempt to create an active integrin α(1)β(1) inhibitory motif within the specificity loop of ocellatusin was unsuccessful. Replacing the whole RGD-loop of ocellatusin by the RTS-loop of jerdostatin was neither sufficient for confering α(1)β(1) binding specificity to this ocellatusin-RTS Frankenstein(2) mutant. Factors other than the integrin-binding loop sequence per se are thus required to transform a disintegrin scaffold from the RGD clade into another scaffold from the RTS/KTS clade. Moreover, our results provide evidences, that the RTS/KTS short disintegrins have potentially been recruited into the venom gland of Eurasian vipers independently from the canonical neofunctionalization pathway of the RGD disintegrins. PCR-amplifications of jerdostatin-like sequences from a number of taxa across reptiles, including snakes (Crotalinae, Viperinae, and Elapidae taxa) and lizards (Lacertidae and Iguanidae) clearly showed that genes coding for RTS/KTS disintegrins existed long before the split of Lacertidae and Iguania, thus predating the recruitment of the SVMP precursors of disintegrins, providing strong support for the view of an independent evolutionary history of the RTS/KTS and the RGD clades of short disintegrins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multimeric Disintegrin Protein Polymer Fusions That Target Tumor Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant protein therapeutics have increased in number and frequency since the introduction of human insulin, 25 years ago. Presently, proteins and peptides are commonly used in the clinic. However, the incorporation of peptides into clinically approved nanomedicines has been limited. Reasons for this include the challenges of decorating pharmaceutical-grade nanoparticles with proteins by a process that is robust, scalable, and cost-effective. As an alternative to covalent bioconjugation between a protein and nanoparticle, we report that biologically active proteins may themselves mediate the formation of small multimers through steric stabilization by large protein polymers. Unlike multistep purification and bioconjugation, this approach is completed during biosynthesis. As proof-of-principle, the disintegrin protein called vicrostatin (VCN) was fused to an elastin-like polypeptide (A192). A significant fraction of fusion proteins self-assembled into multimers with a hydrodynamic radius of 15.9 nm. The A192-VCN fusion proteins compete specifically for cell-surface integrins on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435. Confocal microscopy revealed that, unlike linear RGD-containing protein polymers, the disintegrin fusion protein undergoes rapid cellular internalization. To explore their potential clinical applications, fusion proteins were characterized using small animal positron emission tomography (microPET). Passive tumor accumulation was observed for control protein polymers; however, the tumor accumulation of A192-VCN was saturable, which is consistent with integrin-mediated binding. The fusion of a protein polymer and disintegrin results in a higher intratumoral contrast compared to free VCN or A192 alone. Given the diversity of disintegrin proteins with specificity for various cell-surface integrins, disintegrin fusions are a new source of biomaterials with potential diagnostic and

  20. Multiple non-catalytic ADAMs are novel integrin α4 ligands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Hoggard, Jason A; Korleski, Erica D; Long, Gideon V; Ree, Brandy C; Hensley, Kenneth; Bond, Stephen R; Wolfsberg, Tyra G; Chen, JianMing; Zeczycki, Tonya N; Bridges, Lance C

    2017-09-14

    The ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) protein family uniquely exhibits both catalytic and adhesive properties. In the well-defined process of ectodomain shedding, ADAMs transform latent, cell-bound substrates into soluble, biologically active derivatives to regulate a spectrum of normal and pathological processes. In contrast, the integrin ligand properties of ADAMs are not fully understood. Emerging models posit that ADAM-integrin interactions regulate shedding activity by localizing or sequestering the ADAM sheddase. Interestingly, 8 of the 21 human ADAMs are predicted to be catalytically inactive. Unlike their catalytically active counterparts, integrin recognition of these "dead" enzymes has not been largely reported. The present study delineates the integrin ligand properties of a group of non-catalytic ADAMs. Here we report that human ADAM11, ADAM23, and ADAM29 selectively support integrin α4-dependent cell adhesion. This is the first demonstration that the disintegrin-like domains of multiple catalytically inactive ADAMs are ligands for a select subset of integrin receptors that also recognize catalytically active ADAMs.

  1. Selective down-regulation of the alpha6-integrin subunit in melanocytes by UVB light.

    PubMed

    Krengel, Sven; Stark, Imke; Geuchen, Christian; Knoppe, Bettina; Scheel, Gabriele; Schlenke, Peter; Gebert, Andreas; Wünsch, Lutz; Brinckmann, Jürgen; Tronnier, Michael

    2005-06-01

    In vivo, melanocytes bind to laminin (LM) molecules of the basement membrane (BM) via the integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1, and they adhere to neighbouring keratinocytes via E-cadherin. Only few studies have addressed the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on the interaction of melanocytes with their microenvironment. In this report, we examined the influence of UVB irradiation on the expression of the most important melanocyte-adhesion molecules (E-, N-cadherin, alpha2-, alpha3-, alpha5-, alpha6-, alphaV-, beta1-, beta3-integrins and ICAM-1) in vitro by flow cytometry. We were able to demonstrate that the alpha6-integrin subunit is selectively and reversibly down-regulated by UVB in a dwzm 150ose-dependent manner. In comparison, keratinocytes lacked UVB-inducible alterations in the expression of alpha6-integrin. In the presence of LM-1, the UVB-induced down-regulation of alpha6-integrin in melanocytes was significantly reduced. Moreover, LM-1 increased the resistance of melanocytes to UVB-induced cell death, as measured by annexinV-binding analysis. This effect was reversed by preincubation with an alpha6-integrin-blocking antibody. By immunofluorescence, we could demonstrate that UVB leads to a dose-dependent internalization of alpha6-integrin, providing an obvious explanation for the down-regulation on the outer cell surface observed by flow cytometry. We suggest that adhesion to LM-1 through alpha6-integrin represents a protective mechanism for melanocytes to withstand UVB damage. Through alpha6-integrin internalization, sunburns might alter the interaction between melanocytes and the BM, resulting in apoptosis induced by loss of anchorage (anoikis). Repeated sunburns may then lead to the selection of a population of melanocytes which are capable of anchorage-independent survival, culminating in solar nevogenesis and melanoma development.

  2. Selection and Characterization of an α6β4 Integrin blocking DNA Aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Katharina; Lange, Tobias; Mittelberger, Florian; Schumacher, Udo; Hahn, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The heterodimeric laminin receptor α6β4 integrin plays a central role in the promotion of tumor cell growth, invasion, and organotropic metastasis. As an overproduction of the integrin is often linked to a poor prognosis, the inhibition of integrin α6β4 binding to laminin is of high therapeutical interest. Here, we report on the combination of a cell-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment and a bead-based selection resulting in the first aptamer inhibiting the interaction between α6β4 integrin and laminin-332. This Integrin α6β4-specific DNA Aptamer (IDA) inhibits the adhesion of prostate cancer cells (PC-3) to laminin-332 with an IC50 value of 149 nmol/l. The Kd value concerning the aptamer's interaction with PC-3 cells amounts to 137 nmol/l. Further characterization showed specificity to α6 integrins and a half-life in murine blood plasma of 6 hours. Two truncated versions of the aptamer retained their binding capacity, but lost their ability to inhibit the interaction between laminin-332 and PC-3 cells. Confocal laser scanning microscope studies revealed that the aptamer was internalized into PC-3-cells. Therefore, in addition to the adhesion-blocking function of this aptamer, IDA could also be applied for the delivery of siRNA, microRNA or toxins to cancer cells presenting the integrin α6β4. PMID:26978578

  3. Hypoxia Selectively Enhances Integrin Receptor Expression to Promote Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ju, Julia A; Godet, Ines; Ye, I Chae; Byun, Jungmin; Jayatilaka, Hasini; Lee, Sun Joo; Xiang, Lisha; Samanta, Debangshu; Lee, Meng Horng; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Wirtz, Denis; Semenza, Gregg L; Gilkes, Daniele M

    2017-02-17

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer (BCa)mortality. Previous studies have implicated hypoxia-induced changes in the composition and stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the metastatic process. Therefore, the contribution of potential ECM binding receptors in this process was explored. Using a bioinformatics approach the expression of all integrin receptor subunits, in two independent BCa patient data sets, were analyzed to determine if integrin status correlates with a validated hypoxiainducible gene signature. Subsequently, a large panel of breast cancer cell lines were used to validate that hypoxia induces the expression of integrin's that bind to collagen (ITGA1, ITGA11, ITGB1) and fibronectin (ITGA5, ITGB1). Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1 and HIF-2) are directly required for ITGA5 induction under hypoxic conditions, which leads to enhanced migration and invasion of single cells within a multicellular 3D tumor spheroid but did not affect migration in a 2D microenvironment. ITGB1 expression requires HIF-1alpha, but not HIF-2alpha, for hypoxic induction in breast cancer cells. ITGA5 (alpha5 subunit) is required for metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs in breast cancer models and high ITGA5 expression in clinical biopsies is associated with an increased risk of mortality.

  4. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Activity and Selectivity Profile of Ligands for RGD-binding Integrins

    PubMed Central

    Kapp, Tobias G.; Rechenmacher, Florian; Neubauer, Stefanie; Maltsev, Oleg V.; Cavalcanti-Adam, Elisabetta A.; Zarka, Revital; Reuning, Ute; Notni, Johannes; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Spatz, Joachim; Geiger, Benjamin; Kessler, Horst

    2017-01-01

    Integrins, a diverse class of heterodimeric cell surface receptors, are key regulators of cell structure and behaviour, affecting cell morphology, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Consequently, mutations in specific integrins, or their deregulated expression, are associated with a variety of diseases. In the last decades, many integrin-specific ligands have been developed and used for modulation of integrin function in medical as well as biophysical studies. The IC50-values reported for these ligands strongly vary and are measured using different cell-based and cell-free systems. A systematic comparison of these values is of high importance for selecting the optimal ligands for given applications. In this study, we evaluate a wide range of ligands for their binding affinity towards the RGD-binding integrins αvβ3, αvβ5, αvβ6, αvβ8, α5β1, αIIbβ3, using homogenous ELISA-like solid phase binding assay. PMID:28074920

  5. Selective, tight-binding inhibitors of integrin alpha4beta1 that inhibit allergic airway responses.

    PubMed

    Lin, K c; Ateeq, H S; Hsiung, S H; Chong, L T; Zimmerman, C N; Castro, A; Lee, W C; Hammond, C E; Kalkunte, S; Chen, L L; Pepinsky, R B; Leone, D R; Sprague, A G; Abraham, W M; Gill, A; Lobb, R R; Adams, S P

    1999-03-11

    Integrin alpha4beta1 mediates leukocyte recruitment, activation, mediator release, and apoptosis inhibition, and it plays a central role in inflammatory pathophysiology. High-affinity, selective inhibitors of alpha4beta1, based on the Leu-Asp-Val (LDV) sequence from the alternatively spliced connecting segment-1 (CS-1) peptide of cellular fibronectin, are described that employ a novel N-terminal peptide "cap" strategy. One inhibitor, BIO-1211, was approximately 10(6)-fold more potent than the starting peptide and exhibited tight-binding properties (koff = 1.4 x 10(-4) s-1, KD = 70 pM), a remarkable finding for a noncovalent, small-molecule inhibitor of a protein receptor. BIO-1211 was also 200-fold selective for the activated form of alpha4beta1, and it stimulated expression of ligand-induced epitopes on the integrin beta1 subunit, a property consistent with occupancy of the receptor's ligand-binding site. Pretreatment of allergic sheep with a 3-mg nebulized dose of BIO-1211 inhibited early and late airway responses following antigen challenge and prevented development of nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness to carbachol. These results show that highly selective and potent small-molecule antagonists can be identified to integrins with primary specificity for peptide domains other than Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD); they confirm the generality of integrins as small molecule targets; and they validate alpha4beta1 as a therapeutic target for asthma.

  6. HGF/scatter factor selectively promotes cell invasion by increasing integrin avidity.

    PubMed

    Trusolino, L; Cavassa, S; Angelini, P; Andó, M; Bertotti, A; Comoglio, P M; Boccaccio, C

    2000-08-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) controls a genetic program known as 'invasive growth', which involves as critical steps cell adhesion, migration, and trespassing of basement membranes. We show here that in MDA-MB-231 carcinoma cells, these steps are elicited by HGF/SF but not by epidermal growth factor (EGF). Neither factor substantially alters the production or activity of extracellular matrix proteases. HGF/SF, but not EGF, selectively promotes cell adhesion on laminins 1 and 5, fibronectin, and vitronectin through a PI3-K-dependent mechanism. Increased adhesion is followed by enhanced invasiveness through isolated matrix proteins as well as through reconstituted basement membranes. Inhibition assays using function-blocking antibodies show that this phenomenon is mediated by multiple integrins including beta1, beta3, beta4, and beta5. HGF/SF triggers clustering of all these integrins at actin-rich adhesive sites and lamellipodia but does not quantitatively modify their membrane expression. These data suggest that HGF/SF promotes cell adhesion and invasiveness by increasing the avidity of integrins for their specific ligands.

  7. Selective induction of integrin beta1 by hypoxia-inducible factor: implications for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Keely, Simon; Glover, Louise E; MacManus, Christopher F; Campbell, Eric L; Scully, Melanie M; Furuta, Glenn T; Colgan, Sean P

    2009-05-01

    Because of localized vascular damage and increased tissue oxygen demand, wound healing occurs in a relatively hypoxic microenvironment. These features are particularly relevant to wound healing and fibrosis in chronic inflammatory conditions, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In these studies, we sought to identify the contribution of hypoxia to mechanisms of wound repair in a model of the intestinal submucosa. Initial studies revealed that hypoxia promotes wound healing, as modeled by an increase in intestinal fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction. Guided by results from transcriptional profiling, we identified the selective induction of fibroblast integrin beta1 (ITGB1) by hypoxia. Further analysis revealed that hypoxia, as well as pharmacological activators of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), induce fibroblast beta1 integrin mRNA, protein, and function by as much as 4-fold. Cloning and analysis of the beta1 integrin gene promoter revealed a 10 +/- 0.8-fold increase in promoter activity in response to hypoxia, and subsequent studies identified a functional DNA binding region for HIF in the ITGB1 gene promoter. Mutational analysis of the HIF binding site within the ITGB1 promoter resulted in a significant loss of ITGB1 hypoxia-inducibility. As proof of principle, studies in a murine model of colitis revealed a correlation between colitic disease severity and tissue ITGB1 expression (R(2)=0.80). Taken together, these results demonstrate that hypoxia induces fibroblast ITGB1 expression and function by transcriptional mechanisms dependent on HIF.

  8. Elucidating the role of select cytoplasmic proteins in altering diffusion of integrin receptors.

    PubMed

    Sander, Suzanne; Arora, Neha; Smith, Emily A

    2012-06-01

    Cytoplasmic proteins that affect integrin diffusion in the cell membrane are identified using a combination of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and RNA interference. Integrin receptors are essential for many cellular events, and alterations in lateral diffusion are one mechanism for modulating their function. In cells expressing native cytoplasmic protein concentrations and spread on a slide containing integrin extracellular ligand, 45 ± 2% of the integrin is mobile with a time-dependent 5.2 ± 0.9 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s diffusion coefficient at 1 s. The time exponent is 0.90 ± 0.07, indicating integrin diffusion moderately slows at longer times. The role of a specific cytoplasmic protein in altering integrin diffusion is revealed through changes in the FRAP curve after reducing the cytoplasmic protein's expression. Decreased expression of cytoplasmic proteins rhea, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), or steamer duck decreases the integrin mobile fraction. For rhea and FAK, there is a concomitant shift to Brownian (i.e., time-independent) diffusion at reduced concentrations of these proteins. In contrast, when the expression of actin 42A, dreadlocks, paxillin, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), or vinculin is reduced, integrin diffusion generally becomes more constrained with an increase in the integrin mobile fraction. This same change in integrin diffusion is measured in the absence of integrin extracellular ligand. The results indicate breaking the extracellular ligand-integrin-cytoskeletal linkage alters integrin diffusion properties, and, in most cases, there is no correlation between integrin and lipid diffusion properties.

  9. Anti-angiogenic activities of two recombinant disintegrins derived from the Mohave and Prairie rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Sara E; Romo, Karen; Suntravat, Montamas; Sánchez, Elda E

    2014-02-01

    Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in the growth and spread of cancer. New vascularization nourishes cancer cells with oxygen and nutrients, allowing these cells to grow, invade nearby tissue, spread to other parts of the body, and form new colonies of cancer cells. Tumor angiogenesis consists of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation into the tumor mass. The study of natural and synthetic angiogenesis inhibitors is a promising area for therapeutics since tumors cannot grow or spread without the formation of new blood vessels. Anti-angiogenic activities have been identified in peptides known as disintegrins. Disintegrins are a family of small proteins (45-84 amino acids in length), many which are found in snake venom that function as potent inhibitors of both platelet aggregation and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. This study reports two recombinant disintegrins (r-mojastin 1 and r-viridistatin 2) inhibiting, with similar effectiveness, distinct steps in angiogenesis such as proliferation, adhesion to fibronectin, migration, and tube formation in vitro and in vivo. Both recombinant disintegrins bind to α(v)β₃ and α(v)β₅ receptors that are upregulated in tumor endothelial cells, having a higher binding activity to α(v)β₃ integrin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biological and biochemical characterization of venom from the broad-banded copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus): isolation of two new dimeric disintegrins

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Lucena, Sara; Alfonso, Andrea; Goins, Amber; Walls, Robert; Guerrero, Belsy; Suntravat, Montamas; Sánchez, Elda E.

    2016-01-01

    Disintegrins represent a family of effective cell-cell and cell-matrix inhibitors by binding to integrin receptors. Integrins are heterodimeric, transmembrane receptors that are the bridges for these cell interactions. Disintegrins have been shown to have many therapeutic implications for the treatment of strokes, heart attacks, and cancer. Two novel heterodimeric disintegrins were isolated from the venom of the broad-banded copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus). Crude venom separated by cation-exchange chromatography resulted in several fractions possessing hemorrhagic, fibrinolytic, gelatinase, and platelet activities. Venom fractions 2–3 and 17–19 showed fibrinolytic activity. Fractions 2–6, 8–11, and 16–21 had hemorrhagic activity. Gelatinase activity was found in fractions 3, 11, and 19. The isolation of laticinstatins 1 and 2 was accomplished by fractionating crude venom using reverse phase chromatography. Data from both SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing determined that laticinstatins 1 and 2 were heterodimeric disintegrins, and both were assayed for their ability to inhibit platelet aggregation in human whole blood. Future functional evaluation of snake venom disintegrins shows considerable promise for elucidating the biochemical mechanisms of integrin-ligand interactions that will allow the development of adequate medications for hemostatic pathologies such as thrombosis, stroke, and cerebral and cardiac accidents. In this study, we are presenting the first report of the purification, and partial characterization of two new dimeric disintegrins isolated from the venom of broad-banded copperhead snakes. PMID:28090197

  11. Vascular integrin immunoreactivity is selectively lost on capillaries during rat focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Burggraf, Dorothe; Trinkl, Andreas; Burk, Jan; Martens, Helge K; Dichgans, Martin; Hamann, Gerhard F

    2008-01-16

    The alpha1-integrin cell adhesion molecules, the principal endothelial receptors for basal lamina (BL) components disappear during transient ischemia. The current study investigated the localization of integrins, the time dependency and vessel size selectivity in the normal rat brain before and after 3 h of cerebral ischemia (I3) and reperfusion (R). Additionally we looked for a correlation to the amount of extravasation and hemorrhage. In the normal brain, there was a clear immunoreactivity for the alpha1, alpha6, and beta1 integrins on the endothelial perivascular cells. After I3 followed by variable reperfusion intervals of 0, 9, and 24 h (R0, R9 and R24; respectively), the number of vessels and staining intensity indicating immunoreactivity in the ischemic area were compared with the contralateral side. The number of the beta1-immunoreactive capillaries was steadily decreasing with the reperfusion time: -12+/-5%, -15+/-7% and -43+/-8% at I3R0, I3R9 and I3R24 (all p<0.05). The beta1-staining intensity decreased homogeneously to -21% at I3R24 (p<0.05). Vascular staining for alpha1 was affected similarly. Interestingly, the alpha6-positive arterioles/venules were also reduced by -21% at I3R24 (p<0.05) in a diameter-selective way on vessels with diameters larger than 15 mum. The correlated break-down of the blood-brain-barrier was demonstrated by the significant rise of the extravasation of BSA from the perfusion solution as well as the increased hemorrhage after MCAO/R (hemoglobin: 103+/-4% versus 330+/-17%; BSA 101+/-3% versus 132+/-9% in I0R0 and I3R24, respectively). The prominent capillary vulnerability contributes significantly to the impairment of the microvascular integrity and after ischemia and reperfusion.

  12. Development of a chimeric recombinant disintegrin as a cost-effective anticancer agent with promising translational potential

    PubMed Central

    Minea, Radu; Helchowski, Corey; Rubino, Barbara; Brodmann, Kyle; Swenson, Stephen; Markland, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Vicrostatin (VCN) is a chimeric recombinant disintegrin generated in Origami B (DE3) E. coli as a genetic fusion between the C-terminal tail of a viperid disintegrin echistatin and crotalid disintegrin contortrostatin (CN). The therapeutic modulation of multiple integrin pathways via soluble disintegrins was previously shown by us and others to elicit potent anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic effects in several animal cancer models. Despite these favorable attributes, these polypeptides are notoriously difficult to produce recombinantly in significant quantity due to their structure which requires the correct pairing of multiple disulfide bonds for biological activity. In this report, we show that VCN can be reliably produced in large amounts (yields in excess of 200mg of active purified disintegrin per liter of bacterial culture) in Origami B (DE3), an E. coli expression strain engineered to support the folding of disulfide-rich heterologous proteins directly in its oxidative cytoplasmic compartment. VCN retains the integrin binding specificity of both parental molecules it was derived from, but with a different binding affinity profile. While competing for the same integrin receptors that are preferentially upregulated in the tumor microenvironment, VCN exerts a potent inhibitory effect on endothelial cell (EC) migration and tube formation in a dose-dependent manner, by forcing these cells to undergo significant actin cytoskeleton reorganization when exposed to this agent in vitro. Moreover, VCN has a direct effect on breast cancer cells inhibiting their in vitro motility. In an effort to address our main goal of developing a clinically relevant delivery method for recombinant disintegrins, VCN was efficiently packaged in liposomes (LVCN) and evaluated in vivo in an animal breast cancer model. Our data demonstrate that LVCN is well tolerated, its intravenous administration inducing a significant delay in tumor growth and an increase in animal survival, results

  13. Inhibition of osteoporosis by the αvβ3 integrin antagonist of rhodostomin variants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Hung; Yang, Rong-Sen; Tu, Huang-Ju; Liou, Houng-Chi; Lin, Yen-Ming; Chuang, Woie-Jer; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2017-03-14

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction. The vitronectin and osteopontin receptor αvβ3 integrin has increased expression levels and is implicated in the adhesion, activation, and migration of osteoclasts on the bone surface as well as osteoclast polarization. αvβ3 integrin plays an important role in osteoclast differentiation and resorption. In addition, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing peptides, small molecular inhibitors, and antibodies to αvβ3 integrin have been shown to inhibit bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. Here we examined the effects of a disintegrin HSA-ARLDDL a genetically modified mutant of rhodostomin conjugated with human serum albumin, which is highly selective of αvβ3, on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis. In RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, HSA-ARLDDL significantly inhibited osteoclast formation, and IC50 was at nM range. Post-treatment HSA-ARLDDL also inhibits osteoclast formation. Furthermore, weekly administration of HSA-ARLDDL significantly inhibits the increase in serum bone resorption marker levels and decrease in cancellous bone loss in tibia and femur induced by OVX. On the other hand, HSA-ARLDDL did not affect the differentiation and calcium deposition of osteoblasts. These results indicate that the highly selective and long-acting αvβ3 integrin antagonists could be developed as effective drugs for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  14. Cloning, expression, and hemostatic activities of a disintegrin, r-mojastin 1, from the mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus).

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Elda E; Lucena, Sara E; Reyes, Steven; Soto, Julio G; Cantu, Esteban; Lopez-Johnston, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Belsy; Salazar, Ana Maria; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Galán, Jacob A; Tao, W Andy; Pérez, John C

    2010-09-01

    Interactions with exposed subendothelial extracellular proteins and cellular integrins (endothelial cells, platelets and lymphocytes) can cause alterations in the hemostatic system associated with atherothrombotic processes. Many molecules found in snake venoms induce pathophysiological changes in humans, cause edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis. Disintegrins are low molecular weight, non-enzymatic proteins found in snake venom that mediate changes by binding to integrins of platelets or other cells and prevent binding of the natural ligands such as fibrinogen, fibronectin or vitronectin. Disintegrins are of great biomedical importance due to their binding affinities resulting in the inhibition of platelet aggregation, adhesion of cancer cells, and induction of signal transduction pathways. RT-PCR was used to obtain a 216 bp disintegrin cDNA from a C. s. scutulatus snake venom gland. The cloned recombinant disintegrin called r-mojastin 1 codes for 71 amino acids, including 12 cysteines, and an RGD binding motif. r-Mojastin 1 inhibited platelet adhesion to fibronectin with an IC50 of 58.3 nM and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood with an IC50 of 46 nM. r-Mojastin 1 was also tested for its ability to inhibit platelet ATP release using PRP resulting with an IC50 of 95.6 nM. MALDI-TOF mass spectrum analysis showed that r-mojastin has a mass of 7.95676 kDa.

  15. Identification, cellular distribution and potential function of the metalloprotease-disintegrin MDC9 in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Mahimkar, R M; Baricos, W H; Visaya, O; Pollock, A S; Lovett, D H

    2000-04-01

    The complex interactions of glomerular and tubular epithelial cells with the basal laminae play a critical role in renal function. Disruption of these interactions has been widely implicated in glomerular diseases and acute renal failure. MDC are a large family of membrane-bound proteins containing metalloprotease, disintegrin (integrin interaction sites), and cysteine-rich domains. Little information is available concerning the presence of MDC in the kidney or their role in renal pathophysiology. Using degenerate PCR primers for the conserved metalloprotease and disintegrin domains of this protein family, cDNA templates from tubules, whole glomeruli, and glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) yielded a single, 195-bp product, which on sequence analysis corresponded to a region in the disintegrin domain of MDC9. Northern analysis of poly(A)+ RNA from tubules, whole glomeruli, and GEC revealed a 3.9-kb transcript, identical to that of mouse MDC9. Using antibodies generated against a 21-amino acid peptide present in the metalloprotease domain of MDC9, Western analysis of concanavalin A-enriched glomerular microsomal extracts demonstrated both processed (76 kD) and unprocessed (116 kD) forms of MDC9, which upon reduction changed to the corresponding 84- and 124-kD forms. Histochemical studies revealed a basolateral localization of intrinsic MDC9 protein in renal cortical tubule cells and glomerular visceral epithelial cells, which colocalized with the beta1 integrin chain. Expression of green fluorescence protein MDC9 chimeric constructs in GEC or polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells revealed a similar punctate basolateral surface localization. Transient overexpression of the soluble disintegrin domain-green fluorescence protein chimera in GEC led to dramatic changes in cellular morphology with rounding and detachment from cell monolayers. These studies document the presence of MDC9 in renal epithelial cells and suggest an important role for MDC9 in renal

  16. Hemostatic effects of recombinant DisBa-01, a disintegrin from Bothrops alternatus.

    PubMed

    Kauskot, Alexandre; Cominetti, Marcia R; Ramos, Oscar H P; Bechyne, Iga; Renard, Jean-Marie; Hoylaerts, Marc F; Crepin, Michel; Legrand, Chantal; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa S; Bonnefoy, Arnaud

    2008-05-01

    A monomeric RGD-disintegrin was recently identified from a cDNA library from the venom gland of Bothrops alternatus. The corresponding 12 kDa-recombinant protein, DisBa-01, specifically interacted with alpha(v)beta3 integrin and displayed potent anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic properties. Here, the interaction of DisBa-01 with platelet alphaIIb beta3 integrin and its effects on hemostasis and thrombosis were investigated. DisBa-01 bound to Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells expressing beta3 or alphaIIb beta3 and promoted their adhesion and the adhesion of resting platelets onto glass coverslips. The disintegrin inhibited the binding of FITC-fibrinogen and FITC-PAC-1 to ADP-stimulated platelets and inhibited ADP-, TRAP- and collagen-induced aggregation of murine, rabbit or human platelets. In a flow chamber assay, DisBa-01 inhibited and reverted platelet adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen. DisBa-01 inhibited the phosphorylation of FAK following platelet activation. The intravenous injection of DisBa-01 in C57Bl6/j mice, prolonged tail bleeding time as well as thrombotic occlusion time in mesenteric venules and arterioles following vessel injury with FeCl3. In conclusion, DisBa-01 antagonizes the platelet alphaIIb beta3 integrin and potently inhibits thrombosis.

  17. A small molecule induces integrin β4 nuclear translocation and apoptosis selectively in cancer cells with high expression of integrin β4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, ShuYan; Ge, Di; Chen, LiNa; Zhao, Jing; Su, Le; Zhang, ShangLi; Miao, JunYing; Zhao, BaoXiang

    2016-01-01

    Increased integrin β4 (ITGB4) level is accompanied by malignant progression of multiple carcinomas. However, selective therapeutic strategies against cancer cells expressing a high level of ITGB4 have not been reported. Here, for the first time, we report that a chiral small molecule, SEC, selectively promotes apoptosis in cancer cells expressing a high level of ITGB4 by inducing ITGB4 nuclear translocation. Nuclear ITGB4 can bind to the ATF3 promoter region and activate the expression of ATF3, then upregulate the downstream pro-apoptosis genes. Furthermore, SEC promoted the binding of annexin A7 (ANXA7) to ITGB4 and increased ANXA7 GTPase activity. Activated ANXA7 promoted ITGB4 nuclear translocation by triggering ITGB4 phosphorylation at Y1494. SEC also inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors in the avian embryo model. We identified a small molecule, SEC, with selective pro-apoptosis effects on cancer cells with high expression of ITGB4, both in vitro and in vivo, by triggering the binding of ITGB4 and ANXA7, ITGB4 nuclear trafficking, and pro-apoptosis gene expression. PMID:26918348

  18. Anti-platelet effect of cumanastatin 1, a disintegrin isolated from venom of South American Crotalus rattlesnake.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Manuel; Lucena, Sara; Aguilar, Irma; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Salazar, Ana M; Sánchez, Elda E; Girón, Maria E; Carvajal, Zoila; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Guerrero, Belsy

    2009-03-01

    Disintegrins have been previously described in the venom of several snake families inhibiting signal transduction, cell-cell interactions, and cell-matrix interactions and may have therapeutic potential in heart attacks, thrombotic diseases, and cancers. This investigation describes the first disintegrin isolated from South American Crotalus venom (Venezuelan rattlesnake Crotalus durissus cumanensis), which inhibits platelet adhesion to matrix proteins. C. d. cumanensis crude venom was first separated on a Sephadex G-100 column into 4 fractions (SI to SIV). Crude venom and SIII fraction significantly diminished platelet adhesion to fibrinogen (Fg) and to fibronectin (Fn). Anti-adhesive SIII fraction was further separated by DEAE-Sephacel followed by C-18 reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The platelet anti-adhesive fraction obtained was designated as cumanastatin-1. This disintegrin has a mass of 7.442 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and pI of 8.5. Cumanastatin-1 also inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation with an IC(50) of 158 nM. However, it did not significantly inhibit collagen and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Cumanastatin-1 considerably inhibited anti-alpha(IIb)beta(3) integrin binding to platelets in a dose-dependent manner; however, it did not present any effect on the alpha(5)beta(1) integrin or on P-selectin.

  19. Modulation of integrin-binding selectivity by mutation within the RGD-loop of snake venom proteins: a novel drug development approach.

    PubMed

    Lu, X; Lu, D; Scully, M F; Kakkar, V V

    2003-06-01

    Integrins are a family of heterodimeric class I transmembrane receptors, many of which bind to the RGD sequence in adhesive proteins and mediate the adhesive interactions of a variety of cells. The RGD motif has also been found in snake venom proteins that specifically inhibit integrin binding function and serve as potent integrin antagonists. The majority of these proteins interact with beta1 and beta3 associated integrins and their potency is at least 500-2000 times higher than short RGD peptides. Structural and functional studies suggest that the inhibitory potency of these proteins lies in subtle positional requirements of the tripeptide RGD that is harboured in a defined flexible loop. The integrin-binding specificity and selectivity of each of the proteins is controlled by amino acid residues in this loop in close vicinity to the RGD-motif. The review includes an overview of the structure and function of snake-venom integrin antagonists. The ability of these proteins to control platelet aggregation, cell adhesion and ligand binding is compared to that of short linear, cyclic RGD-peptides and RGD-containing proteins and the influence of modulation of amino acid residues flanking the RGD motif is also considered. The review is intended to provide insight into the development of novel inhibitors as drugs.

  20. The integrins.

    PubMed

    Takada, Yoshikazu; Ye, Xiaojing; Simon, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The integrins are a superfamily of cell adhesion receptors that bind to extracellular matrix ligands, cell-surface ligands, and soluble ligands. They are transmembrane alphabeta heterodimers and at least 18 alpha and eight beta subunits are known in humans, generating 24 heterodimers. Members of this family have been found in mammals, chicken and zebrafish, as well as lower eukaryotes, including sponges, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (two alpha and one beta subunits, generating two integrins) and the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster (five alpha and one beta, generating five integrins). The alpha and beta subunits have distinct domain structures, with extracellular domains from each subunit contributing to the ligand-binding site of the heterodimer. The sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) was identified as a general integrin-binding motif, but individual integrins are also specific for particular protein ligands. Immunologically important integrin ligands are the intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs), immunoglobulin superfamily members present on inflamed endothelium and antigen-presenting cells. On ligand binding, integrins transduce signals into the cell interior; they can also receive intracellular signals that regulate their ligand-binding affinity. Here we provide a brief overview that concentrates mostly on the organization, structure and function of mammalian integrins, which have been more extensively studied than integrins in other organisms.

  1. Small-molecule inhibitors of FGFR, integrins and FAK selectively decrease L1CAM-stimulated glioblastoma cell motility and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Hannah J; Galileo, Deni S

    2016-06-01

    The cell adhesion/recognition protein L1CAM (L1; CD171) has previously been shown to act through integrin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling pathways to increase the motility and proliferation of glioblastoma cells in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Here, we investigated the effects of clinically relevant small-molecule inhibitors of the integrin, FAK and FGFR signaling pathways on glioblastoma-derived cells to determine their effectiveness and selectivity for diminishing L1-mediated stimulation. The effects of the FGFR inhibitor PD173074, the FAK inhibitors PF431396 and Y15 and the αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin inhibitor cilengitide were assessed in L1-positive and L1-negative variants of the human glioblastoma-derived cell lines T98G and U-118 MG. Their motility and proliferation were quantified using time-lapse microscopy and DNA content/cell cycle analyses, respectively. The application of all four inhibitors resulted in reductions in L1-mediated motility and proliferation rates of L1-positive glioblastoma-derived cells, down to the level of L1-negative cells when used at nanomolar concentrations, whereas no or much smaller reductions in these rates were obtained in L1-negative cells. In addition, we found that single inhibitor treatment resulted in maximum effects (i.e., combinations of FAK or integrin inhibitors with the FGFR inhibitor were rarely more effective). These results suggest that FAK may act as a point of convergence between the integrin and FGFR signaling pathways stimulated by L1 in these cells. We here show for the first time that small-molecule inhibitors of FGFR, integrins and FAK effectively and selectively abolish L1-stimulated migration and proliferation of glioblastoma-derived cells. Our results suggest that these inhibitors have the potential to reduce the aggressiveness of high-grade gliomas expressing L1.

  2. Recombinant disintegrin domain of ADAM15 inhibits the proliferation and migration of Bel-7402 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Y.; Chu, M.; Du, F.F.; Lei, J.Y.; Chen, Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Gong, X.H.; Ma, X.; Jin, J.

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •rhddADAM15 inhibited the proliferation and migration of Bel-7402 cells. •rhddADAM15 inhibited growth and metastasis of Bel-7402 cells in zebrafish xenograft. •rhddADAM15 induced apoptosis in Bel-7402 cells and somatic cells of zebrafish. •Cell-cycle in Bel-7402 cells showed a partial G{sub 2}/S arrest. •Activity of caspases 8, 9 and 3 was increased in rhddADAM15-treated Bel-7402 cells. -- Abstract: ADAM15 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 15), a transmembrane protein containing seven domains, interacts with some integrins via its disintegrin domain and overexpresses in many solid tumors. In this study, the effect of the recombinant human disintegrin domain (rhddADAM15) on the proliferation and migration of Bel-7402 cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in zebrafish xenografts. rhddADAM15 (4 μM) severely inhibited the proliferation and migration of Bel-7402 cells, inducing a partial G{sub 2}/S arrest and morphological nucleus changes of apoptosis. Moreover, the activity of caspases 8, 9 and 3 in Bel-7402 cells was increased. In addition, the zebrafish was used as a model for apoptosis-induction and tumor-xenograft. rhddADAM15 (1 pM) inhibited the growth and metastasis of Bel-7402 cell xenografts in zebrafish and a lower concentration (0.1 pM) induced severe apoptosis in the somatic cells of zebrafish. In conclusion, our data identified rhddADAM15 as a potent inhibitor of tumor growth and metastasis, making it a promising tool for use in anticancer treatment.

  3. Selective gene silencing in activated leukocytes by targeting siRNAs to the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Dan; Zhu, Pengcheng; Carman, Christopher V.; Lieberman, Judy; Shimaoka, Motomu

    2007-01-01

    Silencing gene expression by RNAi is a powerful method for exploring gene function and validating drug targets and potentially for therapy. Lymphocytes and other primary blood cells are resistant to lipid-based transfection in vitro and are difficult to target in vivo. We show here that antibody-protamine fusion proteins targeting the human integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) efficiently deliver siRNAs and specifically induce silencing in primary lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells. Moreover, a fusion protein constructed from an antibody that preferentially recognizes activation-dependent conformational changes in LFA-1 selectively targets activated leukocytes and can be used to suppress gene expression and cell proliferation only in activated lymphocytes. The siRNA-fusion protein complexes do not cause lymphocyte activation or induce IFN responses. K562 cells expressing latent WT or constitutively activated LFA-1 engrafted in the lungs of SCID mice are selectively targeted by intravenously injected fusion protein–siRNA complexes, demonstrating the potential in vivo applicability of LFA-1-directed siRNA delivery. PMID:17360483

  4. The A-domain of beta 2 integrin CR3 (CD11b/CD18) is a receptor for the hookworm-derived neutrophil adhesion inhibitor NIF.

    PubMed

    Rieu, P; Ueda, T; Haruta, I; Sharma, C P; Arnaout, M A

    1994-12-01

    The A-domain is a approximately 200-amino acid peptide present within structurally diverse proadhesive proteins including seven integrins. A recombinant form of the A-domain of beta 2 integrins CR3 and LFA-1 has been recently shown to bind divalent cations and to contain binding sites for protein ligands that play essential roles in leukocyte trafficking to inflammatory sites, phagocytosis and target cell killing. In this report we demonstrate that the neutrophil adhesion inhibitor, NIF produced by the hookworm Ancyclostoma caninium is a selective CD11b A-domain binding protein. NIF bound directly, specifically and with high affinity (Kd of approximately 1 nM) to recombinant CD11b A-domain (r11bA). The binding reaction was characterized by rapid association and very slow dissociation, and was blocked by an anti-r11bA monoclonal antibody. No binding was observed to rCD11aA. The NIF-r11bA interaction required divalent cations, and was absent when the mutant r11bA D140GS/AGA (that lacks divalent cation binding capacity) was used. The NIF binding site in r11bA was mapped to four short peptides, one of which being an iC3b binding site. The interaction of NIF with CR3 in intact cells followed similar binding kinetics to those with r11bA, and occurred with similar affinity in resting and activated human neutrophils, suggesting that the NIF epitope is activation independent. Binding of NIF to CR3 blocked its ability to bind to its ligands iC3b, fibrinogen, and CD54, and inhibited the ability of human neutrophils to ingest serum opsonized particles. NIF thus represents the first example of a disintegrin that targets the integrin A-domain, and is likely to be used by the hookworm to evade the host's inflammatory response. The unique structure of NIF, which lacks a disintegrin motif, emphasizes basic structural differences in antagonists targeting A+ and A- integrins, that should be valuable in drug design efforts aimed at generating novel therapeutics. Identification of the

  5. Selective αv integrin depletion identifies a core, targetable molecular pathway that regulates fibrosis across solid organs

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Neil C; Arnold, Thomas D; Katamura, Yoshio; Giacomini, Marilyn M; Rodriguez, Juan D; McCarty, Joseph H; Pellicoro, Antonella; Raschperger, Elisabeth; Betsholtz, Christer; Ruminski, Peter G; Griggs, David W; Prinsen, Michael J; Maher, Jacquelyn J; Iredale, John P; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Adams, Ralf H; Sheppard, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblasts are the major source of extracellular matrix components that accumulate during tissue fibrosis, and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major source of myofibroblasts in the liver. To date, robust systems to genetically manipulate these cells have not existed. We report that Pdgfrb-Cre inactivates genes in murine HSCs with high efficiency. We used this system to delete the αv integrin subunit because of the suggested role of multiple αv integrins as central mediators of fibrosis in multiple organs. Depletion of the αv integrin subunit in HSCs protected mice from CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis, whereas global loss of αvβ3, αvβ5 or αvβ6 or conditional loss of αvβ8 on HSCs did not. Pdgfrb-Cre effectively targeted myofibroblasts in multiple organs, and depletion of αv integrins using this system was also protective in models of pulmonary and renal fibrosis. Critically, pharmacological blockade of αv integrins by a novel small molecule (CWHM 12) attenuated both liver and lung fibrosis, even when administered after fibrosis was established. These data identify a core pathway that regulates fibrosis, and suggest that pharmacological targeting of all αv integrins may have clinical utility in the treatment of patients with a broad range of fibrotic diseases. PMID:24216753

  6. Inhibition of melanoma cell motility by the snake venom disintegrin eristostatin

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jing; Paquette-Straub, Carrie; Sage, E. Helene; Funk, Sarah E.; Patel, Vivek; Galileo, Deni; McLane, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    Eristostatin, an RGD-containing disintegrin isolated from the venom of Eristicophis macmahoni, inhibits lung or liver colonization of melanoma cells in a mouse model. In this study, transwell migration and in vitro wound closure assays were used to determine the effect of eristostatin on the migration of melanoma cells. Eristostatin significantly impaired the migration of 5 human melanoma cell lines. Furthermore, it specifically inhibited cell migration on fibronectin in a concentration-dependent manner, but not that on collagen IV or laminin. In contrast, eristostatin was found to have no effect on cell proliferation or angiogenesis. These results indicate that the interaction between eristostatin and melanoma cells may involve fibronectin-binding integrins that mediate cell migration. Mutations to alanine of seven residues within the RGD loop of eristostatin and four residues outside the RGD loop of eristostatin resulted in significantly less potency in both platelet aggregation and wound closure assays. For six of the mutations, however, decreased activity was found only in the latter assay. We conclude that a different mechanism and/or integrin is involved in these two cell activities. PMID:17316731

  7. Expression, purification, and analysis of three recombinant ECD disintegrins (r-colombistatins) from P-III class snake venom metalloproteinases affecting platelet aggregation and SK-MEL-28 cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Suntravat, Montamas; Helmke, Thomas J.; Atphaisit, Chairat; Cuevas, Esteban; Lucena, Sara E.; Uzcátegui, Nestor L.; Sánchez, Elda E.; Rodriguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Crotalid venoms are rich sources of components that affect the hemostatic system. Snake venom metalloproteinases are zinc-dependent enzymes responsible for hemorrhage that also interfere with hemostasis. The disintegrin domain is a part of snake venom metalloproteinases, which involves the binding of integrin receptors. Integrins play an essential role in cancer survival and invasion, and they have been major targets for drug development and design. Both native and recombinant disintegrins have been widely investigated for their anti-cancer activities in biological systems as well as in vitro and in vivo systems. Here, three new cDNAs encoding ECD disintegrin-like domains of metalloproteinase precursor sequences obtained from a Venezuelan mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis) venom gland cDNA library have been cloned. Three different N- and C-terminal truncated ECD disintegrin-like domains of metalloproteinases named colombistatins 2, 3, and 4 were amplified by PCR, cloned into a pGEX-4T-1 vector, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, and tested for inhibition of platelet aggregation and inhibition of adhesion of human skin melanoma (SK-Mel-28) cancer cell lines on collagen I. Purified recombinant colombistatins 2, 3, and 4 were able to inhibit ristocetin- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation. r-Colombistatins 2 showed the most potent inhibiting SK-Mel-28 cancer cells adhesion to collagen. These results suggest that colombistatins may have utility in the development of therapeutic tools in the treatment of melanoma cancers and also thrombotic diseases. PMID:27641750

  8. Integrin Cytoplasmic Tail Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion receptors essential for multicellular life. They connect cells to the extracellular environment and transduce chemical and mechanical signals to and from the cell. Intracellular proteins that bind the integrin cytoplasmic tail regulate integrin engagement of extracellular ligands as well as integrin localization and trafficking. Cytoplasmic integrin-binding proteins also function downstream of integrins, mediating links to the cytoskeleton and to signaling cascades that impact cell motility, growth, and survival. Here, we review key integrin-interacting proteins and their roles in regulating integrin activity, localization, and signaling. PMID:24467163

  9. Integrin Targeted Delivery of Radiotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaofei; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy, which is based on the selective delivery of a sufficient radiation dose to tumors without significantly affecting normal tissues, is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. Integrins, a family of cell adhesion molecules, play key roles during tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Among all the integrins, αvβ3 seems to be the most important in the process of tumor angiogenesis. Integrin αvβ3 is highly expressed on activated endothelial cells, new-born vessels as well as some tumor cells, but is not present in resting endothelial cells and most normal organ systems, making it a suitable target for anti-tumor therapy. In this review, we summarize the current development and applications of antibody-, peptide-, and other ligand-based integrin targeted radiotherapeutics for tumor radiation therapy. PMID:21547160

  10. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM): Historical Overview of Their Functions

    PubMed Central

    Giebeler, Nives; Zigrino, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first disintegrin protein from snake venom and the following identification of a mammalian membrane-anchored metalloprotease-disintegrin implicated in fertilization, almost three decades of studies have identified additional members of these families and several biochemical mechanisms regulating their expression and activity in the cell. Most importantly, new in vivo functions have been recognized for these proteins including cell partitioning during development, modulation of inflammatory reactions, and development of cancers. In this review, we will overview the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family of proteases highlighting some of the major research achievements in the analysis of ADAMs’ function that have underscored the importance of these proteins in physiological and pathological processes over the years. PMID:27120619

  11. SIKVAV peptide functionalized ultra-small gold nanoparticles for selective targeting of α6β1 integrin in hepatocellular carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskamp, M.; Coulter, T.; Ding, Y.; Perrins, R.; Espinosa Garcia, C.; Pace, A.; Hale, S.; Robinson, A.; Williams, P.; Aguilera Peral, U.; Patel, K.; Palmer, D.

    2017-04-01

    Ultra-small glycan-passivated gold nanoparticles of <2nm diameter were funtionalised with a short HS-EG(8)-COOH ligand. The nanoparticles were subsequently labelled, in a stoichiometrically controllable manner, with integrin-binding peptide SIKVAV and the maytansinoid cytotoxin DM4. In vitro assays showed significantly increased integrin-mediated uptake of SIKVAV labelled nanoparticles in HepG2 cells. SIKVAV targeted nanoparticle binding was shown to be outcompeted with free SIKVAV peptide, indicating target specific uptake. DM4 was passively attached to nanoparticles via sulfhydryl ligand exchange at the gold nanoparticle surface, which rendered them highly cytotoxic (IC50 ˜1 × 10-9M). In a rat model, pharmacokinetic studies showed that nanoparticle biodistribution was strongly altered by labelling with either peptide and DM4 moieties.

  12. Integrin priming dynamics: mechanisms of integrin antagonist-promoted alphaIIbbeta3:PAC-1 molecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Hantgan, Roy R; Stahle, Mary C

    2009-09-08

    This investigation addressed the paradox that disintegrins and small RGD-ligands readily bind to the resting alphaIIbbeta3 integrin, while macromolecules with similar integrin recognition motifs require an activated, or primed, receptor. Three structurally similar pharmaceutical integrin antagonists (eptifibatide, tirofiban, and roxifiban) were each incubated with resting alphaIIbbeta3; after drug wash-out, the receptor's ability to recognize PAC-1, an activation-dependent IgM with an RYD integrin-targeting site was measured. Their promotion of PAC-1:alphaIIbbeta3 binding (solid phase assay), eptifibatide > tirofiban > roxifiban, correlated with their ability to shift the receptor to an open conformer, as measured by analytical ultracentrifugation. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) demonstrated that PAC-1 bound rapidly (k(on) approximately 5 x 10(5) l/mol-s, 25 degrees C) and tightly (Kd approximately 1 nM) to eptifibatide-primed integrins, captured on a biosensor using an IgG specific for alphaIIb's cytoplasmic domain. Varying the interval between integrin capture and antagonist dissociation indicated that transiently primed alphaIIbbeta3 retains the ability to rapidly bind PAC-1 from 2-90 min, although the dissociation rate increased at later times, indicative of a weakening of the complex. Fluorescence anisotropy (fluorophore-tagged analogue exchange assay) demonstrated that eptifibatide dissociates rapidly from alphaIIbbeta3 (half-time <2 min), consistent with the priming window determined by SPR. van't Hoff analysis of alphaIIbbeta3:PAC-1's temperature-dependent Kd indicated entropy/enthalpy compensation, similar to (resting) integrin binding to the disintegrin echistatin. Eyring analysis of k(on) yielded DeltaG degrees approximately 10 kcal/mol for PAC-1 binding to primed alphaIIbbeta3, 3 kcal/mol lower than that of echistatin. These observations suggest that priming lowers the transition-state energy barrier, enabling rapid macromolecular ligand binding to

  13. Discovery of a new selective inhibitor of A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 10 (ADAM-10) able to reduce the shedding of NKG2D ligands in Hodgkin's lymphoma cell models.

    PubMed

    Camodeca, Caterina; Nuti, Elisa; Tepshi, Livia; Boero, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Stura, Enrico A; Poggi, Alessandro; Zocchi, Maria Raffaella; Rossello, Armando

    2016-03-23

    Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is the most common malignant lymphoma in young adults in the western world. This disease is characterized by an overexpression of ADAM-10 with increased release of NKG2D ligands, involved in an impaired immune response against tumor cells. We designed and synthesized two new ADAM-10 selective inhibitors, 2 and 3 based on previously published ADAM-17 selective inhibitor 1. The most promising compound was the thiazolidine derivative 3, with nanomolar activity for ADAM-10, high selectivity over ADAM-17 and MMPs and good efficacy in reducing the shedding of NKG2D ligands (MIC-B and ULBP3) in three different HL cell lines at non-toxic doses. Molecular modeling studies were used to drive the design and X-ray crystallography studies were carried out to explain the selectivity of 3 for ADAM-10 over MMPs.

  14. The Disintegrin-like and Cysteine-rich domains of ADAM-9 Mediate Interactions between Melanoma Cells and Fibroblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Zigrino, Paola; Nischt, Roswitha; Mauch, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    A characteristic of malignant cells is their capacity to invade their surrounding and to metastasize to distant organs. During these processes, proteolytic activities of tumor and stromal cells modify the extracellular matrix to produce a microenvironment suitable for their growth and migration. In recent years the family of ADAM proteases has been ascribed important roles in these processes. ADAM-9 is expressed in human melanoma at the tumor-stroma border where direct or indirect interactions between tumor cells and fibroblasts occur. To analyze the role of ADAM-9 for the interaction between melanoma cells and stromal fibroblasts, we produced the recombinant disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domain of ADAM-9 (DC-9). Melanoma cells and human fibroblasts adhered to immobilized DC-9 in a Mn2+-dependent fashion suggesting an integrin-mediated process. Inhibition studies showed that adhesion of fibroblasts was mediated by several β1 integrin receptors independent of the RGD and ECD recognition motif. Furthermore, interaction of fibroblasts and high invasive melanoma cells with soluble recombinant DC-9 resulted in enhanced expression of MMP-1 and MMP-2. Silencing of ADAM-9 in melanoma cells significantly reduced cell adhesion to fibroblasts. Ablation of ADAM-9 in fibroblasts almost completely abolished these cellular interactions and melanoma cell invasion in vitro. In summary, these results suggest that ADAM-9 expression plays an important role in mediating cell-cell contacts between fibroblasts and melanoma cells and that these interactions contribute to proteolytic activities required during invasion of melanoma cells. PMID:21135106

  15. Selection of a 2-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-based alpha4beta1 integrin antagonist as an inhaled anti-asthmatic agent.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Edward C; Santulli, Rosemary J; Dyatkin, Alexey B; Ballentine, Scott A; Abraham, William M; Rudman, Sandra; Page, Clive P; de Garavilla, Lawrence; Damiano, Bruce P; Kinney, William A; Maryanoff, Bruce E

    2006-06-15

    The alpha4beta1 integrin, expressed on eosinophils and neutrophils, induces inflammation in the lung by facilitating cellular infiltration and activation. From a number of potent alpha4beta1 antagonists that we evaluated for safety and efficacy, 1 was selected as a lead candidate for anti-asthma therapy by the inhalation route. We devised an optimized stereoselective synthesis to facilitate the preparation of a sufficiently large quantity of 1 for assessment in vivo. Administration of 1 to allergen-sensitive sheep by inhalation blocked the late-phase response of asthma and abolished airway hyper-responsiveness at 24h following the antigen challenge. Additionally, the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the lungs was inhibited. Administration of 1 to ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs intraperitoneally blocked airway resistance and inhibited the recruitment of inflammatory cells.

  16. Integrin Targeted Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Melissa; Odde, Srinivas; Neamati, Nouri

    2011-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric, transmembrane receptors that function as mechanosensors, adhesion molecules and signal transduction platforms in a multitude of biological processes. As such, integrins are central to the etiology and pathology of many disease states. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of integrins is of great interest for the treatment and prevention of disease. In the last two decades several integrin-targeted drugs have made their way into clinical use, many others are in clinical trials and still more are showing promise as they advance through preclinical development. Herein, this review examines and evaluates the various drugs and compounds targeting integrins and the disease states in which they are implicated. PMID:21547158

  17. Applications of snake venom components to modulate integrin activities in cell-matrix interactions

    PubMed Central

    Marcinkiewicz, Cezary

    2013-01-01

    Snake venom proteins are broadly investigated in the different areas of life science. Direct interaction of these compounds with cells may involve a variety of mechanisms that result in diverse cellular responses leading to the activation or blocking of physiological functions of the cell. In this review, the snake venom components interacting with integrins will be characterized in context of their effect on cellular response. Currently, two major families of snake venom proteins are considered as integrin-binding molecules. The most attention has been devoted to the disintegrin family, which binds certain types of integrins through specific motifs recognized as a tri-peptide structurally localized on an integrin-binding loop. Other snake venom integrin-binding proteins belong to the C-type lectin family. Snake venom molecules bind to the cellular integrins resulting in a modulation of cell signaling and in consequence, the regulation of cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Therefore, snake venom research on the integrin-binding molecules may have significance in biomedicine and basic cell biology. PMID:23811033

  18. Tumor Targeting via Integrin Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq Rashad Ali; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Kessler, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side-effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability, and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor-specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug-delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells. PMID:24010121

  19. Expression, purification, and analysis of three recombinant ECD disintegrins (r-colombistatins) from P-III class snake venom metalloproteinases affecting platelet aggregation and SK-MEL-28 cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Suntravat, Montamas; Helmke, Thomas J; Atphaisit, Chairat; Cuevas, Esteban; Lucena, Sara E; Uzcátegui, Nestor L; Sánchez, Elda E; Rodriguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2016-11-01

    Crotalid venoms are rich sources of components that affect the hemostatic system. Snake venom metalloproteinases are zinc-dependent enzymes responsible for hemorrhage that also interfere with hemostasis. The disintegrin domain is a part of snake venom metalloproteinases, which involves the binding of integrin receptors. Integrins play an essential role in cancer survival and invasion, and they have been major targets for drug development and design. Both native and recombinant disintegrins have been widely investigated for their anti-cancer activities in biological systems as well as in vitro and in vivo systems. Here, three new cDNAs encoding ECD disintegrin-like domains of metalloproteinase precursor sequences obtained from a Venezuelan mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis) venom gland cDNA library have been cloned. Three different N- and C-terminal truncated ECD disintegrin-like domains of metalloproteinases named colombistatins 2, 3, and 4 were amplified by PCR, cloned into a pGEX-4T-1 vector, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, and tested for inhibition of platelet aggregation and inhibition of adhesion of human skin melanoma (SK-Mel-28) cancer cell lines on collagen I. Purified recombinant colombistatins 2, 3, and 4 were able to inhibit ristocetin- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation. r-Colombistatins 2 showed the most potent inhibiting SK-Mel-28 cancer cells adhesion to collagen. These results suggest that colombistatins may have utility in the development of therapeutic tools in the treatment of melanoma cancers and also thrombotic diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Angiostatic activity of obtustatin as α1β1 integrin inhibitor in experimental melanoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meghan C.; Staniszewska, Izabela; Valle, Luis Del; Tuszynski, George P.; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary

    2008-01-01

    The presented results show the effect of targeting of collagen receptor, α1β1 integrin expressed on the endothelial cells on the development of experimental melanoma and pathological angiogenesis. Obtustatin, a snake venom KTS-disintegrin, was applied as a specific inhibitor of this integrin. This low molecular weight peptide revealed a potent therapeutic effect on melanoma progression in two animal systems, mouse and quail. Its oncostatic effect was related to the inhibition of angiogenesis. Obtustatin inhibited the neovascularization ratio on the CAM embryo of quail, which was pathologically induced by the developing tumor. The i.v. administration of obtustatin completely blocked cancer growth of MV3 human melanoma in nude mice. In B16F10 syngeneic mouse model treatment with the disintegrin revealed a lower effect, although the development of the tumor was significantly reduced for both dosages. The mechanism of obtustatin action is related to the blocking of microvascular endothelial cell proliferation, which undergoes apoptosis in caspase-dependent manner. Summarizing, we present studies of low molecular weight disintegrin, obtustatin as a potential therapeutic compound for treatment of melanoma that contain a high level of vascularization. PMID:18712720

  1. Identification of an Endogenously Generated Cryptic Collagen Epitope (XL313) That May Selectively Regulate Angiogenesis by an Integrin Yes-associated Protein (YAP) Mechano-transduction Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ames, Jacquelyn J; Contois, Liangru; Caron, Jennifer M; Tweedie, Eric; Yang, Xuehui; Friesel, Robert; Vary, Calvin; Brooks, Peter C

    2016-02-05

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates angiogenesis. However, the precise mechanisms by which structural changes in ECM proteins contribute to angiogenesis are not fully understood. Integrins are molecules with the ability to detect compositional and structural changes within the ECM and integrate this information into a network of signaling circuits that coordinate context-dependent cell behavior. The role of integrin αvβ3 in angiogenesis is complex, as evidence exists for both positive and negative functions. The precise downstream signaling events initiated by αvβ3 may depend on the molecular characteristics of its ligands. Here, we identified an RGD-containing cryptic collagen epitope that is generated in vivo. Surprisingly, rather than inhibiting αvβ3 signaling, this collagen epitope promoted αvβ3 activation and stimulated angiogenesis and inflammation. An antibody directed to this RGDKGE epitope but not other RGD collagen epitopes inhibited angiogenesis and inflammation in vivo. The selective ability of this RGD epitope to promote angiogenesis and inflammation depends in part on its flanking KGE motif. Interestingly, a subset of macrophages may represent a physiologically relevant source of this collagen epitope. Here, we define an endothelial cell mechano-signaling pathway in which a cryptic collagen epitope activates αvβ3 leading to an Src and p38 MAPK-dependent cascade that leads to nuclear accumulation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) and stimulation of endothelial cell growth. Collectively, our findings not only provide evidence for a novel mechano-signaling pathway, but also define a possible therapeutic strategy to control αvβ3 signaling by targeting a pro-angiogenic and inflammatory ligand of αvβ3 rather than the receptor itself. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Identification of an Endogenously Generated Cryptic Collagen Epitope (XL313) That May Selectively Regulate Angiogenesis by an Integrin Yes-associated Protein (YAP) Mechano-transduction Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Jacquelyn J.; Contois, Liangru; Caron, Jennifer M.; Tweedie, Eric; Yang, Xuehui; Friesel, Robert; Vary, Calvin; Brooks, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates angiogenesis. However, the precise mechanisms by which structural changes in ECM proteins contribute to angiogenesis are not fully understood. Integrins are molecules with the ability to detect compositional and structural changes within the ECM and integrate this information into a network of signaling circuits that coordinate context-dependent cell behavior. The role of integrin αvβ3 in angiogenesis is complex, as evidence exists for both positive and negative functions. The precise downstream signaling events initiated by αvβ3 may depend on the molecular characteristics of its ligands. Here, we identified an RGD-containing cryptic collagen epitope that is generated in vivo. Surprisingly, rather than inhibiting αvβ3 signaling, this collagen epitope promoted αvβ3 activation and stimulated angiogenesis and inflammation. An antibody directed to this RGDKGE epitope but not other RGD collagen epitopes inhibited angiogenesis and inflammation in vivo. The selective ability of this RGD epitope to promote angiogenesis and inflammation depends in part on its flanking KGE motif. Interestingly, a subset of macrophages may represent a physiologically relevant source of this collagen epitope. Here, we define an endothelial cell mechano-signaling pathway in which a cryptic collagen epitope activates αvβ3 leading to an Src and p38 MAPK-dependent cascade that leads to nuclear accumulation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) and stimulation of endothelial cell growth. Collectively, our findings not only provide evidence for a novel mechano-signaling pathway, but also define a possible therapeutic strategy to control αvβ3 signaling by targeting a pro-angiogenic and inflammatory ligand of αvβ3 rather than the receptor itself. PMID:26668310

  3. Rigidity sensing and adaptation through regulation of integrin types

    PubMed Central

    Elosegui-Artola, Alberto; Bazellières, Elsa; Allen, Michael D.; Andreu, Ion; Oria, Roger; Sunyer, Raimon; Gomm, Jennifer J.; Marshall, John F.; Jones, J. Louise; Trepat, Xavier; Roca-Cusachs, Pere

    2014-01-01

    Tissue rigidity regulates processes in development, cancer and wound healing. However, how cells detect rigidity, and thereby modulate their behaviour, remains unknown. Here, we show that sensing and adaptation to matrix rigidity in breast myoepithelial cells is determined by the bond dynamics of different integrin types. Cell binding to fibronectin through either α5β1 integrins (constitutively expressed) or αvβ6 integrins (selectively expressed in cancer and development) adapts force generation, actin flow, and integrin recruitment to rigidities associated with healthy or malignant tissue, respectively. In vitro experiments and theoretical modelling further demonstrate that this behaviour is explained by the different binding and unbinding rates of both integrin types to fibronectin. Moreover, rigidity sensing through differences in integrin bond dynamics applies both when integrins bind separately and when they compete for binding to fibronectin. PMID:24793358

  4. Integrin signaling in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Finney, Alexandra C; Stokes, Karen Y; Pattillo, Christopher B; Orr, A Wayne

    2017-06-01

    Atherosclerosis, a chronic lipid-driven inflammatory disease affecting large arteries, represents the primary cause of cardiovascular disease in the world. The local remodeling of the vessel intima during atherosclerosis involves the modulation of vascular cell phenotype, alteration of cell migration and proliferation, and propagation of local extracellular matrix remodeling. All of these responses represent targets of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors. As such, alterations in integrin signaling affect multiple aspects of atherosclerosis, from the earliest induction of inflammation to the development of advanced fibrotic plaques. Integrin signaling has been shown to regulate endothelial phenotype, facilitate leukocyte homing, affect leukocyte function, and drive smooth muscle fibroproliferative remodeling. In addition, integrin signaling in platelets contributes to the thrombotic complications that typically drive the clinical manifestation of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we examine the current literature on integrin regulation of atherosclerotic plaque development and the suitability of integrins as potential therapeutic targets to limit cardiovascular disease and its complications.

  5. cDNA cloning of a snake venom metalloproteinase from the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), and the expression of its disintegrin domain with anti-platelet effects.

    PubMed

    Suntravat, Montamas; Jia, Ying; Lucena, Sara E; Sánchez, Elda E; Pérez, John C

    2013-03-15

    A 5' truncated snake venom metalloproteinase was identified from a cDNA library constructed from venom glands of an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). The 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to obtain the 1865 bp full-length cDNA sequence of a snake venom metalloproteinase (CamVMPII). CamVMPII encodes an open reading frame of 488 amino acids, which includes a signal peptide, a pro-domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a spacer, and an RGD-disintegrin domain. The predicted amino acid sequence of CamVMPII showed a 91%, 90%, 83%, and 82% sequence homology to the P-II class enzymes of C. adamanteus metalloproteinase 2, Crotalus atrox CaVMP-II, Gloydius halys agkistin, and Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonitin, respectively. Disintegrins are potent inhibitors of both platelet aggregation and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Therefore, the disintegrin domain (Cam-dis) of CamVMPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into a pET-43.1a vector, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Affinity purified recombinantly modified Cam-dis (r-Cam-dis) with a yield of 8.5 mg/L culture medium was cleaved from the fusion tags by enterokinase cleavage. r-Cam-dis was further purified by two-step chromatography consisting of HiTrap™ Benzamidine FF column, followed by Talon Metal affinity column with a final yield of 1 mg/L culture. r-Cam-dis was able to inhibit all three processes of platelet thrombus formation including platelet adhesion with an estimated IC(50) of 1 nM, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with the estimated IC(50)s of 18 and 6 nM, respectively, and platelet function on clot retraction. It is a potent anti-platelet inhibitor, which should be further investigated for drug discovery to treat stroke patients or patients with thrombotic disorders.

  6. Integrins and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Kirat Kumar; Pal, Sekhar; Moulik, Shuvojit; Chatterjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis is a combination of biological events that makes the difference between cancer and other diseases. Metastasis requires flow of erroneous but precisely coordinated basic cellular activities like cell migration–invasion, cell survival–apoptosis, cell proliferation, etc. All of these processes require efficient regulation of cell attachment and detachment, which recruit integrin receptors in this flow of events. World literatures show several aspects of interrelation of integrins and metastasis. Integrin molecules are being used as prime target to battle metastasis. In this review we are collating the observations showing importance of integrin biology in regulation of metastasis and the strategies where integrin receptors are being used as targets to regulate metastasis. PMID:23563505

  7. Fine Tuning Cell Migration by a Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Theodorou, K.

    2017-01-01

    Cell migration is an instrumental process involved in organ development, tissue homeostasis, and various physiological processes and also in numerous pathologies. Both basic cell migration and migration towards chemotactic stimulus consist of changes in cell polarity and cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell detachment from, invasion through, and reattachment to their neighboring cells, and numerous interactions with the extracellular matrix. The different steps of immune cell, tissue cell, or cancer cell migration are tightly coordinated in time and place by growth factors, cytokines/chemokines, adhesion molecules, and receptors for these ligands. This review describes how a disintegrin and metalloproteinases interfere with several steps of cell migration, either by proteolytic cleavage of such molecules or by functions independent of proteolytic activity. PMID:28260841

  8. Fine Tuning Cell Migration by a Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Dreymueller, D; Theodorou, K; Donners, M; Ludwig, A

    2017-01-01

    Cell migration is an instrumental process involved in organ development, tissue homeostasis, and various physiological processes and also in numerous pathologies. Both basic cell migration and migration towards chemotactic stimulus consist of changes in cell polarity and cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell detachment from, invasion through, and reattachment to their neighboring cells, and numerous interactions with the extracellular matrix. The different steps of immune cell, tissue cell, or cancer cell migration are tightly coordinated in time and place by growth factors, cytokines/chemokines, adhesion molecules, and receptors for these ligands. This review describes how a disintegrin and metalloproteinases interfere with several steps of cell migration, either by proteolytic cleavage of such molecules or by functions independent of proteolytic activity.

  9. TspanC8 Tetraspanins and A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) Interact via Their Extracellular Regions

    PubMed Central

    Noy, Peter J.; Yang, Jing; Reyat, Jasmeet S.; Matthews, Alexandra L.; Charlton, Alice E.; Furmston, Joanna; Rogers, David A.; Rainger, G. Ed; Tomlinson, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane metalloprotease that cleaves the extracellular regions from its transmembrane substrates. ADAM10 is essential for embryonic development and is implicated in cancer, Alzheimer, and inflammatory diseases. The tetraspanins are a superfamily of 33 four-transmembrane proteins in mammals, of which the TspanC8 subgroup (Tspan5, 10, 14, 15, 17, and 33) promote ADAM10 intracellular trafficking and enzymatic maturation. However, the interaction between TspanC8s and ADAM10 has only been demonstrated in overexpression systems and the interaction mechanism remains undefined. To address these issues, an antibody was developed to Tspan14, which was used to show co-immunoprecipitation of Tspan14 with ADAM10 in primary human cells. Chimeric Tspan14 constructs demonstrated that the large extracellular loop of Tspan14 mediated its co-immunoprecipitation with ADAM10, and promoted ADAM10 maturation and trafficking to the cell surface. Chimeric ADAM10 constructs showed that membrane-proximal stalk, cysteine-rich, and disintegrin domains of ADAM10 mediated its co-immunoprecipitation with Tspan14 and other TspanC8s. This TspanC8-interacting region was required for ADAM10 exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. Truncated ADAM10 constructs revealed differential TspanC8 binding requirements for the stalk, cysteine-rich, and disintegrin domains. Moreover, Tspan15was the only TspanC8 to promote cleavage of the ADAM10 substrate N-cadherin, whereas Tspan14 was unique in reducing cleavage of the platelet collagen receptor GPVI. These findings suggest that ADAM10 may adopt distinct conformations in complex with different TspanC8s, which could impact on substrate selectivity. Furthermore, this study identifies regions of TspanC8s and ADAM10 for potential interaction-disrupting therapeutic targeting. PMID:26668317

  10. Integrins in periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Larjava, Hannu; Koivisto, Leeni; Heino, Jyrki; Häkkinen, Lari

    2014-07-15

    Cell surface integrin receptors mediate cell adhesion, migration and cellular signaling in all nucleated cells. They are activated by binding to extracellular ligands or by intracellular proteins, such as kindlins that engage with their cytoplasmic tails. Cells in the periodontal tissues express several integrins with overlapping ligand-binding capabilities. A distinct phenotype in the periodontium has only been described for knockouts or mutations of three integrin subunits, α11, β6 and β2. Integrin α11β1 appears to have some regulatory function in the periodontal ligament of continuously erupting incisors in mice. Integrin αvβ6 is expressed in the junctional epithelium (JE) of the gingiva. Animals deficient in this receptor develop classical signs of periodontal disease, including inflammation, apical migration of the JE and bone loss, suggesting that it plays a role in the regulation of periodontal inflmmation, likely through activation of transforming growth factor-β1. Lack of integrin activation in the JE is also associated with periodontitis. Patients with kindlin-1 mutations have severe early-onset periodontal disease. Finally, patients with mutations in the leukocyte-specific β2 integrin subunit have severe periodontal problems due to lack of transiting neutrophils in the periodontal tissues.

  11. Mechanotransduction through Integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, Donald

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the molecular mechanism by which cells recognize and respond to physical forces in their local environment. The project was based on the working hypothesis that cells sense mechanical stresses through cell surface integrin receptors and through their interconnections with the underlying cytoskeleton. Work completed and published in past funding period had provided direct support for this hypothesis. In particular, we demonstrated that application of mechanical stresses to activated integrin receptors (but not inactive integrins or other control transmembrane receptors) resulted in stress-dependent activation of the CAMP signaling pathway leading to gene transcription. We also showed that this form of mechanotransduction requires activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. In this grant, our specific aims included: 1) to characterize the signal processing capabilities of different integrins and other cell surface receptors, 2) to identify heterotrimeric G proteins that mediate CAMP signaling by stresses applied to integrins, 3) to identify molecules that mediate transmembrane mechanochemical coupling between integrins and G proteins, and 4) to use genome-wide gene expression profiling techniques to identify other genes and signaling pathways that are activated by mechanical forces transmitted over specific cell surface receptors. Elucidation of the mechanism by which cells sense mechanical stresses through integrins and translate them into a biochemical response should help us to understand the molecular basis of the cellular response to gravity as well as many other forms of mechanosensation and tissue regulation.

  12. Recombinant rubistatin (r-Rub), an MVD disintegrin, inhibits cell migration and proliferation, and is a strong apoptotic inducer of the human melanoma cell line SK-Mel-28.

    PubMed

    Carey, Clayton M; Bueno, Raymund; Gutierrez, Daniel A; Petro, Christopher; Lucena, Sara E; Sanchez, Elda E; Soto, Julio G

    2012-02-01

    Disintegrins are low molecular weight peptides isolated from viper venom. These peptides bind to integrin receptors using a conserved binding motif sequence containing an RGD or similar motif. As a consequence, disintegrins can inhibit platelet aggregation and inhibit cell migration, proliferation, and initiate apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Rubistatin is a MVD disintegrin cloned from a Crotalus ruber ruber venom gland. The biological activity of MVD disintegrins is poorly understood. Recombinant rubistatin (r-Rub) was cloned into a pET32b plasmid and expressed in reductase-deficient Escherichia coli. Expression was induced with IPTG and the resulting fusion peptide was affinity purified, followed by thrombin cleavage, and removal of vector coded sequences. r-Rub peptide inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 54% ± 6.38 in whole blood. We assessed the ability of r-Rub to initiate apoptosis in three human cancer cell lines. Cultures of SK-Mel-28, HeLA, and T24 cells were grown for 24 h with 2.5 μM r-Rub followed by Hoechst staining. Chromatin fragmentation was observed in treated SK-Mel-28, but not in T24 or HeLA cells. A TUNEL assay revealed that 51.55% ± 5.28 of SK-Mel-28 cells were apoptotic after 18 h of treatment with 3.5 μM of r-Rub. Cell migration and proliferation assays were performed in order to further characterize the biological effects of r-Rub on SK-Mel-28 cells. At 3 μM, r-Rub inhibited cell migration by 44.4% ± 0.5, while at 3.5 μM it was able to inhibit cell proliferation by 83% ± 6.0. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrins and Integrin-Associated Proteins in the Cardiac Myocyte

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric, transmembrane receptors that are expressed in all cells, including those in the heart. They participate in multiple critical cellular processes including adhesion, extracellular matrix organization, signaling, survival, and proliferation. Particularly relevant for a contracting muscle cell, integrins are mechanotransducers, translating mechanical to biochemical information. While it is likely that cardiovascular clinicians and scientists have highest recognition of integrins in the cardiovascular system from drugs used to inhibit platelet aggregation, the focus of this article will be on the role of integrins specifically in the cardiac myocyte. Following a general introduction to integrin biology, the manuscript will discuss important work on integrin signaling, mechanotransduction, and lessons learned about integrin function from a range of model organisms. Then we will detail work on integrin-related proteins in the myocyte, how integrins may interact with ion channels and mediate viral uptake into cells, and also play a role in stem cell biology. Finally, we will discuss directions for future study. PMID:24481847

  14. Exploring the Role of RGD-Recognizing Integrins in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nieberler, Markus; Reuning, Ute; Reichart, Florian; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Schwaiger, Markus; Räder, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Integrins are key regulators of communication between cells and with their microenvironment. Eight members of the integrin superfamily recognize the tripeptide motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) within extracelluar matrix (ECM) proteins. These integrins constitute an important subfamily and play a major role in cancer progression and metastasis via their tumor biological functions. Such transmembrane adhesion and signaling receptors are thus recognized as promising and well accessible targets for novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications for directly attacking cancer cells and their fatal microenvironment. Recently, specific small peptidic and peptidomimetic ligands as well as antibodies binding to distinct integrin subtypes have been developed and synthesized as new drug candidates for cancer treatment. Understanding the distinct functions and interplay of integrin subtypes is a prerequisite for selective intervention in integrin-mediated diseases. Integrin subtype-specific ligands labelled with radioisotopes or fluorescent molecules allows the characterization of the integrin patterns in vivo and later the medical intervention via subtype specific drugs. The coating of nanoparticles, larger proteins, or encapsulating agents by integrin ligands are being explored to guide cytotoxic reagents directly to the cancer cell surface. These ligands are currently under investigation in clinical studies for their efficacy in interference with tumor cell adhesion, migration/invasion, proliferation, signaling, and survival, opening new treatment approaches in personalized medicine. PMID:28869579

  15. β1 integrin

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Grant A.; Addison, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, a hallmark of tumorigenesis was the ability to grow in an anchorage-independent manner. Hence, tumors were thought to proliferate and survive independently of integrin attachment to the substratum. However, recent data suggest that integrins regulate not only tumor cell proliferation, survival and migration, but may also influence their response to anti-cancer agents. Interestingly, these influences are largely masked by growth of tumor cells in the standard, yet artificial, environment of 2D cell culture, but are readily apparent under 3D in vitro culture conditions and in tumor growth in vivo. We, and others, have recently demonstrated that the β1 integrin subunit controls the growth and invasion of prostate tumor cells in 3D culture conditions. Recently, the importance of integrins has also been demonstrated using tissue specific conditional knockout strategies in transgenic mouse tumor models, where they control primary tumor growth and dictate the site of metastatic spread. Furthermore, integrin-extracellular matrix interactions may modulate the response of tumors to standard chemotherapy agents or radiation. Taken together, these results highlight the important role of integrins in regulating tumor growth and metastasis; however, point out that the evaluation of their contribution to these processes requires appropriate contextual modeling. PMID:22568952

  16. Modulation of integrin α4β1 by ADAM28 promotes lymphocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Owen J; English, William R; Roberts, Stephanie; Ager, Ann; Newham, Peter; Murphy, Gillian

    2011-10-01

    ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) are a family of type I transmembrane glycoproteins related to snake venom metalloproteases and disintegrins. They are regulatory proteins that modulate intercellular adhesion and the bioavailability of growth factors, and have been implicated in many disease states, including cancer, immunity and inflammation. One member of the ADAM family, ADAM28, has been reported to bind to the integrin α4β1 in humans; however, the distribution of ADAM28 and the biological consequences of ADAM28-α4β1 interactions are yet to be fully elucidated. The expression of ADAM28 in human and murine tissues was examined by multiple Affymetrix microarray analyses, real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining. We found that ADAM28 has a relatively restricted expression pattern in mouse and human and is highly expressed in the B-lymphocyte lineage, including chronic lymphocytic leukaemic B-cells. The murine B-lymphoma line L1-2 and recombinant soluble murine ADAM28 were used to investigate ADAM28-α4β1 interactions. Our data reveal that ADAM28 binding to α4β1 is typical of integrin-ligand interactions, since it is attenuated by anti-functional integrin antibodies, and is enhanced by Mn2+ and the integrin mAb (monoclonal antibody) 9EG7. However, a key finding was that soluble ADAM28 unexpectedly enhanced α4β1-dependent cell adhesion to VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1). In so doing ADAM28 was able to influence lymphocyte adhesion to, and migration through, endothelial monolayers, suggesting a physiological role for ADAM28 in regulating the specific spatial and temporal transendothelial migration of lymphocytes.

  17. Integrin endosomal signalling suppresses anoikis

    PubMed Central

    Alanko, Jonna; Mai, Anja; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Schauer, Kristine; Kaukonen, Riina; Saari, Markku; Goud, Bruno; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Integrin containing focal adhesions (FAs) transmit extracellular signals across the plasma membrane to modulate cell adhesion, signalling and survival. Although integrins are known to undergo continuous endo/exocytic traffic, potential impact of endocytic traffic on integrin-induced signals is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that integrin signalling is not restricted to cell-ECM adhesions and identify an endosomal signalling platform that supports integrin signalling away from the plasma membrane. We show that active focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an established marker of integrin-ECM downstream signalling, localises with active integrins on endosomes. Integrin endocytosis positively regulates adhesion-induced FAK activation, which is early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1) and small GTPase Rab21 dependent. FAK binds directly to purified endosomes and becomes activated on them, suggesting a role for endocytosis in enhancing distinct integrin downstream signalling events. Finally, endosomal integrin signalling contributes to cancer-related processes such as anoikis resistance, anchorage-independence and metastasis. Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion receptors functioning as integrators of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) driven cues, the cellular cytoskeleton and the cellular signalling apparatus 1.Upon adhesion, integrins trigger the formation of plasma-membrane proximal large mechanosensing and signal-transmitting protein clusters depicted as “adhesomes” 2, 3. In addition, integrins undergo constant endocytic traffic to facilitate focal adhesion turnover, cell migration, invasion and cytokinesis 4. For other receptor systems it is well established that endocytic membrane traffic regulates bioavailability of cell-surface molecules and therefore the intensity and/or specificity of receptor-initiated signals 5, 6. Although active integrins and their ligands have been detected in endosomes 7–9 and increased integrin recycling to the plasma membrane contributes

  18. A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM12): Function, Roles in Disease Progression, and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Nyren-Erickson, Erin K.; Jones, Justin M.; Srivastava, D. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM12) is a member of the greater ADAM family of enzymes: these are multifunctional, generally membrane-bound, zinc proteases for which there are forty genes known (21 of these appearing in humans). ADAM12 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cancers, liver fibrogenesis, hypertension, and asthma, and its elevation or decrease in human serum has been linked to these and other physiological/pathological conditions. Scope In this review, we begin with a brief overview of the ADAM family of enzymes and protein structure. We then discuss the role of ADAM12 in the progression and/or diagnosis of various disease conditions, and we will conclude with an exploration of currently known natural and synthetic inhibitors. Major Conclusions ADAM12 has potential to emerge as a successful drug target, although targeting the metalloproteinase domain with any specificity will be difficult to achieve due to structural similarity between the members of the ADAM and MMP family of enzymes. Overall, more research is required to establish ADAM12 being as a highly desirable biomarker and drug target of different diseases, and their selective inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents. General Significance Given the appearance of elevated levels of ADAM12 in various diseases, particularly breast cancer, our understanding of this enzyme both as a biomarker and a potential drug target could help make significant inroads into both early diagnosis and treatment of disease. PMID:23680494

  19. The disintegrin/metalloproteinase Adam10 is essential for epidermal integrity and Notch-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Weber, Silvio; Niessen, Michaela T; Prox, Johannes; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Schmitz, Annika; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Blobel, Carl P; Jorissen, Ellen; de Strooper, Bart; Niessen, Carien M; Saftig, Paul

    2011-02-01

    The disintegrin and metalloproteinase Adam10 has been implicated in the regulation of key signaling pathways that determine skin morphogenesis and homeostasis. To address the in vivo relevance of Adam10 in the epidermis, we have selectively disrupted Adam10 during skin morphogenesis and in adult skin. K14-Cre driven epidermal Adam10 deletion leads to perinatal lethality, barrier impairment and absence of sebaceous glands. A reduction of spinous layers, not associated with differences in either proliferation or apoptosis, indicates that loss of Adam10 triggers a premature differentiation of spinous keratinocytes. The few surviving K14-Adam10-deleted mice and mice in which Adam10 was deleted postnatally showed loss of hair, malformed vibrissae, epidermal hyperproliferation, cyst formation, thymic atrophy and upregulation of the cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP), thus indicating non cell-autonomous multi-organ disease resulting from a compromised barrier. Together, these phenotypes closely resemble skin specific Notch pathway loss-of-function phenotypes. Notch processing is indeed strongly reduced resulting in decreased levels of Notch intracellular domain fragment and functional Notch signaling. The data identify Adam10 as the major Site-2 processing enzyme for Notch in the epidermis in vivo, and thus as a central regulator of skin development and maintenance.

  20. Disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) expression in gastroesophageal reflux disease and in esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kauttu, T; Mustonen, H; Vainionpää, S; Krogerus, L; Ilonen, I; Räsänen, J; Salo, J; Puolakkainen, P

    2017-01-01

    Clinically useful marker molecules for the progression of gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are lacking. Many adenocarcinomas and inflammatory conditions exhibit increased expression of ADAMs, 'a disintegrin and metalloproteinases'. We assessed the expression of five ADAMs (9, 10, 12, 17, 19) in three esophageal cell lines (Het-1A, OE19, OE33) by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and in human samples of normal esophagus, esophagitis, BE, Barrett's dysplasia, and EAC by RT-PCR, and in selected samples by immunohistochemistry. EAC patients showed increased mRNA expression of ADAMs 9, 12, 17 and 19, as compared to controls. At immunohistochemistry, ADAM9 and ADAM10 proteins were increased in EAC. Patient samples also showed increased mRNA expression of ADAM12 in esophagitis, of ADAM9 in BE, and of ADAMs 9, 12 and 19 in Barrett's dysplasia, as compared to controls. Two EAC cell lines showed increased ADAM9 mRNA. ADAM9 expression is increased in EAC. Its predecessors show increased ADAM9 mRNA expression. The importance of the alterations in ADAM expression for the development of EAC, and their use as marker molecules, warrant further studies.

  1. Integrating with integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, M. A.; Ingber, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Our central claim is that signaling by integrins provides a mechanism by which signals generated in response to adhesion, soluble hormones, and mechanical forces can interact. Such interactions permit cells to integrate these different classes of external stimuli and hence to orchestrate an efficient response. This integrating function of integrins is likely to be essential for much of development and physiology, as well as complex pathologies such as cancer. Understanding in detail how these signals are transduced and processed is likely to be an important area of research in the near future.

  2. Thrombolytic effects of the snake venom disintegrin saxatilin determined by novel assessment methods: a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model in mice.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Il; Hong, Sung-Yu; Kim, Young Dae; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kang, Sungsoo; Yang, Seung-Hee; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2013-01-01

    Saxatilin, a novel disintegrin purified and cloned from the venom of the Korean snake Gloydius saxatilis, strongly inhibits activation and aggregation of platelets. Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists can resolve thrombus, so saxatilin might also have thrombolytic effects. We investigated the thrombolytic effects of saxatilin in mice using a ferric chloride-induced carotid arterial thrombosis model. Thrombotic occlusion and thrombus resolution were evaluated quantitatively by measuring blood flow in the carotid artery with an ultrasonic flow meter and calculating the degree of flow restoration on a minute-by-minute basis; results were confirmed by histological examination. Saxatilin dissolved thrombi in a dose-dependent manner. Saxatilin at 5 mg/kg restored blood flow to baseline levels. As saxatilin dose increased, time to recanalization decreased. A bolus injection of 10% of a complete dose with continuous infusion of the remaining dose for 60 minutes resulted in effective recanalization without reocclusion. The thrombolytic effect of saxatilin was also demonstrated in vitro using platelet aggregometry by administering saxatilin in preformed thrombi. Bleeding complications were observed in 2 of 71 mice that received saxatilin. Fibrin/fibrinogen zymography and platelet aggregometry studies indicated that saxatilin does not have fibrinolytic activity, but exerted its action on platelets. Integrin-binding assays showed that saxatilin inhibited multiple integrins, specifically α2bβ3 (GP IIb/IIIa), α5β1, αvβ3, αvβ1, and αvβ5, which act on platelet adhesion/aggregation. Saxatilin inhibited multiple integrins by acting on platelets, and was safe and effective in resolving thrombi in mice.

  3. Thrombolytic Effects of the Snake Venom Disintegrin Saxatilin Determined by Novel Assessment Methods: A FeCl3-Induced Thrombosis Model in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Dae; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kang, Sungsoo; Yang, Seung-Hee; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2013-01-01

    Saxatilin, a novel disintegrin purified and cloned from the venom of the Korean snake Gloydius saxatilis, strongly inhibits activation and aggregation of platelets. Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists can resolve thrombus, so saxatilin might also have thrombolytic effects. We investigated the thrombolytic effects of saxatilin in mice using a ferric chloride-induced carotid arterial thrombosis model. Thrombotic occlusion and thrombus resolution were evaluated quantitatively by measuring blood flow in the carotid artery with an ultrasonic flow meter and calculating the degree of flow restoration on a minute-by-minute basis; results were confirmed by histological examination. Saxatilin dissolved thrombi in a dose-dependent manner. Saxatilin at 5 mg/kg restored blood flow to baseline levels. As saxatilin dose increased, time to recanalization decreased. A bolus injection of 10% of a complete dose with continuous infusion of the remaining dose for 60 minutes resulted in effective recanalization without reocclusion. The thrombolytic effect of saxatilin was also demonstrated in vitro using platelet aggregometry by administering saxatilin in preformed thrombi. Bleeding complications were observed in 2 of 71 mice that received saxatilin. Fibrin/fibrinogen zymography and platelet aggregometry studies indicated that saxatilin does not have fibrinolytic activity, but exerted its action on platelets. Integrin-binding assays showed that saxatilin inhibited multiple integrins, specifically α2bβ3 (GP IIb/IIIa), α5β1, αvβ3, αvβ1, and αvβ5, which act on platelet adhesion/aggregation. Saxatilin inhibited multiple integrins by acting on platelets, and was safe and effective in resolving thrombi in mice. PMID:24260554

  4. Lamellipodial tension, not integrin/ligand binding, is the crucial factor to realise integrin activation and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Carsten; Ferraris, Gian Maria Sarra; Oldani, Amanda; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Podestà, Alessandro; Puricelli, Luca; de Lorenzi, Valentina; Lenardi, Cristina; Milani, Paolo; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    The molecular clutch (MC) model proposes that actomyosin-driven force transmission permits integrin-dependent cell migration. To investigate the MC, we introduced diverse talin (TLN) and integrin variants into Flp-In™ T-Rex™ HEK293 cells stably expressing uPAR. Vitronectin variants served as substrate providing uPAR-mediated cell adhesion and optionally integrin binding. This particular system allowed us to selectively analyse key MC proteins and interactions, effectively from the extracellular matrix substrate to intracellular f-actin, and to therewith study mechanobiological aspects of MC engagement also uncoupled from integrin/ligand binding. With this experimental approach, we found that for the initial PIP2-dependent membrane/TLN/f-actin linkage and persistent lamellipodia formation the C-terminal TLN actin binding site (ABS) is dispensable. The establishment of an adequate MC-mediated lamellipodial tension instead depends predominantly on the coupling of this C-terminal TLN ABS to the actomyosin-driven retrograde actin flow force. This lamellipodial tension is crucial for full integrin activation eventually determining integrin-dependent cell migration. In the integrin/ligand-independent condition the frictional membrane resistance participates to these processes. Integrin/ligand binding can also contribute but is not necessarily required.

  5. Integrin alpha5beta1 and ADAM-17 interact in vitro and co-localize in migrating HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Bax, Daniel V; Messent, Anthea J; Tart, Jonathan; van Hoang, Mien; Kott, Jane; Maciewicz, Rose A; Humphries, Martin J

    2004-05-21

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha-converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM-17) has diverse roles in the proteolytic processing of cell surface molecules and, due to its ability to process TNFalpha, is a validated therapeutic target for anti-inflammatory therapies. Unlike a number of other ADAM proteins, which interact with integrin receptors via their disintegrin domains, there is currently no evidence for an ADAM-17-integrin association. By analyzing the adhesion of a series of cell lines with recombinant fragments of the extracellular domain of ADAM-17, we now demonstrate a functional interaction between ADAM-17 and alpha(5)beta(1) integrin in a trans orientation. Because ADAM-17-mediated adhesion was sensitive to RGD peptides and EDTA, and the integrin-binding site within ADAM-17 was narrowed down to the disintegrin/cysteine-rich region, the two molecules appear to have a ligand-receptor relationship mediated by the alpha(5)beta(1) ligand binding pocket. Intriguingly, ADAM-17 and alpha(5)beta(1) were found to co-localize in both membrane ruffles and focal adhesions in HeLa cells. When confluent HeLa cell monolayers were wounded, ADAM-17 and alpha(5)beta(1) redistributed to the leading edge and co-localized, which is suggestive of a cis orientation. We postulate that the interaction of ADAM-17 with alpha(5)beta(1) may target or modulate its metalloproteolytic activity.

  6. The disintegrin, trimucrin, suppresses LPS-induced activation of phagocytes primarily through blockade of NF-κB and MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Chun; Hsu, Chun-Chieh; Chung, Ching-Hu; Huang, Tur-Fu

    2016-07-01

    In addition to antiplatelet activity, disintegrin, a small-mass RGD-containing polypeptide, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects but the mechanism involved remains unclear. In this study, we report that trimucrin, a disintegrin from the venom of Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus, inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced stimulation of THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells. We also investigate the underlying mechanism. Trimucrin decreased the release of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibited the adhesion and migration of LPS-activated phagocytes. Trimucrin significantly blocked the expression of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB)-related downstream inducible enzymes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2. In addition, its anti-inflammatory effect was associated with the decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Furthermore, trimucrin concentration dependently inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), PI3K, and Akt. Trimucrin also reversed the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by suppressing the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of p65 and the cytosolic IκB release. Flow cytometric analyses showed that trimucrin bound to cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The anti-αVβ3 mAb also specifically decreased the binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated trimucrin. Binding assays demonstrated that integrin αVβ3 was the binding site for trimucrin on THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells. In conclusion, we showed that trimucrin decreases the inflammatory reaction through the attenuation of iNOS expression and nitric oxide (NO) production by blocking MAP kinase and the NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells.

  7. Integrin signaling in inflammatory and neuropathic pain in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dina, Olayinka A; Parada, Carlos A; Yeh, Jenny; Chen, Xiaojie; McCarter, Gordon C; Levine, Jon D

    2004-02-01

    Many painful conditions are associated with alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of affected tissues. While several integrins, the receptors for ECM proteins, are present on sensory neurons that mediate pain, the possible role of these cell adhesion molecules in inflammatory or neuropathic pain has not been explored. We found that the intradermal injection of peptide fragments of domains of laminin and fibronectin important for adhesive signaling selectively inhibited the hyperalgesia caused by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and epinephrine (EPI), respectively. The block of EPI hyperalgesia was mimicked by other peptides containing the RGD integrin-binding sequence. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the alpha1 or alpha3 integrin subunits, which participate in laminin binding, selectively blocked PGE2 hyperalgesia, while a mAb against the alpha5 subunit, which participates in fibronectin binding, blocked only EPI-induced hyperalgesia. A mAb against the beta1 integrin subunit, common to receptors for both laminin and fibronectin, inhibited hyperalgesia caused by both agents, as did the knockdown of beta1 integrin expression by intrathecal injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. The laminin peptide, but not the fibronectin peptides, also reversibly abolished the longer lasting inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan. Finally, the neuropathic hyperalgesia caused by systemic administration of the cancer chemotherapy agent taxol was reversibly inhibited by antisense knockdown of beta1 integrin. These results strongly implicate specific integrins in the maintenance of inflammatory and neuropathic hyperalgesia.

  8. Integrin-Mediated Cell-Matrix Interaction in Physiological and Pathological Blood Vessel Formation

    PubMed Central

    Niland, Stephan; Eble, Johannes A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological as well as pathological blood vessel formation are fundamentally dependent on cell-matrix interaction. Integrins, a family of major cell adhesion receptors, play a pivotal role in development, maintenance, and remodeling of the vasculature. Cell migration, invasion, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are integrin-regulated processes, and the expression of certain integrins also correlates with tumor progression. Recent advances in the understanding of how integrins are involved in the regulation of blood vessel formation and remodeling during tumor progression are highlighted. The increasing knowledge of integrin function at the molecular level, together with the growing repertoire of integrin inhibitors which allow their selective pharmacological manipulation, makes integrins suited as potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. PMID:21941547

  9. Integrin Dynamics Produce a Delayed Stage of Long-Term Potentiation and Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Babayan, Alex H.; Kramár, Enikö A.; Barrett, Ruth M.; Jafari, Matiar; Häettig, Jakob; Chen, Lulu Y.; Rex, Christopher S.; Lauterborn, Julie C.; Wood, Marcelo A.; Gall, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Memory consolidation theory posits that newly acquired information passes through a series of stabilization steps before being firmly encoded. We report here that in rat and mouse, hippocampus cell adhesion receptors belonging to the β1-integrin family exhibit dynamic properties in adult synapses and that these contribute importantly to a previously unidentified stage of consolidation. Quantitative dual immunofluorescence microscopy showed that induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) by theta burst stimulation (TBS) activates β1 integrins, and integrin-signaling kinases, at spine synapses in adult hippocampal slices. Neutralizing antisera selective for β1 integrins blocked these effects. TBS-induced integrin activation was brief (<7 min) and followed by an ∼45 min period during which the adhesion receptors did not respond to a second application of TBS. Brefeldin A, which blocks integrin trafficking to the plasma membrane, prevented the delayed recovery of integrin responses to TBS. β1 integrin-neutralizing antisera erased LTP when applied during, but not after, the return of integrin responsivity. Similarly, infusions of anti-β1 into rostral mouse hippocampus blocked formation of long-term, object location memory when started 20 min after learning but not 40 min later. The finding that β1 integrin neutralization was effective in the same time window for slice and behavioral experiments strongly suggests that integrin recovery triggers a temporally discrete, previously undetected second stage of consolidation for both LTP and memory. PMID:22973009

  10. Integrin antagonists affect growth and pathfinding of ventral motor nerves in the trunk of embryonic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Becker, Thomas; McLane, Mary Ann; Becker, Catherina G

    2003-05-01

    Integrins are thought to be important receptors for extracellular matrix (ECM) components on growing axons. Ventral motor axons in the trunk of embryonic zebrafish grow in a midsegmental pathway through an environment rich in ECM components. To test the role of integrins in this process, integrin antagonists (the disintegrin echistatin in native and recombinant form, as well as the Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide) were injected into embryos just prior to axon outgrowth at 14-16 h postfertilization (hpf). All integrin antagonists affected growth of ventral motor nerves in a similar way and native echistatin was most effective. At 24 hpf, when only the three primary motor axons per trunk hemisegment had grown out, 80% (16 of 20) of the embryos analyzed had abnormal motor nerves after injection of native echistatin, corresponding to 19% (91 of 480) of all nerves. At 33 hpf, when secondary motor axons were present in the pathway, 100% of the embryos were affected (24 of 24), with 20% of all nerves analyzed (196 of 960) being abnormal. Phenotypes comprised abnormal branching (64% of all abnormal nerves) and truncations (36% of all abnormal nerves) of ventral motor nerves at 24 hpf and mostly branching of the nerves at 33 hpf (94% of all abnormal nerves). Caudal branches were at least twice as frequent as rostral branches. Surrounding trunk tissue and a number of other axon fascicles were apparently not affected by the injections. Thus integrin function contributes to both growth and pathfinding of axons in ventral motor nerves in the trunk of zebrafish in vivo.

  11. Integrin-mediated adhesion complex

    PubMed Central

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau

    2010-01-01

    The integrin-mediated adhesion machinery is the primary cell-matrix adhesion mechanism in Metazoa. The integrin adhesion complex, which modulates important aspects of the cell physiology, is composed of integrins (alpha and beta subunits) and several scaffolding and signaling proteins. Integrins appeared to be absent in all non-metazoan eukaryotes so-far analyzed, including fungi, plants and choanoflagellates, the sister-group to Metazoa. Thus, integrins and, therefore, the integrin-mediated adhesion and signaling mechanism was considered a metazoan innovation. Recently, a broad comparative genomic analysis including new genome data from several unicellular organisms closely related to fungi and metazoans shattered previous views. The integrin adhesion and signaling complex is not specific to Metazoa, but rather it is present in apusozoans and holozoan protists. Thus, this important signaling and adhesion system predated the origin of Fungi and Metazoa, and was subsequently lost in fungi and choanoflagellates. This finding suggests that cooption played a more important role in the origin of Metazoa than previously believed. Here, we hypothesize that the integrin adhesome was ancestrally involved in signaling. PMID:21057645

  12. The disulfide bond pattern of catrocollastatin C, a disintegrin-like/cysteine-rich protein isolated from Crotalus atrox venom.

    PubMed Central

    Calvete, J. J.; Moreno-Murciano, M. P.; Sanz, L.; Jürgens, M.; Schrader, M.; Raida, M.; Benjamin, D. C.; Fox, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    The disulfide bond pattern of catrocollastatin-C was determined by N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. The N-terminal disintegrin-like domain is a compact structure including eight disulfide bonds, seven of them in the same pattern as the disintegrin bitistatin. The protein has two extra cysteine residues (XIII and XVI) that form an additional disulfide bond that is characteristically found in the disintegrin-like domains of cellular metalloproteinases (ADAMs) and PIII snake venom Zn-metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The C-terminal cysteine-rich domain of catrocollastatin-C contains five disulfide bonds between nearest-neighbor cysteines and a long range disulfide bridge between CysV and CysX. These results provide structural evidence for a redefinition of the disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domain boundaries. An evolutionary pathway for ADAMs, PIII, and PII SVMPs based on disulfide bond engineering is also proposed. PMID:10933502

  13. Integrin activation and structural rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Junichi; Springer, Timothy A

    2002-08-01

    Among adhesion receptor families, integrins are particularly important in biological processes that require rapid modulation of adhesion and de-adhesion. Activation on a timescale of < 1 s of beta2 integrins on leukocytes and beta3 integrins on platelets enables deposition of these cells at sites of inflammation or vessel wall injury. Recent crystal, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electron microscope (EM) structures of integrins and their domains lead to a unifying mechanism of activation for both integrins that contain and those that lack an inserted (I) domain. The I domain adopts two alternative conformations, termed open and closed. In striking similarity to signaling G-proteins, rearrangement of a Mg2+-binding site is linked to large conformational movements in distant backbone regions. Mutations that stabilize a particular conformation show that the open conformation has high affinity for ligand, whereas the closed conformation has low affinity. Movement of the C-terminal alpha-helix 10 A down the side of the domain in the open conformation is sufficient to increase affinity at the distal ligand-binding site 9,000-fold. This C-terminal "bell-rope" provides a mechanism for linkage to conformational movements in other domains. Recent structures and functional studies reveal interactions between beta-propeller, I, and I-like domains in the integrin headpiece, and a critical role for integrin epidermal growth factor (EGF) domains in the stalk region. The headpiece of the integrin faces down towards the membrane in the inactive conformation, and extends upward in a "switchblade"-like opening upon activation. These long-range structural rearrangements of the entire integrin molecule involving interdomain contacts appear closely linked to conformational changes within the I and I-like domains, which result in increased affinity and competence for ligand binding.

  14. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 in the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiaxi; Mukerjee, Snigdha; Silva-Alves, Cristiane R. A.; Carvalho-Galvão, Alynne; Cruz, Josiane C.; Balarini, Camille M.; Braga, Valdir A.; Lazartigues, Eric; França-Silva, Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    ADAM17 is a metalloprotease and disintegrin that lodges in the plasmatic membrane of several cell types and is able to cleave a wide variety of cell surface proteins. It is somatically expressed in mammalian organisms and its proteolytic action influences several physiological and pathological processes. This review focuses on the structure of ADAM17, its signaling in the cardiovascular system and its participation in certain disorders involving the heart, blood vessels, and neural regulation of autonomic and cardiovascular modulation. PMID:27803674

  15. A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs-5 (ADAMTS-5) Forms Catalytically Active Oligomers*

    PubMed Central

    Kosasih, Hansen J.; Last, Karena; Rogerson, Fraser M.; Golub, Suzanne B.; Gauci, Stephanie J.; Russo, Vincenzo C.; Stanton, Heather; Wilson, Richard; Lamande, Shireen R.; Holden, Paul; Fosang, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    The metalloproteinase ADAMTS-5 (A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) degrades aggrecan, a proteoglycan essential for cartilage structure and function. ADAMTS-5 is the major aggrecanase in mouse cartilage, and is also likely to be the major aggrecanase in humans. ADAMTS-5 is a multidomain enzyme, but the function of the C-terminal ancillary domains is poorly understood. We show that mutant ADAMTS-5 lacking the catalytic domain, but with a full suite of ancillary domains inhibits wild type ADAMTS activity, in vitro and in vivo, in a dominant-negative manner. The data suggest that mutant ADAMTS-5 binds to wild type ADAMTS-5; thus we tested the hypothesis that ADAMTS-5 associates to form oligomers. Co-elution, competition, and in situ PLA experiments using full-length and truncated recombinant ADAMTS-5 confirmed that ADAMTS-5 molecules interact, and showed that the catalytic and disintegrin-like domains support these intermolecular interactions. Cross-linking experiments revealed that recombinant ADAMTS-5 formed large, reduction-sensitive oligomers with a nominal molecular mass of ∼400 kDa. The oligomers were unimolecular and proteolytically active. ADAMTS-5 truncates comprising the disintegrin and/or catalytic domains were able to competitively block full-length ADAMTS-5-mediated aggrecan cleavage, measured by production of the G1-EGE373 neoepitope. These results show that ADAMTS-5 oligomerization is required for full aggrecanase activity, and they provide evidence that blocking oligomerization inhibits ADAMTS-5 activity. The data identify the surface provided by the catalytic and disintegrin-like domains of ADAMTS-5 as a legitimate target for the design of aggrecanase inhibitors. PMID:26668318

  16. Integrin binding: Sticking around vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatchley, Michael R.; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-09-01

    A study demonstrates that controlled integrin binding on a biomaterial was capable of promoting vascular cell sprouting and formation of a non-leaky blood vessel network in a healthy and diseased state.

  17. Integrin affinity modulation in angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mahabeleshwar, Ganapati H.; Chen, Juhua; Feng, Weiyi; Somanath, Payaningal R.; Razorenova, Olga V.; Byzova, Tatiana V.

    2008-01-01

    Integrins, transmembrane glycoprotein receptors, play vital roles in pathological angiogenesis, but their precise regulatory functions are not completely understood and remain controversial. This study aims to assess the regulatory functions of individual beta subunits of endothelial integrins in angiogenic responses induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Inhibition of expression of β1, β3 or β5 integrins in endothelial cells resulted in down regulation of EC adhesion and migration on the primary ligand for the corresponding integrin receptor, while no effects on the recognition of other ligands were detected. Although inhibition of expression of each subunit substantially affected capillary growth stimulated by VEGF, the loss of β3 integrin was the most inhibitory. EC stimulation by VEGF induced formation of the high affinity (activated) state of αvβ3 in a monolayer and activated αvβ3 was co-localized with VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). Inhibition of expression of β1, β3 or β5 did not affect expression levels of VEGFR-2 in EC. However, inhibition of β3, but not β1 or β5, resulted in substantial inhibition of VEGFR-2 phosphorylation stimulated by VEGF. Exogenous stimulation of αvβ3 integrin with activating antibodies augmented VEGF-dependent phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, whereas integrin blockade suppressed this response. Most importantly, activated αvβ3 was detected on endothelial cells of tumor vasculature. Activation of αvβ3 was substantially increased in highly-vascularized tumors as compared to normal tissues. Moreover, activated αvβ3 was co-localized with VEGFR-2 on endothelial cells of proliferating blood vessels. Together, these results show the unique role of αvβ3 integrin in cross-talk with VEGFR-2 in the context of pathological angiogenesis. PMID:18287811

  18. Corneal integrins and their functions.

    PubMed

    Stepp, Mary Ann

    2006-07-01

    Integrins were first described just over 20 years ago and have been studied in the cornea by many groups interested in how the cornea functions in health and disease. There are a minimum of 12 different integrin heterodimers reported to be expressed by the major resident cells of the cornea: the corneal and limbal epithelial cells, keratocytes/fibroblasts, and corneal endothelial cells. These different integrin heterodimers play important and varied roles in maintaining the cornea and organizing how its cells interact with their surrounding extracellular matrix to maintain corneal clarity. In this review, an overview of the discovery and functions of integrins is provided along with a description of the current state of our knowledge of this large family of important proteins. While we have learned a lot about corneal integrins over the past 20 years, there is still much to learn. Areas where gaps in our knowledge of integrin functions in the cornea are slowing our progress in understanding corneal diseases and dystrophies at a molecular level are highlighted.

  19. Identification of SH3 Domain Proteins Interacting with the Cytoplasmic Tail of the A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10)

    PubMed Central

    Ebsen, Henriette; Lettau, Marcus; Kabelitz, Dieter; Janssen, Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    The a disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) play a pivotal role in the control of development, adhesion, migration, inflammation and cancer. Although numerous substrates of ADAM10 have been identified, the regulation of its surface expression and proteolytic activity is still poorly defined. One current hypothesis is that both processes are in part modulated by protein-protein interactions mediated by the intracellular portion of the protease. For related proteases, especially proline-rich regions serving as docking sites for Src homology domain 3 (SH3) domain-containing proteins proved to be important for mediating regulatory interactions. In order to identify ADAM10-binding SH3 domain proteins, we screened the All SH3 Domain Phager library comprising 305 human SH3 domains using a GST fusion protein with the intracellular region of human ADAM10 as a bait for selection. Of a total of 291 analyzed phage clones, we found 38 SH3 domains that were precipitated with the ADAM10-derived fusion protein but not with GST. We verified the binding to the cytosolic portion of ADAM10 for several candidates by co-immunoprecipitation and/or pull down analyses. Intriguingly, several of the identified proteins have been implicated in regulating surface appearance and/or proteolytic activity of related ADAMs. Thus, it seems likely that they also play a role in ADAM10 biology. PMID:25036101

  20. NK cell CD16 surface expression and function is regulated by a disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 (ADAM17).

    PubMed

    Romee, Rizwan; Foley, Bree; Lenvik, Todd; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Bin; Ankarlo, Dave; Luo, Xianghua; Cooley, Sarah; Verneris, Mike; Walcheck, Bruce; Miller, Jeffrey

    2013-05-02

    The Fc receptor CD16 is present on essentially all CD56(dim) peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells. Upon recognition of antibody-coated cells it delivers a potent signal to NK cells, which eliminate targets through direct killing and cytokine production. Here we investigated the regulation of CD16 surface expression after NK cell activation. Cytokine activation and target cell stimulation led to marked decreases in CD16 expression. Activation of CD56(dim) NK cells by cross-linking CD16 with antibodies resulted in a loss of CD16 and CD62L, which correlated with increased interferon-γ production. A disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 (ADAM17) is shown to be expressed by NK cells, and its selective inhibition abrogated CD16 and CD62L shedding, and led to enhanced interferon-γ production, especially when triggering was delivered through CD16. Fc-induced production of cytokines by NK cells exposed to rituximab-coated B cell targets was also enhanced by ADAM17 inhibition. This supports an important role for targeting ADAM17 to prevent CD16 shedding and improve the efficacy of therapeutic antibodies. Our findings demonstrate that over-activation of ADAM17 in NK cells may be detrimental to their effector functions by down-regulating surface expression of CD16 and CD62L.

  1. Integrins, tensegrity, and mechanotransduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Physical forces, such as those due to gravity, play an important role in tissue development and remodeling. Yet, little is known about how individual cells sense mechanical signals or how they transduce them into a chemical response. Rather than listing the numerous signal pathways that have been found to be sensitive to mechanical stimulation, we need to place potential molecular signaling mechanisms within the context of the entire cell. The model presented is based on the concept that cells use tensegrity architecture to organize their cytoskeleton and stabilize their form. Studies with stick and string tensegrity cell models predict that living cells are hard-wired to respond immediately to external mechanical stresses. This hard-wiring exists in the form of discrete cytoskeletal filament networks that mechanically couple specific cell surface receptors, such as integrins, to nuclear matrix scaffolds and to potential transducing molecules that physically associate with the cytoskeleton. If these signaling molecules do function in a "solid-state", then mechanical stresses may be transduced into biochemical responses through force-dependent changes in cytoskeletal geometry or through local alterations in thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. Changes in cytoskeletal tension (prestress) also may play a role in signal amplification and adaptation. Recent experimental results are described which provide direct support for the tensegrity theory.

  2. Integrins, tensegrity, and mechanotransduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Physical forces, such as those due to gravity, play an important role in tissue development and remodeling. Yet, little is known about how individual cells sense mechanical signals or how they transduce them into a chemical response. Rather than listing the numerous signal pathways that have been found to be sensitive to mechanical stimulation, we need to place potential molecular signaling mechanisms within the context of the entire cell. The model presented is based on the concept that cells use tensegrity architecture to organize their cytoskeleton and stabilize their form. Studies with stick and string tensegrity cell models predict that living cells are hard-wired to respond immediately to external mechanical stresses. This hard-wiring exists in the form of discrete cytoskeletal filament networks that mechanically couple specific cell surface receptors, such as integrins, to nuclear matrix scaffolds and to potential transducing molecules that physically associate with the cytoskeleton. If these signaling molecules do function in a "solid-state", then mechanical stresses may be transduced into biochemical responses through force-dependent changes in cytoskeletal geometry or through local alterations in thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. Changes in cytoskeletal tension (prestress) also may play a role in signal amplification and adaptation. Recent experimental results are described which provide direct support for the tensegrity theory.

  3. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jessica L; Streuli, Charles H

    2014-08-01

    Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell-matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical-basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity.

  4. Alpha3-integrins are required for hippocampal long-term potentiation and working memory.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chi-Shing; Levenson, Jonathan M; Mukhopadhyay, Partha S; Zong, Lin; Bradley, Allan; Sweatt, J David; Davis, Ronald L

    2007-09-01

    Integrins comprise a large family of heterodimeric, transmembrane cell adhesion receptors that mediate diverse neuronal functions in the developing and adult CNS. Recent pharmacological and genetic studies have suggested that beta1-integrins are critical in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. To further define the role of integrins in these processes, we generated a postnatal forebrain and excitatory neuron-specific knockout of alpha3-integrin, one of several binding partners for beta1 subunit. At hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, deletion of alpha3-integrin resulted in impaired long-term potentiation (LTP). Basal synaptic transmission and paired-pulse facilitation were normal in the absence of alpha3-integrin. Behavioral studies demonstrated that the mutant mice were selectively defective in a hippocampus-dependent, nonmatch-to-place working memory task, but were normal in other hippocampus-dependent spatial tasks. The impairment in LTP and working memory is similar to that observed in beta1-integrin conditional knockout mice, suggesting that alpha3-integrin is the functional binding partner for beta1 for these processes in the forebrain.

  5. Integrin α6β4 and TRPV1 channel coordinately regulate directional keratinocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Ayako; Ohkubo, Tsuyako; Hatta, Mitsutoki; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Jun

    2015-02-27

    The directional migration of epithelial cells is crucial for wound healing. Among integrins, a family of cell adhesion receptors, integrin β4 has been assumed to be a promigratory factor, in addition to its role in stable adhesion. In turn, Ca(2+) signaling is also a key coordinator of migration. Keratinocytes reportedly express transient receptor potential vanilloid channels (TRPV1); however, the function of these channels as a regulator of intracellular Ca(2+) level in cell migration has remained uncharacterized. In the present study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in directional migration related to integrin β4 using a scratch wound assay on a confluent monolayer sheet of murine keratinocytes (Pam212 cells). Double immunofluorescence staining revealed the de novo expression of integrin β4 and TRPV1 in migrating cells at the wound edge in response to scratch wounding, and both expression levels were almost matched. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) not only promoted keratinocyte migration, but also caused the further up-regulation of both integrin β4 and TRPV1. In addition, the knockdown of the integrin β4 or TRPV1 gene significantly impeded wound closure. The TRPV1 agonist capsaicin significantly promoted migration, while a selective TRPV1 antagonist inhibited it. The gene knockdown of TRPV1 inhibited the expression of the integrin β4 gene and that of β4 protein in migrating cells. These findings suggest that TRPV1 may stimulate directional migration directly by eliciting a Ca(2+) signal or indirectly via integrin β4 expression.

  6. Rac recruits high-affinity integrin alphavbeta3 to lamellipodia in endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kiosses, W B; Shattil, S J; Pampori, N; Schwartz, M A

    2001-03-01

    Integrin alphavbeta3 has an important role in the proliferation, survival, invasion and migration of vascular endothelial cells. Like other integrins, alphavbeta3 can exist in different functional states with respect to ligand binding. These changes involve both affinity modulation, by which conformational changes in the integrin heterodimer govern affinity for individual extracellular matrix proteins, and avidity modulation, by which changes in lateral mobility and integrin clustering affect the binding of cells to multivalent matrices. Here we have used an engineered monoclonal antibody Fab (antigen-binding fragment) named WOW-1, which binds to activated integrins alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 from several species, to investigate the role of alphavbeta3 activation in endothelial cell behaviour. Because WOW-1 is monovalent, it is insensitive to changes in integrin clustering and therefore reports only changes in affinity. WOW-1 contains an RGD tract in its variable region and binds only to unoccupied, high-affinity integrins. By using WOW-1, we have identified the selective recruitment of high-affinity integrins as a mechanism by which lamellipodia promote formation of new adhesions at the leading edge in cell migration.

  7. Human and Murine Interleukin 23 Receptors Are Novel Substrates for A Disintegrin and Metalloproteases ADAM10 and ADAM17*

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Manuel; Schröder, Jutta; Monhasery, Niloufar; Ackfeld, Theresa; Hummel, Thorben M.; Rabe, Björn; Garbers, Christoph; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Floss, Doreen M.; Scheller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    IL-23 (interleukin 23) regulates immune responses against pathogens and plays a major role in the differentiation and maintenance of TH17 cells and the development of autoimmune diseases and cancer. The IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) complex consists of the unique IL-23R and the common IL-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1). Differential splicing generates antagonistic soluble IL-23R (sIL-23R) variants, which might limit IL-23-mediated immune responses. Here, ectodomain shedding of human and murine IL-23R was identified as an alternative pathway for the generation of sIL-23R. Importantly, proteolytically released sIL-23R has IL-23 binding activity. Shedding of IL-23R was induced by stimulation with the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), but not by ionomycin. PMA-induced shedding was abrogated by an ADAM (A disintegrin and metalloprotease) 10 and 17 selective inhibitor, but not by an ADAM10 selective inhibitor. ADAM17-deficient but not ADAM10-deficient HEK293 cells failed to shed IL-23R after PMA stimulation, demonstrating that ADAM17 but not ADAM10 cleaves the IL-23R. Constitutive shedding was, however, inhibited by an ADAM10 selective inhibitor. Using deletions and specific amino acid residue exchanges, we identified critical determinants of ectodomain shedding within the stalk region of the IL-23R. Finally, interaction studies identified domains 1 and 3 of the IL-23R as the main ADAM17 binding sites. In summary, we describe human and murine IL-23R as novel targets for protein ectodomain shedding by ADAM10 and ADAM17. PMID:26961870

  8. Platelet integrin α6β1 controls lung metastasis through direct binding to cancer cell–derived ADAM9

    PubMed Central

    Mammadova-Bach, Elmina; Zigrino, Paola; Brucker, Camille; Bourdon, Catherine; Freund, Monique; Abrams, Scott I.; Orend, Gertaud; Gachet, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic dissemination of cancer cells, which accounts for 90% of cancer mortality, is the ultimate hallmark of malignancy. Growing evidence suggests that blood platelets have a predominant role in tumor metastasis; however, the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that genetic deficiency of integrin α6β1 on platelets markedly decreases experimental and spontaneous lung metastasis. In vitro and in vivo assays reveal that human and mouse platelet α6β1 supports platelet adhesion to various types of cancer cells. Using a knockdown approach, we identified ADAM9 as the major counter receptor of α6β1 on both human and mouse tumor cells. Static and flow-based adhesion assays of platelets binding to DC-9, a recombinant protein covering the disintegrin-cysteine domain of ADAM9, demonstrated that this receptor directly binds to platelet α6β1. In vivo studies showed that the interplay between platelet α6β1 and tumor cell–expressed ADAM9 promotes efficient lung metastasis. The integrin α6β1–dependent platelet-tumor cell interaction induces platelet activation and favors the extravasation process of tumor cells. Finally, we demonstrate that a pharmacological approach targeting α6β1 efficiently impairs tumor metastasis through a platelet-dependent mechanism. Our study reveals a mechanism by which platelets promote tumor metastasis and suggests that integrin α6β1 represents a promising target for antimetastatic therapies. PMID:27699237

  9. Lebein, a snake venom disintegrin, suppresses human colon cancer cells proliferation and tumor-induced angiogenesis through cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction and inhibition of VEGF expression.

    PubMed

    Zakraoui, Ons; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Aloui, Zohra; Othman, Houcemeddine; Grépin, Renaud; Haoues, Meriam; Essafi, Makram; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gasmi, Ammar; Karoui, Habib; Pagès, Gilles; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2017-01-01

    Lebein, is an heterodimeric disintegrin isolated from Macrovipera lebetina snake venom that was previously characterized as an inhibitor of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In this study, we investigated the effect of Lebein on the p53-dependent growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. We found that Lebein significantly inhibited LS174 (p53wt), HCT116 (p53wt), and HT29 (p53mut) colon cancer cell viability by inducing cell cycle arrest through the modulation of expression levels of the tumor suppression factor p53, cell cycle regulating proteins cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4, retinoblastoma (Rb), CDK1, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. Interestingly, Lebein-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells was dependent on their p53 status. Thus, in LS174 cells, cell death was associated with PARP cleavage and the activation of caspases 3 and 8 while in HCT116 cells, Lebein induced caspase-independent apoptosis through increased expression of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). In LS174 cells, Lebein triggers the activation of the MAPK ERK1/2 pathway through induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It also decreased cell adhesion and migration to fibronectin through down regulation of α5β1 integrin. Moreover, Lebein significantly reduced the expression of two angiogenesis stimulators, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Neuropilin 1 (NRP1). It inhibited the VEGF-induced neovascularization process in the quail embryonic CAM system and blocked the development of human colon adenocarcinoma in nude mice. Overall, our work indicates that Lebein may be useful to design a new therapy against colon cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. α5β1 integrin induces the expression of noncartilaginous procollagen gene expression in articular chondrocytes cultured in monolayers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Articular chondrocytes undergo an obvious phenotypic change when cultured in monolayers. During this change, or dedifferentiation, the expression of type I and type III procollagen is induced where normal chondrocytes express little type I and type III procollagen. In this study, we attempted to determine the mechanism(s) for the induction of such procollagen expression in dedifferentiating chondrocytes. Methods All experiments were performed using primary-cultured human articular chondrocytes under approval of institutional review boards. Integrin(s) responsible for the induction of type I and type III procollagen expression were specified by RNAi experiments. The signal pathway(s) involved in the induction were determined by specific inhibitors and RNAi experiments. Adenovirus-mediated experiments were performed to identify a small GTPase regulating the activity of integrins in dedifferentiating chondrocytes. The effect of inhibition of integrins on dedifferentiation was investigated by experiments using echistatin, a potent disintegrin. The effect of echistatin was investigated first with monolayer-cultured chondrocytes, and then with pellet-cultured chondrocytes. Results In dedifferentiating chondrocytes, α5β1 integrin was found to be involved in the induction of type I and type III procollagen expression. The induction was known to be mediated by v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) signaling. Among the three AKT isoforms, AKT1 seemed to be most involved in the signaling. Elated RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog (RRAS) was considered to regulate the progression of dedifferentiation by modulating the affinity and avidity of α5β1 integrin to ligands. Echistatin inhibited dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes. Furthermore, the matrix formed by pellet-cultured chondrocytes more closely resembled that of normal cartilage compared with the controls. Conclusions The result of this study has shown, for the first time, that

  11. High lung-metastatic variant of human osteosarcoma cells, selected by passage of lung metastasis in nude mice, is associated with increased expression of α(v)β(3) integrin.

    PubMed

    Tome, Yasunori; Kimura, Hiroaki; Maehara, Hiroki; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Bouvet, Michael; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kanaya, Fuminori; Hoffman, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Altered expression of αvβ3 integrin is associated with tumor progression and metastasis in several types of cancer, including metastatic osteosarcoma. In this study, we demonstrate that in vivo passaging of lung metastasis in nude mice can generate an aggressive variant of human osteosarcoma cells. Experimental metastases were established by injecting 143B human osteosarcoma cells, expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus and red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm, in the tail vein of nude mice. Lung metastases were harvested under fluorescence microscopy from nude mice to establish cell lines which were then injected via the tail vein of additional nude mice. This procedure was repeated for four passages in order to isolate highly metastatic variant sublines. When the parental and metastatic variants were transplanted orthotopically into the tibia of nude mice, the 143B-LM4 variant had the highest metastatic rate, approximately 18-fold higher than the parent (p<0.01). αvβ3 integrin expression was increased approximately 5.6-fold in 143B-LM4 compared to parental cells (p<0.05). Thus, serial passage of lung metastases created a highly metastatic variant of human osteosarcoma cells which had increased expression of αvβ3 integrin, suggesting that αvβ3 integrin plays an essential role in osteosarcoma metastasis. With this highly metastatic variant overexpressing αvβ3 integrin, it will now be possible to further investigate the mechanism by which αvβ3 integrin facilitates metastasis.

  12. The binding effectiveness of anti-r-disintegrin polyclonal antibodies against disintegrins and PII and PIII metalloproteases: An immunological survey of type A, B and A+B venoms from Mohave rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Cantú, Esteban; Mallela, Sahiti; Nyguen, Matthew; Báez, Raúl; Parra, Victoria; Johnson, Rachel; Wilson, Kyle; Suntravat, Montamas; Lucena, Sara; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Sánchez, Elda E

    2017-01-01

    Snake venoms are known to have different venom compositions and toxicity, but differences can also be found within populations of the same species contributing to the complexity of treatment of envenomated victims. One of the first well-documented intraspecies venom variations comes from the Mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus). Initially, three types of venoms were described; type A venom is the most toxic as a result of ~45% Mojave toxin in the venom composition, type B lacks the Mojave toxin but contains over 50% of snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs). Also, type A+B venom contains a combination of Mojave toxin and SVMP. The use of an anti-disintegrin antibody in a simple Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) can be used to identify the difference between the venoms of the type A, B, and A+B Mohave rattlesnakes. This study implements the use of an anti-recombinant disintegrin polyclonal antibody (ARDPA) for the detection of disintegrins and ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteases) in individual crude snake venoms of Mohave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) of varying geographical locations. After correlation with Western blots, coagulation activity and LD50 data, it was determined that the antibody allows for a quick and cost-efficient identification of venom types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The binding effectiveness of anti-r-disintegrin polyclonal antibodies against disintegrins and PII and PIII metalloproteases: An immunological survey of type A, B and A + B venoms from Mohave rattlesnakes

    PubMed Central

    Cantú, Esteban; Mallela, Sahiti; Nyguen, Matthew; Báez, Raúl; Parra, Victoria; Johnson, Rachel; Wilson, Kyle; Suntravat, Montamas; Lucena, Sara; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Sánchez, Elda E.

    2016-01-01

    Snake venoms are known to have different venom compositions and toxicity, but differences can also be found within populations of the same species contributing to the complexity of treatment of envenomated victims. One of the first well-documented intraspecies venom variations comes from the Mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus). Initially, three types of venoms were described; type A venom is the most toxic as a result of ~45% Mojave toxin in the venom composition, type B lacks the Mojave toxin but contains over 50% of snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs). Also, type A + B venom contains a combination of Mojave toxin and SVMP. The use of an anti-disintegrin antibody in a simple Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) can be used to identify the difference between the venoms of the type A, B, and A+B Mohave rattlesnakes. This study implements the use of an anti-recombinant disintegrin polyclonal antibody (ARDPA) for the detection of disintegrins and ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteases) in individual crude snake venoms of Mohave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) of varying geographical locations. After correlation with Western blots, coagulation activity and LD50 data, it was determined that the antibody allows for a quick and cost-efficient identification of venom types. PMID:27989783

  14. Binding of Autotaxin to Integrins Localizes Lysophosphatidic Acid Production to Platelets and Mammalian Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Fulkerson, Zachary; Wu, Tao; Sunkara, Manjula; Kooi, Craig Vander; Morris, Andrew J.; Smyth, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that generates the bioactive lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). We and others have reported that ATX binds to integrins, but the function of ATX-integrin interactions is unknown. The recently reported crystal structure of ATX suggests a role for the solvent-exposed surface of the N-terminal tandem somatomedin B-like domains in binding to platelet integrin αIIbβ3. The opposite face of the somatomedin B-like domain interacts with the catalytic phosphodiesterase (PDE) domain to form a hydrophobic channel through which lysophospholipid substrates enter and leave the active site. Based on this structure, we hypothesize that integrin-bound ATX can access cell surface substrates and deliver LPA to cell surface receptors. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the integrin selectivity and signaling pathways that promote ATX binding to platelets. We report that both platelet β1 and β3 integrins interact in an activation-dependent manner with ATX via the SMB2 domain. ATX increases thrombin-stimulated LPA production by washed platelets ∼10-fold. When incubated under conditions to promote integrin activation, ATX generates LPA from CHO cells primed with bee venom phospholipase A2, and ATX-mediated LPA production is enhanced more than 2-fold by CHO cell overexpression of integrin β3. The effects of ATX on platelet and cell-associated LPA production, but not hydrolysis of small molecule or detergent-solubilized substrates, are attenuated by point mutations in the SMB2 that impair integrin binding. Integrin binding therefore localizes ATX activity to the cell surface, providing a mechanism to generate LPA in the vicinity of its receptors. PMID:21832043

  15. Canonical transforming growth factor-β signaling regulates disintegrin metalloprotease expression in experimental renal fibrosis via miR-29.

    PubMed

    Ramdas, Vasudev; McBride, Martin; Denby, Laura; Baker, Andrew H

    2013-12-01

    Fibrosis pathophysiology is critically regulated by Smad 2- and Smad 3-mediated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. Disintegrin metalloproteases (Adam) can manipulate the signaling environment, however, the role and regulation of ADAMs in renal fibrosis remain unclear. TGF-β stimulation of renal cells results in a significant up-regulation of Adams 10, 17, 12, and 19. The selective Smad2/3 inhibitor SB 525334 reversed these TGF-β-induced changes. In vivo, using ureteral obstruction to model renal fibrosis, we observed increased Adams gene expression that was blocked by oral administration of SB 525334. Similar increases in Adam gene expression also occurred in preclinical models of hypertension-induced renal damage and glomerulonephritis. miRNAs are a recently discovered second level of regulation of gene expression. Analysis of 3' untranslated regions of Adam12 and Adam19 mRNAs showed multiple binding sites for miR-29a, miR-29b, and miR-29c. We show that miR-29 family expression is decreased after unilateral ureter obstruction and this significant decrease in miR-29 family expression was observed consistently in preclinical models of renal dysfunction and correlated with an increase in Adam12 and Adam19 expression. Exogenous overexpression of the miR-29 family blocked TGF-β-mediated up-regulation of Adam12 and Adam19 gene expression. This study shows that Adams are involved in renal fibrosis and are regulated by canonical TGF-β signaling and miR-29. Therefore, both Adams and the miR-29 family represent therapeutic targets for renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Canonical Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling Regulates Disintegrin Metalloprotease Expression in Experimental Renal Fibrosis via miR-29

    PubMed Central

    Ramdas, Vasudev; McBride, Martin; Denby, Laura; Baker, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis pathophysiology is critically regulated by Smad 2– and Smad 3–mediated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. Disintegrin metalloproteases (Adam) can manipulate the signaling environment, however, the role and regulation of ADAMs in renal fibrosis remain unclear. TGF-β stimulation of renal cells results in a significant up-regulation of Adams 10, 17, 12, and 19. The selective Smad2/3 inhibitor SB 525334 reversed these TGF-β–induced changes. In vivo, using ureteral obstruction to model renal fibrosis, we observed increased Adams gene expression that was blocked by oral administration of SB 525334. Similar increases in Adam gene expression also occurred in preclinical models of hypertension-induced renal damage and glomerulonephritis. miRNAs are a recently discovered second level of regulation of gene expression. Analysis of 3′ untranslated regions of Adam12 and Adam19 mRNAs showed multiple binding sites for miR-29a, miR-29b, and miR-29c. We show that miR-29 family expression is decreased after unilateral ureter obstruction and this significant decrease in miR-29 family expression was observed consistently in preclinical models of renal dysfunction and correlated with an increase in Adam12 and Adam19 expression. Exogenous overexpression of the miR-29 family blocked TGF-β–mediated up-regulation of Adam12 and Adam19 gene expression. This study shows that Adams are involved in renal fibrosis and are regulated by canonical TGF-β signaling and miR-29. Therefore, both Adams and the miR-29 family represent therapeutic targets for renal fibrosis. PMID:24103556

  17. Kinesin KIF4A transports integrin β1 in developing axons of cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Heintz, Tristan G; Heller, Janosch P; Zhao, Rongrong; Caceres, Alfredo; Eva, Richard; Fawcett, James W

    2014-11-01

    CNS axons have poor regenerative ability compared to PNS axons, and mature axons regenerate less well than immature embryonic axons. The loss of regenerative ability with maturity is accompanied by the setting up of a selective transport filter in axons, restricting the types of molecule that are present. We confirm that integrins (represented by subunits β1 and α5) are present in early cortical axons in vitro but are excluded from mature axons. Ribosomal protein and L1 show selective axonal transport through association with kinesin kif4A; we have therefore examined the hypothesis that integrin transport might also be in association with kif4A. Kif4A is present in all processes of immature cortical neurons cultured at E18, then downregulated by 14days in vitro, coinciding with the exclusion of integrin from axons. Kif4a co-localises with β1 integrin in vesicles in neurons and non-neuronal cells, and the two molecules co-immunoprecipitate. Knockdown of KIF4A expression with shRNA reduced the level of integrin β1 in axons of developing neurons and reduced neurite elongation on laminin, an integrin-dependent substrate. Overexpression of kif4A triggered apoptosis in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. In mature neurons expression of kif4A-GFP at a modest level did not kill the cells, and the kif4A was detectable in their axons. However this was not accompanied by an increase in integrin β1 axonal transport, suggesting that kif4A is not the only integrin transporter, and that integrin exclusion from axons is controlled by factors other than the kif4A level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercise promotes alpha7 integrin gene transcription and protection of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Boppart, Marni D; Volker, Sonja E; Alexander, Nicole; Burkin, Dean J; Kaufman, Stephen J

    2008-11-01

    The alpha7beta1 integrin is increased in skeletal muscle in response to injury-producing exercise, and transgenic overexpression of this integrin in mice protects against exercise-induced muscle damage. The present study investigates whether the increase in the alpha7beta1 integrin observed in wild-type mice in response to exercise is due to transcriptional regulation and examines whether mobilization of the integrin at the myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a key determinant in its protection against damage. A single bout of downhill running exercise selectively increased transcription of the alpha7 integrin gene in 5-wk-old wild-type mice 3 h postexercise, and an increased alpha7 chain was detected in muscle sarcolemma adjacent to tendinous tissue immediately following exercise. The alpha7B, but not alpha7A isoform, was found concentrated and colocalized with tenascin-C in muscle fibers lining the MTJ. To further validate the importance of the integrin in the protection against muscle damage following exercise, muscle injury was quantified in alpha7(-/-) mice. Muscle damage was extensive in alpha7(-/-) mice in response to both a single and repeated bouts of exercise and was largely restricted to areas of high MTJ concentration and high mechanical force near the Achilles tendon. These results suggest that exercise-induced muscle injury selectively increases transcription of the alpha7 integrin gene and promotes a rapid change in the alpha7beta integrin at the MTJ. These combined molecular and cellular alterations are likely responsible for integrin-mediated attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage.

  19. Morulustatin, A Disintegrin that Inhibits ADP-Induced Platelet Aggregation, Isolated from the Mexican Tamaulipan Rock Rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus morulus).

    PubMed

    Borja, Miguel; Galan, Jacob Anthony; Cantu, Esteban; Zugasti-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Lazcano, David; Lucena, Sara; Suntravat, Montamas; Sánchez, Y Elda Eliza

    2016-01-01

    The Tamaulipan rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus morulus) is a montane snake that occurs in the humid pine-oak forest and the upper cloud forest of the Sierra Madre Oriental in southwestern Tamaulipas, central Nuevo Leon, and southeastern Coahuila in Mexico. Venom from this rattlesnake was fractionated by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for the purpose of discovering disintegrin molecules. Disintegrins are non-enzymatic, small molecular weight peptides that interfere with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions by binding to various cell receptors. Eleven fractions were collected by anion exchange chromatography and pooled into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, and VI). Proteins of the six groups were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and western blot using antibodies raised against a disintegrin. The antibodies recognized different protein bands in five (II, III, IV, V, and VI) of six groups in a molecular mass range of 7 to 105 kDa. Western blot analysis revealed fewer protein bands in the higher molecular mass range and two bands in the disintegrin weight range in group II compared with the other four groups. Proteins in group II were further separated into nine fractions using reverse phase C18 chromatography. Fraction 4 inhibited platelet aggregation and was named morulustatin, which exhibited a single band with a molecular mass of approximately 7 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of fraction 4 revealed the identification of disintegrin peptides LRPGAQCADGLCCDQCR (MH+ 2035.84) and AGEECDCGSPANCCDAATCK (MH+ 2328.82). Morulustatin inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood and was concentration-dependent with an IC50 of 89.5 nM ± 12.

  20. Morulustatin, A Disintegrin that Inhibits ADP-Induced Platelet Aggregation, Isolated from the Mexican Tamaulipan Rock Rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus morulus)

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Miguel; Galan, Jacob Anthony; Cantu, Esteban; Zugasti-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Lazcano, David; Lucena, Sara; Suntravat, Montamas; Sánchez, y Elda Eliza

    2016-01-01

    The Tamaulipan rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus morulus) is a montane snake that occurs in the humid pine-oak forest and the upper cloud forest of the Sierra Madre Oriental in southwestern Tamaulipas, central Nuevo Leon, and southeastern Coahuila in Mexico. Venom from this rattlesnake was fractionated by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for the purpose of discovering disintegrin molecules. Disintegrins are non-enzymatic, small molecular weight peptides that interfere with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions by binding to various cell receptors. Eleven fractions were collected by anion exchange chromatography and pooled into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, and VI). Proteins of the six groups were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and western blot using antibodies raised against a disintegrin. The antibodies recognized different protein bands in five (II, III, IV, V, and VI) of six groups in a molecular mass range of 7 to 105 kDa. Western blot analysis revealed fewer protein bands in the higher molecular mass range and two bands in the disintegrin weight range in group II compared with the other four groups. Proteins in group II were further separated into nine fractions using reverse phase C18 chromatography. Fraction 4 inhibited platelet aggregation and was named morulustatin, which exhibited a single band with a molecular mass of approximately 7 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of fraction 4 revealed the identification of disintegrin peptides LRPGAQCADGLCCDQCR (MH+ 2035.84) and AGEECDCGSPANCCDAATCK (MH+ 2328.82). Morulustatin inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood and was concentration-dependent with an IC50 of 89.5 nM ± 12. PMID:28713196

  1. Compensatory redistribution of neuroligins and N-cadherin following deletion of synaptic β1-integrin

    PubMed Central

    Mortillo, Steven; Elste, Alice; Ge, Yongchao; Patil, Shekhar B.; Hsiao, Kuangfu; Huntley, George W.; Davis, Ronald L.; Benson, Deanna L.

    2012-01-01

    β1-containing integrins are required for persistent synaptic potentiation in hippocampus and regulate hippocampal-dependent learning. Based largely on indirect evidence, there is a prevailing assumption that β1-integrins are localized at synapses, where they contribute to synapse adhesion and signaling, but this has not been examined directly. Here, we investigate the fine localization of β1-integrin in adult mouse hippocampus using high-resolution immunogold labeling, with a particular emphasis on synaptic labeling patterns. We find that β1-integrins localize to synapses in CA1 and are concentrated postsynaptically. At the postsynaptic membrane, β1-integrins are found more commonly clustered near active zone centers rather than at the peripheral edges. In mice harboring a conditional deletion of β1-integrins, labeling for N-cadherin and Neuroligins increases. Western blots show increased levels of N-cadherin in total lysates and Neuroligins increase selectively in synaptosomes. These data suggest there is a dynamic, compensatory adjustment of synaptic adhesion. Such adjustment is specific only for certain cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), because labeling for SynCAM is unchanged. Together our findings demonstrate unequivocally that β1-integrin is an integral synaptic adhesion protein, and suggest that adhesive function at the synapse reflects a cooperative and dynamic network of multiple CAM families. PMID:22488504

  2. Integrins as architects of cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Streuli, Charles H

    2016-10-01

    Integrins are cell surface receptors that bind cells to their physical external environment, linking the extracellular matrix to cell function. They are essential in the biology of all animals. In the late 1980s, we discovered that integrins are required for the ability of breast epithelia to do what they are programmed to do, which is to differentiate and make milk. Since then, integrins have been shown to control most other aspects of phenotype: to stay alive, to divide, and to move about. Integrins also provide part of the mechanism that allows cells to form tissues. Here I discuss how we discovered that integrins control mammary gland differentiation and explore the role of integrins as central architects of other aspects of cell behavior.

  3. Anti-integrin therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Eiji; Nakahashi, Susumu; Okamoto, Takayuki; Imai, Hiroshi; Shimaoka, Motomu

    2012-01-01

    Integrins are the foremost family of cell adhesion molecules that regulate immune cell trafficking in health and diseases. Integrin alpha4 mediates organ-specific migration of immune cells to the inflamed brain, thereby playing the critical role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Anti-alpha4 integrin therapy aiming to block infiltration of autoreactive lymphocytes to the inflamed brain has been validated in several clinical trials for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. This paper provides readers with an overview of the molecular and structural bases of integrin activation as well as rationale for using anti-alpha4 integrin therapy for multiple sclerosis and then chronicles the rise and fall of this treatment strategy using natalizumab, a humanized anti-alpha4 integrin.

  4. Regulation of integrin-mediated adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Daniel V.; Calderwood, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane adhesion receptors that couple the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular environment and bidirectionally relay signals across the cell membrane. These processes are critical for cell attachment, migration, differentiation, and survival, and therefore play essential roles in metazoan development, physiology, and pathology. Integrin-mediated adhesions are regulated by diverse factors, including the conformation-specific affinities of integrin receptors for their extracellular ligands, the clustering of integrins and their intracellular binding partners into discrete adhesive structures, mechanical forces exerted on the adhesion, and the intracellular trafficking of integrins themselves. Recent advances shed light onto how the interaction of specific intracellular proteins with the short cytoplasmic tails of integrins controls each of these activities. PMID:26189062

  5. Integrins as architects of cell behavior

    PubMed Central

    Streuli, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    Integrins are cell surface receptors that bind cells to their physical external environment, linking the extracellular matrix to cell function. They are essential in the biology of all animals. In the late 1980s, we discovered that integrins are required for the ability of breast epithelia to do what they are programmed to do, which is to differentiate and make milk. Since then, integrins have been shown to control most other aspects of phenotype: to stay alive, to divide, and to move about. Integrins also provide part of the mechanism that allows cells to form tissues. Here I discuss how we discovered that integrins control mammary gland differentiation and explore the role of integrins as central architects of other aspects of cell behavior. PMID:27687254

  6. A dual role for integrin-linked kinase in platelets: regulating integrin function and α-granule secretion

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Tanya; Stevens, Joanne M.; Jordan, Peter A.; Jones, Sarah; Barrett, Natasha E.; St-Arnaud, Rene; Frampton, Jonathan; Dedhar, Shoukat; Gibbins, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) has been implicated in the regulation of a range of fundamental biological processes such as cell survival, growth, differentiation, and adhesion. In platelets ILK associates with β1- and β3-containing integrins, which are of paramount importance for the function of platelets. Upon stimulation of platelets this association with the integrins is increased and ILK kinase activity is up-regulated, suggesting that ILK may be important for the coordination of platelet responses. In this study a conditional knockout mouse model was developed to examine the role of ILK in platelets. The ILK-deficient mice showed an increased bleeding time and volume, and despite normal ultrastructure the function of ILK-deficient platelets was decreased significantly. This included reduced aggregation, fibrinogen binding, and thrombus formation under arterial flow conditions. Furthermore, although early collagen stimulated signaling such as PLCγ2 phosphorylation and calcium mobilization were unaffected in ILK-deficient platelets, a selective defect in α-granule, but not dense-granule, secretion was observed. These results indicate that as well as involvement in the control of integrin affinity, ILK is required for α-granule secretion and therefore may play a central role in the regulation of platelet function. PMID:18772455

  7. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica L.; Streuli, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell–matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical–basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity. For further reading, please see related articles: ‘ERM proteins at a glance’ by Andrea McClatchey (J. Cell Sci. 127, 3199–3204). ‘Establishment of epithelial polarity – GEF who's minding the GAP?’ by Siu Ngok et al. (J. Cell Sci. 127, 3205–3215). PMID:24994933

  8. Laminin isoforms and their integrin receptors in glioma cell migration and invasiveness: Evidence for a role of alpha5-laminin(s) and alpha3beta1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Kawataki, Tomoyuki; Yamane, Tetsu; Naganuma, Hirofumi; Rousselle, Patricia; Andurén, Ingegerd; Tryggvason, Karl; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2007-11-01

    Glioma cell infiltration of brain tissue often occurs along the basement membrane (BM) of blood vessels. In the present study we have investigated the role of laminins, major structural components of BMs and strong promoters of cell migration. Immunohistochemical studies of glioma tumor tissue demonstrated expression of alpha2-, alpha3-, alpha4- and alpha5-, but not alpha1-, laminins by the tumor vasculature. In functional assays, alpha3 (Lm-332/laminin-5)- and alpha5 (Lm-511/laminin-10)-laminins strongly promoted migration of all glioma cell lines tested. alpha1-Laminin (Lm-111/laminin-1) displayed lower activity, whereas alpha2 (Lm-211/laminin-2)- and alpha4 (Lm-411/laminin-8)-laminins were practically inactive. Global integrin phenotyping identified alpha3beta1 as the most abundant integrin in all the glioma cell lines, and this laminin-binding integrin exclusively or largely mediate the cell migration. Moreover, pretreatment of U251 glioma cells with blocking antibodies to alpha3beta1 integrin followed by intracerebral injection into nude mice inhibited invasion of the tumor cells into the brain tissue. The cell lines secreted Lm-211, Lm-411 and Lm-511, at different ratios. The results indicate that glioma cells secrete alpha2-, alpha4- and alpha5-laminins and that alpha3- and alpha5-laminins, found in brain vasculature, selectively promote glioma cell migration. They identify alpha3beta1 as the predominant integrin and laminin receptor in glioma cells, and as a brain invasion-mediating integrin.

  9. An agent based model of integrin clustering: Exploring the role of ligand clustering, integrin homo-oligomerization, integrin-ligand affinity, membrane crowdedness and ligand mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Yousef; Jamali, Tahereh; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    2013-07-01

    Integrins are cell-surface protein heterodimers that coordinate cellular responses to mechanochemical cues from the extracellular matrix (ECM) and stimulate the assembly of small adhesion complexes, which are the initial sites of cell-ECM adhesion. Clustering of integrins is known to mediate signaling through a variety of signal transduction pathways. Yet, the molecular mechanisms of integrin clustering are poorly understood. In this paper, we develop computational models, using agent based modeling (ABM) techniques, to explore two key underlying mechanisms of integrin clustering, namely ligand organization and integrin homo-oligomerization. Our models help to shed light on the potential roles ligand clustering and integrin homo-oligomerization may play in controlling integrin clustering. A potential mechanism for the clustering of integrin is discussed and the effects of other parameters such as integrin-ligand affinity, membrane crowdedness and ligand mobility on integrin clustering are examined.

  10. Isolation and characterization of two disintegrins inhibiting ADP-induced human platelet aggregation from the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake)

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Elda E.; Galan, Jacob A.; Russell, William K.; Soto, Julio G.; Russell, David H.; Perez, John C. . E-mail: kfjcp00@tamuk.edu

    2006-04-01

    Disintegrins and disintegrin-like proteins are molecules found in the venom of four snake families (Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae, and Colubridae). The disintegrins are nonenzymatic proteins that inhibit cell-cell interactions, cell-matrix interactions, and signal transduction, and may have potential in the treatment of strokes, heart attacks, cancers, and osteoporosis. Prior to 1983, the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake) was known to be only neurotoxic; however, now there is evidence that these snakes can contain venom with: (1) neurotoxins; (2) hemorrhagins; and (3) both neurotoxins and hemorrhagins. In this study, two disintegrins, mojastin 1 and mojastin 2, from the venom of a Mohave rattlesnake collected in central Arizona (Pinal County), were isolated and characterized. The disintegrins in these venoms were identified by mass-analyzed laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry as having masses of 7.436 and 7.636 kDa. Their amino acid sequences are similar to crotratroxin, a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the western diamondback rattlesnake (C. atrox). The amino acid sequence of mojastin 1 was identical to the amino acid sequence of a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the Timber rattlesnake (C. horridus). The disintegrins from the Mohave rattlesnake venom were able to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole human blood both having IC{sub 5}s of 13.8 nM, but were not effective in inhibiting the binding of human urinary bladder carcinoma cells (T24) to fibronectin.

  11. Structure of Protein Having Inhibitory Disintegrin and Leukotriene Scavenging Functions Contained in Single Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xueqing; Francischetti, Ivo M.B.; Lai, Ren; Ribeiro, José M.C.; Andersen, John F.

    2012-08-10

    The antihemostatic/antiangiogenic protein tablysin-15 is a member of the CAP (cysteine-rich secretory, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 protein) superfamily and has been shown to bind the integrins {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} and {alpha}{sub V}{beta}{sub 3} by means of an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide sequence. Here we describe the x-ray crystal structure of tablysin-15 and show that the RGD motif is located in a novel structural context. The motif itself is contained in a type II {beta}-turn structure that is similar in its conformation to the RGD sequence of the cyclic pentapeptide cilengitide when bound to integrin {alpha}V{beta}3. The CAP domain also contains a hydrophobic channel that appears to bind a fatty acid molecule in the crystal structure after purification from Escherichia coli. After delipidation of the protein, tablysin-15 was found to bind proinflammatory cysteinyl leukotrienes with submicromolar affinities. The structure of the leukotriene E{sub 4}-tablysin-15 complex shows that the ligand binds with the nonfunctionalized end of the fatty acid chain buried in the hydrophobic pocket, whereas the carboxylate end of the ligand binds forms hydrogen bond/salt bridge interactions with polar side chains at the channel entrance. Therefore, tablysin-15 functions as an inhibitor of integrin function and as an anti-inflammatory scavenger of eicosanoids.

  12. Constitutive Association of Tie1 and Tie2 with Endothelial Integrins is Functionally Modulated by Angiopoietin-1 and Fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Annamarie C.; Shlamkovitch, Tomer; Papo, Niv; Barton, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional cross-talk between Tie2 and Integrin signaling pathways is essential to coordinate endothelial cell adhesion and migration in response to the extracellular matrix, yet the mechanisms behind this phenomenon are unclear. Here, we examine the possibility that receptor cross-talk is driven through uncharacterized Tie-integrin interactions on the endothelial surface. Using a live cell FRET-based proximity assay, we monitor Tie-integrin receptor recognition and demonstrate that both Tie1 and Tie2 readily associate with integrins α5ß1 and αVß3 through their respective ectodomains. Although not required, Tie2-integrin association is significantly enhanced in the presence of the extracellular component and integrin ligand fibronectin. In vitro binding assays with purified components reveal that Tie-integrin recognition is direct, and further demonstrate that the receptor binding domain of the Tie2 ligand Ang-1, but not the receptor binding domain of Ang-2, can independently associate with α5ß1 or αVß3. Finally, we reveal that cooperative Tie/integrin interactions selectively stimulate ERK/MAPK signaling in the presence of both Ang-1 and fibronectin, suggesting a molecular mechanism to sensitize Tie2 to extracellular matrix. We provide a mechanistic model highlighting the role of receptor localization and association in regulating distinct signaling cascades and in turn, the angiogenic switch. PMID:27695111

  13. Integrins in the Spotlight of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bianconi, Daniela; Unseld, Matthias; Prager, Gerald W.

    2016-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface receptors that bind to different extracellular ligands depending on their composition and regulate all processes which enable multicellular life. In cancer, integrins trigger and play key roles in all the features that were once described as the Hallmarks of Cancer. In this review, we will discuss the contribution of integrins to these hallmarks, including uncontrolled and limitless proliferation, invasion of tumor cells, promotion of tumor angiogenesis and evasion of apoptosis and resistance to growth suppressors, by highlighting the latest findings. Further on, given the paramount role of integrins in cancer, we will present novel strategies for integrin inhibition that are starting to emerge, promising a hopeful future regarding cancer treatment. PMID:27929432

  14. IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinase-13 is activated by a disintegrin and metalloprotease-28-regulated proliferation of human osteoblast-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Kawai, Rie; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Hiyama, Taiki; Kinoshita, Katsue; Hase, Naoko; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Ayami; Mogi, Makio; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-15

    We reported previously that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 accelerates bone remodeling in oral periradicular lesions, and indicated a potentially unique role for MMP-13 in wound healing and regeneration of alveolar bone. The ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family is a set of multifunctional cell surface and secreted glycoproteins, of which ADAM-28 has been localized in bone and bone-like tissues. In this study, we show that interleukin (IL)-1β induces the expression of MMP-13 and ADAM-28 in homogeneous α7 integrin-positive human skeletal muscle stem cell (α7{sup +}hSMSC)-derived osteoblast-like (α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB) cells, and promotes proliferation while inhibiting apoptosis in these cells. At higher concentrations, however, IL-1β failed to induce the expression of these genes and caused an increase in apoptosis. We further employed ADAM-28 small interfering RNA (siRNA) to investigate whether IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression is linked to this IL-1β-mediated changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Silencing ADAM-28 expression potently suppressed IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression and activity, decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB cells. In contrast, MMP-13 siRNA had no effect on ADAM-28 expression, suggesting ADAM-28 regulates MMP-13. Exogenous MMP-13 induced α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB cell proliferation and could rescue ADAM-28 siRNA-induced apoptosis, and we found that proMMP-13 is partially cleaved into its active form by ADAM-28 in vitro. Overall, our results suggest that IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression and changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis in α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB cells are regulated by ADAM-28. - Highlights: • IL-1β induces the MMP-13 and ADAM-28 expression in human osteoblast-like cells. • IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression increases proliferation and decreased apoptosis. • MMP-13 expression induced by IL-1β is regulated by ADAM-28. • proMMP-13 appears to be cleaved into its active form via

  15. CC5 and CC8, two homologous disintegrins from Cerastes cerastes venom, inhibit in vitro and ex vivo angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ben-Mabrouk, Hazem; Zouari-Kessentini, Raoudha; Montassar, Fadoua; Koubaa, Zeineb Abdelkefi-; Messaadi, Erij; Guillonneau, Xavier; ElAyeb, Mohamed; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Luis, José; Micheau, Olivier; Marrakchi, Naziha

    2016-05-01

    Angiogenesis constitutes a fundamental step in tumor progression. Thus, targeting tumour angiogenesis has been identified to be promising in cancer treatment. In this work, CC5 and CC8, two highly homologous disintegrins isolated from the venom Cerastes cerastes viper from the south of Tunisia, were assessed for their anti-angiogenic effect by testing their ability to interfere with viability, adhesion, migration and angiogenesis of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells, HMEC-1 and HBMEC. We found that CC5 and CC8 displayed pro-apoptotic potential in HMEC-1 cells. Anoïkis like induced by these two disintegrins was evidenced by cell detachment, down regulation of FAK/AKT/PI3K axis and caspase activation. In addition, both CC5 and CC8 exhibited in vitro anti-adhesive, anti-migratory and anti-proliferative effects on endothelial cells HBMEC. These effects appeared to require RGD and/or WGD loops disintegrin. CC5 and CC8 also inhibited tube-formation on matrigel and displayed potent anti-angiogenic activities as assessed ex vivo, using both the embryo chick chorioallantoic membrane model (CAM) and rat aortic ring assay. Altogether our results demonstrate that CC5 and CC8, are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis, by disrupting αvβ3 and α5β1 binding. The use of CC5 and/or CC8 could provide a beneficial tool to inhibit abnormal angiogenesis and to induce cancer regression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Retinoids induce integrin-independent lymphocyte adhesion through RAR-α nuclear receptor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Jarrett T.; Wang, Lei; Chen, Jianming; Metts, Meagan E.; Nasser, Taj A.; McGoldrick, Liam J.; Bridges, Lance C.

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Transcription and translation are required for retinoid-induced lymphocyte adhesion. • RAR activation is sufficient to induced lymphocyte cell adhesion. • Vitamin D derivatives inhibit RAR-prompted lymphocyte adhesion. • Adhesion occurs through a novel binding site within ADAM disintegrin domains. • RARα is a key nuclear receptor for retinoid-dependent lymphocyte cell adhesion. - Abstract: Oxidative metabolites of vitamin A, in particular all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), have emerged as key factors in immunity by specifying the localization of immune cells to the gut. Although it is appreciated that isomers of retinoic acid activate the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) family of nuclear receptors to elicit cellular changes, the molecular details of retinoic acid action remain poorly defined in immune processes. Here we employ a battery of agonists and antagonists to delineate the specific nuclear receptors utilized by retinoids to evoke lymphocyte cell adhesion to ADAM (adisintegrin and metalloprotease) protein family members. We report that RAR agonism is sufficient to promote immune cell adhesion in both immortal and primary immune cells. Interestingly, adhesion occurs independent of integrin function, and mutant studies demonstrate that atRA-induced adhesion to ADAM members required a distinct binding interface(s) as compared to integrin recognition. Anti-inflammatory corticosteroids as well as 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}, a vitamin D metabolite that prompts immune cell trafficking to the skin, potently inhibited the observed adhesion. Finally, our data establish that induced adhesion was specifically attributable to the RAR-α receptor isotype. The current study provides novel molecular resolution as to which nuclear receptors transduce retinoid exposure into immune cell adhesion.

  17. A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase10 (ADAM10) Regulates NOTCH Signaling during Early Retinal Development.

    PubMed

    Toonen, Joseph A; Ronchetti, Adam; Sidjanin, D J

    2016-01-01

    ADAM10 and ADAM17 are two closely related members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of membrane-bound sheddases, which proteolytically cleave surface membrane proteins. Both ADAM10 and ADAM17 have been implicated in the proteolytic cleavage of NOTCH receptors and as such regulators of NOTCH signaling. During retinal development, NOTCH signaling facilitates retinal neurogenesis by maintaining progenitor cells in a proliferative state and by mediating retinal cell fates. However, the roles of ADAM10 and ADAM17 in the retina are not well defined. In this study, we set out to clarify the roles of ADAM10 and ADAM17 during early retinal development. The retinal phenotype of conditionally abated Adam17 retinae (Adam17 CKO) did not differ from the controls whereas conditionally ablated Adam10 retinae (Adam10 CKO) exhibited abnormal morphogenesis characterized by the formation of rosettes and a loss of retinal laminae phenotypically similar to morphological abnormalities identified in mice with retinal NOTCH signaling deficiency. Additionally, Adam10 CKO retinae exhibited abnormal neurogenesis characterized by fewer proliferating progenitor cells and greater differentiation of early photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells. Moreover, constitutive activation of the NOTCH1-intracellular domain (N1-ICD) rescued Adam10 CKO abnormal neurogenesis, as well as abnormal retinal morphology by maintaining retinal cells in the progenitor state. Collectively these findings provide in vivo genetic evidence that ADAM10, and not ADAM17, is indispensable for proper retinal development as a regulator of NOTCH signaling.

  18. A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase10 (ADAM10) Regulates NOTCH Signaling during Early Retinal Development

    PubMed Central

    Toonen, Joseph A.; Ronchetti, Adam; Sidjanin, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    ADAM10 and ADAM17 are two closely related members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of membrane-bound sheddases, which proteolytically cleave surface membrane proteins. Both ADAM10 and ADAM17 have been implicated in the proteolytic cleavage of NOTCH receptors and as such regulators of NOTCH signaling. During retinal development, NOTCH signaling facilitates retinal neurogenesis by maintaining progenitor cells in a proliferative state and by mediating retinal cell fates. However, the roles of ADAM10 and ADAM17 in the retina are not well defined. In this study, we set out to clarify the roles of ADAM10 and ADAM17 during early retinal development. The retinal phenotype of conditionally abated Adam17 retinae (Adam17 CKO) did not differ from the controls whereas conditionally ablated Adam10 retinae (Adam10 CKO) exhibited abnormal morphogenesis characterized by the formation of rosettes and a loss of retinal laminae phenotypically similar to morphological abnormalities identified in mice with retinal NOTCH signaling deficiency. Additionally, Adam10 CKO retinae exhibited abnormal neurogenesis characterized by fewer proliferating progenitor cells and greater differentiation of early photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells. Moreover, constitutive activation of the NOTCH1-intracellular domain (N1-ICD) rescued Adam10 CKO abnormal neurogenesis, as well as abnormal retinal morphology by maintaining retinal cells in the progenitor state. Collectively these findings provide in vivo genetic evidence that ADAM10, and not ADAM17, is indispensable for proper retinal development as a regulator of NOTCH signaling. PMID:27224017

  19. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is a central regulator of murine liver tissue homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Köhn-Gaone, Julia; Chalupsky, Karel; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Barikbin, Roja; Bergmann, Juri; Wöhner, Birte; Zbodakova, Olga; Leuschner, Ivo; Martin, Gregor; Tiegs, Gisa; Rose-John, Stefan; Sedlacek, Radislav; Tirnitz-Parker, Janina E.E.; Saftig, Paul; Schmidt-Arras, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease (ADAM) 10 exerts essential roles during organ development and tissue integrity in different organs, mainly through activation of the Notch pathway. However, only little is known about its implication in liver tissue physiology. Here we show that in contrast to its role in other tissues, ADAM10 is dispensable for the Notch2-dependent biliary tree formation. However, we demonstrate that expression of bile acid transporters is dependent on ADAM10. Consequently, mice deficient for Adam10 in hepatocytes, cholangiocytes and liver progenitor cells develop spontaneous hepatocyte necrosis and concomitant liver fibrosis. We furthermore observed a strongly augmented ductular reaction in 15-week old ADAM10Δhep/Δch mice and demonstrate that c-Met dependent liver progenitor cell activation is enhanced. Additionally, liver progenitor cells are primed to hepatocyte differentiation in the absence of ADAM10. These findings show that ADAM10 is a novel central node controlling liver tissue homeostasis. Highlights: Loss of ADAM10 in murine liver results in hepatocyte necrosis and concomitant liver fibrosis. ADAM10 directly regulates expression of bile acid transporters but is dispensable for Notch2-dependent formation of the biliary system. Activation of liver progenitor cells is enhanced through increased c-Met signalling, in the absence of ADAM10. Differentiation of liver progenitor cells to hepatocytes is augmented in the absence of ADAM10. PMID:26942887

  20. A disintegrin and metalloproteinases 10 and 17 modulate the immunogenicity of glioblastoma-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Wolpert, Fabian; Tritschler, Isabel; Steinle, Alexander; Weller,, Michael; Eisele, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Background There are emerging reports that the family of a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAM) are involved in the maintenance of the malignant phenotype of glioblastomas. Notably, ADAM proteases 10 and 17 might impair the immune recognition of glioma cells via the activating immunoreceptor NKG2D by cleavage of its ligands from the cell surface. Glioblastoma-initiating cells (GIC) with stem cell properties have been identified as an attractive target for immunotherapy. However, GIC immunogenicity seems to be low. Methods and Results Here,we show that ADAM10 and ADAM17 are expressed on the cell surface of GIC and contribute to an immunosuppressive phenotype by cleavage of ULBP2. The cell surface expression of ULBP2 is enhanced upon blocking ADAM10 and ADAM17, and treatment with ADAM10 and ADAM17specific inhibitors leads to enhanced immunerecognition of GIC by natural killer cells. Conclusions Therefore, ADAM10 and ADAM17 constitute suitable targets to boost an immune response against GIC. PMID:24327582

  1. Critical role of the disintegrin metalloprotease ADAM17 for intestinal inflammation and regeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chalaris, Athena; Adam, Nina; Sina, Christian; Rosenstiel, Philip; Lehmann-Koch, Judith; Schirmacher, Peter; Hartmann, Dieter; Cichy, Joanna; Gavrilova, Olga; Schreiber, Stefan; Jostock, Thomas; Matthews, Vance; Häsler, Robert; Becker, Christoph; Neurath, Markus F.; Reiß, Karina; Saftig, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The protease a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17 cleaves tumor necrosis factor (TNF), L-selectin, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) ligands from the plasma membrane. ADAM17 is expressed in most tissues and is up-regulated during inflammation and cancer. ADAM17-deficient mice are not viable. Conditional ADAM17 knockout models demonstrated proinflammatory activities of ADAM17 in septic shock via shedding of TNF. We used a novel gene targeting strategy to generate mice with dramatically reduced ADAM17 levels in all tissues. The resulting mice called ADAM17ex/ex were viable, showed compromised shedding of ADAM17 substrates from the cell surface, and developed eye, heart, and skin defects as a consequence of impaired EGF-R signaling caused by failure of shedding of EGF-R ligands. Unexpectedly, although the intestine of unchallenged homozygous ADAM17ex/ex mice was normal, ADAM17ex/ex mice showed substantially increased susceptibility to inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium colitis. This was a result of impaired shedding of EGF-R ligands resulting in failure to phosphorylate STAT3 via the EGF-R and, consequently, in defective regeneration of epithelial cells and breakdown of the intestinal barrier. Besides regulating the systemic availability of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF, our results demonstrate that ADAM17 is needed for vital regenerative activities during the immune response. Thus, our mouse model will help investigate ADAM17 as a potential drug target. PMID:20603312

  2. Lebein, a Snake Venom Disintegrin, Induces Apoptosis in Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammouda, Manel B.; Montenegro, María F.; Sánchez-del-Campo, Luis; Zakraoui, Ons; Aloui, Zohra; Riahi-Chebbi, Ichrak; Karoui, Habib; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma, the most threatening form of skin cancer, has a very poor prognosis and is characterized by its very invasive and chemoresistant properties. Despite the recent promising news from the field of immunotherapy, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches that are free of resistance mechanisms and side effects. Anti-neoplasic properties have been highlighted for different disintegrins from snake venom including Lebein; however, the exact effect of Lebein on melanoma has not yet been defined. In this study, we showed that Lebein blocks melanoma cell proliferation and induces a more differentiated phenotype with inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) overexpression. Melanoma cells became detached but were less invasive with upregulation of E-cadherin after Lebein exposure. Lebein induced a caspase-independent apoptotic program with apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX) and Bim overexpression together with downregulation of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2). It generated a distinct response in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and p53 levels depending on the p53 cell line status (wild type or mutant). Therefore, we propose Lebein as a new candidate for development of potential therapies for melanoma. PMID:27399772

  3. Metalloprotease-disintegrin ADAM12 expression is regulated by Notch signaling via microRNA-29.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Solomon, Emilia; Duhachek Muggy, Sara; Sun, Danqiong; Zolkiewska, Anna

    2011-06-17

    Metalloprotease-disintegrin ADAM12 is overexpressed and frequently mutated in breast cancer. We report here that ADAM12 expression in cultured mammalian cells is up-regulated by Notch signals. Expression of a constitutively active form of Notch1 in murine fibroblasts, myoblasts, or mammary epithelial cells or activation of the endogenous Notch signaling by co-culture with ligand-expressing cells increases ADAM12 protein and mRNA levels. Up-regulation of ADAM12 expression by Notch requires new transcription, is activated in a CSL-dependent manner, and is abolished upon inhibition of IκB kinase. Expression of a constitutively active Notch1 in NIH3T3 cells increases the stability of Adam12 mRNA. We further show that the microRNA-29 family, which has a predicted conserved site in the 3'-untranslated region of mouse Adam12, plays a critical role in mediating the stimulatory effect of Notch on ADAM12 expression. In human cells, Notch up-regulates the expression of the long form, but not the short form, of ADAM12 containing a divergent 3'-untranslated mRNA region. These studies uncover a novel paradigm in Notch signaling and establish Adam12 as a Notch-related gene.

  4. Fundamentally different roles for LFA-1, Mac-1 and alpha4-integrin in neutrophil chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Heit, Bryan; Colarusso, Pina; Kubes, Paul

    2005-11-15

    Although the LFA-1, Mac-1 and alpha(4) integrins are required for chemotaxis, it is unknown how they are regulated or what specific role they play. Previously we demonstrated that fMLP and IL-8 induce chemotaxis via the p38 MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways, respectively. Here we show that these chemoattractants also activate and use Mac-1 and LFA-1 in a differential manner during chemotaxis. Using integrin-specific substrata, we demonstrate that cell movement in response to IL-8 is mediated by Mac-1, whereas LFA-1 is required for directional migration. By contrast, chemotaxis to fMLP requires Mac-1 for cell movement, whereas LFA-1 and alpha(4)-integrin are required for directional migration. On serum protein, which contains ligands for LFA-1, Mac-1 and alpha(4)-integrin, chemotaxis to fMLP is dependent on Mac-1, whereas chemotaxis to IL-8 is dependent on LFA-1. These results suggest that Mac-1 is the dominant integrin involved in chemotaxis to fMLP, and LFA-1 is the dominant integrin involved in chemotaxis to IL-8. Consistent with these observations, higher quantities of high-affinity Mac-1 are found on cells chemotaxing to fMLP then on cells chemotaxing to IL-8. Moreover, a much larger quantity of clustered LFA-1 was found on cells migrating to IL-8 compared to cells moving towards fMLP. When cells are presented with competing gradients of fMLP and IL-8, they preferentially migrate towards fMLP and activate/utilize integrins in a manner identical to fMLP alone. Under the same conditions, p38 MAPK inhibition abolishes the preferential migration to fMLP; instead, the cells migrate preferentially towards IL-8. The activation and utilization of integrins under these conditions are consistent with patterns observed with IL-8 alone. Together, these data suggest that fMLP and IL-8 differentially activate integrins for use during chemotaxis, that p38 MAPK is a major mediator in the activation and utilization of integrins, and selective integrin

  5. Molecular Basis of Laminin-Integrin Interactions.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masashi; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2015-01-01

    Laminins are composed of three polypeptide chains, designated as α, β, and γ. The C-terminal region of laminin heterotrimers, containing coiled-coil regions, short tails, and laminin globular (LG) domains, is necessary and sufficient for binding to integrins, which are the major laminin receptor class. Laminin recognition by integrins critically requires the α chain LG domains and a glutamic acid residue of the γ chain at the third position from the C-terminus. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of the β chain contains a short amino acid sequence that modulates laminin affinity for integrins. Thus, all three of the laminin chains act cooperatively to facilitate integrin binding. Mammals possess 5 α (α1-5), 3 β (β1-3), and 3 γ (γ1-3) chains, combinations of which give rise to 16 distinct laminin isoforms. Each isoform is expressed in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner, exerting its functions through binding of integrins. In this review, we detail the current knowledge surrounding the molecular basis and physiological relevance of specific interactions between laminins and integrins, and describe the mechanisms underlying laminin action through integrins.

  6. A-Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM) 17 Enzymatically Degrades Interferon-gamma

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Fumiaki; Suzuki, Maiko; Wada, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Yuuki; Katsumata, Yuta; Makihira, Seicho; Kawai, Toshi; Taubman, Martin A.; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a pleiotropic cytokine that exerts anti-tumor and anti-osteoclastogenic effects. Although transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of IFN-γ is well understood, subsequent modifications of secreted IFN-γ are not fully elucidated. Previous research indicates that some cancer cells escape immune surveillance and metastasize into bone tissue by inducing osteoclastic bone resorption. Peptidases of the a-disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family are implicated in cancer cell proliferation and tumor progression. We hypothesized that the ADAM enzymes expressed by cancer cells degrades IFN-γ and attenuates IFN-γ-mediated anti-tumorigenic and anti-osteoclastogenic effects. Recombinant ADAM17 degraded IFN-γ into small fragments. The addition of ADAM17 to the culture supernatant of stimulated mouse splenocytes decreased IFN-γ concentration. However, ADAM17 inhibition in the stimulated mouse T-cells prevented IFN-γ degradation. ADAM17-expressing human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 also degraded recombinant IFN-γ, but this was attenuated by ADAM17 inhibition. Degraded IFN-γ lost the functionality including the inhibititory effect on osteoclastogenesis. This is the first study to demonstrate the extracellular proteolytic degradation of IFN-γ by ADAM17. These results suggest that ADAM17-mediated degradation of IFN-γ may block the anti-tumorigenic and anti-osteoclastogenic effects of IFN-γ. ADAM17 inhibition may be useful for the treatment of attenuated cancer immune surveillance and/or bone metastases. PMID:27573075

  7. Expression of a-disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 correlates with grade of malignancy in human glioma.

    PubMed

    Qu, Min; Qiu, B O; Xiong, Wende; Chen, Dong; Wu, Anhua

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of a-disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) in human glioma tissues from surgical specimens and discuss its possible significance in glioma biology. A total of 43 glioma specimens obtained from patients between 2007 and 2010 were collected and a series of assays were performed. Of these, 22 cases were low-grade gliomas, while 21 cases were high-grade gliomas. In addition, 20 cases of meningioma were used as the control group. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of ADAM10. Besides the quantitative analysis, histological observations were also performed to localize ADAM10 expression in glioma cells. The RT-PCR and western blot analysis results demonstrated increased ADAM10 expression in the low-grade glioma samples compared with the control (P<0.05), while ADAM10 expression was further increased in the high-grade glioma samples (P<0.01 vs. control; P<0.05 vs. low-grade glioma), indicating that the mRNA and protein expression levels of ADAM10 were malignancy-dependent. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the ADAM10 protein was located on both the tumor cell membrane and blood vessel walls within tumor tissues. In conclusion, these results indicated that ADAM10 expression correlates with the grade of malignancy in human glioma from surgical specimens. In addition, the fact that ADAM10 protein was expressed on cell membranes and blood vessel walls within tumor tissues, indicates that its expression may be associated with invasive tumor growth and peritumoral edema formation.

  8. Integrin alpha 6 regulates glioblastoma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lathia, Justin D.; Gallagher, Joseph; Heddleston, John M.; Wang, Jialiang; Eyler, Christine E.; MacSwords, Jennifer; Wu, Qiulian; Vasanji, Amit; McLendon, Roger E.; Hjelmeland, Anita B.; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumor cells suggested to be critical for tumor maintenance, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. Prospective identification and targeting of CSCs are therefore priorities for the development of novel therapeutic paradigms. While CSC enrichment has been achieved with cell surface proteins including CD133 (Prominin-1), the roles of current CSC markers in tumor maintenance remain unclear. We examined the glioblastoma stem cell (GSC) perivascular microenvironment in patient specimens to identify enrichment markers with a functional significance and identified integrin α6 as a candidate. Integrin α6 is co-expressed with conventional GSC markers and enriches for GSCs. Targeting integrin α6 in GSCs inhibits self-renewal, proliferation, and tumor formation capacity. Our results provide evidence that GSCs express high levels of integrin α6, which can not only serve as an enrichment marker but also as a promising anti-glioblastoma therapy. PMID:20452317

  9. Structural basis of integrin regulation and signaling.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bing-Hao; Carman, Christopher V; Springer, Timothy A

    2007-01-01

    Integrins are cell adhesion molecules that mediate cell-cell, cell-extracellular matrix, and cell-pathogen interactions. They play critical roles for the immune system in leukocyte trafficking and migration, immunological synapse formation, costimulation, and phagocytosis. Integrin adhesiveness can be dynamically regulated through a process termed inside-out signaling. In addition, ligand binding transduces signals from the extracellular domain to the cytoplasm in the classical outside-in direction. Recent structural, biochemical, and biophysical studies have greatly advanced our understanding of the mechanisms of integrin bidirectional signaling across the plasma membrane. Large-scale reorientations of the ectodomain of up to 200 A couple to conformational change in ligand-binding sites and are linked to changes in alpha and beta subunit transmembrane domain association. In this review, we focus on integrin structure as it relates to affinity modulation, ligand binding, outside-in signaling, and cell surface distribution dynamics.

  10. Structural Basis of Integrin Regulation and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Bing-Hao; Carman, Christopher V.; Springer, Timothy A.

    2007-01-01

    Integrins are cell adhesion molecules that mediate cell-cell, cell-extracellular matrix, and cell-pathogen interactions. They play critical roles for the immune system in leukocyte trafficking and migration, immunological synapse formation, costimulation, and phagocytosis. Integrin adhesiveness can be dynamically regulated through a process termed inside-out signaling. In addition, ligand binding transduces signals from the extracellular domain to the cytoplasm in the classical outside-in direction. Recent structural, biochemical, and biophysical studies have greatly advanced our understanding of the mechanisms of integrin bidirectional signaling across the plasma membrane. Large-scale reorientations of the ectodomain of up to 200 Å couple to conformational change in ligand-binding sites and are linked to changes in α and β subunit transmembrane domain association. In this review, we focus on integrin structure as it relates to affinity modulation, ligand binding, outside-in signaling, and cell surface distribution dynamics. PMID:17201681

  11. Nucleation and Growth of Integrin Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Atilgan, Erdinç; Ovryn, Ben

    2009-01-01

    We present a model that provides a mechanistic understanding of the processes that govern the formation of the earliest integrin adhesions ex novo from an approximately planar plasma membrane. Using an analytic analysis of the free energy of a dynamically deformable membrane containing freely diffusing receptors molecules and long repeller molecules that inhibit integrins from binding with ligands on the extracellular matrix, we predict that a coalescence of polymerizing actin filaments can deform the membrane toward the extracellular matrix and facilitate integrin binding. Monte Carlo simulations of this system show that thermally induced membrane fluctuations can either zip-up and increase the radius of a nucleated adhesion or unzip and shrink an adhesion, but the fluctuations cannot bend the ventral membrane to nucleate an adhesion. To distinguish this integrin adhesion from more mature adhesions, we refer to this early adhesion as a nouveau adhesion. PMID:19413961

  12. Integrin Targeting for Tumor Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yunpeng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    Optical imaging has emerged as a powerful modality for studying molecular recognitions and molecular imaging in a noninvasive, sensitive, and real-time way. Some advantages of optical imaging include cost-effectiveness, convenience, and non-ionization safety as well as complementation with other imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made in tumor optical imaging by targeting integrin receptors in preclinical studies. This review has emphasized the construction and evaluation of diverse integrin targeting agents for optical imaging of tumors in mouse models. They mainly include some near-infrared fluorescent dye-RGD peptide conjugates, their multivalent analogs, and nanoparticle conjugates for targeting integrin αvβ3. Some compounds targeting other integrin subtypes such as α4β1 and α3 for tumor optical imaging have also been included. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed some promising integrin-targeting optical agents which have further enhanced our understanding of integrin expression and targeting in cancer biology as well as related anticancer drug discovery. Especially, some integrin-targeted multifunctional optical agents including nanoparticle-based optical agents can multiplex optical imaging with other imaging modalities and targeted therapy, serving as an attractive type of theranostics for simultaneous imaging and targeted therapy. Continued efforts to discover and develop novel, innovative integrin-based optical agents with improved targeting specificity and imaging sensitivity hold great promises for improving cancer early detection, diagnosis, and targeted therapy in clinic. PMID:21546996

  13. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; Rodrigues, Goncalo; Hashimoto, Ayako; Mark, Milica Tesic; Molina, Henrik; Kohsaka, Shinji; Di Giannatale, Angela; Ceder, Sophia; Singh, Swarnima; Williams, Caitlin; Soplop, Nadine; Uryu, Kunihiro; Pharmer, Lindsay; King, Tari; Bojmar, Linda; Davies, Alexander E.; Ararso, Yonathan; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Haiying; Hernandez, Jonathan; Weiss, Joshua M.; Dumont-Cole, Vanessa D.; Kramer, Kimberly; Wexler, Leonard H.; Narendran, Aru; Schwartz, Gary K.; Healey, John H.; Sandstrom, Per; Labori, Knut Jørgen; Kure, Elin H.; Grandgenett, Paul M.; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; de Sousa, Maria; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Jain, Maneesh; Mallya, Kavita; Batra, Surinder K.; Jarnagin, William R.; Brady, Mary S.; Fodstad, Oystein; Muller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Minn, Andy J.; Bissell, Mina J.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Kang, Yibin; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K.; Ghajar, Cyrus M.; Matei, Irina; Peinado, Hector; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Lyden, David

    2015-01-01

    Ever since Stephen Paget’s 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer’s greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α6β4 and α6β1 were associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin αvβ5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α6β4 and αvβ5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. Finally, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis. PMID:26524530

  14. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; Rodrigues, Goncalo; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tesic Mark, Milica; Molina, Henrik; Kohsaka, Shinji; Di Giannatale, Angela; Ceder, Sophia; Singh, Swarnima; Williams, Caitlin; Soplop, Nadine; Uryu, Kunihiro; Pharmer, Lindsay; King, Tari; Bojmar, Linda; Davies, Alexander E.; Ararso, Yonathan; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Haiying; Hernandez, Jonathan; Weiss, Joshua M.; Dumont-Cole, Vanessa D.; Kramer, Kimberly; Wexler, Leonard H.; Narendran, Aru; Schwartz, Gary K.; Sandstrom, Per; Jørgen Labori, Knut; Kure, Elin H.; Grandgenett, Paul M.; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; de Sousa, Maria; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Jain, Maneesh; Mallya, Kavita; Batra, Surinder K.; Jarnagin, William R.; Brady, Mary S.; Fodstad, Oystein; Muller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Minn, Andy J.; Bissell, Mina J.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Kang, Yibin; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K.; Ghajar, Cyrus M.; Matei, Irina; Peinado, Hector; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Lyden, David

    2015-10-28

    Ever since Stephen Paget’s 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer’s greatest mysteries. In this paper, we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α6β4 and α6β1 were associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin αvβ5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α6β4 and αvβ5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. In conclusion, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis.

  15. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis

    DOE PAGES

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; ...

    2015-10-28

    Ever since Stephen Paget’s 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer’s greatest mysteries. In this paper, we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α6β4 and α6β1 were associated with lung metastasis,more » while exosomal integrin αvβ5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α6β4 and αvβ5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. In conclusion, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis.« less

  16. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; Rodrigues, Goncalo; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tesic Mark, Milica; Molina, Henrik; Kohsaka, Shinji; Di Giannatale, Angela; Ceder, Sophia; Singh, Swarnima; Williams, Caitlin; Soplop, Nadine; Uryu, Kunihiro; Pharmer, Lindsay; King, Tari; Bojmar, Linda; Davies, Alexander E; Ararso, Yonathan; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Haiying; Hernandez, Jonathan; Weiss, Joshua M; Dumont-Cole, Vanessa D; Kramer, Kimberly; Wexler, Leonard H; Narendran, Aru; Schwartz, Gary K; Healey, John H; Sandstrom, Per; Labori, Knut Jørgen; Kure, Elin H; Grandgenett, Paul M; Hollingsworth, Michael A; de Sousa, Maria; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Jain, Maneesh; Mallya, Kavita; Batra, Surinder K; Jarnagin, William R; Brady, Mary S; Fodstad, Oystein; Muller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Minn, Andy J; Bissell, Mina J; Garcia, Benjamin A; Kang, Yibin; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Ghajar, Cyrus M; Matei, Irina; Peinado, Hector; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Lyden, David

    2015-11-19

    Ever since Stephen Paget's 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer's greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α6β4 and α6β1 were associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin αvβ5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α6β4 and αvβ5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. Finally, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis.

  17. Integrins as Receptor Targets for Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xin; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on the neurobiology of integrins, pathophysiological roles of integrins in neuroplasticity and nervous system disorders, and therapeutic implications of integrins as potential drug targets and possible delivery pathways. Neuroplasticity is a central phenomenon in many neurological conditions such as seizures, trauma, and traumatic brain injury. During the course of many brain diseases, in addition to intracellular compartment changes, alterations in non-cell compartments such as extracellular matrix (ECM) are recognized as an essential process in forming and reorganizing neural connections. Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that mediate cell–ECM and cell–cell adhesion events. Although the mechanisms of neuroplasticity remain unclear, it has been suggested that integrins undergo plasticity including clustering through interactions with ECM proteins, modulating ion channels, intracellular Ca2+ and protein kinases signaling, and reorganization of cytoskeletal filaments. As cell surface receptors, integrins are central to the pathophysiology of many brain diseases, such as epilepsy, and are potential targets for the development of new drugs for neurological disorders. PMID:22233753

  18. Altered vascular endothelium integrin expression in psoriasis.

    PubMed Central

    Creamer, D.; Allen, M.; Sousa, A.; Poston, R.; Barker, J.

    1995-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that microvascular changes observed in psoriasis are a result of vascular proliferation. A critical step in the sequence of events leading to neovascularization involves interactions between endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins mediated in part by the integrin family of adhesion molecules. A number of endothelial integrins have been shown to participate in neovascularization, including members of the beta 1, beta 3, and beta 4 subfamilies. To investigate the role of these integrins in psoriasis, specimens of lesional and nonlesional skin were taken from 10 patients with active, untreated plaque disease. Vascular endothelium was labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for alpha 2, alpha 5, alpha 6, beta 1, av beta 3, and beta 4 integrins. The use of image analysis permitted quantification of immunoperoxidase staining and comparison of endothelial labeling in lesional and nonlesional skin. There was a significant increase in endothelial staining of av beta 3 integrin in lesional compared with nonlesional skin, both in superficial and deep vasculature. In contrast, there was a significant decrease in endothelial beta 4 staining in lesional compared with nonlesional superficial dermal vessels, alpha 2, alpha 5, alpha 6, and beta 1 staining showed no significant difference between the two groups. These results demonstrate an important role of av beta 3 and beta 4 integrins in the microvascular changes of psoriatic lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7495291

  19. β1 Integrin Signaling Maintains Human Epithelial Progenitor Cell Survival In Situ and Controls Proliferation, Apoptosis and Migration of Their Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Nancy; Yay, Arzu; Bíró, Tamás; Tiede, Stephan; Humphries, Martin

    2013-01-01

    β1 integrin regulates multiple epithelial cell functions by connecting cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM). While β1 integrin-mediated signaling in murine epithelial stem cells is well-studied, its role in human adult epithelial progenitor cells (ePCs) in situ remains to be defined. Using microdissected, organ-cultured human scalp hair follicles (HFs) as a clinically relevant model for studying human ePCs within their natural topobiological habitat, β1 integrin-mediated signaling in ePC biology was explored by β1 integrin siRNA silencing, specific β1 integrin-binding antibodies and pharmacological inhibition of integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a key component of the integrin-induced signaling cascade. β1 integrin knock down reduced keratin 15 (K15) expression as well as the proliferation of outer root sheath keratinocytes (ORSKs). Embedding of HF epithelium into an ECM rich in β1 integrin ligands that mimic the HF mesenchyme significantly enhanced proliferation and migration of ORSKs, while K15 and CD200 gene and protein expression were inhibited. Employing ECM-embedded β1 integrin-activating or -inhibiting antibodies allowed to identify functionally distinct human ePC subpopulations in different compartments of the HF epithelium. The β1 integrin-inhibitory antibody reduced β1 integrin expression in situ and selectively enhanced proliferation of bulge ePCs, while the β1 integrin-stimulating antibody decreased hair matrix keratinocyte apoptosis and enhanced transferrin receptor (CD71) immunoreactivity, a marker of transit amplifying cells, but did not affect bulge ePC proliferation. That the putative ILK inhibitor QLT0267 significantly reduced ORSK migration and proliferation and induced massive ORSK apoptosis suggests a key role for ILK in mediating the ß1 integrin effects. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that ePCs in human HFs require β1 integrin-mediated signaling for survival, adhesion, and migration, and that different human HF e

  20. Integrin αvβ3-Targeted IRDye 800CW Near-Infrared Imaging of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruimin; Vider, Jelena; Kovar, Joy L.; Olive, D. Michael; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; Kircher, Moritz F.; Blasberg, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Integrin αvβ3 plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis, growth and metastasis. We have tested a targeted probe to visualize integrin receptor expression in glioblastomas using near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging. Experimental design A transgenic glioblastoma mouse model (RCAS-PDGF-driven/tv-a glioblastoma, which mimics the infiltrative growth pattern of human glioblastomas), and two human orthotopic glioblastoma models, (U-87 MG with high integrin β3 expression and TS543 with low integrin β3 expression), were studied. An integrin-targeting NIRF probe, IRDye 800CW-cyclic-RGD peptide (IRDye 800CW-RGD), was tested by in vivo and ex vivo NIRF imaging. Results We demonstrate that the IRDye 800CW-RGD peptide: 1) specifically binds to integrin receptors, 2) is selectively localized to glioblastoma tissue with overexpressed integrin receptors and is retained over prolonged periods of time, 3) is associated with minimal autofluorescence and photobleaching due to imaging at 800 nm, 4) provides delineation of tumor tissue with high precision due to a high tumor-to-normal brain fluorescence ratio (79.7±6.9, 31.2±2.8, and 16.3±1.3) in the U-87 MG, RCAS-PDGF, and TS543 models, respectively; p<0.01) and 5) enables fluorescence-guided glioblastoma resection. Importantly, small foci of residual fluorescence were observed after resection was completed using white light imaging alone, and these fluorescent foci were shown to represent residual tumor tissue by histology. Conclusions NIRF imaging with the IRDye 800CW-RGD probe provides a simple, rapid, low-cost, non-radioactive and highly translatable approach for improved intraoperative glioblastoma visualization and resection. It also has the potential to serve as an imaging platform for noninvasive cancer detection and drug efficacy evaluation studies. PMID:22914772

  1. Integrin function and regulation in development.

    PubMed

    Tarone, G; Hirsch, E; Brancaccio, M; De Acetis, M; Barberis, L; Balzac, F; Retta, S F; Botta, C; Altruda, F; Silengo, L; Retta, F

    2000-01-01

    Integrins are a large family of membrane receptors, consisting of alpha and beta subunits, that play a pivotal role in the interaction of cells with the extracellular matrix. Such interaction regulates the organization of cells in organs and tissues during development as well as cell differentiation and proliferation. We have shown that unfertilized oocytes express integrins that might be important during fertilization. We also analyzed nervous system and muscle tissue development showing that integrin expression is precisely regulated during organization of these tissues. The results indicate that two distinct integrin alpha subunits mediate the outgrowth of processes in nerve and glial cells. Alpha1 integrin, a laminin receptor, is up-regulated by nerve growth factor and other differentiation stimuli and is involved in neurite extension by nerve cells. In contrast, process extension by glial cells is likely to involve the alphaV integrin. Moreover, the latter integrin subunit is also transiently expressed in muscle of the embryo body where it localizes predominantly at developing myotendinous junctions. After birth this integrin disappears and is substituted by the alpha7 subunit. At the same time, important changes also occur in the expression of the associated beta subunit. In fact, the beta1A isoform which is expressed in fetal muscles, is substituted by beta1D. These isoforms are generated by alternative splicing and differ in only a few amino acid residues at the COOH terminus of the protein. This region of the molecule is exposed at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane and is connected to the actin filaments. Our results show that beta1D, which is expressed only in striated muscle tissues, binds to both cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins with an affinity higher than beta1A. Thus, beta1D provides a stronger link between the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix necessary to support mechanical tension during muscle contraction. These

  2. β Integrin-like protein-mediated adhesion and its disturbances during cell cultivation of the mussel Mytilus trossulus.

    PubMed

    Maiorova, Mariia A; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we focus on the specific contribution of β integrin-like protein to adhesion-mediated events in molluscan larval cells in culture that could not have been investigated within the whole animal. An analysis of disturbances to cell-substratum adhesion, caused by the integrin receptor inhibiting Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS)-peptide, the Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-chelators and the stress influence of freezing-thawing, reveals that all these factors resulted in the partial destruction of the integrin-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction in culture and, in particular, changes in the distribution and relative abundance of β integrin-positive cells. The experiments, carried out on selected substrates, found that β integrin-positive cells demonstrate different affinities for the substrates. This finding further supports the assumption that epithelial differentiation in cultivated cells of larval Mytilus may be mediated by β integrin-like proteins via binding to laminin; direct binding to other components of the ECM could not be demonstrated. The mussel β integrin-positive cells are not involved in myogenic or neuronal differentiation on any of the substrates but part of them has tubulin-positive cilia, forming some epithelia-like structures. Our data indicate that β integrin-positive cells are able to proliferate in vitro which suggests that they could participate in renewing the digestive epithelium in larvae. The findings provide evidence that the distribution pattern of β integrin-like protein depends on the cell type and the factors influencing the adhesion.

  3. Guiding plant virus particles to integrin-displaying cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovlid, Marisa L.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Laufer, Burkhardt; Lau, Jolene L.; Kuzelka, Jane; Wang, Qian; Hyypiä, Timo; Nemerow, Glen R.; Kessler, Horst; Manchester, Marianne; Finn, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are structurally regular, highly stable, tunable nanomaterials that can be conveniently produced in high yields. Unmodified VNPs from plants and bacteria generally do not show tissue specificity or high selectivity in binding to or entry into mammalian cells. They are, however, malleable by both genetic and chemical means, making them useful scaffolds for the display of large numbers of cell- and tissue-targeting ligands, imaging moieties, and/or therapeutic agents in a well-defined manner. Capitalizing on this attribute, we modified the genetic sequence of the Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) coat protein to display an RGD oligopeptide sequence derived from human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV-2). Concurrently, wild-type CPMV was modified via NHS acylation and Cu(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) chemistry to attach an integrin-binding cyclic RGD peptide. Both types of particles showed strong and selective affinity for several different cancer cell lines that express RGD-binding integrin receptors.Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are structurally regular, highly stable, tunable nanomaterials that can be conveniently produced in high yields. Unmodified VNPs from plants and bacteria generally do not show tissue specificity or high selectivity in binding to or entry into mammalian cells. They are, however, malleable by both genetic and chemical means, making them useful scaffolds for the display of large numbers of cell- and tissue-targeting ligands, imaging moieties, and/or therapeutic agents in a well-defined manner. Capitalizing on this attribute, we modified the genetic sequence of the Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) coat protein to display an RGD oligopeptide sequence derived from human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV-2). Concurrently, wild-type CPMV was modified via NHS acylation and Cu(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) chemistry to attach an integrin-binding cyclic RGD peptide. Both types of particles showed strong and selective affinity

  4. Mice lacking integrin β3 expression exhibit altered response to chronic stress

    PubMed Central

    Varney, Seth; Polston, Keith F.; Jessen, Tammy; Carneiro, Ana M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate multiple roles for integrin αvβ3 in adult neurons, including response to pharmacological agents such as cocaine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In this study, we examined the role of the integrin β3 gene (Itgb3) in the response to environmental stimuli by subjecting Itgb3+/+ and Itgb3−/− mice to unpredictable chronic mild stressors. We found that genetic abrogation of integrin β3 expression elicits an exaggerated vulnerability to chronic unpredictable stress in the open field test. In this test, chronic stress elicited significant decreases in stereotypic behavior and horizontal locomotor activity, including increases in anxiety behaviors. Mild chronic stress led to reductions in dopamine turnover in midbrains of Itgb3+/+, but not Itgb3−/− mice, suggesting a disruption of stress-dependent regulation of DA homeostasis. Chronic stress elicited altered synaptic expression of syntaxin and synaptophysin in midbrains of Itgb3−/− mice, when compared to Itgb3+/+. Semi-quantitative Western blot studies revealed that the synaptic expression, but not total tissue expression, of multiple signaling proteins is correlated with integrin αv levels in the midbrain. Moreover, loss of integrin β3 expression modifies this correlation network. Together, these findings demonstrate that Itgb3−/− mice display a pattern of changes indicating disrupted regulation of midbrain synaptic systems involved in conferring resilience to mild stressors. PMID:26634222

  5. Signals from the surface modulate differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells through glycosaminoglycans and integrins

    PubMed Central

    Wrighton, Paul J.; Klim, Joseph R.; Hernandez, Brandon A.; Koonce, Chad H.; Kamp, Timothy J.; Kiessling, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The fate decisions of human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells are governed by soluble and insoluble signals from the microenvironment. Many hPS cell differentiation protocols use Matrigel, a complex and undefined substrate that engages multiple adhesion and signaling receptors. Using defined surfaces programmed to engage specific cell-surface ligands (i.e., glycosaminoglycans and integrins), the contribution of specific matrix signals can be dissected. For ectoderm and motor neuron differentiation, peptide-modified surfaces that can engage both glycosaminoglycans and integrins are effective. In contrast, surfaces that interact selectively with glycosaminoglycans are superior to Matrigel in promoting hPS cell differentiation to definitive endoderm and mesoderm. The modular surfaces were used to elucidate the signaling pathways underlying these differences. Matrigel promotes integrin signaling, which in turn inhibits mesendoderm differentiation. The data indicate that integrin-activating surfaces stimulate Akt signaling via integrin-linked kinase (ILK), which is antagonistic to endoderm differentiation. The ability to attribute cellular responses to specific interactions between the cell and the substrate offers new opportunities for revealing and controlling the pathways governing cell fate. PMID:25422477

  6. Signals from the surface modulate differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells through glycosaminoglycans and integrins.

    PubMed

    Wrighton, Paul J; Klim, Joseph R; Hernandez, Brandon A; Koonce, Chad H; Kamp, Timothy J; Kiessling, Laura L

    2014-12-23

    The fate decisions of human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells are governed by soluble and insoluble signals from the microenvironment. Many hPS cell differentiation protocols use Matrigel, a complex and undefined substrate that engages multiple adhesion and signaling receptors. Using defined surfaces programmed to engage specific cell-surface ligands (i.e., glycosaminoglycans and integrins), the contribution of specific matrix signals can be dissected. For ectoderm and motor neuron differentiation, peptide-modified surfaces that can engage both glycosaminoglycans and integrins are effective. In contrast, surfaces that interact selectively with glycosaminoglycans are superior to Matrigel in promoting hPS cell differentiation to definitive endoderm and mesoderm. The modular surfaces were used to elucidate the signaling pathways underlying these differences. Matrigel promotes integrin signaling, which in turn inhibits mesendoderm differentiation. The data indicate that integrin-activating surfaces stimulate Akt signaling via integrin-linked kinase (ILK), which is antagonistic to endoderm differentiation. The ability to attribute cellular responses to specific interactions between the cell and the substrate offers new opportunities for revealing and controlling the pathways governing cell fate.

  7. Effects of lentivirus-mediated silencing of Periostin on tumor microenvironment and bone metastasis via the integrin-signaling pathway in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Che, Jing; Shen, Wen-Zhuang; Deng, Yu; Dai, Yu-Hong; Liao, Yong-De; Yuan, Xiang-Lin; Zhang, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The study aims to investigate the effects of Periostin gene silencing on tumor microenvironment and bone metastasis via the integrin-signaling pathway in lung cancer (LC). LC patients were divided into bone metastasis and non-bone metastasis groups; Healthy volunteers were selected as normal group. ELISA was performed to detect serum Periostin levels and plasma calcium ion concentration. SBC-5 cells were assigned into blank group (without transfection), negative control (NC) group (transfected with empty plasmid), si-Periostin group (transfected with si-Periostin plasmid), si-Integrin-αvβ3 group (transfected with Integrin-αvβ3 siRNA plasmid) and si-Periostin+si-Integrin-αvβ3 group (transfected with si-Periostin and si-Integrin-αvβ3 plasmid). qRT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression of Periostin, metastasis-associated factors of tumor microenvironment and integrin signaling pathway-related proteins. CCK-8, scratch test and transwell assay were applied to detect cell proliferation, migration and invasion respectively. Nude mouse models of LC bone metastasis were established. TRAP Staining was employed to measure the number of osteoclasts. Bone metastasis group exhibited higher levels of Periostin compared to normal and non-bone metastasis groups. Si-Periostin, si-Integrin-αvβ3 and si-Periostin+si-Integrin-αvβ3 groups showed decreased Periostin expression, proliferation rate, migration distance, invasive cells, and expressions of metastasis-associated factors of tumor microenvironment and integrin signaling pathway-related proteins compared to blank and NC groups. Similarly, number of osteoclasts and expression of integrin signaling pathway-related proteins were decreased, and bone injury and calcium ion concentration were reduced. The study demonstrated that down-regulation of Periostin expression modulated tumor microenvironment and inhibited bone metastasis by blocking integrin-signaling pathway in LC

  8. Definition of Two Angiogenic Pathways by Distinct α_v Integrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlander, Martin; Brooks, Peter C.; Shaffer, Robert W.; Kincaid, Christine M.; Varner, Judith A.; Cheresh, David A.

    1995-12-01

    Angiogenesis depends on cytokines and vascular cell adhesion events. Two cytokine-dependent pathways of angiogenesis were shown to exist and were defined by their dependency on distinct vascular cell integrins. In vivo angiogenesis in corneal or chorioallantoic membrane models induced by basic fibroblast growth factor or by tumor necrosis factor-α depended on α_vβ_3, whereas angiogenesis initiated by vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-α, or phorbol ester depended on α_vβ_5. Antibody to each integrin selectively blocked one of these pathways, and a cyclic peptide antagonist of both integrins blocked angiogenesis stimulated by each cytokine tested. These pathways are further distinguished by their sensitivity to calphostin C, an inhibitor of protein kinase C that blocked angiogenesis potentiated by α_vβ_5 but not by α_vβ_3.

  9. Alpha4-integrin antagonism--an effective approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases?

    PubMed

    Davenport, Richard J; Munday, James R

    2007-07-01

    Inhibition of leucocyte trafficking by antagonism of the alpha4 (alpha4)-integrin has now been validated as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This validation has been overshadowed by three incidences of progressive multifocal leucoencaphalopathy (PML) in patients receiving natalizumab (Tysabri), a therapeutic monoclonal IgG antibody directed against alpha4-integrins. This led to the initial removal of natalizumab from the market. Following a safety review, it was reintroduced for the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS patients (with restrictions). This has led to a refocus on alpha4-integrins as a therapeutic target across the pharmaceutical industry. Recent advances in small molecule development are worth reviewing. New understanding of pharmacokinetics and selectivity will potentially contribute to the development of alpha4 antagonist with greater clinical efficacy and safety.

  10. Inflammation-induced effector CD4+ T cell interstitial migration is alpha-v integrin dependent

    PubMed Central

    Overstreet, Michael G.; Gaylo, Alison; Angermann, Bastian; Hughson, Angela; Hyun, Young-min; Lambert, Kris; Acharya, Mridu; Billroth-Maclurg, Alison C.; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Topham, David J.; Yagita, Hideo; Kim, Minsoo; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Fowell, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Leukocytes must traverse inflamed tissues to effectively control local infection. Although motility in dense tissues appears to be integrin-independent actin-myosin based, during inflammation changes to the extracellular matrix (ECM) may necessitate distinct motility requirements. Indeed, we found that T cell interstitial motility was critically dependent on RGD-binding integrins in the inflamed dermis. Inflammation-induced deposition of fibronectin was functionally linked to increased αv integrin expression on effector CD4+ T cells. Using intravital multi-photon imaging, we found that CD4+ T cell motility was dependent on αv expression. Selective αv blockade or knockdown arrested TH1 motility in the inflamed tissue and attenuated local effector function. These data show a context-dependent specificity of lymphocyte movement in inflamed tissues that is essential for protective immunity. PMID:23933892

  11. Effect of {beta}4 integrin knockdown by RNA interference in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Noh, Tae Woong; Soung, Young Hwa; Kim, Hong Im; Gil, Hyea Jin; Kim, Jeong Mo; Lee, Eun Jig; Chung, Jun

    2010-11-01

    Integrin α6β4 is a known tumor antigen; however, its function in different subtypes of thyroid cancer is not known. This study reports that α6β4 expression is selectively up-regulated in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells, the most malignant subtype of human thyroid cancer. To assess the contribution of α6β4 in ATC progression, cell proliferation, motility and soft agar assay were performed in vitro and a xenograft tumor growth assay was performed in vivo. Knockdown of β4 integrin subunit expression by shRNA in ATC cells reduced the proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth of ATC cells in vitro and xenograft tumor growth in vivo. These data suggest that integrin α6β4 contributes to the development of aggressive forms of thyroid cancer with poor prognostic potential, such as ATC, and thus may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment for this subtype of thyroid cancer.

  12. Endocytosis of Integrin-Binding Human Picornaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Merilahti, Pirjo; Koskinen, Satu; Heikkilä, Outi; Karelehto, Eveliina; Susi, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Picornaviruses that infect humans form one of the largest virus groups with almost three hundred virus types. They include significant enteroviral pathogens such as rhino-, polio-, echo-, and coxsackieviruses and human parechoviruses that cause wide range of disease symptoms. Despite the economic importance of picornaviruses, there are no antivirals. More than ten cellular receptors are known to participate in picornavirus infection, but experimental evidence of their role in cellular infection has been shown for only about twenty picornavirus types. Three enterovirus types and one parechovirus have experimentally been shown to bind and use integrin receptors in cellular infection. These include coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9), echovirus 9, and human parechovirus 1 that are among the most common and epidemic human picornaviruses and bind to αV-integrins via RGD motif that resides on virus capsid. In contrast, echovirus 1 (E-1) has no RGD and uses integrin α2β1 as cellular receptor. Endocytosis of CV-A9 has recently been shown to occur via a novel Arf6- and dynamin-dependent pathways, while, contrary to collagen binding, E-1 binds inactive β1 integrin and enters via macropinocytosis. In this paper, we review what is known about receptors and endocytosis of integrin-binding human picornaviruses. PMID:23227048

  13. Integrin signaling is critical for pathological angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mahabeleshwar, Ganapati H.; Feng, Weiyi; Phillips, David R.; Byzova, Tatiana V.

    2006-01-01

    The process of postnatal angiogenesis plays a crucial role in pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including but not limited to tumor growth/metastasis, diabetic retinopathy, and in tissue remodeling upon injury. However, the molecular events underlying this complex process are not well understood and numerous issues remain controversial, including the regulatory function of integrin receptors. To analyze the role of integrin phosphorylation and signaling in angiogenesis, we generated knock-in mice that express a mutant β3 integrin unable to undergo tyrosine phosphorylation. Two distinct models of pathological angiogenesis revealed that neovascularization is impaired in mutant β3 knock-in mice. In an ex vivo angiogenesis assay, mutant β3 knock-in endothelial cells did not form complete capillaries in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulation. At the cellular level, defective tyrosine phosphorylation in mutant β3 knock-in cells resulted in impaired adhesion, spreading, and migration of endothelial cells. At the molecular level, VEGF stimulated complex formation between VEGF receptor-2 and β3 integrin in wild-type but not in mutant β3 knock-in endothelial cells. Moreover, phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2 was significantly reduced in cells expressing mutant β3 compared to wild type, leading to impaired integrin activation in these cells. These findings provide novel mechanistic insights into the role of integrin–VEGF axis in pathological angiogenesis. PMID:17030947

  14. Overview: imaging in the study of integrins.

    PubMed

    Carman, Christopher V

    2012-01-01

    Integrins play critical adhesion and signaling roles during development, wound healing, immunity, and cancer. Central to their function is a unique ability to dynamically modulate their adhesiveness and signaling properties through changes in conformation, both homo- and heterotypic protein-protein interactions and cellular distribution. Genetic, biochemical and structural studies have been instrumental in uncovering overall functions, describing ligand and regulatory protein interactions and elucidating the molecular architecture of integrins. However, such approaches alone are inadequate to describe how dynamic integrin behaviors are orchestrated in intact cells. To fill this void, a wide array of distinct light microscopy (largely fluorescence-based) imaging approaches have been developed and employed. Various microscopy technologies, including wide-field, optical sectioning (laser-scanning confocal, spinning-disk confocal, and multiphoton), TIRF and range of novel "Super-Resolution" techniques have been used in combination with diverse imaging modalities (such as IRM, FRET, FRAP, CALI, and fluorescence speckle imaging) to address distinct aspects of integrin function and regulation. This chapter provides an overview of these imaging approaches and how they have advanced our understanding of integrins.

  15. SHARPIN is an endogenous inhibitor of beta1-integrin activation

    PubMed Central

    Rantala, Juha K.; Pouwels, Jeroen; Pellinen, Teijo; Veltel, Stefan; Laasola, Petra; Potter, Christopher S.; Duffy, Ted; Sundberg, John P.; Kallioniemi, Olli; Askari, Janet A.; Humphries, Martin; Parsons, Maddy; Salmi, Marko; Ivaska, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Regulated activation of integrins is critical for cell adhesion, motility and tissue homeostasis. Talin and Kindlins activate β1-integrins, but the counteracting inhibiting mechanisms are poorly defined. Here we identified SHARPIN as an important inactivator of β1-integrins in an RNAi-screen. SHARPIN inhibited β1-integrin functions in human cancer cells and primary leukocytes. Fibroblasts, leukocytes and keratinocytes from SHARPIN-deficient mice exhibited increased β1-integrin activity which was fully rescued by re-expression of SHARPIN. SHARPIN directly bound to a conserved cytoplasmic region of integrin α-subunits and inhibited recruitment of Talin and Kindlin to the integrin. Therefore, SHARPIN inhibits the critical switching of β1-integrins from inactive to active conformations. PMID:21947080

  16. Predicted and experimental structures of integrins and beta-propellers.

    PubMed

    Springer, Timothy A

    2002-12-01

    Integrins and other cell surface receptors have been fertile grounds for structure prediction experiments. Recently determined structures show remarkable successes, especially with beta-propeller domain predictions, and also reveal how ligand binding by integrins is conformationally regulated.

  17. Andes virus recognition of human and Syrian hamster beta3 integrins is determined by an L33P substitution in the PSI domain.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Valery S; Gorbunova, Elena E; Gavrilovskaya, Irina N; Mackow, Erich R

    2010-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) causes a fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans and Syrian hamsters. Human alpha(v)beta(3) integrins are receptors for several pathogenic hantaviruses, and the function of alpha(v)beta(3) integrins on endothelial cells suggests a role for alpha(v)beta(3) in hantavirus directed vascular permeability. We determined here that ANDV infection of human endothelial cells or Syrian hamster-derived BHK-21 cells was selectively inhibited by the high-affinity alpha(v)beta(3) integrin ligand vitronectin and by antibodies to alpha(v)beta(3) integrins. Further, antibodies to the beta(3) integrin PSI domain, as well as PSI domain polypeptides derived from human and Syrian hamster beta(3) subunits, but not murine or bovine beta(3), inhibited ANDV infection of both BHK-21 and human endothelial cells. These findings suggest that ANDV interacts with beta(3) subunits through PSI domain residues conserved in both Syrian hamster and human beta(3) integrins. Sequencing the Syrian hamster beta(3) integrin PSI domain revealed eight differences between Syrian hamster and human beta(3) integrins. Analysis of residues within the PSI domains of human, Syrian hamster, murine, and bovine beta(3) integrins identified unique proline substitutions at residues 32 and 33 of murine and bovine PSI domains that could determine ANDV recognition. Mutagenizing the human beta(3) PSI domain to contain the L33P substitution present in bovine beta(3) integrin abolished the ability of the PSI domain to inhibit ANDV infectivity. Conversely, mutagenizing either the bovine PSI domain, P33L, or the murine PSI domain, S32P, to the residue present human beta(3) permitted PSI mutants to inhibit ANDV infection. Similarly, CHO cells transfected with the full-length bovine beta(3) integrin containing the P33L mutation permitted infection by ANDV. These findings indicate that human and Syrian hamster alpha(v)beta(3) integrins are key receptors for ANDV and that specific residues within the

  18. The serine/threonine kinase Ndr2 controls integrin trafficking and integrin-dependent neurite growth.

    PubMed

    Rehberg, Kati; Kliche, Stefanie; Madencioglu, Deniz A; Thiere, Marlen; Müller, Bettina; Meineke, Bernhard Manuel; Freund, Christian; Budinger, Eike; Stork, Oliver

    2014-04-09

    Integrins have been implicated in various processes of nervous system development, including proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neuronal cells. In this study, we show that the serine/threonine kinase Ndr2 controls integrin-dependent dendritic and axonal growth in mouse hippocampal neurons. We further demonstrate that Ndr2 is able to induce phosphorylation at the activity- and trafficking-relevant site Thr(788/789) of β1-integrin to stimulate the PKC- and CaMKII-dependent activation of β1-integrins, as well as their exocytosis. Accordingly, Ndr2 associates with integrin-positive early and recycling endosomes in primary hippocampal neurons and the surface expression of activated β1-integrins is reduced on dendrites of Ndr2-deficient neurons. The role of Ndr2 in dendritic differentiation is also evident in vivo, because Ndr2-null mutant mice show arbor-specific alterations of dendritic complexity in the hippocampus. This indicates a role of Ndr2 in the fine regulation of dendritic growth; in fact, treatment of primary neurons with Semaphorin 3A rescues Ndr2 knock-down-induced dendritic growth deficits but fails to enhance growth beyond control level. Correspondingly, Ndr2-null mutant mice show a Semaphorin 3A(-/-)-like phenotype of premature dendritic branching in the hippocampus. The results of this study show that Ndr2-mediated integrin trafficking and activation are crucial for neurite growth and guidance signals during neuronal development.

  19. Molecular evolution of integrins: Genes encoding integrin β subunits from a coral and a sponge

    PubMed Central

    Brower, Danny L.; Brower, Sharon M.; Hayward, David C.; Ball, Eldon E.

    1997-01-01

    The integrin family of cell surface receptors is strongly conserved in higher animals, but the evolutionary history of integrins is obscure. We have identified and sequenced cDNAs encoding integrin β subunits from a coral (phylum Cnidaria) and a sponge (Porifera), indicating that these proteins existed in the earliest stages of metazoan evolution. The coral βCn1 and, especially, the sponge βPo1 sequences are the most divergent of the “β1-class” integrins and share a number of features not found in any other vertebrate or invertebrate integrins. Perhaps the greatest difference from other β subunits is found in the third and fourth repeats of the cysteine-rich stalk, where the generally conserved spacings between cysteines are highly variable, but not similar, in βCn1 and βPo1. Alternatively spliced cDNAs, containing a stop codon about midway through the full-length translated sequence, were isolated from the sponge library. These cDNAs appear to define a boundary between functional domains, as they would encode a protein that includes the globular ligand-binding head but would be missing the stalk, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains. These and other sequence comparisons with vertebrate integrins are discussed with respect to models of integrin structure and function. PMID:9256456

  20. Characterization of Laminin Binding Integrin Internalization in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Lipsa; Anderson, Todd A; Gard, Jaime M C; Sroka, Isis C; Strautman, Stephanie R; Nagle, Raymond B; Morrissey, Colm; Knudsen, Beatrice S; Cress, Anne E

    2017-05-01

    Laminin binding integrins α6 (CD49f) and α3 (CD49c) are persistently but differentially expressed in prostate cancer (PCa). Integrin internalization is an important determinant of their cell surface expression and function. Using flow cytometry, and first order kinetic modeling, we quantitated the intrinsic internalization rates of integrin subunits in a single cycle of internalization. In PCa cell line DU145, α6 integrin internalized with a rate constant (kactual ) of 3.25 min(-1) , threefold faster than α3 integrin (1.0 min(-1) ), 1.5-fold faster than the vitronectin binding αv integrin (CD51) (2.2 min(-1) ), and significantly slower than the unrelated transferrin receptor (CD71) (15 min(-1) ). Silencing of α3 integrin protein expression in DU145, PC3, and PC3B1 cells resulted in up to a 1.71-fold increase in kactual for α6 integrin. The internalized α6 integrin was targeted to early endosomes but not to lamp1 vesicles. Depletion of α3 integrin expression resulted in redistribution of α6β4 integrin to an observed cell-cell staining pattern that is consistent with a suprabasal distribution observed in epidermis and early PIN lesions in PCa. Depletion of α3 integrin increased cell migration by 1.8-fold, which was dependent on α6β1 integrin. Silencing of α6 integrin expression however, had no significant effect on the kactual of α3 integrin or its distribution in early endosomes. These results indicate that α3 and α6 integrins have significantly different internalization kinetics and that coordination exists between them for internalization. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1038-1049, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Integrin αvβ3 mediates the synergetic regulation of core-binding factor α1 transcriptional activity by gravity and insulin-like growth factor-1 through phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhongquan; Guo, Feima; Wu, Feng; Xu, Hongjie; Yang, Chao; Li, Jinqiao; Liang, Peilong; Zhang, Hongyu; Qu, Lina; Tan, Yingjun; Wan, Yumin; Li, Yinghui

    2014-12-01

    Mechanical stimulation and biological factors coordinately regulate bone development and regeneration; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Microgravity induces bone loss, which may be partly related to the development of resistance to local cytokines, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Here, we report the involvement of integrin αvβ3 in microgravity-associated bone loss. An established OSE-3T3 cell model was stably transfected with a 6OSE2 (Osteoblast-Specific Element 2)-luciferase reporter and cultured under simulated microgravity (SMG) and hypergravity (HG) conditions in the presence or absence of IGF-1, the disintegrin echistatin, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, or combinations of these agents. Activity of core-binding factor α1 (Cbfa1), an essential transcription factor for osteoblastic differentiation and osteogenesis, was reflected by luciferase activity. Different gravity conditions affected the induction of IGF-1 and subsequent effects on Cbfa1 transcription activity. SMG and HG influenced the expression and activity of integrin αvβ3 and phosphorylation level of p85. LY294002 inhibited the effects of HG or IGF-1 on Cbfa1 activity, indicating that HG and IGF-1 could increase Cbfa1 activity via PI3K signaling. Inhibition of integrin αvβ3 by echistatin attenuated the induction of IGF-1 and thus its effect on Cbfa1 activity under normal and HG conditions. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that integrin β3 interacted with insulin receptor substrate 1, and that this interaction was decreased under SMG and increased under HG conditions. These results suggest that integrin αvβ3 mediates the synergetic regulation of Cbfa1 transcription activity by gravity and IGF-1 via PI3K signaling.

  2. The integrin adhesome network at a glance

    PubMed Central

    James, Jenny; Jones, Matthew C.; Askari, Janet A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The adhesion nexus is the site at which integrin receptors bridge intracellular cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix networks. The connection between integrins and the cytoskeleton is mediated by a dynamic integrin adhesion complex (IAC), the components of which transduce chemical and mechanical signals to control a multitude of cellular functions. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we integrate the consensus adhesome, a set of 60 proteins that have been most commonly identified in isolated IAC proteomes, with the literature-curated adhesome, a theoretical network that has been assembled through scholarly analysis of proteins that localise to IACs. The resulting IAC network, which comprises four broad signalling and actin-bridging axes, provides a platform for future studies of the regulation and function of the adhesion nexus in health and disease. PMID:27799358

  3. Integrins as Therapeutic Targets: Successes and Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Raab-Westphal, Sabine; Marshall, John F.; Goodman, Simon L.

    2017-01-01

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors that are central to the biology of many human pathologies. Classically mediating cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interaction, and with an emerging role as local activators of TGFβ, they influence cancer, fibrosis, thrombosis and inflammation. Their ligand binding and some regulatory sites are extracellular and sensitive to pharmacological intervention, as proven by the clinical success of seven drugs targeting them. The six drugs on the market in 2016 generated revenues of some US$3.5 billion, mainly from inhibitors of α4-series integrins. In this review we examine the current developments in integrin therapeutics, especially in cancer, and comment on the health economic implications of these developments. PMID:28832494

  4. Vimocin and vidapin, cyclic KTS peptides, are dual antagonists of α1β1/α2β1 integrins with antiangiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Momic, Tatjana; Katzehendler, Jehoshua; Benny, Ofra; Lahiani, Adi; Cohen, Gadi; Noy, Efrat; Senderowitz, Hanoch; Eble, Johannes A; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Lazarovici, Philip

    2014-09-01

    Obtustatin and viperistatin, members of the disintegrin protein family, served as lead compounds for the synthesis of linear and cyclic peptides containing the KTS binding motif. The most active linear peptide, a viperistatin analog, indicated the importance of Cys(19) and Cys(29), as well as the presence of Arg at position 24 for their biologic activity, and was used as the basic sequence for the synthesis of cyclic peptides. Vimocin (compound 6) and vidapin (compound 10) showed a high potency (IC50 = 0.17 nM) and intermediate efficacy (20 and 40%) in inhibition of adhesion of α1/α2 integrin overexpressor cells to respective collagens. Vimocin was more active in inhibition of the wound healing (53%) and corneal micropocket (17%) vascularization, whereas vidapin was more potent in inhibition of migration in the Matrigel tube formation assay (90%). Both compounds similarly inhibited proliferation (50-90%) of endothelial cells, and angiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (80%) and glioma (55%) in the chorioallantoic membrane assay. These peptides were not toxic to endothelial cell cultures and caused no acute toxicity upon intravenous injection in mice, and were stable for 10-30 hours in human serum. The in vitro and in vivo potency of the peptides are consistent with conformational ensembles and "bioactive" space shared by obtustatin and viperistatin. These findings suggest that vimocin and vidapin can serve as dual α1β1/α2β1 integrin antagonists in antiangiogenesis and cancer therapy.

  5. Integrins and Cell Metabolism: An Intimate Relationship Impacting Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ata, Rehman; Antonescu, Costin N.

    2017-01-01

    Integrins are important regulators of cell survival, proliferation, adhesion and migration. Once activated, integrins establish a regulated link between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. Integrins have well-established functions in cancer, such as in controlling cell survival by engagement of many specific intracellular signaling pathways and in facilitating metastasis. Integrins and associated proteins are regulated by control of transcription, membrane traffic, and degradation, as well as by a number of post-translational modifications including glycosylation, allowing integrin function to be modulated to conform to various cellular needs and environmental conditions. In this review, we examine the control of integrin function by cell metabolism, and the impact of this regulation in cancer. Within this context, nutrient sufficiency or deprivation is sensed by a number of metabolic signaling pathways such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1, which collectively control integrin function by a number of mechanisms. Moreover, metabolic flux through specific pathways also controls integrins, such as by control of integrin glycosylation, thus impacting integrin-dependent cell adhesion and migration. Integrins also control various metabolic signals and pathways, establishing the reciprocity of this regulation. As cancer cells exhibit substantial changes in metabolism, such as a shift to aerobic glycolysis, enhanced glucose utilization and a heightened dependence on specific amino acids, the reciprocal regulation of integrins and metabolism may provide important clues for more effective treatment of various cancers. PMID:28106780

  6. An av-RGD integrin inhibitor toolbox: drug discovery insight, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hatley, Richard; Macdonald, Simon; Slack, Robert; Le, Joelle; Ludbrook, Steve; Lukey, Pauline

    2017-09-25

    There is a requirement for efficacious and safe medicines to treat diseases with high unmet need. The resurgence in av RGD integrin inhibitor drug discovery is poised to contribute to this requirement. However, drug discovery in the av integrin space is notoriously difficult due to the receptors being structurally very similar as well as the polar zwitterionic nature of the pharmacophore. This review aims to guide drug discovery research in this field through an av inhibitor toolbox, consisting of small molecules and antibodies. Small molecule av tool compounds with extended profiles in avb1, 3, 5, 6 and 8 cell adhesion assays, with key physicochemical properties, have been collated to assist in the selection of the right tool for the right experiment. This should also facilitate an understanding of partial selectivity profiles of compounds generated in different assays across research institutions. Prospects for further av integrin research and the critical importance of target validation are discussed, where increased knowledge of the selectivity for individual RGD v integrins is key. Insights into the design of small molecule RGD chemotypes for topical or oral administration are provided and clinical findings on advanced molecules are examined. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A skin-depth analysis of integrins: role of the integrin network in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Samarth; Raghavan, Srikala

    2013-12-01

    In the skin epidermis, adhesion to the underlying basement membrane is mediated through trans-membrane integrin receptors. In addition to a structural role, integrins can signal in a bi-directional manner though the membrane and thus play a crucial role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. In this review we will discuss the role of integrins and their network of partner proteins in normal skin development, and how dysregulation influences disease states such as skin blistering disorders and cancers. We also discuss major integrin-specific therapeutic advances that have been made over the past few years in treating these skin disorders as well as targeting angiogenesis, neo-vasculature, and tumorigenesis.

  8. β-Integrin de-phosphorylation by the Density-Enhanced Phosphatase DEP-1 attenuates EGFR signaling in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Umbricht, Christoph Alois; Fröhli, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Density-Enhanced Phosphatase-1 (DEP-1) de-phosphorylates various growth factor receptors and adhesion proteins to regulate cell proliferation, adhesion and migration. Moreover, dep-1/scc1 mutations have been detected in various types of human cancers, indicating a broad tumor suppressor activity. During C. elegans development, DEP-1 mediates binary cell fate decisions by negatively regulating EGFR signaling. Using a substrate-trapping DEP-1 mutant in a proteomics approach, we have identified the C. elegans β-integrin subunit PAT-3 as a specific DEP-1 substrate. DEP-1 selectively de-phosphorylates tyrosine 792 in the membrane-proximal NPXY motif to promote integrin activation via talin recruitment. The non-phosphorylatable β-integrin mutant pat-3(Y792F) partially suppresses the hyperactive EGFR signaling phenotype caused by loss of dep-1 function. Thus, DEP-1 attenuates EGFR signaling in part by de-phosphorylating Y792 in the β-integrin cytoplasmic tail, besides the direct de-phosphorylation of the EGFR. Furthermore, in vivo FRAP analysis indicates that the αβ-integrin/talin complex attenuates EGFR signaling by restricting receptor mobility on the basolateral plasma membrane. We propose that DEP-1 regulates EGFR signaling via two parallel mechanisms, by direct receptor de-phosphorylation and by restricting receptor mobility through αβ-integrin activation. PMID:28135265

  9. Inhibition of a novel specific neuroglial integrin signaling pathway increases STAT3-mediated CNTF expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expression is repressed in astrocytes by neuronal contact in the CNS and is rapidly induced by injury. Here, we defined an inhibitory integrin signaling pathway. Results The integrin substrates laminin, fibronectin and vitronectin, but not collagen, thrombospondin or fibrinogen, reduced CNTF expression in C6 astroglioma cells. Antibodies against αv and β5, but not α6 or β1, integrin induced CNTF. Together, the ligand and antibody specificity suggests that CNTF is repressed by αvβ5 integrin. Antibodies against Thy1, an abundant neuronal surface protein whose function is unclear, induced CNTF in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures indicating that it is a neuroglial CNTF repressor. Inhibition of the integrin signaling molecule Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) or the downstream c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) or p38 MAPK, greatly induced CNTF mRNA and protein expression within 4 hours. This selective inhibitory pathway phosphorylated STAT3 on its inhibitory ser-727 residue interfering with activity of the pro-transcription Tyr-705 residue. STAT3 can activate CNTF transcription because it bound to its promoter and FAK antagonist-induced CNTF was reduced by blocking STAT3. Microinjection of FAK inhibitor directly into the brain or spinal cord in adult mice rapidly induced CNTF mRNA and protein expression. Importantly, systemic treatment with FAK inhibitors over 3 days induced CNTF in the subventricular zone and increased neurogenesis. Conclusions Neuron-astroglia contact mediated by integrins serves as a sensor to enable rapid neurotrophic responses and provides a new pharmacological avenue to exploit the neuroprotective properties of endogenous CNTF. PMID:23693126

  10. Importance of Interaction between Integrin and Actin Cytoskeleton in Suspension Adaptation of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Walther, Christa G; Whitfield, Robert; James, David C

    2016-04-01

    The biopharmaceutical production process relies upon mammalian cell technology where single cells proliferate in suspension in a chemically defined synthetic environment. This environment lacks exogenous growth factors, usually contributing to proliferation of fibroblastic cell types such as Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Use of CHO cells for production hence requires a lengthy 'adaptation' process to select clones capable of proliferation as single cells in suspension. The underlying molecular changes permitting proliferation in suspension are not known. Comparison of the non-suspension-adapted clone CHO-AD and a suspension-adapted propriety cell line CHO-SA by flow cytometric analysis revealed a highly variable bi-modal expression pattern for cell-to-cell contact proteins in contrast to the expression pattern seen for integrins. Those have a uni-modal expression on suspension and adherent cells. Integrins showed a conformation distinguished by regularly distributed clusters forming a sphere on the cell membrane of suspension-adapted cells. Actin cytoskeleton analysis revealed reorganisation from the typical fibrillar morphology found in adherent cells to an enforced spherical subcortical actin sheath in suspension cells. The uni-modal expression and specific clustering of integrins could be confirmed for CHO-S, another suspension cell line. Cytochalasin D treatment resulted in breakdown of the actin sheath and the sphere-like integrin conformation demonstrating the link between integrins and actin in suspension-adapted CHO cells. The data demonstrates the importance of signalling changes, leading to an integrin rearrangement on the cell surface, and the necessity of the reinforcement of the actin cytoskeleton for proliferation in suspension conditions.

  11. Expression of the VLA beta 1 integrin family in bladder cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Liebert, M.; Washington, R.; Stein, J.; Wedemeyer, G.; Grossman, H. B.

    1994-01-01

    Integrins are a family of transmembrane heterodimers, many of which function as receptors for extracellular matrix molecules and play a role in adherence to and motility on matrix components. Because of these functions, integrins are suspected of participating in metastatic processes. We investigated the expression of beta 1 integrins in human bladder cancer cell lines and tissues. Expression of beta 1 integrins on cultured bladder cancer cell lines was evaluated by flow cytometry, of 8 cell lines tested, alpha 1 was found in 4, alpha 2 and alpha 3 in all 8, alpha 4 in 1, and alpha 5 in 3. These results were in sharp contrast to the expression detected by immunostaining tissues containing normal urothelium and low stage (noninvasive) and high stage (invasive) bladder cancers. All normal urothelial tissues tested expressed alpha 2 and alpha 3 and none expressed alpha 1, alpha 4, or alpha 5. Similarly, a majority (77%) of low stage (noninvasive) bladder cancers stained positively for alpha 3, whereas only 6 of 13 expressed alpha 2 and none expressed alpha 1, alpha 4, or alpha 5. Among invasive bladder cancers, alpha 1 was detected in 7%, alpha 2 in 24%, alpha 3 in 68%, alpha 5 in 10%, and alpha 4 was not found in any samples. These results indicate that integrin expression in cultured human bladder cancer cell lines does not represent expression observed in tissue samples and may reflect adaption to or selection during tissue culture conditions. A progressive loss of alpha 2 expression is seen from normal urothelial cells through invasive bladder cancers. This loss may contribute to an invasive phenotype by a loss of the cell-cell adherence function mediated by the alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1 integrins. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8178925

  12. Keratins Stabilize Hemidesmosomes through Regulation of β4-Integrin Turnover.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Kristin; Cheng, Fang; Wiche, Gerhard; Eriksson, John E; Magin, Thomas M

    2015-06-01

    Epidermal integrity and wound healing depend on remodeling of cell-matrix contacts including hemidesmosomes. Mutations in β4-integrin and plectin lead to severe epidermolysis bullosa (EB). Whether mutations in keratins K5 or K14, which cause EB simplex, also compromise cell-matrix adhesion through altering hemidesmosomal components is not well investigated. In particular, the dependence of β4-integrin endocytosis and turnover on keratins remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that the absence of keratins causes loss of plectin-β4-integrin interaction and elevated β4-integrin phosphorylation at Ser1354 and Ser1362. This triggered a caveolin-dependent endocytosis of β4-integrin but not of other integrins through Rab5 and Rab11 compartments in keratinocytes. Expressing a phospho-deficient β4-integrin mutant reduces β4-integrin endocytosis and rescues plectin localization in keratin-free cells. β4-integrin phosphorylation in the absence of keratins resulted from elevated Erk1/2 activity downstream of increased EGFR and PKCα signaling. Further, increased Erk1/2 phosphorylation and altered plectin localization occur in keratin-deficient mouse epidermis in vivo. Strikingly, expression of the K14-R125P EBS mutant also resulted in plectin mislocalization and elevated β4-integrin turnover, suggesting disease relevance. Our data underscore a major role of keratins in controlling β4-integrin endocytosis involving a plectin-Erk1/2-dependent mechanism relevant for epidermal differentiation and pathogenesis.

  13. Cross-Scale Integrin Regulation Organizes ECM and Tissue Topology.

    PubMed

    Jülich, Dörthe; Cobb, Garrett; Melo, Ana M; McMillen, Patrick; Lawton, Andrew K; Mochrie, Simon G J; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Holley, Scott A

    2015-07-06

    The diverse morphologies of animal tissues are underlain by different configurations of adherent cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). Here, we elucidate a cross-scale mechanism for tissue assembly and ECM remodeling involving Cadherin 2, the ECM protein Fibronectin, and its receptor Integrin α5. Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy within the zebrafish paraxial mesoderm mesenchyme reveals a physical association between Integrin α5 on adjacent cell membranes. This Integrin-Integrin complex correlates with conformationally inactive Integrin. Cadherin 2 stabilizes both the Integrin association and inactive Integrin conformation. Thus, Integrin repression within the adherent mesenchymal interior of the tissue biases Fibronectin fibrillogenesis to the tissue surface lacking cell-cell adhesions. Along nascent somite boundaries, Cadherin 2 levels decrease, becoming anti-correlated with levels of Integrin α5. Simultaneously, Integrin α5 clusters and adopts the active conformation and then commences ECM assembly. This cross-scale regulation of Integrin activation organizes a stereotypic pattern of ECM necessary for vertebrate body elongation and segmentation.

  14. Distinct Recycling of Active and Inactive β1 Integrins

    PubMed Central

    Arjonen, Antti; Alanko, Jonna; Veltel, Stefan; Ivaska, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Integrin trafficking plays an important role in cellular motility and cytokinesis. Integrins undergo constant endo/exocytic shuttling to facilitate the dynamic regulation of cell adhesion. Integrin activity toward the components of the extracellular matrix is regulated by the ability of these receptors to switch between active and inactive conformations. Several cellular signalling pathways have been described in the regulation of integrin traffic under different conditions. However, the interrelationship between integrin activity conformations and their endocytic fate have remained incompletely understood. Here, we have investigated the endocytic trafficking of active and inactive β1 integrins in cancer cells. Both conformers are endocytosed in a clathrin- and dynamin-dependent manner. The net endocytosis rate of the active β1 integrins is higher, whereas endocytosis of the inactive β1 integrin is counteracted by rapid recycling back to the plasma membrane via an ARF 6- and early endosome antigen 1-positive compartment in an Rab 4a- and actin-dependent manner. Owing to these distinct trafficking routes, the two receptor pools display divergent subcellular localization. At steady state, the inactive β1 integrin is mainly on the plasma membrane, whereas the active receptor is predominantly intracellular. These data provide new insights into the endocytic traffic of integrins and imply the possibility of a previously unappreciated crosstalk between pathways regulating integrin activity and traffic. PMID:22222055

  15. Isolation of a highly specific ligand for the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin from a phage display library

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin selects cysteine pair-containing RGD peptides from a phage display library based on a random hexapeptide. We have therefore searched for more selective peptides for this integrin using a larger phage display library, where heptapeptides are flanked by cysteine residues, thus making the inserts potentially cyclic. Most of the phage sequences that bound to alpha 5 beta 1 (69 of 125) contained the RGD motif. Some of the heptapeptides contained an NGR motif. As the NGR sequence occurs in the cell-binding region of the fibronectin molecule, this sequence could contribute to the specific recognition of fibronectin by alpha 5 beta 1. Selection for high affinity peptides for alpha 5 beta 1 surprisingly yielded a sequence RRETAWA that does not bear obvious resemblance to known integrin ligand sequences. The synthetic cyclic peptide GACRRETAWACGA (*CRRETAWAC*) was a potent inhibitor of alpha 5 beta 1-mediated cell attachment to fibronectin. This peptide is nearly specific for the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin, because much higher concentrations were needed to inhibit the alpha v beta 1 integrin, and there was no effect on alpha v beta 3- and alpha v beta 5-mediated cell attachment to vitronectin. The peptide also did not bind to the alpha IIb beta 3 integrin. *CRRETAWAC* appears to interact with the same or an overlapping binding site in alpha 5 beta 1 as RGD, because cell attachment to *CRRETAWAC* coated on plastic was divalent cation dependent and could be blocked by an RGD-containing peptide. These results reveal a novel binding specificity in the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin. PMID:7507494

  16. VEGF-integrin interplay controls tumor growth and vascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Sarmishtha; Razorenova, Olga; McCabe, Noel Patrick; O'Toole, Timothy; Qin, Jun; Byzova, Tatiana V.

    2005-05-01

    Cross-talk between the major angiogenic growth factor, VEGF, and integrin cell adhesion receptors has emerged recently as a critical factor in the regulation of angiogenesis and tumor development. However, the molecular mechanisms and consequences of this intercommunication remain unclear. Here, we define a mechanism whereby integrin v3, through activation, clustering, and signaling by means of p66 Shc (Src homology 2 domain containing), regulates the production of VEGF in tumor cells expressing this integrin. Tumors with "activatable" but not "inactive" 3 integrin secrete high levels of VEGF, which in turn promotes extensive neovascularization and augments tumor growth in vivo. This stimulation of VEGF expression depends upon the ability of v3 integrin to cluster and promote phosphorylation of p66 Shc. These observations identify a link between 3 integrins and VEGF in tumor growth and angiogenesis and, therefore, may influence anti-integrin as well as anti-VEGF therapeutic strategies. activation | angiogenesis | Src homology 2 domain containing

  17. Therapeutic antagonists and conformational regulation of integrin function.

    PubMed

    Shimaoka, Motomu; Springer, Timothy A

    2003-09-01

    Integrins are a structurally elaborate family of adhesion molecules that transmit signals bi-directionally across the plasma membrane by undergoing large-scale structural rearrangements. By regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts, integrins participate in a wide range of biological processes, including development, tissue repair, angiogenesis, inflammation and haemostasis. From a therapeutic standpoint, integrins are probably the most important class of cell-adhesion receptors. Recent progress in the development of integrin antagonists has resulted in their clinical application and has shed new light on integrin biology. On the basis of their mechanism of action, small-molecule integrin antagonists fall into three different classes. Each of these classes affect the equilibria that relate integrin conformational states, but in different ways.

  18. Integrin expression is altered after acute and chronic cocaine.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Armina T; Pacchioni, Alejandra M; Kalivas, Peter W

    2009-02-06

    Cocaine addiction is associated with an increase in actin cycling and alterations in dendritic spines in the nucleus accumbens. Both actin polymerization and spine morphology are regulated in part by beta-(beta) integrins. Mice were administered acute or daily injections of cocaine or saline for 7 days. After 3 weeks of withdrawal, the level of beta-integrins in the postsynaptic density enriched subfraction from nucleus accumbens tissue was quantified by immunoblotting at 0, 30 or 120min following an a cocaine challenge injection. After chronic treatment and withdrawal the basal level of beta1-integrin was increased while beta3-integrin was unaltered. However, following a cocaine challenge in chronic cocaine, but not saline-treated animals, beta3-integrin was transiently up-regulated while beta1-integrin was transiently downregulated. These data demonstrate a bidirectional regulation of beta-integrins by chronic cocaine treatment that may contribute to cocaine-induced changes in actin cycling and dendrite morphology.

  19. Integrins Modulate Relapse to Cocaine-Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Armina; Smith, Rachel J; Shen, Haowei; Kalivas, Peter W

    2012-01-01

    Relapse to cocaine seeking involves impairments in plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in the nucleus accumbens. Integrins are cell adhesion molecules that bind to the extracellular matrix and regulate aspects of synaptic plasticity, including glutamate receptor trafficking. To determine a role for integrins in cocaine-seeking, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine, the operant response extinguished, and cocaine-seeking induced by a conditioned cue or noncontingent cocaine injection. This cocaine self-administration protocol reduced the content of the beta3 integrin subunit in postsynaptic density (PSD) of the accumbens core at 24 hr after the last self-administration session. However, by 3 wks of forced abstinence plus extinction training the level of beta3 was elevated, and was further regulated over 120 min during cocaine-induced drug-seeking. A small peptide ligand (RGD) that mimics extracellular matrix protein binding to integrins was microinjected into the accumbens core during self-administration or extinction training, or just prior to cocaine-reinstated drug seeking. The daily RGD injections during self-administration or just prior to a reinstatement session inhibited cocaine-induced drug-seeking, while RGD microinjection during extinction training was without consequence on reinstated cocaine-seeking. Daily RGD during self-administration also prevented the enduring changes in beta3 levels. Finally, reduced surface expression of the GluR2 subunit of the AMPA receptor is associated with cocaine-seeking, and daily RGD microinjections during self-administration training normalized the surface expression of GluR2. Together these data indicate that the regulation integrins may contribute to cocaine-reinstated drug-seeking, in part by promoting reduced GluR2 surface expression. PMID:22072669

  20. Integrins modulate relapse to cocaine-seeking.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Armina; Smith, Rachel J; Shen, Hao-Wei; Kalivas, Peter W

    2011-11-09

    Relapse to cocaine-seeking involves impairments in plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in the nucleus accumbens. Integrins are cell adhesion molecules that bind to the extracellular matrix and regulate aspects of synaptic plasticity, including glutamate receptor trafficking. To determine a role for integrins in cocaine-seeking, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine, the operant response extinguished, and cocaine-seeking induced by a conditioned cue or noncontingent cocaine injection. This cocaine self-administration protocol reduced the content of the β3 integrin subunit in postsynaptic density of the accumbens core at 24 h after the last self-administration session. However, after 3 weeks of forced abstinence plus extinction training, the level of β3 was elevated and was further regulated over 120 min during cocaine-induced drug-seeking. A small peptide ligand [arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD)] that mimics extracellular matrix protein binding to integrins was microinjected into the accumbens core during self-administration or extinction training, or just before cocaine-reinstated drug seeking. The daily RGD injections during self-administration or just before a reinstatement session inhibited cocaine-induced drug-seeking, while RGD microinjection during extinction training was without consequence on reinstated cocaine-seeking. Daily RGD during self-administration also prevented the enduring changes in β3 levels. Finally, reduced surface expression of the GluR2 subunit of the AMPA receptor is associated with cocaine-seeking, and daily RGD microinjections during self-administration training normalized the surface expression of GluR2. Together, these data indicate that the regulation integrins may contribute to cocaine-reinstated drug-seeking, in part by promoting reduced GluR2 surface expression.

  1. Anti-alpha 4 integrin antibody induces apoptosis in murine thymocytes and staphylococcal enterotoxin B-activated lymph node T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tchilian, E Z; Owen, J J; Jenkinson, E J

    1997-01-01

    We have shown that an antibody (9C10) to the alpha 4 integrin induces apoptosis in murine immature CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes and in activated (but not resting) mature lymph node T cells. In both cases, apoptosis is blocked by the highly selective protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Ro31.8425, suggesting that 9C10 induces signalling through the alpha 4 integrin resulting in PKC activation leading to apoptosis. Overall, our results indicate the potential role of the alpha 4 integrin-mediated interactions in apoptosis induction during T-cell development and following mature T-cell activation. PMID:9486103

  2. A Cystine Knot Peptide Targeting Integrin αvβ6 for Photoacoustic and Fluorescence Imaging of Tumors in Living Subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Kimura, Richard; Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Levi, Jelena; Xu, Lingyun; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2016-10-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a nonionizing biomedical imaging modality with higher resolution and imaging depth than fluorescence imaging, which has greater sensitivity. The combination of the 2 imaging modalities could improve the detection of cancer. Integrin αvβ6 is a cell surface marker overexpressed in many different cancers. Here, we report the development and evaluation of a dye-labeled cystine knot peptide, which selectively recognizes integrin αvβ6 with high affinity, for photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging. The new dual-modality probe may find clinical application in cancer diagnosis and intraoperative imaging of integrin αvβ6-positive tumors.

  3. Convulxin, a C-type lectin-like protein, inhibits HCASMCs functions via WAD-motif/integrin-αv interaction and NF-κB-independent gene suppression of GRO and IL-8.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ho; Chiang, Tin-Bin; Wang, Wen-Jeng

    2017-03-15

    Convulxin (CVX), a C-type lectin-like protein (CLPs), is a potent platelet aggregation inducer. To evaluate its potential applications in angiogenic diseases, the multimeric CVX were further explored on its mode of actions toward human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs). The N-terminus of β-chain of CVX (CVX-β) contains a putative disintegrin-like domain with a conserved motif upon the sequence comparison with other CLPs. Importantly, native CVX had no cytotoxic activity as examined by electrophoretic pattern. A Trp-Ala-Asp (WAD)-containing octapeptide, MTWADAEK, was thereafter synthesized and analyzed in functional assays. In the case of specific integrin antagonists as positive controls, the anti-angiogenic effects of CVX on HCASMCs were investigated by series of functional analyses. CVX showed to exhibit multiple inhibitory activities toward HCASMCs proliferation, adhesion and invasion with a dose- and integrin αvβ3-dependent fashion. However, the WAD-octapeptide exerting a minor potency could also work as an active peptidomimetic. In addition, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated both the intact CVX and synthetic peptide can specifically interact with integrin-αv on HCASMCs and CVX was shown to have a down-regulatory effect on the gene expression of CXC-chemokines, such as growth-related oncogene and interleukin-8. According to nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 translocation assay and Western blotting analysis, the NF-κB activation was not involved in the signaling events of CVX-induced gene expression. In conclusion, CVX may act as a disintegrin-like protein via the interactions of WAD-motif in CVX-β with integrin-αv on HCASMCs and it also is a gene suppressor with the ability to diminish the expression of two CXC-chemokines in a NF-κB-independent manner. Indeed, more extensive investigations are needed and might create a new avenue for the development of a novel angiostatic agent.

  4. αV-class integrins exert dual roles on α5β1 integrins to strengthen adhesion to fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Mitasha; Strohmeyer, Nico; Colo, Georgina P.; Helenius, Jonne; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Schiller, Herbert B.; Fässler, Reinhard; Müller, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Upon binding to the extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin, αV-class and α5β1 integrins trigger the recruitment of large protein assemblies and strengthen cell adhesion. Both integrin classes have been functionally specified, however their specific roles in immediate phases of cell attachment remain uncharacterized. Here, we quantify the adhesion of αV-class and/or α5β1 integrins expressing fibroblasts initiating attachment to fibronectin (≤120 s) by single-cell force spectroscopy. Our data reveals that αV-class integrins outcompete α5β1 integrins. Once engaged, αV-class integrins signal to α5β1 integrins to establish additional adhesion sites to fibronectin, away from those formed by αV-class integrins. This crosstalk, which strengthens cell adhesion, induces α5β1 integrin clustering by RhoA/ROCK/myosin-II and Arp2/3-mediated signalling, whereas overall cell adhesion depends on formins. The dual role of both fibronectin-binding integrin classes commencing with an initial competition followed by a cooperative crosstalk appears to be a basic cellular mechanism in assembling focal adhesions to the extracellular matrix. PMID:28128308

  5. Paxillin binding to the alpha 4 integrin subunit stimulates LFA-1 (integrin alpha L beta 2)-dependent T cell migration by augmenting the activation of focal adhesion kinase/proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2.

    PubMed

    Rose, David M; Liu, Shouchun; Woodside, Darren G; Han, Jaewon; Schlaepfer, David D; Ginsberg, Mark H

    2003-06-15

    Engagement of very late Ag-4 (integrin alpha(4)beta(1)) by ligands such as VCAM-1 markedly stimulates leukocyte migration mediated by LFA-1 (integrin alpha(L)beta(2)). This form of integrin trans-regulation in T cells requires the binding of paxillin to the alpha(4) integrin cytoplasmic domain. This conclusion is based on the abolition of trans-regulation in Jurkat T cells by an alpha(4) mutation (alpha(4)(Y991A)) that disrupts paxillin binding. Furthermore, cellular expression of an alpha(4)-binding fragment of paxillin that blocks the alpha(4)-paxillin interaction, selectively blocked VCAM-1 stimulation of alpha(L)beta(2)-dependent cell migration. The alpha(4)-paxillin association mediates trans-regulation by enhancing the activation of tyrosine kinases, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and/or proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2), based on two lines of evidence. First, disruption of the paxillin-binding site in the alpha(4) tail resulted in much less alpha(4)beta(1)-mediated phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK. Second, transfection with cDNAs encoding C-terminal fragments of Pyk2 and FAK, which block the function of the intact kinases, blocked alpha(4)beta(1) stimulation of alpha(L)beta(2)-dependent migration. These results define a proximal protein-protein interaction of an integrin cytoplasmic domain required for trans-regulation between integrins, and establish that augmented activation of Pyk2 and/or FAK is an immediate signaling event required for the trans-regulation of integrin alpha(L)beta(2) by alpha(4)beta(1).

  6. Structure and mechanics of integrin-based cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Simon; Xiong, Jian-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Summary of Recent Advances Integrins are α/β heterodimeric adhesion glycoprotein receptors that regulate a wide variety of dynamic cellular processes such as cell migration, phagocytosis and growth and development. X-ray crystallography of the integrin ectodomain revealed its modular architecture and defined its metal-dependent interaction with extracellular ligands. This interaction is regulated from inside the cell (inside-out activation), through the short cytoplasmic α and β integrin tails, which also mediate biochemical and mechanical signals transmitted to the cytoskeleton by the ligand-occupied integrins, which effect major changes in cell shape, behavior and fate. Recent advances in the structural elucidation of integrins and integrin binding cytoskeleton proteins are the subject of this review. PMID:17928215

  7. Homo-oligomerization of transmembrane α-domain of integrin.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Amir; Nikbin, Ehsan; Mehboudi, Nastaran; Damirchi, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Integrins contribute to form focal adhesions complex. Therefore, simulation of integrin interactions can be helpful in clarifying the mechanism of focal adhesion formation. Interactions of integrins can also initiate signal transduction in the focal adhesions. Since integrins contain α and β subunits that are separated in an active state, studying both subunits separately is crucial, since, in the active state of integrins, the distance between these subunits is long enough that they do not influence one another significantly. Thus, this study aims to investigate the tendency of α subunits of integrins to form homodimers. All simulations were carried out via MARTINI coarse grain (CG) molecular dynamics technique. α subunits were placed in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) lipid bilayer at a distance of 5 nm, and they were allowed to diffuse in the lipid bilayer. All simulations showed that α subunits have a tendency to form stable dimers.

  8. Focal Adhesion Kinase Modulates Cell Adhesion Strengthening via Integrin Activation

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Kristin E.; Dumbauld, David W.; Burns, Kellie L.; Hanks, Steven K.

    2009-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an essential nonreceptor tyrosine kinase regulating cell migration, adhesive signaling, and mechanosensing. Using FAK-null cells expressing FAK under an inducible promoter, we demonstrate that FAK regulates the time-dependent generation of adhesive forces. During the early stages of adhesion, FAK expression in FAK-null cells enhances integrin activation to promote integrin binding and, hence, the adhesion strengthening rate. Importantly, FAK expression regulated integrin activation, and talin was required for the FAK-dependent effects. A role for FAK in integrin activation was confirmed in human fibroblasts with knocked-down FAK expression. The FAK autophosphorylation Y397 site was required for the enhancements in adhesion strengthening and integrin-binding responses. This work demonstrates a novel role for FAK in integrin activation and the time-dependent generation of cell–ECM forces. PMID:19297531

  9. Unexpected diversity of cnidarian integrins: expression during coral gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Adhesion mediated through the integrin family of cell surface receptors is central to early development throughout the Metazoa, playing key roles in cell-extra cellular matrix adhesion and modulation of cadherin activity during the convergence and extension movements of gastrulation. It has been suggested that Caenorhabditis elegans, which has a single β and two α integrins, might reflect the ancestral integrin complement. Investigation of the integrin repertoire of anthozoan cnidarians such as the coral Acropora millepora is required to test this hypothesis and may provide insights into the original roles of these molecules. Results Two novel integrins were identified in Acropora. AmItgα1 shows features characteristic of α integrins lacking an I-domain, but phylogenetic analysis gives no clear indication of its likely binding specificity. AmItgβ2 lacks consensus cysteine residues at positions 8 and 9, but is otherwise a typical β integrin. In situ hybridization revealed that AmItgα1, AmItgβ1, and AmItgβ2 are expressed in the presumptive endoderm during gastrulation. A second anthozoan, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, has at least four β integrins, two resembling AmItgβ1 and two like AmItgβ2, and at least three α integrins, based on its genomic sequence. Conclusion In two respects, the cnidarian data do not fit expectations. First, the cnidarian integrin repertoire is more complex than predicted: at least two βs in Acropora, and at least three αs and four βs in Nematostella. Second, whereas the bilaterian αs resolve into well-supported groups corresponding to those specific for RGD-containing or laminin-type ligands, the known cnidarian αs are distinct from these. During early development in Acropora, the expression patterns of the three known integrins parallel those of amphibian and echinoderm integrins. PMID:18466626

  10. Effect of ECM Stiffness on Integrin-Ligand Binding Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gawain; Wen, Qi

    2014-03-01

    Many studies have shown that cells respond to the stiffness of their extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the mechanism of this stiffness sensing is not fully understood. We believe that cells probe stiffness by applying intracellular force to the ECM via the integrin-mediated adhesions. The linkage of integrins to the cytoskeleton has been modeled as a slip clutch, which has been shown to affect focal adhesion formation and hence force transmission in a stiffness dependent manner. In contrast, the bonds between integrins and ECM have been characterized as ``catch bonds.'' It is unclear how ECM viscoelasticity affects these catch bonds. We report, for the first time, the effects of ECM stiffness on the binding strength of integrins to ECM ligands by measuring the rupture force of individual integrin-ligand bonds of cells on collagen-coated polyacrylamide gels. Results show that the integrin-collagen bonds of 3T3 fibroblasts are nearly four times stronger on a stiff (30 kPa) gel than on a soft (3 kPa) gel. The stronger integrin bonds on stiffer substrates can promote focal adhesion formation. This suggests that the substrate stiffness regulates the cell-ECM adhesions not only by affecting the cytoskeleton-integrin links but also by modulating the binding of integrins to the ECM.

  11. Interactions between integrin receptors and fibronectin are required for calvarial osteoblast differentiation in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moursi, A. M.; Globus, R. K.; Damsky, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    -state mRNA expression was examined and found to be suppressed for osteoblast markers alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Together, these results indicate that direct osteoblast interactions with the extracellular matrix are mediated by a select group of integrin receptors that includes alpha5ss1, alpha3ss1 and alpha8ss1. We further conclude that the specific alpha5ss1 fibronectin receptor mediates critical interactions between osteoblasts and fibronectin required for both bone morphogenesis and osteoblast differentiation.

  12. Interactions between integrin receptors and fibronectin are required for calvarial osteoblast differentiation in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moursi, A. M.; Globus, R. K.; Damsky, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    -state mRNA expression was examined and found to be suppressed for osteoblast markers alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Together, these results indicate that direct osteoblast interactions with the extracellular matrix are mediated by a select group of integrin receptors that includes alpha5ss1, alpha3ss1 and alpha8ss1. We further conclude that the specific alpha5ss1 fibronectin receptor mediates critical interactions between osteoblasts and fibronectin required for both bone morphogenesis and osteoblast differentiation.

  13. ADM-1, a protein with metalloprotease- and disintegrin-like domains, is expressed in syncytial organs, sperm, and sheath cells of sensory organs in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Podbilewicz, B

    1996-01-01

    A search was carried out for homologues of possible fusogenic proteins to study their function in a genetically tractable animal. The isolation, molecular, and cellular characterization of the Caenorhabditis elegans adm-1 gene (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) are described. A glycoprotein analogous to viral fusion proteins has been identified on the surface of guinea pig sperm (PH-30/fertilin) and is implicated in sperm-egg fusion. adm-1 is the first reported invertebrate gene related to PH-30 and a family of proteins containing snake venom disintegrin- and metalloprotease-like domains. ADM-1 shows a domain organization identical to PH-30. It contains prepro, metalloprotease, disintegrin, cysteine rich with putative fusion peptide, epidermal growth factor-like repeat, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains. Antibodies which recognize ADM-1 protein in immunoblots were generated. Using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, the products of adm-1 have been detected in specific cells during different stages of development. The localization of ADM-1 to the plasma membrane of embryonic cells and to the sheath cells of sensory organs suggests a function in cell adhesion. ADM-1 expression in the hypodermis, pharynx, vulva, and mature sperm is consistent with a putative role in somatic and gamete cell fusions. Images PMID:8970152

  14. Effects of β4 integrin expression on microRNA patterns in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Kristin D; Maddula, V S R Krishna; Seligmann, Bruce E; Shearstone, Jeffrey R; Khan, Ashraf; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2012-07-15

    The integrin α6β4 is defined as an adhesion receptor for laminins. Referred to as 'β4', this integrin plays a key role in the progression of various carcinomas through its ability to orchestrate key signal transduction events and promote cell motility. To identify novel downstream effectors of β4 function in breast cancer, microRNAs (miRNAs) were examined because of their extensive links to tumorigenesis and their ability to regulate gene expression globally. Two breast carcinoma cell lines and a collection of invasive breast carcinomas with varying β4 expression were used to assess the effect of this integrin on miRNA expression. A novel miRNA microarray analysis termed quantitative Nuclease Protection Assay (qNPA) revealed that β4 expression can significantly alter miRNA expression and identified two miRNA families, miR-25/32/92abc/363/363-3p/367 and miR-99ab/100, that are consistently downregulated by expression of this integrin. Analysis of published Affymetrix GeneChip data identified 54 common targets of miR-92ab and miR-99ab/100 within the subset of β4-regulated mRNAs, revealing several genes known to be key components of β4-regulated signaling cascades and effectors of cell motility. Gene ontology classification identified an enrichment in genes associated with cell migration within this population. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis of all β4-regulated mRNAs revealed an enrichment in targets belonging to distinct miRNA families, including miR-92ab and others identified by our initial array analyses. The results obtained in this study provide the first example of an integrin globally impacting miRNA expression and provide evidence that select miRNA families collectively target genes important in executing β4-mediated cell motility.

  15. Ablation of beta1 integrin in mammary epithelium reveals a key role for integrin in glandular morphogenesis and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Matthew J; Li, Na; Cheung, Julia; Lowe, Emma T; Lambert, Elise; Marlow, Rebecca; Wang, Pengbo; Schatzmann, Franziska; Wintermantel, Timothy; Schüetz, Günther; Clarke, Alan R; Mueller, Ulrich; Hynes, Nancy E; Streuli, Charles H

    2005-11-21

    Integrin-mediated adhesion regulates the development and function of a range of tissues; however, little is known about its role in glandular epithelium. To assess the contribution of beta1 integrin, we conditionally deleted its gene in luminal epithelia during different stages of mouse mammary gland development and in cultured primary mammary epithelia. Loss of beta1 integrin in vivo resulted in impaired alveologenesis and lactation. Cultured beta1 integrin-null cells displayed abnormal focal adhesion function and signal transduction and could not form or maintain polarized acini. In vivo, epithelial cells became detached from the extracellular matrix but remained associated with each other and did not undergo overt apoptosis. beta1 integrin-null mammary epithelial cells did not differentiate in response to prolactin stimulation because of defective Stat5 activation. In mice where beta1 integrin was deleted after the initiation of differentiation, fewer defects in alveolar morphology occurred, yet major deficiencies were also observed in milk protein and milk fat production and Stat5 activation, indicating a permissive role for beta1 integrins in prolactin signaling. This study demonstrates that beta1 integrin is critical for the alveolar morphogenesis of a glandular epithelium and for maintenance of its differentiated function. Moreover, it provides genetic evidence for the cooperation between integrin and cytokine signaling pathways.

  16. High-Throughput Screening based Identification of Small Molecule Antagonists of Integrin CD11b/CD18 Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Maiguel, Dony; Brown, Brock T.; Suyama, Eigo; Barth, Constantinos J.; Hedrick, Michael; Vasile, Stefan; Sergienko, Eduard; Schürer, Stephan; Gupta, Vineet

    2010-01-01

    Binding of leukocyte specific integrin CD11b/CD18 to its physiologic ligands is important for the development of normal immune response in vivo. Integrin CD11b/CD18 is also a key cellular effector of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, small molecules selectively inhibiting the function of integrin CD11b/CD18 are currently lacking. We used a newly described cell-based high throughput screening assay to identify a number of highly potent antagonists of integrin CD11b/CD18 from chemical libraries containing >100,000 unique compounds. Computational analyses suggest that the identified compounds cluster into several different chemical classes. A number of the newly identified compounds blocked adhesion of wild-type mouse neutrophils to CD11b/CD18 ligand fibrinogen. Mapping the most active compounds against chemical fingerprints of known antagonists of related integrin CD11a/CD18 shows little structural similarity, suggesting that the newly identified compounds are novel and unique. PMID:20188705

  17. Integrin inhibition promotes atypical anoikis in glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Silginer, M; Weller, M; Ziegler, U; Roth, P

    2014-01-01

    Integrins regulate cellular adhesion and transmit signals important for cell survival, proliferation and motility. They are expressed by glioma cells and may contribute to their malignant phenotype. Integrin inhibition may therefore represent a promising therapeutic strategy. GL-261 and SMA-560 glioma cells grown under standard conditions uniformly detached and formed large cell clusters after integrin gene silencing or pharmacological inhibition using EMD-121974, a synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp-motif peptide, or GLPG0187, a nonpeptidic integrin inhibitor. After 120 h, the clusters induced by integrin inhibition decayed and cells died. In contrast, when cells were cultured under stem cell (sphere) conditions, no disaggregation became apparent upon integrin inhibition, and cell death was not observed. As poly-HEMA-mediated detachment had similar effects on cell viability as integrin inhibition, we postulated that cell death may result from detachment alone, which was confirmed using various permissive and nonpermissive substrates. No surrogate markers of apoptosis were detected and electron microscopy confirmed that necrosis represents the dominant morphology of detachment-induced cell death. In addition, integrin inhibition resulted in the induction of autophagy that represents a survival signal. When integrins were inhibited in nonsphere glioma cells, the TGF-β pathway was strongly impaired, whereas no such effect was observed in glioma cells cultured under sphere conditions. Cell death induced by integrin inhibition was rescued by the addition of recombinant transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and accelerated by exposure to the TGF-β receptor inhibitor, SD-208. In summary, cell death following integrin inhibition is detachment mediated, represents an atypical form of anoikis involving necrosis as well as autophagy, and is modulated by TGF-β pathway activity. PMID:24457956

  18. Integrin-directed modulation of macrophage responses to biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Zaveri, Toral D; Lewis, Jamal S; Dolgova, Natalia V; Clare-Salzler, Michael J; Keselowsky, Benjamin G

    2014-04-01

    Macrophages are the primary mediator of chronic inflammatory responses to implanted biomaterials, in cases when the material is either in particulate or bulk form. Chronic inflammation limits the performance and functional life of numerous implanted medical devices, and modulating macrophage interactions with biomaterials to mitigate this response would be beneficial. The integrin family of cell surface receptors mediates cell adhesion through binding to adhesive proteins nonspecifically adsorbed onto biomaterial surfaces. In this work, the roles of integrin Mac-1 (αMβ2) and RGD-binding integrins were investigated using model systems for both particulate and bulk biomaterials. Specifically, the macrophage functions of phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to a model particulate material, polystyrene microparticles were investigated. Opsonizing proteins modulated microparticle uptake, and integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins were found to control microparticle uptake in an opsonin-dependent manner. The presence of adsorbed endotoxin did not affect microparticle uptake levels, but was required for the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to microparticles. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins influence the in vivo foreign body response to a bulk biomaterial, subcutaneously implanted polyethylene terephthalate. A thinner foreign body capsule was formed when integrin Mac-1 was absent (~30% thinner) or when RGD-binding integrins were blocked by controlled release of a blocking peptide (~45% thinner). These findings indicate integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins are involved and may serve as therapeutic targets to mitigate macrophage inflammatory responses to both particulate and bulk biomaterials.

  19. Recombinant disintegrin domain of human ADAM9 inhibits migration and invasion of DU145 prostate tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Ana Carolina Baptista Moreno; Cardoso, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa Sobreiro; Cominetti, Márcia Regina

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important features of malignant cells is their capacity to invade adjacent tissues and metastasize to distant organs. This process involves the creation, by tumor and stroma cells, of a specific microenvironment, suitable for proliferation, migration and invasion of tumor cells. The ADAM family of proteins has been involved in these processes. This work aimed to investigate the role of the recombinant disintegrin domain of the human ADAM9 (rADAM9D) on the adhesive and mobility properties of DU145 prostate tumor cells. rADAM9D was able to support DU145 cell adhesion, inhibit the migration of DU145 cells, as well as the invasion of this cell line through matrigel in vitro. Overall this work demonstrates that rADAM9D induces specific cellular migratory properties when compared with different constructs having additional domains, specially those of metalloproteinase and cysteine-rich domains. Furthermore, we showed that rADAM9D was able to inhibit cell adhesion, migration and invasion mainly through interacting with α6β1 in DU145 tumor cell line. These results may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies for prostate cancer. PMID:26211476

  20. Critical Role of ADAMTS2 (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase With Thrombospondin Motifs 2) in Cardiac Hypertrophy Induced by Pressure Overload.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodi; Chen, Wen; Zhang, Jie; Khan, Aiman; Li, Liangpeng; Huang, Fuhua; Qiu, Zhibing; Wang, Liming; Chen, Xin

    2017-04-03

    ADAMTS2 (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase With Thrombospondin Motifs 2) is recognized as a metalloproteinase that promotes the cleavage of amino propeptides of types I, II, III, and V procollagens. However, the role of ADAMTS2 in the heart has not yet been defined. Herein, we observed the upregulated expression of ADAMTS2 in failing human hearts and hypertrophic murine hearts. Mice lacking ADAMTS2 display exacerbated cardiac hypertrophy on pressure overload-induced hypertrophic response, whereas mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of ADAMTS2 display alleviation of this detrimental phenotype. Consistent with these results, in vitro loss or gain of function experiments in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes confirmed that ADAMTS2 negatively regulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in response to Ang II. Mechanistically, blockage of the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/AKT (protein kinase B)-dependent signaling pathway with specific inhibitors both in vivo and in vitro could rescue the aggravated hypertrophic response to the loss of ADAMTS2. Collectively, we propose that ADAMTS2 regulates the hypertrophic response through inhibiting the activation of the PI3K/AKT-dependent signaling pathway. Because ADAMTS2 is an extracellular protein, it could be effectively manipulated using pharmacological means to modulate cardiac hypertrophy.

  1. A-Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM) 10 and 17 promote self-renewal of brain tumor sphere forming cells.

    PubMed

    Bulstrode, Harry; Jones, Louise M; Siney, Elodie J; Sampson, Jessica M; Ludwig, Andreas; Gray, William P; Willaime-Morawek, Sandrine

    2012-12-29

    It has been proposed that gliomas contain a subpopulation of 'Brain Tumor Stem Cells' (BTSCs), which demonstrate resistance to conventional therapies. A potential component of the environment governing the behavior of these BTSCs is a class of transmembrane proteins with structural and signaling functions, the A-Disintegrin And Metalloproteases (ADAMs). In this study we confirm overexpression of ADAM10 and 17 in human glioma tissue compared to human controls, and especially in tumor sphere cultures thought to enrich for BTSCs. Inhibition of ADAM10/17 function impairs the growth of tumor spheres with evidence of depletion of the sphere forming cell population. This results from a combination of reduced proliferation, cell death and a switch of sphere-forming cells away from symmetric self-renewal division towards neuronal differentiation. A developing appreciation of the role of ADAMs in BTSC promises insights into pathophysiology and potential therapeutic avenues in this intractable group of tumors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase-10 (ADAM-10) Mediates DN30 Antibody-induced Shedding of the Met Surface Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Schelter, Florian; Kobuch, Julia; Moss, Marcia L.; Becherer, J. David; Comoglio, Paolo M.; Boccaccio, Carla; Krüger, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Met, the tyrosine kinase receptor for the hepatocyte growth factor is a prominent regulator of cancer cell invasiveness and has emerged as a promising therapeutic target. Binding of the anti-Met monoclonal antibody DN30 to its epitope induces the proteolytic cleavage of Met, thereby impairing the invasive growth of tumors. The molecular mechanism controlling this therapeutic shedding process has so far been unknown. Here, we report that A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase (ADAM)-10, but not ADAM-17, is required for DN30-induced Met shedding. Knockdown of ADAM-10 in different tumor cell lines or abrogation of its proteolytic activity by natural or synthetic inhibitors abolished Met down-regulation on the cell surface as well as reduction of Met activation. Moreover, hepatocyte growth factor-induced tumor cell migration and invasion were impaired upon ADAM-10 knockdown. Thus, the therapeutic effect of DN30 involves ADAM-10-dependent Met shedding, linking for the first time a specific metalloprotease to target therapy against a receptor tyrosine kinase. PMID:20554517

  3. Cyclosporin A Impairs the Secretion and Activity of ADAMTS13 (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease with Thrombospondin Type 1 Repeat)*

    PubMed Central

    Hershko, Klilah; Simhadri, Vijaya L.; Blaisdell, Adam; Hunt, Ryan C.; Newell, Jordan; Tseng, Sandra C.; Hershko, Alon Y.; Choi, Jae Won; Sauna, Zuben E.; Wu, Andrew; Bram, Richard J.; Komar, Anton A.; Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava

    2012-01-01

    The protease ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeat) cleaves multimers of von Willebrand factor, thus regulating platelet aggregation. ADAMTS13 deficiency leads to the fatal disorder thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). It has been observed that cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment, particularly in transplant patients, may sometimes be linked to the development of TTP. Until now, the reason for such a link was unclear. Here we provide evidence demonstrating that cyclophilin B (CypB) activity plays an important role in the secretion of active ADAMTS13. We found that CsA, an inhibitor of CypB, reduces the secretion of ADAMTS13 and leads to conformational changes in the protein resulting in diminished ADAMTS13 proteolytic activity. A direct, functional interaction between CypB (which possesses peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) and chaperone functions) and ADAMTS13 is demonstrated using immunoprecipitation and siRNA knockdown of CypB. Finally, CypB knock-out mice were found to have reduced ADAMTS13 levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that cyclophilin-mediated activity is an important factor affecting secretion and activity of ADAMTS13. The large number of proline residues in ADAMTS13 is consistent with the important role of cis-trans isomerization in the proper folding of this protein. These results altogether provide a novel mechanistic explanation for CsA-induced TTP in transplant patients. PMID:23144461

  4. Cyclosporin A impairs the secretion and activity of ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeat).

    PubMed

    Hershko, Klilah; Simhadri, Vijaya L; Blaisdell, Adam; Hunt, Ryan C; Newell, Jordan; Tseng, Sandra C; Hershko, Alon Y; Choi, Jae Won; Sauna, Zuben E; Wu, Andrew; Bram, Richard J; Komar, Anton A; Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava

    2012-12-28

    The protease ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeat) cleaves multimers of von Willebrand factor, thus regulating platelet aggregation. ADAMTS13 deficiency leads to the fatal disorder thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). It has been observed that cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment, particularly in transplant patients, may sometimes be linked to the development of TTP. Until now, the reason for such a link was unclear. Here we provide evidence demonstrating that cyclophilin B (CypB) activity plays an important role in the secretion of active ADAMTS13. We found that CsA, an inhibitor of CypB, reduces the secretion of ADAMTS13 and leads to conformational changes in the protein resulting in diminished ADAMTS13 proteolytic activity. A direct, functional interaction between CypB (which possesses peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) and chaperone functions) and ADAMTS13 is demonstrated using immunoprecipitation and siRNA knockdown of CypB. Finally, CypB knock-out mice were found to have reduced ADAMTS13 levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that cyclophilin-mediated activity is an important factor affecting secretion and activity of ADAMTS13. The large number of proline residues in ADAMTS13 is consistent with the important role of cis-trans isomerization in the proper folding of this protein. These results altogether provide a novel mechanistic explanation for CsA-induced TTP in transplant patients.

  5. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Drive Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM)-dependent Cell Adhesion, Proliferation, and Migration by Modulating Membrane Fluidity*

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Karina; Cornelsen, Isabell; Husmann, Matthias; Gimpl, Gerald; Bhakdi, Sucharit

    2011-01-01

    The disintegrin-metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 mediate the release of several cell signaling molecules and cell adhesion molecules such as vascular endothelial cadherin or L-selectin affecting endothelial permeability and leukocyte transmigration. Dysregulation of ADAM activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the control of ADAM functions are still incompletely understood. Atherosclerosis is characterized by lipid plaque formation and local accumulation of unsaturated free fatty acids (FFA). Here, we show that unsaturated FFA increase ADAM-mediated substrate cleavage. We demonstrate that these alterations are not due to genuine changes in enzyme activity, but correlate with changes in membrane fluidity as revealed by measurement of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analyses. ELISA and immunoblot experiments conducted with granulocytes, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes revealed rapid increase of ectodomain shedding of ADAM10 and ADAM17 substrates upon membrane fluidization. Large amounts of unsaturated FFA may be liberated from cholesteryl esters in LDL that is entrapped in atherosclerotic lesions. Incubation of cells with thus modified LDL resulted in rapid cleavage of ADAM substrates with corresponding functional consequences on cell proliferation, cell migration, and endothelial permeability, events of high significance in atherogenesis. We propose that FFA represent critical regulators of ADAM function that may assume relevance in many biological settings through their influence on mobility of enzyme and substrate in lipid bilayers. PMID:21642425

  6. Unsaturated fatty acids drive disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)-dependent cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration by modulating membrane fluidity.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Karina; Cornelsen, Isabell; Husmann, Matthias; Gimpl, Gerald; Bhakdi, Sucharit

    2011-07-29

    The disintegrin-metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 mediate the release of several cell signaling molecules and cell adhesion molecules such as vascular endothelial cadherin or L-selectin affecting endothelial permeability and leukocyte transmigration. Dysregulation of ADAM activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the control of ADAM functions are still incompletely understood. Atherosclerosis is characterized by lipid plaque formation and local accumulation of unsaturated free fatty acids (FFA). Here, we show that unsaturated FFA increase ADAM-mediated substrate cleavage. We demonstrate that these alterations are not due to genuine changes in enzyme activity, but correlate with changes in membrane fluidity as revealed by measurement of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analyses. ELISA and immunoblot experiments conducted with granulocytes, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes revealed rapid increase of ectodomain shedding of ADAM10 and ADAM17 substrates upon membrane fluidization. Large amounts of unsaturated FFA may be liberated from cholesteryl esters in LDL that is entrapped in atherosclerotic lesions. Incubation of cells with thus modified LDL resulted in rapid cleavage of ADAM substrates with corresponding functional consequences on cell proliferation, cell migration, and endothelial permeability, events of high significance in atherogenesis. We propose that FFA represent critical regulators of ADAM function that may assume relevance in many biological settings through their influence on mobility of enzyme and substrate in lipid bilayers.

  7. The Role of SnoN in Transforming Growth Factor β1-induced Expression of Metalloprotease-Disintegrin ADAM12*

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Emilia; Li, Hui; Duhachek Muggy, Sara; Syta, Emilia; Zolkiewska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Increased expression of metalloprotease-disintegrin ADAM12 is a hallmark of several pathological conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and certain inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system or the muscoskeletal system. We show that transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) is a potent inducer of ADAM12 mRNA and protein in mouse fibroblasts and in mouse and human mammary epithelial cells. Induction of ADAM12 is detected within 2 h of treatment with TGFβ1, is Smad2/Smad3-dependent, and is a result of derepression of the Adam12 gene. SnoN, a negative regulator of the TGFβ signaling pathway, is a master regulator of ADAM12 expression in response to TGFβ1 stimulation. Overexpression of SnoN in NIH3T3 cells reduces the magnitude of ADAM12 induction by TGFβ1 treatment. Down-regulation of SnoN expression by short hairpin RNA enhances TGFβ1-induced expression of ADAM12. In a panel of TGFβ1-responsive cancer cell lines with high expression of SnoN, induction of ADAM12 by TGFβ1 is significantly impaired, suggesting that the endogenous SnoN plays a role in regulating ADAM12 expression in response to TGFβ1. Identification of SnoN as a repressor of the ADAM12 gene should contribute to advances in the studies on the role of ADAM12 in tumor progression and in the development of other pathologies. PMID:20457602

  8. Critical Role of the Disintegrin Metalloprotease ADAM-like Decysin-1 [ADAMDEC1] for Intestinal Immunity and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Nuala R; Chew, Thean S; Dunne, Jenny; Marnane, Rebecca; Nedjat-Shokouhi, Bahman; Smith, Philip J; Bloom, Stuart L; Smith, Andrew M; Segal, Anthony W

    2016-12-01

    ADAM [A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase] is a family of peptidase proteins which have diverse roles in tissue homeostasis and immunity. Here, we study ADAM-like DECysin-1 [ADAMDEC1] a unique member of the ADAM family. ADAMDEC1 expression is restricted to the macrophage/dendritic cell populations of the gastrointestinal tract and secondary lymphoid tissue. The biological function of ADAMDEC1 is unknown but it has been hypothesised to play a role in immunity. The identification of reduced ADAMDEC1 expression in Crohn's disease patients has provided evidence of a potential role in bowel inflammation. Adamdec1(-/-) mice were exposed to dextran sodium sulphate or infected orally with Citrobacter rodentium or Salmonella typhimurium. The clinical response was monitored. The loss of Adamdec1 rendered mice more susceptible to the induction of bacterial and chemical induced colitis, as evidenced by increased neutrophil infiltration, greater IL-6 and IL-1β secretion, more weight loss and increased mortality. In the absence of Adamdec1, greater numbers of Citrobacter rodentium were found in the spleen, suggestive of a breakdown in mucosal immunity which resulted in bacteraemia. In summary, ADAMDEC1 protects the bowel from chemical and bacterial insults, failure of which may predispose to Crohn's disease. © European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation 2016.

  9. The role of SnoN in transforming growth factor beta1-induced expression of metalloprotease-disintegrin ADAM12.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Emilia; Li, Hui; Duhachek Muggy, Sara; Syta, Emilia; Zolkiewska, Anna

    2010-07-16

    Increased expression of metalloprotease-disintegrin ADAM12 is a hallmark of several pathological conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and certain inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system or the muscoskeletal system. We show that transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) is a potent inducer of ADAM12 mRNA and protein in mouse fibroblasts and in mouse and human mammary epithelial cells. Induction of ADAM12 is detected within 2 h of treatment with TGFbeta1, is Smad2/Smad3-dependent, and is a result of derepression of the Adam12 gene. SnoN, a negative regulator of the TGFbeta signaling pathway, is a master regulator of ADAM12 expression in response to TGFbeta1 stimulation. Overexpression of SnoN in NIH3T3 cells reduces the magnitude of ADAM12 induction by TGFbeta1 treatment. Down-regulation of SnoN expression by short hairpin RNA enhances TGFbeta1-induced expression of ADAM12. In a panel of TGFbeta1-responsive cancer cell lines with high expression of SnoN, induction of ADAM12 by TGFbeta1 is significantly impaired, suggesting that the endogenous SnoN plays a role in regulating ADAM12 expression in response to TGFbeta1. Identification of SnoN as a repressor of the ADAM12 gene should contribute to advances in the studies on the role of ADAM12 in tumor progression and in the development of other pathologies.

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of a radioiodinated peptide probe targeting αvβ6 integrin for the detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Masashi; Fukushima, Takahiro; Ogawa, Kei; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ono, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Saji, Hideo

    2014-03-14

    Highlights: • We developed a radioiodinated peptide probe targeting αvβ6 integrin ({sup 123}I-IFMDV2). • {sup 123}I-IFMDV2 had a high affinity and selectivity for αvβ6 integrin. • {sup 123}I-IFMDV2 showed a specific binding to αvβ6 integrin in vivo. • {sup 123}I-IFMDV2 enabled clear visualization of the αvβ6-integrin-positive tumor. - Abstract: Introduction: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a major cause of cancer-related death. Since significant upregulation of αvβ6 integrin has been reported in PDAC, this integrin is a promising target for PDAC detection. In this study, we aimed to develop a radioiodinated probe for the imaging of αvβ6 integrin-positive PDAC with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods: Four peptide probes were synthesized and screened by competitive and saturation binding assays using 2 PDAC cell lines (AsPC-1, αvβ6 integrin-positive; MIA PaCa-2, αvβ6 integrin-negative). The probe showing the best affinity was used to study the biodistribution assay, an in vivo blocking study, and SPECT imaging using tumor bearing mice. Autoradiography and immunohistochemical analysis were also performed. Results: Among the 4 probes examined in this study, {sup 125}I-IFMDV2 showed the highest affinity for αvβ6 integrin expressed in AsPC-1 cells and no affinity for MIA PaCa-2 cells. The accumulation of {sup 125}I-IFMDV2 in the AsPC-1 xenograft was 3–5 times greater than that in the MIA PaCa-2 xenograft, consistent with the expression of αvβ6 integrin in each xenograft, and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Pretreatment with excess amounts of A20FMDV2 significantly blocked the accumulation of {sup 125}I-IFMDV2 in the AsPC-1 xenograft, but not in the MIA PaCa-2 xenograft. Furthermore, {sup 123}I-IFMDV2 enabled clear visualization of the AsPC-1 xenograft. Conclusion: {sup 123}I-IFMDV2 is a potential SPECT probe for the imaging of αvβ6 integrin in PDAC.

  11. Cooperativity between Integrin Activation and Mechanical Stress Leads to Integrin Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Ali, O.; Guillou, H.; Destaing, O.; Albigès-Rizo, C.; Block, M.R.; Fourcade, B.

    2011-01-01

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors involved in crucial cellular biological functions such as migration, adhesion, and spreading. Upon the modulation of integrin affinity toward their extracellular ligands by cytoplasmic proteins (inside-out signaling) these receptors bind to their ligands and cluster into nascent adhesions. This clustering results in the increase in the mechanical linkage among the cell and substratum, cytoskeleton rearrangements, and further outside-in signaling. Based on experimental observations of the distribution of focal adhesions in cells attached to micropatterned surfaces, we introduce a physical model relying on experimental numerical constants determined in the literature. In this model, allosteric integrin activation works in synergy with the stress build by adhesion and the membrane rigidity to allow the clustering to nascent adhesions independently of actin but dependent on the integrin diffusion onto adhesive surfaces. The initial clustering could provide a template to the mature adhesive structures. Predictions of our model for the organization of focal adhesions are discussed in comparison with experiments using adhesive protein microarrays. PMID:21641304

  12. Integrin extension enables ultrasensitive regulation by cytoskeletal force.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Springer, Timothy A

    2017-05-02

    Integrins undergo large-scale conformational changes upon activation. Signaling events driving integrin activation have previously been discussed conceptually, but not quantitatively. Here, recent measurements of the intrinsic ligand-binding affinity and free energy of each integrin conformational state on the cell surface, together with the length scales of conformational change, are used to quantitatively compare models of activation. We examine whether binding of cytoskeletal adaptors to integrin cytoplasmic domains is sufficient for activation or whether exertion of tensile force by the actin cytoskeleton across the integrin-ligand complex is also required. We find that only the combination of adaptor binding and cytoskeletal force provides ultrasensitive regulation. Moreover, switch-like activation by force depends on the large, >130 Å length-scale change in integrin extension, which is well tailored to match the free-energy difference between the inactive (bent-closed) and active (extended-open) conformations. The length scale and energy cost in integrin extension enable activation by force in the low pN range and appear to be the key specializations that enable cell adhesion through integrins to be coordinated with cytoskeletal dynamics.

  13. Intrinsic mechanisms regulating axon regeneration: an integrin perspective.

    PubMed

    Eva, Richard; Andrews, Melissa R; Franssen, Elske H P; Fawcett, James W

    2012-01-01

    Adult central nervous system (CNS) axons fail to regenerate after injury because of inhibitory factors in the surrounding environment and a low intrinsic regenerative capacity. Axons in the adult peripheral nervous system have a higher regenerative capacity, due in part to the presence of certain integrins-receptors for the extracellular matrix. Integrins are critical for axon growth during the development of the nervous system but are absent from some adult CNS axons. Here, we discuss the intrinsic mechanisms that regulate axon regeneration and examine the role of integrins. As correct localization is paramount to integrin function, we further discuss the mechanisms that regulate integrin traffic toward the axonal growth cone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Minimal synthetic cells to study integrin-mediated adhesion.

    PubMed

    Frohnmayer, Johannes P; Brüggemann, Dorothea; Eberhard, Christian; Neubauer, Stefanie; Mollenhauer, Christine; Boehm, Heike; Kessler, Horst; Geiger, Benjamin; Spatz, Joachim P

    2015-10-12

    To shed light on cell-adhesion-related molecular pathways, synthetic cells offer the unique advantage of a well-controlled model system with reduced molecular complexity. Herein, we show that liposomes with the reconstituted platelet integrin αIIb β3 as the adhesion-mediating transmembrane protein are a functional minimal cell model for studying cellular adhesion mechanisms in a defined environment. The interaction of these synthetic cells with various extracellular matrix proteins was analyzed using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The data indicated that integrin was functionally incorporated into the lipid vesicles, thus enabling integrin-specific adhesion of the engineered liposomes to fibrinogen- and fibronectin-functionalized surfaces. Then, we were able to initiate the detachment of integrin liposomes from these surfaces in the presence of the peptide GRGDSP, a process that is even faster with our newly synthesized peptide mimetic SN529, which specifically inhibits the integrin αIIb β3 .

  15. Minimal Synthetic Cells to Study Integrin-Mediated Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Frohnmayer, Johannes P; Brüggemann, Dorothea; Eberhard, Christian; Neubauer, Stefanie; Mollenhauer, Christine; Boehm, Heike; Kessler, Horst; Geiger, Benjamin; Spatz, Joachim P

    2015-01-01

    To shed light on cell-adhesion-related molecular pathways, synthetic cells offer the unique advantage of a well-controlled model system with reduced molecular complexity. Herein, we show that liposomes with the reconstituted platelet integrin αIIbβ3 as the adhesion-mediating transmembrane protein are a functional minimal cell model for studying cellular adhesion mechanisms in a defined environment. The interaction of these synthetic cells with various extracellular matrix proteins was analyzed using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The data indicated that integrin was functionally incorporated into the lipid vesicles, thus enabling integrin-specific adhesion of the engineered liposomes to fibrinogen- and fibronectin-functionalized surfaces. Then, we were able to initiate the detachment of integrin liposomes from these surfaces in the presence of the peptide GRGDSP, a process that is even faster with our newly synthesized peptide mimetic SN529, which specifically inhibits the integrin αIIbβ3. PMID:26257266

  16. Integrin β1 regulates leiomyoma cytoskeletal integrity and growth

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Minnie; Segars, James; Catherino, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are characterized by an excessive extracellular matrix, increased mechanical stress, and increased active RhoA. Previously, we observed that mechanical signaling was attenuated in leiomyoma, but the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Integrins, especially integrin β1, are transmembrane adhesion receptors that couple extracellular matrix stresses to the intracellular cytoskeleton to influence cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we characterized integrin and laminin to signaling in leiomyoma cells. We observed a 2.25 ± 0.32 fold increased expression of integrin β1 in leiomyoma cells, compared to myometrial cells. Antibody-mediated inhibition of integrin β1 led to significant growth inhibition in leiomyoma cells and a loss of cytoskeletal integrity. Specifically, polymerization of actin filaments and formation of focal adhesions were reduced by inhibition of integrin p1. Inhibition of integrin β1 in leiomyoma cells led to 0.81 ± 0.02 fold decrease in active RhoA, and resembled levels found in serum-starved cells. Likewise, inhibition of integrin β1 was accompanied by a decrease in phospho-ERK. Compared to myometrial cells, leiomyoma cells demonstrated increased expression of integrin α6 subunit to laminin receptor (1.91 ± 0.11 fold), and increased expression of laminin 5α (1.52±0.02), laminin 5β (3.06±0.92), and laminin 5γ (1.66 ± 0.06). Of note, leiomyoma cells grown on laminin matrix appear to realign themselves. Taken together, the findings reveal that the attenuated mechanical signaling in leiomyoma cells is accompanied by an increased expression and a dependence on integrin β1 signaling in leiomyoma cells, compared to myometrial cells. PMID:23023061

  17. Integrins protect cardiomyocytes from ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Hideshi; Lai, N. Chin; Kawaraguchi, Yoshitaka; Liao, Peter; Copps, Jeffrey; Sugano, Yasuo; Okada-Maeda, Sunaho; Banerjee, Indroneal; Schilling, Jan M.; Gingras, Alexandre R.; Asfaw, Elizabeth K.; Suarez, Jorge; Kang, Seok-Min; Perkins, Guy A.; Au, Carol G.; Israeli-Rosenberg, Sharon; Manso, Ana Maria; Liu, Zheng; Milner, Derek J.; Kaufman, Stephen J.; Patel, Hemal H.; Roth, David M.; Hammond, H. Kirk; Taylor, Susan S.; Dillmann, Wolfgang H.; Goldhaber, Joshua I.; Ross, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic damage is recognized to cause cardiomyocyte (CM) death and myocardial dysfunction, but the role of cell-matrix interactions and integrins in this process has not been extensively studied. Expression of α7β1D integrin, the dominant integrin in normal adult CMs, increases during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), while deficiency of β1 integrins increases ischemic damage. We hypothesized that the forced overexpression of integrins on the CM would offer protection from I/R injury. Tg mice with CM-specific overexpression of integrin α7β1D exposed to I/R had a substantial reduction in infarct size compared with that of α5β1D-overexpressing mice and WT littermate controls. Using isolated CMs, we found that α7β1D preserved mitochondrial membrane potential during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury via inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ overload but did not alter H/R effects on oxidative stress. Therefore, we assessed Ca2+ handling proteins in the CM and found that β1D integrin colocalized with ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) in CM T-tubules, complexed with RyR2 in human and rat heart, and specifically bound to RyR2 amino acids 165–175. Integrins stabilized the RyR2 interdomain interaction, and this stabilization required integrin receptor binding to its ECM ligand. These data suggest that α7β1D integrin modifies Ca2+ regulatory pathways and offers a means to protect the myocardium from ischemic injury. PMID:24091324

  18. Integrin adhesions suppress syncytium formation in the Drosophila larval epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Antunes, Marco; Anderson, Aimee E.; Kadrmas, Julie L.; Jacinto, Antonio; Galko, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Integrins are critical for barrier epithelial architecture. Integrin loss in vertebrate skin leads to blistering and wound healing defects. However, how Integrins and associated proteins maintain the regular morphology of epithelia is not well understood. We found that targeted knockdown of the integrin focal adhesion (FA) complex components βIntegrin, PINCH, and Integrin-linked kinase (ILK), caused formation of multinucleate epidermal cells within the Drosophila larval epidermis. This phenotype was specific to the Integrin FA complex and not due to secondary effects on polarity or junctional structures. The multinucleate cells resembled the syncytia caused by physical wounding. Live imaging of wound-induced syncytium formation in the pupal epidermis suggested direct membrane breakdown leading to cell-cell fusion and consequent mixing of cytoplasmic contents. Activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling, which occurs upon wounding, also correlated with syncytium formation induced by PINCH knockdown. Further, ectopic JNK activation directly caused epidermal syncytium formation. No mode of syncytium formation including that induced by wounding, genetic loss-of FA-proteins, or local JNK hyperactivation, involved misregulation of mitosis or apoptosis. Finally, the mechanism of epidermal syncytium formation following JNK hyperactivation and wounding appeared to be direct disassembly of FA complexes. In conclusion, the loss of function phenotype of Integrin FA components in the larval epidermis resembles a wound. Integrin FA loss in mouse and human skin also causes a wound-like appearance. Our results reveal a novel and unexpected role for proper Integrin-based adhesion in suppressing larval epidermal cell-cell fusion– a role that may be conserved in other epithelia. PMID:26255846

  19. Real-time analysis of integrin-dependent transendothelial migration and integrin-independent interstitial motility of leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Ziv; Alon, Ronen

    2012-01-01

    The role of integrins in leukocyte migration across endothelial barriers is widely accepted. In contrast, the contribution of integrins to interstitial motility of leukocytes is still elusive. Chemokine binding to G-protein-coupled receptors expressed on the surface of leukocytes plays key roles in both of these processes by directly activating integrin conformations favorable for ligand binding and integrin microclustering. Chemokines can also serve as weak adhesive ligands and potent inducers of actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Real-time assays utilizing live imaging microscopy have been implemented to dissect these versatile roles of chemokines in different leukocyte migration processes. Here, we review several in vitro assays useful for exploring the contribution of chemokine signals and shear forces to integrin activation and function during various stages of leukocyte transendothelial migration. In addition, we describe a new assay that assesses the contribution of chemokines to integrin-independent interstitial leukocyte motility. These assays can also follow the outcome of specific genetic or biochemical manipulations of either the leukocyte or the endothelial barrier on distinct migratory steps. Following fixation, subcellular changes in the distribution of integrin subsets and of specific integrin-associated adaptors can be further dissected by immunofluorescence tools and by ultrastructural electron microscopic analysis.

  20. Tetraspanin CD151 regulates alpha6beta1 integrin adhesion strengthening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lammerding, Jan; Kazarov, Alexander R.; Huang, Hayden; Lee, Richard T.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2003-01-01

    The tetraspanin CD151 molecule associates specifically with laminin-binding integrins, including alpha6beta1. To probe strength of alpha6beta1-dependent adhesion to laminin-1, defined forces (0-1.5 nN) were applied to magnetic laminin-coated microbeads bound to NIH 3T3 cells. For NIH 3T3 cells bearing wild-type CD151, adhesion strengthening was observed, as bead detachment became more difficult over time. In contrast, mutant CD151 (with the C-terminal region replaced) showed impaired adhesion strengthening. Static cell adhesion to laminin-1, and detachment of beads coated with fibronectin or anti-alpha6 antibody were all unaffected by CD151 mutation. Hence, CD151 plays a key role in selectively strengthening alpha6beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion to laminin-1.

  1. Tetraspanin CD151 regulates alpha6beta1 integrin adhesion strengthening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lammerding, Jan; Kazarov, Alexander R.; Huang, Hayden; Lee, Richard T.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2003-01-01

    The tetraspanin CD151 molecule associates specifically with laminin-binding integrins, including alpha6beta1. To probe strength of alpha6beta1-dependent adhesion to laminin-1, defined forces (0-1.5 nN) were applied to magnetic laminin-coated microbeads bound to NIH 3T3 cells. For NIH 3T3 cells bearing wild-type CD151, adhesion strengthening was observed, as bead detachment became more difficult over time. In contrast, mutant CD151 (with the C-terminal region replaced) showed impaired adhesion strengthening. Static cell adhesion to laminin-1, and detachment of beads coated with fibronectin or anti-alpha6 antibody were all unaffected by CD151 mutation. Hence, CD151 plays a key role in selectively strengthening alpha6beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion to laminin-1.

  2. Peptide-directed binding of quantum dots to integrins in human fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peng; Chen, Hongfeng; Cho, Michael R; Stroscio, Michael A

    2006-03-01

    There is currently a major international effort aimed at integrating semiconductor nanostructures with biological structures. This paper reports the use of peptide sequences with certain motifs like artinine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) and leucine-aspartic acid-valine (LDV) to functionalize zinc sulfide (ZnS)-capped cadmiun selenide (CdSe) quantum dots, so that the quantum dot-peptide complexes selectively bind to integrins on HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells membrane. In this way, an interface between semiconductor nanocrystals and subcellular components was achieved, and the distribution pattern of RGD and LDV receptors on HT1080 cell membranes is revealed. These findings point the way to using a wide class of peptide-functionalized semiconductor quantum dots for the study of cellular processes involving integrins.

  3. Visualization of integrin Mac-1 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kihong; Hyun, Young-Min; Lambert-Emo, Kris; Topham, David J; Kim, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    β2 integrins play critical roles in migration of immune cells and in the interaction with other cells, pathogens, and the extracellular matrix. Among the β2 integrins, Mac-1 (Macrophage antigen-1), composed of CD11b and CD18, is mainly expressed in innate immune cells and plays a major role in cell migration and trafficking. In order to image Mac-1-expressing cells both in live cells and mouse, we generated a knock-in (KI) mouse strain expressing CD11b conjugated with monomeric yellow fluorescent protein (mYFP). Expression of CD11b-mYFP protein was confirmed by Western blot and silver staining of CD11b-immunoprecipitates and total cell lysates from the mouse splenocytes. Mac-1-mediated functions of the KI neutrophils were comparable with those in WT cells. The fluorescence intensity of CD11b-mYFP was sufficient to image CD11b expressing cells in live mice using intravital two-photon microscopy. In vitro, dynamic changes in the intracellular localization of CD11b molecules could be measured by epifluorescent microscopy. Finally, CD11b-expressing immune cells from tissue were easily detected by flow cytometry without anti-CD11b antibody staining. PMID:26342259

  4. Biomimetic design of platelet adhesion inhibitors to block integrin α2β1-collagen interactions: II. Inhibitor library, screening, and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Yan

    2014-04-29

    Platelet adhesion on collagen mediated by integrin α2β1 has been proven important in arterial thrombus formation, leading to an exigent demand on development of potent inhibitors for the integrin α2β1-collagen binding. In the present study, a biomimetic design strategy of platelet adhesion inhibitors was established, based on the affinity binding model of integrin proposed in part I. First, a heptapeptide library containing 8000 candidates was designed to functionally mimic the binding motif of integrin α2β1. Then, each heptapeptide in the library was docked onto a collagen molecule for the assessment of its affinity, followed by a screening based on its structure similarity to the original structure in the affinity binding model. Eight candidates were then selected for further screening by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Thereafter, three candidates chosen from MD simulations were separately added into the physiological saline containing separated integrin and collagen, to check their abilities for blocking the integrin-collagen interaction using MD simulations. Of these three candidates, significant inhibition was observed in the presence of LWWNSYY. Finally, the binding affinity of LWWNSYY for collagen was demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Moreover, significant inhibition of platelet adhesion in the presence of LWWNSYY has been experimentally validated. This work has thus developed an effective strategy for the biomimetic design of peptide-based platelet adhesion inhibitors.

  5. Breast Cancer Cells in Three-dimensional Culture Display an Enhanced Radioresponse after Coordinate Targeting of Integrin ?5?1 and Fibronectin

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Jin-Min; Onodera, Yasuhito; Bissell, Mina J; Park, Catherine C

    2010-04-07

    Tactics to selectively enhance cancer radioresponse are of great interest. Cancer cells actively elaborate and remodel their extracellular matrix (ECM) to aid in survival and progression. Previous work has shown that {beta}1-integrin inhibitory antibodies can enhance the growth-inhibitory and apoptotic responses of human breast cancer cell lines to ionizing radiation, either when cells are cultured in three-dimensional laminin-rich ECM (3D lrECM) or grown as xenografts in mice. Here, we show that a specific {alpha} heterodimer of {beta}1-integrin preferentially mediates a prosurvival signal in human breast cancer cells that can be specifically targeted for therapy. 3D lrECM culture conditions were used to compare {alpha}-integrin heterodimer expression in malignant and nonmalignant cell lines. Under these conditions, we found that expression of {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin was upregulated in malignant cells compared with nonmalignant breast cells. Similarly, we found that normal and oncofetal splice variants of fibronectin, the primary ECM ligand of {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin, were also strikingly upregulated in malignant cell lines compared with nonmalignant acini. Cell treatment with a peptide that disrupts the interactions of {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin with fibronectin promoted apoptosis in malignant cells and further heightened the apoptotic effects of radiation. In support of these results, an analysis of gene expression array data from breast cancer patients revealed an association of high levels of {alpha}5-integrin expression with decreased survival. Our findings offer preclinical validation of fibronectin and {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin as targets for breast cancer therapy.

  6. Loss of β1-integrin from urothelium results in overactive bladder and incontinence in mice: a mechanosensory rather than structural phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Kanasaki, Keizo; Yu, Weiqun; von Bodungen, Maximilian; Larigakis, John D.; Kanasaki, Megumi; Ayala de la Pena, Francisco; Kalluri, Raghu; Hill, Warren G.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder urothelium senses and communicates information about bladder fullness. However, the mechanoreceptors that respond to tissue stretch are poorly defined. Integrins are mechanotransducers in other tissues. Therefore, we eliminated β1-integrin selectively in urothelium of mice using Cre-LoxP targeted gene deletion. β1-Integrin localized to basal/intermediate urothelial cells by confocal microscopy. β1-Integrin conditional-knockout (β1-cKO) mice lacking urothelial β1-integrin exhibited down-regulation and mislocalization of α3- and α5-integrins by immunohistochemistry but, surprisingly, had normal morphology, permeability, and transepithelial resistance when compared with Cre-negative littermate controls. β1-cKO mice were incontinent, as judged by random urine leakage on filter paper (4-fold higher spotting, P<0.01; 2.5-fold higher urine area percentage, P<0.05). Urodynamic function assessed by cystometry revealed bladder overfilling with 80% longer intercontractile intervals (P<0.05) and detrusor hyperactivity (3-fold more prevoid contractions, P<0.05), but smooth muscle contractility remained intact. ATP secretion into the lumen was elevated (49 vs. 22 nM, P<0.05), indicating abnormal filling-induced purinergic signaling, and short-circuit currents (measured in Ussing chambers) revealed 2-fold higher stretch-activated ion channel conductances in response to hydrostatic pressure of 1 cmH2O (P<0.05). We conclude that loss of integrin signaling from urothelium results in incontinence and overactive bladder due to abnormal mechanotransduction; more broadly, our findings indicate that urothelium itself directly modulates voiding.—Kanasaki, K., Yu, W., von Bodungen, M., Larigakis, J. D., Kanasaki, M., Ayala de la Pena, F., Kalluri, R., Hill, W.G. Loss of β1-integrin from urothelium results in overactive bladder and incontinence in mice: a mechanosensory rather than structural phenotype. PMID:23395910

  7. Disintegrin Metalloprotease (ADAM) 10 Regulates Endothelial Permeability and T Cell Transmigration by Proteolysis of Vascular Endothelial Cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Beate; Pruessmeyer, Jessica; Maretzky, Thorsten; Ludwig, Andreas; Blobel, Carl P.; Saftig, Paul; Reiss, Karina

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is the major adhesion molecule of endothelial adherens junctions. It plays an essential role in controlling endothelial permeability, vascular integrity, leukocyte transmigration, and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of soluble VE-cadherin are associated with diseases like coronary atherosclerosis. Previous data showed that the extracellular domain of VE-cadherin is released by an unknown metalloprotease activity during apoptosis. In this study, we used gain of function analyses, inhibitor studies and RNA interference experiments to analyze the proteolytic release of VE-cadherin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that VE-cadherin is specifically cleaved by the disintegrin and metalloprotease ADAM10 in its ectodomain releasing a soluble fragment and generating a carboxyterminal membrane bound stub, which is a substrate for a subsequent γ-secretase cleavage. This ADAM10-mediated proteolysis could be induced by Ca2+-influx and staurosporine treatment, indicating that ADAM10-mediated VE-cadherin cleavage contributes to the dissolution of adherens junctions during endothelial cell activation and apoptosis, respectively. In contrast, protein kinase C activation or inhibition did not modulate VE-cadherin processing. Increased ADAM10 expression was functionally associated with an increase in endothelial permeability. Remarkably, our data indicate that ADAM10 activity also contributes to the thrombin-induced decrease of endothelial cell-cell adhesion. Moreover, knockdown of ADAM10 in HUVECs as well as in T cells by small interfering RNA impaired T cell transmigration. Taken together our data identify ADAM10 as a novel regulator of vascular permeability and demonstrate a hitherto unknown function of ADAM10 in the regulation of VE-cadherin-dependent endothelial cell functions and leukocyte transendothelial migration. PMID:18420943

  8. The Disintegrin and Metalloprotease ADAM12 Is Associated with TGF-β-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Michaël; Leyme, Anthony; Le Cann, Fabienne; Bonnier, Dominique; Le Seyec, Jacques; Chesnel, Franck; Fattet, Laurent; Rimokh, Ruth; Baffet, Georges; Théret, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The increased expression of the Disintegrin and Metalloprotease ADAM12 has been associated with human cancers, however its role remain unclear. We have previously reported that ADAM12 expression is induced by the transforming growth factor, TGF-β and promotes TGF-β-dependent signaling through interaction with the type II receptor of TGF-β. Here we explore the implication of ADAM12 in TGF-β-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process in cancer progression. We show that ADAM12 expression is correlated with EMT markers in human breast cancer cell lines and biopsies. Using a non-malignant breast epithelial cell line (MCF10A), we demonstrate that TGF-β-induced EMT increases expression of the membrane-anchored ADAM12L long form. Importantly, ADAM12L overexpression in MCF10A is sufficient to induce loss of cell-cell contact, reorganization of actin cytoskeleton, up-regulation of EMT markers and chemoresistance. These effects are independent of the proteolytic activity but require the cytoplasmic tail and are specific of ADAM12L since overexpression of ADAM12S failed to induce similar changes. We further demonstrate that ADAM12L-dependent EMT is associated with increased phosphorylation of Smad3, Akt and ERK proteins. Conversely, inhibition of TGF-β receptors or ERK activities reverses ADAM12L-induced mesenchymal phenotype. Together our data demonstrate that ADAM12L is associated with EMT and contributes to TGF-β-dependent EMT by favoring both Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways.

  9. ADAM8 is selectively upregulated in endothelial cells and is associated with angiogenesis after spinal cord injury in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Edward T.; Benton, Richard L.; Maddie, Melissa A.; Whittemore, Scott R.; Hagg, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) loss and subsequent angiogenesis occurs over the first week after spinal cord injury (SCI). To identify molecular mechanisms that could be targeted with intravenous (i.v.) treatments we determined whether transmembrane A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease (ADAM) proteins are expressed in ECs of the injured spinal cord. ADAMs bind to integrins which are important for EC survival and angiogenesis. Female adult C57Bl/6 mice with a spinal cord contusion had progressively more ADAM8 (CD156) immunostaining in blood vessels and individual ECs between 1 and 28 days following injury. Uninjured spinal cords had little ADAM8 staining. The increase in ADAM8 mRNA and protein was confirmed in spinal cord lysates, and ADAM8 mRNA was present in FACS-enriched ECs. ADAM8 co-localized extensively and exclusively with the EC marker PECAM and also with i.v. injected lectins. I.v. injected isolectin B4 (IB4) labels a subpopulation of blood vessels at and within the injury epicenter 3-7 days after injury, coincident with angiogenesis. Both ADAM8 and the proliferation marker Ki-67 were present in IB4-positive microvessels. ADAM8-positive proliferating cells were seen at the leading end of IB4-positive blood vessels. Angiogenesis was confirmed by BrdU incorporation, binding of i.v. injected nucleolin antibodies, and MT1-MMP immunostaining in a subset of blood vessels. These data suggest that ADAM8 is vascular-selective and plays a role in proliferation and/or migration of ECs during angiogenesis following SCI. PMID:19003792

  10. Class 3 semaphorins control vascular morphogenesis by inhibiting integrin function.

    PubMed

    Serini, Guido; Valdembri, Donatella; Zanivan, Sara; Morterra, Giulia; Burkhardt, Constanze; Caccavari, Francesca; Zammataro, Luca; Primo, Luca; Tamagnone, Luca; Logan, Malcolm; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Püschel, Andreas W; Bussolino, Federico

    2003-07-24

    The motility and morphogenesis of endothelial cells is controlled by spatio-temporally regulated activation of integrin adhesion receptors, and integrin activation is stimulated by major determinants of vascular remodelling. In order for endothelial cells to be responsive to changes in activator gradients, the adhesiveness of these cells to the extracellular matrix must be dynamic, and negative regulators of integrins could be required. Here we show that during vascular development and experimental angiogenesis, endothelial cells generate autocrine chemorepulsive signals of class 3 semaphorins (SEMA3 proteins) that localize at nascent adhesive sites in spreading endothelial cells. Disrupting endogenous SEMA3 function in endothelial cells stimulates integrin-mediated adhesion and migration to extracellular matrices, whereas exogenous SEMA3 proteins antagonize integrin activation. Misexpression of dominant negative SEMA3 receptors in chick embryo endothelial cells locks integrins in an active conformation, and severely impairs vascular remodelling. Sema3a null mice show vascular defects as well. Thus during angiogenesis endothelial SEMA3 proteins endow the vascular system with the plasticity required for its reshaping by controlling integrin function.

  11. Immunolocalization of integrin-like proteins in Arabidopsis and Chara

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katembe, W. J.; Swatzell, L. J.; Makaroff, C. A.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1997-01-01

    Integrins are a large family of integral plasma membrane proteins that link the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton in animal cells. As a first step in determining if integrin-like proteins are involved in gravitropic signal transduction pathways, we have used a polyclonal antibody against the chicken beta1 integrin subunit in western blot analyses and immunofluorescence microscopy to gain information on the size and location of these proteins in plants. Several different polypeptides are recognized by the anti-integrin antibody in roots and shoots of Arabidopsis and in the internodal cells and rhizoids of Chara. These cross-reactive polypeptides are associated with cellular membranes, a feature which is consistent with the known location of integrins in animal systems. In immunofluorescence studies of Arabidopsis roots, a strong signal was obtained from labeling integrin-like proteins in root cap cells, and there was little or no immunolabel in other regions of the root tip. While the antibody stained throughout Chara rhizoids, the highest density of immunolabel was at the tip. Thus, in both Arabidopsis roots and Chara rhizoids, the sites of gravity perception/transduction appear to be enriched in integrin-like molecules.

  12. Immunolocalization of integrin-like proteins in Arabidopsis and Chara

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katembe, W. J.; Swatzell, L. J.; Makaroff, C. A.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1997-01-01

    Integrins are a large family of integral plasma membrane proteins that link the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton in animal cells. As a first step in determining if integrin-like proteins are involved in gravitropic signal transduction pathways, we have used a polyclonal antibody against the chicken beta1 integrin subunit in western blot analyses and immunofluorescence microscopy to gain information on the size and location of these proteins in plants. Several different polypeptides are recognized by the anti-integrin antibody in roots and shoots of Arabidopsis and in the internodal cells and rhizoids of Chara. These cross-reactive polypeptides are associated with cellular membranes, a feature which is consistent with the known location of integrins in animal systems. In immunofluorescence studies of Arabidopsis roots, a strong signal was obtained from labeling integrin-like proteins in root cap cells, and there was little or no immunolabel in other regions of the root tip. While the antibody stained throughout Chara rhizoids, the highest density of immunolabel was at the tip. Thus, in both Arabidopsis roots and Chara rhizoids, the sites of gravity perception/transduction appear to be enriched in integrin-like molecules.

  13. Tests of the Extension and Deadbolt Models of Integrin Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jieqing; Boylan, Brian; Luo, Bing-Hao; Newman, Peter J.; Springer, Timothy A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite extensive evidence that integrin conformational changes between bent and extended conformations regulate affinity for ligands, an alternative hypothesis has been proposed in which a “deadbolt” can regulate affinity for ligand in the absence of extension. Here, we tested both the deadbolt and the extension models. According to the deadbolt model, a hairpin loop in the β3 tail domain could act as a deadbolt to restrain the displacement of the β3 I domain β6-α7 loop and maintain integrin in the low affinity state. We found that mutating or deleting the β3 tail domain loop has no effect on ligand binding by either αIIbβ3 or αVβ3 integrins. In contrast, we found that mutations that lock integrins in the bent conformation with disulfide bonds resist inside-out activation induced by cytoplasmic domain mutation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that extension is required for accessibility to fibronectin but not smaller fragments. The data demonstrate that integrin extension is required for ligand binding during integrin inside-out signaling and that the deadbolt does not regulate integrin activation. PMID:17301049

  14. Inside the Cell: Integrins as New Governors of Nuclear Alterations?

    PubMed Central

    Madrazo, Elena; Cordero Conde, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cell migration is a complex process that requires coordinated structural changes and signals in multiple cellular compartments. The nucleus is the biggest and stiffest organelle of the cell and might alter its physical properties to allow cancer cell movement. Integrins are transmembrane receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions, which regulate numerous intracellular signals and biological functions under physiological conditions. Moreover, integrins orchestrate changes in tumor cells and their microenvironment that lead to cancer growth, survival and invasiveness. Most of the research efforts have focused on targeting integrin-mediated adhesion and signaling. Recent exciting data suggest the crucial role of integrins in controlling internal cellular structures and nuclear alterations during cancer cell migration. Here we review the emerging role of integrins in nuclear biology. We highlight increasing evidence that integrins are critical for changes in multiple nuclear components, the positioning of the nucleus and its mechanical properties during cancer cell migration. Finally, we discuss how integrins are integral proteins linking the plasma membrane and the nucleus, and how they control cell migration to enable cancer invasion and infiltration. The functional connections between these cell receptors and the nucleus will serve to define new attractive therapeutic targets. PMID:28684679

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of dimeric RGD peptide-paclitaxel conjugate as a model for integrin-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Plasencia, Carmen; Hou, Yingping; Neamati, Nouri

    2005-02-24

    Targeting drugs to receptors involved in tumor angiogenesis is a novel and promising approach to improve cancer treatment. In this study, we evaluated the antitumor activity of paclitaxel (PTX) conjugated with a bicyclic peptide E[c(RGDyK)](2) (RGD) in a metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-435). The cyclic RGD peptide selectively binds to alpha(v) integrin receptors that are highly expressed in metastatic cancer cells. PTX, an antimicrotubule agent, is a potent antitumor agent commonly used in the treatment of advanced metastatic breast cancer. The in vitro results showed that RGD peptide inhibited cell cycle proliferation by arresting cells in G(0)/G(1)-phase. The PTX-RGD conjugate inhibited cell proliferation with activity comparable to that observed for paclitaxel, both of which were mediated by an arrest of G(2)/M-phase of the cell cycle followed by apoptosis. Although the PTX-RGD conjugate showed slightly decreased integrin binding affinity than the unconjugated peptide, it indicated integrin specific accumulation in vivo. (125)I-Labeled PTX-RGD showed highest tumor uptake at 2 h postinjection (2.72 +/-0.16%ID/g) and best tumor/background contrast after 4 h postinjection. Our results demonstrate the potential of tumor-targeted delivery of paclitaxel based on the specific recognition of cell adhesion molecule alpha(v)beta(3) integrin to reduce toxicity and enhance selective killing of cancer cells.

  16. The integrin alpha 6 beta 4 is a laminin receptor

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the putative laminin receptor function of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin was assessed. For this purpose, we used a human cell line, referred to as clone A, that was derived from a highly invasive, colon adenocarcinoma. This cell line, which expresses the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin, adheres to the E8 and not to the P1 fragment of laminin. The adhesion of clone A cells to laminin is extremely rapid with half- maximal adhesion observed at 5 min after plating. Adhesion to laminin is blocked by GoH3, and alpha 6 specific antibody (60% inhibition), as well as by A9, a beta 4 specific antibody (30% inhibition). Most importantly, we demonstrate that alpha 6 beta 4 binds specifically to laminin-Sepharose columns in the presence of either Mg2+ or Mn2+ and it is eluted from these columns with EDTA but not with NaCl. The alpha 6 beta 4 integrin does not bind to collagen-Sepharose, but the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin does bind. Clone A cells do not express alpha 6 beta 1 as evidenced by the following observations: (a) no beta 1 integrin is detected in beta 1 immunoblots of GoH3 immunoprecipitates; and (b) no alpha 6 beta 1 integrin is seen in GoH3 immunoprecipitates of clone A extracts that had been immunodepleted of all beta 4 containing integrin using the A9 antibody. These data establish that laminin is a ligand for the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin and that this integrin can function as a laminin receptor independently of alpha 6 beta 1. PMID:1533398

  17. Anti-invasive and anti-adhesive activities of a recombinant disintegrin, r-viridistatin 2, derived from the Prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis).

    PubMed

    Lucena, Sara E; Jia, Ying; Soto, Julio G; Parral, Jessica; Cantu, Esteban; Brannon, Jeremy; Lardner, Kristina; Ramos, Carla J; Seoane, Agustin I; Sánchez, Elda E

    2012-07-01

    Snake venom disintegrins inhibit platelet aggregation and have anti-cancer activities. In this study, we report the cloning, expression, and functional activities of a recombinant disintegrin, r-viridistatin 2 (GenBank ID: JQ071899), from the Prairie rattlesnake. r-Viridistatin 2 was tested for anti-invasive and anti-adhesive activities against six different cancer cell lines (human urinary bladder carcinoma (T24), human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080), human skin melanoma (SK-Mel-28), human colorectal adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2), human breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) and murine skin melanoma (B16F10)). r-Viridistatin 2 shares 96% and 64% amino acid identity with two other Prairie rattlesnake medium-sized disintegrins, viridin and viridistatin, respectively. r-Viridistatin 2 was able to inhibit adhesion of T24, SK-MEL-28, HT-1080, CaCo-2 and MDA-MB-231 to various extracellular matrix proteins with different affinities. r-Viridistatin 2 decreased the ability of T24 and SK-MEL-28 cells to migrate by 62 and 96% respectively, after 24 h of incubation and the invasion of T24, SK-MEL-28, HT-1080 and MDA-MB-231 cells were inhibited by 80, 85, 65 and 64% respectively, through a reconstituted basement membrane using a modified Boyden chamber. Finally, r-viridistatin 2 effectively inhibited lung colonization of murine melanoma cells in BALB/c mice by 71%, suggesting that r-viridistatin 2 could be a potent anti-cancer agent in vivo.

  18. A Combined NMR and Computational Approach to Determine the RGDechi-hCit-αv β3 Integrin Recognition Mode in Isolated Cell Membranes.

    PubMed

    Farina, Biancamaria; de Paola, Ivan; Russo, Luigi; Capasso, Domenica; Liguoro, Annamaria; Gatto, Annarita Del; Saviano, Michele; Pedone, Paolo V; Di Gaetano, Sonia; Malgieri, Gaetano; Zaccaro, Laura; Fattorusso, Roberto

    2016-01-11

    The critical role of integrins in tumor progression and metastasis has stimulated intense efforts to identify pharmacological agents that can modulate integrin function. In recent years, αv β3 and αv β5 integrin antagonists were demonstrated to be effective in blocking tumor progression. RGDechi-hCit, a chimeric peptide containing a cyclic RGD motif linked to an echistatin C-terminal fragment, is able to recognize selectively αv β3 integrin both in vitro and in vivo. High-resolution molecular details of the selective αv β3 recognition of the peptide are certainly required, nonetheless RGDechi-hCit internalization limited the use of classical in cell NMR experiments. To overcome such limitations, we used WM266 isolated cellular membranes to accomplish a detailed NMR interaction study that, combined with a computational analysis, provides significant structural insights into αv β3 molecular recognition by RGDechi-hCit. Remarkably, on the basis of the identified molecular determinants, we design a RGDechi-hCit mutant that is selective for αv β5 integrin.

  19. Prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by antibodies against α4βl integrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yednock, Ted A.; Cannon, Catherine; Fritz, Lawrence C.; Sanchez-Madrid, Francisco; Steinman, Lawrence; Karin, Nathan

    1992-03-01

    EXPERIMENTAL autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory condition of the central nervous system with similarities to multiple sclerosis1,2. In both diseases, circulating leukocytes penetrate the blood-brain barrier and damage myelin, resulting in impaired nerve conduction and paralysis3-5. We sought to identify the adhesion receptors that mediate the attachment of circulating leukocytes to inflamed brain endothelium in EAE, because this interaction is the first step in leukocyte entry into the central nervous system. Using an in vitro adhesion assay on tissue sections, we found that lymphocytes and monocytes bound selectively to inflamed EAE brain vessels. Binding was inhibited by antibodies against the integrin molecule α4βl, but not by antibodies against numerous other adhesion receptors. When tested in vivo, anti-α4 integrin effectively prevented the accumulation of leukocytes in the central nervous system and the development of EAE. Thus, therapies designed to interfere with α4βl integrin may be useful in treating inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis.

  20. A beta 1-integrin receptor for fibronectin in human kidney glomeruli.

    PubMed Central

    Kerjaschki, D.; Ojha, P. P.; Susani, M.; Horvat, R.; Binder, S.; Hovorka, A.; Hillemanns, P.; Pytela, R.

    1989-01-01

    The fibronectin receptor (FNR) is a transmembrane heterodimeric glycoprotein which shares a common beta 1-chain with several other members of the integrin family of adhesion receptors. The authors have prepared a membrane fraction of isolated human glomeruli, from which two proteins (apparent molecular weights 120 kd and 140 kd) bound to a fibronectin-column, and were selectively released by the synthetic peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser. These molecules were labeled in immune overlays by an antibody raised against the FNR from human placenta that recognizes both the FNR-specific a-chain and the group-specific beta 1-integrin chain. In sections of normal human kidneys this antibody labeled predominately the mesangia and the peripheral capillary walls of glomeruli by an immunoperoxidase procedure. Quantitative immunoelectron microscopy, using an indirect immunogold procedure, revealed a preferential localization along the cell membranes of mesangial, epithelial, and endothelial cells that face the mesangial matrix or the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). In kidney biopsies from patients with various glomerular diseases (membranous and other forms of glomerulonephritis, minimal change disease) the distribution was similar to that in normal glomeruli. These findings indicate that a beta 1-integrin-related FNR is present in normal and diseased human glomeruli. Images Figure 1-4 Figure 5 Figure 6-10 Figure 11-16 PMID:2521774

  1. Expression of alphaVbeta3 integrin in the chick embryo aortic endothelium.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Catherine

    2002-09-01

    The integrin chain alphaV, expressed in association with beta3, by cells of the megakaryocytic/thrombocytic and endothelial lineages is thought to play an important role in angiogenesis. alphaVbeta3 expression by endothelial cells is not constitutive but induced by various stimuli in avian and human models. Here the developmental pattern of alphaVbeta3 expression was analysed in the chick embryo by immunocytochemistry, using a specific monoclonal antibody. On day 2 of development alphaVbeta3 expression was restricted to rare cells in the blood stream, in the embryo proper and in the yolk sac blood islands. AlphaVbeta3 expression by endothelial cells became detectable on day 3 and was restricted to the dorsal aorta. Interestingly it was absent from the intra-aortic hemopoietic clusters (E3.5) which, as we have showed previously, express the alphaIIbbeta3 integrin and display progenitor potentialities. However the endothelium underlying intra-embryonic hemopoietic clusters expressed this integrin. In contrast E6-7 para-aortic hemopoietic foci contained numerous alphaVbeta3 positive cells. Both alphaVbeta3 and alphaIIbbeta3 were expressed in these latter hemopoietic sites, while alphaVbeta3 was still selectively expressed by the aortic endothelium until E6. Thereafter, at E7 the pulmonary artery also expressed it. Since alphaIIbbeta3 is expressed by avian and murine multilineage hemopoietic progenitors, we then studied the hemopoietic potentialities of alphaVbeta3/alphaIIbeta3 double positive cells from embryonic bone marrow differentiating in vitro in erythro-myeloid conditions. Thrombocytic, erythroid and myeloid progenitor potentialities were found within the cell population expressing both beta3 integrins.

  2. Identification of interacting hot spots in the beta3 integrin stalk using comprehensive interface design.

    PubMed

    Donald, Jason E; Zhu, Hua; Litvinov, Rustem I; DeGrado, William F; Bennett, Joel S

    2010-12-03

    Protein-protein interfaces are usually large and complementary surfaces, but specific side chains, representing energetic "hot spots," often contribute disproportionately to binding free energy. We used a computational method, comprehensive interface design, to identify hot spots in the interface between the stalk regions of the β3 and the complementary αIIb and αv integrin subunits. Using the Rosetta alanine-scanning and design algorithms to predict destabilizing, stabilizing, and neutral mutations in the β3 region extending from residues Lys(532) through Gly(690), we predicted eight alanine mutations that would destabilize the αIIbβ3 interface as well as nine predicted to destabilize the αvβ3 interface, by at least 0.3 kcal/mol. The mutations were widely and unevenly distributed, with four between residues 552 and 563 and five between 590 and 610, but none between 565 and 589, and 611 and 655. Further, mutations destabilizing the αvβ3 and αIIbβ3 interfaces were not identical. The predictions were then tested by introducing selected mutations into the full-length integrins expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Five mutations predicted to destabilize αIIb and β3 caused fibrinogen binding to αIIbβ3, whereas three of four predicted to be neutral or stabilizing did not. Conversely, a mutation predicted to destabilize αvβ3, but not αIIbβ3 (D552A), caused osteopontin binding to αvβ3, but not fibrinogen binding to αIIbβ3. These results indicate that stability of the distal stalk interface is involved in constraining integrins in stable, inactive conformations. Further, they demonstrate the ability of comprehensive interface design to identify functionally significant integrin mutations.

  3. Bidirectional transmembrane signaling by cytoplasmic domain separation in integrins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsoo; Carman, Christopher V; Springer, Timothy A

    2003-09-19

    Although critical for development, immunity, wound healing, and metastasis, integrins represent one of the few classes of plasma membrane receptors for which the basic signaling mechanism remains a mystery. We investigated cytoplasmic conformational changes in the integrin LFA-1 (alphaLbeta2) in living cells by measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer between cyan fluorescent protein-fused and yellow fluorescent protein-fused alphaL and beta2 cytoplasmic domains. In the resting state these domains were close to each other, but underwent significant spatial separation upon either intracellular activation of integrin adhesiveness (inside-out signaling) or ligand binding (outside-in signaling). Thus, bidirectional integrin signaling is accomplished by coupling extracellular conformational changes to an unclasping and separation of the alpha and beta cytoplasmic domains, a distinctive mechanism for transmitting information across the plasma membrane.

  4. Rap1 and integrin inside-out signaling.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Koko; Kinashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    In leukocytes, integrins play important roles in adhesive interactions with endothelium, antigen-presenting cells, and effector functions such as cytotoxicity. This chapter describes methods to study Ras proximity 1 (Rap1), a signaling molecule that has been increasingly recognized as an important regulator of integrin-mediated cell adhesion in the immune system as well as hemostasis. Rap1 is activated by a wide variety of external stimuli including chemokines and antigens. Signaling via Rap1 transmits an inside-out signal to the integrins, thereby increasing adhesiveness to ligands such as immunoglobulin superfamily proteins as well as extracellular matrix proteins and plasma proteins. This process induces leukocyte cell adhesion to the endothelium and antigen-presenting cells. In addition to integrin regulation, activated Rap1 induces cell polarity of lymphocytes, which is coordinated with LFA-1 redistribution to the leading edge.

  5. Pulmonary administration of integrin-nanoparticles regenerates collapsed alveoli.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Michiko; Kojima, Hisako; Sakai, Hitomi; Kubo, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Chikamasa

    2014-08-10

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an intractable pulmonary disease, causes widespread and irreversible alveoli collapse. In search of a treatment target molecule, which is able to regenerate collapsed alveoli, we sought to identify a factor that induces differentiation in human alveolar epithelial stem cells using all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), whose alveolar repair capacity has been reported in animal experiments. When human alveolar epithelial stem cells were exposed to ATRA at a concentration of 10μM for over seven days, approximately 20% of the cells differentiated into each of the type-I and type-II alveolar epithelial cells that constitute the alveoli. In a microarray analysis, integrin-α1 and integrin-β3 showed the largest variation in the ATRA-treated group compared with the controls. Furthermore, the effect of the induction of differentiation in human alveolar epithelial stem cells using ATRA was suppressed by approximately one-fourth by siRNA treatments with integrin α1 and integrin β3. These results suggested that integrin α1 and β3 are factors responsible for the induction of differentiation in human alveolar epithelial stem cells. We accordingly investigated whether integrin nanoparticles also had a regenerative effect in vivo. Elastase-induced COPD model mouse was produced, and the alveolar repair effect of pulmonary administration using nanoparticles of integrin protein was evaluated by X-ray CT scanning. Improvement in the CT value in comparison with an untreated group indicated that there was an alveolar repair effect. In this study, it was shown that the differentiation-inducing effect on human alveolar epithelial stem cells by ATRA was induced by increased expression of integrin, and that the induced integrin enhanced phosphorylation signaling of AKT, resulting in inducing differentiations. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that lung administration of nanoparticles with increased solubility and stability of integrin

  6. Immunolocalization of integrins and fibronectin in tubal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Inan, Sevinc; Giray, Gulsen; Vatansever, H Seda; Ozbilgin, Kemal; Kuscu, N Kemal; Sayhan, Sevil

    2004-01-01

    Integrins are a large family of cell adhesion molecules that serve as receptors involved in cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions during implantation. We studied immunohistochemical staining of integrins (alpha 3, alpha V, beta 1, and alpha 2 beta 1) and fibronectin in ectopic tubal pregnancy. Thirty fallopian tube samples with ectopic pregnancies and five normal tubal segments were obtained during ligation operations; the latter specimens served as controls in the study. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or primary antibodies against alpha 3, beta 1, alpha V, and alpha 2 beta 1 integrins and fibronectin, using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. A semi-quantitative grading system was used to compare staining intensities. In the control samples, immunostaining of all integrins was found in a single layer of tall columnar epithelial cells, the lamina propria (Lp) and the muscular layer. Fibronectin staining was detected in the Lp and the muscular layer. Staining intensities of alpha 3 and beta 1 integrins and fibronectin were increased in the normal part of fallopian tubes with ectopic pregnancies. Staining of beta 1 integrin was more intense than staining of alpha 3 and fibronectin, whereas there was no difference in alpha V and alpha 2 beta 1 integrin expression between normal tubal tissue in the ectopic pregnancy group and control tubal tissue. In the tubal pregnancy group at the site of implantation, staining intensity of alpha 3 and beta 1 integrins and fibronectin was strong in decidual cells, supporting tissue and placental villi, whereas alpha V and alpha 2 beta 1 staining was mild. We concluded that integrins, especially beta 1 and alpha 3, and fibronectin may play a role in progression of tubal implantation. Although the role of integrins has not yet been clearly defined, these molecules may function as markers of normal and abnormal states of receptivity. We like to suggest that integrins and

  7. Engineered microenvironments for synergistic VEGF - Integrin signalling during vascularization.

    PubMed

    Moulisová, Vladimíra; Gonzalez-García, Cristina; Cantini, Marco; Rodrigo-Navarro, Aleixandre; Weaver, Jessica; Costell, Mercedes; Sabater I Serra, Roser; Dalby, Matthew J; García, Andrés J; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    We have engineered polymer-based microenvironments that promote vasculogenesis both in vitro and in vivo through synergistic integrin-growth factor receptor signalling. Poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) triggers spontaneous organization of fibronectin (FN) into nanonetworks which provide availability of critical binding domains. Importantly, the growth factor binding (FNIII12-14) and integrin binding (FNIII9-10) regions are simultaneously available on FN fibrils assembled on PEA. This material platform promotes synergistic integrin/VEGF signalling which is highly effective for vascularization events in vitro with low concentrations of VEGF. VEGF specifically binds to FN fibrils on PEA compared to control polymers (poly(methyl acrylate), PMA) where FN remains in a globular conformation and integrin/GF binding domains are not simultaneously available. The vasculogenic response of human endothelial cells seeded on these synergistic interfaces (VEGF bound to FN assembled on PEA) was significantly improved compared to soluble administration of VEGF at higher doses. Early onset of VEGF signalling (PLCγ1 phosphorylation) and both integrin and VEGF signalling (ERK1/2 phosphorylation) were increased only when VEGF was bound to FN nanonetworks on PEA, while soluble VEGF did not influence early signalling. Experiments with mutant FN molecules with impaired integrin binding site (FN-RGE) confirmed the role of the integrin binding site of FN on the vasculogenic response via combined integrin/VEGF signalling. In vivo experiments using 3D scaffolds coated with FN and VEGF implanted in the murine fat pad demonstrated pro-vascularization signalling by enhanced formation of new tissue inside scaffold pores. PEA-driven organization of FN promotes efficient presentation of VEGF to promote vascularization in regenerative medicine applications.

  8. Enhancing integrin function by VEGF/neuropilin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Hira Lal; Mercurio, Arthur M.

    2012-01-01

    This review advances the hypothesis that the ability of integrins to engage their extracellular matrix ligands and signal can be regulated in tumor cells by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a major angiogenic factor that also has direct effects on the function of tumor cells. More specifically, we will discuss how neuropilins (NRPs), a distinct class of VEGF receptors, enable the function of specific integrins that contribute to tumor initiation and progression. PMID:23076131

  9. Function of the alpha 6 Integrins in Breast Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    motility on laminin-1. Time-lapse was resistant to solubilization with Triton X-100. Cy- videomicroscopy of clone A cells on laminin-1 revealed...represent SEM. The Integrin a6/34 Participates in the Dynamic Formation of Actin-based Motility Structures: Filopodia lapse videomicroscopy in serum-free...threefold greater time-lapse videomicroscopy to understand how the cu6P34 than on an equivalent concentration of collagen type I, integrin contributes to

  10. Fibroblast activation protein increases metastatic potential of fibrosarcoma line HT1080 through upregulation of integrin-mediated signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Baird, Sarah K; Allan, Laura; Renner, Christoph; Scott, Fiona E; Scott, Andrew M

    2015-06-01

    The serine protease fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is selectively expressed on tumour-associated fibroblasts in most human epithelial tumours, as well as on some mesenchymal tumours such as sarcoma. High FAP expression is most often associated with poor outcome and increased metastasis. Here, we compare the in vitro metastatic potential of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells with and without FAP expression in order to elucidate the mechanism by which FAP may influence metastasis. In the presence of FAP, cells were more adhesive to extracellular matrix proteins and migrated and invaded through Matrigel to a greater degree. The anti-FAP antibody ESC11, which caused internalization of FAP, decreased adhesion and migration, but only when cells expressed FAP. It was also found that blocking activity of integrins β1 and αvβ3 reduced both cell adhesion and migration and this effect was much more marked in FAP-expressing HT1080 cells than mock-transfected HT1080 cells. The expression or activation of intracellular proteins that form part of the downstream signaling of integrins, including integrin-linked kinase, Rac1 and focal adhesion kinase, was also upregulated when FAP was expressed, suggesting that FAP not only upregulates metastatic-like cell behaviours through interaction with integrins, but also influences the intracellular signaling of integrins. This was confirmed using both PI3 kinase and Src kinase inhibitors, which decreased adhesion and migration in FAP-expressing cells, but did not affect mock-transfected HT1080 cells. FAP is therefore a useful target for anti-cancer therapy, as not only is its expression tumour-selective, but its downregulation has the potential to reduce incidence of metastasis.

  11. A small-molecule inhibitor of integrin alpha2 beta1 introduces a new strategy for antithrombotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Nissinen, L; Pentikäinen, O T; Jouppila, A; Käpylä, J; Ojala, M; Nieminen, J; Lipsanen, A; Lappalainen, H; Eckes, B; Johnson, M S; Lassila, R; Marjamäki, A; Heino, J

    2010-02-01

    Interaction of blood platelets with vascular collagen is an initiating event in haemostasis and thrombus formation. Based on molecular modelling of human integrin alpha2I domain and cell-based screening assays we have developed sulfonamide derivatives, a mechanistically novel class of molecules. These molecules show antiplatelet efficacy by selectively inhibiting alpha2beta1 integrin-mediated collagen binding. One sulfonamide derivative, named BTT-3016, showed inhibitory capacity in several assessments of human platelet interaction with collagen. It inhibited about 90% of the aggregation of gel-filtered magnesium-supplemented platelets and 70% of aggregation in PPACK-anticoagulated platelet-rich plasma when stimulated with collagen but not with ADP. The antiplatelet activity of BTT-3016 was dependent on alpha2beta1 integrin, since in collagen binding test BTT-3016 had no effect on the platelets derived from alpha2 integrin null mice. When tested in an in vivo model in mice, BTT-3016 clearly reduced thrombus formation on the vessel wall after vascular injury. Furthermore, BTT-3016 prolonged tail-bleeding time in a manner comparable to aspirin. We show that new alpha2beta1 inhibitors exert collagen-specific antiplatelet activity and regulate thrombus growth in vivo without compromising primary haemostasis more than aspirin. We suggest that the alpha2beta1 inhibiting strategy could be further developed for the prevention and treatment of arterial thrombosis.

  12. Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide as integrin-targeting surface decorator of selenium nanoparticles to achieve enhanced anticancer efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenting; Fu, Yuanting; Yang, Fang; Yang, Yufeng; Liu, Ting; Zheng, Wenjie; Zeng, Lilan; Chen, Tianfeng

    2014-08-27

    The poor permeability of glioma parenchyma represents a major limit for antiglioblastoma drug delivery. Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide (GLP), which has a high binding affinity to αvβ3 integrin overexpressed in glioma cells, was employed in the present study to functionalize selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) to achieve antiglioblastoma efficacy. GLP-SeNPs showed satisfactory size distribution, high stability, and selectivity between cancer and normal cells. In U87 glioma cell membrane, which has a high integrin expression level, GLP-SeNPs exhibited significantly higher cellular uptake than unmodified SeNPs. As expected, U87 cells exhibited a greater uptake of GLP-SeNPs than C6 cells with low integrin expression level. Furthermore, the internalization of GLP-SeNPs was inhibited by cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe-Lys) peptides, suggesting that cellular uptake into U87 cells and C6 cells occurred via αvβ3 integrin-mediated endocytosis. For U87 cells, the cytotoxicity of SeNPs decorated by GLP was enhanced significantly because of the induction of various apoptosis signaling pathways. Internalized GLP-SeNPs triggered intracellular reactive oxygen species downregulation. Therefore, p53, MAPKs, and AKT pathways were activated to advance cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that surface decoration of nanomaterials with GLP could be an efficient strategy for design and preparation of glioblastoma targeting nanodrugs.

  13. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Use Integrin β1 Not CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 for Myocardial Migration and Engraftment

    PubMed Central

    Ip, James E.; Wu, Yaojiong; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Lunan; Pratt, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated the importance of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in the repair of damaged myocardium. The molecular mechanisms of engraftment and migration of BM-MSCs in the ischemic myocardium are unknown. In this study, we developed a functional genomics approach toward the identification of mediators of engraftment and migration of BM-MSCs within the ischemic myocardium. Our strategy involves microarray profiling (>22,000 probes) of ischemic hearts, complemented by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence-activated cell sorting of corresponding adhesion molecule and cytokine receptors in BM-MSCs to focus on the coexpressed pairs only. Our data revealed nine complementary adhesion molecules and cytokine receptors, including integrin β1, integrin α4, and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). To examine their functional contributions, we first blocked selectively these receptors by preincubation of BM-MSCs with specific neutralizing antibodies, and then we administered these cells intramyocardially. A significant reduction in the total number of BM-MSC in the infarcted myocardium was observed after integrin β1 blockade but not integrin α4 or CXCR4 blockade. The latter observation is distinctively different from that reported for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Thus, our data show that BM-MSCs use a different pathway from HSCs for intramyocardial trafficking and engraftment. PMID:17507648

  14. Prostaglandin E2 upregulates β1 integrin expression via the E prostanoid 1 receptor/nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway in non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaoming; Yang, Qinyi; Shu, Wei; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Li; Ma, Juan; Xia, Shukai; Zhang, Min; Cheng, Shanyu; Wang, Yipin; Leng, Jing

    2014-05-01

    The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) E prostanoid (EP)1 receptor shown to be associated with lung cancer cell invasion. However, the mechanism of EP1 receptor-mediated cell migration remains to be elucidated. β1 integrin is an essential regulator of the tumorigenic properties of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. To date, little is known regarding the association between the EP1 receptor and β1 integrin expression. The present study investigated the effect of EP1 receptor activation on β1 integrin expression and cell migration in NSCLC cells. A total of 34 patients with clinical diagnosis of NSCLC and 10 patients with benign disease were recruited for the present study. The expression levels of the EP1 receptor and β1 integrin expression were studied in resected lung tissue using immunohistochemistry. A statistical analysis was performed using Stata se12.0 software. The effects of PGE2, EP1 agonist 17-phenyl trinor-PGE2 (17-PT-PGE2) and the nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κB) inhibitor on β1 integrin expression were investigated on A549 cells. The expression of β1 integrin and the phosphorylation of NF-κB‑p65 Ser536 was investigated by western blot analysis. Cell migration was assessed by a transwell assay. The results demonstrated that β1 integrin and EP1 receptor expression exhibited a positive correlation of evident significance in the 44 samples. The in vitro migration assay revealed that cell migration was increased by 30% when the cells were treated with 5 µM 17-PT-PGE2 and that the pre-treatment of β1 integrin monoclonal antibody inhibited 17-PT-PGE2‑mediated cell migration completely. PGE2 and 17-PT-PGE2 treatment increased β1 integrin expression. RNA interference against the EP1 receptor blocked the PGE2-mediated β1 integrin expression in A549 cells. Treatment with 17-PT-PGE2 induced NF-κB activation, and the selective NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate inhibited 17-PT-PGE2-mediated β1 integrin expression. In conclusion, the present

  15. Human macrophage differentiation involves an interaction between integrins and fibronectin

    SciTech Connect

    Laouar, A.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Collart, F.; Huberman, E.

    1997-03-14

    The authors have examined the role of integrins and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in macrophage differentiation of (1) human HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and (2) human peripheral blood monocytes induced by either PMA or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). Increased {beta}{sub 1} integrin and fibronectin (FN) gene expression was observed in PMA-treated HL-60 cells and PMA- or M-CSF-treated monocytes, even at a time preceding the manifestation of macrophage markers. Treated HL-60 cells and monocytes also released and deposited FN on the culture dishes. An HL-60 cell variant, HL-525, which is deficient in protein kinase C {beta} (PKC{beta}) and resistant to PMA-induced differentiation, failed to express FN after PMA treatment. Restoration of PKC{beta} resulted in PMA-induced FN gene expression and macrophage differentiation. The macrophage phenotype induced in HL-60 cells or monocytes was attenuated by anti-{beta}{sub 1} integrin or anti-FN MAbs. The authors suggest that macrophage differentiation involves activation of PKC and expression of specific integrins and ECM proteins. The stimulated cells, through their integrins, attach and spread on these substrates by binding to the deposited ECM proteins. This attachment and spreading in turn, through integrin signaling, leads to the macrophage phenotype.

  16. Integrin activation controls metastasis in human breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felding-Habermann, Brunhilde; O'Toole, Timothy E.; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Fransvea, Emilia; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Hughes, Paul E.; Pampori, Nisar; Shattil, Sanford J.; Saven, Alan; Mueller, Barbara M.

    2001-02-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of death in human breast cancer. Metastasis to bone, lungs, liver, and brain involves dissemination of breast cancer cells via the bloodstream and requires adhesion within the vasculature. Blood cell adhesion within the vasculature depends on integrins, a family of transmembrane adhesion receptors, and is regulated by integrin activation. Here we show that integrin v3 supports breast cancer cell attachment under blood flow conditions in an activation-dependent manner. Integrin v3 was found in two distinct functional states in human breast cancer cells. The activated, but not the nonactivated, state supported tumor cell arrest during blood flow through interaction with platelets. Importantly, activated αvβ3 was expressed by freshly isolated metastatic human breast cancer cells and variants of the MDA-MB 435 human breast cancer cell line, derived from mammary fat pad tumors or distant metastases in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Expression of constitutively activated mutant αvβ3D723R, but not αvβ3WT, in MDA-MB 435 cells strongly promoted metastasis in the mouse model. Thus breast cancer cells can exhibit a platelet-interactive and metastatic phenotype that is controlled by the activation of integrin αvβ3. Consequently, alterations within tumors that lead to the aberrant control of integrin activation are expected to adversely affect the course of human breast cancer.

  17. Integrin activation controls metastasis in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Felding-Habermann, Brunhilde; O'Toole, Timothy E.; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Fransvea, Emilia; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Hughes, Paul E.; Pampori, Nisar; Shattil, Sanford J.; Saven, Alan; Mueller, Barbara M.

    2001-01-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of death in human breast cancer. Metastasis to bone, lungs, liver, and brain involves dissemination of breast cancer cells via the bloodstream and requires adhesion within the vasculature. Blood cell adhesion within the vasculature depends on integrins, a family of transmembrane adhesion receptors, and is regulated by integrin activation. Here we show that integrin αvβ3 supports breast cancer cell attachment under blood flow conditions in an activation-dependent manner. Integrin αvβ3 was found in two distinct functional states in human breast cancer cells. The activated, but not the nonactivated, state supported tumor cell arrest during blood flow through interaction with platelets. Importantly, activated αvβ3 was expressed by freshly isolated metastatic human breast cancer cells and variants of the MDA-MB 435 human breast cancer cell line, derived from mammary fat pad tumors or distant metastases in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Expression of constitutively activated mutant αvβ3D723R, but not αvβ3WT, in MDA-MB 435 cells strongly promoted metastasis in the mouse model. Thus breast cancer cells can exhibit a platelet-interactive and metastatic phenotype that is controlled by the activation of integrin αvβ3. Consequently, alterations within tumors that lead to the aberrant control of integrin activation are expected to adversely affect the course of human breast cancer. PMID:11172040

  18. Kindlin-1 regulates integrin dynamics and adhesion turnover.

    PubMed

    Margadant, Coert; Kreft, Maaike; Zambruno, Giovanna; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2013-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the integrin co-activator kindlin-1 cause Kindler syndrome. We report a novel kindlin-1-deficient keratinocyte cell line derived from a Kindler syndrome patient. Despite the expression of kindlin-2, the patient's cells display several hallmarks related to reduced function of β1 integrins, including abnormal cell morphology, cell adhesion, cell spreading, focal adhesion assembly, and cell migration. Defective cell adhesion was aggravated by kindlin-2 depletion, indicating that kindlin-2 can compensate to a certain extent for the loss of kindlin-1. Intriguingly, β1 at the cell-surface was aberrantly glycosylated in the patient's cells, and its expression was considerably reduced, both in cells in vitro and in the patient's epidermis. Reconstitution with wild-type kindlin-1 but not with a β1-binding defective mutant restored the aberrant β1 expression and glycosylation, and normalized cell morphology, adhesion, spreading, and migration. Furthermore, the expression of wild-type kindlin-1, but not of the integrin-binding-defective mutant, increased the stability of integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions and enhanced the redistribution of internalized integrins to the cell surface. Thus, these data uncover a role for kindlin-1 in the regulation of integrin trafficking and adhesion turnover.

  19. Kindlin-1 Regulates Integrin Dynamics and Adhesion Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Margadant, Coert; Kreft, Maaike; Zambruno, Giovanna; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2013-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the integrin co-activator kindlin-1 cause Kindler syndrome. We report a novel kindlin-1-deficient keratinocyte cell line derived from a Kindler syndrome patient. Despite the expression of kindlin-2, the patient’s cells display several hallmarks related to reduced function of β1 integrins, including abnormal cell morphology, cell adhesion, cell spreading, focal adhesion assembly, and cell migration. Defective cell adhesion was aggravated by kindlin-2 depletion, indicating that kindlin-2 can compensate to a certain extent for the loss of kindlin-1. Intriguingly, β1 at the cell-surface was aberrantly glycosylated in the patient’s cells, and its expression was considerably reduced, both in cells in vitro and in the patient’s epidermis. Reconstitution with wild-type kindlin-1 but not with a β1-binding defective mutant restored the aberrant β1 expression and glycosylation, and normalized cell morphology, adhesion, spreading, and migration. Furthermore, the expression of wild-type kindlin-1, but not of the integrin-binding-defective mutant, increased the stability of integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions and enhanced the redistribution of internalized integrins to the cell surface. Thus, these data uncover a role for kindlin-1 in the regulation of integrin trafficking and adhesion turnover. PMID:23776470

  20. Integrin-based therapeutics: biological basis, clinical use and new drugs.

    PubMed

    Ley, Klaus; Rivera-Nieves, Jesus; Sandborn, William J; Shattil, Sanford

    2016-03-01

    Integrins are activatable molecules that are involved in adhesion and signalling. Of the 24 known human integrins, 3 are currently targeted therapeutically by monoclonal antibodies, peptides or small molecules: drugs targeting the platelet αIIbβ3 integrin are used to prevent thrombotic complications after percutaneous coronary interventions, and compounds targeting the lymphocyte α4β1 and α4β7 integrins have indications in multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. New antibodies and small molecules targeting β7 integrins (α4β7 and αEβ7 integrins) and their ligands are in clinical development for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Integrin-based therapeutics have shown clinically significant benefits in many patients, leading to continued medical interest in the further development of novel integrin inhibitors. Of note, almost all integrin antagonists in use or in late-stage clinical trials target either the ligand-binding site or the ligand itself.

  1. Nanoparticle-formulated siRNA targeting integrins inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma progression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bogorad, Roman L; Yin, Hao; Zeigerer, Anja; Nonaka, Hidenori; Ruda, Vera; Zerial, Marino; Anderson, Daniel G; Koteliansky, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Integrins play an important role during development, regulating cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. Here we show that knockdown of integrin subunits slows down the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using nanoparticulate delivery of short interfering RNAs targeting β1 and αv integrin subunits we downregulate all integrin receptors in hepatocytes. Short-term integrin knockdown (two weeks) does not cause apparent structural or functional perturbations of normal liver tissue. Alterations in liver morphology accumulate upon sustained integrin downregulation (seven weeks). The integrin knockdown leads to significant retardation of HCC progression, reducing proliferation and increasing tumour cell death. This tumour retardation is accompanied by reduced activation of MET oncogene as well as expression of its mature form on the cell surface. Our data suggest that transformed proliferating cells from HCC are more sensitive to knockdown of integrins than normal quiescent hepatocytes, highlighting the potential of siRNA-mediated inhibition of integrins as an anti-cancer therapeutic approach. PMID:24844798

  2. Structural basis of substrate discrimination and integrin binding by autotaxin

    SciTech Connect

    Hausmann, Jens; Kamtekar, Satwik; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Day, Jacqueline E.; Wu, Tao; Fulkerson, Zachary; Albers, Harald M.H.G.; van Meeteren, Laurens A.; Houben, Anna J.S.; van Zeijl, Leonie; Jansen, Silvia; Andries, Maria; Hall, Troii; Pegg, Lyle E.; Benson, Timothy E.; Kasiem, Mobien; Harlos, Karl; Vander Kooi, Craig W.; Smyth, Susan S.; Ovaa, Huib; Bollen, Mathieu; Morris, Andrew J.; Moolenaar, Wouter H.; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2013-09-25

    Autotaxin (ATX, also known as ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-2, ENPP2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a mitogen and chemoattractant for many cell types. ATX-LPA signaling is involved in various pathologies including tumor progression and inflammation. However, the molecular basis of substrate recognition and catalysis by ATX and the mechanism by which it interacts with target cells are unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of ATX, alone and in complex with a small-molecule inhibitor. We have identified a hydrophobic lipid-binding pocket and mapped key residues for catalysis and selection between nucleotide and phospholipid substrates. We have shown that ATX interacts with cell-surface integrins through its N-terminal somatomedin B-like domains, using an atypical mechanism. Our results define determinants of substrate discrimination by the ENPP family, suggest how ATX promotes localized LPA signaling and suggest new approaches for targeting ATX with small-molecule therapeutic agents.

  3. Structural basis for substrate discrimination and integrin binding by autotaxin

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Jens; Kamtekar, Satwik; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Day, Jacqueline E.; Wu, Tao; Fulkerson, Zachary; Albers, Harald M.H.G.; van Meeteren, Laurens A.; Houben, Anna; van Zeijl, Leonie; Jansen, Silvia; Andries, Maria; Hall, Troii; Pegg, Lyle E.; Benson, Timothy E.; Kasiem, Mobien; Harlos, Karl; Vander Kooi, Craig; Smyth, Susan S.; Ovaa, Huib; Bollen, Mathieu; Morris, Andrew J.; Moolenaar, Wouter H.; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2010-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) or ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-2 (ENPP2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a mitogen and chemo-attractant for many cell types. ATX-LPA signaling has roles in various pathologies including tumour progression and inflammation. However, the molecular basis of substrate recognition and catalysis, and the mechanism of interaction with target cells, has been elusive. Here we present the crystal structure of ATX, alone and in complex with a small-molecule inhibitor. We identify a hydrophobic lipid-binding pocket and map key residues required for catalysis and selection between nucleotide and phospholipid substrates. We show that ATX interacts with cell-surface integrins via its N-terminal somatomedin-B-like domains, using an atypical mechanism. Our results define determinants of substrate discrimination by the ENPP family, suggest how ATX promotes localized LPA signaling, and enable new approaches to target ATX with small-molecule therapeutics. PMID:21240271

  4. The Neutrophil Btk Signalosome Regulates Integrin Activation during Sterile Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Volmering, Stephanie; Block, Helena; Boras, Mark; Lowell, Clifford A.; Zarbock, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Neutrophils are recruited from the blood to sites of sterile inflammation, where they are involved in wound healing but can also cause tissue damage. During sterile inflammation, necrotic cells release pro-inflammatory molecules including formylated peptides. However, the signaling pathway triggered by formylated peptides to integrin activation and leukocyte recruitment is unknown. By using spinning-disk confocal intravital microscopy, we examined the molecular mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment to sites of focal hepatic necrosis in vivo. We demonstrated that the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) was required for multiple Mac-1 activation events involved in neutrophil recruitment and functions during sterile inflammation triggered by fMLF. The Src family kinase Hck, Wiskott-Aldrich-syndrome protein, and phospholipase Cγ2 were also involved in this pathway required for fMLF-triggered Mac-1 activation and neutrophil recruitment. Thus, we have identified a neutrophil Btk signalosome that is involved in a signaling pathway triggered by formylated peptides leading to the selective activation of Mac-1 and neutrophil recruitment during sterile inflammation. PMID:26777396

  5. Muscle beta1D integrin reinforces the cytoskeleton-matrix link: modulation of integrin adhesive function by alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Belkin, A M; Retta, S F; Pletjushkina, O Y; Balzac, F; Silengo, L; Fassler, R; Koteliansky, V E; Burridge, K; Tarone, G

    1997-12-15

    Expression of muscle-specific beta1D integrin with an alternatively spliced cytoplasmic domain in CHO and GD25, beta1 integrin-minus cells leads to their phenotypic conversion. beta1D-transfected nonmuscle cells display rounded morphology, lack of pseudopodial activity, retarded spreading, reduced migration, and significantly enhanced contractility compared with their beta1A-expressing counterparts. The transfected beta1D is targeted to focal adhesions and efficiently displaces the endogenous beta1A and alphavbeta3 integrins from the sites of cell-matrix contact. This displacement is observed on several types of extracellular matrix substrata and leads to elevated stability of focal adhesions in beta1D transfectants. Whereas a significant part of cellular beta1A integrin is extractable in digitonin, the majority of the transfected beta1D is digitonin-insoluble and is strongly associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton. Increased interaction of beta1D integrin with the actin cytoskeleton is consistent with and might be mediated by its enhanced binding to talin. In contrast, beta1A interacts more strongly with alpha-actinin, than beta1D. Inside-out driven activation of the beta1D ectodomain increases ligand binding and fibronectin matrix assembly by beta1D transfectants. Phenotypic effects of beta1D integrin expression in nonmuscle cells are due to its enhanced interactions with both cytoskeletal and extracellular ligands. They parallel the transitions that muscle cells undergo during differentiation. Modulation of beta1 integrin adhesive function by alternative splicing serves as a physiological mechanism reinforcing the cytoskeleton- matrix link in muscle cells. This reflects the major role for beta1D integrin in muscle, where extremely stable association is required for contraction.

  6. Muscle β1D Integrin Reinforces the Cytoskeleton–Matrix Link: Modulation of Integrin Adhesive Function by Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Belkin, Alexey M.; Retta, S. Francesco; Pletjushkina, Olga Y.; Balzac, Fiorella; Silengo, Lorenzo; Fassler, Reinhard; Koteliansky, Victor E.; Burridge, Keith; Tarone, Guido

    1997-01-01

    Expression of muscle-specific β1D integrin with an alternatively spliced cytoplasmic domain in CHO and GD25, β1 integrin-minus cells leads to their phenotypic conversion. β1D-transfected nonmuscle cells display rounded morphology, lack of pseudopodial activity, retarded spreading, reduced migration, and significantly enhanced contractility compared with their β1A-expressing counterparts. The transfected β1D is targeted to focal adhesions and efficiently displaces the endogenous β1A and αvβ3 integrins from the sites of cell–matrix contact. This displacement is observed on several types of extracellular matrix substrata and leads to elevated stability of focal adhesions in β1D transfectants. Whereas a significant part of cellular β1A integrin is extractable in digitonin, the majority of the transfected β1D is digitonin-insoluble and is strongly associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton. Increased interaction of β1D integrin with the actin cytoskeleton is consistent with and might be mediated by its enhanced binding to talin. In contrast, β1A interacts more strongly with α-actinin, than β1D. Inside-out driven activation of the β1D ectodomain increases ligand binding and fibronectin matrix assembly by β1D transfectants. Phenotypic effects of β1D integrin expression in nonmuscle cells are due to its enhanced interactions with both cytoskeletal and extracellular ligands. They parallel the transitions that muscle cells undergo during differentiation. Modulation of β1 integrin adhesive function by alternative splicing serves as a physiological mechanism reinforcing the cytoskeleton– matrix link in muscle cells. This reflects the major role for β1D integrin in muscle, where extremely stable association is required for contraction. PMID:9396762

  7. The Changing Integrin Expression and a Role for Integrin β8 in the Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    LaPointe, Vanessa L. S.; Verpoorte, Amanda; Stevens, Molly M.

    2013-01-01

    Many cartilage tissue engineering approaches aim to differentiate human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into chondrocytes and develop cartilage in vitro by targeting cell-matrix interactions. We sought to better inform the design of cartilage tissue engineering scaffolds by understanding how integrin expression changes during chondrogenic differentiation. In three models of in vitro chondrogenesis, we studied the temporal change of cartilage phenotype markers and integrin subunits during the differentiation of hMSCs. We found that transcript expression of most subunits was conserved across the chondrogenesis models, but was significantly affected by the time-course of differentiation. In particular, ITGB8 was up-regulated and its importance in chondrogenesis was further established by a knockdown of integrin β8, which resulted in a non-hyaline cartilage phenotype, with no COL2A1 expression detected. In conclusion, we performed a systematic study of the temporal changes of integrin expression during chondrogenic differentiation in multiple chondrogenesis models, and revealed a role for integrin β8 in chondrogenesis. This work enhances our understanding of the changing adhesion requirements of hMSCs during chondrogenic differentiation and underlines the importance of integrins in establishing a cartilage phenotype. PMID:24312400

  8. Integrins promote cytokinesis through the RSK signaling axis

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Shomita S.; Nieves, Bethsaida; Sequeira, Sharon; Sambandamoorthy, Savitha; Pumiglia, Kevin; Larsen, Melinda; LaFlamme, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cytokinesis is the final stage in cell division. Although integrins can regulate cytokinesis, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate that integrin-regulated ERK (extracellular signal-related kinase) and RSK (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) signaling promotes successful cytokinesis. Inhibiting the activation of ERK and RSK in CHO cells by a mutation in the integrin β1 cytoplasmic tail or with pharmacological inhibitors results in the accumulation of cells with midbodies and the formation of binucleated cells. Activation of ERK and RSK signaling by the expression of constitutively active RAF1 suppresses the mutant phenotype in a RSK-dependent manner. Constitutively active RSK2 also restores cytokinesis inhibited by the mutant integrin. Importantly, the regulatory role of the RSK pathway is not specific to CHO cells. MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells and HPNE human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells exhibit a similar dependence on RSK for successful cytokinesis. In addition, depriving mitotic MCF10A cells of integrin-mediated adhesion by incubating them in suspension suppressed ERK and RSK activation and resulted in a failure of cytokinesis. Furthermore, inhibition of RSK or integrins within the 3D context of a developing salivary gland organ explant also leads to an accumulation of epithelial cells with midbodies, suggesting a similar defect in cytokinesis. Interestingly, neither ERK nor RSK regulates cytokinesis in human fibroblasts, suggesting cell-type specificity. Taken together, our results identify the integrin–RSK signaling axis as an important regulator of cytokinesis in epithelial cells. We propose that the proper interaction of cells with their microenvironment through integrins contributes to the maintenance of genomic stability by promoting the successful completion of cytokinesis. PMID:24284076

  9. Neisseria meningitidis Adhesin NadA Targets β1 Integrins

    PubMed Central

    Nägele, Virginie; Heesemann, Jürgen; Schielke, Stephanie; Jiménez-Soto, Luisa F.; Kurzai, Oliver; Ackermann, Nikolaus

    2011-01-01

    Meningococci are facultative-pathogenic bacteria endowed with a set of adhesins allowing colonization of the human upper respiratory tract, leading to fulminant meningitis and septicemia. The Neisseria adhesin NadA was identified in about 50% of N. meningitidis isolates and is closely related to the Yersinia adhesin YadA, the prototype of the oligomeric coiled-coil adhesin (Oca) family. NadA is known to be involved in cell adhesion, invasion, and induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Because of the enormous diversity of neisserial cell adhesins the analysis of the specific contribution of NadA in meningococcal host interactions is limited. Therefore, we used a non-invasive Y. enterocolitica mutant as carrier to study the role of NadA in host cell interaction. NadA was shown to be efficiently produced and localized in its oligomeric form on the bacterial surface of Y. enterocolitica. Additionally, NadA mediated a β1 integrin-dependent adherence with subsequent internalization of yersiniae by a β1 integrin-positive cell line. Using recombinant NadA24–210 protein and human and murine β1 integrin-expressing cell lines we could demonstrate the role of the β1 integrin subunit as putative receptor for NadA. Subsequent inhibition assays revealed specific interaction of NadA24–210 with the human β1 integrin subunit. Cumulatively, these results indicate that Y. enterocolitica is a suitable toolbox system for analysis of the adhesive properties of NadA, revealing strong evidence that β1 integrins are important receptors for NadA. Thus, this study demonstrated for the first time a direct interaction between the Oca-family member NadA and human β1 integrins. PMID:21471204

  10. The interaction between uPAR and vitronectin triggers ligand-independent adhesion signalling by integrins.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Gian Maria Sarra; Schulte, Carsten; Buttiglione, Valentina; De Lorenzi, Valentina; Piontini, Andrea; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Podestà, Alessandro; Madsen, Chris D; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2014-11-03

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a non-integrin vitronectin (VN) cell adhesion receptor linked to the plasma membrane by a glycolipid anchor. Through structure-function analyses of uPAR, VN and integrins, we document that uPAR-mediated cell adhesion to VN triggers a novel type of integrin signalling that is independent of integrin-matrix engagement. The signalling is fully active on VN mutants deficient in integrin binding site and is also efficiently transduced by integrins deficient in ligand binding. Although integrin ligation is dispensable, signalling is crucially dependent upon an active conformation of the integrin and its association with intracellular adaptors such as talin. This non-canonical integrin signalling is not restricted to uPAR as it poses no structural constraints to the receptor mediating cell attachment. In contrast to canonical integrin signalling, where integrins form direct mechanical links between the ECM and the cytoskeleton, the molecular mechanism enabling the crosstalk between non-integrin adhesion receptors and integrins is dependent upon membrane tension. This suggests that for this type of signalling, the membrane represents a critical component of the molecular clutch. © 2014 The Authors.

  11. Cytoplasmic salt bridge formation in integrin αvß3 stabilizes its inactive state affecting integrin-mediated cell biological effects.

    PubMed

    Müller, Martina A; Brunie, Leonora; Bächer, Anne-Sophie; Kessler, Horst; Gottschalk, Kay-Eberhard; Reuning, Ute

    2014-11-01

    Heterodimeric integrin receptors are mediators of cell adhesion, motility, invasion, proliferation, and survival. By this, they are crucially involved in (tumor) cell biological behavior. Integrins trigger signals bidirectionally across cell membranes: by outside-in, following binding of protein ligands of the extracellular matrix, and by inside-out, where proteins are recruited to ß-integrin cytoplasmic tails resulting in conformational changes leading to increased integrin binding affinity and integrin activation. Computational modeling and experimental/mutational approaches imply that associations of integrin transmembrane domains stabilize the low-affinity integrin state. Moreover, a cytoplasmic interchain salt bridge is discussed to contribute to a tight clasp of the α/ß-membrane-proximal regions; however, its existence and physiological relevance for integrin activation are still a controversial issue. In order to further elucidate the functional role of salt bridge formation, we designed mutants of the tumor biologically relevant integrin αvß3 by mutually exchanging the salt bridge forming amino acid residues on each chain (αvR995D and ß3D723R). Following transfection of human ovarian cancer cells with different combinations of wild type and mutated integrin chains, we showed that loss of salt bridge formation strengthened αvß3-mediated adhesion to vitronectin, provoked recruitment of cytoskeletal proteins, such as talin, and induced integrin signaling, ultimately resulting in enhanced cell migration, proliferation, and activation of integrin-related signaling molecules. These data support the notion of a functional relevance of integrin cytoplasmic salt bridge disruption during integrin activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrin dynamics on the tail region of migrating fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Palecek, S P; Schmidt, C E; Lauffenburger, D A; Horwitz, A F

    1996-05-01

    Cell migration is a complex process that can be considered as a repeated cycle of lamellipod extension and attachment, cytoskeletal contraction, and tail detachment. While lamellipodial and cytoskeletal phenomena are currently the focus of considerable research on cell migration, under many conditions locomotion appears to be rate-limited by events at the cell rear, especially release of cell/substratum adhesions. To study the mechanism of tail detachment, we have developed a novel experimental system that permits observation of integrin dynamics on the ventral surface of migrating fibroblasts. Photoactivatable caged fluorescein is coupled to a non-adhesion-perturbing anti-avian-beta 1 integrin subunit antibody, which labels integrins on chicken fibroblasts migrating on a laminin-coated glass coverslip. Ultraviolet light is focused through a pinhole to photoactivate the caged fluorophore in a 10-micron-diameter spot at the rear of a polarized cell. The fate of integrins initially present in this spot is monitored using a cooled CCD camera to follow the movement of fluorescent intensity as a function of time over a 2 to 3 hour period. We find that a substantial fraction of the integrins is left behind on the substratum as the cell detaches and locomotes, while another fraction collects into vesicles which are transported along the cell body as the cell migrates. As aggregates rip from the cell membrane, the integrin-cytoskeletal bonds are preferentially fractured resulting in 81 +/- 15% of the integrin remaining attached to the substratum. We additionally find that adhesions sometimes disperse into integrins which can form new adhesions at other locations in the cell. Adhesions along the cell edge can release from the substrate and translocate with the cell. They either disperse in the cell membrane, rip from the cell membrane and remain attached to the substratum, or form a new aggregate. These observations indicate that the behavior of integrins at the cell rear

  13. Bone-induced expression of integrin β3 enables targeted nanotherapy of breast cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael H; Esser, Alison K; Fox, Gregory C; Schmieder, Anne H; Yang, Xiaoxia; Hu, Grace; Pan, Dipanjan; Su, Xinming; Xu, Yalin; Novack, Deborah V; Walsh, Thomas; Colditz, Graham A; Lukaszewicz, Gabriel H; Cordell, Elizabeth; Novack, Joshua S; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Waning, David L; Mohammad, Khalid S; Guise, Theresa A; Lanza, Gregory M; Weilbaecher, Katherine N

    2017-08-30

    Bone metastases occur in ~70% of metastatic breast cancer patients often leading to skeletal injuries. Current treatments are mainly palliative and underscore the unmet clinical need for improved therapies. In this study, we provide preclinical evidence for an antimetastatic therapy based on targeting integrin β3 (β3) which is selectively induced on breast cancer cells in bone by the local bone microenvironment. In a preclinical model of breast cancer, β3 was strongly expressed on bone metastatic cancer cells but not primary mammary tumors or visceral metastases. In tumor tissue from breast cancer patients, β3 was significantly elevated on bone metastases relative to primary tumors from the same patient (n=42). Mechanistic investigations revealed that TGF--β signaling through SMAD2/SMAD3 was necessary for breast cancer induction of β3 within the bone. Using a micelle--based nanoparticle therapy that recognizes integrin αvβ3 (αvβ3--MPs of ~12.5nm), we demonstrated specific localization to breast cancer bone metastases in mice. Using this system for targeted delivery of the chemotherapeutic docetaxel, we showed that bone tumor burden could be reduced significantly with less bone destruction and less hepatotoxicity compared to equimolar doses of free docetaxel. Furthermore, mice treated with αvβ3--MP--docetaxel exhibited a significant decrease in bone-residing tumor cell proliferation compared to free docetaxel. Taken together, our results offer preclinical proof of concept for a method to enhance delivery of chemotherapeutics to breast cancer cells within the bone by exploiting their selective expression of integrin αvβ3 at that metastatic site. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Small molecule integrin antagonists that bind to the beta2 subunit I-like domain and activate signals in one direction and block them in the other.

    PubMed

    Shimaoka, Motomu; Salas, Azucena; Yang, Wei; Weitz-Schmidt, Gabriele; Springer, Timothy A

    2003-09-01

    Leukocyte integrins contain an inserted (I) domain in their alpha subunits and an I-like domain in their beta(2) subunit, which directly bind ligand and regulate ligand binding, respectively. We describe a novel mechanistic class of integrin inhibitors that bind to the metal ion-dependent adhesion site of the beta(2) I-like domain and prevent its interaction with and activation of the alpha(L) I domain. The inhibitors do not bind to the alpha(L) I domain but stabilize alpha/beta subunit association and can show selectivity for alpha(L)beta(2) compared to alpha(M)beta(2). The inhibitors reveal a crucial intersection for relaying conformational signals within integrin extracellular domains. While blocking signals in one direction to the I domain, the antagonists induce the active conformation of the I-like domain and stalk domains, and thus transmit conformational signals in the other direction toward the transmembrane domains.

  15. The opposing roles of laminin-binding integrins in cancer.

    PubMed

    Ramovs, Veronika; Te Molder, Lisa; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2017-01-01

    Integrins play an important role in cell adhesion by linking the cytoskeleton of cells to components in the extracellular matrix. In this capacity, integrins cooperate with different cell surface receptors, including growth factor receptors and G-protein coupled receptors, to regulate intracellular signaling pathways that control cell polarization, spreading, migration, survival, and gene expression. A distinct subfamily of molecules in the integrin family of adhesion receptors is formed by receptors that mediate cell adhesion to laminins, major components of the basement membrane that lie under clusters of cells or surround them, separating them from other cells and/or adjacent connective tissue. During the past decades, many studies have provided evidence for a role of laminin-binding integrins in tumorigenesis, and both tumor-promoting and suppressive activities have been identified. In this review we discuss the dual role of the laminin-binding integrins α3β1 and α6β4 in tumor development and progression, and examine the factors and mechanisms involved in these opposing effects.

  16. Integrin activation by a cold atmospheric plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volotskova, Olga; Stepp, Mary Ann; Keidar, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Current breakthrough research on cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) demonstrates that CAP has great potential in various areas, including medicine and biology, thus providing a new tool for living tissue treatment. In this paper, we explore potential mechanisms by which CAP alters cell migration and influences cell adhesion. We focus on the study of CAP interaction with fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells. The data show that fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells have different thresholds (treatment times) required to achieve maximum inhibition of cell migration. Both cell types reduced their migration rates by ˜30-40% after CAP compared to control cells. Also, the impact of CAP treatment on cell migration and persistence of fibroblasts after integrin activation by MnCl2, serum starvation or replating cells onto surfaces coated with integrin ligands is assessed; the results show that activation by MnCl2 or starvation attenuates cells’ responses to plasma. Studies carried out to assess the impact of CAP treatment on the activation state of β1 integrin and focal adhesion size by using immunofluorescence show that fibroblasts have more active β1 integrin on their surface and large focal adhesions after CAP treatment. Based on these data, a thermodynamic model is presented to explain how CAP leads to integrin activation and focal adhesion assembly.

  17. Integrin β4 in EMT: an implication of renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Yan; Huang, Xiaoyan; Liang, Wei; Xiong, Zibo; Xiong, Zuying

    2015-01-01

    Renal fibrosis is a main cause of chronic renal failure. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers play a role in renal fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) has been shown to initiate and complete the whole EMT process. It is now well accepted that loss of E-cadherin, EMT marker α-SMA, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression are key events in the EMT process. We found that by stimulating human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells with TGF-β1, the expression of E-cadherin was down regulated and the expression of α-SMA and CTGF were up regulated in a dose dependent manner. In our present study we also found that integrin β4 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) play roles in EMT process, with TGF-β1 stimulation increasing integrin β4 expression in HK2 cells. Integrin β4 and PPARγ were detected in tubulointerstitial tissues, immunohistochemistry analysis showed enhanced expression of integrin β4 in early stage, with over-expression at later stage. In contrast, the expression of PPARγ showed little increased in early stage, but was dramatically decreased at later stage. This is consistent with TGF-β1 inducing EMT. Our immune-precipitation studies show that integrin β4 disassociation with PPARγ is present in E-cadherin signaling. It suggests that PPARγ has a role in EMT inhibition.

  18. Expression of the beta 7 integrin by human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Brezinschek, R. I.; Brezinschek, H. P.; Lazarovits, A. I.; Lipsky, P. E.; Oppenheimer-Marks, N.

    1996-01-01

    Integrin adhesion receptors mediate fundamental intercellular interactions of many cell types as well as cellular interactions with specific extracellular matrix molecules. To date, the beta 7 integrin has been shown to be expressed by leukocyte subsets and to mediate interactions of these cells with extracellular matrix molecules as well as with endothelial and epithelial cells. The data presented here indicate that human endothelial cells also express the beta 7 integrin both in vitro and in situ. Analysis of cDNA indicated that endothelial beta 7 was identical to that expressed by leukocytes. Cell surface expression of beta 7 was increased by exposure of the endothelium to the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta. In leukocytes, beta 7 complexes with alpha 4 or alpha E integrin chains. Endothelial cells also expressed a number of alpha-integrin chains, including alpha 4, but not alpha E. The expression and utilization of beta 7, presumably complexed with alpha 4, by endothelial cells may be instrumental in the maintenance of the function or phenotype of endothelial cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8909254

  19. Characterization of integrin receptors in normal and neoplastic human brain.

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, W.; Baur, I.; Schuppan, D.; Roggendorf, W.

    1993-01-01

    We studied the immunohistochemical expression of integrin alpha and beta chains in the normal and neoplastic human brain. Normal astrocytes expressed alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 6, beta 1, and beta 4 chains in some areas facing major interstitial tissues, but they were consistently negative for the other integrins examined (alpha 4, alpha 5, alpha V, alpha L, alpha M, alpha X, beta 2, beta 3). Neoplastic astrocytes in vivo and in vitro showed increased expression of alpha 3 and beta 1, and some also of alpha 5, alpha V, beta 3, and beta 4. Neoexpression of alpha 4 and reduced levels of beta 4 were detected in glioblastoma vascular proliferations compared with normal endothelial cells. Oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, choroid plexus papilloma, pituitary adenoma, and meningioma cells showed the same integrin pattern as their normal counterparts. Adhesion assays using the astrocytoma cell lines U-138 MG and U-373 MG revealed strong attachment to collagen types I to VI and undulin, which was inhibited by antibodies to beta 1, but not by those to alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 6, and alpha V. We conclude that astrocytomas show increased levels or neoexpression of various integrins and strong attachment to various extracellular matrix components, which appears to be almost exclusively mediated by beta 1-integrins. Images Figure 1 PMID:8317546

  20. Integrins in epithelial cell polarity: using antibodies to analyze adhesive function and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Matlin, Karl S; Haus, Brian; Zuk, Anna

    2003-07-01

    Epithelial cells polarize in response to cell-substratum and cell-cell adhesive interactions. Contacts between cells and proteins of the extracellular matrix are mediated by integrin receptors. Of the 24 recognized integrin heterodimers, epithelial cells typically express four or more distinct integrins, with the exact complement dependent on the tissue of origin. Investigation of the roles of integrins in epithelial cell polarization has depended on the use of function-blocking antibodies both to determine ligand specificity of individual integrins and to disrupt and redirect normal morphogenesis. In this article we describe techniques for employing function-blocking anti-integrin antibodies in adhesion assays of the polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line and to demonstrate the involvement of beta1 integrins in collagen-induced tubulocyst formation. These techniques can be easily expanded to other antibodies and epithelial cell lines to characterize specific functions of individual integrins in epithelial morphogenesis.

  1. Helicobacter pylori and gastritis: the role of extracellular matrix metalloproteases, their inhibitors, and the disintegrins and metalloproteases--a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Clara L

    2013-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the etiologic agent of gastritis; it has been estimated that 50 % of the world's population could be infected by this bacteria. Gastritis may progress to chronic atrophic gastritis, a condition associated with the development of gastric cancer (GC). Several matrix metalloproteases (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP) as well as disintegrins and metalloproteases (ADAM) have been reported as being involved in gastritis. Among other processes, these protein families participate in remodeling the extracellular matrix, cell signaling, immune response, angiogenesis, inflammation and epithelial mesenchymal transition. This systematic review analyzes the scientific evidence surrounding the relationship between members of the MMP, TIMP and ADAM families and infection by H. pylori in gastritis, considering both in vitro and in vivo studies. Given the potential clinical value of certain members of the MMP, TIMP and ADAM families as molecular markers in gastritis and the association of gastritis with GC, the need for further study is highlighted.

  2. Role of Integrin in Mechanical Loading of Osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Ruth; Demsky, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical forces generated by gravity, weightbearing, and muscle contraction play a key role in the genesis and maintenance of skeletal structure. The molecular mechanisms that mediate changes in osteoblast activity in response to altered patterns of skeletal loading are not known, and a better understanding of these processes may be essential for developing effective treatment strategies to prevent disuse osteoporosis. We have elucidated specific integrin/ECM (extracellular matrix) interactions that are required for osteoblast differentiation and survival and have developed a useful loading system to further explore the molecular basis of mechano-sensitivity of osteoblasts. The long term goal of our collaborative research is to understand how the ECM and cell adhesion proteins and integrins interaction to mediate the response of osteoblasts and their progenitors to mechanical loading. We suggest that integrin/ECM interactions are crucial for basic cellular processes, including differentiation and survival, as well as to participate in detecting and mediating cellular responses to mechanical stimuli.

  3. [Integrins and cell cycle control by the environment].

    PubMed

    Bernard, A; Bernard, G

    2000-04-01

    Integrins insure cell adhesion to extra-cellular matrix components; they are thus involved in tissue architecture. They also can insure intercellular adhesions by binding to surface molecules from the immunoglobulin superfamily. Integrins binding to their ligands induce cytoskeleton reorganisation and, consequently, they gather into focal adhesion contacts. This greatly strenghthens mechanical forces. Nevertheless, integrins can also participate in cell locomotion and, moreover, tranduce within cells signals that can extensively influence cell metabolism, cell cycle and apoptosis. Doing so, they can interact with signals from other cellular receptors, such as soluble growth factors. They are therefore key molecules to integrate intrinsic and extrinsic events of the cellular behavior. They profoundly influence oncogenesis and the metastatic process.

  4. Integrins and small GTPases as modulators of phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sayedyahossein, Samar; Dagnino, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosis is the mechanism whereby cells engulf large particles. This process has long been recognized as a critical component of the innate immune response, which constitutes the organism's defense against microorganisms. In addition, phagocytic internalization of apoptotic cells or cell fragments plays important roles in tissue homeostasis and remodeling. Phagocytosis requires target interactions with receptors on the plasma membrane of the phagocytic cell. Integrins have been identified as important mediators of particle clearance, in addition to their well-established roles in cell adhesion, migration and mechanotransduction. Indeed, these ubiquitously expressed proteins impart phagocytic capacity to epithelial, endothelial and mesenchymal cell types. The importance of integrins in particle internalization is emphasized by the ability of microbial and viral pathogens to exploit their signaling pathways to invade host cells, and by the wide variety of disorders that arise from abnormalities in integrin-dependent phagocytic uptake.

  5. Semaphorin 7A promotes axon outgrowth through integrins and MAPKs.

    PubMed

    Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Peschon, Jacques J; Spriggs, Melanie K; Kolodkin, Alex L

    2003-07-24

    Striking parallels exist between immune and nervous system cellular signalling mechanisms. Molecules originally shown to be critical for immune responses also serve neuronal functions, and similarly neural guidance cues can modulate immune function. We show here that semaphorin 7A (Sema7A), a membrane-anchored member of the semaphorin family of guidance proteins previously known for its immunomodulatory effects, can also mediate neuronal functions. Unlike many other semaphorins, which act as repulsive guidance cues, Sema7A enhances central and peripheral axon growth and is required for proper axon tract formation during embryonic development. Unexpectedly, Sema7A enhancement of axon outgrowth requires integrin receptors and activation of MAPK signalling pathways. These findings define a previously unknown biological function for semaphorins, identify an unexpected role for integrins and integrin-dependent intracellular signalling in mediating semaphorin responses, and provide a framework for understanding and interfering with Sema7A function in both immune and nervous systems.

  6. Extracellular Matrix and Integrins in Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Han; Luo, Xie; Leighton, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cells with great therapeutic potentials. The in vitro differentiation of ESC was designed by recapitulating embryogenesis. Significant progress has been made to improve the in vitro differentiation protocols by toning soluble maintenance factors. However, more robust methods for lineage-specific differentiation and maturation are still under development. Considering the complexity of in vivo embryogenesis environment, extracellular matrix (ECM) cues should be considered besides growth factor cues. ECM proteins bind to cells and act as ligands of integrin receptors on cell surfaces. Here, we summarize the role of the ECM and integrins in the formation of three germ layer progenies. Various ECM–integrin interactions were found, facilitating differentiation toward definitive endoderm, hepatocyte-like cells, pancreatic beta cells, early mesodermal progenitors, cardiomyocytes, neuroectoderm lineages, and epidermal cells, such as keratinocytes and melanocytes. In the future, ECM combinations for the optimal ESC differentiation environment will require substantial study. PMID:26462244

  7. The Anticancer Activity of Organotelluranes: Potential Role in Integrin Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Alon; Kalechman, Yona; Hirsch, Shira; Erlich, Ziv; Sredni, Benjamin; Albeck, Amnon

    2016-05-17

    Organic Te(IV) compounds (organotelluranes) differing in their labile ligands exhibited anti-integrin activities in vitro and anti-metastatic properties in vivo. They underwent ligand substitution with l-cysteine, as a thiol model compound. Unlike inorganic Te(IV) compounds, the organotelluranes did not form a stable complex with cysteine, but rather immediately oxidized it. The organotelluranes inhibited integrin functions, such as adhesion, migration, and metalloproteinase secretion mediation in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. In comparison, a reduced derivative with no labile ligand inhibited adhesion of B16F10 cells to a significantly lower extent, thus pointing to the importance of the labile ligands of the Te(IV) atom. One of the organotelluranes inhibited circulating cancer cells in vivo, possibly by integrin inhibition. Our results extend the current knowledge on the reactivity and mechanism of organotelluranes with different labile ligands and highlight their clinical potential.

  8. The Talin Head Domain Reinforces Integrin-Mediated Adhesion by Promoting Adhesion Complex Stability and Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Stephanie J.; Lostchuck, Emily; Goult, Benjamin T.; Bouaouina, Mohamed; Fairchild, Michael J.; López-Ceballos, Pablo; Calderwood, David A.; Tanentzapf, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Talin serves an essential function during integrin-mediated adhesion in linking integrins to actin via the intracellular adhesion complex. In addition, the N-terminal head domain of talin regulates the affinity of integrins for their ECM-ligands, a process known as inside-out activation. We previously showed that in Drosophila, mutating the integrin binding site in the talin head domain resulted in weakened adhesion to the ECM. Intriguingly, subsequent studies showed that canonical inside-out activation of integrin might not take place in flies. Consistent with this, a mutation in talin that specifically blocks its ability to activate mammalian integrins does not significantly impinge on talin function during fly development. Here, we describe results suggesting that the talin head domain reinforces and stabilizes the integrin adhesion complex by promoting integrin clustering distinct from its ability to support inside-out activation. Specifically, we show that an allele of talin containing a mutation that disrupts intramolecular interactions within the talin head attenuates the assembly and reinforcement of the integrin adhesion complex. Importantly, we provide evidence that this mutation blocks integrin clustering in vivo. We propose that the talin head domain is essential for regulating integrin avidity in Drosophila and that this is crucial for integrin-mediated adhesion during animal development. PMID:25393120

  9. The interaction between uPAR and vitronectin triggers ligand-independent adhesion signalling by integrins

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Gian Maria Sarra; Schulte, Carsten; Buttiglione, Valentina; De Lorenzi, Valentina; Piontini, Andrea; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Podestà, Alessandro; Madsen, Chris D; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a non-integrin vitronectin (VN) cell adhesion receptor linked to the plasma membrane by a glycolipid anchor. Through structure–function analyses of uPAR, VN and integrins, we document that uPAR-mediated cell adhesion to VN triggers a novel type of integrin signalling that is independent of integrin–matrix engagement. The signalling is fully active on VN mutants deficient in integrin binding site and is also efficiently transduced by integrins deficient in ligand binding. Although integrin ligation is dispensable, signalling is crucially dependent upon an active conformation of the integrin and its association with intracellular adaptors such as talin. This non-canonical integrin signalling is not restricted to uPAR as it poses no structural constraints to the receptor mediating cell attachment. In contrast to canonical integrin signalling, where integrins form direct mechanical links between the ECM and the cytoskeleton, the molecular mechanism enabling the crosstalk between non-integrin adhesion receptors and integrins is dependent upon membrane tension. This suggests that for this type of signalling, the membrane represents a critical component of the molecular clutch. PMID:25168639

  10. Pivotal role for beta-1 integrin in neurovascular remodelling after ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lathia, Justin D; Chigurupati, Srinivasulu; Thundyil, John; Selvaraj, Pradeep K; Mughal, Mohamed R; Woodruff, Trent M; Chan, Sic L; Karamyan, Vardan T; Mattson, Mark P; Arumugam, Thiruma V

    2010-01-01

    beta1 integrin is a cell surface molecule that is critical for endothelial cell adhesion, migration and survival during angiogenesis. In the present study we employed in vivo and in vitro models to elucidate the role of beta1 integrin in vascular remodelling and stroke outcomes. At 24 h after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), the ischemic cortex (ipsilateral area) exhibited modest beta1 integrin immunoreactivity and a robust increase was observed at 72 h. Double-label immunohistochemical analysis for beta1 integrin with neuronal (NeuN), microglial (Iba-1), astrocyte (GFAP), progenitor cell (Ng2) and blood vessel (collagen 4) markers showed that beta1 integrin expression only localized to blood vessels. In vitro studies using cultured endothelial cells and a beta1 integrin blocking antibody confirmed that beta1 integrin is required for endothelial cell migration, proliferation and blood vessel formation. In vivo studies in the cerebral I/R model using the beta1 integrin blocking antibody further confirmed that beta1 integrin signaling is involved in vascular formation and recovery following ischemic stroke. Finally, we found that beta1 integrin is critically involved in functional deficits and survival after a stroke. These results suggest that beta1 integrin plays important roles in neurovascular remodelling and functional outcomes following stroke, and that targeting the beta1 integrin signalling may provide a novel strategy for modulating angiogenesis in ischemic stroke and other pathological conditions.

  11. Dynamic regulation of the structure and functions of integrin adhesions.

    PubMed

    Wolfenson, Haguy; Lavelin, Irena; Geiger, Benjamin

    2013-03-11

    Integrin-mediated cell adhesions to the extracellular matrix (ECM) contribute to tissue morphogenesis and coherence and provide cells with vital environmental cues. These apparently static structures display remarkable plasticity and dynamic properties: they exist in multiple, interconvertible forms that are constantly remodeled in response to changes in ECM properties, cytoskeletal organization, cell migration, and signaling processes. Thus, integrin-mediated environmental sensing enables cells to adapt to chemical and physical properties of the surrounding matrix by modulating their proliferation, differentiation, and survival. This intriguing interplay between the apparently robust structure of matrix adhesions and their highly dynamic properties is the focus of this article.

  12. Role of integrin signalling through integrin-linked kinase in skin physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Eckes, Beate; Krieg, Thomas; Wickström, Sara A

    2014-07-01

    Cell-matrix adhesions provide structural stability to the tissue and regulate intracellular signalling pathways that are important for cell fate decisions of the different cell populations within the skin. As a consequence of these central functions, genetic or functional impairment of various key protein components of matrix adhesions plays a causative role in the aetiology or pathophysiology in a large variety of skin disorders. Research towards understanding the molecular composition of these adhesions as well as the mechanisms by which they transmit signals is therefore of obvious importance. In this essay, we discuss the roles of integrin-linked kinase, a key component of cell-matrix adhesions, in the (patho)physiology of skin and in particular highlight its role in regulating mechanical tension and matrix remodelling both in the epidermis and in the dermis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Regulation of cell motile behavior by crosstalk between cadherin- and integrin-mediated adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Nicolas; Lowndes, Molly; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Gardel, Margaret L.; Nelson, W. James

    2010-01-01

    During normal development and in disease, cohesive tissues undergo rearrangements that require integration of signals from cell adhesions to neighboring cells and to the extracellular matrix (ECM). How a range of cell behaviors is coordinated by these different adhesion complexes is unknown. To analyze epithelial cell motile behavior in response to combinations of cell–ECM and cell–cell adhesion cues, we took a reductionist approach at the single-cell scale by using unique, functionalized micropatterned surfaces comprising alternating stripes of ECM (collagenIV) and adjustable amounts of E-cadherin-Fc (EcadFc). On these surfaces, individual cells spatially segregated integrin- and cadherin-based complexes between collagenIV and EcadFc surfaces, respectively. Cell migration required collagenIV and did not occur on surfaces functionalized with only EcadFc. However, E-cadherin adhesion dampened lamellipodia activity on both collagenIV and EcadFc surfaces and biased the direction of cell migration without affecting the migration rate, all in an EcadFc concentration-dependent manner. Traction force microscopy showed that spatial confinement of integrin-based adhesions to collagenIV stripes induced anisotropic cell traction on collagenIV and migration directional bias. Selective depletion of different pools of αE-catenin, an E-cadherin and actin binding protein, identified a membrane-associated pool required for E-cadherin–mediated adhesion and down-regulation of lamellipodia activity and a cytosolic pool that down-regulated the migration rate in an E-cadherin adhesion-independent manner. These results demonstrate that there is crosstalk between E-cadherin– and integrin-based adhesion complexes and that E-cadherin regulates lamellipodia activity and cell migration directionality, but not cell migration rate. PMID:20566866

  14. Regulation of cell motile behavior by crosstalk between cadherin- and integrin-mediated adhesions.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Nicolas; Lowndes, Molly; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Gardel, Margaret L; Nelson, W James

    2010-07-27

    During normal development and in disease, cohesive tissues undergo rearrangements that require integration of signals from cell adhesions to neighboring cells and to the extracellular matrix (ECM). How a range of cell behaviors is coordinated by these different adhesion complexes is unknown. To analyze epithelial cell motile behavior in response to combinations of cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesion cues, we took a reductionist approach at the single-cell scale by using unique, functionalized micropatterned surfaces comprising alternating stripes of ECM (collagenIV) and adjustable amounts of E-cadherin-Fc (EcadFc). On these surfaces, individual cells spatially segregated integrin- and cadherin-based complexes between collagenIV and EcadFc surfaces, respectively. Cell migration required collagenIV and did not occur on surfaces functionalized with only EcadFc. However, E-cadherin adhesion dampened lamellipodia activity on both collagenIV and EcadFc surfaces and biased the direction of cell migration without affecting the migration rate, all in an EcadFc concentration-dependent manner. Traction force microscopy showed that spatial confinement of integrin-based adhesions to collagenIV stripes induced anisotropic cell traction on collagenIV and migration directional bias. Selective depletion of different pools of alphaE-catenin, an E-cadherin and actin binding protein, identified a membrane-associated pool required for E-cadherin-mediated adhesion and down-regulation of lamellipodia activity and a cytosolic pool that down-regulated the migration rate in an E-cadherin adhesion-independent manner. These results demonstrate that there is crosstalk between E-cadherin- and integrin-based adhesion complexes and that E-cadherin regulates lamellipodia activity and cell migration directionality, but not cell migration rate.

  15. Integrin α4 impacts on differential adhesion of preadipocytes and stem cells on synthetic polymers.

    PubMed

    Hoss, Mareike; Apel, Christian; Dhanasingh, Anandhan; Suschek, Christoph V; Hemmrich, Karsten; Salber, Jochen; Zenke, Martin; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-04-01

    Stem cells represent an ideal cell source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, because they can be readily isolated, expanded, differentiated and transplanted. For stem cell-based therapies, biomaterials are required to allow for a spatial distribution of the stem cells within a defined area in the body. In our recent studies, we analysed the interaction of a large panel of stem cell types with an array of biomaterials and demonstrated that a rational prediction of stem cell behaviour on a specific biomaterial is so far not possible. Interestingly, even ontogenetically related stem cell types, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), preadipocytes and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), exhibit distinct adhesion properties on the very same biomaterial surface. Therefore, we investigated integrin and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein expression of stem cells to relate gene expression to adhesion behaviour. MSCs, preadipocytes and DPSCs were cultured on selected synthetic polymers, such as Texin, a thermoplastic polyurethane, poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), poly-d,l-lactic acid (PDLLA) and l-lactic acid-trimehylene carbonate (Resomer® LT706). Integrins and ECM proteins were analysed by RT-PCR, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Analysis of several adhesion molecules yielded that only one molecule, integrin α4, might play a significant role in differential adhesion on polymers for preadipocytes compared to DPSCs and MSCs. Thus, our studies on the molecular interactions of stem cells and polymers are expected to lead to a more profound understanding of the stem cell-biomaterial interactions to eventually allow for a rational biomaterial design. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Integrins in point contacts mediate cell spreading: factors that regulate integrin accumulation in point contacts vs. focal contacts

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the function and distribution of the alpha 1 beta 1, alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha 6 beta 1 heterodimers on type-1 astrocytes with antibodies specific for integrin subunits (alpha 1, alpha 5, alpha 6, and beta 1). The alpha 1 beta 1 heterodimer mediates adhesion to laminin and collagen, the alpha 5 beta 1 to fibronectin in an RGD- dependent manner. The alpha 5 beta 1 integrin is found in focal contacts in long-term cultures of well-spread astrocytes colocalizing with vinculin and the termini of actin stress fibers. alpha 1 beta 1 heterodimers can occasionally be found as small aggregates within focal contacts but they do not accumulate there. Instead, alpha 1 beta 1 integrins are found in punctate deposits called point contacts which are distributed over the upper and the lower cell surfaces whether laminin, collagen, fibronectin or polylysine is used as a substratum. Unlike focal contacts, point contacts contain clathrin but rarely codistribute with actin or vinculin. Two observations indicate that these point contacts are functional. First, mAb 3A3, directed against the rat alpha 1 subunit, inhibits the attachment of astrocytes to laminin and collagen. Second, during the spreading of astrocytes, a band of point contacts forms around the cell perimeter at a time when no focal contacts are visible. While alpha 1 beta 1 integrins are found only in point contacts in astrocytes, the alpha 6 beta 1 integrin, another laminin receptor, is localized within focal contacts. Moreover, alpha 1 beta 1 heterodimers accumulate in focal contacts in fibroblasts. Thus, the alpha subunit contributes, independent of its ligand, to functional integrin heterodimer accumulation in focal contacts or in point contacts. This accumulation varies among different cell types with apparently identical heterodimers as well as with the motile state (spreading vs. flattened) of the same cells. PMID:8416993

  17. microPET Imaging of Glioma Integrin (alpha-v, beta-3) Expression Using Cu-64-Labeled Tetrameric RGD Peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yun; Zhang, , Xianzhong; Xiong, , Zhengming; Cheng, Zhen; Fisher, Darrell R.; Liu, Shu-hong; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2005-10-01

    Integrins ?v?3 and ?v?5 play a critical role in tumor-induced angiogenesis and metastasis, and have become promising diagnostic indicators and therapeutic targets of tumors. Radiolabeled RGD peptides that are integrin-specific may be used for non-invasive imaging of integrin expression level as well as for integrin-targeted radionuclide therapy. We previously conjugated a series of mono- and dimeric RGD peptides with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N?,N??,N???-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and labeled these with copper-64 for microPET imaging in various mouse xenograft models. The copper-64 tracers showed ?v?3-selective tumor uptake, but the magnitude of tumor uptake was relatively low, the tumor washout was rapid, and non-target organ/tissue retention was high. In this study we developed a tetrameric RGD peptide tracer 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2 for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of integrin ?v?3 expression in a subcutaneous U87MG glioma xenograft model in female athymic nude mice. The RGD tetramer showed significantly higher integrin binding affinity than the corresponding mono- and dimeric RGD analogs, most likely due to polyvalency effect. The radiolabeled peptide showed rapid blood clearance (0.61 ? 0.01%ID/g at 30 min and 0.21 ? 0.01 %ID/g at 4 h postinjection (p.i.), respectively) and predominantly renal excretion. Tumor uptake was rapid and high and the tumor washout was slow (9.93 ? 1.05 %ID/g at 30 min p.i. and 4.56 ? 0.51 %ID/g at 24 h post-injection). The metabolic stability of 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2 was determined in mouse blood, urine, and liver and kidney homogenates at different times after tracer injection. The average fractions of intact tracer in these organs at 1 h were approximately 70, 58, 51 and 26 percent, respectively. Non-invasive microPET imaging studies showed significant tumor uptake and good contrast in the subcutaneous tumor-bearing mice, which agreed well with the biodistribution results

  18. Crosstalk between integrin and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in breast carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Soung, Young Hwa; Clifford, John L; Chung, Jun

    2010-05-01

    This review explored the mechanism of breast carcinoma progression by focusing on integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases (or growth factor receptors). While the primary role of integrins was previously thought to be solely as mediators of adhesive interactions between cells and extracellular matrices, it is now believed that integrins also regulate signaling pathways that control cancer cell growth, survival, and invasion. A large body of evidence suggests that the cooperation between integrin and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling regulates certain signaling functions that are important for cancer progression. Recent developments on the crosstalk between integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases, and its implication in mammary tumor progression, are discussed.

  19. Skeletal Phenotype of Transgenic Mice Expressing the Beta1 Integrin Cytoplasmic Tail In Osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; vanderMeulen, M. C. H.; Damsky, D.; Kim, J.-B.; Amblard, D.; Amblard, D.; Nishimura, Y.; Almeida, E.; Iwaniec, U. T.; Wronski, T. J.; hide

    2002-01-01

    tibia and humerus mass were less obvious in TG than in WT mice. Since hindlimb unloading caused skeletal changes in both loaded and unloaded bones, systemic changes may contribute to bone responses observed using this animal model. In conclusion, transgene expression resulted in marked metabolic changes during growth and in the aged female. Our results demonstrate that expression of the Beta1 integrin cytoplasmic tail in vivo causes gender- and age-specific changes in select morphometric parameters, bone length, and bone mass.

  20. Skeletal Phenotype of Transgenic Mice Expressing the Beta1 Integrin Cytoplasmic Tail In Osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; vanderMeulen, M. C. H.; Damsky, D.; Kim, J.-B.; Amblard, D.; Amblard, D.; Nishimura, Y.; Almeida, E.; Iwaniec, U. T.; Wronski, T. J.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    tibia and humerus mass were less obvious in TG than in WT mice. Since hindlimb unloading caused skeletal changes in both loaded and unloaded bones, systemic changes may contribute to bone responses observed using this animal model. In conclusion, transgene expression resulted in marked metabolic changes during growth and in the aged female. Our results demonstrate that expression of the Beta1 integrin cytoplasmic tail in vivo causes gender- and age-specific changes in select morphometric parameters, bone length, and bone mass.

  1. Functional analysis of alpha 1 beta 1 integrin in human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Villar, J J; Melero, I; Gismondi, A; Santoni, A; López-Botet, M

    1996-09-01

    Upon activation with interleukin (IL)-2 human natural killer (NK) cells acquire on their surface the alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1 integrins and down-regulate the expression of alpha 6 beta 1. By employing alpha 1 beta 1-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) HP-2B6, characterized in our laboratory, we examined the functional role of the alpha 1 beta 1 integrin in NK cells. Treatment with HP-2B6 mAb partially interfered with attachment of cultured NK cells to type I collagen, and combined with an anti-alpha 2 beta 1 (TEA 1/41) mAb, it completely abrogated cell adhesion to this extracelular matrix protein. In contrast, NK cell attachment to laminin was completely blocked by the anti-beta 1 LIA 1/2 mAb, but was unaffected by alpha 1 and alpha 2-specific mAb; as alpha 3 beta 1 and alpha 6 beta 1 were undetectable, the data indicate that the alpha 1 beta 1 integrin binding sites for type I collagen and laminin are different. Incubation with anti-alpha 1 HP-2B6 or its F(ab')2 fragments specifically induced a rapid homotypic aggregation of NK cells that was dependent on active metabolism, an intact cytoskeleton and the presence of divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+); homotypic cell adhesion was selectively blocked by anti-CD18, CD11a or CD54 mAb. In addition, stimulation of cultured NK cells with the anti-alpha 1 HP-2B6 enhanced TNF-alpha production and induced tyrosine phosphorylation of a 110-kDa protein. Pretreatment with specific inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity (tyrphostin 25 and herbimycin A) completely abrogated the functional effects induced by the anti-alpha 1 HP-2B6 mAb. Our data show that ligation of the alpha 1 beta 1 integrin positively modulates IL-2-activated NK cell function via a PTK-dependent pathway.

  2. Exosomes derived from human macrophages suppress endothelial cell migration by controlling integrin trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Doo; Kim, Yeon Hyang; Kim, Doo-Sik

    2014-04-01

    Integrin trafficking, including internalization, recycling, and lysosomal degradation, is crucial for the regulation of cellular functions. Exosomes, nano-sized extracellular vesicles, are believed to play important roles in intercellular communications. This study demonstrates that exosomes released from human macrophages negatively regulate endothelial cell migration through control of integrin trafficking. Macrophage-derived exosomes promote internalization of integrin β1 in primary HUVECs. The internalized integrin β1 persistently accumulates in the perinuclear region and is not recycled back to the plasma membrane. Experimental results indicate that macrophage-derived exosomes stimulate trafficking of internalized integrin β1 to lysosomal compartments with a corresponding decrease in the integrin destined for recycling endosomes, resulting in proteolytic degradation of the integrin. Moreover, ubiquitination of HUVEC integrin β1 is enhanced by the exosomes, and exosome-mediated integrin degradation is blocked by bafilomycin A, a lysosomal degradation inhibitor. Macrophage-derived exosomes were also shown to effectively suppress collagen-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway and HUVEC migration, which are both dependent on integrin β1. These observations provide new insight into the functional significance of exosomes in the regulation of integrin trafficking.

  3. Alteration of pulmonary artery integrin levels in chronic hypoxia and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Umesh, Anita; Paudel, Omkar; Cao, Yuan-Ning; Myers, Allen C; Sham, James S K

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with vascular remodeling and increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. While the contribution of ECM in vascular remodeling is well documented, the roles played by their receptors, integrins, in pulmonary hypertension have received little attention. Here we characterized the changes of integrin expression in endothelium-denuded pulmonary arteries (PAs) and aorta of chronic hypoxia as well as monocrotaline-treated rats. Immunoblot showed increased α(1)-, α(8)- and α(v)-integrins, and decreased α(5)-integrin levels in PAs of both models. β(1)- and β(3)-integrins were reduced in PAs of chronic hypoxia and monocrotaline-treated rats, respectively. Integrin expression in aorta was minimally affected. Differential expression of α(1)- and α(5)-integrins induced by chronic hypoxia was further examined. Immunostaining showed that they were expressed on the surface of PA smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), and their distribution was unaltered by chronic hypoxia. Phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase was augmented in PAs of chronic hypoxia rats, and in chronic hypoxia PASMCs cultured on the α(1)-ligand collagen IV. Moreover, α(1)-integrin binding hexapeptide GRGDTP elicited an enhanced Ca(2+) response, whereas the response to α(5)-integrin binding peptide GRGDNP was reduced in CH-PASMCs. Integrins in PASMCs are differentially regulated in pulmonary hypertension, and the dynamic integrin-ECM interactions may contribute to the vascular remodeling accompanying disease progression. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Alteration of Pulmonary Artery Integrin Levels in Chronic Hypoxia and Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Umesh, Anita; Paudel, Omkar; Cao, Yuan-Ning; Myers, Allen C.; Sham, James S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension is associated with vascular remodeling and increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. While the contribution of ECM in vascular remodeling is well documented, the roles played by their receptors, integrins, in pulmonary hypertension have received little attention. Here we characterized the changes of integrin expression in endothelium-denuded pulmonary arteries (PAs) and aorta of chronic hypoxia as well as monocrotaline-treated rats. Methods and Results Immunoblot showed increased α1-, α8- and αv-integrins, and decreased α5-integrin levels in PAs of both models. β1- and β3-integrins were reduced in PAs of chronic hypoxia and monocrotaline-treated rats, respectively. Integrin expression in aorta was minimally affected. Differential expression of α1- and α5-integrins induced by chronic hypoxia was further examined. Immunostaining showed that they were expressed on the surface of PA smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), and their distribution was unaltered by chronic hypoxia. Phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase was augmented in PAs of chronic hypoxia rats, and in chronic hypoxia PASMCs cultured on the α1-ligand collagen IV. Moreover, α1-integrin binding hexapeptide GRGDTP elicited an enhanced Ca2+ response, whereas the response to α5-integrin binding peptide GRGDNP was reduced in CH-PASMCs. Conclusion Integrins in PASMCs are differentially regulated in pulmonary hypertension, and the dynamic integrin-ECM interactions may contribute to the vascular remodeling accompanying disease progression. PMID:21829038

  5. Role of Integrin-Beta1 in Polycystic Kidney Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release ; Distribution Unlimited...for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO... Release ; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Increased fibrosis and integrins expression are elevated in in APDKD

  6. PET Imaging of Integrin αVβ3 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Ambros J.; Kessler, Horst; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Schwaiger, Markus

    2011-01-01

    PET imaging of integrin αvβ3 expression has been studied intensely by the academia and recently also by the industry. Imaging of integrin αvβ3 expression is of great potential value, as the integrin αvβ3 is a key player in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. Therefore PET imaging of this target might be a suitable in-vivo biomarker of angiogenesis and metastatic potential of tumors. In this manuscript, the various strategies for PET imaging of the integrin αvβ3 will be summarized, including monomeric and multimeric radiolabelled RGD peptides and nanoparticles. While most experiments have been performed using preclinical tumor models, more and more clinical results on PET imaging of αvβ3 expression are available and will be discussed in detail. However, while a multitude of radiotracer strategies have been successfully evaluated for PET imaging of αvβ3, the ultimate clinical value of this new imaging biomarker still has to be evaluated in large clinical trials. PMID:21547152

  7. Alpha 5 Integrin Mediates Osteoarthritic Changes in Mouse Knee Joints

    PubMed Central

    Candela, Maria Elena; Wang, Chao; Gunawardena, Aruni T.; Zhang, Kairui; Cantley, Leslie; Yasuhara, Rika; Usami, Yu; Francois, Noelle; Iwamoto, Masahiro; van der Flier, Arjan; Zhang, Yejia; Qin, Ling; Han, Lin; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of most common skeletal disorders and can affect synovial joints such as knee and ankle joints. α5 integrin, a major fibronectin receptor, is expressed in articular cartilage and has been demonstrated to play roles in synovial joint development and in the regulation of chondrocyte survival and matrix degradation in articular cartilage. We hypothesized that α5 integrin signaling is involved in pathogenesis of OA. To test this, we generated compound mice that conditionally ablate α5 integrin in the synovial joints using the Gdf5Cre system. The compound mice were born normally and had an overall appearance similar to the control mice. However, when the mutant mice received the OA surgery, they showed stronger resistance to osteoarthritic changes than the control. Specifically the mutant knee joints presented lower levels of cartilage matrix and structure loss and synovial changes and showed stronger biomechanical properties than the control knee joints. These findings indicate that α5 integrin may not be essential for synovial joint development but play a causative role in induction of osteoarthritic changes. PMID:27280771

  8. Alpha 5 Integrin Mediates Osteoarthritic Changes in Mouse Knee Joints.

    PubMed

    Candela, Maria Elena; Wang, Chao; Gunawardena, Aruni T; Zhang, Kairui; Cantley, Leslie; Yasuhara, Rika; Usami, Yu; Francois, Noelle; Iwamoto, Masahiro; van der Flier, Arjan; Zhang, Yejia; Qin, Ling; Han, Lin; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of most common skeletal disorders and can affect synovial joints such as knee and ankle joints. α5 integrin, a major fibronectin receptor, is expressed in articular cartilage and has been demonstrated to play roles in synovial joint development and in the regulation of chondrocyte survival and matrix degradation in articular cartilage. We hypothesized that α5 integrin signaling is involved in pathogenesis of OA. To test this, we generated compound mice that conditionally ablate α5 integrin in the synovial joints using the Gdf5Cre system. The compound mice were born normally and had an overall appearance similar to the control mice. However, when the mutant mice received the OA surgery, they showed stronger resistance to osteoarthritic changes than the control. Specifically the mutant knee joints presented lower levels of cartilage matrix and structure loss and synovial changes and showed stronger biomechanical properties than the control knee joints. These findings indicate that α5 integrin may not be essential for synovial joint development but play a causative role in induction of osteoarthritic changes.

  9. Syndecan-4 Phosphorylation Is a Control Point for Integrin Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Mark R.; Hamidi, Hellyeh; Bass, Mark D.; Warwood, Stacey; Ballestrem, Christoph; Humphries, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Precise spatiotemporal coordination of integrin adhesion complex dynamics is essential for efficient cell migration. For cells adherent to fibronectin, differential engagement of α5β1 and αVβ3 integrins is used to elicit changes in adhesion complex stability, mechanosensation, matrix assembly, and migration, but the mechanisms responsible for receptor regulation have remained largely obscure. We identify phosphorylation of the membrane-intercalated proteoglycan syndecan-4 as an essential switch controlling integrin recycling. Src phosphorylates syndecan-4 and, by driving syntenin binding, leads to suppression of Arf6 activity and recycling of αVβ3 to the plasma membrane at the expense of α5β1. The resultant elevation in αVβ3 engagement promotes stabilization of focal adhesions. Conversely, abrogation of syndecan-4 phosphorylation drives surface expression of α5β1, destabilizes adhesion complexes, and disrupts cell migration. These data identify the dynamic spatiotemporal regulation of Src-mediated syndecan-4 phosphorylation as an essential switch controlling integrin trafficking and adhesion dynamics to promote efficient cell migration. PMID:23453597

  10. Syndecan-4 phosphorylation is a control point for integrin recycling.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Mark R; Hamidi, Hellyeh; Bass, Mark D; Warwood, Stacey; Ballestrem, Christoph; Humphries, Martin J

    2013-03-11

    Precise spatiotemporal coordination of integrin adhesion complex dynamics is essential for efficient cell migration. For cells adherent to fibronectin, differential engagement of α5β1 and αVβ3 integrins is used to elicit changes in adhesion complex stability, mechanosensation, matrix assembly, and migration, but the mechanisms responsible for receptor regulation have remained largely obscure. We identify phosphorylation of the membrane-intercalated proteoglycan syndecan-4 as an essential switch controlling integrin recycling. Src phosphorylates syndecan-4 and, by driving syntenin binding, leads to suppression of Arf6 activity and recycling of αVβ3 to the plasma membrane at the expense of α5β1. The resultant elevation in αVβ3 engagement promotes stabilization of focal adhesions. Conversely, abrogation of syndecan-4 phosphorylation drives surface expression of α5β1, destabilizes adhesion complexes, and disrupts cell migration. These data identify the dynamic spatiotemporal regulation of Src-mediated syndecan-4 phosphorylation as an essential switch controlling integrin trafficking and adhesion dynamics to promote efficient cell migration.

  11. Integrin β4 regulates SPARC protein to promote invasion.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Kristin D; Shearstone, Jeffrey R; Maddula, V S R Krishna; Seligmann, Bruce E; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2012-03-23

    The α6β4 integrin (referred to as "β4" integrin) is a receptor for laminins that promotes carcinoma invasion through its ability to regulate key signaling pathways and cytoskeletal dynamics. An analysis of published Affymetrix GeneChip data to detect downstream effectors involved in β4-mediated invasion of breast carcinoma cells identified SPARC, or secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine. This glycoprotein has been shown to play an important role in matrix remodeling and invasion. Our analysis revealed that manipulation of β4 integrin expression and signaling impacted SPARC expression and that SPARC facilitates β4-mediated invasion. Expression of β4 in β4-deficient cells reduced the expression of a specific microRNA (miR-29a) that targets SPARC and impedes invasion. In cells that express endogenous β4, miR-29a expression is low and β4 ligation facilitates the translation of SPARC through a TOR-dependent mechanism. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that β4 can regulate SPARC expression and that SPARC is an effector of β4-mediated invasion. They also highlight a potential role for specific miRNAs in executing the functions of integrins.

  12. Mixed Extracellular Matrix Ligands Synergistically Modulate Integrin Adhesion and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Catherine D.; Petrie, Timothy A.; García, Andrés J

    2008-01-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) components through cell-surface integrin receptors is essential to the formation, maintenance and repair of numerous tissues, and therefore represents a central theme in the design of bioactive materials that successfully interface with the body. While the adhesive responses associated with a single ligand have been extensively analyzed, the effects of multiple integrin subtypes binding to multivalent ECM signals remain poorly understood. In the present study, we generated a high throughput platform of non-adhesive surfaces presenting well-defined, independent densities of two integrin-specific engineered ligands for the type I collagen (COL-I) receptor α2β1 and the fibronectin (FN) receptor α5β1 to evaluate the effects of integrin cross-talk on adhesive responses. Engineered surfaces displayed ligand density-dependent adhesive effects, and mixed ligand surfaces significantly enhanced cell adhesion strength and focal adhesion assembly compared to single FN and COL-I ligand surfaces. Moreover, surfaces presenting mixed COL-I/FN ligands synergistically enhanced FAK activation compared to the single ligand substrates. The enhanced adhesive activities of the mixed ligand surfaces also promoted elevated proliferation rates. Our results demonstrate interplay between multivalent ECM ligands in adhesive responses and downstream cellular signaling. PMID:18613064

  13. Endothelial destabilization by angiopoietin-2 via integrin β1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Hakanpaa, Laura; Sipila, Tuomas; Leppanen, Veli-Matti; Gautam, Prson; Nurmi, Harri; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Eklund, Lauri; Ivaska, Johanna; Alitalo, Kari; Saharinen, Pipsa

    2015-01-01

    Angiopoietins regulate vascular homeostasis via the endothelial Tie receptor tyrosine kinases. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) supports endothelial stabilization via Tie2 activation. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) functions as a context-dependent Tie2 agonist/antagonist promoting pathological angiogenesis, vascular permeability and inflammation. Elucidating Ang2-dependent mechanisms of vascular destablization is critical for rational design of angiopoietin antagonists that have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in cancer trials. Here, we report that Ang2, but not Ang1, activates β1-integrin, leading to endothelial destablization. Autocrine Ang2 signalling upon Tie2 silencing, or in Ang2 transgenic mice, promotes β1-integrin-positive elongated matrix adhesions and actin stress fibres, regulating vascular endothelial-cadherin-containing cell–cell junctions. The Tie2-silenced monolayer integrity is rescued by β1-integrin, phosphoinositide-3 kinase or Rho kinase inhibition, and by re-expression of a membrane-bound Tie2 ectodomain. Furthermore, Tie2 silencing increases, whereas Ang2 blocking inhibits transendothelial tumour cell migration in vitro. These results establish Ang2-mediated β1-integrin activation as a promoter of endothelial destablization, explaining the controversial vascular functions of Ang1 and Ang2. PMID:25635707

  14. Integrins control motile strategy through a Rho–cofilin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Danen, Erik H.J.; van Rheenen, Jacco; Franken, Willeke; Huveneers, Stephan; Sonneveld, Petra; Jalink, Kees; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2005-01-01

    During wound healing, angiogenesis, and tumor invasion, cells often change their expression profiles of fibronectin-binding integrins. Here, we show that β1 integrins promote random migration, whereas β3 integrins promote persistent migration in the same epithelial cell background. Adhesion to fibronectin by αvβ3 supports extensive actin cytoskeletal reorganization through the actin-severing protein cofilin, resulting in a single broad lamellipod with static cell–matrix adhesions at the leading edge. Adhesion by α5β1 instead leads to the phosphorylation/inactivation of cofilin, and these cells fail to polarize their cytoskeleton but extend thin protrusions containing highly dynamic cell–matrix adhesions in multiple directions. The activity of the small GTPase RhoA is particularly high in cells adhering by α5β1, and inhibition of Rho signaling causes a switch from a β1- to a β3-associated mode of migration, whereas increased Rho activity has the opposite effect. Thus, alterations in integrin expression profiles allow cells to modulate several critical aspects of the motile machinery through Rho GTPases. PMID:15866889

  15. Integrin avidity regulation: are changes in affinity and conformation underemphasized?

    PubMed

    Carman, Christopher V; Springer, Timothy A

    2003-10-01

    Integrins play critical roles in development, wound healing, immunity and cancer. Central to their function is their unique ability to modulate dynamically their adhesiveness through both affinity- and valency-based mechanisms. Recent advances have shed light on the structural basis for affinity regulation and on the signaling mechanisms responsible for both affinity and valency modes of regulation.

  16. Silencing of VAMP3 inhibits cell migration and integrin-mediated adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Luftman, Kevin; Hasan, Nazarul; Day, Paul; Hardee, Deborah; Hu Chuan

    2009-02-27

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. In cell migration, integrins are endocytosed from the plasma membrane or the cell surface, transported in vesicles and exocytosed actively at the cell front. In the present study, we examined the roles of VAMP3, a SNARE protein that mediates exocytosis, in cell migration and integrin trafficking. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced silencing of VAMP3 inhibited chemotactic cell migration by more than 60% without affecting cell proliferation. VAMP3 silencing reduced the levels of {beta}1 integrin at the cell surface but had no effect on total cellular {beta}1 integrin, indicating that VAMP3 is required for trafficking of {beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, VAMP3 silencing diminished cell adhesion to laminin but not to fibronectin or collagen. Taken together, these data suggest that VAMP3-dependent integrin trafficking is crucial in cell migration and cell adhesion to laminin.

  17. Endothelial α5 and αv integrins cooperate in remodeling of the vasculature during development

    PubMed Central

    van der Flier, Arjan; Badu-Nkansah, Kwabena; Whittaker, Charles A.; Crowley, Denise; Bronson, Roderick T.; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Hynes, Richard O.

    2010-01-01

    Integrin cell adhesion receptors and fibronectin, one of their extracellular matrix ligands, have been demonstrated to be important for angiogenesis using functional perturbation studies and complete knockout mouse models. Here, we report on the roles of the α5 and αv integrins, which are the major endothelial fibronectin receptors, in developmental angiogenesis. We generated an integrin α5-floxed mouse line and ablated α5 integrin in endothelial cells. Unexpectedly, endothelial-specific knockout of integrin α5 has no obvious effect on developmental angiogenesis. We provide evidence for genetic interaction between mutations in integrin α5 and αv and for overlapping functions and compensation between these integrins and perhaps others. Nonetheless, in embryos lacking both α5 and αv integrins in their endothelial cells, initial vasculogenesis and angiogenesis proceed normally, at least up to E11.5, including the formation of apparently normal embryonic vasculature and development of the branchial arches. However, in the absence of endothelial α5 and αv integrins, but not of either alone, there are extensive defects in remodeling of the great vessels and heart resulting in death at ~E14.5. We also found that fibronectin assembly is somewhat affected in integrin α5 knockout endothelial cells and markedly reduced in integrin α5/αv double-knockout endothelial cell lines. Therefore, neither α5 nor αv integrins are required in endothelial cells for initial vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, although they are required for remodeling of the heart and great vessels. These integrins on other cells, and/or other integrins on endothelial cells, might contribute to fibronectin assembly and vascular development. PMID:20570943

  18. Integrin binding angiopoietin-1 monomers reduce cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Dallabrida, Susan M.; Ismail, Nesreen S.; Pravda, Elke A.; Parodi, Emily M.; Dickie, Renee; Durand, Ellen M.; Lai, Jean; Cassiola, Flavia; Rogers, Rick A.; Rupnick, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    Angiopoietins were thought to be endothelial cell-specific via the tie2 receptor. We showed that angiopoietin-1 (ang1) also interacts with integrins on cardiac myocytes (CMs) to increase survival. Because ang1 monomers bind and activate integrins (not tie2), we determined their function in vivo. We examined monomer and multimer expressions during physiological and pathological cardiac remodeling and overexpressed ang1 monomers in phenylephrine-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac ang1 levels (mRNA, protein) increased during postnatal development and decreased with phenylephrine-induced cardiac hypertrophy, whereas tie2 phosphorylations were unchanged. We found that most or all of the changes during cardiac remodeling were in monomers, offering an explanation for unchanged tie2 activity. Heart tissue contains abundant ang1 monomers and few multimers (Western blotting). We generated plasmids that produce ang1 monomers (ang1–256), injected them into mice, and confirmed cardiac expression (immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR). Ang1 monomers localize to CMs, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. In phenylephrine-induced cardiac hypertrophy, ang1–256 reduced left ventricle (LV)/tibia ratios, fetal gene expressions (atrial and brain natriuretic peptides, skeletal actin, β-myosin heavy chain), and fibrosis (collagen III), and increased LV prosurvival signaling (akt, MAPKp42/44), and AMPKT172. However, tie2 phosphorylations were unchanged. Ang1–256 increased integrin-linked kinase, a key regulator of integrin signaling and cardiac health. Collectively, these results suggest a role for ang1 monomers in cardiac remodeling.—Dallabrida, S. M., Ismail, N. S., Pravda, E. A., Parodi, E. M., Dickie, R., Durand, E. M., Lai, J., Cassiola, F., Rogers, R. A., Rupnick, M. A. Integrin binding angiopoietin-1 monomers reduce cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:18502941

  19. In vitro selection of fibronectin gain-of-function mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Patricia H; Loftus, Joseph C; Bowditch, Ron D

    2002-01-01

    Directed protein evolution, which employs a combination of random mutagenesis, phage display, and in vitro selection, was used to identify second-site suppressors of the fibronectin (Fn) cell binding domain mutation Asp1495Ala (RGA). The mutations in the Fn 9th (3fn9) and 10th (3fn10) type III repeats obtained after selection on purified integrins alphaIIbbeta3(D119Y) and alpha5beta1 are reported. The 3fn9-10(D1495A) phage with substitution mutations at Asp1418, which is located within the linker region between 3fn9 and 3fn10, enhanced binding to the integrins alphaIIbbeta3 and alpha5beta1, but not alphavbeta3. The substitution mutations identified at residue Asp1418 were introduced into the native recombinant 3fn9-10 sequence and found to augment binding to alphaIIbbeta3, demonstrating that the observed gain-of-function phenotype was independent of the multivalent character of the phage. These results support the following conclusions. First, regions of Fn in addition to the RGD loop are in close proximity to alphaIIbbeta3 and alpha5beta1 and are capable of participating in the binding to these integrins. Secondly, the conformational relationship between the 3fn9 and 3fn10 modules may be an important factor in the binding of Fn to these two integrins. Thirdly, other altered properties of Fn-integrin interactions, such as integrin specificity, may also be selected. This is the first description of Fn mutations that augment binding to integrins. The ability to select for particular phenotypes in vitro and the subsequent characterization of these mutations should further our understanding of the molecular details involved in the association of integrins and their ligands. Additionally, these higher-affinity 3fn9-10 ligands provide a starting point for further in vitro evolution and engineering of integrin-specific modules. PMID:12071856

  20. Alpha4beta1 integrin and erythropoietin mediate temporally distinct steps in erythropoiesis: integrins in red cell development.

    PubMed

    Eshghi, Shawdee; Vogelezang, Mariette G; Hynes, Richard O; Griffith, Linda G; Lodish, Harvey F

    2007-06-04

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is essential for the terminal proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. Fibronectin is an important part of the erythroid niche, but its precise role in erythropoiesis is unknown. By culturing fetal liver erythroid progenitors, we show that fibronectin and Epo regulate erythroid proliferation in temporally distinct steps: an early Epo-dependent phase is followed by a fibronectin-dependent phase. In each phase, Epo and fibronectin promote expansion by preventing apoptosis partly through bcl-xL. We show that alpha(4), alpha(5), and beta(1) are the principal integrins expressed on erythroid progenitors; their down-regulation during erythropoiesis parallels the loss of cell adhesion to fibronectin. Culturing erythroid progenitors on recombinant fibronectin fragments revealed that only substrates that engage alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin support normal proliferation. Collectively, these data suggest a two-phase model for growth factor and extracellular matrix regulation of erythropoiesis, with an early Epo-dependent, integrin-independent phase followed by an Epo-independent, alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin-dependent phase.

  1. Integrin αvβ6 Critically Regulates Hepatic Progenitor Cell Function and Promotes Ductular Reaction, Fibrosis, and Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhen-Wei; Ikenaga, Naoki; Liu, Susan B.; Sverdlov, Deanna Y.; Vaid, Kahini A.; Dixit, Richa; Weinreb, Paul H.; Violette, Shelia; Sheppard, Dean; Schuppan, Detlef; Popov, Yury

    2017-01-01

    Integrin αvβ6 is rapidly up-regulated on cells of epithelial lineage during tissue injury, where one of its primary functions is activation of latent transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1). In human liver cirrhosis, αvβ6 is overexpressed by cells comprising the ductular reaction, and its inhibition suppresses experimental biliary fibrosis in rodents. Here, we show that αvβ6 is expressed on the actively proliferating subset of hepatic progenitor cells and is required for their progenitor function in vivo and in vitro through integrin αvβ6-dependent TGFβ1 activation. Freshly isolated αvβ6+ liver cells demonstrate clonogenic potential and differentiate into cholangiocytes and functional hepatocytes in vitro, whereas colony formation by epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive progenitor cells is blocked by αvβ6-neutralizing antibody and in integrin beta 6-deficient cells. Inhibition of progenitors by anti-αvβ6 antibody is recapitulated by TGFβ1 neutralization and rescued by addition of bioactive TGFβ1. Genetic disruption or selective targeting of αvβ6 with 3G9 antibody potently inhibits progenitor cell responses in mouse models of chronic biliary injury and protects from liver fibrosis and tumorigenesis, two conditions clinically associated with exacerbated ductular reaction. Conclusion These results suggest that αvβ6 is a promising target for chronic fibrotic liver diseases and associated cancers. PMID:26448099

  2. Rescuing vasculature with intravenous angiopoietin-1 and αvβ3 integrin peptide is protective after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shu; Arnold, Sheila A.; Sithu, Srinivas D.; Mahoney, Edward T.; Geralds, Justin T.; Tran, Phuong; Benton, Richard L.; Maddie, Melissa A.; D’Souza, Stanley E.; Whittemore, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Blood vessel loss and inflammation cause secondary degeneration following spinal cord injury. Angiopoietin-1 through the Tie2 receptor, and other ligands through αvβ3 integrin, promote endothelial cell survival during developmental or tumour angiogenesis. Here, daily intravenous injections with an αvβ3-binding peptide named C16 or an angiopoietin-1 mimetic following a spinal cord contusion at thoracic level 9 in mice rescued epicentre blood vessels, white matter and locomotor function, and reduced detrimental inflammation. Preserved vascularity and reduced inflammation correlated with improved outcomes. C16 and angiopoietin-1 reduced leukocyte transmigration in vitro. Growth factor receptors and integrins facilitate each others’ function. Therefore, angiopoietin-1 and C16 were combined and the effects were additive, resulting in almost complete functional recovery. The treatment had lasting effects when started 4 h following injury and terminated after one week. These results identify αvβ3 integrin and the endothelial-selective angiopoietin-1 as vascular and inflammatory regulators that can be targeted in a clinically relevant manner for neuroprotection after central nervous system trauma. PMID:20375135

  3. Inhibiting Vimentin or beta 1-integrin Reverts Prostate Tumor Cells in IrECM and Reduces Tumor Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xueping; Fournier, Marcia V.; Ware, Joy L.; Bissell, Mina J.; Zehner, Zendra E.

    2009-07-27

    Prostate epithelial cells grown embedded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) undergo morphological changes that closely resemble their architecture in vivo. In this study, growth characteristics of three human prostate epithelial sublines derived from the same cellular lineage, but displaying different tumorigenic and metastatic properties in vivo, were assessed in three-dimensional (3D) lrECM gels. M12, a highly tumorigenic and metastatic subline, was derived from the parental prostate epithelial P69 cell line by selection in nude mice and found to contain a deletion of 19p-q13.1. The stable reintroduction of an intact human chromosome 19 into M12 resulted in a poorly tumorigenic subline, designated F6. When embedded in lrECM gels, the nontumorigenic P69 line produced acini with clearly defined lumena. Immunostaining with antibodies to {beta}-catenin, E-cadherin or {alpha}6-, {beta}4- and {beta}1-integrins showed polarization typical of glandular epithelium. In contrast, the metastatic M12 subline produced highly disorganized cells with no evidence of polarization. The F6 subline reverted to acini-like structures exhibiting basal polarity marked with integrins. Reducing either vimentin levels via siRNA interference or {beta}1-integrin expression by the addition of the blocking antibody, AIIB2, reorganized the M12 subline into forming polarized acini. The loss of vimentin significantly reduced M12-Vim tumor growth when assessed by subcutaneous injection in athymic mice. Thus, tumorigenicity in vivo correlated with disorganized growth in 3D lrECM gels. These studies suggest that the levels of vimentin and {beta}1-integrin play a key role in the homeostasis of the normal acini in prostate and that their dysregulation may lead to tumorigenesis.

  4. Activity-Induced Synaptic Structural Modifications by an Activator of Integrin Signaling at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Yeun; Geng, Junhua; Lee, Juhyun; Wang, Andrew R; Chang, Karen T

    2017-03-22

    Activity-induced synaptic structural modification is crucial for neural development and synaptic plasticity, but the molecular players involved in this process are not well defined. Here, we report that a protein named Shriveled (Shv) regulates synaptic growth and activity-dependent synaptic remodeling at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Depletion of Shv causes synaptic overgrowth and an accumulation of immature boutons. We find that Shv physically and genetically interacts with βPS integrin. Furthermore, Shv is secreted during intense, but not mild, neuronal activity to acutely activate integrin signaling, induce synaptic bouton enlargement, and increase postsynaptic glutamate receptor abundance. Consequently, loss of Shv prevents activity-induced synapse maturation and abolishes post-tetanic potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity. Our data identify Shv as a novel trans-synaptic signal secreted upon intense neuronal activity to promote synapse remodeling through integrin receptor signaling.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The ability of neurons to rapidly modify synaptic structure in response to neuronal activity, a process called activity-induced structural remodeling, is crucial for neuronal development and complex brain functions. The molecular players that are important for this fundamental biological process are not well understood. Here we show that the Shriveled (Shv) protein is required during development to maintain normal synaptic growth. We further demonstrate that Shv is selectively released during intense neuronal activity, but not mild neuronal activity, to acutely activate integrin signaling and trigger structural modifications at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. This work identifies Shv as a key modulator of activity-induced structural remodeling and suggests that neurons use distinct molecular cues to differentially modulate synaptic growth and remodeling to meet synaptic demand. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/373246-18$15.00/0.

  5. Thrombin receptor and RhoA mediate cell proliferation through integrins and cysteine-rich protein 61

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Colin T.; Radeff-Huang, Julie; Matteo, Rosalia; Hsiao, Albert; Subramaniam, Shankar; Stupack, Dwayne; Brown, Joan Heller

    2008-01-01

    A subset of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), including the thrombin receptor (PAR1), elicits mitogenic responses. Thrombin also activates Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) and activating protein (AP-1) -mediated gene expression in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, whereas the nonmitogenic agonist carbachol does not. Transcriptomic analysis was used to explore differential gene induction by these agonists and revealed that the matricellular protein cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr61/CCN1) is selectively induced by thrombin. The ability of GPCR agonists to induce Cyr61 parallels their ability to activate RhoA; agonist-stimulated Cyr61 expression is inhibited by C3 toxin. When Cyr61 is down-regulated using short interfering RNA (siRNA) or short-hairpin RNA (shRNA), thrombin-induced DNA synthesis is significantly attenuated. When Cyr61 expression is induced, it appears in the extracellular compartment and on the cell surface. Extracellular Cyr61 interacts with α5, α6, and β1 integrins on these cells, and monoclonal antibodies directed against α5 and β1 integrins inhibit thrombin-induced DNA synthesis. Functional blockade of Cyr61 with soluble heparin or anti-Cyr61 antibodies also inhibits thrombin-induced DNA synthesis. Thus Cyr61 is a highly inducible, secreted extracellular factor through which GPCR and RhoA signaling pathways engage integrins that contribute to GPCR-mediated proliferation.—Walsh, C. T., Radeff-Huang, J., Matteo, R., Hsiao, A., Subramaniam, S., Stupack, D., and Brown, J. H. Thrombin receptor and RhoA mediate cell proliferation through integrins and cysteine-rich protein 61. PMID:18687805

  6. The MIG-2/integrin interaction strengthens cell-matrix adhesion and modulates cell motility.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaohua; Ma, Yan-Qing; Tu, Yizeng; Chen, Ka; Wu, Shan; Fukuda, Koichi; Qin, Jun; Plow, Edward F; Wu, Chuanyue

    2007-07-13

    Integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesion plays an important role in control of cell behavior. We report here that MIG-2, a widely expressed focal adhesion protein, interacts with beta1 and beta3 integrin cytoplasmic domains. Integrin binding is mediated by a single site within the MIG-2 FERM domain. Functionally, the MIG-2/integrin interaction recruits MIG-2 to focal adhesions. Furthermore, using alphaIIbbeta3 integrin-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells, a well described model system for integrin activation, we show that MIG-2 promotes integrin activation and enhances cell-extracellular matrix adhesion. Although MIG-2 is expressed in many cell types, it is deficient in certain colon cancer cells. Expression of MIG-2, but not of an integrin binding-defective MIG-2 mutant, in MIG-2-null colon cancer cells strengthened cell-matrix adhesion, promoted focal adhesion formation, and reduced cell motility. These results suggest that the MIG-2/integrin interaction is an important element in the cellular control of integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesion and that loss of this interaction likely contributes to high motility of colon cancer cells.

  7. β3 integrin expression is required for invadopodia-mediated ECM degradation in lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Xabier; Salvo, Elizabeth; Garasa, Saray; Ortiz de Solórzano, Carlos; Martínez, Alfredo; Larrayoz, Ignacio M.; Rouzaut, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Cancer related deaths are primarily due to tumor metastasis. To facilitate their dissemination to distant sites, cancer cells develop invadopodia, actin-rich protrusions capable of degrading the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). We aimed to determine whether β3 integrin participates in invadopodia formed by lung carcinoma cells, based on our previous findings of specific TGF-β induction of β3 integrin dependent metastasis in animal models of lung carcinoma. In this study, we demonstrate that lung carcinoma cells form invadopodia in response to TGF-β exposure. Invadopodia formation and degradation activity is dependent on β3 integrin expression since β3 integrin deficient cells are not able to degrade gelatin-coated surfaces. Even more, transient over-expression of SRC did not restore invadopodia formation in β3 integrin deficient cells. Finally, we observed that blockade of PLC-dependent signaling leads to more intense labeling for β3 integrin in invadopodia. Our results suggest that β3 integrin function, and location, in lung cancer cells are essential for invadopodia formation, and this integrin regulates the activation of different signal pathways necessary for the invasive structure. β3 integrin has been associated with poor prognosis and increased metastasis in several carcinoma types, including lung cancer. Our findings provide new evidence to support the use of targeted therapies against this integrin to combat the onset of metastases. PMID:28767724

  8. Integrin alpha(3)-subunit expression modulates alveolar epithelial cell monolayer formation.

    PubMed

    Lubman, R L; Zhang, X L; Zheng, J; Ocampo, L; Lopez, M Z; Veeraraghavan, S; Zabski, S M; Danto, S I; Borok, Z

    2000-07-01

    We investigated expression of the alpha(3)-integrin subunit by rat alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) grown in primary culture as well as the effects of monoclonal antibodies with blocking activity against the alpha(3)-integrin subunit on AEC monolayer formation. alpha(3)-Integrin subunit mRNA and protein were detectable in AECs on day 1 and increased with time in culture. alpha(3)- and beta(1)-integrin subunits coprecipitated in immunoprecipitation experiments with alpha(3)- and beta(1)-subunit-specific antibodies, consistent with their association as the alpha(3)beta(1)-integrin receptor at the cell membrane. Treatment with blocking anti-alpha(3) monoclonal antibody from day 0 delayed development of transepithelial resistance, reduced transepithelial resistance through day 5 compared with that in untreated AECs, and resulted in large subconfluent patches in monolayers viewed by scanning electron microscopy on day 3. These data indicate that alpha(3)- and beta(1)-integrin subunits are expressed in AEC monolayers where they form the heterodimeric alpha(3)beta(1)-integrin receptor at the cell membrane. Blockade of the alpha(3)-integrin subunit inhibits formation of confluent AEC monolayers. We conclude that the alpha(3)-integrin subunit modulates formation of AEC monolayers by virtue of the key role of the alpha(3)beta(1)-integrin receptor in AEC adhesion.

  9. The molecular basis of talin2’s high affinity toward β1-integrin

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yaxia; Li, Liqing; Zhu, Yanyan; Qi, Lei; Azizi, Latifeh; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Huang, Cai

    2017-01-01

    Talin interacts with β-integrin tails and actin to control integrin activation, thus regulating focal adhesion dynamics and cell migration. There are two talin genes, Tln1 and Tln2, which encode talin1 and talin2, and it is generally believed that talin2 functions redundantly with talin1. However, we show here that talin2 has a higher affinity to β1-integrin tails than talin1. Mutation of talin2 S339 to leucine, which can cause Fifth Finger Camptodactyly, a human genetic disease, completely disrupted its binding to β–integrin tails. Also, substitution of talin1 C336 with Ser enhanced the affinity of talin1, whereas substitution of talin2 S339 with Cys diminished that of talin2. Further computational modeling analysis shows that talin2 S339 formed a hydrogen bond with E353, which is critical for inducing key hydrogen bonds between talin2 N326 and β1-integrin R760, and between talin2 K327 and β1-integrin D759. Mutation at any of these residues significantly diminished the interaction of talin2 with β1- integrin tails. These hydrogen bonds were not observed in talin1/β1-integrin, but did exist in talin1C336S/β1-integrin complex. These results suggest that talin2 S339 forms a hydrogen bond with E353 to mediate its high affinity to β1-integrin. PMID:28155884

  10. Titin-Based Nanoparticle Tension Sensors Map High-Magnitude Integrin Forces within Focal Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Galior, Kornelia; Liu, Yang; Yehl, Kevin; Vivek, Skanda; Salaita, Khalid

    2016-01-13

    Mechanical forces transmitted through integrin transmembrane receptors play important roles in a variety of cellular processes ranging from cell development to tumorigenesis. Despite the importance of mechanics in integrin function, the magnitude of integrin forces within adhesions remains unclear. Literature suggests a range from 1 to 50 pN, but the upper limit of integrin forces remains unknown. Herein we challenge integrins with the most mechanically stable molecular tension probe, which is comprised of the immunoglobulin 27th (I27) domain of cardiac titin flanked with a fluorophore and gold nanoparticle. Cell experiments show that integrin forces unfold the I27 domain, suggesting that integrin forces exceed ∼30-40 pN. The addition of a disulfide bridge within I27 "clamps" the probe and resists mechanical unfolding. Importantly, incubation with a reducing agent initiates SH exchange, thus unclamping I27 at a rate that is dependent on the applied force. By recording the rate of S-S reduction in clamped I27, we infer that integrins apply 110 ± 9 pN within focal adhesions of rat embryonic fibroblasts. The rates of S-S exchange are heterogeneous and integrin subtype-dependent. Nanoparticle titin tension sensors along with kinetic analysis of unfolding demonstrate that a subset of integrins apply tension many fold greater than previously reported.

  11. Mutually Exclusive Roles of SHARPIN in Integrin Inactivation and NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    De Franceschi, Nicola; Peuhu, Emilia; Parsons, Maddy; Rissanen, Sami; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Salmi, Marko

    2015-01-01

    SHANK-associated RH domain interactor (SHARPIN) inhibits integrins through interaction with the integrin α-subunit. In addition, SHARPIN enhances nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activity as a component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC). However, it is currently unclear how regulation of these seemingly different roles is coordinated. Here, we show that SHARPIN binds integrin and LUBAC in a mutually exclusive manner. We map the integrin binding site on SHARPIN to the ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain, the same domain implicated in SHARPIN interaction with LUBAC component RNF31 (ring finger protein 31), and identify two SHARPIN residues (V267, L276) required for both integrin and RNF31 regulation. Accordingly, the integrin α-tail is capable of competing with RNF31 for SHARPIN binding in vitro. Importantly, the full SHARPIN RNF31-binding site contains residues (F263A/I272A) that are dispensable for SHARPIN-integrin interaction. Importantly, disrupting SHARPIN interaction with integrin or RNF31 abolishes SHARPIN-mediated regulation of integrin or NF-κB activity, respectively. Altogether these data suggest that the roles of SHARPIN in inhibiting integrin activity and supporting linear ubiquitination are (molecularly) distinct. PMID:26600301

  12. Combination of integrin siRNA and irradiation for breast cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Qizhen; Cai Weibo; Li Tianfang; Yang Yong; Chen Kai; Xing Lei; Chen Xiaoyuan . E-mail: shawchen@stanford.edu

    2006-12-22

    Up-regulation of integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} has been shown to play a key role in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we evaluated the role of integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} in breast cancer cell resistance to ionizing irradiation (IR) and tested the anti-tumor efficacy of combining integrin {alpha}{sub v} siRNA and IR. Colonogenic survival assay, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle analysis were carried out to determine the treatment effect of siRNA, IR, or combination of both on MDA-MB-435 cells (integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-positive). Integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-negative MCF-7 cells exert more radiosensitivity than MDA-MB-435 cells. IR up-regulates integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} expression in MDA-MB-435 cells and integrin {alpha}{sub v} siRNA can effectively reduce both {alpha}{sub v} and {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin expression, leading to increased radiosensitivity. Integrin {alpha}{sub v} siRNA also promotes IR-induced apoptosis and enhances IR-induced G2/M arrest in cell cycle progression. This study, with further optimization, may provide a simple and highly efficient treatment strategy for breast cancer as well as other integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-positive cancer types.

  13. Pro-metastatic NEDD9 regulates individual cell migration via caveolin-1-dependent trafficking of integrins

    PubMed Central

    Kozyulina, Polina Y.; Loskutov, Yuriy V.; Kozyreva, Varvara K.; Rajulapati, Anuradha; Ice, Ryan J.; Jones, Brandon. C.; Pugacheva, Elena N.

    2014-01-01

    The dissemination of tumor cells relies on efficient cell adhesion and migration, which in turn depends upon endocytic trafficking of integrins. In the current work, it was found that depletion of pro-metastatic protein, NEDD9, in breast cancer (BC) cells results in a significant decrease in individual cell migration due to impaired trafficking of ligand-bound integrins. NEDD9 deficiency does not affect the expression or internalization of integrins but heightens caveolae-dependent trafficking of ligand-bound integrins to early endosomes. Increase in mobility of ligand-bound integrins is concomitant with an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1 (CAV1) and volume of CAV1-vesicles. NEDD9 directly binds to CAV1 and co-localizes within CAV1 vesicles. In the absence of NEDD9, the trafficking of ligand-bound integrins from early to late endosomes is impaired, resulting in a significant decrease in degradation of ligand/integrin complexes and an increase in recycling of ligand-bound integrins from early endosomes back to the plasma membrane without ligand disengagement, thus leading to low adhesion and migration. Re-expression of NEDD9 or decrease in the amount of active, tyrosine 14 phosphorylated (Tyr14) CAV1 in NEDD9 depleted cells rescues the integrin trafficking deficiency and restores cellular adhesion and migration capacity. Collectively, these findings indicate that NEDD9 orchestrates trafficking of ligand-bound integrins through the attenuation of CAV1 activity. PMID:25319010

  14. A novel integrin function in innate immunity from Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis).

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Feng, Jin-Ling; Zhu, Huan-Xi; Huang, Xin; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Integrins belong to a superfamily of conserved α β heterodimeric cell surface receptors that have critical function in cell migration, differentiation, and survival. In this study, an integrin called EsIntegrin was identified from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. EsIntegrin cDNA is 4415 bp long with a 2457 bp open reading frame that encodes an 818 amino acid protein. EsIntegrin contains a signal peptide, an integrin beta subunit (N-terminal portion of extracellular region) INB domain, an epidermal growth factor (hEGF) domain, an integrin B tail domain, a transmembrane region, and an integrin b cyt domain. EsIntegrin was mainly expressed in hemocytes and the heart, with a relatively lower expression level in gills, nerves, intestine, hepatopancreas, muscles, and eyestalk. When healthy crabs were challenged with LPS, PGN, Staphyloccocus aureus, or Vibrio parahaemolyticus, EsIntegrin expression level was upregulated significantly. Recombinant EsIntegrin has agglutination activity to Gram-positive (e.g., S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., V. parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila) in the presence of calcium. Furthermore, rEsIntegrin could not only bind to various bacteria such as S. aureus, Micrococcus luteus, B. subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio anguillarum, A. hydrophila, Vibrio natriegens, and Escherichia coli, but this compound also helped crabs in clearing virulent Gram-negative bacterium, V. parahaemolyticus, in vivo. These data suggested that EsIntegrin might function as cellular receptor that is involved in anti-bacterial immunity from E. sinensis.

  15. Integrin-β1 regulates chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis through the upregulation of GIT1 expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long-Qiang; Zhao, Guang-Zong; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Fang, Jun; Chen, Jing-Ming; Li, Ji-Wen; Gao, Xue-Jian; Hao, Li-Juan; Chen, Yun-Zhen

    2015-04-01

    Chondrocytes play a critical role in the repair process of osteoarthritis, which is also known as degenerative arthritis. Integrins, as the key family of cell surface receptors, are responsible for the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis through the recruitment and activation of downstream adaptor proteins. Moreover, G-protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein-1 (GIT1) exerts its effects on cell proliferation and migration through interaction with various cytokines. It has been previously suggested that GIT1 acts as a vital protein downstream of the integrin-mediated pathway. In the present study, we investigated the effects of integrin-β1 on cell proliferation and apoptosis, as well as the underlying mechanisms in chondrocytes in vitro. Following transfection with a vector expressing integrin-β1, our results revealed that the overexpression of integrin-β1 enhanced GIT1 expression, whereas the knockdown of integrin-β1 by siRNA suppressed GIT1 expression. However, no significant effect was observed on integrin-β1 expression following the enforced overexpression of GIT1, which suggests that GIT1 is localized downstream of integrin-β1. In other words, integrin-β1 regulates the expression of GIT1. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that integrin-β1 and GIT1 increased the expression levels of aggrecan and type II collagen, thus promoting chondrocyte proliferation; however, they inhibited chondrocyte apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrate that integrin-β1 plays a vital role in chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. GIT1 exerts effects similar to those of integrin-β1 and is a downstream target of integrin-β1.

  16. LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins bind to the serine/threonine-rich domain of thrombomodulin

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamoto, Eiji; Okamoto, Takayuki; Takagi, Yoshimi; Honda, Goichi; Suzuki, Koji; Imai, Hiroshi; Shimaoka, Motomu

    2016-05-13

    LFA-1 (αLβ2) and Mac-1 (αMβ2) integrins regulate leukocyte trafficking in health and disease by binding primarily to IgSF ligand ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 on endothelial cells. Here we have shown that the anti-coagulant molecule thrombomodulin (TM), found on the surface of endothelial cells, functions as a potentially new ligand for leukocyte integrins. We generated a recombinant extracellular domain of human TM and Fc fusion protein (TM-domains 123-Fc), and showed that pheripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) bind to TM-domains 123-Fc dependent upon integrin activation. We then demonstrated that αL integrin-blocking mAb, αM integrin-blocking mAb, and β2 integrin-blocking mAb inhibited the binding of PBMCs to TM-domains 123-Fc. Furthermore, we show that the serine/threonine-rich domain (domain 3) of TM is required for the interaction with the LFA-1 (αLβ2) and Mac-1 (αMβ2) integrins to occur on PBMCs. These results demonstrate that the LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins on leukocytes bind to TM, thereby establishing the molecular and structural basis underlying LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrin interaction with TM on endothelial cells. In fact, integrin-TM interactions might be involved in the dynamic regulation of leukocyte adhesion with endothelial cells. - Highlights: • LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins bind to the anti-coagulant molecule thrombomodulin. • The serine/threonine-rich domain of thrombomodulin is essential to interact with the LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins on PBMCs. • Integrin-TM interactions might be involved in the dynamic regulation of leukocyte adhesion with endothelial cells.

  17. Integrin-dependent Control of Translation: Engagement of Integrin αIIbβ3 Regulates Synthesis of Proteins in Activated Human Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Pabla, Ravinder; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Dixon, Dan A.; Bray, Paul F.; McIntyre, Thomas M.; Prescott, Stephen M.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

    1999-01-01

    Integrins are widely expressed plasma membrane adhesion molecules that tether cells to matrix proteins and to one another in cell–cell interactions. Integrins also transmit outside-in signals that regulate functional responses of cells, and are known to influence gene expression by regulating transcription. In previous studies we found that platelets, which are naturally occurring anucleate cytoplasts, translate preformed mRNA transcripts when they are activated by outside-in signals. Using strategies that interrupt engagement of integrin αIIbβ3 by fibrinogen and platelets deficient in this integrin, we found that αIIbβ3 regulates the synthesis of B cell lymphoma 3 (Bcl-3) when platelet aggregation is induced by thrombin. We also found that synthesis of Bcl-3, which occurs via a specialized translation control pathway regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is induced when platelets adhere to immobilized fibrinogen in the absence of thrombin and when integrin αIIbβ3 is engaged by a conformation-altering antibody against integrin αIIbβ3. Thus, outside-in signals delivered by integrin αIIbβ3 are required for translation of Bcl-3 in thrombin-stimulated aggregated platelets and are sufficient to induce translation of this marker protein in the absence of thrombin. Engagement of integrin α2β1 by collagen also triggered synthesis of Bcl-3. Thus, control of translation may be a general mechanism by which surface adhesion molecules regulate gene expression. PMID:9885253

  18. Persistence of fan-shaped keratocytes is a matrix-rigidity-dependent mechanism that requires α5β1 integrin engagement

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Maryam; Versaevel, Marie; Mohammed, Danahe; Glinel, Karine; Gabriele, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of matrix rigidity on cell functions, many aspects of the mechanosensing process in highly migratory cells remain elusive. Here, we studied the migration of highly motile keratocytes on culture substrates with similar biochemical properties and rigidities spanning the range between soft tissues (~kPa) and stiff culture substrates (~GPa). We show that morphology, polarization and persistence of motile keratocytes are regulated by the matrix stiffness over seven orders of magnitude, without changing the cell spreading area. Increasing the matrix rigidity leads to more F-actin in the lamellipodia and to the formation of mature contractile actomyosin fibers that control the cell rear retraction. Keratocytes remain rounded and form nascent adhesions on compliant substrates, whereas large and uniformly distributed focal adhesions are formed on fan-shaped keratocytes migrating on rigid surfaces. By combining poly-L-lysine, fibronectin and vitronectin coatings with selective blocking of αvβ3 or α5β1 integrins, we show that αVβ3 integrins permit the spreading of keratocytes but are not sufficient for polarization and rigidity sensing that require the engagement of α5β1 integrins. Our study demonstrates a matrix rigidity-dependent regulation of the directional persistence in motile keratocytes and refines the role of αvβ3 and α5β1 integrins in the molecular clutch model. PMID:27678055

  19. Persistence of fan-shaped keratocytes is a matrix-rigidity-dependent mechanism that requires α5β1 integrin engagement.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Maryam; Versaevel, Marie; Mohammed, Danahe; Glinel, Karine; Gabriele, Sylvain

    2016-09-28

    Despite the importance of matrix rigidity on cell functions, many aspects of the mechanosensing process in highly migratory cells remain elusive. Here, we studied the migration of highly motile keratocytes on culture substrates with similar biochemical properties and rigidities spanning the range between soft tissues (~kPa) and stiff culture substrates (~GPa). We show that morphology, polarization and persistence of motile keratocytes are regulated by the matrix stiffness over seven orders of magnitude, without changing the cell spreading area. Increasing the matrix rigidity leads to more F-actin in the lamellipodia and to the formation of mature contractile actomyosin fibers that control the cell rear retraction. Keratocytes remain rounded and form nascent adhesions on compliant substrates, whereas large and uniformly distributed focal adhesions are formed on fan-shaped keratocytes migrating on rigid surfaces. By combining poly-L-lysine, fibronectin and vitronectin coatings with selective blocking of αvβ3 or α5β1 integrins, we show that αVβ3 integrins permit the spreading of keratocytes but are not sufficient for polarization and rigidity sensing that require the engagement of α5β1 integrins. Our study demonstrates a matrix rigidity-dependent regulation of the directional persistence in motile keratocytes and refines the role of αvβ3 and α5β1 integrins in the molecular clutch model.

  20. The primary structure of the alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4: homology to other integrins and a possible cell-cell adhesion function.

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Y; Elices, M J; Crouse, C; Hemler, M E

    1989-01-01

    VLA-4 is a cell surface heterodimer in the integrin superfamily of adhesion receptors. Anti-VLA-4 antibodies inhibited cytolytic T cell activity, with inhibitory activity directed against the effector T cells rather than their targets. Thus, whereas other VLA receptors appear to mediate cell--matrix interactions, VLA-4 may have a cell--cell adhesion function. To facilitate comparative studies of VLA-4 and other integrins, cDNA clones for the human alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 were selected and then sequenced. The 3805 bp sequence encoded for 999 amino acids, with an N-terminus identical to that previously obtained from direct sequencing of purified alpha 4 protein. The alpha 4 amino acid sequence was 17-24% similar to other integrin alpha chains with known sequences. Parts of the alpha 4 sequence most conserved in other alpha chains include (i) the positions of 19/24 cysteine residues, (ii) three potential divalent cation binding sites of the general structure DXDXDGXXD and (iii) the transmembrane region. However, alpha 4 stands apart from all other known integrin alpha subunit sequences because (i) alpha 4 has neither an inserted I-domain, nor a disulfide-linked C-terminal fragment, (ii) its sequence is the most unique and (iii) only alpha 4 has a potential protease cleavage site, near the middle of the coding region, which appears responsible for the characteristic 80,000 and 70,000 Mr fragments of alpha 4. Images PMID:2788572

  1. Isthmin exerts pro-survival and death-promoting effect on endothelial cells through alphavbeta5 integrin depending on its physical state.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Chen, M; Venugopal, S; Zhou, Y; Xiang, W; Li, Y-H; Lin, Q; Kini, R M; Chong, Y-S; Ge, R

    2011-05-05

    Isthmin (ISM) is a 60 kDa secreted-angiogenesis inhibitor that suppresses tumor growth in mouse and disrupts vessel patterning in zebrafish embryos. It selectively binds to alphavbeta5 (αvβ5) integrin on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs), but the mechanism of its antiangiogenic action remains unknown. In this work, we establish that soluble ISM suppresses in vitro angiogenesis and induces EC apoptosis by interacting with its cell surface receptor αvβ5 integrin through a novel 'RKD' motif localized within its adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins domain. ISM induces EC apoptosis through integrin-mediated death (IMD) by direct recruitment and activation of caspase-8 without causing anoikis. On the other hand, immobilized ISM loses its antiangiogenic function and instead promotes EC adhesion, survival and migration through αvβ5 integrin by activating focal adhesion kinase (FAK). ISM unexpectedly has both a pro-survival and death-promoting effect on ECs depending on its physical state. This dual function of a single antiangiogenic protein may impact its antiangiogenic efficacy in vivo.

  2. Single particle tracking of ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type-1 repeats) molecules on endothelial von Willebrand factor strings.

    PubMed

    De Ceunynck, Karen; Rocha, Susana; De Meyer, Simon F; Sadler, J Evan; Uji-i, Hiroshi; Deckmyn, Hans; Hofkens, Johan; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen

    2014-03-28

    von Willebrand factor (VWF) strings are removed from the endothelial surface by ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type-1 repeats)-mediated proteolysis. To visualize how single ADAMTS13 molecules bind to these long strings, we built a customized single molecule fluorescence microscope and developed single particle tracking software. Extensive analysis of over 6,000 single inactive ADAMTS13(E225Q) enzymes demonstrated that 20% of these molecules could be detected in at least two consecutive 60-ms frames and followed two types of trajectories. ADAMTS13(E225Q) molecules either decelerated in the vicinity of VWF strings, whereas sometimes making brief contact with the VWF string before disappearing again, or readily bound to the VWF strings and this for 120 ms or longer. These interactions were observed at several sites along the strings. Control experiments using an IgG protein revealed that only the second type of trajectory reflected a specific interaction of ADAMTS13 with the VWF string. In conclusion, we developed a dedicated single molecule fluorescence microscope for detecting single ADAMTS13 molecules (nm scale) on their long, flow-stretched VWF substrates (μm scale) anchored on living cells. Comprehensive analysis of all detected enzymes showed a random interaction mechanism for ADAMTS13 with many available binding sites on the VWF strings.

  3. The Functional Maturation of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM) 9, 10, and 17 Requires Processing at a Newly Identified Proprotein Convertase (PC) Cleavage Site*

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Eitan; Maretzky, Thorsten; Peleg, Yoav; Blobel, Carl P.; Sagi, Irit

    2015-01-01

    Proenzyme maturation is a general mechanism to control the activation of enzymes. Catalytically active members of the A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease (ADAM) family of membrane-anchored metalloproteases are synthesized as proenzymes, in which the latency is maintained by their autoinhibitory pro-domains. A proteolytic processing then transforms the proenzyme into a catalytically active form. The removal of the pro-domain of ADAMs is currently thought to depend on processing at a canonical consensus site for the proprotein convertase Furin (RXXR) between the pro- and the catalytic domain. Here, we demonstrate that this previously described canonical site is a secondary cleavage site to a prerequisite cleavage in a newly characterized upstream PC site embedded within the pro-domain sequence. The novel upstream regulatory site is important for the maturation of several ADAM proenzymes. Mutations in the upstream regulatory site of ADAM17, ADAM10, and ADAM9 do not prevent pro-domain processing between the pro- and metalloprotease domain, but nevertheless, cause significantly reduced catalytic activity. Thus, our results have uncovered a novel functionally relevant PC processing site in the N-terminal part of the pro-domain that is important for the activation of these ADAMs. These results suggest that the novel PC site is part of a general mechanism underlying proenzyme maturation of ADAMs that is independent of processing at the previously identified canonical Furin cleavage site. PMID:25795784

  4. β2 integrins rather than β1 integrins mediate Alternaria-induced group 2 innate lymphoid cell trafficking to the lung.

    PubMed

    Karta, Maya R; Rosenthal, Peter S; Beppu, Andrew; Vuong, Christine Y; Miller, Marina; Das, Sudipta; Kurten, Richard C; Doherty, Taylor A; Broide, David H

    2017-03-30

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) expand in the lungs of mice during type 2 inflammation induced by the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata. The increase in ILC2 numbers in the lung has been largely attributed to local proliferation and whether ILC2s migrate from the circulation to the lung after Alternaria exposure is unknown. We examined whether human (lung, lymph node, and blood) and mouse lung ILC2s express β1 and β2 integrin adhesion molecules and whether these integrins are required for trafficking of ILC2s into the lungs of mice. Human and mouse ILC2s were assessed for surface expression of β1 and β2 integrin adhesion molecules by using flow cytometry. The role of β1 and β2 integrins in ILC2 trafficking to the lungs was assessed by in vivo blocking of these integrins before airway exposure to Alternaria in mice. Both human and mouse lung ILC2s express high levels of β1 and β2 integrin adhesion receptors. Intranasal administration of Alternaria challenge reduced ILC2 numbers in the bone marrow and concurrently increased blood and lung ILC2 numbers. In vivo blocking of β2 integrins (CD18) significantly reduced ILC2 numbers in the lungs but did not alter ILC2 proliferation, apoptosis, and function. In contrast, in vivo blocking of β1 integrins or α4 integrins did not affect lung ILC2 numbers. ILC2 numbers increase in the mouse lung not only through local proliferation but also through trafficking from the circulation into the lung using β2 rather than β1 or α4 integrins. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cell Adhesion on Amyloid Fibrils Lacking Integrin Recognition Motif*

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Reeba S.; George, Edna; Singh, Pradeep K.; Salot, Shimul; Anoop, Arunagiri; Jha, Narendra Nath; Sen, Shamik; Maji, Samir K.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloids are highly ordered, cross-β-sheet-rich protein/peptide aggregates associated with both human diseases and native functions. Given the well established ability of amyloids in interacting with cell membranes, we hypothesize that amyloids can serve as universal cell-adhesive substrates. Here, we show that, similar to the extracellular matrix protein collagen, amyloids of various proteins/peptides support attachment and spreading of cells via robust stimulation of integrin expression and formation of integrin-based focal adhesions. Additionally, amyloid fibrils are also capable of immobilizing non-adherent red blood cells through charge-based interactions. Together, our results indicate that both active and passive mechanisms contribute to adhesion on amyloid fibrils. The present data may delineate the functional aspect of cell adhesion on amyloids by various organisms and its involvement in human diseases. Our results also raise the exciting possibility that cell adhesivity might be a generic property of amyloids. PMID:26742841

  6. Mechanotransduction: all signals point to cytoskeleton, matrix, and integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alenghat, Francis J.; Ingber, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical stresses modulate cell function by either activating or tuning signal transduction pathways. Mechanotransduction, the process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response, occurs both in cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory. However, common among the various responses to mechanical stress is the importance of direct or indirect connections between the internal cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix (ECM), and traditional signal transducing molecules. In many instances, these elements converge at focal adhesions, sites of structural attachment between the cytoskeleton and ECM that are anchored by cell surface integrin receptors. Alenghat and Ingber discuss the accumulating evidence for the central role of cytoskeleton, ECM, and integrin-anchored focal adhesions in several mechanotransduction pathways.

  7. Mechanotransduction: all signals point to cytoskeleton, matrix, and integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alenghat, Francis J.; Ingber, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical stresses modulate cell function by either activating or tuning signal transduction pathways. Mechanotransduction, the process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response, occurs both in cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory. However, common among the various responses to mechanical stress is the importance of direct or indirect connections between the internal cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix (ECM), and traditional signal transducing molecules. In many instances, these elements converge at focal adhesions, sites of structural attachment between the cytoskeleton and ECM that are anchored by cell surface integrin receptors. Alenghat and Ingber discuss the accumulating evidence for the central role of cytoskeleton, ECM, and integrin-anchored focal adhesions in several mechanotransduction pathways.

  8. Matrix Crosslinking Forces Tumor Progression by Enhancing Integrin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Levental, Kandice R.; Yu, Hongmei; Kass, Laura; Lakins, Johnathon N.; Egeblad, Mikala; Erler, Janine T.; Fong, Sheri F.T.; Csiszar, Katalin; Giaccia, Amato; Weninger, Wolfgang; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Gasser, David L.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Tumors are characterized by extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and stiffening. The importance of ECM remodeling to cancer is appreciated; the relevance of stiffening is less clear. We found that breast tumorigenesis is accompanied by collagen crosslinking, ECM stiffening and increased focal adhesions. Inducing collagen crosslinking stiffened the ECM, promoted focal adhesions, enhanced PI3 Kinase (PI3K) activity, and induced the invasion of an oncogene-initiated epithelium. Inhibiting integrin signaling repressed the invasion of a premalignant epithelium into a stiffened, crosslinked ECM, and forced integrin clustering promoted focal adhesions, enhanced PI3K signaling and induced the invasion of a premalignant epithelium. Consistently, reducing lysyl oxidase-mediated collagen crosslinking prevented MMTV-Neu-induced fibrosis, decreased focal adhesions and PI3K activity, impeded malignancy and lowered tumor incidence. These data show how collagen crosslinking can modulate tissue fibrosis and stiffness to force focal adhesions, growth factor signaling and breast malignancy. PMID:19931152

  9. A proteomic approach reveals integrin activation state-dependent control of microtubule cortical targeting

    PubMed Central

    Byron, Adam; Askari, Janet A.; Humphries, Jonathan D.; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Koper, Ewa J.; Warwood, Stacey; Choi, Colin K.; Stroud, Matthew J.; Chen, Christopher S.; Knight, David; Humphries, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Integrin activation, which is regulated by allosteric changes in receptor conformation, enables cellular responses to the chemical, mechanical and topological features of the extracellular microenvironment. A global view of how activation state converts the molecular composition of the region proximal to integrins into functional readouts is, however, lacking. Here, using conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies, we report the isolation of integrin activation state-dependent complexes and their characterization by mass spectrometry. Quantitative comparisons, integrating network, clustering, pathway and image analyses, define multiple functional protein modules enriched in a conformation-specific manner. Notably, active integrin complexes are specifically enriched for proteins associated with microtubule-based functions. Visualization of microtubules on micropatterned surfaces and live cell imaging demonstrate that active integrins establish an environment that stabilizes microtubules at the cell periphery. These data provide a resource for the interrogation of the global molecular connections that link integrin activation to adhesion signalling. PMID:25609142

  10. Coordinated integrin activation by actin-dependent force during T-cell migration.

    PubMed

    Nordenfelt, Pontus; Elliott, Hunter L; Springer, Timothy A

    2016-10-10

    For a cell to move forward it must convert chemical energy into mechanical propulsion. Force produced by actin polymerization can generate traction across the plasma membrane by transmission through integrins to their ligands. However, the role this force plays in integrin activation is unknown. Here we show that integrin activity and cytoskeletal dynamics are reciprocally linked, where actin-dependent force itself appears to regulate integrin activity. We generated fluorescent tension-sensing constructs of integrin αLβ2 (LFA-1) to visualize intramolecular tension during cell migration. Using quantitative imaging of migrating T cells, we correlate tension in the αL or β2 subunit with cell and actin dynamics. We find that actin engagement produces tension within the β2 subunit to induce and stabilize an active integrin conformational state and that this requires intact talin and kindlin motifs. This supports a general mechanism where localized actin polymerization can coordinate activation of the complex machinery required for cell migration.

  11. β1 Integrins as Therapeutic Targets to Disrupt Hallmarks of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Blandin, Anne-Florence; Renner, Guillaume; Lehmann, Maxime; Lelong-Rebel, Isabelle; Martin, Sophie; Dontenwill, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Integrins belong to a large family of αβ heterodimeric transmembrane proteins first recognized as adhesion molecules that bind to dedicated elements of the extracellular matrix and also to other surrounding cells. As important sensors of the cell microenvironment, they regulate numerous signaling pathways in response to structural variations of the extracellular matrix. Biochemical and biomechanical cues provided by this matrix and transmitted to cells via integrins are critically modified in tumoral settings. Integrins repertoire are subjected to expression level modifications, in tumor cells, and in surrounding cancer-associated cells, implicated in tumor initiation and progression as well. As critical players in numerous cancer hallmarks, defined by Hanahan and Weinberg (2011), integrins represent pertinent therapeutic targets. We will briefly summarize here our current knowledge about integrin implications in those different hallmarks focusing primarily on β1 integrins.

  12. Role of Integrin-Beta 1 in Polycystic Kidney Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Role of Integrin-Beta 1 in Polycystic Kidney Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gabriele Luca Gusella, Ph.D...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is caused by the dysregulation of the PKD1 or PKD2...characterized a novel cell line from human loop of Henle epithelium that can serve as a unique model to study medullary cystic kidney disease -2 (MCKD2) and

  13. Relating conformation to function in integrin α5β1.

    PubMed

    Su, Yang; Xia, Wei; Li, Jing; Walz, Thomas; Humphries, Martin J; Vestweber, Dietmar; Cabañas, Carlos; Lu, Chafen; Springer, Timothy A

    2016-07-05

    Whether β1 integrin ectodomains visit conformational states similarly to β2 and β3 integrins has not been characterized. Furthermore, despite a wealth of activating and inhibitory antibodies to β1 integrins, the conformational states that these antibodies stabilize, and the relation of these conformations to function, remain incompletely characterized. Using negative-stain electron microscopy, we show that the integrin α5β1 ectodomain adopts extended-closed and extended-open conformations as well as a bent conformation. Antibodies SNAKA51, 8E3, N29, and 9EG7 bind to different domains in the α5 or β1 legs, activate, and stabilize extended ectodomain conformations. Antibodies 12G10 and HUTS-4 bind to the β1 βI domain and hybrid domains, respectively, activate, and stabilize the open headpiece conformation. Antibody TS2/16 binds a similar epitope as 12G10, activates, and appears to stabilize an open βI domain conformation without requiring extension or hybrid domain swing-out. mAb13 and SG/19 bind to the βI domain and βI-hybrid domain interface, respectively, inhibit, and stabilize the closed conformation of the headpiece. The effects of the antibodies on cell adhesion to fibronectin substrates suggest that the extended-open conformation of α5β1 is adhesive and that the extended-closed and bent-closed conformations are nonadhesive. The functional effects and binding sites of antibodies and fibronectin were consistent with their ability in binding to α5β1 on cell surfaces to cross-enhance or inhibit one another by competitive or noncompetitive (allosteric) mechanisms.

  14. β1-Integrin Cytoplasmic Subdomains Involved in Dominant Negative Function

    PubMed Central

    Retta, S. Francesco; Balzac, Fiorella; Ferraris, Piercarlo; Belkin, Alexey M.; Fässler, Reinhard; Humphries, Martin J.; De Leo, Giacomo; Silengo, Lorenzo; Tarone, Guido

    1998-01-01

    The β1-integrin cytoplasmic domain consists of a membrane proximal subdomain common to the four known isoforms (“common” region) and a distal subdomain specific for each isoform (“variable” region). To investigate in detail the role of these subdomains in integrin-dependent cellular functions, we used β1A and β1B isoforms as well as four mutants lacking the entire cytoplasmic domain (β1TR), the variable region (β1COM), or the common region (β1ΔCOM-B and β1ΔCOM-A). By expressing these constructs in Chinese hamster ovary and β1 integrin-deficient GD25 cells (Wennerberg et al., J Cell Biol 132, 227–238, 1996), we show that β1B, β1COM, β1ΔCOM-B, and β1ΔCOM-A molecules are unable to support efficient cell adhesion to matrix proteins. On exposure to Mn++ ions, however, β1B, but none of the mutants, can mediate cell adhesion, indicating specific functional properties of this isoform. Analysis of adhesive functions of transfected cells shows that β1B interferes in a dominant negative manner with β1A and β3/β5 integrins in cell spreading, focal adhesion formation, focal adhesion kinase tyrosine phosphorylation, and fibronectin matrix assembly. None of the β1 mutants tested shows this property, indicating that the dominant negative effect depends on the specific combination of common and B subdomains, rather than from the absence of the A subdomain in the β1B isoform. PMID:9529373

  15. beta1-integrin cytoplasmic subdomains involved in dominant negative function.

    PubMed

    Retta, S F; Balzac, F; Ferraris, P; Belkin, A M; Fässler, R; Humphries, M J; De Leo, G; Silengo, L; Tarone, G

    1998-04-01

    The beta1-integrin cytoplasmic domain consists of a membrane proximal subdomain common to the four known isoforms ("common" region) and a distal subdomain specific for each isoform ("variable" region). To investigate in detail the role of these subdomains in integrin-dependent cellular functions, we used beta1A and beta1B isoforms as well as four mutants lacking the entire cytoplasmic domain (beta1TR), the variable region (beta1COM), or the common region (beta1 deltaCOM-B and beta1 deltaCOM-A). By expressing these constructs in Chinese hamster ovary and beta1 integrin-deficient GD25 cells (Wennerberg et al., J Cell Biol 132, 227-238, 1996), we show that beta1B, beta1COM, beta1 deltaCOM-B, and beta1 deltaCOM-A molecules are unable to support efficient cell adhesion to matrix proteins. On exposure to Mn++ ions, however, beta1B, but none of the mutants, can mediate cell adhesion, indicating specific functional properties of this isoform. Analysis of adhesive functions of transfected cells shows that beta1B interferes in a dominant negative manner with beta1A and beta3/beta5 integrins in cell spreading, focal adhesion formation, focal adhesion kinase tyrosine phosphorylation, and fibronectin matrix assembly. None of the beta1 mutants tested shows this property, indicating that the dominant negative effect depends on the specific combination of common and B subdomains, rather than from the absence of the A subdomain in the beta1B isoform.

  16. Do Integrins Mediate the Skeletal Response to Altered Loading?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderMeulen, Marjolein C. H.

    2004-01-01

    In vivo experiments were performed to examine the role of B1 integrin in skeletal adaptation to reduced and increased loading. Transgenic mice were generated with a dominant negative form of the B1 integrin cytoplasmic domain with expression driven by the osteocalcin promoter (pOCb1DN). This fragment consists of the transmembrane and intracellular domains and interferes with endogenous integrin signalling in vitro. This promoter targets expression of the transgene to mature bone cells. Expression of the transgene was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and western blotting. Reduced loading was generated by hindlimb suspension and increased loading the resumption of normal loading following hindlimb suspension. Two groups of female 35-day old mice were examined: poCb1DN transgenic mice (TG) and wild-type littermate controls (WT). Animals were hindlimb suspended for 1 week (HU, n = l0/gp) or 4 weeks (HU, n = 4 - 7/gp) or suspended for 4 weeks followed by reloading by normal ambulation for 4 weeks (RL, n = l0/gp). Age-matched controls (CT) were pairfed based on the HU food intake. The protocols were approved by the NASA Ames Research Center IACUC. Upon completion of the experimental protocol, body mass was recorded and tissues of interest removed and analyzed following standard procedures. Femoral whole bone structural behavior was measured in torsion to failure to obtain whole bone strength (failure torque) and torsional rigidity. Ash content (ash) and fraction (% ash) were determined for the tibia. Total ash is indicative of bone size whereas %ash is a material property. Tibial curvature was measured from microradiographs. For each experiment, the effects of genotype (TG, WT) and treatment (CT, HU/RL) were assessed by two-factor ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer posthoc to identify significant differences at an alpha level of 0.05. Our goal was to understand differences resulting from altered integrin function in the adaptation to altered loading.

  17. Laminin-121--recombinant expression and interactions with integrins.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takako; Takagi, Junichi; Giudici, Camilla; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Deutzmann, Rainer; Timpl, Rupert; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Bächinger, Hans Peter; Tonge, David

    2010-07-01

    Laminin-121, previously referred as to laminin-3, was expressed recombinantly in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells by triple transfection of full-length cDNAs encoding mouse laminin α1, β2 and γ1 chains. The recombinant laminin-121 was purified using Heparin-Sepharose followed by molecular sieve chromatography and shown to be correctly folded by electron microscopy and circular dichroism (CD). The CD spectra of recombinant laminin-121 were very similar to those of laminin-111 isolated from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor (EHS-laminin) but its T(m) value was smaller than EHS-laminin and recombinant lamnin-111 suggesting that the replacement of the β chain reduced the stability of the coiled-coil structure of laminin-121. Its binding to integrins was compared with EHS-laminin, laminin-3A32 purified from murine epidermal cell line and recombinantly expressed laminins-111, -211 and -221. Laminin-121 showed the highest affinity to α6β1 and α7β1 integrins and furthermore, laminin-121 most effectively supported neurite outgrowth. Together, this suggests that the β2 laminins have higher affinity for integrins than the β1 laminins.

  18. Integrin signalling: the tug-of-war in heart hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Brancaccio, Mara; Hirsch, Emilio; Notte, Antonella; Selvetella, Giulio; Lembo, Giuseppe; Tarone, Guido

    2006-06-01

    The mechanical stress imposed by hemodynamic overload on heart walls is a primary event in triggering the cardiac hypertrophic response. Integrins, a class of membrane receptors, are major players in transmitting the mechanical force across the plasma membrane and sensing the mechanical load in cardiomyocytes. In fact, integrins, together with a number of associated cytoskeletal proteins, connect the sarcomeric contractile apparatus to the extracellular matrix across the plasma membrane and trigger intracellular signaling pathways activating the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy program. In this review, we will discuss the role of the muscle-specific integrin isoform beta1D and of associated proteins such as FAK, melusin, vinculin, zyxin, VASP, and migfilin that are the most upstream elements ("initiators") activated by mechanical strain. These molecules trigger a coordinated downstream signaling cascade involving proteins such as AKT, RAS, and MAPKs that execute the biochemical program leading to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Better understanding of the functional role of the initiator elements is of key importance to developing novel strategies to control cardiac hypertrophy and prevent heart failure.

  19. Polarized Integrin Mediates Human Keratinocyte Adhesion to Basal Lamina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luca, Michele; Tamura, Richard N.; Kajiji, Shama; Bondanza, Sergio; Rossino, Paola; Cancedda, Ranieri; Carlo Marchisio, Pier; Quaranta, Vito

    1990-09-01

    Epithelial cell interactions with matrices are critical to tissue organization. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitations of cell lysates prepared from stratified cultures of human epidermal cells showed that the major integrins expressed by keratinocytes are α_Eβ_4 (also called α_6β_4) and α_2β_1/α_3β_1. The α_Eβ_4 integrin is localized at the surface of basal cells in contact with the basement membrane, whereas α_2β_1/ α_3β_1 integrins are absent from the basal surface and are localized only on the lateral surface of basal and spinous keratinocytes. Anti-β_4 antibodies potently inhibited keratinocyte adhesion to matrigel or purified laminin, whereas anti-β_1 antibodies were ineffective. Only anti-β_4 antibodies were able to detach established keratinocyte colonies. These data suggest that α_Eβ_4 mediates keratinocyte adhesion to basal lamina, whereas the β_1 subfamily is involved in cell-cell adhesion of keratinocytes.

  20. Multimodal imaging of integrin receptor-positive tumors by bioluminescence, fluorescence, gamma scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography using a cyclic RGD peptide labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent dye and a radionuclide.

    PubMed

    Edwards, W Barry; Akers, Walter J; Ye, Yunpeng; Cheney, Philip P; Bloch, Sharon; Xu, Baogang; Laforest, Richard; Achilefu, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Integrins, particularly the alpha(v)beta(3) heterodimers, play important roles in tumor-induced angiogenesis and invasiveness. To image the expression pattern of the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin in tumors through a multimodality imaging paradigm, we prepared a cyclic RGDyK peptide analogue (LS308) bearing a tetraazamacrocycle 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and a lipophilic near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye cypate. The alpha(v)beta(3) integrin binding affinity and the internalization properties of LS308 mediated by the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin in 4t1luc cells were investigated by receptor binding assay and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. The in vivo distribution of (111)In-labeled LS308 in a 4t1luc tumor-bearing mouse model was studied by fluorescence, bioluminescence, planar gamma, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The results show that LS308 has high affinity for alpha(v)beta(3) integrin and internalized preferentially via the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin-mediated endocytosis in 4t1luc cells. We also found that LS308 selectively accumulated in alpha(v)beta(3)-positve tumors in a receptor-specific manner and was visualized by the four imaging methods. Whereas the endogenous bioluminescence imaging identified the ensemble of the tumor tissue, the fluorescence and SPECT methods with the exogenous contrast agent LS308 reported the local expression of alpha(v)beta(3) integrin. Thus, the multimodal imaging approach could provide important complementary diagnostic information for monitoring the efficacy of new antiangiogenic drugs.

  1. Integrin-Associated Complexes Form Hierarchically with Variable Stoichiometry during Nascent Adhesion Formation

    PubMed Central

    Bachir, Alexia I.; Zareno, Jessica; Moissoglu, Konstadinos; Plow, Edward; Gratton, Enrico; Horwitz, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background A complex network of putative molecular interactions underlies the architecture and function of cell-matrix adhesions. Most of these interactions are implicated from co-immunoprecipitation studies using expressed components; but few have been demonstrated or characterized functionally in living cells. Results We introduce fluorescence fluctuation methods to determine, at high spatial and temporal resolution, ‘when’ and ‘where’ molecular complexes form and their stoichiometry in nascent adhesions (NAs). We focus on integrin-associated molecules implicated in integrin-activation and in the integrin-actin linkage in NAs and show that these molecules form integrin containing complexes hierarchically within the adhesion itself. Integrin and kindlin reside in a molecular complex as soon as adhesions are visible; talin, while also present early, associates with the integrin-kindlin complex only after NAs have formed and in response to myosin II activity. Furthermore, talin and vinculin association precedes the formation of the integrin-talin complex. Finally, α-actinin enters NAs periodically and in clusters that transiently associate with integrins. The absolute number and stoichiometry of these molecules varies among the molecules studied and changes as adhesions mature. Conclusions These observations suggest a working model for NA assembly, whereby transient α-actinin- integrin complexes help nucleate NAs within the lamellipodium. Subsequently integrin complexes containing kindlin, but not talin, emerge. Once NAs have formed, myosin II activity promotes talin association with the integrin-kindlin complex in a stoichiometry consistent with each talin molecule linking two integrin-kindlin complexes. PMID:25088556

  2. HPV16 infection of HaCaTs is dependent on β4 integrin, and α6 integrin processing.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Pınar; Abban, Cynthia Y; Kiyashka, Elizabeth; Qiang, Weitao; Meneses, Patricio I

    2014-01-20

    Our understanding of human papillomavirus (HPV) is still evolving. To further study the field, our laboratory has focused on determining the role of integrins in the initial steps of viral endocytosis into HaCaT cells. Our and others' previous findings have shown that α6 is necessary for infection. Here we show that α3 and β1 were dispensable, and we identified integrin α6β4 complex as necessary for infection in HaCaTs. β4 knock down resulted in a significant decrease in HPV16 PsV infection and perhaps most importantly resulted in defective post-translational α6 processing. We showed that the unprocessed α6 does not localize to the cell surface. We propose that the α6β4 complex is necessary for the formation of an endocytic complex that results in the signaling transduction events necessary for initial endocytosis.

  3. Leukocyte integrins: role in leukocyte recruitment and as therapeutic targets in inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Mitroulis, Ioannis; Alexaki, Vasileia I; Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Ziogas, Athanassios; Hajishengallis, George; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2015-03-01

    Infection or sterile inflammation triggers site-specific attraction of leukocytes. Leukocyte recruitment is a process comprising several steps orchestrated by adhesion molecules, chemokines, cytokines and endogenous regulatory molecules. Distinct adhesive interactions between endothelial cells and leukocytes and signaling mechanisms contribute to the temporal and spatial fine-tuning of the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Central players in the leukocyte adhesion cascade include the leukocyte adhesion receptors of the β2-integrin family, such as the αLβ2 and αMβ2 integrins, or of the β1-integrin family, such as the α4β1-integrin. Given the central involvement of leukocyte recruitment in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, the leukocyte adhesion cascade in general, and leukocyte integrins in particular, represent key therapeutic targets. In this context, the present review focuses on the role of leukocyte integrins in the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Experimental evidence that has implicated leukocyte integrins as targets in animal models of inflammatory disorders, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, psoriasis, inflammatory bone loss and inflammatory bowel disease as well as preclinical and clinical therapeutic applications of antibodies that target leukocyte integrins in various inflammatory disorders are presented. Finally, we review recent findings on endogenous inhibitors that modify leukocyte integrin function, which could emerge as promising therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. αV-integrins are required for mechanotransduction in MDCK epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Teräväinen, Terhi P; Myllymäki, Satu M; Friedrichs, Jens; Strohmeyer, Nico; Moyano, Jose V; Wu, Chuanyue; Matlin, Karl S; Muller, Daniel J; Manninen, Aki

    2013-01-01

    The properties of epithelial cells within tissues are regulated by their immediate microenvironment, which consists of neighboring cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Integrin heterodimers orchestrate dynamic assembly and disassembly of cell-ECM connections and thereby convey biochemical and mechanical information from the ECM into cells. However, the specific contributions and functional hierarchy between different integrin heterodimers in the regulation of focal adhesion dynamics in epithelial cells are incompletely understood. Here, we have studied the functions of RGD-binding αV-integrins in a Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell model and found that αV-integrins regulate the maturation of focal adhesions (FAs) and cell spreading. αV-integrin-deficient MDCK cells bound collagen I (Col I) substrate via α2β1-integrins but failed to efficiently recruit FA components such as talin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), vinculin and integrin-linked kinase (ILK). The apparent inability to mature α2β1-integrin-mediated FAs and link them to cellular actin cytoskeleton led to disrupted mechanotransduction in αV-integrin deficient cells seeded onto Col I substrate.

  5. αV-Integrins Are Required for Mechanotransduction in MDCK Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Teräväinen, Terhi P.; Myllymäki, Satu M.; Friedrichs, Jens; Strohmeyer, Nico; Moyano, Jose V.; Wu, Chuanyue; Matlin, Karl S.; Muller, Daniel J.; Manninen, Aki

    2013-01-01

    The properties of epithelial cells within tissues are regulated by their immediate microenvironment, which consists of neighboring cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Integrin heterodimers orchestrate dynamic assembly and disassembly of cell-ECM connections and thereby convey biochemical and mechanical information from the ECM into cells. However, the specific contributions and functional hierarchy between different integrin heterodimers in the regulation of focal adhesion dynamics in epithelial cells are incompletely understood. Here, we have studied the functions of RGD-binding αV-integrins in a Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell model and found that αV-integrins regulate the maturation of focal adhesions (FAs) and cell spreading. αV-integrin-deficient MDCK cells bound collagen I (Col I) substrate via α2β1-integrins but failed to efficiently recruit FA components such as talin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), vinculin and integrin-linked kinase (ILK). The apparent inability to mature α2β1-integrin-mediated FAs and link them to cellular actin cytoskeleton led to disrupted mechanotransduction in αV-integrin deficient cells seeded onto Col I substrate. PMID:23977051

  6. Integrin β1, Osmosensing, and Chemoresistance in Mouse Ehrlich Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Broberg, Bjørn Sindballe; Klausen, Thomas Kjær; Sauter, Daniel Peter Rafael; Lambert, Ian Henry; Aspberg, Anders; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2015-01-01

    Altered expression of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors has been associated with initiation, progression, and metastasis of solid tumors as well as in the development of chemoresistance. Here, we investigated the role of integrins, in particular integrin β1, in cell volume regulation and drug-induced apoptosis in adherent and non-adherent Ehrlich ascites cell lines. Adhesion phenotypes were verified by colorimetric cell-adhesion-assay. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were used to compare expression levels of integrin subunits. Small interfering RNA was used to silence integrin β1 expression. Regulatory volume decrease (RVD) after cell swelling was studied with calcein-fluorescence-self-quenching and Coulter counter analysis. Taurine efflux was estimated with tracer technique. Caspase assay was used to determine apoptosis. We show that adherent cells have stronger fibronectin binding and a significantly increased expression of integrin α5, αv, and β1 at mRNA and protein level, compared to non-adherent cells. Knockdown of integrin β1 reduced RVD of the adherent but not of the non-adherent cells. Efflux of taurine was unaffected. In contrast to non-adherent, adherent cells exhibited chemoresistance to chemotherapeutic drugs (cisplatin and gemcitabine). However, knockdown of integrin β1 promoted cisplatin-induced caspase activity in adherent cells. Our data identifies integrin β1 as a part of the osmosensing machinery and regulator of cisplatin resistance in adherent Ehrlich cells.

  7. Down-regulation of β3-integrin inhibits bone metastasis of small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhang, Jian-ping; Guo, Shan; Min, Jie; Liu, Li-li; Su, Hai-chuan; Feng, Ying-ming; Zhang, He-long

    2012-03-01

    Bone is one of the most frequent targets of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) metastasis, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. β3-integrin plays an important role in invasion of various kinds of tumors. Yet, its role in bone-metastasis of SCLC is still unknown. In this study, we first examined the expression of β3-integrin in SBC-5 and SBC-3 cells by real-time PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence. We found that, compared to none bone-metastatic SBC-3 cells, β3-integrin was highly expressed in SBC-5 cells, a specific bone-metastatic SCLC cells line characterized in our previous study. We next constructed β3-integrin siRNA and transfected SBC-5 cell line, and found that β3-integrin siRNA significantly down-regulated the β3-integrin mRNA level and protein expression in SBC-5 cell line. We further found that inhibition of β3-integrin significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. In addition, the β3-integrin down-regulated cells presented significant decrease in cell adhesion, migration and invasion activity. Our results suggest the β3-integrin has an essential effect on tumor cell proliferation and progression, and may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of skeletal metastases of lung cancer.

  8. Vinculin activators target integrins from within the cell to increase melanoma sensitivity to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Elke S.; Folkmann, Andrew W.; Henry, Michael D.; DeMali, Kris A.

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin disease for which there are no effective therapies. Emerging evidence indicates that melanomas can be sensitized to chemotherapy by increasing integrin function. Current integrin therapies work by targeting the extracellular domain, resulting in complete gains or losses of integrin function that lead to mechanism-based toxicities. An attractive alternative approach is to target proteins, such as vinculin, that associate with the integrin cytoplasmic domains and regulate its ligand binding properties. Here we report that a novel reagent, denoted vinculin activating peptide or VAP, increases integrin activity from within the cell, as measured by elevated: (1) numbers of active integrins, (2) adhesion of cells to extracellular matrix ligands, (3) numbers of cell-matrix adhesions, and (4) downstream signaling. These effects are dependent on both integrins and a key regulatory residue A50 in the vinculin head domain. We further show that VAP dramatically increases the sensitivity of melanomas to chemotherapy in clonal growth assays and in vivo mouse models of melanoma. Finally, we demonstrate that the increase in chemosensitivity results from increases in DNA damage-induced apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. Collectively these findings demonstrate for the first time that integrin function can be manipulated from within the cell and validate integrins as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of chemoresistant melanomas. PMID:21460181

  9. Characterization and identification of the integrin family in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kui; Xu, Man; Su, Jingjing; Yu, Shuang; Sun, Zhongfeng; Li, Yutian; Zhang, Weibo; Hou, Jianbing; Shang, Lijun; Cui, Hongjuan

    2014-10-01

    As an important economic insect, Bombyx mori is also a useful model organism for lepidopteran insect. Integrins are evolutionarily conserved from sponges to humans, and play vital roles in many physiological and pathological processes. To explore their diverse functions of integrins in insect, eleven integrins including six α and five β subunits were cloned and characterized from silkworm. Our results showed that integrins from silkworm own more family members compared to other invertebrates. Among those α subunits, integrins α1, α2, and the other four subunits belong to PS1, PS2, and PS3 groups, respectively. The β subunits mainly gather in the insect βν group except the β1 subunit which belongs to the insect β group. Expression profiles demonstrated that the integrins exhibited distinct patterns, but were mainly expressed in hemocytes. α1 and β2 subunits are the predominant ones either in the embryogenesis or larva stages. Interestingly, integrins were significantly up-regulated after stimulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) in vivo. These results indicate that integrins perform diverse functions in hemocytes of silkworm. Overall, our results provide a new insight into the functional and evolutionary features of integrins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Leukocyte integrins: Role in leukocyte recruitment and as therapeutic targets in inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Ziogas, Athanassios; Hajishengallis, George; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2014-01-01

    Infection or sterile inflammation triggers site-specific attraction of leukocytes. Leukocyte recruitment is a process comprising several steps orchestrated by adhesion molecules, chemokines, cytokines and endogenous regulatory molecules. Distinct adhesive interactions between endothelial cells and leukocytes and signalling mechanisms contribute to the temporal and spatial fine-tuning of the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Central players in the leukocyte adhesion cascade include the leukocyte adhesion receptors of the β2-integrin family, such as the αLβ2 and αMβ2 integrins, or of the β1-integrin family, such as the α4β1- integrin. Given the central involvement of leukocyte recruitment in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, the leukocyte adhesion cascade in general, and leukocyte integrins in particular, represent key therapeutic targets. In this context, the present review focuses on the role of leukocyte integrins in the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Experimental evidence that has implicated leukocyte integrins as targets in animal models of inflammatory disorders, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, psoriasis, inflammatory bone loss and inflammatory bowel disease as well as preclinical and clinical therapeutic applications of antibodies that target leukocyte integrins in various inflammatory disorders are presented. Finally, we review recent findings on endogenous inhibitors that modify leukocyte integrin function, which could emerge as promising therapeutic targets. PMID:25448040

  11. In Vivo PET Imaging of the Cancer Integrin αvβ6 Using (68)Ga-Labeled Cyclic RGD Nonapeptides.

    PubMed

    Notni, Johannes; Reich, Dominik; Maltsev, Oleg V; Kapp, Tobias G; Steiger, Katja; Hoffmann, Frauke; Esposito, Irene; Weichert, Wilko; Kessler, Horst; Wester, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Expression of the cellular transmembrane receptor αvβ6 integrin is essentially restricted to malignant epithelial cells in carcinomas of a broad variety of lineages, whereas it is virtually absent in normal adult tissues. Thus, it is a highly attractive target for tumor imaging and therapy. Furthermore, αvβ6 integrin plays an important role for the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction and the development of fibrosis. Methods: On the basis of the (68)Ga chelators TRAP (triazacyclononane-triphosphinate) and NODAGA, we synthesized mono-, di-, and trimeric conjugates of the αvβ6 integrin-selective peptide cyclo(FRGDLAFp(NMe)K) via click chemistry. These were labeled with (68)Ga and screened regarding their suitability for in vivo imaging of αvβ6 integrin expression by PET and ex vivo biodistribution in severe combined immunodeficiency mice bearing H2009 tumor (human lung adenocarcinoma) xenografts. For these, αvβ6 integrin expression in tumor and other tissues was determined by β6 immunohistochemistry. Results: Despite the multimers showing higher αvβ6 integrin affinities (23-120 pM) than the monomers (260 pM), the best results-that is, low background uptake and excellent tumor delineation-were obtained with the TRAP-based monomer (68)Ga-avebehexin. This compound showed the most favorable pharmacokinetics because of its high polarity (log D = -3.7) and presence of additional negative charges (carboxylates) on the chelator, promoting renal clearance. Although tumor uptake was low (0.65% ± 0.04% injected dose per gram tissue [%ID/g]), it was still higher than in all other organs except the kidneys, ranging from a maximum for the stomach (0.52 ± 0.04 %ID/g) to almost negligible for the pancreas (0.07 ± 0.01 %ID/g). A low but significant target expression in tumor, lung, and stomach was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: Because of highly sensitive PET imaging even of tissues with low αvβ6 integrin expression density, we anticipate clinical

  12. MAGP2 controls Notch via interactions with RGD binding integrins: Identification of a novel ECM-integrin-Notch signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Deford, Peter; Brown, Kasey; Richards, Rae Lee; King, Aric; Newburn, Kristin; Westover, Katherine; Albig, Allan R

    2016-02-01

    Canonical Notch signaling involves Notch receptor activation via interaction with cell surface bound Notch ligand. Recent findings also indicate that Notch signaling may be modulated by cross-talk with other signaling mechanisms. The ECM protein MAGP2 was previously shown to regulate Notch in a cell type dependent manner, although the molecular details of this interaction have not been dissected. Here, we report that MAGP2 cell type specific control of Notch is independent of individual Notch receptor-ligand combinations but dependent on interaction with RGD binding integrins. Overexpressed MAGP2 was found to suppress transcriptional activity from the Notch responsive Hes1 promoter activity in endothelial cells, while overexpression of a RGD→RGE MAGP2 mutant increased Notch signaling in the same cell type. This effect was not unique to MAGP2 since the RGD domain of the ECM protein EGFL7 was also found to be an important modulator of Hes1 promoter activity. Independently of MAGP2 or EGFL7, inhibition of RGD-binding integrins with soluble RGD peptides also increased accumulation of active N1ICD fragments and Notch responsive promoter activity independently of changes in Notch1, Jag1, or Dll4 expression. Finally, β1 or β3 integrin blocking antibodies also enhanced Notch signaling. Collectively, these results answer the question of how MAGP2 controls cell type dependent Notch signaling, but more importantly uncover a new mechanism to understand how extracellular matrices and cellular environments impact Notch signaling.

  13. Combination of X-ray crystallography, SAXS and DEER to obtain the structure of the FnIII-3, 4 domains of integrin α6β4

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-García, Noelia; García-Rubio, Inés; Buey, Rubén M.; Urien, Hector; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Jeschke, Gunnar; Pereda, José M. de

    2015-04-01

    The structure of the FnIII-3, 4 region of integrin β4 was solved using a hybrid approach that combines crystallographic structures, SAXS, DEER and molecular modelling. The structure helps in understanding how integrin β4 might bind to other hemidesmosomal proteins and mediate signalling. Integrin α6β4 is a major component of hemidesmosomes that mediate the stable anchorage of epithelial cells to the underlying basement membrane. Integrin α6β4 has also been implicated in cell proliferation and migration and in carcinoma progression. The third and fourth fibronectin type III domains (FnIII-3, 4) of integrin β4 mediate binding to the hemidesmosomal proteins BPAG1e and BPAG2, and participate in signalling. Here, it is demonstrated that X-ray crystallography, small-angle X-ray scattering and double electron–electron resonance (DEER) complement each other to solve the structure of the FnIII-3, 4 region. The crystal structures of the individual FnIII-3 and FnIII-4 domains were solved and the relative arrangement of the FnIII domains was elucidated by combining DEER with site-directed spin labelling. Multiple structures of the interdomain linker were modelled by Monte Carlo methods complying with DEER constraints, and the final structures were selected against experimental scattering data. FnIII-3, 4 has a compact and cambered flat structure with an evolutionary conserved surface that is likely to correspond to a protein-interaction site. Finally, this hybrid method is of general application for the study of other macromolecules and complexes.

  14. Neutrophil elastase cleavage of the gC1q domain impairs the EMILIN1-α4β1 integrin interaction, cell adhesion and anti-proliferative activity

    PubMed Central

    Maiorani, Orlando; Pivetta, Eliana; Capuano, Alessandra; Modica, Teresa Maria Elisa; Wassermann, Bruna; Bucciotti, Francesco; Colombatti, Alfonso; Doliana, Roberto; Spessotto, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix glycoprotein EMILIN1 exerts a wide range of functions mainly associated with its gC1q domain. Besides providing functional significance for adhesion and migration, the direct interaction between α4β1 integrin and EMILIN1-gC1q regulates cell proliferation, transducing net anti-proliferative effects. We have previously demonstrated that EMILIN1 degradation by neutrophil elastase (NE) is a specific mechanism leading to the loss of functions disabling its regulatory properties. In this study we further analysed the proteolytic activity of NE, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MT1-MMP on EMILIN1 and found that MMP-3 and MT1-MMP partially cleaved EMILIN1 but without affecting the functional properties associated with the gC1q domain, whereas NE was able to fully impair the interaction of gC1q with the α4β1 integrin by cleaving this domain outside of the E933 integrin binding site. By a site direct mutagenesis approach we mapped the bond between S913 and R914 residues and selected the NE-resistant R914W mutant still able to interact with the α4β1 integrin after NE treatment. Functional studies showed that NE impaired the EMILIN1-α4β1 integrin interaction by cleaving the gC1q domain in a region crucial for its proper structural conformation, paving the way to better understand NE effects on EMILIN1-cell interaction in pathological context. PMID:28074935

  15. The primary structure of the VLA-2/collagen receptor alpha 2 subunit (platelet GPIa): homology to other integrins and the presence of a possible collagen-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    VLA-2 (also called gpIa/IIa on platelets) is a collagen receptor with a unique alpha subunit and a beta subunit common to other adhesion receptors in the VLA/integrin family. Multiple cDNA clones for the human VLA-2 alpha 2 subunit have been selected from a lambda gtll library by specific antibody screening. The 5,374-bp nucleotide sequence encoded for 1,181 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 29 amino acids followed by a long extracellular domain (1,103 amino acids), a transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic segment (22 amino acids). Direct sequencing of purified alpha 2 protein confirmed the identity of the 15 NH2-terminal amino acids. Overall, the alpha 2 amino acid sequence was 18-25% similar to the sequences known for other integrin alpha subunits. In particular, the alpha 2 sequence matched other integrin alpha chains in (a) the positions of 17 of its 20 cysteine residues; (b) the presence of three metal-binding domains of the general structure DXDXDGXXD; and (c) the transmembrane domain sequence. In addition, the alpha 2 sequence has a 191-amino acid insert (called the I-domain), previously found only in leukocyte integrins of the beta 2 integrin family. The alpha 2 I-domain was 23-41% similar to domains in cartilage matrix protein and von Willebrand factor, which are perhaps associated with collagen binding. The NH2-terminal sequence reported here for alpha 2 does not match the previously reported alpha 2 NH2-terminal sequence (Takada, Y., J. L. Strominger, and M. E. Hemler. 1987. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 84:3239-3243). Resolution of this discrepancy suggests that there may be another VLA heterodimer that resembles VLA-2 in size but has a different amino acid sequence. PMID:2545729

  16. Localization of the {alpha}7 integrin gene (ITGA7) on human chromosome 12q13: Clustering of integrin and Hox genes implies parallel evolution of these gene families

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Wu, W.; Kaufman, S.J.

    1995-04-10

    Expression of the {alpha}7 integrin gene (ITGA7) is developmentally regulated during the formation of skeletal muscle. Increased levels of expression and production of isoforms containing different cytoplasmic and extracellular domains accompany myogenesis. To determine whether a single or multiple {alpha}7 gene(s) underlie the structural diversity in this alpha chain that accompanies development, we have examined the rat and human genomes by Southern blotting and in situ hybridization. Our results demonstrate that there is only one {alpha}7 gene in both the rat and the human genomes. In the human, ITGA7 is present on chromosome 12q13. Phylogenetic analysis of the integrin alpha chain sequences suggests that the early integrin genes evolved in two pathways to form the I-integrins and the non-I-integrins. The I-integrin alpha chains contain an additional sequence of approximately 180 amino acids and arose as a result of an early insertion into the non-I-gene. The I-chain subfamily further evolved by duplications within the same chromosome. The non-I-integrin alpha chain genes are localized in clusters on chromosomes 2, 12, and 17, and this closely coincides with the localization of the human homeobox gene clusters. Non-I-integrin alpha chain genes appear to have evolved in parallel and in proximity to the Hox clusters. Thus, the Hox genes that underlie the design of body structure and the Integrin genes that underlie informed cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions appear to have evolved in parallel and coordinate fashions. 52 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Tiam1 is recruited to β1-integrin complexes by 14-3-3ζ where it mediates integrin-induced Rac1 activation and motility.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Timothy E; Bialkowska, Katarzyna; Li, Xiaohong; Fox, Joan E B

    2011-11-01

    14-3-3 is an adaptor protein that localizes to the leading edge of spreading cells, returning to the cytoplasm as spreading ceases. Previously, we showed that integrin-induced Rac1 activation and spreading were inhibited by sequestration of 14-3-3ζ and restored by its overexpression. Here, we determined whether 14-3-3 mediates integrin signaling by localizing a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) to Rac1-activating integrin complexes. We showed that GST-14-3-3ζ recruited the Rac1-GEF, Tiam1, from cell lysates through Tiam1 residues 1-182 (N(1-182) Tiam1). The physiological relevance of this interaction was examined in serum-starved Hela cells plated on fibronectin. Both Tiam1 and N(1-182) Tiam1 were recruited to 14-3-3-containing β1-integrin complexes, as shown by co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation. Integrin-induced Rac1 activation was inhibited when Tiam1 was depleted with siRNA or by overexpression of catalytically inactive N(1-182) Tiam1, which was incorporated into 14-3-3/β1-integrin complexes and inhibited spreading in a manner that was overcome by constitutively active Rac1. Integrin-induced Rac1 activation, spreading, and migration were also inhibited by overexpression of 14-3-3ζ S58D, which was unable to recruit Tiam1 from lysates, co-immunoprecipitate with Tiam1, or mediate its incorporation into β1-integrin complexes. Taken together, these findings suggest a previously unrecognized mechanism of integrin-induced Rac1 activation in which 14-3-3 dimers localize Tiam1 to integrin complexes, where it mediates integrin-dependent Rac1 activation, thus initiating motility-inducing pathways. Moreover, since Tiam1 is recruited to other sites of localized Rac1 activation through its PH-CC-EX domain, the present findings show that a mechanism involving its N-terminal 182 residues is utilized to recruit Tiam1 to motility-inducing integrin complexes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Pharmacological Characterization of the αvβ6 Integrin Binding and Internalization Kinetics of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Derived Peptide A20FMDV2.

    PubMed

    Slack, Robert J; Hafeji, Maryam; Rogers, Rebecca; Ludbrook, Steve B; Marshall, John F; Flint, David J; Pyne, Susan; Denyer, Jane C

    2016-01-01

    A20FMDV2 is a peptide derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus with a high affinity and selectivity for the alpha-v beta-6 (αvβ6) arginyl-glycinyl-aspartic acid (RGD)-binding integrin. It has been shown to be an informative tool ligand in pre-clinical imaging studies for selective labelling of the αvβ6 integrin in a number of disease models. In a radioligand binding assay using a radiolabelled form of the peptide ([3H]A20FMDV2), its high affinity (K(D): 0.22 nmol/l) and selectivity (at least 85-fold) for αvβ6 over the other members of the RGD integrin family was confirmed. [3H]A20FMDV2 αvβ6 binding could be fully reversed only in the presence of EDTA, whereas a partial reversal was observed in the presence of excess concentrations of an RGD-mimetic small molecule (SC-68448) or unlabelled A20FMDV2. Using flow cytometry on bronchial epithelial cells, the ligand-induced internalization of αvβ6 by A20FMDV2 and latency-associated peptide-1 was shown to be fast (t(1/2): 1.5 and 3.1 min, respectively), concentration-dependent (EC50: values 1.1 and 3.6 nmol/l, respectively) and was followed by a moderately slow return of integrin to the surface. The results of the radioligand binding studies suggest that the binding of A20FMDV2 to the RGD-binding site on αvβ6 is required to maintain its engagement with the hypothesised A20FMDV2 synergy site on the integrin. In addition, there is evidence from flow cytometric studies that the RGD-ligand engagement of αvβ6 post-internalization plays a role in delaying recycling of the integrin to the cell surface. This mechanism may act as a homeostatic control of membrane αvβ6 following RGD ligand engagement.

  19. Conservation of the Human Integrin-Type Beta-Propeller Domain in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Bhanupratap; Denesyuk, Alexander; Heino, Jyrki; Johnson, Mark S.; Denessiouk, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface receptors with key functions in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Integrin α and β subunits are present throughout the metazoans, but it is unclear whether the subunits predate the origin of multicellular organisms. Several component domains have been detected in bacteria, one of which, a specific 7-bladed β-propeller domain, is a unique feature of the integrin α subunits. Here, we describe a structure-derived motif, which incorporates key features of each blade from the X-ray structures of human αIIbβ3 and αVβ3, includes elements of the FG-GAP/Cage and Ca2+-binding motifs, and is specific only for the metazoan integrin domains. Separately, we searched for the metazoan integrin type β-propeller domains among all available sequences from bacteria and unicellular eukaryotic organisms, which must incorporate seven repeats, corresponding to the seven blades of the β-propeller domain, and so that the newly found structure-derived motif would exist in every repeat. As the result, among 47 available genomes of unicellular eukaryotes we could not find a single instance of seven repeats with the motif. Several sequences contained three repeats, a predicted transmembrane segment, and a short cytoplasmic motif associated with some integrins, but otherwise differ from the metazoan integrin α subunits. Among the available bacterial sequences, we found five examples containing seven sequential metazoan integrin-specific motifs within the seven repeats. The motifs differ in having one Ca2+-binding site per repeat, whereas metazoan integrins have three or four sites. The bacterial sequences are more conserved in terms of motif conservation and loop length, suggesting that the structure is more regular and compact than those example structures from human integrins. Although the bacterial examples are not full-length integrins, the full-length metazoan-type 7-bladed β-propeller domains are present, and sometimes two tandem

  20. Targeting ILK and {beta}4 integrin abrogates the invasive potential of ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yoon Pyo; Kim, Baek Gil; Gao, Ming-Qing; Kang, Suki; Cho, Nam Hoon

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of targeting ILK and integrins for highly aggressive ovarian cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unanticipated synergistic effect for the combination of ILK/{beta}4 integrin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ILK/{beta}4 integrin effectively inhibited the PI3K/Akt/Rac1 cascade. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting of {beta}4 integrin/ILK had potent inhibitory effects in ovarian cancer. -- Abstract: Integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) are essential to cancerous invasion because they mediate physical interactions with the extracellular matrix, and regulate oncogenic signaling pathways. The purpose of our study is to determine whether deletion of {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin and ILK, alone or in combination, has antitumoral effects in ovarian cancer. Expression of {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin and ILK was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 196 ovarian cancer tissue samples. We assessed the effects of depleting these molecules with shRNAs in ovarian cancer cells by Western blot, conventional RT-PCR, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and in vitro Rac1 activity assays, and in vivo xenograft formation assays. Overexpression of {beta}4 integrin and ILK in human ovarian cancer specimens was found to correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Depletion of these targets efficiently suppresses ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and xenograft tumor formation in vivo. We also demonstrated that single depletion of ILK or combination depletion of {beta}4 integrin/ILK inhibits phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets, p-Ser 473 Akt and p-Thr202/Tyr204 Erk1/2, and activation of Rac1, as well as reduce expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increase expression of caspase-3 in vitro. In conclusion, targeting {beta}4 integrin combined with ILK can instigate the latent tumorigenic potential and abrogate the invasive potential in ovarian cancer.

  1. Chemokines fail to up-regulate beta 1 integrin-dependent adhesion in human Th2 T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Clissi, B; D'Ambrosio, D; Geginat, J; Colantonio, L; Morrot, A; Freshney, N W; Downward, J; Sinigaglia, F; Pardi, R

    2000-03-15

    Th1 and Th2 cells are functionally distinct subsets of CD4+ T lymphocytes whose tissue-specific homing to sites of inflammation is regulated in part by the differential expression of P- and E-selectin ligands and selected chemokine receptors. Here we investigated the expression and function of beta 1 integrins in Th1 and Th2 cells polarized in vitro. Th1 lymphocytes adhere transiently to the extracellular matrix ligands laminin 1 and fibronectin in response to chemokines such as RANTES and stromal cell-derived factor-1, and this process is paralleled by the activation of the Rac1 GTPase and by a rapid burst of actin polymerization. Selective inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3 kinase prevent efficiently all of the above processes, whereas the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide prevents chemokine-induced adhesion without affecting Rac1 activation and actin polymerization. Notably, chemokine-induced adhesion to beta 1 integrin ligands is markedly reduced in Th2 cells. Such a defect cannot be explained by a reduced sensitivity to chemokine stimulation in this T cell subset, nor by a defective activation of the signaling cascade involving phosphoinositide-3 kinase, Rac1, and actin turnover, as all these processes are activated at comparable levels by chemokines in the two subsets. We propose that reduced beta 1 integrin-mediated adhesion in Th2 cells may restrain their ability to invade and/or reside in sites of chronic inflammation, which are characterized by thickening of basement membranes and extensive fibrosis, requiring efficient interaction with organized extracellular matrices.

  2. Efficiency of first-trimester uterine artery Doppler, a-disintegrin and metalloprotease 12, pregnancy-associated plasma protein a, and maternal characteristics in the prediction of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Goetzinger, Katherine R; Zhong, Yan; Cahill, Alison G; Odibo, Linda; Macones, George A; Odibo, Anthony O

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of first-trimester uterine artery Doppler, A-disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12), pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), and maternal characteristics in the prediction of preeclampsia. We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients presenting for first-trimester aneuploidy screening between 11 and 14 weeks' gestation. Maternal serum ADAM12 and PAPP-A levels were measured by an immunoassay, and mean uterine artery Doppler pulsatility indices were calculated. Outcomes of interest included preeclampsia, early preeclampsia (defined as requiring delivery at <34 weeks' gestation), and gestational hypertension. Logistic regression analysis was used to model the prediction of preeclampsia using ADAM12 multiples of the median (MoM), PAPP-A MoM, and uterine artery Doppler pulsatility index MoM, either individually or in combination. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the screening efficiency of the models using nonparametric U statistics. Among 578 patients with complete outcome data, there were 54 cases of preeclampsia (9.3%) and 13 cases of early preeclampsia (2.2%). Median ADAM12 levels were significantly lower in patients who developed preeclampsia compared to those who did not (0.81 versus 1.01 MoM; P = .04). For a fixed false-positive rate of 10%, ADAM12, PAPP-A, and uterine artery Doppler parameters in combination with maternal characteristics identified 50%, 48%, and 52% of patients who developed preeclampsia, respectively. Combining these first-trimester parameters did not improve the predictive efficiency of the models. First-trimester ADAM12, PAPP-A, and uterine artery Doppler characteristics are not sufficiently predictive of preeclampsia. Combinations of these parameters do not further improve their screening efficiency.

  3. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM) 10 and ADAM17 Are Major Sheddases of T Cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin Domain 3 (Tim-3)*

    PubMed Central

    Möller-Hackbarth, Katja; Dewitz, Christin; Schweigert, Olga; Trad, Ahmad; Garbers, Christoph; Rose-John, Stefan; Scheller, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) dampens the response of CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cells via induction of cell death and/or T cell exhaustion and enhances the ability of macrophages to clear pathogens via binding to galectin 9. Here we provide evidence that human Tim-3 is a target of A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)-mediated ectodomain shedding resulting in a soluble form of Tim-3. We identified ADAM10 and ADAM17 as major sheddases of Tim-3 as shown by ADAM-specific inhibitors and the ADAM10 pro-domain in HEK293 cells and ADAM10/ADAM17-deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts. PMA-induced shedding of Tim-3 was abrogated by deletion of amino acids Glu181–Asp190 of the stalk region and Tim-3 lacking the intracellular domain was not efficiently cleaved after PMA stimulation. Surprisingly, a single lysine residue within the intracellular domain rescues shedding of Tim-3. Shedding of endogenous Tim-3 was found in primary human CD14+ monocytes after PMA and ionomycin stimulation. Importantly, the recently described down-regulation of Tim-3 from Toll-like receptor-activated CD14+ monocytes was caused by ADAM10- and ADAM17-mediated shedding. Inhibition of Tim-3 shedding from lipopolysaccharide-induced monocytes did not influence lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα and IL-6 but increases IL-12 expression. In summary, we describe Tim-3 as novel target for ADAM-mediated ectodomain shedding and suggest a role of Tim-3 shedding in TLR-mediated immune responses of CD14+ monocytes. PMID:24121505

  4. Serum Level of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Is Associated with A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 10 in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alan C. H.; Lam, Joanne K. Y.; Shiu, Sammy W. M.; Wong, Ying; Betteridge, D. John; Tan, Kathryn C. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and soluble forms of the receptor (sRAGE) can counteract the detrimental action of the full-length receptor by acting as decoy. Soluble RAGE is produced by alternative splicing [endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE)] and/or by proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound receptor. We have investigated the role of A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) in the ectodomain shedding of RAGE. Methods Constitutive and insulin-induced shedding of RAGE in THP-1 macrophages by ADAM10 was evaluated using an ADAM10-specific metalloproteinase inhibitor. Serum ADAM10 level was measured in type 1 diabetes and control subjects, and the association with serum soluble RAGE was determined. Serum total sRAGE and esRAGE were assayed by ELISA and the difference between total sRAGE and esRAGE gave an estimated measure of soluble RAGE formed by cleavage (cRAGE). Results RAGE shedding (constitutive and insulin-induced) was significantly reduced after inhibition of ADAM10 in macrophages, and insulin stimulated ADAM10 expression and activity. Diabetic subjects have higher serum total sRAGE and esRAGE (p<0.01) than controls, and serum ADAM10 was also increased (p<0.01). Serum ADAM10 correlated with serum cRAGE in type 1 diabetes (r = 0.40, p<0.01) and in controls (r = 0.31. p<0.01) but no correlations were seen with esRAGE. The association remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, smoking status and HbA1c. Conclusion Our data suggested that ADAM10 contributed to the shedding of RAGE. Serum ADAM10 level was increased in type 1 diabetes and was a significant determinant of circulating cRAGE. PMID:26325204

  5. Overexpression and knock-down studies highlight that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 28 controls proliferation and migration in human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rudnicka, Caroline; Mochizuki, Satsuki; Okada, Yasunori; McLaughlin, Claire; Leedman, Peter J.; Stuart, Lisa; Epis, Michael; Hoyne, Gerard; Boulos, Sherif; Johnson, Liam; Schlaich, Markus; Matthews, Vance

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in men. It is critical to identify and characterize oncogenes that drive the pathogenesis of human prostate cancer. The current study builds upon previous research showing that a disintegrin and metallproteinase (ADAM)28 is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cancers. Our novel study used overexpression, pharmacological, and molecular approaches to investigate the biological function of ADAM28 in human prostate cancer cells, with a focus on cell proliferation and migration. The results of this study provide important insights into the role of metalloproteinases in human prostate cancer. The expression of ADAM28 protein levels was assessed within human prostate tumors and normal adjacent tissue by immunohistochemistry. Immunocytochemistry and western blotting were used to assess ADAM28 protein expression in human prostate cancer cell lines. Functional assays were conducted to assess proliferation and migration in human prostate cancer cells in which ADAM28 protein expression or activity had been altered by overexpression, pharmacological inhibition, or by siRNA gene knockdown. The membrane bound ADAM28 was increased in human tumor biopsies and prostate cancer cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of ADAM28 activity and/or knockdown of ADAM28 significantly reduced proliferation and migration of human prostate cancer cells, while overexpression of ADAM28 significantly increased proliferation and migration. ADAM28 is overexpressed in primary human prostate tumor biopsies, and it promotes human prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration. This study supports the notion that inhibition of ADAM28 may be a potential novel therapeutic strategy for human prostate cancer. PMID:27749584

  6. Vascular ADAM17 (a Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase Domain 17) Is Required for Angiotensin II/β-Aminopropionitrile-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Tatsuo; Takayanagi, Takehiko; Forrester, Steven J; Preston, Kyle J; Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Boyer, Michael J; Cooper, Hannah A; Kwok, Hang Fai; Hashimoto, Tomoki; Scalia, Rosario; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2017-11-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII)-activated epidermal growth factor receptor has been implicated in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), AngII activates epidermal growth factor receptor via a metalloproteinase, ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 17). We hypothesized that AngII-dependent AAA development would be prevented in mice lacking ADAM17 in VSMCs. To test this concept, control and VSMC ADAM17-deficient mice were cotreated with AngII and a lysyl oxidase inhibitor, β-aminopropionitrile, to induce AAA. We found that 52.4% of control mice did not survive because of aortic rupture. All other surviving control mice developed AAA and demonstrated enhanced expression of ADAM17 in the AAA lesions. In contrast, all AngII and β-aminopropionitrile-treated VSMC ADAM17-deficient mice survived and showed reduction in external/internal diameters (51%/28%, respectively). VSMC ADAM17 deficiency was associated with lack of epidermal growth factor receptor activation, interleukin-6 induction, endoplasmic reticulum/oxidative stress, and matrix deposition in the abdominal aorta of treated mice. However, both VSMC ADAM17-deficient and control mice treated with AngII and β-aminopropionitrile developed comparable levels of hypertension. Treatment of C57Bl/6 mice with an ADAM17 inhibitory antibody but not with control IgG also prevented AAA development. In conclusion, VSMC ADAM17 silencing or systemic ADAM17 inhibition seems to protect mice from AAA formation. The mechanism seems to involve suppression of epidermal growth factor receptor activation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Overexpression of the A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase ADAM15 is linked to a Small but Highly Aggressive Subset of Prostate Cancers.

    PubMed

    Burdelski, Christoph; Fitzner, Michael; Hube-Magg, Claudia; Kluth, Martina; Heumann, Asmus; Simon, Ronald; Krech, Till; Clauditz, Till; Büscheck, Franziska; Steurer, Stefan; Wittmer, Corinna; Hinsch, Andrea; Luebke, Andreas M; Jacobsen, Frank; Minner, Sarah; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Beyer, Burkhard; Steuber, Thomas; Thederan, Imke; Sauter, Guido; Izbicki, Jakob; Schlomm, Thorsten; Wilczak, Waldemar

    2017-04-01

    The A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM) family of endopeptidases plays a role in many solid cancers and includes promising targets for anticancer therapies. Deregulation of ADAM15 has been linked to tumor aggressiveness and cell line studies suggest that ADAM15 overexpression may also be implicated in prostate cancer. To evaluate the impact of ADAM15 expression and its relationship with key genomic alterations, a tissue microarray containing 12,427 prostate cancers was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. ADAM15 expression was compared to phenotype, prognosis and molecular features including TMPRSS2:ERG fusion and frequent deletions involving PTEN, 3p, 5q and 6q. Normal prostate epithelium did not show ADAM15 staining. In prostate cancers, negative, weak, moderate, and strong ADAM15 staining was found in 87.7%, 3.7%, 5.6%, and 3.0% of 9826 interpretable tumors. Strong ADAM15 staining was linked to high Gleason grade, advanced pathological tumor stage, positive nodal stage and resection margin. ADAM15 overexpression was also associated with TMPRSS2:ERG fusions and PTEN deletions (P<.0001) but unrelated to deletions of 3p, 5q and 6q. In univariate analysis, high ADAM15 expression was strongly linked to PSA recurrence (P<.0001). However, in multivariate analyses this association was only maintained if the analysis was limited to preoperatively available parameters in ERG-negative cancers. The results of our study demonstrate that ADAM15 is strongly up regulated in a small but highly aggressive fraction of prostate cancers. In these tumors, ADAM15 may represent a suitable drug target. In a preoperative scenario, ADAM15 expression measurement may assist prognosis assessment, either alone or in combination with other markers.

  8. Overexpression and knock-down studies highlight that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 28 controls proliferation and migration in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Caroline; Mochizuki, Satsuki; Okada, Yasunori; McLaughlin, Claire; Leedman, Peter J; Stuart, Lisa; Epis, Michael; Hoyne, Gerard; Boulos, Sherif; Johnson, Liam; Schlaich, Markus; Matthews, Vance

    2016-10-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in men. It is critical to identify and characterize oncogenes that drive the pathogenesis of human prostate cancer. The current study builds upon previous research showing that a disintegrin and metallproteinase (ADAM)28 is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cancers. Our novel study used overexpression, pharmacological, and molecular approaches to investigate the biological function of ADAM28 in human prostate cancer cells, with a focus on cell proliferation and migration. The results of this study provide important insights into the role of metalloproteinases in human prostate cancer.The expression of ADAM28 protein levels was assessed within human prostate tumors and normal adjacent tissue by immunohistochemistry. Immunocytochemistry and western blotting were used to assess ADAM28 protein expression in human prostate cancer cell lines. Functional assays were conducted to assess proliferation and migration in human prostate cancer cells in which ADAM28 protein expression or activity had been altered by overexpression, pharmacological inhibition, or by siRNA gene knockdown.The membrane bound ADAM28 was increased in human tumor biopsies and prostate cancer cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of ADAM28 activity and/or knockdown of ADAM28 significantly reduced proliferation and migration of human prostate cancer cells, while overexpression of ADAM28 significantly increased proliferation and migration.ADAM28 is overexpressed in primary human prostate tumor biopsies, and it promotes human prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration. This study supports the notion that inhibition of ADAM28 may be a potential novel therapeutic strategy for human prostate cancer.

  9. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand release by substrate-specific a disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) involves different protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes depending on the stimulus.

    PubMed

    Dang, Michelle; Dubbin, Karen; D'Aiello, Antonio; Hartmann, Monika; Lodish, Harvey; Herrlich, Andreas

    2011-05-20

    The dysregulation of EGF family ligand cleavage has severe consequences for the developing as well as the adult organism. Therefore, their production is highly regulated. The limiting step is the ectodomain cleavage of membrane-bound precursors by one of several a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) metalloproteases, and understanding the regulation of cleavage is an important goal of current research. We have previously reported that in mouse lung epithelial cells, the pro-EGF ligands TGFα, neuregulin 1β (NRG), and heparin-binding EGF are differentially cleaved depending on the cleavage stimulus (Herrlich, A., Klinman, E., Fu, J., Sadegh, C., and Lodish, H. (2008) FASEB J.). In this study in mouse embryonic fibroblasts that lack different ADAMs, we show that induced cleavage of EGF ligands can involve the same substrate-specific metalloprotease but does require different stimulus-dependent signaling pathways. Cleavage was stimulated by phorbol ester (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a mimic of diacylglycerol and PKC activator), hypertonic stress, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced G protein-coupled receptor activation, or by ionomycin-induced intracellular calcium release. Although ADAMs showed substrate preference (ADAM17, TGFα and heparin-binding EGF; and ADAM9, NRG), substrate cleavage differed substantially with the stimulus, and cleavage of the same substrate depended on the presence of different, sometimes multiple, PKC isoforms. For instance, classical PKC was required for TPA-induced but not hypertonic stress-induced cleavage of all EGF family ligands. Inhibition of PKCζ enhanced NRG release upon TPA stimulation, but it blocked NRG release in response to hypertonic stress. Our results suggest a model in which substantial regulation of ectodomain cleavage occurs not only on the metalloprotease level but also on the level of the substrate or of a third protein.

  10. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12) localizes to invasive trophoblast, promotes cell invasion and directs column outgrowth in early placental development.

    PubMed

    Aghababaei, M; Perdu, S; Irvine, K; Beristain, A G

    2014-03-01

    During pregnancy, stromal- and vascular-remodeling trophoblasts serve critical roles in directing placental development acquiring pro-invasive characteristics. The A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM) family of multifunctional proteins direct cellular processes across multiple organ systems via their intrinsic catalytic, cell adhesive and intracellular signaling properties. ADAM12, existing as two distinct splice variants (ADAM12L and ADAM12S), is highly expressed in the human placenta and promotes cell migration and invasion in several tumor cell lines; however, its role in trophoblast biology is unknown. In this study, ADAM12 was localized to anchoring trophoblast columns in first trimester placentas and to highly invasive extracellular matrix-degrading trophoblasts in placental villous explants. The importance of ADAM12 in directing trophoblast invasion was tested using loss-of and gain-of-function strategies, where siRNA-directed knockdown of ADAM12 inhibited trophoblast cell invasion while over-expression promoted migration and invasion in two trophoblastic cell models. In placental villous explant cultures, siRNA-directed loss of ADAM12 significantly dampened trophoblast column outgrowth. Additionally, we provide functional evidence for the ADAM12S variant in promoting trophoblast invasion and column outgrowth through a mechanism requiring its catalytic activity. This is the first study to assign a function for ADAM12 in trophoblast biology, where ADAM12 may play a central role regulating the behavior of invasive trophoblast subsets in early pregnancy. This study also underlines the importance of ADAM12L and ADAM12S in directing cell motility in normal developmental processes outside of cancer, specifically highlighting a potentially important function of ADAM12S in directing early placental development.

  11. The NPIY motif in the integrin beta1 tail dictates the requirement for talin-1 in outside-in signaling.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Bethsaida; Jones, Christopher W; Ward, Rachel; Ohta, Yasutaka; Reverte, Carlos G; LaFlamme, Susan E

    2010-04-15

    Protein interactions with the integrin beta-subunit cytoplasmic domain (beta-tail) are essential for adhesion-dependent processes, including cell spreading and the connection of integrins with actin filaments at adhesion sites. Talin-1 binds to the conserved membrane-proximal NPxY motif of beta-tails (NPIY in beta1 integrin) promoting the inside-out activation of integrins and providing a linkage between integrins and the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we characterize the role of interactions between talin-1 and beta-tail downstream of integrin activation, in the context of recombinant integrins containing either the wild type (WT) or the (YA) mutant beta1A tail, with a tyrosine to alanine substitution in the NPIY motif. In addition to inhibiting integrin activation, the YA mutation suppresses cell spreading, integrin signaling, focal adhesion and stress-fiber formation, as well as microtubule assembly. Constitutive activation of the mutant integrin restores these integrin-dependent processes, bringing into question the importance of the NPIY motif downstream of integrin activation. Depletion of talin-1 using TLN1 siRNA demonstrated that talin-1 is required for cell spreading, focal adhesion and stress-fiber formation, as well as microtubule assembly, even when cells are adhered by constitutively activated WT integrins. Depletion of talin-1 does not inhibit these processes when cells are adhered by constitutively activated mutant integrins, suggesting that the binding of an inhibitory protein to the NPIY motif negatively regulates integrin function when talin-1 is depleted. We identified filamin A (FLNa) as this inhibitory protein; it binds to the beta1A tail in an NPIY-dependent manner and inhibition of FLNa expression in talin-1-depleted cells restores integrin function when cells are adhered by constitutively activated WT integrins. FLNa binds FilGAP, which is a negative regulator of Rac activation. Expression of the dominant inhibitory mutant, Fil

  12. α4β7 Integrin is essential for contact hypersensitivity by regulating migration of T cells to skin.

    PubMed

    Ohmatsu, Hanako; Kadono, Takafumi; Sugaya, Makoto; Tomita, Manabu; Kai, Hiromichi; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Saeki, Hidehisa; Tamaki, Kunihiko; Steeber, Douglas A; Tedder, Thomas F; Sato, Shinichi

    2010-12-01

    β7 Integrin, a cell adhesion molecule, is present in the form of α4β7 integrin or αEβ7 integrin. α4β7 Integrin is expressed on most leucocytes and is essential for their migration to gut-associated lymphoid tissues by interacting with its primary ligand, mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1, which is preferentially expressed in gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Although the importance of α4β7 integrin in intestinal inflammation has been established, its role in cutaneous inflammation remains to be elucidated. We sought to investigate the role of β7 integrin in cutaneous inflammation. We used a murine contact hypersensitivity model and examined the role of β7 integrin by using β7 integrin-deficient and αE integrin-deficient mice. β7 Integrin-deficient mice, not αE integrin-deficient mice, are defective in contact hypersensitivity responses. β7 Integrin deficiency does not affect irritant contact dermatitis. The distribution, migration, and function of antigen presenting cells from β7 integrin-deficient mice are comparable to those from wild-type mice. Moreover, sensitized β7 integrin-deficient T cells are able to respond to antigen stimuli in vitro and elicit contact hypersensitivity responses when directly injected into the skin. However, they are defective in reaching the skin under inflammatory conditions, resulting in reduced contact hypersensitivity responses when intravenously injected. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of anti-α4β7 integrin neutralizing antibody elicit impaired contact hypersensitivity responses. α4β7 Integrin contributes to contact hypersensitivity responses by regulating T-cell migration to inflammatory skin. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Galectin-1 sensitizes carcinoma cells to anoikis via the fibronectin receptor α5β1-integrin

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Ruderisch, H; Detjen, K M; Welzel, M; André, S; Fischer, C; Gabius, H-J; Rosewicz, S

    2011-01-01

    Anoikis resistance is a hallmark of transformed epithelial cells. Here, we show that treatment of anoikis-resistant carcinoma cell lines with the endogenous lectin galectin-1 (Gal-1) promoted apoptosis via interaction with the unligated fibronectin receptor α5β1-integrin. Gal-1 efficiency correlated with expression of α5β1-integrin, and transfection of the α5-subunit into deficient cell lines conferred Gal-1 binding and anoikis stimulation. Furthermore, Gal-1 and the α5- and β1-integrin subunits co-precipitated in Gal-1-stimulated cells undergoing anoikis. Other members of the galectin family failed to be active. The functional interaction between Gal-1 and α5β1-integrin was glycan dependent with α2,6-sialylation representing a switch-off signal. Desialylation of cell surface glycans resulted in increased electrophoretic mobility of α5β1-integrin and facilitated Gal-1 binding and anoikis stimulation. On the level of signaling, Gal-1-stimulated anoikis was prevented by filipin, which impaired the internalization of α5β1-integrin via cholesterol-enriched microdomains, and by pretreatment with a caspase-8 inhibitor. We propose that Gal-1/α5β1-integrin interaction participates in the control of epithelial integrity and integrin sialylation may enable carcinoma cells to evade this Gal-1-dependent control mechanism. PMID:21113146

  14. Physical association and functional interaction between beta1 integrin and CD98 on human T lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, Yuko J.; Mitchell, Jason S.; McIntyre, Bradley W.

    2003-01-01

    CD98 is a cell surface protein previously characterized as a cell activation marker, an amino acid transporter, and has recently been implicated in integrin-related functions. Integrins are cell surface proteins, important for homotypic cell aggregation, cell adhesion, and coactivation of T lymphocytes. We have previously shown that the anti-CD98 mAb 80A10, when coimmobilized with anti-CD3 mAb OKT3, is able to mediate human T cell coactivation that is inhibited by anti-beta1 integrin specific mAb 18D3. These results indicated a functional association of CD98 and beta1 integrin signaling but left open the question of a physical association. We now show the induction of homotypic aggregation through CD98 among human T cells and this aggregation was inhibited by anti-beta1 integrin mAb. Therefore, CD98-dependent lymphocyte proliferation and adhesion may involve integrins. Competitive binding assays and fluorescence colocalization analysis suggested that CD98 and beta1 integrin were physically associated. Differential extraction techniques and immunoprecipitations provided the first evidence that the alpha4beta1 integrin and CD98 are specifically associated on human T lymphocytes.

  15. Integrin αv in the mechanical response of osteoblast lineage cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Keiko; Ito, Masako; Naoe, Yoshinori; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Ikeda, Kyoji

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Deletion of integrin αv in osteoblast lineage results in an impaired SOST response to loading in vivo. • c-Src–p130Cas–JNK–YAP/TAZ is activated via integrin αv on osteoblasts in response to FSS. • Deletion of integrin αv in osteoblasts results in impaired responses to mechanical stimulation. • Integrin αv is a key component of the mechanosensing machinery in bone. - Abstract: Although osteoblast lineage cells, especially osteocytes, are thought to be a primary mechanosensory cell in bone, the identity of the mechano-receptor and downstream mechano-signaling pathways remain largely unknown. Here we show using osteoblastic cell model of mechanical stimulation with fluid shear stress that in the absence of integrin αv, phosphorylation of the Src substrate p130Cas and JNK was impaired, culminating in an inhibition of nuclear translocation of YAP/TAZ and subsequent transcriptional activation of target genes. Targeted deletion of the integrin αv in osteoblast lineage cells results in an attenuated response to mechanical loading in terms of Sost gene expression, indicative of a role for integrin αv in mechanoreception in vivo. Thus, integrin αv may be integral to a mechanosensing machinery in osteoblastic cells and involved in activation of a Src–JNK–YAP/TAZ pathway in response to mechanical stimulation.

  16. Beta-1 Integrin Signaling and Function in MLO-Y4 Osteocyte-Like Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Searby, N. D.; vanderMeulen, M. C. H.; Dovi, J.; Roden, C.; Banerjee, I.; Kim, J.-B.; Damsky, C. D.; Almeida, E. A. C.; Globus, R. K.

    2004-01-01

    In osteocyte-like cells, disruption of beta-1 integrin signaling by the Beta-1 tail construct: 1) Altered cell morphology; 2) Reduced cell motility; 3) Increased proliferation and final cell density; 4) Reduced cell's ability to maintain shape when subjected to uniaxial strain (1%, 30 min). Thus, beta-1 integrin is important in the response of osteocytic cells to mechanical loading.

  17. Physical association and functional interaction between beta1 integrin and CD98 on human T lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, Yuko J.; Mitchell, Jason S.; McIntyre, Bradley W.

    2003-01-01

    CD98 is a cell surface protein previously characterized as a cell activation marker, an amino acid transporter, and has recently been implicated in integrin-related functions. Integrins are cell surface proteins, important for homotypic cell aggregation, cell adhesion, and coactivation of T lymphocytes. We have previously shown that the anti-CD98 mAb 80A10, when coimmobilized with anti-CD3 mAb OKT3, is able to mediate human T cell coactivation that is inhibited by anti-beta1 integrin specific mAb 18D3. These results indicated a functional association of CD98 and beta1 integrin signaling but left open the question of a physical association. We now show the induction of homotypic aggregation through CD98 among human T cells and this aggregation was inhibited by anti-beta1 integrin mAb. Therefore, CD98-dependent lymphocyte proliferation and adhesion may involve integrins. Competitive binding assays and fluorescence colocalization analysis suggested that CD98 and beta1 integrin were physically associated. Differential extraction techniques and immunoprecipitations provided the first evidence that the alpha4beta1 integrin and CD98 are specifically associated on human T lymphocytes.

  18. Genetic perturbation of the putative cytoplasmic membrane-proximal salt bridge aberrantly activates α4 integrins

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Yoichi; Park, Eun Jeong; Peer, Dan; Peixoto, António; Cheng, Guiying; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Carman, Christopher V.

    2008-01-01

    α4 integrins play a pivotal role in leukocyte migration and tissue-specific homing. The ability of integrins to bind ligand is dynamically regulated by activation-dependent conformational changes triggered in the cytoplasmic domain. An NMR solution structure defined a putative membrane-proximal salt bridge between the αIIbβ3 integrin cytoplasmic tails, which restrains integrins in their low-affinity state. However, the physiological importance of this salt bridge in α4 integrin regulation remains to be elucidated. To address this question, we disrupted the salt bridge in murine germ line by mutating the conserved cytoplasmic arginine RGFFKR in α4 integrins. In lymphocytes from knock-in mice (α4-R/AGFFKR), α4β1 and α4β7 integrins exhibited constitutively up-regulated ligand binding. However, transmigration of these cells across VCAM-1 and MAdCAM-1 substrates, or across endothelial monolayers, was reduced. Perturbed detachment of the tail appeared to cause the reduced cell migration of α4-R/AGFFKR lymphocytes. In vivo, α4-R/AGFFKR cells exhibited increased firm adhesion to Peyer patch venules but reduced homing to the gut. Our results demonstrate that the membrane-proximal salt bridge plays a critical role in supporting proper α4 integrin adhesive dynamics. Loss of this interaction destabilizes the nonadhesive conformation, and thereby perturbs the properly balanced cycles of adhesion and deadhesion required for efficient cell migration. PMID:18809756

  19. Integrin-based Therapeutics: Biological Basis, Clinical Use and New Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Klaus; Rivera-Nieves, Jesus; Sandborn, William J.; Shattil, Sanford

    2016-01-01

    Integrins are activatable adhesion and signaling molecules. Of the 24 known human integrins, three are currently targeted therapeutically by monoclonal antibodies, peptides or small molecules. The platelet αIIbβ3 integrin is targeted by Abciximab, Eptifibatide and Tirofiban, all with indications for preventing thrombotic complications after percutaneous coronary interventions. The lymphocyte α4β1 and α4β7 integrins are targeted by Natalizumab with indications in multiple sclerosis and Crohn’s disease. Although efficacious, use of this antibody is limited by a rare but serious complication, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Vedolizumab is an antibody to a combinatorial epitope in α4β7 that is approved for use in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis in the United States, Canada and Europe. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy has not been observed in the clinical trials or clinical use of vedolizumab. New antibodies and small molecules targeting β7 integrins (α4β7 and αEβ7) and MAdCAM-1 are in clinical development for treatment of these inflammatory bowel diseases. Overall, integrin-based therapeutics have shown clinically significant benefits in many patients, leading to continued medical interest in the further development of novel integrin inhibitors. Of note, almost all integrin antagonists in use or in late-stage clinical trials target the ligand binding site, or the ligand itself. PMID:26822833

  20. Cell adhesion and integrin expression are modulated by oxidative stress in EA.hy 926 cells.

    PubMed

    Lamari, Foudil; Braut-Boucher, Francoise; Pongnimitprasert, Nushjira; Bernard, Maguy; Foglietti, Marie-Jose; Derappe, Christian; Aubery, Michele

    2007-07-01

    The effects of oxidative stress on integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and related apoptosis were investigated using the EA.hy926 endothelial cells treated (or not) with two oxidants: the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase system (HX/XO) or the tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) which both increased cell apoptosis. Cell adhesion onto vitronectin (Vn) and fibronectin (Fn) was increased at low concentrations of HX/XO (up to 5 mU/ml) or t-BHP (up to 125 microM) and prevented ROS-induced apoptosis. Flow cytometry analysis of integrin expression showed that the expression of integrin alphav and alpha5 subunits was, respectively, increased and decreased. Cell adhesion inhibition experiments using function-blocking monoclonal antibodies against integrin subunits indicated that alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta3 integrins were involved in adhesion of cells to Vn, and alphavbeta3 integrin played a major role in oxidant-treated cells. For adhesion to Fn, alpha5beta1 and alphavbeta1 integrins were required for oxidant-treated cells. Taken together, the results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced either by HX/XO or t-BHP could affect expression and/or activation of specific integrins in the interaction of EA.hy926 cells with ECM.

  1. Targeting of Alpha-V Integrins Reduces Malignancy of Bladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    van der Horst, Geertje; Bos, Lieke; van der Mark, Maaike; Cheung, Henry; Heckmann, Bertrand; Clément-Lacroix, Philippe; Lorenzon, Giocondo; Pelger, Rob C. M.; Bevers, Rob F. M.; van der Pluijm, Gabri

    2014-01-01

    Low survival rates of metastatic cancers emphasize the need for a drug that can prevent and/or treat metastatic cancer. αv integrins are involved in essential processes for tumor growth and metastasis and targeting of αv integrins has been shown to decrease angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. In this study, the role of αv integrin and its potential as a drug target in bladder cancer was investigated. Treatment with an αv integrin antagonist as well as knockdown of αv integrin in the bladder carcinoma cell lines, resulted in reduced malignancy invitro, as illustrated by decreased proliferative, migratory and clonogenic capacity. The CDH1/CDH2 ratio increased, indicating a shift towards a more epithelial phenotype. This shift appeared to be associated with downregulation of EMT-inducing transcription factors including SNAI2. The expression levels of the self-renewal genes NANOG and BMI1 decreased as well as the number of cells with high Aldehyde Dehydrogenase activity. In addition, self-renewal ability decreased as measured with the urosphere assay. In line with these observations, knockdown or treatment of αv integrins resulted in decreased metastatic growth in preclinical invivo models as assessed by bioluminescence imaging. In conclusion, we show that αv integrins are involved in migration, EMT and maintenance of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase activity in bladder cancer cells. Targeting of αv integrins might be a promising approach for treatment and/or prevention of metastatic bladder cancer. PMID:25247809

  2. Beta-1 Integrin Signaling and Function in MLO-Y4 Osteocyte-Like Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Searby, N. D.; vanderMeulen, M. C. H.; Dovi, J.; Roden, C.; Banerjee, I.; Kim, J.-B.; Damsky, C. D.; Almeida, E. A. C.; Globus, R. K.

    2004-01-01

    In osteocyte-like cells, disruption of beta-1 integrin signaling by the Beta-1 tail construct: 1) Altered cell morphology; 2) Reduced cell motility; 3) Increased proliferation and final cell density; 4) Reduced cell's ability to maintain shape when subjected to uniaxial strain (1%, 30 min). Thus, beta-1 integrin is important in the response of osteocytic cells to mechanical loading.

  3. The integrin inhibitor cilengitide affects meningioma cell motility and invasion.

    PubMed

    Wilisch-Neumann, Annette; Kliese, Nadine; Pachow, Doreen; Schneider, Thomas; Warnke, Jan-Peter; Braunsdorf, Werner Ek; Böhmer, Frank-Dietmar; Hass, Peter; Pasemann, Diana; Helbing, Cornelia; Kirches, Elmar; Mawrin, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Meningiomas are frequent intracranial or spinal neoplasms, which recur frequently and can show aggressive clinical behaviour. We elucidated the impact of the integrin inhibitor cilengitide on migration, proliferation, and radiosensitization of meningioma cells. We analyzed integrin expression in tissue microarrays of human meningiomas and the antimeningioma properties of cilengitide in cell cultures, subcutaneous and intracranial nude mouse models by measuring tumor volumes and survival times. αvβ5 was the predominantly expressed integrin heterodimer in meningiomas, whereas αvβ3 was mainly detected in tumor blood vessels. Application of up to 100 μg/mL cilengitide resulted in only mildly reduced proliferation/survival of meningioma cell lines. Effects on cell survival could be enhanced by irradiation. One μg/mL cilengitide was sufficient to significantly inhibit meningioma cell migration and invasion in vitro. A daily dosage of 75 mg/kg did neither affect tumor volumes nor overall survival (P = 0.813, log-rank test), but suppressed brain invasion in a significant fraction of treated animals. A combination of 75 mg/kg cilengitide daily and irradiation (2 × 5 Gy) led to a 67% reduction of MRI-estimated tumor volumes in the intracranial model (P < 0.01), whereas the corresponding reduction reached by irradiation alone was only 55% (P < 0.05). These data show that a monotherapy with cilengitide is not likely to achieve major responses in rapidly growing malignant meningiomas, although brain invasion may be reduced because of the strong antimigratory properties of the drug. The combination with radiotherapy warrants further attention. ©2013 AACR.

  4. Human macrophage differentiation involves an interaction between integrins and fibronectin

    SciTech Connect

    Laouar, A.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Collart, F.; Huberman, E.

    1996-11-15

    The authors have examined the role of the {beta}{sub 1} integrin family of adhesion receptors (VLA) and the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN) in macrophage differentiation of (1) human HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and (2) human peripheral blood monocytes induced by either PMA or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M=CSF). Increased VLA and FN gene expression was observed as early as 4 h after PMA treatment of HL-60 cells and PMA- or M-CSF-treatment of monocytes, and it preceded the manifestation of macrophage markers. Treated HL-60 cells and monocytes also released and deposited FN on the surface of the tissue culture dishes. An HL-60 cell variant, HL-525, which is deficient in protein kinase C {beta} and resistant to PMA-induced differentiation, exhibited elevated levels of the VLA antigen but failed to express the FN gene. Incubation of HL-525 cells on dishes precoated with exogenous FN resulted in a macrophage differentiation. The macrophage phenotype induced in HL-60 cells, HL-525 cells, or monocytes was attenuated to various degrees by anti-VLA or anti-FN MAbs or by exogenous RGDS, a VLA-binding motif on FN. The authors suggest that macrophage differentiation is initiated by the activation of protein kinase C, which leads to the expression of the integrin, FN and related genes. The integrins mediate cell attachment and spreading on appropriate substrates by binding to deposited extracellular proteins such as FN. This attachment and spreading, in turn, leads to the expression of genes that code for the macrophage functions.

  5. Hypergravity Stimulates Osteoblast Proliferation Via Matrix-Integrin-Signaling Pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercoutere, W.; Parra, M.; Roden, C.; DaCosta, M.; Wing, A.; Damsky, C.; Holton, E.; Searby, N.; Globus, R.; Almeida, E.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive characterizations of the physiologic consequences of microgravity and gravity indicate that lack of weight-bearing may cause tissue atrophy through cellular and subcellular level mechanisms. We hypothesize that gravity is needed for the efficient transduction of cell growth and survival signals from the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) in mechanosensitive tissues. Recent work from our laboratory and from others shows that an increase of gravity increases bone cell growth and survival. We found that 50-g hypergravity stimulation increased osteoblast proliferation for cells grown on Collagen Type I and Fibronectin, but not on Laminin or uncoated plastic. This may be a tissue-specific response, because 50-g hypergravity stimulation caused no increase in proliferation for primary rat fibroblasts. These results combined with RT-PCR for all possible integrins indicate that beta1 integrin subunit may be involved. The osteoblast proliferation response on Collagen Type I was greater at 25-g than at 10-g or 50-g; 24-h duration of hypergravity was necessary to see an increase in proliferation. Survival was enhanced during hypergravity stimulation by the presence of matrix. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that cell cycle may be altered; BrdU incorporation in proliferating cells showed an increase in the number of actively dividing cells from about 60% at 1-g to over 90% at 25-g. To further investigate the molecular components involved, we applied fluorescence labeling of cytoskeletal and signaling molecules to cells after 2 to 30 minutes of hypergravity stimulation. While structural components did not appear to be altered, phosphorylation increased, indicating that signaling pathways may be activated. These data indicate that gravity mechanostimulation of osteoblast proliferation involves specific matrix-integrin signaling pathways which are sensitive to duration and g-level.

  6. Hypergravity Stimulates Osteoblast Proliferation Via Matrix-Integrin-Signaling Pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercoutere, W.; Parra, M.; Roden, C.; DaCosta, M.; Wing, A.; Damsky, C.; Holton, E.; Searby, N.; Globus, R.; Almeida, E.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive characterizations of the physiologic consequences of microgravity and gravity indicate that lack of weight-bearing may cause tissue atrophy through cellular and subcellular level mechanisms. We hypothesize that gravity is needed for the efficient transduction of cell growth and survival signals from the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) in mechanosensitive tissues. Recent work from our laboratory and from others shows that an increase of gravity increases bone cell growth and survival. We found that 50-g hypergravity stimulation increased osteoblast proliferation for cells grown on Collagen Type I and Fibronectin, but not on Laminin or uncoated plastic. This may be a tissue-specific response, because 50-g hypergravity stimulation caused no increase in proliferation for primary rat fibroblasts. These results combined with RT-PCR for all possible integrins indicate that beta1 integrin subunit may be involved. The osteoblast proliferation response on Collagen Type I was greater at 25-g than at 10-g or 50-g; 24-h duration of hypergravity was necessary to see an increase in proliferation. Survival was enhanced during hypergravity stimulation by the presence of matrix. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that cell cycle may be altered; BrdU incorporation in proliferating cells showed an increase in the number of actively dividing cells from about 60% at 1-g to over 90% at 25-g. To further investigate the molecular components involved, we applied fluorescence labeling of cytoskeletal and signaling molecules to cells after 2 to 30 minutes of hypergravity stimulation. While structural components did not appear to be altered, phosphorylation increased, indicating that signaling pathways may be activated. These data indicate that gravity mechanostimulation of osteoblast proliferation involves specific matrix-integrin signaling pathways which are sensitive to duration and g-level.

  7. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 mediates trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Nazarul; Hu, Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are major receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). As transmembrane proteins, the levels of integrins at the plasma membrane or the cell surface are ultimately determined by the balance between two vesicle trafficking events: endocytosis of integrins at the plasma membrane and exocytosis of the vesicles that transport integrins. Here, we report that vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), a SNARE protein that mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane, is involved in the trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin. VAMP2 was present on vesicles containing endocytosed {beta}1 integrin. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of VAMP2 markedly reduced cell surface {alpha}5{beta}1 and inhibited cell adhesion and chemotactic migration to fibronectin, the ECM ligand of {alpha}5{beta}1, without altering cell surface expression of {alpha}2{beta}1 integrin or {alpha}3{beta}1 integrin. By contrast, silencing of VAMP8, another SNARE protein, had no effect on cell surface expression of the integrins or cell adhesion to fibronectin. In addition, VAMP2-mediated trafficking is involved in cell adhesion to collagen but not to laminin. Consistent with disruption of integrin functions in cell proliferation and survival, VAMP2 silencing diminished proliferation and triggered apoptosis. Collectively, these data indicate that VAMP2 mediates the trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane and VAMP2-dependent integrin trafficking is critical in cell adhesion, migration and survival.

  8. Endothelial adhesion molecules and leukocyte integrins in preeclamptic patients.

    PubMed

    Haller, H; Ziegler, E M; Homuth, V; Drab, M; Eichhorn, J; Nagy, Z; Busjahn, A; Vetter, K; Luft, F C

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cell activation is important in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia; however, the nature of the activation is unknown. We investigated 22 patients with preeclampsia. 29 normotensive pregnancies, and 18 nonpregnant women to test the hypothesis that serum from preeclamptic patients induces expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and stimulates intracellular free calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i in cultured endothelial cells. We then asked whether the corresponding integrin adhesive counter receptors lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (CD11a/CD18), macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b/CD18), p150,95 (CD11c/CD18), and very late activation antigen-4 (CD49/CD29) are increased in patients with preeclampsia. In the pregnant women, the measurements were conducted both before and after delivery. Integrin expression was measured by fluorescent antibody cell sorting analysis using monoclonal antibodies. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were analyzed on endothelial cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura 2. Serum from preeclamptic patients increased endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression but not VCAM-1 expression. Preeclamptic patients' serum also increased [Ca2+]i in endothelial cells compared with serum from normal nonpregnant or normal pregnant women. Endothelial cell [Ca2+]i concentrations were correlated with the ICAM-1 expression in preeclamptic patients (r = .80, P < .001) before but not after delivery. Expression of the integrin counter receptors on leukocytes was similarly increased in preclampsia and normal pregnancy compared with the nonpregnant state. The expression decreased significantly after delivery in both groups. Our results demonstrate that serum from preeclamptic women induces increased ICAM-1 surface expression on endothelial cells, while the expression of the integrin counterreceptors was not different. The effect on endothelial cells may be related to an increase in [Ca2+]i

  9. Alphavbeta integrins play an essential role in BMP-2 induction of osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chung-Fang; Cheng, Su-Li

    2005-02-01

    Both integrins and BMP-2 exert similar effects on osteoblasts. We examined the relationship between the alphav-containing integrins (alphavbeta) and BMP-2 in osteoblast function. BMP-2 stimulates alphavbeta expression. BMP-2 receptors co-localize/overlap with alphavbeta integrins, and the intact function of alphavbeta is essential in BMP-2 activity. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 not only induces osteoblast differentiation and bone matrix mineralization, but also stimulates osteoblast migration on and adhesion to bone matrix proteins. The alphavbeta- and beta1- (alphabeta1) containing integrins mediate osteoblast interaction with many bone matrix proteins and play important roles in osteoblast adhesion, migration, and differentiation. Because alphavbeta integrins and BMP-2 share common effects on osteoblasts, we analyzed their relationship in osteoblast function. The effects of BMP-2 on integrin expression were determined by surface labeling/immunoprecipitation and cell adhesion to matrix proteins. Confocal analysis of the immunostained cells and co-immunoprecipitation of cell extracts were used to study the spatial relationship between integrins and BMP-2 receptors. A function-blocking anti-alphavbeta integrin antibody (L230) was employed to investigate the roles of alphavbeta integrins in BMP-2 function. Human osteoblasts (HOBs) express alphabeta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta5, alphavbeta6, and alphavbeta8 integrins at focal adhesion sites. BMP-2 increases the levels of these integrins on osteoblast surface and enhances HOB adhesion to osteopontin and vitronectin. Immunoprecipitation and immunostaining analyses show that BMP-2 receptors co-localize or overlap with alphavbeta and alphabeta1 integrins. Incubation of HOBs with L230 abolishes the antiproliferative effect of BMP-2 and reduces the capacity of BMP-2 to stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein. Furthermore, L230 prevents BMP-2 induction

  10. [Anti-adhesive and anti-thrombotic effects of integrin-inhibiting tripeptides (Arg-Gly-Asp)].

    PubMed

    Udvardy, M

    1995-10-01

    The RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motif has a widespread distribution in the cellular adhesive structures on platelets, lymphocytes, some viruses and matrix proteins. RGD sequence seems to confer adhesive properties to macromolecular proteins like fibronectin, vitronectin, von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen and many others. So RGD tripeptide and its analogues really deserve to be regarded as general disintegrin sequence. A concise review is given to analyze the most important achievements by using RGD peptides as antiplatelet agents along with an overview of the potential clinical application of the disintegrin peptides in other fields of medicine.

  11. The complexity of integrins in cancer and new scopes for therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi, Hellyeh; Pietilä, Mika; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease and progresses within a dynamically evolving extracellular matrix that controls virtually every aspect of the tumour and tumour-associated cells. Interactions with the extracellular microenvironment are predominately mediated by a family of cell-surface transmembrane receptors called integrins. Integrin–matrix engagement leads to the formation of adhesion plaques, consisting of signalling and adaptor proteins, at the plasma membrane that link the extracellular matrix to the regulation of the cell cytoskeleton. In this review, we will highlight exciting data that identify new roles for integrins and integrin-dependent signalling in cancer away from the plasma membrane, discuss the implications of integrin-dependent regulation of Met and ErbB2 growth factor receptors and highlight the role of specific integrins in different stages of cancer development including maintenance of cancer stem cells. PMID:27685444

  12. Integrin clustering as a result of local membrane deformations and local signaling feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felizzi, Federico; Iber, Dagmar

    2014-08-01

    Integrins are essential receptors for the development and functioning of multicellular animals because they mediate cell adhesion and migration, and regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. Ligand-dependent activation of integrins involves the formation of receptor clusters and this has been accounted both to extracellular forces as mediated by the glycocalyx as well as to intracellular forces mediated by the cytoskeleton. Here we describe a Monte Carlo simulation that considers both the binding processes on the membrane as well as the intracellular signaling processes that stabilize the open integrin conformation. We show that integrin clustering can result both from the effects of integrin avidity, as a result of membrane deformations, as well as from the locally enhanced availability of talins in the open conformation, as a result of local positive feedback signaling via PIPKIγ and PIP2. The model was carefully parameterized based on reported quantitative data and reproduces a wide range of experimental data, including results that previously appeared inconsistent.

  13. Detection of an Integrin-Binding Mechanoswitch within Fibronectin during Tissue Formation and Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lizhi; Nicosia, John; Larouche, Jacqueline; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Bachman, Haylee; Brown, Ashley C; Holmgren, Lars; Barker, Thomas H

    2017-07-25

    Fibronectin (Fn) is an extracellular matrix protein that orchestrates complex cell adhesion and signaling through cell surface integrin receptors during tissue development, remodeling, and disease, such as fibrosis. Fn is sensitive to mechanical forces in its tandem type III repeats, resulting in extensive molecular enlongation. As such, it has long been hypothesized that cell- and tissue-derived forces may activate an "integrin switch" within the critical integrin-binding ninth and 10th type III repeats-conferring differential integrin-binding specificity, leading to differential cell responses. Yet, no direct evidence exists to prove the hypothesis nor demonstrate the physiological existence of the switch. We report direct experimental evidence for the Fn integrin switch both in vitro and ex vivo using a scFv engineered to detect the transient, force-induced conformational change, representing an opportunity for detection and targeting of early molecular signatures of cell contractile forces in tissue repair and disease.

  14. Biology and structure of leukocyte β 2 integrins and their role in inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Arnaout, M. Amin

    2016-01-01

    Integrins comprise a large family of αβ heterodimeric cell adhesion receptors that are expressed on all cells except red blood cells and that play essential roles in the regulation of cell growth and function. The leukocyte integrins, which include members of the β 1, β 2, β 3, and β 7 integrin family, are critical for innate and adaptive immune responses but also can contribute to many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases when dysregulated. This review focuses on the β 2 integrins, the principal integrins expressed on leukocytes. We review their discovery and role in host defense, the structural basis for their ligand recognition and activation, and their potential as therapeutic targets. PMID:27781085

  15. Neutrophil recruitment limited by high-affinity bent β2 integrin binding ligand in cis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhichao; McArdle, Sara; Marki, Alex; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Gutierrez, Edgar; Engelhardt, Britta; Deutsch, Urban; Ginsberg, Mark; Groisman, Alex; Ley, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are essential for innate immunity and inflammation and many neutrophil functions are β2 integrin-dependent. Integrins can extend (E+) and acquire a high-affinity conformation with an ‘open' headpiece (H+). The canonical switchblade model of integrin activation proposes that the E+ conformation precedes H+, and the two are believed to be structurally linked. Here we show, using high-resolution quantitative dynamic footprinting (qDF) microscopy combined with a homogenous conformation-reporter binding assay in a microfluidic device, that a substantial fraction of β2 integrins on human neutrophils acquire an unexpected E−H+ conformation. E−H+ β2 integrins bind intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) in cis, which inhibits leukocyte adhesion in vitro and in vivo. This endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanism inhibits neutrophil aggregation, accumulation and inflammation. PMID:27578049

  16. Novel synthetic cyclic integrin αvβ3 binding peptide ALOS4: antitumor activity in mouse melanoma models

    PubMed Central

    Yacobovich, Shiri; Tuchinsky, Lena; Kirby, Michael; Kardash, Tetiana; Agranyoni, Oryan; Nesher, Elimelech; Redko, Boris; Gellerman, Gary; Tobi, Dror; Gurova, Katerina; Koman, Igor; Fabian, Osnat Ashur; Pinhasov, Albert

    2016-01-01

    ALOS4, a unique synthetic cyclic peptide without resemblance to known integrin ligand sequences, was discovered through repeated biopanning with pIII phage expressing a disulfide-constrained nonapeptide library. Binding assays using a FITC-labeled analogue demonstrated selective binding to immobilized αvβ3 and a lack of significant binding to other common proteins, such as bovine serum albumin and collagen. In B16F10 cell cultures, ALOS4 treatment at 72 h inhibited cell migration (30%) and adhesion (up to 67%). Immunofluorescent imaging an ALOS4-FITC analogue with B16F10 cells demonstrated rapid cell surface binding, and uptake and localization in the cytoplasm. Daily injections of ALOS4 (0.1, 0.3 or 0.5 mg/kg i.p.) to mice inoculated with B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in two different cancer models, metastatic and subcutaneous tumor, resulted in reduction of lung tumor count (metastatic) and tumor mass (subcutaneous) and increased survival of animals monitored to 45 and 60 days, respectively. Examination of cellular activity indicated that ALOS4 produces inhibition of cell migration and adhesion in a concentration-dependent manner. Collectively, these results suggest that ALOS4 is a structurally-unique selective αvβ3 integrin ligand with potential anti-metastatic activity. PMID:27556860

  17. Binding of integrin α1 to bone morphogenetic protein receptor IA suggests a novel role of integrin α1β1 in bone morphogenetic protein 2 signalling.

    PubMed

    Zu, Yan; Liang, Xudong; Du, Jing; Zhou, Shuai; Yang, Chun

    2015-11-05

    Here, we observed that integrin α1β1 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR) IA formed a complex and co-localised in several cell types. However, the molecular interaction between these two molecules was not studied in detail to date and the role of the interaction in BMPR signalling remains unknown; thus, these were investigated here. In a steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation, the observed development of the rupture force related to the displacement between the A-domain of integrin α1 and the extracellular domain of BMPR IA indicated a strong molecular interaction within the integrin-BMPR complex. Analysis of the intermolecular forces revealed that hydrogen bonds, rather than salt bridges, are the major contributors to these intermolecular interactions. By using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) experiments with site-directed mutants, we found that residues 85-89 in BMPR IA play the most important role for BMPR IA binding to integrin α1β1. These residues are the same as those responsible for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2)/BMPR IA binding. In our experiments, we also found that the interference of integrin α1β1 up regulated the level of phosphorylated Smad1, 5, 8, which is the downstream of BMP/BMPR signalling. Therefore, our results suggest that integrin α1β1/BMPR IA may block BMP-2/BMPR IA complex information and interfere with the BMP-2 signalling pathway in cells.

  18. The C-terminal region of laminin beta chains modulates the integrin binding affinities of laminins.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Ido, Hiroyuki; Sanzen, Noriko; Hayashi, Maria; Sato-Nishiuchi, Ryoko; Futaki, Sugiko; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2009-03-20

    Laminins are major cell-adhesive proteins in basement membranes that are capable of binding to integrins. Laminins consist of three chains (alpha, beta, and gamma), in which three laminin globular modules in the alpha chain and the Glu residue in the C-terminal tail of the gamma chain have been shown to be prerequisites for binding to integrins. However, it remains unknown whether any part of the beta chain is involved in laminin-integrin interactions. We compared the binding affinities of pairs of laminin isoforms containing the beta1 or beta2 chain toward a panel of laminin-binding integrins, and we found that beta2 chain-containing laminins (beta2-laminins) bound more avidly to alpha3beta1 and alpha7X2beta1 integrins than beta1 chain-containing laminins (beta1-laminins), whereas alpha6beta1, alpha6beta4, and alpha7X1beta1 integrins did not show any preference toward beta2-laminins