Science.gov

Sample records for disk red giants

  1. Dust clouds around red giant stars - Evidence of sublimating comet disks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matese, J. J.; Whitmire, D. P.; Reynolds, R. T.

    1989-09-01

    The dust production by disk comets around intermediate mass stars evolving into red giants is studied, focusing on AGB supergiants. The model of Iben and Renzini (1983) is used to study the observed dust mass loss for AGB stars. An expression is obtained for the comet disk net dust production rate and values of the radius and black body temperature corresponding to peak sublimation are calculated for a range of stellar masses. Also, the fractional amount of dust released from a cometesimal disk during a classical nova outburst is estimated.

  2. Can Star-Disk Collisions Explain the Missing Red Giants Problem in the Galactic Center?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, T. Forrest; Bogdanović, Tamara

    2016-06-01

    Observations have revealed a relative paucity of red giant (RG) stars within the central 0.5 pc in the Galactic Center (GC). Motivated by this finding we investigate the hypothesis that collisions of stars with a fragmenting accretion disk are responsible for the observed dearth of evolved stars. We use three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to model a star with radius 10 R ⊙ and mass 1 M ⊙, representative of the missing population of RGs, colliding with high density clumps. We find that multiple collisions with clumps of column density ≳108 g cm-2 can strip a substantial fraction of the star’s envelope and in principle render it invisible to observations. Simulations confirm that repeated impacts are particularly efficient in driving mass loss as partially stripped RGs expand and have increased cross sections for subsequent collisions. Because the envelope is unbound on account of the kinetic energy of the star, any significant amount of stripping of the RG population in the GC should be mirrored by a systematic decay of their orbits and possibly by their enhanced rotational velocity. To be viable, this scenario requires that the total mass of the fragmenting disk has been several orders of magnitude higher than that of the early-type stars which now form the stellar disk in the GC.

  3. THE FRAGMENTING PAST OF THE DISK AT THE GALACTIC CENTER: THE CULPRIT FOR THE MISSING RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Chen, Xian E-mail: Xian.Chen@aei.mpg.de

    2014-01-20

    Since 1996 we have known that the Galactic Center (GC) displays a core-like distribution of red giant branch (RGB) stars starting at ∼10'', which poses a theoretical problem because the GC should have formed a segregated cusp of old stars. This issue has been addressed invoking stellar collisions, massive black hole binaries, and infalling star clusters, which can explain it to some extent. Another observational fact, key to the work presented here, is the presence of a stellar disk at the GC. We postulate that the reason for the missing stars in the RGB is closely intertwined with the disk formation process, which initially was gaseous and went through a fragmentation phase to form the stars. Using simple analytical estimates, we prove that during fragmentation the disk developed regions with densities much higher than a homogeneous gaseous disk, i.e., ''clumps'', which were optically thick, and hence contracted slowly. Stars in the GC interacted with them and in the case of RGB stars, the clumps were dense enough to totally remove their outer envelopes after a relatively low number of impacts. Giant stars in the horizontal branch (HB), however, have much denser envelopes. Hence, the fragmentation phase of the disk must have had a lower impact on their distribution, because it was more difficult to remove their envelopes. We predict that future deeper observations of the GC should reveal less depletion of HB stars and that the released dense cores of RGB stars will still be populating the GC.

  4. Space motions of distant red giants: the disk-halo overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, C.; Roeser, S.

    1993-12-01

    We describe a measurement of space velocities for a sample of distant late-type giants, selected to examine the chemical and kinematical properties of the transition between the Galaxy's disk and halo. We derive the three components of the velocity ellipsoid and the galactocentric rotational velocity of the stars as a function of abundance. We confirm the results of Norris et al. (1985) and Morrison et al. (1990), that there are metal weak stars ((Fe/H) less than -1) with 'disk' kinematics. The data support the picture that the disk and halo are very much separate kinematic structures (although overlapping in their abundance distributions) rather than there being a smooth transition from one to the other. We discuss briefly the implications for the formation of the Galaxy.

  5. Non-LTE sodium abundance in galactic thick- and thin-disk red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeeva, S. A.; Pakhomov, Yu. V.; Mashonkina, L. I.

    2014-07-01

    The non-LTE sodium abundance has been determined from the Na I 6154 and 6161 Å lines for 38 thin-disk stars (15 of them are Ba II stars), 15 thick-disk stars, 13 Hercules-stream stars, and 13 stars that cannot be attributed neither to the thick Galactic disk nor to the thin one. The Na I model atom has been constructed using the most accurate present-day atomic data. For the Na I 6154 and 6161 Å lines, the non-LTEabundance corrections are from -0.06 to -0.24 dex, depending on the stellar parameters. No differences in [Na/Fe] abundance between the thick and thin disks have been detected; the derived ratios are close to the solar ones. The existence of a [Na/Fe] overabundance in the Ba II stars has been confirmed. The Hercules-stream stars exhibit nearly solar [Na/Fe] ratios. The results obtained can be used to test the sodium nucleosynthesis models.

  6. Warm Disks from Giant Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    In the process of searching for exoplanetary systems, weve discovered tens of debris disks close around distant stars that are especially bright in infrared wavelengths. New research suggests that we might be looking at the late stages of terrestrial planet formation in these systems.Forming Terrestrial PlanetsAccording to the widely-accepted formation model for our solar-system, protoplanets the size of Mars formed within a protoplanetary disk around our Sun. Eventually, the depletion of the gas in the disk led the orbits of these protoplanets to become chaotically unstable. Finally, in the giant impact stage, many of the protoplanets collided with each other ultimately leading to the formation of the terrestrial planets and their moons as we know them today.If giant impact stages occur in exoplanetary systems, too leading to the formation of terrestrial exoplanets how would we detect this process? According to a study led by Hidenori Genda of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, we might be already be witnessing this stage in observations of warm debris disks around other stars. To test this, Genda and collaborators model giant impact stages and determine what we would expect to see from a system undergoing this violent evolution.Modeling CollisionsSnapshots of a giant impact in one of the authors simulations. The collision causes roughly 0.05 Earth masses of protoplanetary material to be ejected from the system. Click for a closer look! [Genda et al. 2015]The collaborators run a series of simulations evolving protoplanetary bodies in a solar system. The simulations begin 10 Myr into the lifetime of the solar system, i.e., after the gas from the protoplanetary disk has had time to be cleared and the protoplanetary orbits begin to destabilize. The simulations end when the protoplanets are done smashing into each other and have again settled into stable orbits, typically after ~100 Myr.The authors find that, over an average giant impact stage, the total amount of

  7. AMBER-NACO aperture-synthesis imaging of the half-obscured central star and the edge-on disk of the red giant L2 Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnaka, K.; Schertl, D.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Weigelt, G.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: The red giant L2 Pup started a dimming event in 1994, which is considered to be caused by the ejection of dust clouds. We present near-IR aperture-synthesis imaging of L2 Pup achieved by combining data from VLT/NACO and the AMBER instrument of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). Our aim is to spatially resolve the innermost region of the circumstellar environment. Methods: We carried out speckle interferometric observations at 2.27 μm with VLT/NACO and long-baseline interferometric observations with VLTI/AMBER at 2.2-2.35 μm with baselines of 15-81 m. We also extracted an 8.7 μm image from the mid-IR VLTI instrument MIDI. Results: The diffraction-limited image obtained by bispectrum speckle interferometry with NACO with a spatial resolution of 57 mas shows an elongated component. The aperture-synthesis imaging combining the NACO speckle data and AMBER data with a spatial resolution of 5.6 × 7.3 mas further resolves not only this elongated component, but also the central star. The reconstructed image reveals that the elongated component is a nearly edge-on disk with a size of ~180 × 50 mas lying in the E-W direction, and furthermore, that the southern hemisphere of the central star is severely obscured by the equatorial dust lane of the disk. The angular size of the disk is consistent with the distance that the dust clouds that were ejected at the onset of the dimming event should have traveled by the time of our observations, if we assume that the dust clouds moved radially. This implies that the formation of the disk may be responsible for the dimming event. The 8.7 μm image with a spatial resolution of 220 mas extracted from the MIDI data taken in 2004 (seven years before the AMBER and NACO observations) shows an approximately spherical envelope without a signature of the disk. This suggests that the mass loss before the dimming event may have been spherical. Based on AMBER, NACO, and MIDI observations made with the Very Large Telescope

  8. Giant Planet Formation by Disk Instability in Low Mass Disks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Alan P.

    2010-12-01

    Forming giant planets by disk instability requires a gaseous disk that is massive enough to become gravitationally unstable and able to cool fast enough for self-gravitating clumps to form and survive. Models with simplified disk cooling have shown the critical importance of the ratio of the cooling to the orbital timescales. Uncertainties about the proper value of this ratio can be sidestepped by including radiative transfer. Three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamics models of a disk with a mass of 0.043 M sun from 4 to 20 AU in orbit around a 1 M sun protostar show that disk instabilities are considerably less successful in producing self-gravitating clumps than in a disk with twice this mass. The results are sensitive to the assumed initial outer disk (To ) temperatures. Models with To = 20 K are able to form a single self-gravitating clump, whereas models with To = 25 K form clumps that are not quite self-gravitating. These models imply that disk instability requires a disk with a mass of at least ~0.043 M sun inside 20 AU in order to form giant planets around solar-mass protostars with realistic disk cooling rates and outer-disk temperatures. Lower mass disks around solar-mass protostars must rely upon core accretion to form inner giant planets.

  9. Red giants: then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, John

    Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ρsh/ρolinec and

  10. Asteroseismology of Red Giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrant, N. J.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Spreckley, S. A.; Stevens, I. R.

    2008-12-01

    Sun-like oscillations, that is p-modes excited stochastically by convective noise, have now been observed in a number of Red Giant stars. Compared to those seen in the Sun, these modes are of large amplitude and long period, making the oscillations attractive prospects for observation. However, the low Q-factor of these modes, and issues relating to the rising background at low frequencies, present some interesting challenges for identifying modes and determining the related asteroseismic parameters. We report on the analysis procedure adopted for peak-bagging by our group at Birming- ham, and the techniques used to robustly ensure these are not a product of noise. I also show results from a number of giants extracted from multi-year observations with the SMEI instrument

  11. Lithium-rich giants in the Galactic thick disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, L.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.; Carraro, G.; Geisler, D.; Bonifacio, P.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Zoccali, M.; Jilkova, L.

    2011-05-01

    Context. Lithium is a fragile element, which is easily destroyed in the stellar interior. The existence of lithium-rich giants still represents a challenge for stellar evolution models. Aims: We have collected a large database of high-resolution stellar spectra of 824 candidate thick-disk giants having 2 MASS photometry and proper motions measured by the Southern Proper-Motion Program (SPM). In order to investigate the nature of Li-rich giants, we searched this database for giants presenting a strong Li I resonance line. Methods: We performed a chemical abundance analysis on the selected stars with the MOOG code along with proper ATLAS-9 model atmospheres. The iron content and atmospheric parameters were fixed by using the equivalent width of a sample of Fe lines. We also derive abundances for C, N, and O and measure or derive lower limits on the 12C/13C isotopic ratios, which is a sensible diagnostic of the stars evolutionary status. Results: We detected five stars with a lithium abundance higher than 1.5, i.e. Li-rich according to the current definition. One of them (SPM-313132) has A(Li) > 3.3 and, because of this, belongs to the group of the rare super Li-rich giants. Its kinematics makes it a likely thin-disk member and its atmospheric parameters are compatible with it being a 4 M⊙ star either on the red giant branch (RGB) or the early asymptotic giant branch. This object is the first super Li-rich giant detected at this phase. The other four are likely low-mass thick-disk stars evolved past the RGB luminosity bump, as determined from their metallicities and atmospheric parameters. The most evolved of them lies close to the RGB-tip. It has A(Li) > 2.7 and a low 12C/13C isotopic ratio, close to the cool bottom processing predictions. Based on observations taken at the Las Campanas and La Silla/ Paranal observatory (ESO proposal ID: 077.B-0348).

  12. Red Giant Plunging Through Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (left panel) shows the 'bow shock' of a dying star named R Hydrae, or R Hya, in the constellation Hydra.

    Bow shocks are formed where the stellar wind from a star are pushed into a bow shape (illustration, right panel) as the star plunges through the gas and dust between stars. Our own Sun has a bow shock, but prior to this image one had never been observed around this particular class of red giant star.

    R Hya moves through space at approximately 50 kilometers per second. As it does so, it discharges dust and gas into space. Because the star is relatively cool, that ejecta quickly assumes a solid state and collides with the interstellar medium. The resulting dusty nebula is invisible to the naked eye but can be detected using an infrared telescope. This bow shock is 16,295 astronomical units from the star to the apex and 6,188 astronomical units thick (an astronomical unit is the distance between the sun and Earth). The mass of the bow shock is about 400 times the mass of the Earth.

    The false-color Spitzer image shows infrared emissions at 70 microns. Brighter colors represent greater intensities of infrared light at that wavelength. The location of the star itself is drawn onto the picture in the black 'unobserved' region in the center.

  13. Spectroscopic determination of masses (and implied ages) for red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, Melissa; Hogg, David W.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martig, Marie; Ho, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter and for red giant stars it implies a stellar evolution age. Stellar masses and ages have never been derived directly from spectra of red giants. However, using the APOGEE Kepler sample of stars, (the APOKASC sample), with high-quality spectra and astroseismic masses, we can build a data-driven spectral model using THE CANNON (arXiv:1501.07604) to infer stellar mass and therefore age from stellar spectra. We determine stellar masses to 0.07 dex from APOGEE DR12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to 0.2 dex (40 percent). THE CANNON constrains the ages foremost from spectral regions with particular absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 85,000 giants (including 20,000 red-clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R ˜ 20 kpc). Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  14. Spectroscopic Determination of Masses (and Implied Ages) for Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, M.; Hogg, David W.; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Ho, A. Y. Q.

    2016-06-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter. For red giant stars, tracers luminous enough to be observed across the Galaxy, mass implies a stellar evolution age. It has proven to be extremely difficult to infer ages and masses directly from red giant spectra using existing methods. From the Kepler and apogee surveys, samples of several thousand stars exist with high-quality spectra and asteroseismic masses. Here we show that from these data we can build a data-driven spectral model using The Cannon, which can determine stellar masses to ˜0.07 dex from apogee dr12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to ˜0.2 dex (40%). We show that The Cannon constrains these ages foremost from spectral regions with CN absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 70,000 giants (including 20,000 red clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R˜ 20 kpc). We show that the age information in the spectra is not simply a corollary of the birth-material abundances {{[Fe/H]}} and [α /{Fe}], and that, even within a monoabundance population of stars, there are age variations that vary sensibly with Galactic position. Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  15. Sulfur and zinc abundances of red giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki; Sato, Bun'ei

    2016-08-01

    Sulfur and zinc are chemically volatile elements, which play significant roles as depletion-free tracers in studying galactic chemical evolution. However, regarding red giants having evolved off the main sequence, reliable abundance determinations of S and Zn seem to be difficult, despite the several studies that have been reported so far. Given this situation, we tried to establish the abundances of these elements for an extensive sample of 239 field GK giants ( - 0.8 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.2), by applying the spectrum-fitting technique to S I 8694-5, S I 6757, and Zn I 6362 lines and by taking into account the non-LTE effect. Besides, similar abundance analysis was done for 160 FGK dwarfs to be used for comparison. The non-LTE corrections for the S and Zn abundances derived from these lines turned out to be ≲ 0.1(-0.2) dex for most cases and not very significant. It revealed that the S I 6757 feature is more reliable as an abundance indicator than S I 8694-5 for the case of red giants, because the latter suffers blending of unidentified lines. The finally resulting [S/Fe]-[Fe/H] and [Zn/Fe]-[Fe/H] relations for GK giants were confirmed to be in good agreement with those for FGK dwarfs, indicating that S and Zn abundances of red giants are reliably determinable from the S I 6757 and Zn I 6362 lines. Accordingly, not only main-sequence stars but also evolved red giant stars are usable for tracing the chemical evolution history of S and Zn in the regime of disk metallicity by using these lines.

  16. Sulfur and zinc abundances of red giant stars†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki; Sato, Bun'ei

    2016-10-01

    Sulfur and zinc are chemically volatile elements, which play significant roles as depletion-free tracers in studying galactic chemical evolution. However, regarding red giants having evolved off the main sequence, reliable abundance determinations of S and Zn seem to be difficult, despite the several studies that have been reported so far. Given this situation, we tried to establish the abundances of these elements for an extensive sample of 239 field GK giants ( - 0.8 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.2), by applying the spectrum-fitting technique to S I 8694-5, S I 6757, and Zn I 6362 lines and by taking into account the non-LTE effect. Besides, similar abundance analysis was done for 160 FGK dwarfs to be used for comparison. The non-LTE corrections for the S and Zn abundances derived from these lines turned out to be ≲ 0.1(-0.2) dex for most cases and not very significant. It revealed that the S I 6757 feature is more reliable as an abundance indicator than S I 8694-5 for the case of red giants, because the latter suffers blending of unidentified lines. The finally resulting [S/Fe]-[Fe/H] and [Zn/Fe]-[Fe/H] relations for GK giants were confirmed to be in good agreement with those for FGK dwarfs, indicating that S and Zn abundances of red giants are reliably determinable from the S I 6757 and Zn I 6362 lines. Accordingly, not only main-sequence stars but also evolved red giant stars are usable for tracing the chemical evolution history of S and Zn in the regime of disk metallicity by using these lines.

  17. Mass loss in red giants and supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanner, F.

    1975-01-01

    The circumstellar envelopes surrounding late-type giants and supergiants were studied using high resolution, photoelectric scans of strong optical resonance lines. A method for extracting the circumstellar from the stellar components of the lines allowed a quantitative determination of the physical conditions in the envelopes and the rates of mass loss at various positions in the red giant region of the HR diagram. The observed strengthening of the circumstellar spectrum with increasing luminosity and later spectral type is probably caused by an increase in the mass of the envelopes. The mass loss rate for individual stars is proportional to the visual luminosity; high rates for the supergiants suggest that mass loss is important in their evolution. The bulk of the mass return to the interstellar medium in the red giant region comes from the normal giants, at a rate comparable to that of planetary nebulae.

  18. Red Giants and Solar Sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matloff, G. L.

    Our Sun will eventually leave the main sequence and expand in size and luminosity to become a giant star. For much of its ~108 year career as a giant, the Sun will reside on the horizontal branch of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, with a surface temperature of ~5000 K, a radius about 10x its present-day radius, and about 50x its current luminosity. A space-manufactured beryllium solar-photon sail could be used for emigration from the solar system during this solar phase. Space environmental effects limit the closest approach distance to the giant star to around 0.5 AU, assuming the quiet phase of the stellar activity cycle. Beryllium spectral reflectivity values are used to calculate a wavelength averaged sail spectral reflectivity. This parameter and a reasonable value of spacecraft areal mass thickness (8.87 x 10-5 kg/m2) are used to estimate the interstellar cruise velocity for a sail fully unfurled at a 0.5-1 AU perihelion from an initially parabolic orbit that is always oriented normal to the star. These will be 2-3x greater than those possible for the same craft launched from today's Sun.

  19. Giant Planet Migration, Disk Evolution, and the Origin of Transitional Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Richard D.; Armitage, Philip J.

    2009-10-01

    We present models of giant planet migration in evolving protoplanetary disks. Our disks evolve subject to viscous transport of angular momentum and photoevaporation, while planets undergo Type II migration. We use a Monte Carlo approach, running large numbers of models with a range in initial conditions. We find that relatively simple models can reproduce both the observed radial distribution of extrasolar giant planets, and the lifetimes and accretion histories of protoplanetary disks. The use of state-of-the-art photoevaporation models results in a degree of coupling between planet formation and disk clearing, which has not been found previously. Some accretion across planetary orbits is necessary if planets are to survive at radii lsim1.5 AU, and if planets of Jupiter mass or greater are to survive in our models they must be able to form at late times, when the disk surface density in the formation region is low. Our model forms two different types of "transitional" disks, embedded planets and clearing disks, which show markedly different properties. We find that the observable properties of these systems are broadly consistent with current observations, and highlight useful observational diagnostics. We predict that young transition disks are more likely to contain embedded giant planets, while older transition disks are more likely to be undergoing disk clearing.

  20. GIANT PLANET MIGRATION, DISK EVOLUTION, AND THE ORIGIN OF TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Richard D.; Armitage, Philip J.

    2009-10-20

    We present models of giant planet migration in evolving protoplanetary disks. Our disks evolve subject to viscous transport of angular momentum and photoevaporation, while planets undergo Type II migration. We use a Monte Carlo approach, running large numbers of models with a range in initial conditions. We find that relatively simple models can reproduce both the observed radial distribution of extrasolar giant planets, and the lifetimes and accretion histories of protoplanetary disks. The use of state-of-the-art photoevaporation models results in a degree of coupling between planet formation and disk clearing, which has not been found previously. Some accretion across planetary orbits is necessary if planets are to survive at radii approx<1.5 AU, and if planets of Jupiter mass or greater are to survive in our models they must be able to form at late times, when the disk surface density in the formation region is low. Our model forms two different types of 'transitional' disks, embedded planets and clearing disks, which show markedly different properties. We find that the observable properties of these systems are broadly consistent with current observations, and highlight useful observational diagnostics. We predict that young transition disks are more likely to contain embedded giant planets, while older transition disks are more likely to be undergoing disk clearing.

  1. Variable Red Giants--The MACHO View

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, S C; Cook, K H

    2003-01-03

    The authors present a study of the MACHO red variable population in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This study reveals six period-luminosity relations among the red variable population. Only two of these were known prior to MACHO. The results are consistent with Mira pulsation in the fundamental mode. A sequence comprising 26% of the red variable population can not be explained by pulsation. They propose a dust {kappa}-mechanism in the circumstellar environment is responsible for the long period variation of these objects. The luminosity function of the variables shows a sharp edge at the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). This is the first clear indication of a population of variable stars within the immediate vicinity of the TRGB. The results indicate this population amounts to 8% of the RGB population near the TRGB.

  2. Fingering convection in red giants revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachlin, F. C.; Vauclair, S.; Althaus, L. G.

    2014-10-01

    Context. Fingering (thermohaline) convection has been invoked for several years as a possible extra-mixing which could occur in red giant stars; it is due to the modification of the chemical composition induced by nuclear reactions in the hydrogen burning zone. Recent studies show, however, that this mixing is not sufficient to account for the needed surface abundances. Aims: A new prescription for fingering convection, based on 3D numerical simulations has recently been proposed. The resulting mixing coefficient is larger than those previously given in the literature. We compute models using this new coefficient and compare them to previous studies. Methods: We used the LPCODE stellar evolution code with a generalized version of the mixing length theory to compute red giant models and we introduce fingering convection using the BGS prescription. Results: The results show that, although the fingering zone now reaches the outer dynamical convective zone, the efficiency of the mixing is not enough to account for the observations. The fingering mixing coefficient should be increased by two orders of magnitude for the needed surface abundances to be reached. Conclusions: We confirm that fingering convection cannot be the mixing process needed to account for surface abundances in red giant branch stars.

  3. Sizing Up Red-Giant Twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    In KIC 9246715, two red-giant stars twins in nearly every way circle each other in a 171-day orbit. This binary pair may be a key to learning about masses and radii of stars with asteroseismology, the study of oscillations in the interiors of stars.Two Ways to MeasureIn order to understand a stars evolution, it is critical that we know its mass and radius. Unfortunately, these quantities are often difficult to pin down!One of the few cases in which we can directly measure stars masses and radii is in eclipsing binaries, wherein two stars eclipse each other as they orbit. If we have a well-sampled light curve for the binary, as well as radial velocities for both stars, then we can determine the stars complete orbital information, including their masses and radii.But there may be another way to obtain stellar mass and radius: asteroseismology. In asteroseismology, oscillations inside stars are used to characterize the stellar interiors. Conveniently, if a star with a convective envelope exhibits solar-like oscillations, these oscillations can be directly compared to those of the Sun. Mass and radius scaling relations which use the Sun as a benchmark and scale based on the stars temperature can then be used to derive the mass and radius of the star.Test Subjects from KeplerSolar-like oscillations from KIC 9246715 are shown in red across different resonant frequencies. The oscillations of a single red-giant star with similar properties are shown upside down in grey for reference. [Rawls et al. 2016]Of course, scaling relations are only useful if we can test them! A team of scientists including Meredith Rawls (New Mexico State University) has identified 18 red-giant eclipsing binaries in the Kepler field of view that also exhibit solar-like oscillations perfect for testing the scaling relations.In a recent study led by Rawls, the team analyzed the first of these binaries, KIC 9246715. Using the Kepler light curves in addition to radial velocity measurements from high

  4. Quantifying Irregularity in Pulsating Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.; Esteves, S.; Lin, A.; Menezes, C.; Wu, S.

    2009-12-01

    Hundreds of red giant variable stars are classified as “type L,” which the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS) defines as “slow irregular variables of late spectral type...which show no evidence of periodicity, or any periodicity present is very poorly defined....” Self-correlation (Percy and Muhammed 2004) is a simple form of time-series analysis which determines the cycle-to-cycle behavior of a star, averaged over all the available data. It is well suited for analyzing stars which are not strictly periodic. Even for non-periodic stars, it provides a “profile” of the variability, including the average “characteristic time” of variability. We have applied this method to twenty-three L-type variables which have been measured extensively by AAVSO visual observers. We find a continuous spectrum of behavior, from irregular to semiregular.

  5. Evolution of Chromospheric Activity: M67 Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Whitney, B. A.; Pasquini, L.

    1999-08-01

    Echelle spectra of the Ca II H- and K-line region (λ3950) of 15 red giant stars in the open cluster M67 reveal atmospheric dynamics and determine chromospheric radiative losses in order to assess chromospheric heating requirements and to follow the evolution of chromospheric activity. M67 red giants in conjunction with giants in younger clusters create a continuous group of red giants in the color-magnitude diagram, with 0.1<=(B-V)<=1.65 along the red giant branch. M67 contains the more evolved clump giants as well. Asymmetric line emission cores, indicative of outflowing material, are found in a majority of the M67 giants on the red giant branch and occur over the complete sample, from MV=-0.8 to MV=1.9, suggesting that outward mass motions are well established at these luminosities. Radiative losses, as measured by emission strengths from Ca II, decrease smoothly with decreasing stellar effective temperature in M67 and connect well to a combined sample of warmer cluster giants (NGC 2477, IC 4756, and the Hyades) with M<=3 Msolar studied by Beasley & Cram. Stellar effective temperature predominantly determines the level of chromospheric Ca II losses for giants with M<=3 Msolar. No evidence is found for a sharp decline in the flux of Ca II predicted by the Rutten & Pylyser magnetic model for chromospheric heating. However, emission in field giants (which tend to be younger) suggests that sharp declines in surface flux with decreasing effective temperature characteristic of pure magnetic activity occur for ion species more highly excited than Ca II. Although acoustic models for chromospheric heating apparently agree with the measured Ca II flux levels for the coolest giants, additional heating processes must be present in warmer giants and clump stars. Clump giants exhibit Ca II fluxes consistent with stars of similar colors on the red giant branch, suggesting a renaissance in chromospheric heating occurs after evolution beyond the red giant branch. Chromospheric

  6. Carbon and nitrogen abundance variations in globular cluster red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, Sarah L.

    2008-06-01

    one telescope, and were analyzed in a uniform manner, to eliminate potential sources of significant systematic error. In keeping with present theoretical models of the deep mixing process, red giants in low-metallicity globular clusters undergo more rapid carbon depletion, and therefore more efficient deep mixing, than their high-metallicity counterparts. The fourth chapter investigates the apparent disappearance of abundance bimodality at low overall metallicity by determining carbon abundances along the full red giant branch of the globular cluster M53. I find that the mild variation of CN bandstrength observed is consistent with a mildly bimodal distribution in carbon abundance, in agreement with previous work on the subject. However, this result raises the question of whether all low- metallicity clusters should have only mild star-to-star abundance variations, or whether M53 is unusual in this regard. I discuss previous investigations into this same question using other low-metallicity globular clusters, and conclude that M53 may have milder abundance variations than the well-studied clusters M92 and M15. The fifth chapter describes a study of CN bandstrength behavior in high- metallicity star clusters. While abundance bimodality, observed from a bimodal CN bandstrength distribution and anticorrelated CN and CH bandstrengths, is universal among Galactic globular clusters, it is not observed in Galactic open clusters. It is also unobserved among stars in the general halo field, an observation which places strong constraints on the process which produces the abundance bimodality. I find that the high-metallicity disk globular clusters NGC 6356 and NGC 6528 show clear CN bimodality, indicating that they are more similar to other (low-metallicity) globular clusters than to the old open clusters NGC 188, NGC 2158, and NGC 7789. The final chapter summarizes the questions addressed and the conclusions reached in the various projects described in this dissertation

  7. The Lithium Abundances of a Large Sample of Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. J.; Tan, K. F.; Wang, L.; Zhao, G.; Sato, Bun'ei; Takeda, Y.; Li, H. N.

    2014-04-01

    The lithium abundances for 378 G/K giants are derived with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium correction considered. Among these are 23 stars that host planetary systems. The lithium abundance is investigated, as a function of metallicity, effective temperature, and rotational velocity, as well as the impact of a giant planet on G/K giants. The results show that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. The lithium abundance has no correlation with rotational velocity at v sin i < 10 km s-1. Giants with planets present lower lithium abundance and slow rotational velocity (v sin i < 4 km s-1). Our sample includes three Li-rich G/K giants, 36 Li-normal stars, and 339 Li-depleted stars. The fraction of Li-rich stars in this sample agrees with the general rate of less than 1% in the literature, and the stars that show normal amounts of Li are supposed to possess the same abundance at the current interstellar medium. For the Li-depleted giants, Li-deficiency may have already taken place at the main sequence stage for many intermediate mass (1.5-5 M ⊙) G/K giants. Finally, we present the lithium abundance and kinematic parameters for an enlarged sample of 565 giants using a compilation of the literature, and confirm that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. With the enlarged sample, we investigate the differences between the lithium abundance in thin-/thick-disk giants, which indicate that the lithium abundance in thick-disk giants is more depleted than that in thin-disk giants.

  8. The lithium abundances of a large sample of red giants

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. J.; Tan, K. F.; Wang, L.; Zhao, G.; Li, H. N.; Sato, Bun'ei; Takeda, Y. E-mail: gzhao@nao.cas.cn

    2014-04-20

    The lithium abundances for 378 G/K giants are derived with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium correction considered. Among these are 23 stars that host planetary systems. The lithium abundance is investigated, as a function of metallicity, effective temperature, and rotational velocity, as well as the impact of a giant planet on G/K giants. The results show that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. The lithium abundance has no correlation with rotational velocity at v sin i < 10 km s{sup –1}. Giants with planets present lower lithium abundance and slow rotational velocity (v sin i < 4 km s{sup –1}). Our sample includes three Li-rich G/K giants, 36 Li-normal stars, and 339 Li-depleted stars. The fraction of Li-rich stars in this sample agrees with the general rate of less than 1% in the literature, and the stars that show normal amounts of Li are supposed to possess the same abundance at the current interstellar medium. For the Li-depleted giants, Li-deficiency may have already taken place at the main sequence stage for many intermediate mass (1.5-5 M {sub ☉}) G/K giants. Finally, we present the lithium abundance and kinematic parameters for an enlarged sample of 565 giants using a compilation of the literature, and confirm that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. With the enlarged sample, we investigate the differences between the lithium abundance in thin-/thick-disk giants, which indicate that the lithium abundance in thick-disk giants is more depleted than that in thin-disk giants.

  9. Terrestrial planets in high-mass disks without gas giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Elía, G. C.; Guilera, O. M.; Brunini, A.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Observational and theoretical studies suggest that planetary systems consisting only of rocky planets are probably the most common in the Universe. Aims: We study the potential habitability of planets formed in high-mass disks without gas giants around solar-type stars. These systems are interesting because they are likely to harbor super-Earths or Neptune-mass planets on wide orbits, which one should be able to detect with the microlensing technique. Methods: First, a semi-analytical model was used to define the mass of the protoplanetary disks that produce Earth-like planets, super-Earths, or mini-Neptunes, but not gas giants. Using mean values for the parameters that describe a disk and its evolution, we infer that disks with masses lower than 0.15 M⊙ are unable to form gas giants. Then, that semi-analytical model was used to describe the evolution of embryos and planetesimals during the gaseous phase for a given disk. Thus, initial conditions were obtained to perform N-body simulations of planetary accretion. We studied disks of 0.1, 0.125, and 0.15 M⊙. Results: All our simulations form massive planets on wide orbits. For a 0.1 M⊙ disk, 2-3 super-Earths of 2.8 to 5.9 M⊕ are formed between 2 and 5 AU. For disks of 0.125 and 0.15 M⊙, our simulations produce a 10-17.1 M⊕ planet between 1.6 and 2.7 AU, and other super-Earths are formed in outer regions. Moreover, six planets survive in the habitable zone (HZ). These planets have masses from 1.9 to 4.7 M⊕ and significant water contents ranging from 560 to 7482 Earth oceans, where one Earth ocean represents the amount of water on Earth's surface, which equals 2.8 × 10-4M⊕. Of the six planets formed in the HZ, three are water worlds with 39%-44% water by mass. These planets start the simulations beyond the snow line, which explains their high water abundances. In general terms, the smaller the mass of the planets observed on wide orbits, the higher the possibility to find water worlds in the

  10. MIGRATION OF GAS GIANT PLANETS IN GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Scott; Durisen, Richard H.; Boley, Aaron C. E-mail: durisen@astro.indiana.edu

    2011-08-20

    Characterization of migration in gravitationally unstable disks is necessary to understand the fate of protoplanets formed by disk instability. As part of a larger study, we are using a three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamics code to investigate how an embedded gas giant planet interacts with a gas disk that undergoes gravitational instabilities (GIs). This Letter presents results from simulations with a Jupiter-mass planet placed in orbit at 25 AU within a 0.14 M{sub sun} disk. The disk spans 5-40 AU around a 1 M{sub sun} star and is initially marginally unstable. In one simulation, the planet is inserted prior to the eruption of GIs; in another, it is inserted only after the disk has settled into a quasi-steady GI-active state, where heating by GIs roughly balances radiative cooling. When the planet is present from the beginning, its own wake stimulates growth of a particular global mode with which it strongly interacts, and the planet plunges inward 6 AU in about 10{sup 3} years. In both cases with embedded planets, there are times when the planet's radial motion is slow and varies in direction. At other times, when the planet appears to be interacting with strong spiral modes, migration both inward and outward can be relatively rapid, covering several AUs over hundreds of years. Migration in both cases appears to stall near the inner Lindblad resonance of a dominant low-order mode. Planet orbit eccentricities fluctuate rapidly between about 0.02 and 0.1 throughout the GI-active phases of the simulations.

  11. Vertical velocities from proper motions of red clump giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, M.; Abedi, H.; Garzón, F.; Figueras, F.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: We derive the vertical velocities of disk stars in the range of Galactocentric radii of R = 5 - 16 kpc within 2 kpc in height from the Galactic plane. This kinematic information is connected to dynamical aspects in the formation and evolution of the Milky Way, such as the passage of satellites and vertical resonance and determines whether the warp is a long-lived or a transient feature. Methods: We used the PPMXL survey, which contains the USNO-B1 proper motions catalog cross-correlated with the astrometry and near-infrared photometry of the 2MASS point source catalog. To improve the accuracy of the proper motions, the systematic shifts from zero were calculated by using the average proper motions of quasars in this PPMXL survey, and we applied the corresponding correction to the proper motions of the whole survey, which reduces the systematic error. From the color-magnitude diagram K versus (J - K) we selected the standard candles corresponding to red clump giants and used the information of their proper motions to build a map of the vertical motions of our Galaxy. We derived the kinematics of the warp both analytically and through a particle simulation to fit these data. Complementarily, we also carried out the same analysis with red clump giants spectroscopically selected with APOGEE data, and we predict the improvements in accuracy that will be reached with future Gaia data. Results: A simple model of warp with the height of the disk zw(R,φ) = γ(R - R⊙)sin(φ - φw) fits the vertical motions if dot {γ }/γ = -34±17 Gyr-1; the contribution to dot {γ } comes from the southern warp and is negligible in the north. If we assume this 2σ detection to be real, the period of this oscillation is shorter than 0.43 Gyr at 68.3% C.L. and shorter than 4.64 Gyr at 95.4% C.L., which excludes with high confidence the slow variations (periods longer than 5 Gyr) that correspond to long-lived features. Our particle simulation also indicates a probable abrupt decrease

  12. MAGNETO-THERMOHALINE MIXING IN RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Denissenkov, Pavel A.; Pinsonneault, Marc; MacGregor, Keith B. E-mail: pinsono@astronomy.ohio-state.edu

    2009-05-10

    We revise a magnetic buoyancy model that has recently been proposed as a mechanism for extra mixing in the radiative zones of low-mass red giants. The most important revision is our accounting of the heat exchange between rising magnetic flux rings and their surrounding medium. This increases the buoyant rising time by five orders of magnitude; therefore, the number of magnetic flux rings participating in the mixing has to be increased correspondingly. On the other hand, our revised model takes advantage of the fact that the mean molecular weight of the rings formed in the vicinity of the hydrogen burning shell has been reduced by {sup 3}He burning. This increases their thermohaline buoyancy (hence, decreases the total ring number) considerably, making it equivalent to the pure magnetic buoyancy produced by a frozen-in toroidal field with B {sub {psi}} {approx} 10 MG. We emphasize that some toroidal field is still needed for the rings to remain cohesive while rising. Besides, this field prevents the horizontal turbulent diffusion from eroding the {mu} contrast between the rings and their surrounding medium. We propose that the necessary toroidal magnetic field is generated by differential rotation of the radiative zone that stretches a preexisting poloidal field around the rotation axis, and that magnetic flux rings are formed as a result of its buoyancy-related instability.

  13. Giant Planet Accretion in a Low-Turbulence Circumplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Gennaro; Marzari, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    At least 5% of confirmed planets discovered by the Kepler Mission have a mass greater than Jupiter's. Gas giants more massive than Saturn account for at least 18% of all confirmed planets.The final stages of gas accretion of a giant planet occur in the presence of a circumplanetary disk (CPD). Recently, it was proposed that turbulence (and hence transport) in these disks is driven by MRI, possibly generating low-turbulence regions known as Dead Zones. It was thus suggested that gas accretion through a CPD and on the planet can be severely reduced by a Dead Zone. If CPDs create a bottleneck for the accretion of gas, then the growth of planets more massive than Jupiter may become problematic.We investigate how gas accretion on a Jupiter-mass planet is affected by a Dead Zone by means of global 3D hydrodynamics calculations. We model both the CPD and the protoplanetary disk. The accretion flow is resolved at a length scale smaller than Jupiter's radius, Rj, by using a nested-grid technique. We assume that the kinematic viscosity is constant and equal to nu=1e-5 Omega a^2, where a and Omega are respectively the planet's orbital radius and frequency. A Dead Zone around the planet is represented by a region of low viscosity (nu=1e-8 Omega a^2), extending out to ~60Rj and above and below the CPD mid-plane for a few local scale heights. We obtain an accretion rate of ~5e-5 Omega Sigma a^2, where Sigma is the unperturbed protoplanetary disk density. Calculations by D'Angelo et al. (2003) and Bate et al. (2003), which used nu=1e-5 Omega a^2 everywhere but applied a much coarser resolution and different accretion parameters, found an accretion rate of ~2e-4 Omega Sigma a^2. Accounting for variations of several tens of percent, arising from differences (between these and previous calculations) in numerical parameters and resolution, we argue that a CPD Dead Zone, as modeled here, does not significantly affect the gas accretion rate of a giant planet. This result is compatible

  14. Magnetic coupling in the disks around young gas giant planets

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, N. J.; Lee, Man Hoi; Sano, T. E-mail: mhlee@hku.hk

    2014-03-01

    We examine the conditions under which the disks of gas and dust orbiting young gas giant planets are sufficiently conducting to experience turbulence driven by the magneto-rotational instability. By modeling the ionization and conductivity in the disk around proto-Jupiter, we find that turbulence is possible if the X-rays emitted near the Sun reach the planet's vicinity and either (1) the gas surface densities are in the range of the minimum-mass models constructed by augmenting Jupiter's satellites to solar composition, while dust is depleted from the disk atmosphere, or (2) the surface densities are much less, and in the range of gas-starved models fed with material from the solar nebula, but not so low that ambipolar diffusion decouples the neutral gas from the plasma. The results lend support to both minimum-mass and gas-starved models of the protojovian disk. (1) The dusty minimum-mass models have internal conductivities low enough to prevent angular momentum transfer by magnetic forces, as required for the material to remain in place while the satellites form. (2) The gas-starved models have magnetically active surface layers and a decoupled interior 'dead zone'. Similar active layers in the solar nebula yield accretion stresses in the range assumed in constructing the circumjovian gas-starved models. Our results also point to aspects of both classes of models that can be further developed. Non-turbulent minimum-mass models will lose dust from their atmospheres by settling, enabling gas to accrete through a thin surface layer. For the gas-starved models it is crucial to learn whether enough stellar X-ray and ultraviolet photons reach the circumjovian disk. Additionally, the stress-to-pressure ratio ought to increase with distance from the planet, likely leading to episodic accretion outbursts.

  15. Magnetic Coupling in the Disks around Young Gas Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, N. J.; Lee, Man Hoi; Sano, T.

    2014-03-01

    We examine the conditions under which the disks of gas and dust orbiting young gas giant planets are sufficiently conducting to experience turbulence driven by the magneto-rotational instability. By modeling the ionization and conductivity in the disk around proto-Jupiter, we find that turbulence is possible if the X-rays emitted near the Sun reach the planet's vicinity and either (1) the gas surface densities are in the range of the minimum-mass models constructed by augmenting Jupiter's satellites to solar composition, while dust is depleted from the disk atmosphere, or (2) the surface densities are much less, and in the range of gas-starved models fed with material from the solar nebula, but not so low that ambipolar diffusion decouples the neutral gas from the plasma. The results lend support to both minimum-mass and gas-starved models of the protojovian disk. (1) The dusty minimum-mass models have internal conductivities low enough to prevent angular momentum transfer by magnetic forces, as required for the material to remain in place while the satellites form. (2) The gas-starved models have magnetically active surface layers and a decoupled interior "dead zone." Similar active layers in the solar nebula yield accretion stresses in the range assumed in constructing the circumjovian gas-starved models. Our results also point to aspects of both classes of models that can be further developed. Non-turbulent minimum-mass models will lose dust from their atmospheres by settling, enabling gas to accrete through a thin surface layer. For the gas-starved models it is crucial to learn whether enough stellar X-ray and ultraviolet photons reach the circumjovian disk. Additionally, the stress-to-pressure ratio ought to increase with distance from the planet, likely leading to episodic accretion outbursts.

  16. A FIRST CONSTRAINT ON THE THICK DISK SCALE LENGTH: DIFFERENTIAL RADIAL ABUNDANCES IN K GIANTS AT GALACTOCENTRIC RADII 4, 8, AND 12 kpc

    SciTech Connect

    Bensby, T.; Alves-Brito, A.; Oey, M. S.; Yong, D.; Melendez, J.

    2011-07-10

    Based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan telescopes, we present detailed elemental abundances for 20 red giant stars in the outer Galactic disk, located at Galactocentric distances between 9 and 13 kpc. The outer disk sample is complemented with samples of red giants from the inner Galactic disk and the solar neighborhood, analyzed using identical methods. For Galactocentric distances beyond 10 kpc, we only find chemical patterns associated with the local thin disk, even for stars far above the Galactic plane. Our results show that the relative densities of the thick and thin disks are dramatically different from the solar neighborhood, and we therefore suggest that the radial scale length of the thick disk is much shorter than that of the thin disk. We make a first estimate of the thick disk scale length of L{sub thick} = 2.0 kpc, assuming L{sub thin} = 3.8 kpc for the thin disk. We suggest that radial migration may explain the lack of radial age, metallicity, and abundance gradients in the thick disk, possibly also explaining the link between the thick disk and the metal-poor bulge.

  17. A giant protogalactic disk linked to the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Matuszewski, Mateusz; Morrissey, Patrick; Neill, James D.; Moore, Anna; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Chang, Daphne

    2015-08-01

    The specifics of how galaxies form from, and are fuelled by, gas from the intergalactic medium remain uncertain. Hydrodynamic simulations suggest that `cold accretion flows'--relatively cool (temperatures of the order of 104 kelvin), unshocked gas streaming along filaments of the cosmic web into dark-matter halos--are important. These flows are thought to deposit gas and angular momentum into the circumgalactic medium, creating disk- or ring-like structures that eventually coalesce into galaxies that form at filamentary intersections. Recently, a large and luminous filament, consistent with such a cold accretion flow, was discovered near the quasi-stellar object QSO UM287 at redshift 2.279 using narrow-band imaging. Unfortunately, imaging is not sufficient to constrain the physical characteristics of the filament, to determine its kinematics, to explain how it is linked to nearby sources, or to account for its unusual brightness, more than a factor of ten above what is expected for a filament. Here we report a two-dimensional spectroscopic investigation of the emitting structure. We find that the brightest emission region is an extended rotating hydrogen disk with a velocity profile that is characteristic of gas in a dark-matter halo with a mass of 1013 solar masses. This giant protogalactic disk appears to be connected to a quiescent filament that may extend beyond the virial radius of the halo. The geometry is strongly suggestive of a cold accretion flow.

  18. A giant protogalactic disk linked to the cosmic web.

    PubMed

    Martin, D Christopher; Matuszewski, Mateusz; Morrissey, Patrick; Neill, James D; Moore, Anna; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Prochaska, J Xavier; Chang, Daphne

    2015-08-13

    The specifics of how galaxies form from, and are fuelled by, gas from the intergalactic medium remain uncertain. Hydrodynamic simulations suggest that 'cold accretion flows'--relatively cool (temperatures of the order of 10(4) kelvin), unshocked gas streaming along filaments of the cosmic web into dark-matter halos--are important. These flows are thought to deposit gas and angular momentum into the circumgalactic medium, creating disk- or ring-like structures that eventually coalesce into galaxies that form at filamentary intersections. Recently, a large and luminous filament, consistent with such a cold accretion flow, was discovered near the quasi-stellar object QSO UM287 at redshift 2.279 using narrow-band imaging. Unfortunately, imaging is not sufficient to constrain the physical characteristics of the filament, to determine its kinematics, to explain how it is linked to nearby sources, or to account for its unusual brightness, more than a factor of ten above what is expected for a filament. Here we report a two-dimensional spectroscopic investigation of the emitting structure. We find that the brightest emission region is an extended rotating hydrogen disk with a velocity profile that is characteristic of gas in a dark-matter halo with a mass of 10(13) solar masses. This giant protogalactic disk appears to be connected to a quiescent filament that may extend beyond the virial radius of the halo. The geometry is strongly suggestive of a cold accretion flow.

  19. A giant protogalactic disk linked to the cosmic web.

    PubMed

    Martin, D Christopher; Matuszewski, Mateusz; Morrissey, Patrick; Neill, James D; Moore, Anna; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Prochaska, J Xavier; Chang, Daphne

    2015-08-13

    The specifics of how galaxies form from, and are fuelled by, gas from the intergalactic medium remain uncertain. Hydrodynamic simulations suggest that 'cold accretion flows'--relatively cool (temperatures of the order of 10(4) kelvin), unshocked gas streaming along filaments of the cosmic web into dark-matter halos--are important. These flows are thought to deposit gas and angular momentum into the circumgalactic medium, creating disk- or ring-like structures that eventually coalesce into galaxies that form at filamentary intersections. Recently, a large and luminous filament, consistent with such a cold accretion flow, was discovered near the quasi-stellar object QSO UM287 at redshift 2.279 using narrow-band imaging. Unfortunately, imaging is not sufficient to constrain the physical characteristics of the filament, to determine its kinematics, to explain how it is linked to nearby sources, or to account for its unusual brightness, more than a factor of ten above what is expected for a filament. Here we report a two-dimensional spectroscopic investigation of the emitting structure. We find that the brightest emission region is an extended rotating hydrogen disk with a velocity profile that is characteristic of gas in a dark-matter halo with a mass of 10(13) solar masses. This giant protogalactic disk appears to be connected to a quiescent filament that may extend beyond the virial radius of the halo. The geometry is strongly suggestive of a cold accretion flow. PMID:26245373

  20. Gas Giant Planet Formation in the Photoevaporating Disk. I. Gap Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lin; Jin, Liping; Liu, Chengzhi; Fan, Cunbo

    2016-08-01

    Planet formation and photoevaporation have both been considered as gap opening mechanisms in protoplanetary disks. We have studied giant planet formation in a photoevaporating disk with long-term evolution. Our calculations suggest that the core accretion rate of a protoplanet declines and the trigger of the runaway gas accretion for a giant planet is delayed under the action of photoevaporation. We find that the final mass of a giant planet characterized by the “gap-limiting” case is not influenced by photoevaporation but the final mass of a giant planet characterized by the “diffusion-limiting” case is greatly influenced by photoevaporation. Considering the formation process of giant planets, we suggest that the locations of the gaps opened by giant planets are within 30-40 au and the gap width in the “gap-limiting” case is wider than that in the “diffusion-limiting” case. We also find that gaps in photoevaporating disks are wider than those in non-photoevaporating disks. Our calculations suggest that the origins of multiple gaps in a disk can be diverse depending on their formation locations. In the formation region of giant planets, gaps are opened by giant planets. The outer gap beyond the giant planet formation region may be opened under the action of photoevaporation. A gap may also be opened at 1-3 au under the actions of photoevaporating dissipation and gas accretion of the outer giant planets.

  1. Asteroseismology of 1523 misclassified red giants using Keplerdata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie; Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R.; Stello, Dennis; Murphy, Simon J.; Xiang, Maosheng; Bi, Shaolan; Li, Tanda

    2016-08-01

    We analysed solar-like oscillations in 1523 Keplerred giants which have previously been misclassified as subgiants, with predicted νmaxvalues (based on the Kepler Input Catalogue) between 280 μHzto 700 μHz. We report the discovery of 626 new oscillating red giants in our sample, in addition to 897 oscillators that were previously characterized by Hekker et al. (2011) from one quarter of Keplerdata. Our sample increases the known number of oscillating low-luminosity red giants by 26% (up to ˜ 1900 stars). About three quarters of our sample are classified as ascending red-giant-branch stars, while the remainder are red-clump stars. A novel scheme was applied to determine Δνfor 108 stars with νmaxclose to the Nyquist frequency (240 μHz < νmax < 320 μHz). Additionally, we identified 47 stars oscillating in the super-Nyquist frequency regime, up to 387μHz, using long-cadence light curves. We show that the misclassifications are most likely due to large uncertainties in KIC surface gravities, and do not result from the absence of broadband colors or from different physical properties such as reddening, spatial distribution, mass or metallicity. The sample will be valuable to study oscillations in low-luminosity red giants and to characterize planet candidates around those stars.

  2. Hide and Seek between Andromeda's Halo, Disk, and Giant Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementini, Gisella; Contreras Ramos, Rodrigo; Federici, Luciana; Macario, Giulia; Beccari, Giacomo; Testa, Vincenzo; Cignoni, Michele; Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Tosi, Monica; Bellazzini, Michele; Fusi Pecci, Flavio; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Cacciari, Carla; Marano, Bruno; Giallongo, Emanuele; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Di Paola, Andrea; Gallozzi, Stefano; Smareglia, Riccardo

    2011-12-01

    Photometry in B, V (down to V ~ 26 mag) is presented for two 23' × 23' fields of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) that were observed with the blue channel camera of the Large Binocular Telescope during the Science Demonstration Time. Each field covers an area of about 5.1 × 5.1 kpc2 at the distance of M31 (μM31 ~ 24.4 mag), sampling, respectively, a northeast region close to the M31 giant stream (field S2) and an eastern portion of the halo in the direction of the galaxy minor axis (field H1). The stream field spans a region that includes Andromeda's disk and giant stream, and this is reflected in the complexity of the color-magnitude diagram of the field. One corner of the halo field also includes a portion of the giant stream. Even though these demonstration time data were obtained under non-optimal observing conditions, the B photometry, which was acquired in time-series mode, allowed us to identify 274 variable stars (among which 96 are bona fide and 31 are candidate RR Lyrae stars, 71 are Cepheids, and 16 are binary systems) by applying the image subtraction technique to the selected portions of the observed fields. Differential flux light curves were obtained for the vast majority of these variables. Our sample mainly includes pulsating stars that populate the instability strip from the Classical Cepheids down to the RR Lyrae stars, thus tracing the different stellar generations in these regions of M31 down to the horizontal branch of the oldest (t ~ 10 Gyr) component. Based on data acquired using the blue channel camera of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT/LBC-blue).

  3. HIDE AND SEEK BETWEEN ANDROMEDA'S HALO, DISK, AND GIANT STREAM

    SciTech Connect

    Clementini, Gisella; Contreras Ramos, Rodrigo; Federici, Luciana; Macario, Giulia; Tosi, Monica; Bellazzini, Michele; Fusi Pecci, Flavio; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Cacciari, Carla; Beccari, Giacomo; Testa, Vincenzo; Giallongo, Emanuele; Di Paola, Andrea; Gallozzi, Stefano; Cignoni, Michele; Marano, Bruno; Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Smareglia, Riccardo

    2011-12-10

    Photometry in B, V (down to V {approx} 26 mag) is presented for two 23' Multiplication-Sign 23' fields of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) that were observed with the blue channel camera of the Large Binocular Telescope during the Science Demonstration Time. Each field covers an area of about 5.1 Multiplication-Sign 5.1 kpc{sup 2} at the distance of M31 ({mu}{sub M31} {approx} 24.4 mag), sampling, respectively, a northeast region close to the M31 giant stream (field S2) and an eastern portion of the halo in the direction of the galaxy minor axis (field H1). The stream field spans a region that includes Andromeda's disk and giant stream, and this is reflected in the complexity of the color-magnitude diagram of the field. One corner of the halo field also includes a portion of the giant stream. Even though these demonstration time data were obtained under non-optimal observing conditions, the B photometry, which was acquired in time-series mode, allowed us to identify 274 variable stars (among which 96 are bona fide and 31 are candidate RR Lyrae stars, 71 are Cepheids, and 16 are binary systems) by applying the image subtraction technique to the selected portions of the observed fields. Differential flux light curves were obtained for the vast majority of these variables. Our sample mainly includes pulsating stars that populate the instability strip from the Classical Cepheids down to the RR Lyrae stars, thus tracing the different stellar generations in these regions of M31 down to the horizontal branch of the oldest (t {approx} 10 Gyr) component.

  4. Manganese abundances in Galactic bulge red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, B.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Renzini, A.; Ortolani, S.; Gómez, A.; Trevisan, M.; Dutra, N.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Manganese is mainly produced in type II SNe during explosive silicon burning, in incomplete Si-burning regions, and depends on several nucleosynthesis environment conditions, such as mass cut between the matter ejected and falling back onto the remnant, electron and neutron excesses, mixing fallback, and explosion energy. Manganese is also produced in type Ia SNe. Aims: The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the iron-peak element Mn in 56 bulge giants, among which 13 are red clump stars. Four bulge fields along the minor axis are inspected. The study of abundances of Mn-over-Fe as a function of metallicity in the Galactic bulge may shed light on its production mechanisms. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained using the FLAMES+UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra were obtained within a program to observe 800 stars using the GIRAFFE spectrograph, together with the present UVES spectra. Results: We aim at identifying the chemical evolution of manganese, as a function of metallicity, in the Galactic bulge. We find [Mn/Fe] ~ -0.7 at [Fe/H] ~ -1.3, increasing to a solar value at metallicities close to solar, and showing a spread around - 0.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ -0.2, in good agreement with other work on Mn in bulge stars. There is also good agreement with chemical evolution models. We find no clear difference in the behaviour of the four bulge fields. Whereas [Mn/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] could be identified with the behaviour of the thick disc stars, [Mn/O] vs. [O/H] has a behaviour running parallel, at higher metallicities, compared to thick disc stars, indicating that the bulge enrichment might have proceeded differently from that of the thick disc. Observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes 71.B-0617A, 73.B0074A, and GTO 71.B-0196).Tables 1-6 and Figs. 1-6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. How empty are disk gaps opened by giant planets?

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Jeffrey; Shi, Ji-Ming; Chiang, Eugene

    2014-02-20

    Gap clearing by giant planets has been proposed to explain the optically thin cavities observed in many protoplanetary disks. How much material remains in the gap determines not only how detectable young planets are in their birth environments, but also how strong co-rotation torques are, which impacts how planets can survive fast orbital migration. We determine numerically how the average surface density inside the gap, Σ{sub gap}, depends on planet-to-star mass ratio q, Shakura-Sunyaev viscosity parameter α, and disk height-to-radius aspect ratio h/r. Our results are derived from our new graphics processing unit accelerated Lagrangian hydrodynamical code PEnGUIn and are verified by independent simulations with ZEUS90. For Jupiter-like planets, we find Σ{sub gap}∝q {sup –2.2}α{sup 1.4}(h/r){sup 6.6}, and for near brown dwarf masses, Σ{sub gap}∝q {sup –1}α{sup 1.3}(h/r){sup 6.1}. Surface density contrasts inside and outside gaps can be as large as 10{sup 4}, even when the planet does not accrete. We derive a simple analytic scaling, Σ{sub gap}∝q {sup –2}α{sup 1}(h/r){sup 5}, that compares reasonably well to empirical results, especially at low Neptune-like masses, and use discrepancies to highlight areas for progress.

  6. Chromospheres of two red giants in NGC 6752

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Hartmann, L.; Harper, G. M.; Jordan, Carole; Rodgers, A. W.

    1990-01-01

    Two red giant stars, A31 and A59, in the globular cluster NGC 6752 exhibit Mg II (2800 A) emission with surface fluxes comparable to those observed among metal-deficient halo field giants, and among low-activity Population I giants. Optical echelle spectra of these cluster giants reveal emission in the core of the Ca II K (3933.7 A) line, and in the wing of the H-alpha (6562.8 A) profile. Asymmetries exist both in the emission profiles and the line cores. These observations demonstrate unequivocally the existence of chromospheres among old halo population giants, and the presence of mass outflow in their atmospheres. Maintenance of a relatively constant level of chromospheric activity on the red giant branch contrasts with the decay of magnetic dynamo activity exhibited by dwarf stars and younger giants. A purely hydrodynamic phenomenon may be responsible for heating the outer atmospheres of these stars, enhancing chromospheric emission, thus extending the atmospheres and facilitating mass loss.

  7. Period spacings in red giants. II. Automated measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrard, M.; Mosser, B.; Samadi, R.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The space missions CoRoT and Kepler have provided photometric data of unprecedented quality for asteroseismology. A very rich oscillation pattern has been discovered for red giants, including mixed modes that are used to decipher the red giants' interiors. They carry information on the radiative core of red giant stars and bring strong constraints on stellar evolution. Aims: Since more than 15 000 red giant light curves have been observed by Kepler, we have developed a simple and efficient method for automatically characterizing the mixed-mode pattern and measuring the asymptotic period spacing. Methods: With the asymptotic expansion of the mixed modes, we have revealed the regularity of the gravity-mode pattern. The stretched periods were used to study the evenly space periods with a Fourier analysis and to measure the gravity period spacing, even when rotation severely complicates the oscillation spectra. Results: We automatically measured gravity period spacing for more than 6100 Kepler red giants. The results confirm and extend previous measurements made by semi-automated methods. We also unveil the mass and metallicity dependence of the relation between the frequency spacings and the period spacings for stars on the red giant branch. Conclusions: The delivery of thousands of period spacings combined with all other seismic and non-seismic information provides a new basis for detailed ensemble asteroseismology. Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/588/A87

  8. Coordinated observations of interacting peculiar red giant binaries, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ake, T.

    1995-01-01

    IUE Observations were begun for a two-year program to monitor the UV variability of three interacting peculiar red giant (PRG) binaries, HD 59643 (C6,s) HD 35155 (S3/2), and HR 1105 (S3.5/2.5). All of these systems were suspected to involve accretion of material from the PRG to a white-dwarf secondary, based mainly on previous IUE investigations. From our earlier surveys of PRG's, they were primary candidates to test the hypothesis that Tc-poor PRG's are formed as a result of mass transfer from a secondary component rather than from internal thermal pulsing while on the asymptotic red giant branch.

  9. Disk minor merger as the progenitor of the Andromeda giant stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirihara, Takanobu

    2015-08-01

    Recent works have performed N -body simulations of a galaxy collision to reproduce observed shape and kinematics of a giant stellar stream (GSS) and shell-like structures in the halo of Andromeda galaxy (M31). So far, the study of the detailed comparison between the results of merger simulations and the observational data, M31's potential, orbit of the progenitor, and mass of the progenitor have been well understood. However, the morphology of the progenitor satellite galaxy has not yet examined in detail.Our simple analysis of the stellar count maps of red giant branch stars in the halo of M31 reveals an asymmetric internal structure of the giant stellar stream that can not be reproduced by a merger of a spherical symmetric progenitor. To reproduce such characteristic structure and to investigate the morphology of the disrupted progenitor, we perform N -body simulations and systematic parameter surveys varying the thickness of the disk progenitor and initial inclination of its disk. Our result suggests that a rotating component of the progenitor is required to reproduce an asymmetric internal structure of the GSS. Using the parameter that reproduces the observed structures in detail, we discuss the evolution and relaxation of the dark matter component that initially associated with the progenitor.In addition, we focus on the GSS as a probe of the density profile of the dark matter halo of M31 because the GSS is a huge structure (over 120 kpc) and its spatial and velocity structure have been observed in detail. We perform N -body simulation runs of the galaxy merger varying the power-law index of the outer-density profile and the total mass of the CDM halo of M31. The result suggests that a power-law index that is steeper than the CDM prediction.

  10. The Red and Featureless Outer Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Aaron E.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul

    2016-07-01

    We present results from deep, wide-field surface photometry of three nearby (D = 4-7 Mpc) spiral galaxies: M94 (NGC 4736), M64 (NGC 4826), and M106 (NGC 4258). Our imaging reaches a limiting surface brightness of {μ }B ˜ 28-30 mag arcsec-2 and probes colors down to {μ }B ˜ 27.5 mag arcsec-2. We compare our broadband optical data to available ultraviolet and high column density H i data to better constrain the star-forming history and stellar populations of the outermost parts of each galaxy’s disk. Each galaxy has a well-defined radius beyond which little star formation occurs and the disk light appears both azimuthally smooth and red in color, suggestive of old, well-mixed stellar populations. Given the lack of ongoing star formation or blue stellar populations in these galaxies’ outer disks, the most likely mechanisms for their formation are dynamical processes such as disk heating or radial migration, rather than inside-out growth of the disks. This is also implied by the similarity in outer disk properties despite each galaxy showing distinct levels of environmental influence, from a purely isolated galaxy (M94) to one experiencing weak tidal perturbations from its satellite galaxies (M106) to a galaxy recovering from a recent merger (M64), suggesting that a variety of evolutionary histories can yield similar outer disk structure. While this suggests a common secular mechanism for outer disk formation, the large extent of these smooth, red stellar populations—which reach several disk scale lengths beyond the galaxies’ spiral structure—may challenge models of radial migration given the lack of any nonaxisymmetric forcing at such large radii.

  11. Silica Debris Disk Evidence for Giant Planet Forming Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, C.

    2014-04-01

    Giant impacts are major formation events in the history of our solar system. The final assembly of the planets, as we understand it, had to include massive fast collision events as the planets grew to objects with large escape velocities or in regions of high Keplerian velocities (Chambers 2004; Kenyon & Bromley 2004a,b, 2006; Fegley & Schaefer 2005). These massive impact events should create large amounts of glassy silica material derived from the rapid melting, vaporization, and refreezing of normal silicate rich primitive rocky material. We report here the detection of 4 bright silica-rich debris disks in the Spitzer IRS spectral archive, and the possible identification of 7 others. The stellar types of the system primaries span from A5V to G0V, their ages are 10 - 100 Myr, and the dust is warm, 280 - 480 K, and is located between 1.5 and 6 AU, well inside the systems' terrestrial planet regions. The minimum amount of detected 0.1 - 20 dust mass ranges from 10^21 - 10^23 kg; assuming < 10% dust formation efficiency (Benz 2009, 2011) this implies collisions involving impactors massing at least 10^22 - 10^24 kg, i.e. from Moon to Earth mass. We find possible trends in the mineralogy of the silica, with predominantly amorphous silica found in the 2 younger systems, and crystalline silica in the older systems. We speculate this is due higher velocity impacts found in younger, hotter systems, coupled with the effects of energetic photon annealing of small amorphous silica grains. All of these measures are consistent with the creation of silica rich rubble, or construction debris, during the terrestrial planet formation era of giant impacts.

  12. The SEEDs of Planet Formation: Indirect Signatures of Giant Planets in Transitional Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol; Currie, T.

    2012-01-01

    We live in a planetary system with 2 gas giant planets, and as a resu lt of RV, transit, microlensing, and transit timing studies have ide ntified hundreds of giant planet candidates in the past 15 years. Su ch studies have preferentially concentrated on older, low activity So lar analogs, and thus tell us little about .when, where, and how gian t planets form in their disks, or how frequently they form in disks associated with intermediate-mass stars.

  13. Kinematics of Tycho-2 red giant clump stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, V. V.; Stepanishchev, A. S.; Bajkova, A. T.; Gontcharov, G. A.

    2009-12-01

    Based on the Ogorodnikov-Milne model, we analyze the proper motions of 95,633 red giant clump (RGC) stars from the Tycho-2 Catalogue. The following Oort constants have been found: A = 15.9 ± 0.2 km s-1 kpc-1 and B = -12.0±0.2 km s-1 kpc-1. Using 3632 RGC stars with known proper motions, radial velocities, and photometric distances, we show that, apart from the star centroid velocity components relative to the Sun, only the model parameters that describe the stellar motions in the XY plane differ significantly from zero. We have studied the contraction (a negative K effect) of the system of RGC stars as a function of their heliocentric distance and elevation above the Galactic plane. For a sample of distant (500-1000 pc) RGC stars located near the Galactic plane (|z| < 200 pc) with an average distance of d = 0.7 kpc, the contraction velocity is shown to be Kd = -3.5 ±0.9 km s-1; a noticeable vertex deviation, lxy = 9.1° ± 0.5°, is also observed for them. For stars located well above the Galactic plane (|z| ≥200 pc), these effects are less pronounced, Kd = -1.7 ± 0.5 km s-1 and lxy = 4.9° ± 0.6°. Using RGC stars, we have found a rotation around the Galactic X axis directed toward the Galactic center with an angular velocity of -2.5 ± 0.3 km s-1 kpc-1, which we associate with the warp of the Galactic stellar-gaseous disk.

  14. Evidence for extended chromospheres surrounding red giant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Observational evidence and theoretical arguments are summarized which indicate that regions of partially ionized hydrogen extending several stellar radii are an important feature of red giant and supergiant stars. The implications of the existence of extended chromospheres are examined in terms of the nature of the other atmospheres of, and mass loss from cool stars.

  15. Pulsation Properties of Carbon and Oxygen Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.; Huang, D. J.

    2015-07-01

    We have used up to 12 decades of AAVSO visual observations, and the AAVSO VSTAR software package to determine new and/or improved periods of 5 pulsating biperiodic carbon (C-type) red giants, and 12 pulsating biperiodic oxygen (M-type) red giants. We have also determined improved periods for 43 additional C-type red giants, in part to search for more biperiodic C-type stars, and also for 46 M-type red giants. For a small sample of the biperiodic C-type and M-type stars, we have used wavelet analysis to determine the time scales of the cycles of amplitude increase and decrease. The C-type and M-type stars do not differ significantly in their period ratios (first overtone to fundamental). There is a marginal difference in the lengths of their amplitude cycles. The most important result of this study is that, because of the semiregularity of these stars, and the presence of alias, harmonic, and spurious periods, the periods which we and others derive for these stars—especially the smaller-amplitude ones—must be determined and interpreted with great care and caution. For instance: spurious periods of a year can produce an apparent excess of stars, at that period, in the period distribution.

  16. Magnetic braking of stellar cores in red giants and supergiants

    SciTech Connect

    Maeder, André; Meynet, Georges E-mail: georges.meynet@unige.ch

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic configurations, stable on the long term, appear to exist in various evolutionary phases, from main-sequence stars to white dwarfs and neutron stars. The large-scale ordered nature of these fields, often approximately dipolar, and their scaling according to the flux conservation scenario favor a fossil field model. We make some first estimates of the magnetic coupling between the stellar cores and the outer layers in red giants and supergiants. Analytical expressions of the truncation radius of the field coupling are established for a convective envelope and for a rotating radiative zone with horizontal turbulence. The timescales of the internal exchanges of angular momentum are considered. Numerical estimates are made on the basis of recent model grids. The direct magnetic coupling of the core to the extended convective envelope of red giants and supergiants appears unlikely. However, we find that the intermediate radiative zone is fully coupled to the core during the He-burning and later phases. This coupling is able to produce a strong spin down of the core of red giants and supergiants, also leading to relatively slowly rotating stellar remnants such as white dwarfs and pulsars. Some angular momentum is also transferred to the outer convective envelope of red giants and supergiants during the He-burning phase and later.

  17. Red Giants in Eclipsing Binaries as a Benchmark for Asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawls, Meredith L.

    2016-04-01

    Red giants with solar-like oscillations are astrophysical laboratories for probing the Milky Way. The Kepler Space Telescope revolutionized asteroseismology by consistently monitoring thousands of targets, including several red giants in eclipsing binaries. Binarity allows us to directly measure stellar properties independently of asteroseismology. In this dissertation, we study a subset of eight red giant eclipsing binaries observed by Kepler with a range of orbital periods, oscillation behavior, and stellar activity. Two of the systems do not show solar-like oscillations at all. We use a suite of modeling tools to combine photometry and spectroscopy into a comprehensive picture of each star's life. One noteworthy case is a double red giant binary. The two stars are nearly twins, but have one main set of solar-like oscillations with unusually low-amplitude, wide modes, likely due to stellar activity and modest tidal forces acting over the 171 day eccentric orbit. Mixed modes indicate the main oscillating star is on the secondary red clump (a core-He-burning star), and stellar evolution modeling supports this with a coeval history for a pair of red clump stars. The other seven systems are all red giant branch stars (shell-H-burning) with main sequence companions. The two non-oscillators have the strongest magnetic signatures and some of the strongest lifetime tidal forces with nearly-circular 20–34 day orbits. One system defies this trend with oscillations and a 19 day orbit. The four long-period systems (>100 days) have oscillations, more eccentric orbits, and less stellar activity. They are all detached binaries consistent with coevolution. We find the asteroseismic scaling laws are approximately correct, but fail the most for stars that are least like the Sun by systematically overestimating both mass and radius. Strong magnetic activity and tidal effects often occur in tandem and act to suppress solar-like oscillations. These red giant binaries offer an

  18. Red Giants in Eclipsing Binaries as a Benchmark for Asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawls, Meredith L.

    2016-04-01

    Red giants with solar-like oscillations are astrophysical laboratories for probing the Milky Way. The Kepler Space Telescope revolutionized asteroseismology by consistently monitoring thousands of targets, including several red giants in eclipsing binaries. Binarity allows us to directly measure stellar properties independently of asteroseismology. In this dissertation, we study a subset of eight red giant eclipsing binaries observed by Kepler with a range of orbital periods, oscillation behavior, and stellar activity. Two of the systems do not show solar-like oscillations at all. We use a suite of modeling tools to combine photometry and spectroscopy into a comprehensive picture of each star's life. One noteworthy case is a double red giant binary. The two stars are nearly twins, but have one main set of solar-like oscillations with unusually low-amplitude, wide modes, likely due to stellar activity and modest tidal forces acting over the 171 day eccentric orbit. Mixed modes indicate the main oscillating star is on the secondary red clump (a core-He-burning star), and stellar evolution modeling supports this with a coeval history for a pair of red clump stars. The other seven systems are all red giant branch stars (shell-H-burning) with main sequence companions. The two non-oscillators have the strongest magnetic signatures and some of the strongest lifetime tidal forces with nearly-circular 20-34 day orbits. One system defies this trend with oscillations and a 19 day orbit. The four long-period systems (>100 days) have oscillations, more eccentric orbits, and less stellar activity. They are all detached binaries consistent with coevolution. We find the asteroseismic scaling laws are approximately correct, but fail the most for stars that are least like the Sun by systematically overestimating both mass and radius. Strong magnetic activity and tidal effects often occur in tandem and act to suppress solar-like oscillations. These red giant binaries offer an

  19. WARM DEBRIS DISKS PRODUCED BY GIANT IMPACTS DURING TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Genda, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Kokubo, E.

    2015-09-10

    In our solar system, Mars-sized protoplanets frequently collided with each other during the last stage of terrestrial planet formation, called the giant impact stage. Giant impacts eject a large amount of material from the colliding protoplanets into the terrestrial planet region, which may form debris disks with observable infrared excesses. Indeed, tens of warm debris disks around young solar-type stars have been observed. Here we quantitatively estimate the total mass of ejected materials during the giant impact stages. We found that ∼0.4 times the Earth’s mass is ejected in total throughout the giant impact stage. Ejected materials are ground down by collisional cascade until micron-sized grains are blown out by radiation pressure. The depletion timescale of these ejected materials is determined primarily by the mass of the largest body among them. We conducted high-resolution simulations of giant impacts to accurately obtain the mass of the largest ejected body. We then calculated the evolution of the debris disks produced by a series of giant impacts and depleted by collisional cascades to obtain the infrared excess evolution of the debris disks. We found that the infrared excess is almost always higher than the stellar infrared flux throughout the giant impact stage (∼100 Myr) and is sometimes ∼10 times higher immediately after a giant impact. Therefore, giant impact stages would explain the infrared excess from most observed warm debris disks. The observed fraction of stars with warm debris disks indicates that the formation probability of our solar-system-like terrestrial planets is approximately 10%.

  20. SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS IN LOW-LUMINOSITY RED GIANTS: FIRST RESULTS FROM KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Bedding, T. R.; Huber, D.; Stello, D.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Hekker, S.; Broomhall, A. M.; Chaplin, W. J.; Hale, S. J.; Kallinger, T.; Mathur, S.; Mosser, B.; Barban, C.; Preston, H. L.; Buzasi, D. L.; Ballot, J.; GarcIa, R. A.; De Ridder, J.; Frandsen, S.; Borucki, W. J.

    2010-04-20

    We have measured solar-like oscillations in red giants using time-series photometry from the first 34 days of science operations of the Kepler Mission. The light curves, obtained with 30 minute sampling, reveal clear oscillations in a large sample of G and K giants, extending in luminosity from the red clump down to the bottom of the giant branch. We confirm a strong correlation between the large separation of the oscillations ({delta}{nu}) and the frequency of maximum power ({nu}{sub max}). We focus on a sample of 50 low-luminosity stars ({nu}{sub max} > 100 {mu}Hz, L {approx}< 30 L {sub sun}) having high signal-to-noise ratios and showing the unambiguous signature of solar-like oscillations. These are H-shell-burning stars, whose oscillations should be valuable for testing models of stellar evolution and for constraining the star formation rate in the local disk. We use a new technique to compare stars on a single echelle diagram by scaling their frequencies and find well-defined ridges corresponding to radial and non-radial oscillations, including clear evidence for modes with angular degree l = 3. Measuring the small separation between l = 0 and l = 2 allows us to plot the so-called C-D diagram of {delta}{nu}{sub 02} versus {delta}{nu}. The small separation {delta}{nu}{sub 01} of l = 1 from the midpoint of adjacent l = 0 modes is negative, contrary to the Sun and solar-type stars. The ridge for l = 1 is notably broadened, which we attribute to mixed modes, confirming theoretical predictions for low-luminosity giants. Overall, the results demonstrate the tremendous potential of Kepler data for asteroseismology of red giants.

  1. Panel 1: A pulsating red giant star and a compact, hot white dwarf star orbit each other.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Panel 1: A pulsating red giant star and a compact, hot white dwarf star orbit each other. Panel 2: The red giant sheds much of its outer layers in a stellar wind. The white dwarf helps concentrate the wind along a thin equatorial plane. The white dwarf accretes some of this escaping gas forming a disk around the itself. Panel 3: When enough gas accumulates on the white dwarf's surface it explodes as a nova outburst. Most of the hot gas forms a pair of expanding bubbles above and below the equatorial disk. Panel 4: A few thousand years after the bubbles expand into space, the white dwarf goes through another nova outburst and makes another pair of bubbles, which form a distinctive hourglass shape.

  2. FORMATION OF GIANT PLANETS BY DISK INSTABILITY ON WIDE ORBITS AROUND PROTOSTARS WITH VARIED MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, Alan P.

    2011-04-10

    Doppler surveys have shown that more massive stars have significantly higher frequencies of giant planets inside {approx}3 AU than lower mass stars, consistent with giant planet formation by core accretion. Direct imaging searches have begun to discover significant numbers of giant planet candidates around stars with masses of {approx}1 M{sub sun} to {approx}2 M{sub sun} at orbital distances of {approx}20 AU to {approx}120 AU. Given the inability of core accretion to form giant planets at such large distances, gravitational instabilities of the gas disk leading to clump formation have been suggested as the more likely formation mechanism. Here, we present five new models of the evolution of disks with inner radii of 20 AU and outer radii of 60 AU, for central protostars with masses of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 M{sub sun}, in order to assess the likelihood of planet formation on wide orbits around stars with varied masses. The disk masses range from 0.028 M{sub sun} to 0.21 M{sub sun}, with initial Toomre Q stability values ranging from 1.1 in the inner disks to {approx}1.6 in the outer disks. These five models show that disk instability is capable of forming clumps on timescales of {approx}10{sup 3} yr that, if they survive for longer times, could form giant planets initially on orbits with semimajor axes of {approx}30 AU to {approx}70 AU and eccentricities of {approx}0 to {approx}0.35, with initial masses of {approx}1 M{sub Jup} to {approx}5 M{sub Jup}, around solar-type stars, with more protoplanets forming as the mass of the protostar (and protoplanetary disk) is increased. In particular, disk instability appears to be a likely formation mechanism for the HR 8799 gas giant planetary system.

  3. Final Masses of Giant Planets II: Jupiter Formation in a Gas-Depleted Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigawa, Takayuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2015-12-01

    Firstly, we study the final masses of giant planets growing in protoplanetary disks through capture of disk gas, by employing an empirical formula for the gas capture rate and a shallow disk gap model, which are both based on hydrodynamical simulations. The shallow disk gaps cannot terminate growth of giant planets. For planets less massive than 10 Jupiter masses, their growth rates are mainly controlled by the gas supply through the global disk accretion, rather than their gaps. The insufficient gas supply compared with the rapid gas capture causes a depletion of the gas surface density even at the outside of the gap, which can create an inner hole in the protoplanetary disk. Our model can also predict how deep the inner hole is for a given planet mass. Secondly, our findings are applied to the formation of our solar system. For the formation of Jupiter, a very low-mass gas disk with a few or several Jupiter masses is required at the beginning of its gas capture because of the non-stopping capture. Such a low-mass gas disk with sufficient solid material can be formed through viscous evolution from an initially ˜10AU-sized compact disk with the solar composition. By the viscous evolution with a moderate viscosity of α˜10-3, most of disk gas accretes onto the sun and a widely spread low-mass gas disk remains when the solid core of Jupiter starts gas capture at t˜107 yrs. The depletion of the disk gas is suitable for explaining the high metallicity in giant planets of our solar system. A very low-mass gas disk also provides a plausible path where type I and II planetary migrations are both suppressed significantly. In particular, we also show that the type II migration of Jupiter-size planets becomes inefficient because of the additional gas depletion due to the rapid gas capture by themselves.

  4. Coordinated observations of interacting peculiar red giant binaries, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ake, T.

    1995-01-01

    IUE and H alpha observations continued on a two-year program to monitor the UV variability of three interacting peculiar red giant (PRG) binaries, HD 59643 (C6,s), HD 35155 (S3/2), and HR 1105 (S3.5/2.5). All of these systems were suspected to involve accretion of material from the PRG to a white-dwarf secondary, based mainly on previous IUE investigations. They were primary candidates from earlier surveys of PRG's to test the hypothesis that the Tc-poor PRG's are formed as a result of mass transfer from a secondary component rather than from internal thermal pulsing while on the asymptotic red giant branch.

  5. The dependence of giant planet migration on disk and planet properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, Althea; Ford, E. B.

    2010-05-01

    Given the severe challenges in forming giant planets so close to their host star, disk-induced migration is often invoked to explain their small semi-major axes. Migration theory is usually divided into two limiting cases: Type I migration, in which the planet remains embedded in the disk, and Type II migration, in which the planet is sufficiently massive that it clears a gap in the disk in the vicinity of its orbit and follows the viscous evolution of the disk. However, recent hydrodynamic simulations of giant planets in circumstellar disks do not seem to follow this prescription; giant planet migration rates show a dependence on planet mass that is inconsistent with migrration on a constant, viscous timescale (Edgar 2008). We use FARGO to extend the work of Edgar (2008) and Bate (2003) to higher viscosities and larger planet masses and present the results in the context of distinguishing between the standard description of giant planet migration and that of Edgar (2007). Additionally, we present simulations of planets on eccentric orbits and describe how eccentricity modifies giant planet migration.

  6. Formation of giant planets by fragmentation of protoplanetary disks.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Lucio; Quinn, Thomas; Wadsley, James; Stadel, Joachim

    2002-11-29

    The evolution of gravitationally unstable protoplanetary gaseous disks has been studied with the use of three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with unprecedented resolution. We have considered disks with initial masses and temperature profiles consistent with those inferred for the protosolar nebula and for other protoplanetary disks. We show that long-lasting, self-gravitating protoplanets arise after a few disk orbital periods if cooling is efficient enough to maintain the temperature close to 50 K. The resulting bodies have masses and orbital eccentricities similar to those of detected extrasolar planets.

  7. Re-inflated Warm Jupiters around Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Eric D.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2016-02-01

    Since the discovery of the first transiting hot Jupiters, models have sought to explain the anomalously large radii of highly irradiated gas giants. We now know that the size of hot Jupiter radius anomalies scales strongly with a planet's level of irradiation and numerous models like tidal heating, ohmic dissipation, and thermal tides have since been developed to help explain these inflated radii. In general, however, these models can be grouped into two broad categories: models that directly inflate planetary radii by depositing a fraction of the incident irradiation into the interior and models that simply slow a planet's radiative cooling, allowing it to retain more heat from formation and thereby delay contraction. Here we present a new test to distinguish between these two classes of models. Gas giants orbiting at moderate orbital periods around post-main-sequence stars will experience enormous increases to their irradiation as their host stars move up the sub-giant and red-giant branches. If hot Jupiter inflation works by depositing irradiation into the planet's deep interiors then planetary radii should increase in response to the increased irradiation. This means that otherwise non-inflated gas giants at moderate orbital periods of >10 days can re-inflate as their host stars evolve. Here we explore the circumstances that can lead to the creation of these “re-inflated” gas giants and examine how the existence or absence of such planets can be used to place unique constraints on the physics of the hot Jupiter inflation mechanism. Finally, we explore the prospects for detecting this potentially important undiscovered population of planets.

  8. Chemical Abundance Analysis of the Symbiotic Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, Cezary; Mikolajewska, Joanna; Hinkle, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    The study of symbiotic stars - the long period, interacting binary systems - composed of red giant donor and a hot, compact companion is important for our understanding of binary stellar evolution in systems where mass loss or transfer take place involving RGB/AGB stars. The elemental abundances of symbiotic giants can track the mass exchange history and can determine their parent stellar population. However, the number of these objects with fairly well determined photospheric composition is insufficient for statistical considerations. Here we present the detailed chemical abundance analysis obtained for the first time for 14 M-type symbiotic giants. The analysis is based on the high resolution (R ˜ 50000), high S/N ˜ 100, near-IR spectra (at H- and K-band regions) obtained with Phoenix/Gemini South spectrometer. Spectrum synthesis employing standard LTE analysis and atmosphere models was used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak (Sc, Ti, Fe, and Ni). Our analysis reveals mostly slightly sub-solar or near-solar metallicities. We obtained significantly subsolar metallicities for RW Hya, RT Ser, and Hen 3-1213 and slightly super-solar metallicity in V455 Sco. The very low ^{12}C/^{13}C isotopic ratios, ˜6-11, and significant enrichment in nitrogen ^{14}N isotope in almost all giants in our sample indicate that they have experienced the first dredge-up.

  9. SHOCKS AND A GIANT PLANET IN THE DISK ORBITING BP PISCIUM?

    SciTech Connect

    Melis, C.; Zuckerman, B.; Gielen, C.; Chen, C. H.; Rhee, Joseph H.; Song, Inseok

    2010-11-20

    Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph data support the interpretation that BP Piscium, a gas and dust enshrouded star residing at high Galactic latitude, is a first-ascent giant rather than a classical T Tauri star. Our analysis suggests that BP Piscium's spectral energy distribution can be modeled as a disk with a gap that is opened by a giant planet. Modeling the rich mid-infrared emission line spectrum indicates that the solid-state emitting grains orbiting BP Piscium are primarily composed of {approx}75 K crystalline, magnesium-rich olivine; {approx}75 K crystalline, magnesium-rich pyroxene; {approx}200 K amorphous, magnesium-rich pyroxene; and {approx}200 K annealed silica (cristobalite). These dust grains are all sub-micron sized. The giant planet and gap model also naturally explains the location and mineralogy of the small dust grains in the disk. Disk shocks that result from disk-planet interaction generate the highly crystalline dust which is subsequently blown out of the disk mid-plane and into the disk atmosphere.

  10. Deep Mixing and Metallicity in Globular Cluster Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, Sarah L.

    2007-12-01

    We present results from a study of carbon depletion and deep mixing in globular cluster red giants across a wide range of metallicity. CH bandstrengths are measured from low-resolution (R 1000) spectra and converted to [C/Fe] abundances by comparisons with synthetic spectra. Although some models of deep mixing predict that its efficiency will be reduced at high metallicity, no sign of such a cutoff is seen in our data, which span the range -2.29 < [Fe/H] < -1.29.

  11. THE EDGE OF THE MILKY WAY STELLAR DISK REVEALED USING CLUMP GIANT STARS AS DISTANCE INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Minniti, D.; Saito, R. K.; Alonso-Garcia, J.; Hempel, M.; Lucas, P. W.

    2011-06-01

    We use the clump giants of the disk as standard candles calibrated from Hipparcos parallaxes in order to map their distribution with two new near-infrared surveys of the Galactic plane: UKIDSS-GPS and VISTA Variables in the VIa Lactea (VVV). We explore different selection cuts of clump giants. We conclude that there is an edge of the stellar disk of the Milky Way at R = 13.9 {+-} 0.5 kpc along various lines of sight across the Galaxy. The effect of the warp is considered, taking fields at different longitudes and above and below the plane. We demonstrate that the edge of the stellar disk of the Milky Way can now be mapped in the near-infrared in order to test different models, and to establish our own place within the Galaxy.

  12. Radio Emission from Red-giant Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yuka; Spiegel, David S.; Mroczkowski, Tony; Nordhaus, Jason; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2016-04-01

    When planet-hosting stars evolve off the main sequence and go through the red-giant branch, the stars become orders of magnitudes more luminous and, at the same time, lose mass at much higher rates than their main-sequence counterparts. Accordingly, if planetary companions exist around these stars at orbital distances of a few au, they will be heated up to the level of canonical hot Jupiters and also be subjected to a dense stellar wind. Given that magnetized planets interacting with stellar winds emit radio waves, such “Red-Giant Hot Jupiters” (RGHJs) may also be candidate radio emitters. We estimate the spectral auroral radio intensity of RGHJs based on the empirical relation with the stellar wind as well as a proposed scaling for planetary magnetic fields. RGHJs might be intrinsically as bright as or brighter than canonical hot Jupiters and about 100 times brighter than equivalent objects around main-sequence stars. We examine the capabilities of low-frequency radio observatories to detect this emission and find that the signal from an RGHJ may be detectable at distances up to a few hundred parsecs with the Square Kilometer Array.

  13. Radio Emission from Red-Giant Hot Jupiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujii, Yuka; Spiegel, David S.; Mroczkowski, Tony; Nordhaus, Jason; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2016-01-01

    When planet-hosting stars evolve off the main sequence and go through the red-giant branch, the stars become orders of magnitudes more luminous and, at the same time, lose mass at much higher rates than their main sequence counterparts. Accordingly, if planetary companions exist around these stars at orbital distances of a few au, they will be heated up to the level of canonical hot Jupiters and also be subjected to a dense stellar wind. Given that magnetized planets interacting with stellar winds emit radio waves, such "Red-Giant Hot Jupiters" (RGHJs) may also be candidate radio emitters. We estimate the spectral auroral radio intensity of RGHJs based on the empirical relation with the stellar wind as well as a proposed scaling for planetary magnetic fields. RGHJs might be intrinsically as bright as or brighter than canonical hot Jupiters and about 100 times brighter than equivalent objects around main-sequence stars. We examine the capabilities of low-frequency radio observatories to detect this emission and find that the signal from an RGHJ may be detectable at distances up to a few hundred parsecs with the Square Kilometer Array.

  14. Exploring masses and CNO surface abundances of red giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabi, Ghina M.; Eid, Mounib El

    2015-08-01

    A grid of evolutionary sequences of stars in the mass range 1.2-7M⊙, with solar-like initial composition is presented. We focus on this mass range in order to estimate the masses and calculate the CNO surface abundances of a sample of observed red giants. The stellar models are calculated from the zero-age main sequence till the early asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Stars of M ≤ 2.2M⊙ are evolved through the core helium flash. In this work, an approach is adopted that improves the mass determination of an observed sample of 21 RGB and early AGB stars. This approach is based on comparing the observationally derived effective temperatures and absolute magnitudes with the calculated values based on our evolutionary tracks in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. A more reliable determination of the stellar masses is achieved by using evolutionary tracks extended to the range of observation. In addition, the predicted CNO surface abundances are compared to the observationally inferred values in order to show how far standard evolutionary calculation can be used to interpret available observations and to illustrate the role of convective mixing. We find that extra mixing beyond the convective boundary determined by the Schwarzschild criterion is needed to explain the observational oxygen isotopic ratios in low-mass stars. The effect of recent determinations of proton capture reactions and their uncertainties on the 16O/17O and 14N/15N ratios is also shown. It is found that the 14N( p, γ)15O reaction is important for predicting the 14N/15N ratio in red giants.

  15. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of red giant stars: semi-global models for interpreting interferometric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavassa, A.; Collet, R.; Casagrande, L.; Asplund, M.

    2010-12-01

    Context. Theoretical predictions from models of red giant branch stars are a valuable tool for various applications in astrophysics ranging from galactic chemical evolution to studies of exoplanetary systems. Aims: We use the radiative transfer code Optim3D and realistic 3D radiative-hydrodynamical (RHD) surface convection simulations of red giants to explore the impact of granulation on interferometric observables. We assess how 3D simulations of surface convection can be validated against observations. Methods: We computed intensity maps for the 3D simulation snapshots in two filters, the optical at 5000 ± 300 Å and the K band 2.14 ± 0.26 μm FLUOR filter, corresponding to the wavelength-range of instruments mounted on the CHARA interferometer. From the intensity maps, we constructed images of the stellar disks and account for center-to-limb variations. We then derived interferometric visibility amplitudes and phases. We study their behavior with position angle and wavelength, and compare them with CHARA observations of the red giant star HD 214868. Results: We provide average limb darkening coefficients for different metallicities and wavelengths ranges. We explain prospects for detecting and characterizing granulation and center-to-limb variations of red giant stars with today's interferometers. Regarding interferometric observables, we find that the effect of convective-related surface structures depends on metallicity and surface gravity. We provide theoretical closure-phases that should be incorporated into the analysis of red giant planet companion closure phase signals. We estimate 3D-1D corrections to stellar radii determination: 3D models are ~3.5% smaller to ~1% larger in the optical than 1D, and roughly 0.5 to 1.5% smaller in the infrared. Even if these corrections are small, they are needed to properly set the zero point of effective temperature scale derived by interferometry and to strengthen the confidence of existing red giant catalogs of

  16. ON THE POSSIBILITY OF ENRICHMENT AND DIFFERENTIATION IN GAS GIANTS DURING BIRTH BY DISK INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, Aaron C.; Durisen, Richard H.

    2010-11-20

    We investigate the coupling between rock-size solids and gas during the formation of gas giant planets by disk fragmentation in the outer regions of massive disks. In this study, we use three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulations and model solids as a spatial distribution of particles. We assume that half of the total solid fraction is in small grains and half in large solids. The former are perfectly entrained with the gas and set the opacity in the disk, while the latter are allowed to respond to gas drag forces, with the back reaction on the gas taken into account. To explore the maximum effects of gas-solid interactions, we first consider 10 cm size particles. We then compare these results to a simulation with 1 km size particles, which explores the low-drag regime. We show that (1) disk instability planets have the potential to form large cores due to aerodynamic capturing of rock-size solids in spiral arms before fragmentation; (2) temporary clumps can concentrate tens of M{sub +} of solids in very localized regions before clump disruption; (3) the formation of permanent clumps, even in the outer disk, is dependent on the grain-size distribution, i.e., the opacity; (4) nonaxisymmetric structure in the disk can create disk regions that have a solids-to-gas ratio greater than unity; (5) the solid distribution may affect the fragmentation process; (6) proto-gas giants and proto-brown dwarfs can start as differentiated objects prior to the H{sub 2} collapse phase; (7) spiral arms in a gravitationally unstable disk are able to stop the inward drift of rock-size solids, even redistributing them to larger radii; and (8) large solids can form spiral arms that are offset from the gaseous spiral arms. We conclude that planet embryo formation can be strongly affected by the growth of solids during the earliest stages of disk accretion.

  17. HD 16771: A lithium-rich giant in the red-clump stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Lambert, David L.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We report the discovery of a young lithium rich giant, HD 16771, in the core-helium burning phase that does not seem to fit existing proposals of Li synthesis near the luminosity function bump or during He-core flash. We aim to understand the nature of Li enrichment in the atmosphere of HD 16771 by exploring various Li enhancement scenarios. Methods: We have collected high-resolution echelle spectra of HD 16771 and derived stellar parameters and chemical abundances for 27 elements by either line equivalent widths or synthetic spectrum analyses. Results: HD 16771 is a Li-rich (log ɛ(Li) = + 2.67 ± 0.10 dex) intermediate mass giant star (M = 2.4 ± 0.1 M⊙) with age ~ 0.76 ± 0.13 Gyr and located at the red giant clump. Kinematics and chemical compositions are consistent with HD 16771 being a member of the Galactic thin disk population. The non-detection of 6Li (<3%), a low carbon isotopic ratio (12C/13C = 12 ± 2), and the slow rotation (vsin i = 2.8 km s-1) all suggest that lithium might have been synthesized in this star. On the contrary, HD 16771 with a mass of 2.4 M⊙ has no chance of encountering luminosity function bump and He-core flash where the possibility of fast deep-mixing for Li enrichment in K giants has been suggested previously. Conclusions: Based of the evolutionary status of this star, we discuss the possibility that 7Li synthesis in HD 16771 is triggered by the engulfment of close-in planet(s) during the RGB phase.

  18. Final Masses of Giant Planets. II. Jupiter Formation in a Gas-depleted Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigawa, Takayuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2016-05-01

    First, we study the final masses of giant planets growing in protoplanetary disks through capture of disk gas, by employing empirical formulae for the gas capture rate and a shallow disk gap model, which are both based on hydrodynamic simulations. We find that, for planets less massive than 10 Jupiter masses, their growth rates are mainly controlled by the gas supply through the global disk accretion, and the gap opening does not limit the accretion. The insufficient gas supply compared with the rapid gas capture causes a depletion of the gas surface density even at the outside the gap, which can create an inner hole in the disk. Second, our findings are applied to the formation of our solar system. For the formation of Jupiter, a very low-mass gas disk of several Jupiter masses is required at the beginning of its gas capture because of the continual capture. Such a low-mass gas disk with sufficient solid material can be formed through viscous evolution from a compact disk of initial size ˜10 au. By viscous evolution with a moderate viscosity of α ˜ 10‑3, most of the disk gas accretes onto the Sun and a widely spread low-mass gas disk remains when the solid core of Jupiter starts gas capture at t ˜ 107 yr. A very low-mass gas disk also provides a plausible path where type I and II planetary migrations are both suppressed significantly. In particular, the type II migration of Jupiter-size planets becomes inefficient because of the additional gas depletion due to the rapid gas capture by such planets.

  19. On the Progenitors of Local Group Novae. II. The Red Giant Nova Rate of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S. C.; Darnley, M. J.; Bode, M. F.; Shafter, A. W.

    2016-02-01

    In our preceding paper, Liverpool Telescope data of M31 novae in eruption were used to facilitate a search for their progenitor systems within archival Hubble Space Telescope data, with the aim of detecting systems with red giant secondaries (RG-novae) or luminous accretion disks. From an input catalog of 38 spectroscopically confirmed novae with archival quiescent observations, likely progenitors were recovered for 11 systems. Here we present the results of the subsequent statistical analysis of the original survey, including possible biases associated with the survey and the M31 nova population in general. As part of this analysis, we examine the distribution of optical decline times (t2) of M31 novae, how the likely bulge and disk nova distributions compare, and how the M31 t2 distribution compares to that of the Milky Way. Using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation, we determine that {30}-10+13% of all M31 nova eruptions can be attributed to RG-nova systems, and at the 99% confidence level, \\gt 10% of all M31 novae are RG-novae. This is the first estimate of a RG-nova rate of an entire galaxy. Our results also imply that RG-novae in M31 are more likely to be associated with the M31 disk population than the bulge; indeed, the results are consistent with all RG-novae residing in the disk. If this result is confirmed in other galaxies, it suggests that any Type Ia supernovae that originate from RG-nova systems are more likely to be associated with younger populations and may be rare in old stellar populations, such as early-type galaxies.

  20. Gas disks to gas giants: simulating the birth of planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Thommes, Edward W; Matsumura, Soko; Rasio, Frederic A

    2008-08-01

    The ensemble of now more than 250 discovered planetary systems displays a wide range of masses, orbits and, in multiple systems, dynamical interactions. These represent the end point of a complex sequence of events, wherein an entire protostellar disk converts itself into a small number of planetary bodies. Here, we present self-consistent numerical simulations of this process, which produce results in agreement with some of the key trends observed in the properties of the exoplanets. Analogs to our own solar system do not appear to be common, originating from disks near the boundary between barren and (giant) planet-forming.

  1. Decoupling of a giant planet from its disk in an inclined binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzari, F.; Picogna, G.

    According to \\cite{Triaud_2010} and \\cite{Albrecht_2012} about 40% of hot Jupiters have orbits significantly tilted respect to the equatorial plane of the star. It has been suggested \\cite{Batygin_2012} that the evolution of a protoplanetary disk under the perturbations of a binary companion may be responsible for the observed spin-orbit misalignment of these exoplanets. A fundamental requirement for this model to work is that the planet is kept within the disk during its precession. In this way the planet would continue its migration by tidal interaction with the disk and, at the same time, once the disk is dissipated it would maintain its inclination. Previous studies seem to suggest that indeed a giant planet is forced to evolve within the disks even in presence of strong perturbing forces as those induced by a companion star. By using two different SPH codes (VINE and phantom) we show that on the long term the planet definitively decouples from the disk evolution and its orbital plane significantly departs from that of the disk. For a detailed analysis an discussion we refer to \\cite{Picogna_2015}.

  2. The Asteroseismic Signature of Magnetic Red Giant Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantiello, Matteo; Fuller, Jim

    2015-08-01

    The Kepler satellite has identified thousands of red giant branch (RGB) stars showing solar-like oscillations. These pulsation modes provide the opportunity to study the deep interiors of stars other than the Sun. We demonstrate that a strong magnetic field in the core of RGB stars can suppress the amplitude of dipolar oscillation modes. Suppressed dipolar modes are indeed observed in about 10% of ascending RGB stars, and we identify these as stars with strongly magnetized cores.The observed fraction and mass distribution of these stars suggests that they could be the descendants of magnetic Ap stars.For the first time, our work allows us to constrain the magnetic field in the deep interiors of a large population of stars. This paves the road for the study of stellar magnetic field evolution, and its role in transporting angular momentum and chemical species.

  3. MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE RATIOS IN {omega} CENTAURI RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, John E.; Yong, David

    2013-05-20

    We have used the high-resolution observations obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope with Ultra-High Resolution Facility (R {approx} 100,000) and at Gemini-S with b-HROS (R {approx} 150,000) to determine magnesium isotope ratios for seven {omega} Cen red giants that cover a range in iron abundance from [Fe/H] = -1.78 to -0.78 dex, and for two red giants in M4 (NGC 6121). The {omega} Cen stars sample both the ''primordial'' (i.e., O-rich, Na- and Al-poor) and the ''extreme'' (O-depleted, Na- and Al-rich) populations in the cluster. The primordial population stars in both {omega} Cen and M4 show ({sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg)/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratios that are consistent with those found for the primordial population in other globular clusters with similar [Fe/H] values. The isotopic ratios for the {omega} Cen extreme stars are also consistent with those for extreme population stars in other clusters. The results for the extreme population stars studied indicate that the {sup 26}Mg/{sup 24}Mg ratio is highest at intermediate metallicities ([Fe/H] < -1.4 dex), and for the highest [Al/Fe] values. Further, the relative abundance of {sup 26}Mg in the extreme population stars is notably higher than that of {sup 25}Mg, in contrast to model predictions. The {sup 25}Mg/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratio in fact does not show any obvious dependence on either [Fe/H] or [Al/Fe] nor, intriguingly, any obvious difference between the primordial and extreme population stars.

  4. Formation of Hydrocarbons in the Outflows from Red Giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Wayne; Kress, Monika; Tielens, Alexander G.

    1995-01-01

    The formation of hydrocarbons in the oxygen-rich outflows from red giants was studied. The existence of organic molecules in such outflows has been known for several years; however, their surprisingly high abundances has been a mystery since all of the carbon had been thought to be irretrievably locked up in CO, the most strongly bound molecule. CO is the first molecule to form from the atoms present in the star's extended atmosphere, and as strong stellar winds drive a cooling outflow, dust grains condense out. In oxygen-rich outflows, the dust is thought to be composed mainly of silicates and other metal oxides. Perhaps the noble metals can condense out in metallic form, in particular the relatively abundant transition metals iron and nickel. We proposed that perhaps the carbon reservoir held as CO can be accessed through a catalytic process involving the chemisorption of CO and H2 onto grains rich in metallic iron. CO and H2 are the two most abundant molecules in circumstellar outflows, and they both are known to dissociate on transition metal surfaces at elevated temperatures, freeing carbon to form organic molecules such as methane. We believe methane is a precursor molecule to the organics observed in oxygen-rich red giants. We have developed a nonequilibrium numerical model of a surface chemical (catalytic) process. Based on this model, we believe that methane can be formed under the conditions present in circumstellar outflows. Although the methane formation rates are exceptionally low under these conditions, over dynamical timescales, a significant amount of CO can be converted to methane and driven further out in the envelope, explaining the presence of organics there.

  5. Tests of two convection theories for red giant and red supergiant envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.; Chin, Chao-Wen

    1995-01-01

    Two theories of stellar envelope convection are considered here in the context of red giants and red supergiants of intermediate to high mass: Boehm-Vitense's standard mixing-length theory (MLT) and Canuto & Mazzitelli's new theory incorporating the full spectrum of turbulence (FST). Both theories assume incompressible convection. Two formulations of the convective mixing length are also evaluated: l proportional to the local pressure scale height (H(sub P)) and l proportional to the distance from the upper boundary of the convection zone (z). Applications to test both theories are made by calculating stellar evolutionary sequences into the red zone (z). Applications to test both theories are made by calculating stellar evolutionary sequences into the red phase of core helium burning. Since the theoretically predicted effective temperatures for cool stars are known to be sensitive to the assigned value of the mixing length, this quantity has been individually calibrated for each evolutionary sequence. The calibration is done in a composite Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the red giant and red supergiant members of well-observed Galactic open clusters. The MLT model requires the constant of proportionality for the convective mixing length to vary by a small but statistically significant amount with stellar mass, whereas the FST model succeeds in all cases with the mixing lenghth simply set equal to z. The structure of the deep stellar interior, however, remains very nearly unaffected by the choices of convection theory and mixing lenghth. Inside the convective envelope itself, a density inversion always occurs, but is somewhat smaller for the convectively more efficient MLT model. On physical grounds the FST model is preferable, and seems to alleviate the problem of finding the proper mixing length.

  6. Management of Giant Calcified Thoracic Disks and Description of the Trench Vertebrectomy Technique

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mahfoudh, Rafid; Mitchell, Paul S.; Wilby, Martin; Crooks, Daniel; Barrett, Chris; Pillay, Robin; Pigott, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Study Design  Case series and review of the literature. Objective  To review the management of giant calcified disks in our large cohort and compare with the existing literature. We discuss our surgical technique. Methods  Twenty-nine cases of herniated thoracic disk between 2000 and 2013 were reviewed. Eighteen patients were identified as having giant calcified thoracic disks, defined as diffusely calcified disks occupying at least 40% of the spinal canal. Demographic data was collected in addition to presentation, imaging findings, operative details, and outcomes using the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale. Results  Giant calcified thoracic disks (GCTDs) are unique clinical entities that require special neurosurgical consideration owing to significant (≥40%) involvement of the spinal canal and compression of the spinal cord, often leading to myelopathy. The median age at diagnosis was 51.2 years (range 37 to 70) with the mean duration of presenting symptoms being 9.9 months (range 2 weeks to 3 years). Seventeen (94.4%) patients presented with at least one sign of myelopathy (hyperreflexia, hypertonia, bladder or bowel dysfunction) with the remaining 1 (5.6%) patient presenting with symptoms in keeping with radiculopathy. Thoracotomy was performed on 17 (94.4%) patients, and 1 (5.6%) patient had a costotransverse approach. Mean follow-up was 19.8 months (range 7 months to 2 years). mJOA score improved in 15 (83.3%) patients. mJOA scores in the other patients remained stable. Conclusions  GCTDs are difficult neurosurgical challenges owing to their size, degree of spinal cord compression, and consistency. We recommend a trench vertebrectomy via a thoracotomy in their surgical management. This procedure safely allows the identification of normal dura on either side of the compressed segment prior to performing a diskectomy. Excellent fusion rates were achieved with insertion of rib head autograft in the trench. PMID:27556000

  7. Galaxy Zoo Hubble: First results of the redshift evolution of disk fraction in the red sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Melanie; Willett, Kyle; Fortson, Lucy; Scarlata, Claudia; Beck, Melanie; Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The transition of galaxies from the blue cloud to the red sequence is commonly linked to a morphological transformation from disk to elliptical structure. However, the correlation between color and morphology is not one-to-one, as evidenced by the existence of a significant population of red disks. As this stage in a galaxy's evolution is likely to be transitory, the mechanism by which red disks are formed offers insight to the processes that trigger quenching of star formation and the galaxy's position on the star-forming sequence. To study the population of disk galaxies in the red sequence as a function of cosmic time, we utilize data from the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble project, which uses crowdsourced visual classifications of images of galaxies selected from the AEGIS, COSMOS, GEMS, and GOODS surveys. We construct a large sample of over 10,000 disk galaxies spanning a wide (0 < z < 1.0) redshift range. We use this sample to examine the change in the fraction of disks in the red sequence with respect to all disks from z˜1 to the present day. Preliminary results confirm that the fraction of disks in the red sequence decreases as the Universe evolves. We discuss the quenching processes which may explain this trend, and which morphological transformations are most affected by it.

  8. DISCOVERY OF SUPER-Li-RICH RED GIANTS IN DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Evan N.; Fu, Xiaoting; Deng, Licai; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2012-06-10

    Stars destroy lithium (Li) in their normal evolution. The convective envelopes of evolved red giants reach temperatures of millions of kelvin, hot enough for the {sup 7}Li(p, {alpha}){sup 4}He reaction to burn Li efficiently. Only about 1% of first-ascent red giants more luminous than the luminosity function bump in the red giant branch exhibit A(Li) > 1.5. Nonetheless, Li-rich red giants do exist. We present 15 Li-rich red giants-14 of which are new discoveries-among a sample of 2054 red giants in Milky Way dwarf satellite galaxies. Our sample more than doubles the number of low-mass, metal-poor ([Fe/H] {approx}< -0.7) Li-rich red giants, and it includes the most-metal-poor Li-enhanced star known ([Fe/H] = -2.82, A(Li){sub NLTE} = 3.15). Because most of the stars have Li abundances larger than the universe's primordial value, the Li in these stars must have been created rather than saved from destruction. These Li-rich stars appear like other stars in the same galaxies in every measurable regard other than Li abundance. We consider the possibility that Li enrichment is a universal phase of evolution that affects all stars, and it seems rare only because it is brief.

  9. The Keck Aperture Masking Experiment: Dust Enshrouded Red Giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blasius, T. D.; Monnier, J. D.; Tuthill, P. G.; Danchi, W. C.; Anderson, M.

    2012-01-01

    While the importance of dusty asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to galactic chemical enrichment is widely recognised, a sophisticated understanding of the dust formation and wind-driving mechanisms has proven elusive due in part to the difficulty in spatially-resolving the dust formation regions themselves. We have observed twenty dust-enshrouded AGB stars as part of the Keck Aperture Masking Experiment, resolving all of them in multiple near-infrared bands between 1.5 m and 3.1 m. We find 45% of the targets to show measurable elongations that, when correcting for the greater distances of the targets, would correspond to significantly asymmetric dust shells on par with the well-known cases of IRC +10216 or CIT 6. Using radiative transfer models, we find the sublimation temperature of Tsub(silicates) = 1130 90K and Tsub(amorphous carbon) = 1170 60 K, both somewhat lower than expected from laboratory measurements and vastly below temperatures inferred from the inner edge of YSO disks. The fact that O-rich and C-rich dust types showed the same sublimation temperature was surprising as well. For the most optically-thick shells ( 2.2 m > 2), the temperature profile of the inner dust shell is observed to change substantially, an effect we suggest could arise when individual dust clumps become optically-thick at the highest mass-loss rates.

  10. On the growth and orbital evolution of giant planets in layered protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierens, A.; Nelson, R. P.

    2010-09-01

    Aims: We present the results of hydrodynamic simulations of the growth and orbital evolution of giant planets embedded in a protoplanetary disk with a dead-zone. The aim is to examine to what extent the presence of a dead-zone affects the rates of mass accretion and migration for giant planets. Methods: We performed 3D numerical simulations using a grid-based hydrodynamics code. In these simulations of laminar, non-magnetised disks, the dead-zone is treated as a region where the vertical profile of the viscosity depends on the distance from the equatorial plane. We consider dead-zones with vertical sizes, HDZ, ranging from 0 to HDZ = 2.3 H, where H is the disk scale-height. For all models, the vertically integrated viscous stress, and the related mass flux through the disk, have the same value (equivalent to 10-8 M⊙ yr-1), such that the simulations test the dependence of planetary mass accretion and migration on the vertical distribution of the viscous stress (and mass flux). For each model, an embedded 30 M_⊕ planet on a fixed circular orbit is allowed to accrete gas from the disk. Once the planet mass becomes equal to that of Saturn or Jupiter, we allow the planet orbit to evolve due to gravitational interaction with the disk. Results: We find that the time scale over which a protoplanet grows to become a giant planet is essentially independent of the dead-zone size, and depends only on the total rate at which the disk viscously supplies material to the planet. For Saturn-mass planets, the migration rate depends only weakly on the size of the dead-zone for HDZ ≤ 1.5 H, but becomes noticeably slower when HDZ = 2.3 H. This effect is apparently due to the desaturation of corotation torques which originate from residual material in the partial-gap region. For Jupiter-mass planets, there is a clear tendency for the migration to proceed more slowly as the size of the dead-zone increases, with migration rates differing by approximately 40% for models with HDZ = 0

  11. CYANOGEN IN NGC 1851 RED GIANT BRANCH AND ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS: QUADRIMODAL DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S. W.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Lattanzio, J. C.; Angelou, G. C.; D'Orazi, V.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.; Martell, S. L.; Grundahl, F.; Sneden, C. E-mail: david.yong@anu.edu.au

    2012-12-10

    The Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 has raised much interest since Hubble Space Telescope photometry revealed that it hosts a double subgiant branch. Here we report on our homogeneous study into the cyanogen (CN) band strengths in the red giant branch (RGB) population (17 stars) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) population (21 stars) using AAOmega/2dF spectra with R {approx} 3000. We discover that NGC 1851 hosts a quadrimodal distribution of CN band strengths in its RGB and AGB populations. This result supports the merger formation scenario proposed for this cluster, such that the CN quadrimodality could be explained by the superposition of two 'normal' bimodal populations. A small sample overlap with an abundance catalog allowed us to tentatively explore the relationship between our CN populations and a range of elemental abundances. We found a striking correlation between CN and [O/Na]. We also found that the four CN peaks may be paired-the two CN-weaker populations being associated with low Ba and the two CN-stronger populations with high Ba. If true, then s-process abundances would be a good diagnostic for disentangling the two original clusters in the merger scenario. More observations are needed to confirm the quadrimodality and also the relationship between the subpopulations. We also report CN results for NGC 288 as a comparison. Our relatively large samples of AGB stars show that both clusters have a bias toward CN-weak AGB populations.

  12. CLOSE TO THE DREDGE: PRECISE X-RAY C AND N ABUNDANCES IN {lambda} ANDROMEDA AND ITS PRECOCIOUS RED GIANT BRANCH MIXING PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Ball, B.; Eldridge, John J.; Ness, J.-U.; Stancliffe, Richard J. E-mail: jje@ast.cam.ac.uk E-mail: richard.stancliffe@monash.edu

    2011-11-15

    Chandra LETG+HRC-S and XMM-Newton RGS spectra of H-like C and N lines formed in the corona of the primary star of the RS CVn-type binary {lambda} And, a mildly metal-poor G8 III-IV first ascent giant that completed dredge-up {approx}50 Myr ago, have been used to make a precise measurement of its surface C/N ratio. We obtain the formal result [C/N] = 0.03 {+-} 0.07, which is typical of old disk giants and in agreement with standard dredge-up theory for stars {approx}< 1 M{sub sun}. In contrast, these stars as a group, including {lambda} And, have {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C {approx}< 20, which is much lower than standard model predictions. We show that the abundances of the old disk giants are consistent with models including thermohaline mixing that begins at the red giant branch luminosity function 'bump'. Instead, {lambda} And indicates that the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C anomaly can be present immediately following dredge-up, contrary to current models of extra mixing on the red giant branch. In the context of other recent C and N abundance results for RS CVn-type binaries it seems likely that the anomaly is associated with either strong magnetic activity, fast rotation, or both, rather than close binarity itself.

  13. The CoRoT-GES Collaboration: Improving red giants spectroscopic surface gravitity and abundances with asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, M.; Chiappini, C.; Miglio, A.; Montalbán, J.; Rodrigues, T.; Mosser, B.; Anders, F.; the CoRoT RG Group; GES Consortium, the

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays large spectroscopic surveys, like the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES), provide unique stellar databases for better investigating the formation and evolution of our Galaxy. Great attention must be paid to the accuracy of the basic stellar properties derived: large uncertainties in stellar parameters lead to large uncertainties in abundances, distances and ages. Asteroseismology has a key role in this context: when seismic information is combined with information derived from spectroscopic analysis, highly precise constraints on distances, masses, extinction and ages of red giants can be obtained. In the light of this promising joint action, we started the CoRoT-GES collaboration. We present a set of 1111 CoRoT stars, observed by GES from December 2011 to July 2014, these stars belong to the CoRoT field LRc01, pointing at the inner Galactic disk. Among these stars, 534 have reliable global seismic parameters. By combining seismic informations and spectroscopy, we derived precise stellar parameters, ages, kinematic and orbital parameters and detailed element abundances for this sample of stars. We also show that, thanks to asteroseismology, we are able to obtain a higher precision than what can be achieved by the standard spectroscopic means. This sample of CoRoT red giants, spanning Galactocentric distances from 5 to 8 kpc and a wide age interval (1-13 Gyr), provides us a representative sample for the inner disk population.

  14. Mass Estimates of a Giant Planet in a Protoplanetary Disk from the Gap Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagawa, Kazuhiro D.; Muto, Takayuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Tanigawa, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Taku; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake

    2015-06-01

    A giant planet embedded in a protoplanetary disk forms a gap. An analytic relationship among the gap depth, planet mass Mp, disk aspect ratio hp, and viscosity α has been found recently, and the gap depth can be written in terms of a single parameter K={{({{M}p}/{{M}*})}2}hp-5{{α }-1}. We discuss how observed gap features can be used to constrain the disk and/or planet parameters based on the analytic formula for the gap depth. The constraint on the disk aspect ratio is critical in determining the planet mass so the combination of the observations of the temperature and the image can provide a constraint on the planet mass. We apply the formula for the gap depth to observations of HL Tau and HD 169142. In the case of HL Tau, we propose that a planet with ≳ 0.3 MJ is responsible for the observed gap at 30 AU from the central star based on the estimate that the gap depth is ≲ 1/3. In the case of HD 169142, the planet mass that causes the gap structure recently found by VLA is ≳ 0.4{{M}J}. We also argue that the spiral structure, if observed, can be used to estimate the lower limit of the disk aspect ratio and the planet mass.

  15. A compact system of small planets around a former red-giant star.

    PubMed

    Charpinet, S; Fontaine, G; Brassard, P; Green, E M; Van Grootel, V; Randall, S K; Silvotti, R; Baran, A S; Ostensen, R H; Kawaler, S D; Telting, J H

    2011-12-22

    Planets that orbit their parent star at less than about one astronomical unit (1 AU is the Earth-Sun distance) are expected to be engulfed when the star becomes a red giant. Previous observations have revealed the existence of post-red-giant host stars with giant planets orbiting as close as 0.116 AU or with brown dwarf companions in tight orbits, showing that these bodies can survive engulfment. What has remained unclear is whether planets can be dragged deeper into the red-giant envelope without being disrupted and whether the evolution of the parent star itself could be affected. Here we report the presence of two nearly Earth-sized bodies orbiting the post-red-giant, hot B subdwarf star KIC 05807616 at distances of 0.0060 and 0.0076 AU, with orbital periods of 5.7625 and 8.2293 hours, respectively. These bodies probably survived deep immersion in the former red-giant envelope. They may be the dense cores of evaporated giant planets that were transported closer to the star during the engulfment and triggered the mass loss necessary for the formation of the hot B subdwarf, which might also explain how some stars of this type did not form in binary systems. PMID:22193103

  16. A compact system of small planets around a former red-giant star.

    PubMed

    Charpinet, S; Fontaine, G; Brassard, P; Green, E M; Van Grootel, V; Randall, S K; Silvotti, R; Baran, A S; Ostensen, R H; Kawaler, S D; Telting, J H

    2011-12-21

    Planets that orbit their parent star at less than about one astronomical unit (1 AU is the Earth-Sun distance) are expected to be engulfed when the star becomes a red giant. Previous observations have revealed the existence of post-red-giant host stars with giant planets orbiting as close as 0.116 AU or with brown dwarf companions in tight orbits, showing that these bodies can survive engulfment. What has remained unclear is whether planets can be dragged deeper into the red-giant envelope without being disrupted and whether the evolution of the parent star itself could be affected. Here we report the presence of two nearly Earth-sized bodies orbiting the post-red-giant, hot B subdwarf star KIC 05807616 at distances of 0.0060 and 0.0076 AU, with orbital periods of 5.7625 and 8.2293 hours, respectively. These bodies probably survived deep immersion in the former red-giant envelope. They may be the dense cores of evaporated giant planets that were transported closer to the star during the engulfment and triggered the mass loss necessary for the formation of the hot B subdwarf, which might also explain how some stars of this type did not form in binary systems.

  17. CN and CH Bandstrengths in Bright Globular Cluster Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, Sarah L.; Smith, G. H.

    2006-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a survey of CN and CH bandstrengths in bright red giant stars (MV -1.5) in Galactic globular clusters. Our cluster sample spans a wide metallicity range, from M92 ([Fe/H]=-2.28) to M71 ([Fe/H]=-0.73). The data were all taken using the Shane 120-inch telescope and the Kast spectrograph at Lick Observatory; the homogeneity of the sample makes it ideal for a comparative study of carbon depletion (and therefore deep mixing rate) as a function of stellar metallicity. Thus far we have measured molecular bandstrength indices for CH and CN, as well as indices for Ca and Mg lines; the task of converting the index measurements to carbon and nitrogen abundances will require comparisons with synthetic spectra. The molecular CN index behaves as expected from a study of the literature: within individual clusters, it varies significantly from star to star. The data also allow us to examine the dependence of the Ca and Mg indices on cluster metallicity at a given MV. The index MHK shows clear sensitivity to [Fe/H] across the full metallicity range of our sample. A similar study is also in progress involving analogous stars in the open clusters NGC 188, NGC 2158, NGC 6791, and NGC 7789 (-0.3 < [Fe/H] < +0.3).

  18. Grain Growth and Settling: An Implication for Disk Instability and Giant Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Debanjan; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    Formation of super-massive planets at a distance ranging from around 5 to 20 AU cannot be adequately explained by core accretion, even in the most optimistic scenario. The only promising alternative is the fragmentation mechanism in which giant planets are formed directly from the contraction of a clump of gas produced by gravitational instability. Here, we investigate whether simultaneous grain growth and settling can trigger gravitational instability at these distances. We study the physics of grain growth and how grains of different sizes are subject to sedimentation using a sophisticated collision and settling model starting with an MRN dust size distribution consistent with that of ISM. We capture the full physics of disk turbulence, dust diffusion and vertical settling, followed by a wavelength dependent opacity calculation including constant porosity. The thermal profile of the disk is re-calculated frequently with a detailed radiative transfer code RadMC. More importantly, our aim is to check whether grain growth and dust settling can effectively change the opacity for the gas and affect the stability of the disk by changing the ToomreQ parameter. We take a prototype disk which is hot on the surface and has a quiescent midplane, which, because of being less turbulent allows the grains to grow more efficiently. In this context, we examine the gravitational stability of a layered accretion disk experiencing dust-settling and review the possibilities of super-massive planet formation at the range of distances concerned. We also present a steady state grain abundance and the opacity profile at different time of disk evolution. We compare that with the standard viscous accretion disk.

  19. The tip of the red giant branch as a distance indicator for resolved galaxies. 2: Computer simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madore, Barry F.; Freedman, Wendy L.

    1995-01-01

    Based on both empirical data for the nearby galaxies, and on computer simulations, we show that measuring the position of the tip of the first-ascent red-giant branch provides a means of obtaining the distances to nearby galaxies with a precision and accuracy comparable to using Cepheids and/or RR Lyrae variables. We present an analysis of synthetic I vs (V-I) color magnitude diagrams of Population 2 systems to investigate the use of the observed discontinuity in the I-band luminosity function as a primary distance indicator. In the simulations we quantify the effects (1) signal to noise, (2) crowding, (3) population size, and (4) non-giant-branch-star contamination, on the method adopted for detecting the discontinuity,, measuring its luminosity, and estimating its uncertainity. We discuss sources of systematic error in the context of observable parameters, such as the signal-to-noise ratio and/or surface brightness. The simulations are then scaled to observed color-magnitude diagrams. It is concluded, that from the ground the tip of the red-giant-branch method can be sucessfully used to determine distances accurate to +/- 10% for galaxies out to 3 Mpc (mu approximately 27.5 mag); and from space a factor of four further in distance (mu approximately 30.6 mag) can be reached using HST. This method can be applied whereever a metal-poor population (-2.0 less than Z less than -0.7) of red-giant stars is detected (whose age is in the range 7-17 Gyr), whether that population resides in the halo of a spiral galaxy, the extended outer disk of a dwarf irregular, or in the outer periphery of an elliptical galaxy.

  20. Insights into Planet Formation from Debris Disks - II. Giant Impacts in Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Mark C.; Jackson, Alan P.

    2016-03-01

    Giant impacts refer to collisions between two objects each of which is massive enough to be considered at least a planetary embryo. The putative collision suffered by the proto-Earth that created the Moon is a prime example, though most Solar System bodies bear signatures of such collisions. Current planet formation models predict that an epoch of giant impacts may be inevitable, and observations of debris around other stars are providing mounting evidence that giant impacts feature in the evolution of many planetary systems. This chapter reviews giant impacts, focussing on what we can learn about planet formation by studying debris around other stars. Giant impact debris evolves through mutual collisions and dynamical interactions with planets. General aspects of this evolution are outlined, noting the importance of the collision-point geometry. The detectability of the debris is discussed using the example of the Moon-forming impact. Such debris could be detectable around another star up to 10 Myr post-impact, but model uncertainties could reduce detectability to a few 100 yr window. Nevertheless the 3 % of young stars with debris at levels expected during terrestrial planet formation provide valuable constraints on formation models; implications for super-Earth formation are also discussed. Variability recently observed in some bright disks promises to illuminate the evolution during the earliest phases when vapour condensates may be optically thick and acutely affected by the collision-point geometry. The outer reaches of planetary systems may also exhibit signatures of giant impacts, such as the clumpy debris structures seen around some stars.

  1. Mass-losing peculiar red giants - The comparison between theory and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.

    1989-01-01

    The mass loss from evolved red giants is considered. It seems that red giants on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) are losing between 0.0003 and 0.0006 solar mass/sq kpc yr in the solar neighborhood. If all the main sequence stars between 1 and 5 solar masses ultimately evolve into white dwarfs with masses of 0.7 solar mass, the predicted mass loss rate in the solar neighborhood from these stars is 0.0008 solar mass/sq kpc yr. Although there are still uncertainties, it appears that there is no strong disagreement between theory and observation.

  2. Disk evolution, element abundances and cloud properties of young gas giant planets.

    PubMed

    Helling, Christiane; Woitke, Peter; Rimmer, Paul B; Kamp, Inga; Thi, Wing-Fai; Meijerink, Rowin

    2014-04-14

    We discuss the chemical pre-conditions for planet formation, in terms of gas and ice abundances in a protoplanetary disk, as function of time and position, and the resulting chemical composition and cloud properties in the atmosphere when young gas giant planets form, in particular discussing the effects of unusual, non-solar carbon and oxygen abundances. Large deviations between the abundances of the host star and its gas giants seem likely to occur if the planet formation follows the core-accretion scenario. These deviations stem from the separate evolution of gas and dust in the disk, where the dust forms the planet cores, followed by the final run-away accretion of the left-over gas. This gas will contain only traces of elements like C, N and O, because those elements have frozen out as ices. PRODIMO protoplanetary disk models are used to predict the chemical evolution of gas and ice in the midplane. We find that cosmic rays play a crucial role in slowly un-blocking the CO, where the liberated oxygen forms water, which then freezes out quickly. Therefore, the C/O ratio in the gas phase is found to gradually increase with time, in a region bracketed by the water and CO ice-lines. In this regions, C/O is found to approach unity after about 5 Myrs, scaling with the cosmic ray ionization rate assumed. We then explore how the atmospheric chemistry and cloud properties in young gas giants are affected when the non-solar C/O ratios predicted by the disk models are assumed. The DRIFT cloud formation model is applied to study the formation of atmospheric clouds under the influence of varying premordial element abundances and its feedback onto the local gas. We demonstrate that element depletion by cloud formation plays a crucial role in converting an oxygen-rich atmosphere gas into carbon-rich gas when non-solar, premordial element abundances are considered as suggested by disk models.

  3. Disk Evolution, Element Abundances and Cloud Properties of Young Gas Giant Planets

    PubMed Central

    Helling, Christiane; Woitke, Peter; Rimmer, Paul B.; Kamp, Inga; Thi, Wing-Fai; Meijerink, Rowin

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the chemical pre-conditions for planet formation, in terms of gas and ice abundances in a protoplanetary disk, as function of time and position, and the resulting chemical composition and cloud properties in the atmosphere when young gas giant planets form, in particular discussing the effects of unusual, non-solar carbon and oxygen abundances. Large deviations between the abundances of the host star and its gas giants seem likely to occur if the planet formation follows the core-accretion scenario. These deviations stem from the separate evolution of gas and dust in the disk, where the dust forms the planet cores, followed by the final run-away accretion of the left-over gas. This gas will contain only traces of elements like C, N and O, because those elements have frozen out as ices. ProDiMo protoplanetary disk models are used to predict the chemical evolution of gas and ice in the midplane. We find that cosmic rays play a crucial role in slowly un-blocking the CO, where the liberated oxygen forms water, which then freezes out quickly. Therefore, the C/O ratio in the gas phase is found to gradually increase with time, in a region bracketed by the water and CO ice-lines. In this regions, C/O is found to approach unity after about 5 Myrs, scaling with the cosmic ray ionization rate assumed. We then explore how the atmospheric chemistry and cloud properties in young gas giants are affected when the non-solar C/O ratios predicted by the disk models are assumed. The Drift cloud formation model is applied to study the formation of atmospheric clouds under the influence of varying premordial element abundances and its feedback onto the local gas. We demonstrate that element depletion by cloud formation plays a crucial role in converting an oxygen-rich atmosphere gas into carbon-rich gas when non-solar, premordial element abundances are considered as suggested by disk models. PMID:25370190

  4. Testing the core of red-giant-branch stars using the period spacing of gravity modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagarde, Nadège; Diego, Bossini; Miglio, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    The blooming of asteroseismology of red-giant stars with the CoRoT and Kepler space missions paves the way to a better understanding of the stellar structure and physical processes occurring in low-mass-giant stars.We investigate the effect of rotation on the asymptotic period spacing of gravity modes (DP) and on the coupling strength between acoustic and gravity modes. We focus on red-giant-branch stars (RGB) which ignite He in degenerate conditions (M<2.0Msun), and we compare standard models with those including the effects of rotation and overshooting beyond the convective core.We find that, in the case of red-giant stars below the RGB bump, additional transport processes of chemicals have an impact on DP, hence on the determination of the stellar mass when DP is used as a constraint. Moreover we show that the coupling strength gives a direct signature of rotation occuring in red-giant stars. Whether this signature can be inferred from current data needs however to be investigated further. Finally we show that, irrespective of additional transport processes occurring during the main sequence, the period spacing of red-giant stars brighter than the RGB bump is an accurate proxy for the stellar luminosity, due to the well known relation between MHecore and luminosity.

  5. Lithium in Open Cluster Red Giants Hosting Substellar Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2016-02-01

    We have measured stellar parameters, [Fe/H], lithium abundances, rotation, and 12C/13C in a small sample of red giants (RGs) in three open clusters that are each home to a RG star that hosts a substellar companion (SSC) (NGC 2423 3, NGC 4349 127, and BD+12 1917 in M67). Our goal is to explore whether the presence of SSCs influences the Li content. Both 12C/13C and stellar rotation are measured as additional tracers of stellar mixing. One of the companion hosts, NGC 2423 3, is found to be Li-rich with A(Li){}{{NLTE}} = 1.56 dex, and this abundance is significantly higher than the A(Li) of the two comparison stars in NGC 2423. All three SSC hosts have the highest A(Li) and 12C/13C when compared to the control RGs in their respective clusters; however, except for NGC 2423 3, at least one control star has similarly high abundances within the uncertainties. Higher A(Li) could suggest that the formation or presence of planets plays a role in the degree of internal mixing on or before the RG branch. However, a multitude of factors affect A(Li) during the RG phase, and when the abundances of our sample are compared with the abundances of RGs in other open clusters available in the literature, we find that they all fall well within a much larger distribution of A(Li) and 12C/13C. Thus, even the high Li in NGC 2423 3 cannot be concretely tied to the presence of the SSC.

  6. Lithium in Open Cluster Red Giants Hosting Substellar Companions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured stellar parameters, [Fe/H], lithium abundances, rotation, and (12)C/13C in a small sample of red giants (RGs) in three open clusters that are each home to a RG star that hosts a substellar companion (SSC) (NGC 2423 3, NGC 4349 127, and BD+12 1917 in M67). Our goal is to explore whether the presence of SSCs influences the Li content. Both (12)C/13C and stellar rotation are measured as additional tracers of stellar mixing. One of the companion hosts, NGC 2423?3, is found to be Li-rich with A(Li)(sub NLTE) = 1.56 dex, and this abundance is significantly higher than the A(Li) of the two comparison stars in NGC 2423. All three SSC hosts have the highest A(Li) and (12)C/13C when compared to the control RGs in their respective clusters; however, except for NGC 2423?3, at least one control star has similarly high abundances within the uncertainties. Higher A(Li) could suggest that the formation or presence of planets plays a role in the degree of internal mixing on or before the RG branch. However, a multitude of factors affect A(Li) during the RG phase, and when the abundances of our sample are compared with the abundances of RGs in other open clusters available in the literature, we find that they all fall well within a much larger distribution of A(Li) and (12)C/13C. Thus, even the high Li in NGC 2423 3 cannot be concretely tied to the presence of the SSC.

  7. Gap formation in a self-gravitating disk and the associated migration of the embedded giant planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Hui-Gen; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Wittenmyer, Robert A.

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of our recent study on the interactions between a giant planet and a self-gravitating gas disk. We investigate how the disk's self-gravity affects the gap formation process and the migration of the giant planet. Two series of 1-D and 2-D hydrodynamic simulations are performed. We select several surface densities and focus on the gravitationally stable region. To obtain more reliable gravity torques exerted on the planet, a refined treatment of the disk's gravity is adopted in the vicinity of the planet. Our results indicate that the net effect of the disk's self-gravity on the gap formation process depends on the surface density of the disk. We notice that there are two critical values, ΣI and ΣII. When the surface density of the disk is lower than the first one, Σ0 < ΣI, the effect of self-gravity suppresses the formation of a gap. When Σ0 > ΣI, the self-gravity of the gas tends to benefit the gap formation process and enlarges the width/depth of the gap. According to our 1-D and 2-D simulations, we estimate the first critical surface density to be ΣI ≈ 0.8 MMSN. This effect increases until the surface density reaches the second critical value ΣII. When Σ0 > ΣII, the gravitational turbulence in the disk becomes dominant and the gap formation process is suppressed again. Our 2-D simulations show that this critical surface density is around 3.5 MMSN. We also study the associated orbital evolution of a giant planet. Under the effect of the disk's self-gravity, the migration rate of the giant planet increases when the disk is dominated by gravitational turbulence. We show that the migration timescale correlates with the effective viscosity and can be up to 104 yr.

  8. Red giant stars from Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. The general field

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y. Q.; Zhao, G.; Carrell, K.; Zhao, J. K.; Tan, K. F.; Nissen, P. E.; Wei, P. E-mail: pen@phys.au.dk

    2014-11-01

    We have obtained a sample of ∼22,000 red giant branch (RGB) stars based on stellar parameters, provided by the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the CH(G)/MgH indices, measured from the included spectra. The Galactic rest-frame velocity of V {sub gsr} versus longitude for the sample shows the existence of several groups of stars from globular clusters and known streams. Excluding these substructures, a sample of ∼16,000 RGB stars from the general field is used to investigate the properties of the thick disk, the inner halo, and the outer halo of our Galaxy. The metallicity and rotational velocity distributions are investigated for stars at 0 kpc < |Z| < 10 kpc. It is found that the canonical thick disk dominates at 0 kpc < |Z| < 2 kpc and its contribution becomes negligible at |Z| > 3 kpc. The MWTD is present and overlaps with the inner halo at 1 kpc < |Z| < 3 kpc. The inner halo starts at 2 kpc < |Z| < 3 kpc and becomes the dominated population for 4 kpc < |Z| < 10 kpc. For halo stars with |Z| > 5 kpc, bimodal metallicity distributions are found for 20 kpc < |Z| < 25 kpc and 35 kpc < RR < 45 kpc, which suggests a dual halo, the inner and the outer halo, as reported in Carollo et al. at low |Z| values. The peak of metallicity for the inner halo is at [Fe/H] ∼ –1.6 and appears to be at [Fe/H] ∼ –2.3 for the outer halo. The transition point from the inner to the outer halo is located at |Z| ∼ 20 kpc and RR ∼ 35 kpc.

  9. THE GEMINI PLANET-FINDING CAMPAIGN: THE FREQUENCY OF GIANT PLANETS AROUND DEBRIS DISK STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Ftaclas, Christ; Chun, Mark; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Matthias; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Kuchner, Marc; Reid, I. Neill; De Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete M.; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Boss, Alan; Lin, Douglas N. C.; and others

    2013-08-20

    We have completed a high-contrast direct imaging survey for giant planets around 57 debris disk stars as part of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. We achieved median H-band contrasts of 12.4 mag at 0.''5 and 14.1 mag at 1'' separation. Follow-up observations of the 66 candidates with projected separation <500 AU show that all of them are background objects. To establish statistical constraints on the underlying giant planet population based on our imaging data, we have developed a new Bayesian formalism that incorporates (1) non-detections, (2) single-epoch candidates, (3) astrometric and (4) photometric information, and (5) the possibility of multiple planets per star to constrain the planet population. Our formalism allows us to include in our analysis the previously known {beta} Pictoris and the HR 8799 planets. Our results show at 95% confidence that <13% of debris disk stars have a {>=}5 M{sub Jup} planet beyond 80 AU, and <21% of debris disk stars have a {>=}3 M{sub Jup} planet outside of 40 AU, based on hot-start evolutionary models. We model the population of directly imaged planets as d {sup 2} N/dMda{proportional_to}m {sup {alpha}} a {sup {beta}}, where m is planet mass and a is orbital semi-major axis (with a maximum value of a{sub max}). We find that {beta} < -0.8 and/or {alpha} > 1.7. Likewise, we find that {beta} < -0.8 and/or a{sub max} < 200 AU. For the case where the planet frequency rises sharply with mass ({alpha} > 1.7), this occurs because all the planets detected to date have masses above 5 M{sub Jup}, but planets of lower mass could easily have been detected by our search. If we ignore the {beta} Pic and HR 8799 planets (should they belong to a rare and distinct group), we find that <20% of debris disk stars have a {>=}3 M{sub Jup} planet beyond 10 AU, and {beta} < -0.8 and/or {alpha} < -1.5. Likewise, {beta} < -0.8 and/or a{sub max} < 125 AU. Our Bayesian constraints are not strong enough to reveal any dependence of the planet

  10. A SUBSTANTIAL DUST DISK SURROUNDING AN ACTIVELY ACCRETING FIRST-ASCENT GIANT STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Melis, C.; Zuckerman, B.; Rhee, Joseph H.; Metchev, Stanimir; Song, Inseok

    2009-05-10

    We report identification of the first unambiguous example of what appears to be a new class of first-ascent giant stars that are actively accreting gas and dust and that are surrounded by substantial dusty disks. These old stars, who are nearing the end of their lives, are experiencing a rebirth into characteristics typically associated with newborn stars. The F2-type first-ascent giant star TYC 4144 329 2 is in a wide separation binary system with an otherwise normal G8 IV star, TYC 4144 329 1. From Keck near-infrared imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy, we are able to determine that these two stars are {approx}1 Gyr old and reside at a distance of {approx}550 pc. One possible explanation for the origin of the accreting material is common-envelope interaction with a low-mass stellar or substellar companion. The gaseous and dusty material around TYC 4144 329 2, as it is similar to the primordial disks observed around young classical T Tauri stars, could potentially give rise to a new generation of planets and/or planetesimals.

  11. Discovery of Giant X-Ray Disk Sheds Light on Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Ohio University astronomers have discovered the largest disk of hot, X-ray emitting gas ever observed in the universe: At 90,000 light years in diameter, it's about 100,000 times the size of any comparable object. The disk, spinning through a distant galaxy, is more than just an interstellar oddity, the researchers say. The object could offer new information about the way certain galaxies form and evolve. About 20 percent of all galaxies are elliptical, the largest of the three types of galaxies in the universe. They differ from spiral galaxies like the Milky Way, as they lack new stars and spiral "arms." Scientists once believed that elliptical galaxies were ancient, simple systems that contained only old stars and formed in the early days of the universe. But new research suggests elliptical galaxies are more complex and dynamic. "It used to be thought that galaxies form and then sit there and age quietly over time. But now we understand that galaxies live, in the sense that there's an interplay of gas and stars," said Thomas Statler, an associate professor of physics and astronomy and lead author of the study, published in the Dec. 20 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. The newly discovered X-ray disk offers more evidence for that argument. Using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, an orbiting spacecraft that houses the most powerful X-ray telescope in existence, the astronomers discovered the disk while analyzing data collected from NGC 1700, a young elliptical galaxy about 160 million light years from Earth. Giant in size and about 8 million degrees in temperature, the disk was an unexpected find for Statler and colleague Brian McNamara. But while its gargantuan scale is striking, the disk also yielded another surprise: The hot gas is not in calm balance with the gravitational forces as expected, but spinning through the galaxy. In fact, the giant, rotating X-ray disk suggests that this elliptical galaxy and perhaps others like it wasn't created by the merger of

  12. An Extreme Analogue of ɛ Aurigae: An M-giant Eclipsed Every 69 Years by a Large Opaque Disk Surrounding a Small Hot Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Lund, Michael B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua; Tang, Sumin; Kafka, Stella; Gaudi, B. Scott; Conroy, Kyle E.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.

    2016-05-01

    We present TYC 2505-672-1 as a newly discovered and remarkable eclipsing system comprising an M-type red giant that undergoes a ˜3.45 year long, near-total eclipse (depth of ˜4.5 mag) with a very long period of ˜69.1 years. TYC 2505-672-1 is now the longest-period eclipsing binary system yet discovered, more than twice as long as that of the currently longest-period system, ɛ Aurigae. We show from analysis of the light curve including both our own data and historical data spanning more than 120 years and from modeling of the spectral energy distribution, both before and during eclipse, that the red giant primary is orbited by a moderately hot source (Teff ≈ 8000 K) that is itself surrounded by an extended, opaque circumstellar disk. From the measured ratio of luminosities, the radius of the hot companion must be in the range of 0.1-0.5 R⊙ (depending on the assumed radius of the red giant primary), which is an order of magnitude smaller than that for a main sequence A star and 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than that for a white dwarf. The companion is therefore most likely a “stripped red giant” subdwarf-B type star destined to become a He white dwarf. It is, however, somewhat cooler than most sdB stars, implying a very low mass for this “pre-He-WD” star. The opaque disk surrounding this hot source may be a remnant of the stripping of its former hydrogen envelope. However, it is puzzling how this object became stripped, given that it is at present so distant (orbital semimajor axis of ˜24 au) from the current red giant primary star. Extrapolating from our calculated ephemeris, the next eclipse should begin in early UT 2080 April and end in mid UT 2083 September (eclipse center UT 2081 December 24). In the meantime, radial velocity observations would establish the masses of the components, and high-cadence UV observations could potentially reveal oscillations of the hot companion that would further constrain its evolutionary status. In any case

  13. An Extreme Analogue of ɛ Aurigae: An M-giant Eclipsed Every 69 Years by a Large Opaque Disk Surrounding a Small Hot Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Lund, Michael B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua; Tang, Sumin; Kafka, Stella; Gaudi, B. Scott; Conroy, Kyle E.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.

    2016-05-01

    We present TYC 2505-672-1 as a newly discovered and remarkable eclipsing system comprising an M-type red giant that undergoes a ∼3.45 year long, near-total eclipse (depth of ∼4.5 mag) with a very long period of ∼69.1 years. TYC 2505-672-1 is now the longest-period eclipsing binary system yet discovered, more than twice as long as that of the currently longest-period system, ɛ Aurigae. We show from analysis of the light curve including both our own data and historical data spanning more than 120 years and from modeling of the spectral energy distribution, both before and during eclipse, that the red giant primary is orbited by a moderately hot source (Teff ≈ 8000 K) that is itself surrounded by an extended, opaque circumstellar disk. From the measured ratio of luminosities, the radius of the hot companion must be in the range of 0.1–0.5 R⊙ (depending on the assumed radius of the red giant primary), which is an order of magnitude smaller than that for a main sequence A star and 1–2 orders of magnitude larger than that for a white dwarf. The companion is therefore most likely a “stripped red giant” subdwarf-B type star destined to become a He white dwarf. It is, however, somewhat cooler than most sdB stars, implying a very low mass for this “pre-He-WD” star. The opaque disk surrounding this hot source may be a remnant of the stripping of its former hydrogen envelope. However, it is puzzling how this object became stripped, given that it is at present so distant (orbital semimajor axis of ∼24 au) from the current red giant primary star. Extrapolating from our calculated ephemeris, the next eclipse should begin in early UT 2080 April and end in mid UT 2083 September (eclipse center UT 2081 December 24). In the meantime, radial velocity observations would establish the masses of the components, and high-cadence UV observations could potentially reveal oscillations of the hot companion that would further constrain its evolutionary status. In any

  14. High surface magnetic field in red giants as a new signature of planet engulfment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privitera, Giovanni; Meynet, Georges; Eggenberger, Patrick; Georgy, Cyril; Ekström, Sylvia; Vidotto, Aline A.; Bianda, Michele; Villaver, Eva; ud-Doula, Asif

    2016-09-01

    Context. Red giant stars may engulf planets. This may increase the rotation rate of their convective envelope, which could lead to strong dynamo-triggered magnetic fields. Aims: We explore the possibility of generating magnetic fields in red giants that have gone through the process of a planet engulfment. We compare them with similar models that evolve without any planets. We discuss the impact of magnetic braking through stellar wind on the evolution of the surface velocity of the parent star. Methods: By studying rotating stellar models with and without planets and an empirical relation between the Rossby number and the surface magnetic field, we deduced the evolution of the surface magnetic field along the red giant branch. The effects of stellar wind magnetic braking were explored using a relation deduced from magnetohydrodynamics simulations. Results: The stellar evolution model of a red giant with 1.7 M⊙ without planet engulfment and with a time-averaged rotation velocity during the main sequence equal to 100 km s-1 shows a surface magnetic field triggered by convection that is stronger than 10 G only at the base of the red giant branch, that is, for gravities log g> 3. When a planet engulfment occurs, this magnetic field can also appear at much lower gravities, that is, at much higher luminosities along the red giant branch. The engulfment of a 15 MJ planet typically produces a dynamo-triggered magnetic field stronger than 10 G for gravities between 2.5 and 1.9. We show that for reasonable magnetic braking laws for the wind, the high surface velocity reached after a planet engulfment may be maintained sufficiently long to be observable. Conclusions: High surface magnetic fields for red giants in the upper part of the red giant branch are a strong indication of a planet engulfment or of an interaction with a companion. Our theory can be tested by observing fast-rotating red giants such as HD 31994, Tyc 0347-00762-1, Tyc 5904-00513-1, and Tyc 6054

  15. Discovery of Super-Li-rich Red Giants in Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Fu, Xiaoting; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Deng, Licai

    2012-06-01

    Stars destroy lithium (Li) in their normal evolution. The convective envelopes of evolved red giants reach temperatures of millions of kelvin, hot enough for the 7Li(p, α)4He reaction to burn Li efficiently. Only about 1% of first-ascent red giants more luminous than the luminosity function bump in the red giant branch exhibit A(Li) > 1.5. Nonetheless, Li-rich red giants do exist. We present 15 Li-rich red giants—14 of which are new discoveries—among a sample of 2054 red giants in Milky Way dwarf satellite galaxies. Our sample more than doubles the number of low-mass, metal-poor ([Fe/H] <~ -0.7) Li-rich red giants, and it includes the most-metal-poor Li-enhanced star known ([Fe/H] = -2.82, A(Li)NLTE = 3.15). Because most of the stars have Li abundances larger than the universe's primordial value, the Li in these stars must have been created rather than saved from destruction. These Li-rich stars appear like other stars in the same galaxies in every measurable regard other than Li abundance. We consider the possibility that Li enrichment is a universal phase of evolution that affects all stars, and it seems rare only because it is brief. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  16. On Lithium-rich Red Giants. I. Engulfment of Substellar Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera-Gómez, Claudia; Chanamé, Julio; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Carlberg, Joleen K.

    2016-10-01

    A small fraction of red giants are known to be lithium (Li) rich, in contradiction with expectations from stellar evolutionary theory. A possible explanation for these atypical giants is the engulfment of an Li-rich planet or brown dwarf by the star. In this work, we model the evolution of Li abundance in canonical red giants including the accretion of a substellar mass companion. We consider a wide range of stellar and companion masses, Li abundances, stellar metallicities, and planetary orbital periods. Based on our calculations, companions with masses lower than 15 {M}J dissolve in the convective envelope and can induce Li enrichment in regimes where extra mixing does not operate. Our models indicate that the accretion of a substellar companion can explain abundances up to A(Li) ≈ 2.2, setting an upper limit for Li-rich giants formed by this mechanism. Giants with higher abundances need another mechanism to be explained. For reasonable planetary distributions, we predict the Li abundance distribution of low-mass giants undergoing planet engulfment, finding that between 1% and 3% of them should have {{A}}({Li})≥slant 1.5. We show that depending on the stellar mass range, this traditional definition of Li-rich giants is misleading, as isolated massive stars would be considered anomalous while giants engulfing a companion would be set aside, flagged as normal. We explore the detectability of companion engulfment, finding that planets with masses higher than ∼ 7 {M}J produce a distinct signature, and that descendants of stars originating in the Li dip and low-luminosity red giants are ideal tests of this channel.

  17. Sustained Accretion on Gas Giants Surrounded by Low-Turbulence Circumplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Gennaro; Marzari, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Gas giants more massive than Saturn acquire most of their envelope while surrounded by a circumplanetary disk (CPD), which extends over a fraction of the planet’s Hill radius. Akin to circumstellar disks, CPDs may be subject to MRI-driven turbulence and contain low-turbulence regions, i.e., dead zones. It was suggested that CPDs may inhibit sustained gas accretion, thus limiting planet growth, because gas transport through a CPD may be severely reduced by a dead zone, a consequence at odds with the presence of Jupiter-mass (and larger) planets. We studied how an extended dead zone influences gas accretion on a Jupiter-mass planet, using global 3D hydrodynamics calculations with mesh refinements. The accretion flow from the circumstellar disk to the CPD is resolved locally at the length scale Rj, Jupiter's radius. The gas kinematic viscosity is assumed to be constant and the dead zone around the planet is modeled as a region of much lower viscosity, extending from ~Rj out to ~60Rj and off the mid-plane for a few CPD scale heights. We obtain accretion rates only marginally smaller than those reported by, e.g., D'Angelo et al. (2003), Bate et al. (2003), Bodenheimer et al. (2013), who applied the same constant kinematic viscosity everywhere, including in the CPD. As found by several previous studies (e.g., D’Angelo et al. 2003; Bate et al. 2003; Tanigawa et al. 2012; Ayliffe and Bate 2012; Gressel et al. 2013; Szulágyi et al. 2014), the accretion flow does not proceed through the CPD mid-plane but rather at and above the CPD surface, hence involving MRI-active regions (Turner et al. 2014). We conclude that the presence of a dead zone in a CPD does not inhibit gas accretion on a giant planet. Sustained accretion in the presence of a CPD is consistent not only with the formation of Jupiter but also with observed extrasolar planets more massive than Jupiter. We place these results in the context of the growth and migration of a pair of giant planets locked in the 2

  18. On the metallicity dependence of the winds from red supergiants and Asymptotic Giant Branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, J. Th.

    2006-12-01

    Over much of the initial mass function, stars are destined to become luminous and cool red giants. They may then be able to produce dust in an atmosphere which has been elevated by strong radial pulsations, and hence drive a wind. The amount of mass that is lost in this way can be a very significant fraction of the stellar mass, and especially in the case of intermediate-mass stars it is highly enriched. The delay between a star's birth and its feedback into the environment varies from several million years for massive stars to almost the age of the Universe for the least massive red giants we see today. I here present a review on the metallicity dependence of red giant winds. I show that recent measurements not only confirm theoretical expectations, but also admonish of common misconceptions with implications for feedback at low initial metallicity.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Normalized spectra of 20 red giants (Bruntt,+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruntt, H.; Frandsen, S.; Thygesen, A. O.

    2011-01-01

    Normalized spectra of 20 red giants of which 6 are well studied bright giants taken from Soubiran et al. (2010, Cat. B/pastel). All spectra have been shifted to laboratory wavelength using the radial velocities quoted in the paper. Two columns are associated with each target, containing wavelength and flux. The following bright giants have been observed: alpha Mon, mu Leo, alpha Boo, lambda Peg, mu Peg, psi Uma. The following Kepler targets were observed. Names taken from the Kepler Input Catalogue (Latham et al., 2005AAS...20711013L, Cat. V/133): 1726211, 2714397, 3744042, 3860139, 3936921, 4157282, 4177025, 5709564, 7006979, 8017159, 8476245, 10403036, 10426854, 11342694. (2 data files).

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Normalized spectra of 82 Kepler red giants (Thygesen+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thygesen, A. O.; Frandsen; S.; Bruntt, H.; Kallinger, T.; Andersen, M. F.; Elsworth, Y. E.; Hekker, S.; Karoff, C.; Stello, D.; Brogaard, K.; Burke, C.; Caldwell, D. A.; Christiansen, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    Normalized spectra of 82 red giants in the Kepler Field. Target names are as found in the Kepler Input Catalogue (Kepler Mission Team 2009) Also included spectra of 10 well-studied bright giants observed for reference. 9 of the reference giants were chosen from the PASTEL catalogue (Soubiran et al., 2010, Cat. B/pastel) and one, HD205512, from the work of Luck & Heiter (2007AJ....133.2464L). All targets have been shifted to laboratory wavelength using the radial velocities quoted in the paper. Two columns are associated with each target file, containing wavelength and flux. (4 data files).

  1. Radial velocity curves of ellipsoidal red giant binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, J. D.; Wood, P. R. E-mail: peter.wood@anu.edu.au

    2014-12-01

    Ellipsoidal red giant binaries are close binary systems where an unseen, relatively close companion distorts the red giant, leading to light variations as the red giant moves around its orbit. These binaries are likely to be the immediate evolutionary precursors of close binary planetary nebula and post-asymptotic giant branch and post-red giant branch stars. Due to the MACHO and OGLE photometric monitoring projects, the light variability nature of these ellipsoidal variables has been well studied. However, due to the lack of radial velocity curves, the nature of their masses, separations, and other orbital details has so far remained largely unknown. In order to improve this situation, we have carried out spectral monitoring observations of a large sample of 80 ellipsoidal variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud and we have derived radial velocity curves. At least 12 radial velocity points with good quality were obtained for most of the ellipsoidal variables. The radial velocity data are provided with this paper. Combining the photometric and radial velocity data, we present some statistical results related to the binary properties of these ellipsoidal variables.

  2. Extinctions and Distances of Dark Clouds from Ugrijhk Photometry of Red Clump Giants: the North America and Pelican Nebulae Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straižys, V.; Laugalys, V.

    A possibility of applying 2MASS J, H, Ks, IPHAS r, i and MegaCam u, g photometry of red giants for determining distances to dark clouds is investigated. Red clump giants with a small admixture of G5--K1 and M2--M3 stars of the giant branch can be isolated and used in determining distances to separate clouds or spiral arms. Interstellar extinctions of background red giants can be also used for mapping dust surface density in the cloud.

  3. Quasi-steady vortices in protoplanetary disks. I. From dwarfs to giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surville, Clément; Barge, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Aims: We determine the size, structure, and evolution of persistent vortices in 2D and inviscid Keplerian flows. Methods: A Gaussian model of the vortices is built and compared with numerical solutions issued from non-linear hydrodynamical simulations. Test vortices are also produced using a fiducial method based on the Rossby wave instability to help explore the vortex parameters. Numerical simulations are performed using a second order finite volume method. We assume a perfect-gas law and a non-homentropic adiabatic flow. Results: The new model nicely fits the numerical vortex solution. In the vortex centre it is consistent with existing models, whereas in the outer regions it enables the vortex to be connected with the background flow. Two families of vortices can be distinguished following the importance of the compressional effects. The model also permitted a new class of vortices to be discovered corresponding to huge perturbations of pressure and density and whose radial sizes are significantly larger than the disk scale height, in contrast with the standard way to define the maximum vortex size. Conclusions: Our Gaussian model of the vortex solutions of the 2D Euler's equations is a useful tool for studying vortex properties. Among the large number of vortex solutions, the possible existence of giant vortices could open interesting perspectives in planetary formation, particularly during the building stage of the giant gas planets.

  4. The Gemini Planet-finding Campaign: The Frequency Of Giant Planets around Debris Disk Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew; Ftaclas, Christ; Chun, Mark; Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Matthias; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Kuchner, Marc; Reid, I. Neill; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete M.; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Boss, Alan; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2013-08-01

    We have completed a high-contrast direct imaging survey for giant planets around 57 debris disk stars as part of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. We achieved median H-band contrasts of 12.4 mag at 0.''5 and 14.1 mag at 1'' separation. Follow-up observations of the 66 candidates with projected separation <500 AU show that all of them are background objects. To establish statistical constraints on the underlying giant planet population based on our imaging data, we have developed a new Bayesian formalism that incorporates (1) non-detections, (2) single-epoch candidates, (3) astrometric and (4) photometric information, and (5) the possibility of multiple planets per star to constrain the planet population. Our formalism allows us to include in our analysis the previously known β Pictoris and the HR 8799 planets. Our results show at 95% confidence that <13% of debris disk stars have a >=5 M Jup planet beyond 80 AU, and <21% of debris disk stars have a >=3 M Jup planet outside of 40 AU, based on hot-start evolutionary models. We model the population of directly imaged planets as d 2 N/dMdavpropm α a β, where m is planet mass and a is orbital semi-major axis (with a maximum value of a max). We find that β < -0.8 and/or α > 1.7. Likewise, we find that β < -0.8 and/or a max < 200 AU. For the case where the planet frequency rises sharply with mass (α > 1.7), this occurs because all the planets detected to date have masses above 5 M Jup, but planets of lower mass could easily have been detected by our search. If we ignore the β Pic and HR 8799 planets (should they belong to a rare and distinct group), we find that <20% of debris disk stars have a >=3 M Jup planet beyond 10 AU, and β < -0.8 and/or α < -1.5. Likewise, β < -0.8 and/or a max < 125 AU. Our Bayesian constraints are not strong enough to reveal any dependence of the planet frequency on stellar host mass. Studies of transition disks have suggested that about 20% of stars are undergoing planet

  5. PEERING INTO THE GIANT-PLANET-FORMING REGION OF THE TW HYDRAE DISK WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER

    SciTech Connect

    Rapson, Valerie A.; Kastner, Joel H.; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Dong, Ruobing

    2015-12-20

    We present Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) adaptive optics near-infrared images of the giant-planet-forming regions of the protoplanetary disk orbiting the nearby (D = 54 pc), pre-main-sequence (classical T Tauri) star TW Hydrae. The GPI images, which were obtained in coronagraphic/polarimetric mode, exploit starlight scattered off small dust grains to elucidate the surface density structure of the TW Hya disk from ∼80 AU to within ∼10 AU of the star at ∼1.5 AU resolution. The GPI polarized intensity images unambiguously confirm the presence of a gap in the radial surface brightness distribution of the inner disk. The gap is centered near ∼23 AU, with a width of ∼5 AU and a depth of ∼50%. In the context of recent simulations of giant-planet formation in gaseous, dusty disks orbiting pre-main-sequence stars, these results indicate that at least one young planet with a mass ∼0.2 M{sub J} could be present in the TW Hya disk at an orbital semimajor axis similar to that of Uranus. If this (proto)planet is actively accreting gas from the disk, it may be readily detectable by GPI or a similarly sensitive, high-resolution infrared imaging system.

  6. Peering into the Giant-planet-forming Region of the TW Hydrae Disk with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapson, Valerie A.; Kastner, Joel H.; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Dong, Ruobing

    2015-12-01

    We present Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) adaptive optics near-infrared images of the giant-planet-forming regions of the protoplanetary disk orbiting the nearby (D = 54 pc), pre-main-sequence (classical T Tauri) star TW Hydrae. The GPI images, which were obtained in coronagraphic/polarimetric mode, exploit starlight scattered off small dust grains to elucidate the surface density structure of the TW Hya disk from ∼80 AU to within ∼10 AU of the star at ∼1.5 AU resolution. The GPI polarized intensity images unambiguously confirm the presence of a gap in the radial surface brightness distribution of the inner disk. The gap is centered near ∼23 AU, with a width of ∼5 AU and a depth of ∼50%. In the context of recent simulations of giant-planet formation in gaseous, dusty disks orbiting pre-main-sequence stars, these results indicate that at least one young planet with a mass ∼0.2 MJ could be present in the TW Hya disk at an orbital semimajor axis similar to that of Uranus. If this (proto)planet is actively accreting gas from the disk, it may be readily detectable by GPI or a similarly sensitive, high-resolution infrared imaging system.

  7. Granulation in Red Giants: Observations by the Kepler Mission and Three-dimensional Convection Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, S.; Hekker, S.; Trampedach, R.; Ballot, J.; Kallinger, T.; Buzasi, D.; García, R. A.; Huber, D.; Jiménez, A.; Mosser, B.; Bedding, T. R.; Elsworth, Y.; Régulo, C.; Stello, D.; Chaplin, W. J.; De Ridder, J.; Hale, S. J.; Kinemuchi, K.; Kjeldsen, H.; Mullally, F.; Thompson, S. E.

    2011-11-01

    The granulation pattern that we observe on the surface of the Sun is due to hot plasma rising to the photosphere where it cools down and descends back into the interior at the edges of granules. This is the visible manifestation of convection taking place in the outer part of the solar convection zone. Because red giants have deeper convection zones than the Sun, we cannot a priori assume that their granulation is a scaled version of solar granulation. Until now, neither observations nor one-dimensional analytical convection models could put constraints on granulation in red giants. With asteroseismology, this study can now be performed. We analyze ~1000 red giants that have been observed by Kepler during 13 months. We fit the power spectra with Harvey-like profiles to retrieve the characteristics of the granulation (timescale τgran and power P gran). We search for a correlation between these parameters and the global acoustic-mode parameter (the position of maximum power, νmax) as well as with stellar parameters (mass, radius, surface gravity (log g), and effective temperature (T eff)). We show that τeffvpropν-0.89 max and P granvpropν-1.90 max, which is consistent with the theoretical predictions. We find that the granulation timescales of stars that belong to the red clump have similar values while the timescales of stars in the red giant branch are spread in a wider range. Finally, we show that realistic three-dimensional simulations of the surface convection in stars, spanning the (T eff, log g) range of our sample of red giants, match the Kepler observations well in terms of trends.

  8. GRANULATION IN RED GIANTS: OBSERVATIONS BY THE KEPLER MISSION AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONVECTION SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, S.; Hekker, S.; Trampedach, R.; Ballot, J.; Kallinger, T.; Buzasi, D.; Garcia, R. A.; Jimenez, A.; Regulo, C.; Mosser, B.; Elsworth, Y.; Chaplin, W. J.; Hale, S. J.; De Ridder, J.; Kinemuchi, K.; Mullally, F.

    2011-11-10

    The granulation pattern that we observe on the surface of the Sun is due to hot plasma rising to the photosphere where it cools down and descends back into the interior at the edges of granules. This is the visible manifestation of convection taking place in the outer part of the solar convection zone. Because red giants have deeper convection zones than the Sun, we cannot a priori assume that their granulation is a scaled version of solar granulation. Until now, neither observations nor one-dimensional analytical convection models could put constraints on granulation in red giants. With asteroseismology, this study can now be performed. We analyze {approx}1000 red giants that have been observed by Kepler during 13 months. We fit the power spectra with Harvey-like profiles to retrieve the characteristics of the granulation (timescale {tau}{sub gran} and power P{sub gran}). We search for a correlation between these parameters and the global acoustic-mode parameter (the position of maximum power, {nu}{sub max}) as well as with stellar parameters (mass, radius, surface gravity (log g), and effective temperature (T{sub eff})). We show that {tau}{sub eff}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup -0.89}{sub max} and P{sub gran}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup -1.90}{sub max}, which is consistent with the theoretical predictions. We find that the granulation timescales of stars that belong to the red clump have similar values while the timescales of stars in the red giant branch are spread in a wider range. Finally, we show that realistic three-dimensional simulations of the surface convection in stars, spanning the (T{sub eff}, log g) range of our sample of red giants, match the Kepler observations well in terms of trends.

  9. ON THE SECULAR BEHAVIOR OF DUST PARTICLES IN AN ECCENTRIC PROTOPLANETARY DISK WITH AN EMBEDDED MASSIVE GAS GIANT PLANET

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, He-Feng; Gu, Pin-Gao E-mail: gu@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the dust velocity and spatial distribution in an eccentric protoplanetary disk under the secular gravitational perturbation of an embedded planet of about 5 Jupiter masses. We first employ the FARGO code to obtain the two-dimensional density and velocity profiles of the eccentric gas disk exterior to the gap opened up by the embedded planet in the quasi-steady state. We then apply the secular perturbation theory and incorporate the gas drag to estimate the dust velocity and density on a secular timescale. The dust-to-gas ratio of the unperturbed disk is simply assumed to be 0.01. In our fiducial disk model with the planet at 5 AU, we find that 0.01 cm to 1 m sized dust particles are well coupled to the gas. Consequently, the particles behave similarly to the gas and exhibit asymmetric dynamics as a result of eccentric orbits. The dust surface density is enhanced around the apocenter of the disk. However, for the case of a low-density gaseous disk (called the 'transition disk' henceforth in this work) harboring the planet at 100 AU, the azimuthal distributions of dust of various sizes can deviate significantly. Overall, the asymmetric structure exhibits a phase correlation between the gas velocity fields and dust density distribution. Therefore, our study potentially provides a reality check as to whether an asymmetric disk gap detected at submillimeter and centimeter wavelengths is a signpost of a massive gas giant planet.

  10. Asteroseismology of red-giant stars as a novel approach in the search for gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campante, Tiago L.; Lopes, Ilídio; Bossini, Diego; Miglio, Andrea; Chaplin, William J.

    2015-08-01

    Stars are massive resonators that may in principle be used as gravitational-wave (GW) detectors with an isotropic sensitivity. New insights on stellar physics have been made possible by asteroseismology, the study of stars by the observation of their natural, resonant oscillations. The continuous monitoring of oscillation modes in stars of different masses and sizes (e.g., as carried out by NASA’s Kepler space telescope) thus opens the possibility of surveying the local Universe for GW radiation. Red-giant stars are of particular interest in this regard. Since the mean separation between red giants in open clusters is small (of a few light years), this can in principle be used to look for the same GW imprint on the oscillation modes of different stars as a GW propagates across the cluster. Furthermore, the frequency range probed by oscillations in red giants overlaps with, and complements, the capabilities of the planned eLISA space interferometer. We propose asteroseismology of red-giant stars as a novel approach in the search for gravitational waves and assess to what extent oscillations in these stars can be excited by a passing, monochromatic GW.

  11. Multi-wavelength observations of the peculiar red giant HR 3126

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesce, Joseph E.; Stencel, Robert E.; Walter, Frederick M.; Doggett, Jesse; Dachs, Joachim; Whitelock, Patricia A.; Mundt, Reinhard

    1988-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the red giant HR 3126 are combined with multi-wavelength data in order to provide a firmer basis for explaining the arc-minute sized nebula surrounding the object. Possibilities as to the location of HR 3126 on the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram, and to the formation mechanisms of the reflection nebula IC 2220 associated with it, are summarized.

  12. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and periluorooctanoate in red panda and giant panda from China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jiayin; Li, Ming; Jin, Yihe; Saito, Norimitsu; Xu, Muqi; Wei, Fuwen

    2006-09-15

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are important perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in various applications. Recently, it has been shown that these compounds are widespread in the environment, wildlife, and humans. The giant panda and the red panda belong to the order Carnivora, but are highly specialized as bamboo feeders. Both species are considered rare and endangered. In this study, we report for the first time on levels of PFOS and PFOA in serum of the giant panda and the red panda captured in zoos and animal parks from six provinces in China. PFOS was the predominant compound in all panda samples measured (ranging from 0.80 to 73.80 microg/L for red panda and from 0.76 to 19.00 microg/L for giant panda). The PFOA level ranged from 0.33 to 8.20 microg/L for red panda, and from 0.32 to 1.56 microg/L for giant panda. There was a positive significant correlation between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in the serum obtained from pandas. No age- or sex- related differences were observed in concentrations of the fluorochemicals in panda sera. Greater concentrations of the fluorochemicals were found for those individuals collected from zoos near urbanized or industrialized areas than for other areas. These data combined with other reported data suggest that there are large differences in distribution of perfluorinated compounds in terrestrial animals.

  13. Surface activity and oscillation amplitudes of red giants in eclipsing binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Gaulme, P.; Jackiewicz, J.; Appourchaux, T.; Mosser, B.

    2014-04-10

    Among the 19 red-giant stars belonging to eclipsing binary systems that have been identified in Kepler data, 15 display solar-like oscillations. We study whether the absence of mode detection in the remaining 4 is an observational bias or possibly evidence of mode damping that originates from tidal interactions. A careful analysis of the corresponding Kepler light curves shows that modes with amplitudes that are usually observed in red giants would have been detected if they were present. We observe that mode depletion is strongly associated with short-period systems, in which stellar radii account for 16%-24% of the semi-major axis, and where red-giant surface activity is detected. We suggest that when the rotational and orbital periods synchronize in close binaries, the red-giant component is spun up, so that a dynamo mechanism starts and generates a magnetic field, leading to observable stellar activity. Pressure modes would then be damped as acoustic waves dissipate in these fields.

  14. The circumstellar dust envelopes of red giant stars. I - M giant stars with the 10-micron silicate emission band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, O.; Nakada, Y.; Onaka, T.; Kamijo, F.; Tanabe, T.

    1990-01-01

    Spherical dust envelope models of red giant stars are constructed by solving the radiative transfer equations of the generalized two-stream Eddington approximation. The IRAS observations of M giant stars which show the 10-micron silicate emission band in IRAS LRS spectra are explained by the models with the dirty silicate grains with K proportional to lambda exp -1.5 for lambda greather than 28 microns. Under the assumption of steady mass flow in the envelope, this model analysis gives the following conclusions: (1) the strength of the silicate emission peak at 10 microns is a good indicator of the mass loss rate of the star, (2) no stars with the 10-microns silicate emission feature are observed in the range of mass loss rate smaller than 7 x 10 to the -8th solar mass/yr, and (3) the characteristic time of the mass loss process of M stars does not exceed a few 10,000 years.

  15. Star-planet interactions. II. Is planet engulfment the origin of fast rotating red giants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privitera, Giovanni; Meynet, Georges; Eggenberger, Patrick; Vidotto, Aline A.; Villaver, Eva; Bianda, Michele

    2016-10-01

    Context. Fast rotating red giants in the upper part of the red giant branch have surface velocities that cannot be explained by single star evolution. Aims: We check whether tides between a star and a planet followed by planet engulfment can indeed accelerate the surface rotation of red giants for a sufficiently long time to produce these fast rotating red giants. Methods: We studied how the surface rotation velocity at the stellar surface evolves using rotating stellar models, accounting for the redistribution of the angular momentum inside the star by different transport mechanisms, the exchanges of angular momentum between the planet orbit and the star before the engulfment, and for the deposition of angular momentum inside the star at the engulfment. We considered different situations with masses of stars in the range between 1.5 and 2.5 M⊙, masses of the planets between 1 and 15 MJ (Jupiter mass), and initial semimajor axis between 0.5 and 1.5 au. The metallicity Z for our stellar models is 0.02. Results: We show that the surface velocities reached at the end of the orbital decay due to tidal forces and planet engulfment can be similar to values observed for fast rotating red giants. This surface velocity then decreases when the star evolves along the red giant branch but at a sufficiently slow pace to allowing stars to be detected with such a high velocity. More quantitatively, star-planet interaction can produce a rapid acceleration of the surface of the star, above values equal to 8 km s-1, for periods lasting up to more than 30% the red giant branch phase. As found already by previous works, the changes of the surface carbon isotopic ratios produced by the dilution of the planetary material into the convective envelope is modest. The increase of the lithium abundance due to this effect might be much more important, however lithium may be affected by many different, still uncertain, processes. Thus any lithium measurement can hardly be taken as a support

  16. Spectroscopy of Six Red Giants in the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme H.; Siegel, Michael H.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Winnick, Rebeccah

    2006-10-01

    Keck Observatory LRIS-B (Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) spectra are reported for six red giant stars in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy and several comparison giants in the globular cluster M13. Indexes that quantify the strengths of the Ca II H and K lines, the λ3883 and λ4215 CN bands, and the λ4300 G band have been measured. These data confirm evidence of metallicity inhomogeneity within Draco obtained by previous authors. The four brightest giants in the sample have absolute magnitudes in the range -2.6giants and that some giants have higher [C/Fe] ratios than is typical of giants in the globular clusters M13 and M92. Several suggestions are made as to why some Draco stars may have higher [C/Fe] ratios than globular cluster red giants: deep mixing might be inhibited in these Draco stars, they may formerly have been mass-transfer binaries that acquired carbon from a more massive companion, or the Draco dwarf galaxy may have experienced relatively slow chemical evolution over a period of several billion years, allowing carbon-enhanced ejecta from intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch stars to enrich the interstellar medium while star formation was still occurring. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  17. What Makes Red Giants Tick? Linking Tidal Forces, Activity, and Solar-Like Oscillations via Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawls, Meredith L.; Gaulme, Patrick; McKeever, Jean; Jackiewicz, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to advances in asteroseismology, red giants have become astrophysical laboratories for studying stellar evolution and probing the Milky Way. However, not all red giants show solar-like oscillations. It has been proposed that stronger tidal interactions from short-period binaries and increased magnetic activity on spotty giants are linked to absent or damped solar-like oscillations, yet each star tells a nuanced story. In this work, we characterize a subset of red giants in eclipsing binaries observed by Kepler. The binaries exhibit a range of orbital periods, solar-like oscillation behavior, and stellar activity. We use orbital solutions together with a suite of modeling tools to combine photometry and spectroscopy in a detailed analysis of tidal synchronization timescales, star spot activity, and stellar evolution histories. These red giants offer an unprecedented opportunity to test stellar physics and are important benchmarks for ensemble asteroseismology.

  18. HD 181068: a red giant in a triply eclipsing compact hierarchical triple system.

    PubMed

    Derekas, A; Kiss, L L; Borkovits, T; Huber, D; Lehmann, H; Southworth, J; Bedding, T R; Balam, D; Hartmann, M; Hrudkova, M; Ireland, M J; Kovács, J; Mezo, Gy; Moór, A; Niemczura, E; Sarty, G E; Szabó, Gy M; Szabó, R; Telting, J H; Tkachenko, A; Uytterhoeven, K; Benko, J M; Bryson, S T; Maestro, V; Simon, A E; Stello, D; Schaefer, G; Aerts, C; ten Brummelaar, T A; De Cat, P; McAlister, H A; Maceroni, C; Mérand, A; Still, M; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N; Tuthill, P G; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Gilliland, R L; Kjeldsen, H; Quintana, E V; Tenenbaum, P; Twicken, J D

    2011-04-01

    Hierarchical triple systems comprise a close binary and a more distant component. They are important for testing theories of star formation and of stellar evolution in the presence of nearby companions. We obtained 218 days of Kepler photometry of HD 181068 (magnitude of 7.1), supplemented by ground-based spectroscopy and interferometry, which show it to be a hierarchical triple with two types of mutual eclipses. The primary is a red giant that is in a 45-day orbit with a pair of red dwarfs in a close 0.9-day orbit. The red giant shows evidence for tidally induced oscillations that are driven by the orbital motion of the close pair. HD 181068 is an ideal target for studies of dynamical evolution and testing tidal friction theories in hierarchical triple systems. PMID:21474755

  19. HD 181068: a red giant in a triply eclipsing compact hierarchical triple system.

    PubMed

    Derekas, A; Kiss, L L; Borkovits, T; Huber, D; Lehmann, H; Southworth, J; Bedding, T R; Balam, D; Hartmann, M; Hrudkova, M; Ireland, M J; Kovács, J; Mezo, Gy; Moór, A; Niemczura, E; Sarty, G E; Szabó, Gy M; Szabó, R; Telting, J H; Tkachenko, A; Uytterhoeven, K; Benko, J M; Bryson, S T; Maestro, V; Simon, A E; Stello, D; Schaefer, G; Aerts, C; ten Brummelaar, T A; De Cat, P; McAlister, H A; Maceroni, C; Mérand, A; Still, M; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N; Tuthill, P G; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Gilliland, R L; Kjeldsen, H; Quintana, E V; Tenenbaum, P; Twicken, J D

    2011-04-01

    Hierarchical triple systems comprise a close binary and a more distant component. They are important for testing theories of star formation and of stellar evolution in the presence of nearby companions. We obtained 218 days of Kepler photometry of HD 181068 (magnitude of 7.1), supplemented by ground-based spectroscopy and interferometry, which show it to be a hierarchical triple with two types of mutual eclipses. The primary is a red giant that is in a 45-day orbit with a pair of red dwarfs in a close 0.9-day orbit. The red giant shows evidence for tidally induced oscillations that are driven by the orbital motion of the close pair. HD 181068 is an ideal target for studies of dynamical evolution and testing tidal friction theories in hierarchical triple systems.

  20. Three Red Giants With Substellar-Mass Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, A.; Wolszczan, A.; Nowak, G.; Adamów, M.; Kowalik, K.; Maciejewski, G.; Deka-Szymankiewicz, B.; Adamczyk, M.

    2015-04-01

    We present three giant stars from the ongoing Penn State-Toruń Planet Search with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which exhibit radial velocity (RV) variations that point to the presence of planetary-mass companions around them. BD+49 828 is a M=1.52+/- 0.22 {{M}⊙ } K0 giant with a m sin i=1.6-0.2+0.4 {{M}J} minimum mass companion in a = 4.2+0.32-0.2 AU (2590+300-180d), e = 0.35+0.24-0.10 orbit. HD 95127, a log L/{{L}⊙ }=2.28+/- 0.38, R=20+/- 9 {{R}⊙ }, M=1.20+/- 0.22 {{M}⊙ } K0 giant, has a m sin i = 5.01-0.44+0.61 {{M}J} minimum mass companion in a = 1.28+0.01-0.01 AU (482+5-5d), e = 0.11+0.15-0.06 orbit. Finally, HD 216536 is a M=1.36+/- 0.38 {{M}⊙ } K0 giant with a msin i=1.47-0.12+0.20 {{M}J} minimum mass companion in a=0.609-0.002+0.002 AU (148.6-0.7+0.7d), e = 0.38+0.12-0.10 orbit. Both HD 95127 b and HD 216536 b in their compact orbits are very close to the engulfment zone and hence prone to ingestion in the near future. BD+49 828 b is among the longest-period planets detected with the RV technique until now and it will remain unaffected by stellar evolution up to a very late stage of its host. We discuss general properties of planetary systems around evolved stars and planet survivability using existing data on exoplanets in more detail. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  1. A CN Band Survey of Red Giants in the Globular Cluster M53

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, S. L.; Smith, G. H.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the star-to-star variations in λ 3883 CN bandstrength among red giant stars in the low-metallicity globular cluster M53 ([Fe/H] = --2.0). Our data were taken with the Kast spectrograph on the 3-meter Shane telescope at Lick Observatory in April 2001. Star-to-star variations in CN bandstrength are common in intermediate- and high-metallicity globular clusters ([Fe/H] ≥ --1.6). Our data were obtained to test whether that variation will also be present in a low-metallicity globular cluster, or whether it will be suppressed by the overall lack of metals in the stars. Our preliminary result is that the λ 3883 CN band is weak in our program stars, which span the brightest magnitude of the red giant branch. On visual inspection, the M53 giants appear to be similar in their CN bandstrength to the four CN-weak giants in NGC 6752 whose average spectrum is plotted in Fig. 4 of Norris et al. (1981, ApJ, 244, 205). This work is planned to form part of a larger study of the metallicity dependence of CN bandstrength and carbon abundance behavior on the upper giant branch of globular clusters. This work is supported by NSF grant AST 00-98453 and by an award from the ARCS foundation, Northern California Chapter.

  2. The evolution of the gut microbiota in the giant and the red pandas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Guo, Wei; Han, Shushu; Kong, Fanli; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Heming; Yang, Mingyao; Xu, Huailiang; Zeng, Bo; Zhao, Jiangchao

    2015-01-01

    The independent dietary shift from carnivore to herbivore with over 90% being bamboo in the giant and the red pandas is of great interests to biologists. Although previous studies have shown convergent evolution of the giant and the red pandas at both morphological and molecular level, the evolution of the gut microbiota in these pandas remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to determine whether the gut microbiota of the pandas converged due to the same diet, or diverged. We characterized the fecal microbiota from these two species by pyrosequencing the 16S V1–V3 hypervariable regions using the 454 GS FLX Titanium platform. We also included fecal samples from Asian black bears, a species phylogenetically closer to the giant panda, in our analyses. By analyzing the microbiota from these 3 species and those from other carnivores reported previously, we found the gut microbiotas of the giant pandas are distinct from those of the red pandas and clustered closer to those of the black bears. Our data suggests the divergent evolution of the gut microbiota in the pandas. PMID:25985413

  3. The evolution of the gut microbiota in the giant and the red pandas.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Guo, Wei; Han, Shushu; Kong, Fanli; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Heming; Yang, Mingyao; Xu, Huailiang; Zeng, Bo; Zhao, Jiangchao

    2015-01-01

    The independent dietary shift from carnivore to herbivore with over 90% being bamboo in the giant and the red pandas is of great interests to biologists. Although previous studies have shown convergent evolution of the giant and the red pandas at both morphological and molecular level, the evolution of the gut microbiota in these pandas remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to determine whether the gut microbiota of the pandas converged due to the same diet, or diverged. We characterized the fecal microbiota from these two species by pyrosequencing the 16S V1-V3 hypervariable regions using the 454 GS FLX Titanium platform. We also included fecal samples from Asian black bears, a species phylogenetically closer to the giant panda, in our analyses. By analyzing the microbiota from these 3 species and those from other carnivores reported previously, we found the gut microbiotas of the giant pandas are distinct from those of the red pandas and clustered closer to those of the black bears. Our data suggests the divergent evolution of the gut microbiota in the pandas. PMID:25985413

  4. The evolution of the gut microbiota in the giant and the red pandas.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Guo, Wei; Han, Shushu; Kong, Fanli; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Heming; Yang, Mingyao; Xu, Huailiang; Zeng, Bo; Zhao, Jiangchao

    2015-05-18

    The independent dietary shift from carnivore to herbivore with over 90% being bamboo in the giant and the red pandas is of great interests to biologists. Although previous studies have shown convergent evolution of the giant and the red pandas at both morphological and molecular level, the evolution of the gut microbiota in these pandas remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to determine whether the gut microbiota of the pandas converged due to the same diet, or diverged. We characterized the fecal microbiota from these two species by pyrosequencing the 16S V1-V3 hypervariable regions using the 454 GS FLX Titanium platform. We also included fecal samples from Asian black bears, a species phylogenetically closer to the giant panda, in our analyses. By analyzing the microbiota from these 3 species and those from other carnivores reported previously, we found the gut microbiotas of the giant pandas are distinct from those of the red pandas and clustered closer to those of the black bears. Our data suggests the divergent evolution of the gut microbiota in the pandas.

  5. GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES: CHARACTERIZING SIMULATED VERSUS OBSERVED CLOUD CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Benincasa, Samantha M.; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Wadsley, James; Tasker, Elizabeth J.

    2013-10-10

    We present the results of a study of simulated giant molecular clouds (GMCs) formed in a Milky Way-type galactic disk with a flat rotation curve. This simulation, which does not include star formation or feedback, produces clouds with masses ranging between 10{sup 4} M{sub ☉} and 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}. We compare our simulated cloud population to two observational surveys: the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey and the BIMA All-Disk Survey of M33. An analysis of the global cloud properties as well as a comparison of Larson's scaling relations is carried out. We find that simulated cloud properties agree well with the observed cloud properties, with the closest agreement occurring between the clouds at comparable resolution in M33. Our clouds are highly filamentary—a property that derives both from their formation due to gravitational instability in the sheared galactic environment, as well as to cloud-cloud gravitational encounters. We also find that the rate at which potentially star-forming gas accumulates within dense regions—wherein n{sub thresh} ≥ 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}—is 3% per 10 Myr, in clouds of roughly 10{sup 6} M{sub ☉}. This suggests that star formation rates in observed clouds are related to the rates at which gas can be accumulated into dense subregions within GMCs via filamentary flows. The most internally well-resolved clouds are chosen for listing in a catalog of simulated GMCs—the first of its kind. The cataloged clouds are available as an extracted data set from the global simulation.

  6. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Hydrogen lines in red giants directly trace stellar mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergemann, Maria; Serenelli, Aldo; Schönrich, Ralph; Ruchti, Greg; Korn, Andreas; Hekker, Saskia; Kovalev, Mikhail; Mashonkina, Lyudmila; Gilmore, Gerry; Randich, Sofia; Asplund, Martin; Rix, Hans-Walter; Casey, Andrew R.; Jofre, Paula; Pancino, Elena; Recio-Blanco, Alejandra; de Laverny, Patrick; Smiljanic, Rodolfo; Tautvaisiene, Grazina; Bayo, Amelia; Lewis, Jim; Koposov, Sergey; Hourihane, Anna; Worley, Clare; Morbidelli, Lorenzo; Franciosini, Elena; Sacco, Germano; Magrini, Laura; Damiani, Francesco; Bestenlehner, Joachim M.

    2016-10-01

    Red giant stars are perhaps the most important type of stars for Galactic and extra-galactic archaeology: they are luminous, occur in all stellar populations, and their surface temperatures allow precise abundance determinations for many different chemical elements. Yet, the full star formation and enrichment history of a galaxy can be traced directly only if two key observables can be determined for large stellar samples: age and chemical composition. While spectroscopy is a powerful method to analyse the detailed abundances of stars, stellar ages are the missing link in the chain, since they are not a direct observable. However, spectroscopy should be able to estimate stellar masses, which for red giants directly infer ages provided their chemical composition is known. Here we establish a new empirical relation between the shape of the hydrogen line in the observed spectra of red giants and stellar mass determined from asteroseismology. The relation allows determining stellar masses and ages with an accuracy of 10-15%. The method can be used with confidence for stars in the following range of stellar parameters: 4000 < Teff < 5000 K, 0.5 < log g< 3.5, -2.0 < [Fe/H] < 0.3, and luminosities log L/LSun < 2.5. Our analysis provides observational evidence that the Hα spectral characteristics of red giant stars are tightly correlated with their mass and therefore their age. We also show that the method samples well all stellar populations with ages above 1 Gyr. Targeting bright giants, the method allows obtaining simultaneous age and chemical abundance information far deeper than would be possible with asteroseismology, extending the possible survey volume to remote regions of the Milky Way and even to neighbouring galaxies such as Andromeda or the Magellanic Clouds even with current instrumentation, such as the VLT and Keck facilities.

  7. Resolved Stellar Halos of M87 and NGC 5128: Metallicities from the Red-Giant Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Sarah A.

    2016-08-01

    We have searched halo fields of two giant elliptical galaxies: M87, using HST images at 10 kpc from the galactic center, and NGC 5128 (Cen A), using VIMOS VLT images at 65 kpc from the center and archival HST data from 8 to 38 kpc from the center. We have resolved thousands of red-giant-branch (RGB) stars in these stellar halo fields using V and I filters, and, in addition, measured the metallicity using stellar isochrones. The metallicity distribution function (MDF) of the inner stellar halo of M87 is similar to that of NGC 5128's stellar halo.

  8. Red giant model atmospheres. IV - Colors of K and M giant models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiman-Cameron, T. Y.; Johnson, H. R.

    1986-02-01

    Photometric parameters in the Johnson broad-band and Wing narrow-band photometric systems have been computed for 24 stellar atmospheric models of K and M giants of Johnson, Bernat, and Krupp (1980). Color temperatures, color indices, and certain molecular indices predicted by these models are compared with observations of M giant stars. Good agreement is obtained for effective temperatures of 3500 K or greater, which provides evidence for the overall accuracy of the models. The comparisons support the higher effective temperature scales of Tsuji (1978, 1981) and Ridgway et al. (1980). For models with effective temperatures below 3500 K, the TiO bands are systematically too weak relative to observations. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. The comparison of broadband color indices gives information concerning the surface gravities. The effects of limb darkening and possible variation of photospheric radius with wavelength on predicted broad-band model colors, and additional implications of comparison between theory and observations, are discussed.

  9. The red giant branch phase transition: Implications for the RGB luminosity function bump and detections of Li-rich red clump stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassisi, Santi; Salaris, Maurizio; Pietrinferni, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    We performed a detailed study of the evolution of the luminosity of He-ignition stage and of the red giant branch bump luminosity during the red giant branch phase transition for various metallicities. To this purpose we calculated a grid of stellar models that sample the mass range of the transition with a fine mass step equal to 0.01 M⊙. We find that for a stellar population with a given initial chemical composition, there is a critical age (of 1.1-1.2 Gyr) around which a decrease in age of just 20-30 million years causes a drastic drop in the red giant branch tip brightness. We also find a narrow age range (a few 107 yr) around the transition, characterized by the luminosity of the red giant branch bump being brighter than the luminosity of He ignition. We discuss a possible link between this occurrence and observations of Li-rich core He-burning stars.

  10. Magnesium isotopes in giants in the Milky Way inner disk and bulge: First results with 3D stellar atmospheres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thygesen, Anders; Sbordone, Luca; Christlieb, Norbert; Asplund, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The Milky Way bulge is one of the most poorly understood components of our galaxy and its formation history is still a matter of debate (early collapse vs. disk instability). All knowledge of its chemical evolution history has been so far derived by measuring elemental abundances: no isotopic mixtures have been measured so far in the Bulge. While quite challenging, isotopic measurements can be accomplished with present instruments in bulge stars for a few elements, Magnesium being one of them.Of the three stable Mg isotopes, the most common one, 24Mg, is mainly produced by α capture in SN II, while the other two, 25Mg and 26Mg, can be produced efficiently in massive AGB stars, through the 22Ne(α, n)25Mg(n, γ)26Mg reactions as well as the Mg-Al chain. Moreover, SN II production of 25Mg and 26Mg increases with increasing progenitor metallicity, so in older stellar populations, where only the signature of metal-poor SNe is to be expected, one should not see a significant 25Mg or 26Mg fraction. However, if larger 25Mg/24Mg and 26Mg/24Mg ratios are observed, relative to what is produced in SNe, this is a clear sign of an AGB contribution. As such, Mg isotopic ratios are a very useful probe of AGB pollution onset and chemical enrichment timescale in a stellar population.Here, we present the first ever measurements of Mg isotopes in 7 red giant stars in the Milky Way bulge and inner disk, including two stars in the bulge globular cluster NGC6522. The isotopic abundances have been derived from high resolution, high signal-to-noise VLT-UVES spectra using both standard 1D atmospheric models as well as state-of-the-art 3D hydrodynamical models and spectrosynthesis. The use of 3D atmospheric models impacts the derived ratios and this work represents the first derivation of Mg isotopes using full 3D spectrosynthesis. These results yield new constraints on the proposed formation scenarios of the Milky Way bulge.

  11. ASTEROSEISMIC CLASSIFICATION OF STELLAR POPULATIONS AMONG 13,000 RED GIANTS OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R.; Benomar, Othman; White, Timothy R.; Huber, Daniel; Bildsten, Lars; Paxton, Bill; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Mosser, Benoit

    2013-03-10

    Of the more than 150,000 targets followed by the Kepler Mission, about 10% were selected as red giants. Due to their high scientific value, in particular for Galaxy population studies and stellar structure and evolution, their Kepler light curves were made public in late 2011. More than 13,000 (over 85%) of these stars show intrinsic flux variability caused by solar-like oscillations making them ideal for large-scale asteroseismic investigations. We automatically extracted individual frequencies and measured the period spacings of the dipole modes in nearly every red giant. These measurements naturally classify the stars into various populations, such as the red giant branch, the low-mass (M/M{sub Sun} {approx}< 1.8) helium-core-burning red clump, and the higher-mass (M/M{sub Sun} {approx}> 1.8) secondary clump. The period spacings also reveal that a large fraction of the stars show rotationally induced frequency splittings. This sample of stars will undoubtedly provide an extremely valuable source for studying the stellar population in the direction of the Kepler field, in particular when combined with complementary spectroscopic surveys.

  12. Giant thermo-optical relaxation oscillations in millimeter-size whispering gallery mode disk resonators.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Souleymane; Lin, Guoping; Chembo, Yanne K

    2015-08-15

    In this Letter, we show that giant thermo-optical oscillations can be triggered in millimeter (mm)-size whispering gallery mode (WGM) disk resonators when they are pumped by a resonant continuous-wave laser. Our resonator is an ultrahigh-Q barium fluoride cavity that features a positive thermo-optic coefficient and a negative thermo-elastic coefficient. We demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that the complex interplay between these two thermic coefficients and the intrinsic Kerr nonlinearity yields very sharp slow-fast relaxation oscillations with a slow timescale that can be exceptionally large, typically of the order of 1 s. We use a time-domain model to gain understanding into this instability, and we find that both the experimental and theoretical results are in excellent agreement. The understanding of these thermal effects is an essential requirement for every WGM-related application and our study demonstrates that even in the case of mm-size resonators, such effects can still be accurately analyzed using nonlinear time-domain models.

  13. Shedding Light on the Eccentricity Valley: Gap Heating and Eccentricity Excitation of Giant Planets in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, David; Turner, Neal J.; Cumming, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We show that the first order (non-co-orbital) corotation torques are significantly modified by entropy gradients in a non-barotropic protoplanetary disk. Such non-barotropic torques can dramatically alter the balance that, for barotropic cases, results in the net eccentricity damping for giant gap-clearing planets embedded in the disk. We demonstrate that stellar illumination can heat the gap enough for the planet's orbital eccentricity to instead be excited. We also discuss the "Eccentricity Valley" noted in the known exoplanet population, where low-metallicity stars have a deficit of eccentric planets between ~0.1 and ~1 AU compared to metal-rich systems. We show that this feature in the planet distribution may be due to the self-shadowing of the disk by a rim located at the dust sublimation radius ~0.1 AU, which is known to exist for several T Tauri systems. In the shadowed region between ~0.1 and ~1 AU, lack of gap insolation allows disk interactions to damp eccentricity. Outside such shadowed regions stellar illumination can heat the planetary gaps and drive eccentricity growth for giant planets. We suggest that the self-shadowing does not arise at higher metallicity due to the increased optical depth of the gas interior to the dust sublimation radius.

  14. Shedding light on the eccentricity valley: Gap heating and eccentricity excitation of giant planets in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, David; Cumming, Andrew; Turner, Neal J.

    2014-02-20

    We show that the first order (non-co-orbital) corotation torques are significantly modified by entropy gradients in a non-barotropic protoplanetary disk. Such non-barotropic torques can dramatically alter the balance that, for barotropic cases, results in the net eccentricity damping for giant gap-clearing planets embedded in the disk. We demonstrate that stellar illumination can heat the gap enough for the planet's orbital eccentricity to instead be excited. We also discuss the 'Eccentricity Valley' noted in the known exoplanet population, where low-metallicity stars have a deficit of eccentric planets between ∼0.1 and ∼1 AU compared to metal-rich systems. We show that this feature in the planet distribution may be due to the self-shadowing of the disk by a rim located at the dust sublimation radius ∼0.1 AU, which is known to exist for several T Tauri systems. In the shadowed region between ∼0.1 and ∼1 AU, lack of gap insolation allows disk interactions to damp eccentricity. Outside such shadowed regions stellar illumination can heat the planetary gaps and drive eccentricity growth for giant planets. We suggest that the self-shadowing does not arise at higher metallicity due to the increased optical depth of the gas interior to the dust sublimation radius.

  15. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of red giant stars. IV. Oxygen diagnostics in extremely metal-poor red giants with infrared OH lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskas, V.; Kučinskas, A.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Spite, M.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Although oxygen is an important tracer of Galactic chemical evolution, measurements of its abundance in the atmospheres of the oldest Galactic stars are still scarce and rather imprecise. This is mainly because only a few spectral lines are available for the abundance diagnostics. At the lowest end of the metallicity scale, oxygen can only be measured in giant stars and in most of cases such measurements rely on a single forbidden [O i] 630 nm line that is very weak and frequently blended with telluric lines. Although molecular OH lines located in the ultraviolet and infrared could also be used for the diagnostics, oxygen abundances obtained from the OH lines and the [O i] 630 nm line are usually discrepant to a level of ~ 0.3-0.4 dex. Aims: We study the influence of convection on the formation of the infrared (IR) OH lines and the forbidden [O i] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of extremely metal-poor (EMP) red giant stars. Our ultimate goal is to clarify whether a realistic treatment of convection with state-of-the-art 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres may help to bring the oxygen abundances obtained using the two indicators into closer agreement. Methods: We used high-resolution (R = 50 000) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 200-600) spectra of four EMP red giant stars obtained with the VLT CRIRES spectrograph. For each EMP star, 4-14 IR OH vibrational-rotational lines located in the spectral range of 1514-1548 and 1595-1632 nm were used to determine oxygen abundances by employing standard 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) abundance analysis methodology. We then corrected the 1D LTE abundances obtained from each individual OH line for the 3D hydrodynamical effects, which was done by applying 3D-1D LTE abundance corrections that were determined using 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD and 1D hydrostatic LHD model atmospheres. Results: We find that the influence of convection on the formation of [O i] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of EMP giants

  16. Asteroseismology can reveal strong internal magnetic fields in red giant stars.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Jim; Cantiello, Matteo; Stello, Dennis; Garcia, Rafael A; Bildsten, Lars

    2015-10-23

    Internal stellar magnetic fields are inaccessible to direct observations, and little is known about their amplitude, geometry, and evolution. We demonstrate that strong magnetic fields in the cores of red giant stars can be identified with asteroseismology. The fields can manifest themselves via depressed dipole stellar oscillation modes, arising from a magnetic greenhouse effect that scatters and traps oscillation-mode energy within the core of the star. The Kepler satellite has observed a few dozen red giants with depressed dipole modes, which we interpret as stars with strongly magnetized cores. We find that field strengths larger than ~10(5) gauss may produce the observed depression, and in one case we infer a minimum core field strength of ≈10(7) gauss. PMID:26494754

  17. Asteroseismology can reveal strong internal magnetic fields in red giant stars.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Jim; Cantiello, Matteo; Stello, Dennis; Garcia, Rafael A; Bildsten, Lars

    2015-10-23

    Internal stellar magnetic fields are inaccessible to direct observations, and little is known about their amplitude, geometry, and evolution. We demonstrate that strong magnetic fields in the cores of red giant stars can be identified with asteroseismology. The fields can manifest themselves via depressed dipole stellar oscillation modes, arising from a magnetic greenhouse effect that scatters and traps oscillation-mode energy within the core of the star. The Kepler satellite has observed a few dozen red giants with depressed dipole modes, which we interpret as stars with strongly magnetized cores. We find that field strengths larger than ~10(5) gauss may produce the observed depression, and in one case we infer a minimum core field strength of ≈10(7) gauss.

  18. Fast core rotation in red-giant stars as revealed by gravity-dominated mixed modes.

    PubMed

    Beck, Paul G; Montalban, Josefina; Kallinger, Thomas; De Ridder, Joris; Aerts, Conny; García, Rafael A; Hekker, Saskia; Dupret, Marc-Antoine; Mosser, Benoit; Eggenberger, Patrick; Stello, Dennis; Elsworth, Yvonne; Frandsen, Søren; Carrier, Fabien; Hillen, Michel; Gruberbauer, Michael; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Miglio, Andrea; Valentini, Marica; Bedding, Timothy R; Kjeldsen, Hans; Girouard, Forrest R; Hall, Jennifer R; Ibrahim, Khadeejah A

    2011-12-07

    When the core hydrogen is exhausted during stellar evolution, the central region of a star contracts and the outer envelope expands and cools, giving rise to a red giant. Convection takes place over much of the star's radius. Conservation of angular momentum requires that the cores of these stars rotate faster than their envelopes; indirect evidence supports this. Information about the angular-momentum distribution is inaccessible to direct observations, but it can be extracted from the effect of rotation on oscillation modes that probe the stellar interior. Here we report an increasing rotation rate from the surface of the star to the stellar core in the interiors of red giants, obtained using the rotational frequency splitting of recently detected 'mixed modes'. By comparison with theoretical stellar models, we conclude that the core must rotate at least ten times faster than the surface. This observational result confirms the theoretical prediction of a steep gradient in the rotation profile towards the deep stellar interior.

  19. DIRECT LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF SILICATE STARDUST FROM RED GIANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Vollmer, Christian; Hoppe, Peter; Brenker, Frank E.

    2009-07-20

    We performed combined focused ion beam/transmission electron microscopy studies to investigate the chemistry and structure of eight presolar silicate grains that were previously detected by NanoSIMS oxygen isotope mapping of the carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094. The analyzed presolar silicates belong to the O isotope Groups I/II ({sup 17}O-enriched and {sup 18}O-depleted) and therefore come from 1-2.5 M{sub sun} asymptotic giant branch stars of close-to-solar or slightly lower-than-solar metallicity. Three grains are amorphous, Mg-rich, and show a variable, but more pyroxene-like composition. Most probably, these grains have formed under circumstellar low-temperature conditions below the crystallization temperature. Three grains are Fe-bearing glasses similar to the 'glass with embedded metal and sulfides' (GEMS) grains found in interplanetary dust particles. However, two of the meteorite GEMS grains from this study lack comparatively large ({approx}>20 nm) Fe-rich inclusions and have sulfur contents <1 at.%, which is different than observed for the majority of GEMS grains. These grains likely condensed under strong non-equilibrium conditions from an Si-enriched gas. One olivine is characterized by a crystalline core and an amorphous, more Fe-rich rim, which is probably the result of interstellar medium sputtering combined with Mg removal. The detection of another olivine with a relatively high Fe content (Mg no. 0.9) shows that circumstellar crystalline silicates are more Fe-rich than astrophysical models usually suggest. The overall predominance of olivine among the crystalline silicate stardust population compared to pyroxene indicates preferential formation or survival of this type of mineral. As pyroxene is indeed detected in circumstellar outflows, it remains to be seen how this result is compatible with astrophysical observations and experimental data.

  20. Modelling the spectral energy distribution of the red giant in RS Ophiuchi: evidence for irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Kaminsky, B.; Rushton, M. T.; Evans, A.; Woodward, C. E.; Helton, L. A.; O'Brien, T. J.; Jones, D.; Elkin, V.

    2016-02-01

    We present an analysis of optical and infrared spectra of the recurrent nova RS Oph obtained during between 2006 and 2009. The best fit to the optical spectrum for 2006 September 28 gives Teff = 3900 K for log g = 2.0, while for log g = 0.0 we find Teff = 4700 K, and a comparison with template stellar spectra provides Teff ˜ 4500 K. The observed spectral energy distribution (SED), and the intensities of the emission lines, vary on short (≲1 d) time-scales, due to disc variability. We invoke a simple one-component model for the accretion disc, and a model with a hot boundary layer, with high (˜3.9 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1) and low (˜2 × 10-8 M⊙ yr-1) accretion rates, respectively. Fits to the accretion disc-extracted infrared spectrum (2008 July 15) yield effective temperatures for the red giant of {T_eff}= 3800 ± 100 K (log g = 2.0) and {T_eff}= 3700 ± 100 K (log g = 0.0). Furthermore, using a more sophisticated approach, we reproduced the optical and infrared SEDs of the red giant in the RS Oph system with a two-component model atmosphere, in which 90 per cent of the surface has Teff = 3600 K and 10 per cent has Teff = 5000 K. Such structure could be due to irradiation of the red giant by the white dwarf.

  1. The asteroseismic signature of strong magnetic fields in the cores of red giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Jim; Cantiello, Matteo; Stello, Dennis; Garcia, Rafael; Bildsten, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Internal stellar magnetic fields are inaccessible to direct observations and little is known about their amplitude, geometry and evolution. I will discuss how strong magnetic fields in the cores of red giant stars can be identified with asteroseismology. The fields manifest themselves via depressed dipole stellar oscillation modes, which arises from a magnetic greenhouse effect that scatters and traps oscillation mode energy within the core of the star. Physically, the effect stems from magnetic tension forces created by sufficiently strong fields, which break the spherical symmetry of the wave propagation cavity. The loss of wave energy within the core reduces the mode visibility at the stellar surface, and we find that our predicted visibilities are in excellent agreement with a class of red giants exhibiting depressed dipole oscillation modes. The Kepler satellite has already observed hundreds of these red giants, which we identify as stars with strongly magnetized cores. Field strengths larger than roughly 10^5 G can produce the observed depression, and in one case we measure a core field strength of 10^7 G.

  2. Gas Accretion by Giant Planets: 3D Simulations of Gap Opening and Dynamics of the Circumplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; Szulagyi, J.; Crida, A.; Tanigawa, T.; Lega, E.; Masset, F.; Bitsch, B.

    2013-10-01

    What sets the terminal mass of a giant planet once the latter enters into a runaway gas-accretion phase? The formation of a gap around the planet's orbit may be an answer, provided that the gap is wide and deep enough. A wide-spread idea is that this happens if the viscosity in the circumstellar disk is small, i.e. if planets form in the "dead zone". With 3D hydrodynamical simulations we study the formation of a gap in details. We find an interesting 4-step meridional loop in the gas dynamics: (1) the gas flows into the gap at the top layer of the disk; (2) then it falls towards the disk's midplane; (3) the planet keeps the gap open by pushing this infalling gas back into the disk; (4) the gas rises back to the disk's surface, which closes the loop. The gas flow in this loop is governed by the viscous timescale at the surface of the disk. It is generally accepted that the surface layer of the disk is MRI-active and viscous, even if a dead zone is present near the midplane. Thus, there should always be enough gas flowing into the gap for a Jupiter-mass planet to accrete at a fast rate, in absence of other regulation mechanisms. However, only a very small portion of the gas flowing into the gap is directly accreted by the planet. Most of the gas falling towards the planet forms a circumplanetary disk (CPD), due to angular momentum conservation. If the CPD is MRI-inactive, as suggested by Turner et al. (2010) and Fujii et al. (2011), it can act as a bottle-neck for planet accretion. We find that the main mechanism that allows the CPD to lose angular momentum is the torque exerted by the star via a spiral density wave. We compute that this promotes the accretion of 0.025% of the mass of the CPD per year, for a Jupiter mass planet at 5.2 AU, independent of viscosity. By balancing the pressure of the vertical inflow with that internal to the CPD, we estimate that the CPD should contain less than 1% of the planet's mass. This leads to a mass-doubling timescale for Jupiter

  3. Membership, binarity and metallicity of red giants in the southern open cluster NGC 2354

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clariá, J. J.; Mermilliod, J.-C.; Piatti, A. E.

    1999-01-01

    We present new Coravel radial-velocity observations and photoelectric photometry in the UBV, DDO and Washington systems for a sample of red giant candidates in the field of the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 2354. Photometric membership probabilities show very good agreement with those obtained from Coravel radial velocities. The analysis of the photometric and kinematical data allow us to confirm cluster membership for 9 red giants, one of them being a spectroscopic binary, while 4 confirmed spectroscopic binaries appear to be probable members. We have also discovered 4 spectroscopic binaries not belonging to the cluster. A mean radial velocity of (33.40 +/- 0.27) km s(-1) and a mean reddening E(B-V) = 0.13 +/- 0.03 were derived for the cluster giants. NGC 2354 has a mean ultraviolet excess = -0.03 +/- 0.01, relative to the field K giants, and a mean new cyanogen anomaly Delta CN = -0.035 +/- 0.007, both implying [Fe/H] ~ -0.3. The moderately metal-poor character of NGC 2354 is confirmed using five different metal abundance indicators of the Washington system. The cluster giant branch is formed by a well defined clump of 7 stars and 4 stars with high membership probabilities seem to define an ascending giant branch. The whole red giant locus cannot be reproduced by any theoretical track. Based on observations collected with the Danish\\protect\\linebreak 1.54-m telescope at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla (Chile); at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan, Argentina, and at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under contract with the National Science Foundation.

  4. Modelling a high-mass red giant observed by CoRoT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudin, F.; Barban, C.; Goupil, M. J.; Samadi, R.; Lebreton, Y.; Bruntt, H.; Morel, T.; Lefèvre, L.; Michel, E.; Mosser, B.; Carrier, F.; De Ridder, J.; Hatzes, A.; Hekker, S.; Kallinger, T.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Catala, C.

    2012-02-01

    Context. The advent of space-borne photometers such as CoRoT and Kepler has opened up new fields in asteroseismology. This is especially true for red giants as only a few of these stars were known to oscillate with small amplitude, solar-like oscillations before the launch of CoRoT. Aims: The G6 giant HR 2582 (HD 50890) was observed by CoRoT for approximately 55 days. We present here the analysis of its light curve and the characterisation of the star using different observables, such as its location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and seismic observables. Methods: Mode frequencies are extracted from the observed Fourier spectrum of the light curve. Numerical stellar models are then computed to determine the characteristics of the star (mass, age, etc.) from the comparison with observational constraints. Results: We provide evidence for the presence of solar-like oscillations at low frequency, between 10 and 20 μHz, with a regular spacing of (1.7 ± 0.1) μHz between consecutive radial orders. Only radial modes are clearly visible. From the models compatible with the observational constraints used here, We find that HR 2582 (HD 50890) is a massive star with a mass in the range (3-5 M⊙), clearly above the red clump. It oscillates with rather low radial order (n = 5-12) modes. Its evolutionary stage cannot be determined with precision: the star could be on the ascending red giant branch (hydrogen shell burning) with an age of approximately 155 Myr or in a later phase (helium burning). In order to obtain a reasonable helium amount, the metallicity of the star must be quite subsolar. Our best models are obtained with a mixing length significantly smaller than that obtained for the Sun with the same physical description (except overshoot). The amount of core overshoot during the main-sequence phase is found to be mild, of the order of 0.1 Hp. Conclusions: HR 2582 (HD 50890) is an interesting case as only a few massive stars can be observed due to their rapid

  5. The properties of the Malin 1 galaxy giant disk. A panchromatic view from the NGVS and GUViCS surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Ferrarese, L.; Côté, P.; Roehlly, Y.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Roediger, J.; Koda, J.; Muños Mateos, J. C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Madore, B. F.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) represent a significant percentage of local galaxies but their formation and evolution remain elusive. They may hold crucial information for our understanding of many key issues (i.e., census of baryonic and dark matter, star formation in the low density regime, mass function). The most massive examples - the so called giant LSBGs - can be as massive as the Milky Way, but with this mass being distributed in a much larger disk. Aims: Malin 1 is an iconic giant LSBG - perhaps the largest disk galaxy known. We attempt to bring new insights on its structure and evolution on the basis of new images covering a wide range in wavelength. Methods: We have computed surface brightness profiles (and average surface brightnesses in 16 regions of interest), in six photometric bands (FUV, NUV, u, g, i, z). We compared these data to various models, testing a variety of assumptions concerning the formation and evolution of Malin 1. Results: We find that the surface brightness and color profiles can be reproduced by a long and quiet star-formation history due to the low surface density; no significant event, such as a collision, is necessary. Such quiet star formation across the giant disk is obtained in a disk model calibrated for the Milky Way, but with an angular momentum approximately 20 times larger. Signs of small variations of the star-formation history are indicated by the diversity of ages found when different regions within the galaxy are intercompared. Conclusions: For the first time, panchromatic images of Malin 1 are used to constrain the stellar populations and the history of this iconic example among giant LSBGs. Based on our model, the extreme disk of Malin 1 is found to have a long history of relatively low star formation (about 2 M⊙ yr-1). Our model allows us to make predictions on its stellar mass and metallicity. The Appendix images (FITS files) are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  6. THE RISE AND FALL OF PASSIVE DISK GALAXIES: MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION ALONG THE RED SEQUENCE REVEALED BY COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, Kevin; Hopkins, Philip; Ma, Chung-Pei; Scarlata, Claudia; Capak, Peter; Carollo, C. M.; Oesch, Pascal; Ellis, Richard S.; Salvato, Mara; Scoville, Nick; Drory, Niv; Leauthaud, Alexie; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Murray, Norman; Ilbert, Olivier; Pozzetti, Lucia

    2010-08-20

    The increasing abundance of passive 'red-sequence' galaxies since z {approx} 1-2 is mirrored by a coincident rise in the number of galaxies with spheroidal morphologies. In this paper, however, we show in detail, that, the correspondence between galaxy morphology and color is not perfect, providing insight into the physical origin of this evolution. Using the COSMOS survey, we study a significant population of red-sequence galaxies with disk-like morphologies. These passive disks typically have Sa-Sb morphological types with large bulges, but they are not confined to dense environments. They represent nearly one-half of all red-sequence galaxies and dominate at lower masses ({approx}<10{sup 10} M{sub sun}) where they are increasingly disk-dominated. As a function of time, the abundance of passive disks with M {sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 11} M{sub sun} increases, but not as fast as red-sequence spheroidals in the same mass range. At higher mass, the passive disk population has declined since z {approx} 1, likely because they transform into spheroidals. Based on these trends, we estimate that as much as 60% of galaxies transitioning onto the red sequence evolve through a passive disk phase. The origin of passive disks therefore has broad implications for our understanding of how star formation shuts down. Because passive disks tend to be more bulge-dominated than their star-forming counterparts, a simple fading of blue disks does not fully explain their origin. We explore the strengths and weaknesses of several more sophisticated explanations, including environmental effects, internal stabilization, and disk regrowth during gas-rich mergers. While previous work has sought to explain color and morphological transformations with a single process, these observations open the way to new insight by highlighting the fact that galaxy evolution may actually proceed through several separate stages.

  7. Red Giants in Eclipsing Binary and Multiple-star Systems: Modeling and Asteroseismic Analysis of 70 Candidates from Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulme, P.; McKeever, J.; Rawls, M. L.; Jackiewicz, J.; Mosser, B.; Guzik, J. A.

    2013-04-01

    Red giant stars are proving to be an incredible source of information for testing models of stellar evolution, as asteroseismology has opened up a window into their interiors. Such insights are a direct result of the unprecedented data from space missions CoRoT and Kepler as well as recent theoretical advances. Eclipsing binaries are also fundamental astrophysical objects, and when coupled with asteroseismology, binaries provide two independent methods to obtain masses and radii and exciting opportunities to develop highly constrained stellar models. The possibility of discovering pulsating red giants in eclipsing binary systems is therefore an important goal that could potentially offer very robust characterization of these systems. Until recently, only one case has been discovered with Kepler. We cross-correlate the detected red giant and eclipsing-binary catalogs from Kepler data to find possible candidate systems. Light-curve modeling and mean properties measured from asteroseismology are combined to yield specific measurements of periods, masses, radii, temperatures, eclipse timing variations, core rotation rates, and red giant evolutionary state. After using three different techniques to eliminate false positives, out of the 70 systems common to the red giant and eclipsing-binary catalogs we find 13 strong candidates (12 previously unknown) to be eclipsing binaries, one to be a non-eclipsing binary with tidally induced oscillations, and 10 more to be hierarchical triple systems, all of which include a pulsating red giant. The systems span a range of orbital eccentricities, periods, and spectral types F, G, K, and M for the companion of the red giant. One case even suggests an eclipsing binary composed of two red giant stars and another of a red giant with a δ-Scuti star. The discovery of multiple pulsating red giants in eclipsing binaries provides an exciting test bed for precise astrophysical modeling, and follow-up spectroscopic observations of many of the

  8. RED GIANTS IN ECLIPSING BINARY AND MULTIPLE-STAR SYSTEMS: MODELING AND ASTEROSEISMIC ANALYSIS OF 70 CANDIDATES FROM KEPLER DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Gaulme, P.; McKeever, J.; Rawls, M. L.; Jackiewicz, J.; Mosser, B.; Guzik, J. A.

    2013-04-10

    Red giant stars are proving to be an incredible source of information for testing models of stellar evolution, as asteroseismology has opened up a window into their interiors. Such insights are a direct result of the unprecedented data from space missions CoRoT and Kepler as well as recent theoretical advances. Eclipsing binaries are also fundamental astrophysical objects, and when coupled with asteroseismology, binaries provide two independent methods to obtain masses and radii and exciting opportunities to develop highly constrained stellar models. The possibility of discovering pulsating red giants in eclipsing binary systems is therefore an important goal that could potentially offer very robust characterization of these systems. Until recently, only one case has been discovered with Kepler. We cross-correlate the detected red giant and eclipsing-binary catalogs from Kepler data to find possible candidate systems. Light-curve modeling and mean properties measured from asteroseismology are combined to yield specific measurements of periods, masses, radii, temperatures, eclipse timing variations, core rotation rates, and red giant evolutionary state. After using three different techniques to eliminate false positives, out of the 70 systems common to the red giant and eclipsing-binary catalogs we find 13 strong candidates (12 previously unknown) to be eclipsing binaries, one to be a non-eclipsing binary with tidally induced oscillations, and 10 more to be hierarchical triple systems, all of which include a pulsating red giant. The systems span a range of orbital eccentricities, periods, and spectral types F, G, K, and M for the companion of the red giant. One case even suggests an eclipsing binary composed of two red giant stars and another of a red giant with a {delta}-Scuti star. The discovery of multiple pulsating red giants in eclipsing binaries provides an exciting test bed for precise astrophysical modeling, and follow-up spectroscopic observations of many

  9. PLANET ENGULFMENT BY {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunitomo, M.; Ikoma, M.; Sato, B.; Ida, S.; Katsuta, Y.

    2011-08-20

    Recent radial-velocity surveys for GK clump giants have revealed that planets also exist around {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} stars. However, no planets have been found inside 0.6 AU around clump giants, in contrast to solar-type main-sequence stars, many of which harbor short-period planets such as hot Jupiters. In this study, we examine the possibility that planets were engulfed by host stars evolving on the red-giant branch (RGB). We integrate the orbital evolution of planets in the RGB and helium-burning phases of host stars, including the effects of stellar tide and stellar mass loss. Then we derive the critical semimajor axis (or the survival limit) inside which planets are eventually engulfed by their host stars after tidal decay of their orbits. Specifically, we investigate the impact of stellar mass and other stellar parameters on the survival limit in more detail than previous studies. In addition, we make detailed comparisons with measured semimajor axes of planets detected so far, which no previous study has done. We find that the critical semimajor axis is quite sensitive to stellar mass in the range between 1.7 and 2.1 M{sub sun}, which suggests a need for careful comparison between theoretical and observational limits of the existence of planets. Our comparison demonstrates that all planets orbiting GK clump giants that have been detected are beyond the survival limit, which is consistent with the planet-engulfment hypothesis. However, on the high-mass side (>2.1M{sub sun}), the detected planets are orbiting significantly far from the survival limit, which suggests that engulfment by host stars may not be the main reason for the observed lack of short-period giant planets. To confirm our conclusion, the detection of more planets around clump giants, especially with masses {approx}> 2.5M{sub sun}, is required.

  10. The light curve shapes as a key to resolving the origin of long secondary periods in red giant stars

    SciTech Connect

    Soszyński, I.; Udalski, A. E-mail: udalski@astrouw.edu.pl

    2014-06-10

    We present a study of Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment light curves of red giant stars exhibiting long secondary periods (LSPs)—an enigmatic phenomenon commonly observed in stars on the upper red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch. We show that the light curves of LSP stars are essentially identical to those of the spotted variables with one dark spot on their photospheres. Such behavior can be explained by the presence of a dusty cloud orbiting the red giant together with a low-mass companion in a close, circular orbit. We argue that the binary scenario is in agreement with most of the observational properties of LSP variables, including non-sinusoidal shapes of their radial velocity curves.

  11. Chemical Abundances in a Sample of Red Giants in the Open Cluster NGC 2420 from APOGEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto, Diogo; Cunha, K.; Smith, V.; Allende Prieto, C.; Pinsonneault, M.; Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Mészáros, Sz.; Bovy, J.; García Pérez, A. E.; Anders, F.; Bizyaev, D.; Carrera, R.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Holtzman, J.; Ivans, I.; Majewski, S. R.; Shetrone, M.; Sobeck, J.; Pan, K.; Tang, B.; Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.

    2016-10-01

    NGC 2420 is a ∼2 Gyr old well-populated open cluster that lies about 2 kpc beyond the solar circle, in the general direction of the Galactic anti-center. Most previous abundance studies have found this cluster to be mildly metal-poor, but with a large scatter in the obtained metallicities. Detailed chemical abundance distributions are derived for 12 red-giant members of NGC 2420 via a manual abundance analysis of high-resolution (R = 22,500) near-infrared (λ1.5–1.7 μm) spectra obtained from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. The sample analyzed contains six stars that are identified as members of the first-ascent red giant branch (RGB), as well as six members of the red clump (RC). We find small scatter in the star-to-star abundances in NGC 2420, with a mean cluster abundance of [Fe/H] = ‑0.16 ± 0.04 for the 12 red giants. The internal abundance dispersion for all elements (C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni) is also very small (∼0.03–0.06 dex), indicating a uniform cluster abundance distribution within the uncertainties. NGC 2420 is one of the clusters used to calibrate the APOGEE Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundance Pipeline (ASPCAP). The results from this manual analysis compare well with ASPCAP abundances for most of the elements studied, although for Na, Al, and V there are more significant offsets. No evidence of extra-mixing at the RGB luminosity bump is found in the 12C and 14N abundances from the pre-luminosity-bump RGB stars in comparison to the post-He core-flash RC stars.

  12. Red giant masses and ages derived from carbon and nitrogen abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martig, Marie; Fouesneau, Morgan; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ness, Melissa; Mészáros, Szabolcs; García-Hernández, D. A.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Serenelli, Aldo; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Zamora, Olga

    2016-03-01

    We show that the masses of red giant stars can be well predicted from their photospheric carbon and nitrogen abundances, in conjunction with their spectroscopic stellar labels log g, Teff, and [Fe/H]. This is qualitatively expected from mass-dependent post-main-sequence evolution. We here establish an empirical relation between these quantities by drawing on 1475 red giants with asteroseismic mass estimates from Kepler that also have spectroscopic labels from Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) DR12. We assess the accuracy of our model, and find that it predicts stellar masses with fractional rms errors of about 14 per cent (typically 0.2 M⊙). From these masses, we derive ages with rms errors of 40 per cent. This empirical model allows us for the first time to make age determinations (in the range 1-13 Gyr) for vast numbers of giant stars across the Galaxy. We apply our model to ˜52 000 stars in APOGEE DR12, for which no direct mass and age information was previously available. We find that these estimates highlight the vertical age structure of the Milky Way disc, and that the relation of age with [α/M] and metallicity is broadly consistent with established expectations based on detailed studies of the solar neighbourhood.

  13. Collapse of a new living species of giant clam in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Richter, Claudio; Roa-Quiaoit, Hilly; Jantzen, Carin; Al-Zibdah, Mohammad; Kochzius, Marc

    2008-09-01

    Giant clams are among the most spectacular but also the most endangered marine invertebrates. Their large size and easy accessibility has caused overfishing and collapse of the natural stocks in many places and local extinction in some of the species [1, 2]. The diversity of giant clams is extremely low because of reliction in this Tethyan group [3, 4]. The latest additions of living species date back almost two decades [5-7], fixing the number of extant Tridacna at seven species [3]. Here, we report the discovery of a new species of giant clam: Tridacna costata sp. nov. features characteristic shells with pronounced vertical folds, is genetically distinct, and shows an earlier and abbreviated reproduction than its Red Sea congeners. This species represents less than 1% of the present stocks but up to >80% of the fossil shells. The decline in proportion and shell size (20x) indicates overharvesting [8] dating back to the early human occupation of the Red Sea >125,000 years ago [9]. This earliest depletion reported so far of a shallow-water megafaunal invertebrate has important ramifications for human dispersal out of Africa [10]. Its oversight in one of the best-investigated reef provinces [11-13] illustrates the dearth of knowledge on marine biodiversity.

  14. The inner halo of M 87: a first direct view of the red-giant population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, S.; Harris, W. E.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Flynn, C.

    2010-12-01

    An unusually deep (V, I) imaging dataset for the Virgo supergiant M 87 with the Hubble Space Telescope ACS successfully resolves its brightest red-giant stars, reaching MI(lim) = -2.5. After assessing the photometric completeness and biasses, we use this material to estimate the metallicity distribution for the inner halo of M 87, finding that the distribution is very broad and likely to peak near [m/H] ≃ -0.4 and perhaps higher. The shape of the MDF strongly resembles that of the inner halo for the nearby giant E galaxy NGC 5128. As a byproduct of our study, we also obtain a preliminary measurement of the distance to M 87 with the TRGB (red-giant branch tip) method; the result is (m-M)0 = 31.12 ± 0.14 (d = 16.7 ± 0.9 Mpc). Averaging this result with three other recent techniques give a weighted mean d(M 87) = (16.4 ± 0.5) Mpc.

  15. CHEMICAL TAGGING OF THREE DISTINCT POPULATIONS OF RED GIANTS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6752

    SciTech Connect

    Carretta, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Gratton, R. G.; Lucatello, S.; D'Orazi, V. E-mail: angela.bragaglia@oabo.inaf.it E-mail: sara.lucatello@oapd.inaf.it

    2012-05-01

    We present aluminum, magnesium, and silicon abundances in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6752 for a sample of more than 130 red giants with homogeneous oxygen and sodium abundances. We find that [Al/Fe] shows a spread of about 1.4 dex among giants in NGC 6752 and is anticorrelated with [Mg/Fe] and [O/Fe] and correlated with [Na/Fe] and [Si/Fe]. These relations are not continuous in nature, but the distribution of stars is clearly clustered around three distinct Al values, low, intermediate, and high. These three groups nicely correspond to the three distinct sequences previously detected using Stroemgren photometry along the red giant branch. These two independent findings strongly indicate the existence of three distinct stellar populations in NGC 6752. Comparing the abundances of O and Mg, we find that the population with intermediate chemical abundances cannot originate from material with the same composition of the most O- and Mg-poor population, diluted by material with that of the most O- and Mg-rich one. This calls for different polluters.

  16. "Giant" red and green core/shell quantum dots with high color purity and photostability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo; Xu, Ruilin; Zhuo, Ningze; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Haibo; Cui, Yiping; Zhang, Jiayu

    2016-03-01

    "Giant" red CdSe/CdS and green CdSeS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs), whose color purity were ∼100% and 91%, respectively, were synthesized, and the color gamut could be more than 120% relative to the NTSC color space for the display utilizing these two kinds of QDs. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurement showed that the PL dynamics was evolved from tri-exponential decay to bi-exponential type with the increase of the shell thickness, and the PL decay characteristics of these giant QDs did not evidently change under long-term UV irradiation, indicating that the thick shell could isolate the effect of the surface's defects on the exciton's recombination within these QDs. Their high photostability could have an advantage in the application on display and white-light LEDs.

  17. Far-ultraviolet fluorescence of carbon monoxide in the red giant Arcturus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, T. R.; Moos, H. W.; Linsky, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence is presented that many of the weak features observed with International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) in the far-ultraviolet (1150-2000 A) spectrum of the archetype red giant Arcturus (K2 III) are A-X fourth positive bands of carbon monoxide excited by chromospheric emissions of O I, C I, and H I. The appearance of fluorescent CO bands near the wavelength of commonly used indicators of high-temperature (T greater than 20,000 K) plasma, such as C II at wavelength 1335 and C IV at wavelength 1548, introduces a serious ambiguity in diagnosing the presence of hot material in the outer atmospheres of the cool giants by means of low-dispersion IUE spectra.

  18. Chemical Abundances in Field Red Giants from High-resolution H-band Spectra Using the APOGEE Spectral Linelist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Garcìa Pèrez, Ana; Majewski, Steven R.; Schiavon, Ricardo; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, Jennifer A.

    2013-03-01

    High-resolution H-band spectra of five bright field K, M, and MS giants, obtained from the archives of the Kitt Peak National Observatory Fourier transform spectrometer, are analyzed to determine chemical abundances of 16 elements. The abundances were derived via spectrum synthesis using the detailed linelist prepared for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey to derive detailed chemical abundance distributions and precise radial velocities for 100,000 red giants sampling all Galactic stellar populations. The red giant sample studied here was chosen to probe which chemical elements can be derived reliably from the H-band APOGEE spectral region. These red giants consist of two K-giants (α Boo and μ Leo), two M-giants (β And and δ Oph), and one thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) star of spectral type MS (HD 199799). Measured chemical abundances include the cosmochemically important isotopes 12C, 13C, 14N, and 16O, along with Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. The K and M giants exhibit the abundance signature of the first dredge-up of CN-cycle material, while the TP-AGB star shows clear evidence of the addition of 12C synthesized during 4He-burning thermal pulses and subsequent third dredge-up. A comparison of the abundances derived here with published values for these stars reveals consistent results to ~0.1 dex. The APOGEE spectral region and linelist is thus well suited for probing both Galactic chemical evolution, as well as internal nucleosynthesis and mixing in populations of red giants via high-resolution spectroscopy.

  19. On the oxygen abundances of M 67 stars from the turn-off point through the red giant branch†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Honda, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    With an aim to examine whether the surface oxygen composition suffers any appreciable change due to evolution-induced mixing of nuclear-processed material in the envelope of red giants, abundance determinations for O/Fe/Ni based on the synthetic spectrum-fitting method were performed by using the moderate-dispersion spectra in the 7770-7792 Å region (comprising O I 7771-5, Fe I 7780, and Ni I 7788 lines) for 16 stars of the old open cluster M 67 in various evolutionary stages from the turn-off point through the red giant branch. We could not find any meaningful difference in the oxygen abundances between the non-giant group (Teff > 5000 K) and the red-giant group (Teff < 5000 K), which are almost consistent with each other on average (despite that both have rather large dispersions of a few tenths dex caused by insufficient data quality), though only one giant star (S 1054) appears to show an exceptionally low O abundance and thus needs a more detailed study. This result may suggest that oxygen content in the stellar envelope is hardly affected (or any changes are insignificant) by the mixing of H-burning products in the red giant phase, as far as M 67 stars of low mass (˜ 1.3 M⊙) are concerned, which is consistent with the prediction from the conventional stellar evolution theory of first dredge-up.

  20. Serosurvey of ex situ giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in China with implications for species conservation.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, I Kati; Howard, JoGayle; Montali, Richard J; Hayek, Lee-Ann; Dubovi, Edward; Zhang, Zhihe; Yan, Qigui; Guo, Wanzhu; Wildt, David E

    2007-12-01

    Conservation strategies for the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) include the development of a self-sustaining ex situ population. This study examined the potential significance of infectious pathogens in giant pandas ex situ. Serologic antibody titers against canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), canine adenovirus (CAV), canine coronavirus (CCV), canine herpesvirus, canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Leptospira interrogans were measured in 44 samples taken from 19 giant pandas between 1998 and 2003 at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding in Sichuan, China. Seroassays also included samples obtained in 2003 from eight red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) housed at the same institution. All individuals had been vaccinated with a Chinese canine vaccine that included modified live CDV, CPV, CAV, CCV, and CPIV. Positive antibody titers were found only against CDV, CPV, and T. gondii. Sera were negative for antibodies against the other six pathogens. Results indicate that the quality of the vaccine may not be reliable and that it should not be considered protective or safe in giant pandas and red pandas. Positive antibody titers against T. gondii were found in seven of the 19 giant pandas. The clinical, subclinical, or epidemiologic significance of infection with these pathogens via natural exposure or from modified live vaccines in giant pandas is unknown. Research in this area is imperative to sustaining a viable population of giant pandas and other endangered species.

  1. Spectroscopy of the Ca II Line in Metal-Poor Field Red Giants. II. Northern Hemisphere Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Smith, Graeme H.

    1995-07-01

    Echelle spectra of the Ca II K line (λ3933.7) for a sample of 53 metal-deficient field giants, including first-ascent red giant branch stars and asymptotic giant branch stars, demonstrate that chromospheres are ubiquitous among these objects. The atmospheres of the metal-deficient giants are found to be quite dynamic; motions in the deeper regions of the chromosphere appear to be irregular, and evidence for both outflows and infall has been found. An absolute magnitude of MV≍-1.7 corresponds to a critical brightness for metal-deficient giants; as stars evolve beyond this magnitude the atmospheric structure and dynamics affecting the Hα and Ca II K profiles undergo a change. Metal-poor giants brighter than this magnitude exhibit evidence of systematic outflows. However, no circumstellar component is seen in any of the spectra of the Ca II K line acquired in this project. The winds of bright Population II red giants are inferred to be hotter than those of Population I giants. The classic Wilson-Bappu effect is found to depend on metal abundance.

  2. Decoupling of a giant planet from its disk in an inclined binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picogna, G.; Marzari, F.

    2015-11-01

    Context. We explore the dynamical evolution of a planet that is embedded in a circumstellar disk, as part of a binary system where the orbital plane of the companion star is significantly tilted with respect to the initial disk plane. Aims: Our aim is to test whether the planet remains within the disk and continues to migrate towards the star in a Type I/II mode, in spite of the secular perturbations of the companion star. Our findings, could explain why observed exoplanets have significant inclination in relation to the equatorial plane of their host star. Methods: We used two different smoothed particle hydrodynamic codes, VINE and PHANTOM, to model the evolution of a star+disk+planet system with a companion star over time. Results: After an initial coupled evolution, the inclinations of the disk and the planet begin to differ significantly. The period of oscillation of the disk inclination, in relation to the initial plane, becomes shorter for the planet, which evolves independently after about 104 yr, following a perturbed N-body behaviour. However, the planet continues to migrate towards the star because, during its orbital motion, it crosses the disk plane, and friction with the gas causes angular momentum loss. Conclusions: In a significantly inclined binary system, disks and planets are not dynamically coupled for small binary separations but evolve almost independently. The planet abandons the disk, and because of the onset of a significant mutual inclination, it interacts with the gas only when its orbit intersects the disk plane. The drift of the planet towards the star is not due to Type I/II, where the planet is embedded in the disk, but to the friction with the gas while crossing the disk.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Halo red giants from the SEGUE survey (Martell+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, S. L.; Smolinski, J. P.; Beers, T. C.; Grebel, E. K.

    2011-09-01

    Table 1 lists SDSS identifiers, astrometry and photometry, stellar parameters and survey name for 2519 stars observed as part of the SDSS-II/SEGUE-1 and SDSS-III/SEGUE-2 surveys. The stars in this table were selected as red giants with halo-like metallicities (-1.8<[Fe/H]<-1.0) and reasonably clean spectra (mean S/N per pixel between 4000 and 4100A greater than 15). Table 3 lists SDSS identifiers, CN and CH bandstrength indices, CN bandstrength class, absolute r magnitudes, heliocentric and Galactocentric distances, and survey name, for the same stars as in Table 1. (2 data files).

  4. Carbon in Red Giants in Globular Clusters and Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Guo, Michelle; Zhang, Andrew J.; Deng, Michelle; Cohen, Judith G.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Lee, Young Sun; Rizzi, Luca

    2015-03-01

    We present carbon abundances of red giants in Milky Way (MW) globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). Our sample includes measurements of carbon abundances for 154 giants in the clusters NGC 2419, M68, and M15 and 398 giants in the dSphs Sculptor, Fornax, Ursa Minor, and Draco. This sample doubles the number of dSph stars with measurements of [C/Fe]. The [C/Fe] ratio in the clusters decreases with increasing luminosity above log (L/{{L}})≃ 1.6, which can be explained by deep mixing in evolved giants. The same decrease is observed in dSphs, but the initial [C/Fe] of the dSph giants is not uniform. Stars in dSphs at lower metallicities have larger [C/Fe] ratios. We hypothesize that [C/Fe] (corrected to the initial carbon abundance) declines with increasing [Fe/H] due to the metallicity dependence of the carbon yield of asymptotic giant branch stars and due to the increasing importance of SNe Ia at higher metallicities. We also identified 11 very carbon-rich giants (eight previously known) in three dSphs. However, our selection biases preclude a detailed comparison to the carbon-enhanced fraction of the MW stellar halo. Nonetheless, the stars with [C/Fe]\\lt +1 in dSphs follow a different [C/Fe] track with [Fe/H] than the halo stars. Specifically, [C/Fe] in dSphs begins to decline at lower [Fe/H] than in the halo. The difference in the metallicity of the [C/Fe] “knee” adds to the evidence from [α/Fe] distributions that the progenitors of the halo had a shorter timescale for chemical enrichment than the surviving dSphs. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  5. The Green Valley is a Red Herring: Different Evolutionary Pathways for Spheroidal and Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, C. M.; Schawinski, K.; Simmons, B. D.; Fortson, L.; Kaviraj, S.; Keel, W. C.; Lintott, C.; Masters, K.; Nichol, R.; Sarzi, M.; Skibba, R. A.; Treister, E.; Willett, K.; Wong, O.; Yi, S.; Zoo Citizen Scientists, Galaxy

    2014-01-01

    Using SDSS+GALEX+Galaxy Zoo data, we show that the green valley in the color-mass diagram (between the blue cloud of star-forming galaxies and the red sequence of quiescent galaxies) is not a single transitional state through which most blue galaxies evolve into red galaxies. Rather, an analysis that takes morphology and UV colors into account makes clear that only a small population of blue galaxies moves rapidly across the green valley, after star formation is abruptly quenched and the morphology is transformed from disk to spheroid. In contrast, the majority of blue star-forming galaxies retain significant disks as their star formation rates decline very slowly. We detail a range of observations that lead to these conclusions, including UV-optical colors and halo masses, which both show a striking dependence on morphological type. We interpret these results in terms of how much gas is available for star formation. We conclude that disky galaxies are consistent with a scenario where the cosmic supply of gas is shut off, perhaps at a critical halo mass, followed by a slow exhaustion of the remaining gas over several Gigayears, driven by secular and/or environmental processes. In contrast, spheroidal galaxies require the gas supply and gas reservoir to be destroyed virtually instantaneously, with rapid quenching accompanied by a morphological transformation from disk to spheroid. This gas reservoir destruction could be the consequence of a major merger, and mergers could play a role in inducing black hole accretion and possibly AGN feedback in this minority of galaxies.

  6. KIC 9246715: The Double Red Giant Eclipsing Binary with Odd Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawls, Meredith L.; Gaulme, Patrick; McKeever, Jean; Jackiewicz, Jason; Orosz, Jerome A.; Corsaro, Enrico; Beck, Paul G.; Mosser, Benoît; Latham, David W.; Latham, Christian A.

    2016-02-01

    We combine Kepler photometry with ground-based spectra to present a comprehensive dynamical model of the double red giant eclipsing binary KIC 9246715. While the two stars are very similar in mass ({M}1={2.171}-0.008+0.006 {M}⊙ , {M}2={2.149}-0.008+0.006 {M}⊙ ) and radius ({R}1={8.37}-0.07+0.03 {R}⊙ , {R}2={8.30}-0.03+0.04 {R}⊙ ), an asteroseismic analysis finds one main set of solar-like oscillations with unusually low-amplitude, wide modes. A second set of oscillations from the other star may exist, but this marginal detection is extremely faint. Because the two stars are nearly twins, KIC 9246715 is a difficult target for a precise test of the asteroseismic scaling relations, which yield M = 2.17 ± 0.14 M⊙ and R = 8.26 ± 0.18 R⊙. Both stars are consistent with the inferred asteroseismic properties, but we suspect the main oscillator is Star 2 because it is less active than Star 1. We find evidence for stellar activity and modest tidal forces acting over the 171 day eccentric orbit, which are likely responsible for the essential lack of solar-like oscillations in one star and weak oscillations in the other. Mixed modes indicate the main oscillating star is on the secondary red clump (a core-He-burning star), and stellar evolution modeling supports this with a coeval history for a pair of red clump stars. This system is a useful case study and paves the way for a detailed analysis of more red giants in eclipsing binaries, an important benchmark for asteroseismology.

  7. TESTING CONVECTIVE-CORE OVERSHOOTING USING PERIOD SPACINGS OF DIPOLE MODES IN RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Montalban, J.; Noels, A.; Dupret, M.-A.; Scuflaire, R.; Miglio, A.; Ventura, P.

    2013-04-01

    Uncertainties on central mixing in main-sequence (MS) and core He-burning (He-B) phases affect key predictions of stellar evolution such as late evolutionary phases, chemical enrichment, ages, etc. We propose a test of the extension of extra-mixing in two relevant evolutionary phases based on period spacing ({Delta}P) of solar-like oscillating giants. From stellar models and their corresponding adiabatic frequencies (respectively, computed with ATON and LOSC codes), we provide the first predictions of the observable {Delta}P for stars in the red giant branch and in the red clump (RC). We find (1) a clear correlation between {Delta}P and the mass of the helium core (M{sub He}); the latter in intermediate-mass stars depends on the MS overshooting, and hence it can be used to set constraints on extra-mixing during MS when coupled with chemical composition; and (2) a linear dependence of the average value of the asymptotic period spacing (({Delta}P){sub a}) on the size of the convective core during the He-B phase. A first comparison with the inferred asymptotic period spacing for Kepler RC stars also suggests the need for extra-mixing during this phase, as evinced from other observational facts.

  8. Multi-periodic pulsations of a stripped red-giant star in an eclipsing binary system.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Pierre F L; Serenelli, Aldo M; Miglio, Andrea; Marsh, Thomas R; Heber, Ulrich; Dhillon, Vikram S; Littlefair, Stuart; Copperwheat, Chris; Smalley, Barry; Breedt, Elmé; Schaffenroth, Veronika

    2013-06-27

    Low-mass white-dwarf stars are the remnants of disrupted red-giant stars in binary millisecond pulsars and other exotic binary star systems. Some low-mass white dwarfs cool rapidly, whereas others stay bright for millions of years because of stable fusion in thick surface hydrogen layers. This dichotomy is not well understood, so the potential use of low-mass white dwarfs as independent clocks with which to test the spin-down ages of pulsars or as probes of the extreme environments in which low-mass white dwarfs form cannot fully be exploited. Here we report precise mass and radius measurements for the precursor to a low-mass white dwarf. We find that only models in which this disrupted red-giant star has a thick hydrogen envelope can match the strong constraints provided by our data. Very cool low-mass white dwarfs must therefore have lost their thick hydrogen envelopes by irradiation from pulsar companions or by episodes of unstable hydrogen fusion (shell flashes). We also find that this low-mass white-dwarf precursor is a type of pulsating star not hitherto seen. The observed pulsation frequencies are sensitive to internal processes that determine whether this star will undergo shell flashes. PMID:23803845

  9. Survival of a brown dwarf after engulfment by a red giant star.

    PubMed

    Maxted, P F L; Napiwotzki, R; Dobbie, P D; Burleigh, M R

    2006-08-01

    Many sub-stellar companions (usually planets but also some brown dwarfs) orbit solar-type stars. These stars can engulf their sub-stellar companions when they become red giants. This interaction may explain several outstanding problems in astrophysics but it is unclear under what conditions a low mass companion will evaporate, survive the interaction unchanged or gain mass. Observational tests of models for this interaction have been hampered by a lack of positively identified remnants-that is, white dwarf stars with close, sub-stellar companions. The companion to the pre-white dwarf AA Doradus may be a brown dwarf, but the uncertain history of this star and the extreme luminosity difference between the components make it difficult to interpret the observations or to put strong constraints on the models. The magnetic white dwarf SDSS J121209.31 + 013627.7 may have a close brown dwarf companion but little is known about this binary at present. Here we report the discovery of a brown dwarf in a short period orbit around a white dwarf. The properties of both stars in this binary can be directly observed and show that the brown dwarf was engulfed by a red giant but that this had little effect on it. PMID:16885979

  10. Fast core rotation in red-giant stars as revealed by gravity-dominated mixed modes.

    PubMed

    Beck, Paul G; Montalban, Josefina; Kallinger, Thomas; De Ridder, Joris; Aerts, Conny; García, Rafael A; Hekker, Saskia; Dupret, Marc-Antoine; Mosser, Benoit; Eggenberger, Patrick; Stello, Dennis; Elsworth, Yvonne; Frandsen, Søren; Carrier, Fabien; Hillen, Michel; Gruberbauer, Michael; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Miglio, Andrea; Valentini, Marica; Bedding, Timothy R; Kjeldsen, Hans; Girouard, Forrest R; Hall, Jennifer R; Ibrahim, Khadeejah A

    2012-01-01

    When the core hydrogen is exhausted during stellar evolution, the central region of a star contracts and the outer envelope expands and cools, giving rise to a red giant. Convection takes place over much of the star's radius. Conservation of angular momentum requires that the cores of these stars rotate faster than their envelopes; indirect evidence supports this. Information about the angular-momentum distribution is inaccessible to direct observations, but it can be extracted from the effect of rotation on oscillation modes that probe the stellar interior. Here we report an increasing rotation rate from the surface of the star to the stellar core in the interiors of red giants, obtained using the rotational frequency splitting of recently detected 'mixed modes'. By comparison with theoretical stellar models, we conclude that the core must rotate at least ten times faster than the surface. This observational result confirms the theoretical prediction of a steep gradient in the rotation profile towards the deep stellar interior. PMID:22158105

  11. Survival of a brown dwarf after engulfment by a red giant star.

    PubMed

    Maxted, P F L; Napiwotzki, R; Dobbie, P D; Burleigh, M R

    2006-08-01

    Many sub-stellar companions (usually planets but also some brown dwarfs) orbit solar-type stars. These stars can engulf their sub-stellar companions when they become red giants. This interaction may explain several outstanding problems in astrophysics but it is unclear under what conditions a low mass companion will evaporate, survive the interaction unchanged or gain mass. Observational tests of models for this interaction have been hampered by a lack of positively identified remnants-that is, white dwarf stars with close, sub-stellar companions. The companion to the pre-white dwarf AA Doradus may be a brown dwarf, but the uncertain history of this star and the extreme luminosity difference between the components make it difficult to interpret the observations or to put strong constraints on the models. The magnetic white dwarf SDSS J121209.31 + 013627.7 may have a close brown dwarf companion but little is known about this binary at present. Here we report the discovery of a brown dwarf in a short period orbit around a white dwarf. The properties of both stars in this binary can be directly observed and show that the brown dwarf was engulfed by a red giant but that this had little effect on it.

  12. Multi-periodic pulsations of a stripped red-giant star in an eclipsing binary system.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Pierre F L; Serenelli, Aldo M; Miglio, Andrea; Marsh, Thomas R; Heber, Ulrich; Dhillon, Vikram S; Littlefair, Stuart; Copperwheat, Chris; Smalley, Barry; Breedt, Elmé; Schaffenroth, Veronika

    2013-06-27

    Low-mass white-dwarf stars are the remnants of disrupted red-giant stars in binary millisecond pulsars and other exotic binary star systems. Some low-mass white dwarfs cool rapidly, whereas others stay bright for millions of years because of stable fusion in thick surface hydrogen layers. This dichotomy is not well understood, so the potential use of low-mass white dwarfs as independent clocks with which to test the spin-down ages of pulsars or as probes of the extreme environments in which low-mass white dwarfs form cannot fully be exploited. Here we report precise mass and radius measurements for the precursor to a low-mass white dwarf. We find that only models in which this disrupted red-giant star has a thick hydrogen envelope can match the strong constraints provided by our data. Very cool low-mass white dwarfs must therefore have lost their thick hydrogen envelopes by irradiation from pulsar companions or by episodes of unstable hydrogen fusion (shell flashes). We also find that this low-mass white-dwarf precursor is a type of pulsating star not hitherto seen. The observed pulsation frequencies are sensitive to internal processes that determine whether this star will undergo shell flashes.

  13. Asteroseismology of red giants: From analysing light curves to estimating ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. R.; Miglio, A.

    2016-09-01

    Asteroseismology has started to provide constraints on stellar properties that will be essential to accurately reconstruct the history of the Milky Way. Here we look at the information content in data sets representing current and future space missions (CoRoT, Kepler, K2, TESS, and PLATO) for red giant stars. We describe techniques for extracting the information in the frequency power spectrum and apply these techniques to Kepler data sets of different observing length to represent the different space missions. We demonstrate that for KIC 12008916, a low-luminosity red giant branch star, we can extract useful information from all data sets, and for all but the shortest data set we obtain good constraint on the g-mode period spacing and core rotation rates. We discuss how the high precision in these parameters will constrain the stellar properties of stellar radius, distance, mass and age. We show that high precision can be achieved in mass and hence age when values of the g-mode period spacing are available. We caution that tests to establish the accuracy of asteroseismic masses and ages are still ``work in progress''.

  14. MODELING KEPLER OBSERVATIONS OF SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS IN THE RED GIANT STAR HD 186355

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C.; Jiang, B. W.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Frandsen, S.; Kjeldsen, H.; Karoff, C.; Bedding, T. R.; Stello, D.; Huber, D.; Mosser, B.; Demarque, P.; Fanelli, M. N.; Kinemuchi, K.; Mullally, F.

    2011-12-01

    We have analyzed oscillations of the red giant star HD 186355 observed by the NASA Kepler satellite. The data consist of the first five quarters of science operations of Kepler, which cover about 13 months. The high-precision time-series data allow us to accurately extract the oscillation frequencies from the power spectrum. We find that the frequency of the maximum oscillation power, {nu}{sub max}, and the mean large frequency separation, {Delta}{nu}, are around 106 and 9.4 {mu}Hz, respectively. A regular pattern of radial and non-radial oscillation modes is identified by stacking the power spectra in an echelle diagram. We use the scaling relations of {Delta}{nu} and {nu}{sub max} to estimate the preliminary asteroseismic mass, which is confirmed with the modeling result (M = 1.45 {+-} 0.05 M{sub Sun }) using the Yale Rotating stellar Evolution Code (YREC7). In addition, we constrain the effective temperature, luminosity, and radius from comparisons between observational constraints and models. A number of mixed l = 1 modes are also detected and taken into account in our model comparisons. We find a mean observational period spacing for these mixed modes of about 58 s, suggesting that this red giant branch star is in the shell hydrogen-burning phase.

  15. Habitability of super-Earth planets around other suns: models including Red Giant Branch evolution.

    PubMed

    von Bloh, W; Cuntz, M; Schröder, K-P; Bounama, C; Franck, S

    2009-01-01

    The unexpected diversity of exoplanets includes a growing number of super-Earth planets, i.e., exoplanets with masses of up to several Earth masses and a similar chemical and mineralogical composition as Earth. We present a thermal evolution model for a 10 Earth-mass planet orbiting a star like the Sun. Our model is based on the integrated system approach, which describes the photosynthetic biomass production and takes into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. This allows us to identify a so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zone (pHZ), as determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. Our model considers solar evolution during the main-sequence stage and along the Red Giant Branch as described by the most recent solar model. We obtain a large set of solutions consistent with the principal possibility of life. The highest likelihood of habitability is found for "water worlds." Only mass-rich water worlds are able to realize pHZ-type habitability beyond the stellar main sequence on the Red Giant Branch.

  16. Habitability of super-Earth planets around other suns: models including Red Giant Branch evolution.

    PubMed

    von Bloh, W; Cuntz, M; Schröder, K-P; Bounama, C; Franck, S

    2009-01-01

    The unexpected diversity of exoplanets includes a growing number of super-Earth planets, i.e., exoplanets with masses of up to several Earth masses and a similar chemical and mineralogical composition as Earth. We present a thermal evolution model for a 10 Earth-mass planet orbiting a star like the Sun. Our model is based on the integrated system approach, which describes the photosynthetic biomass production and takes into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. This allows us to identify a so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zone (pHZ), as determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. Our model considers solar evolution during the main-sequence stage and along the Red Giant Branch as described by the most recent solar model. We obtain a large set of solutions consistent with the principal possibility of life. The highest likelihood of habitability is found for "water worlds." Only mass-rich water worlds are able to realize pHZ-type habitability beyond the stellar main sequence on the Red Giant Branch. PMID:19630504

  17. The chemical compositions and evolutionary status of red giants in the open cluster NGC 6940

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böcek Topcu, G.; Afşar, M.; Sneden, C.

    2016-11-01

    We present the high-resolution (R ≈ 60 000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≃ 120) spectroscopic analysis of 12 red giant members of the Galactic open cluster NGC 6940. We applied Yonsei-Yale isochrones to the colour-magnitude diagram, which suggested an age of 1.1 Gyr for the cluster with a turn-off mass of 2 M⊙. Atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H], and ξt) were determined via equivalent widths of Fe I, Fe II, Ti I, and Ti II lines. Calculated mean metallicity of the cluster is <[Fe/H]> = 0.04 ± 0.02. We derived abundances of α (Mg, Si, Ca), Fe-group (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), and n-capture (Y, La, Nd, Eu) elements to be about solar. Light odd-Z elements Na and Al are slightly enhanced in MMU 108 and MMU 152 by ˜0.34 and ˜0.16 dex, respectively. Abundances of light elements Li, C, N, O, and 12C/13C ratios were derived from spectrum syntheses of the Li I resonance doublet at 6707 Å, [O I] line at 6300 Å, C2 Swan bandheads at 5164 and 5635 Å, and strong 12,13CN system lines in the 7995-8040 Å region. Most carbon isotopic ratios are similar to those found in other solar-metallicity giants, but MMU 152 has an unusual value of 12C/13C = 6. Evaluation of the LiCNO abundances and 12C/13C ratios along with the present theoretical models suggests that all the red giants in our sample are core-helium-burning clump stars.

  18. The chemical compositions and evolutionary status of red giants in the open cluster NGC 6940

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böcek Topcu, G.; Afşar, M.; Sneden, C.

    2016-08-01

    We present the high resolution (R ≈ 60 000), high signal-to-noise (S/N ≃ 120) spectroscopic analysis of 12 red giant members of the Galactic open cluster NGC 6940. We applied Yonsei-Yale isochrones to the colour-magnitude diagram, which suggested an age of 1.1 Gyr for the cluster with a turn-off mass of 2 M⊙. Atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H] and ξt) were determined via equivalent widths of Fe I, Fe II, Ti I, and Ti II lines. Calculated mean metallicity of the cluster is <[Fe/H]> = 0.04 ± 0.02. We derived abundances of α (Mg, Si, Ca), Fe-group (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), and n-capture (Y, La, Nd, Eu) elements to be about solar. Light odd-Z elements Na and Al are slightly enhanced in MMU 108 and MMU 152 by ˜0.34 dex and ˜0.16 dex, respectively. Abundances of light elements Li, C, N, O, and 12C/13C ratios were derived from spectrum syntheses of the Li I resonance doublet at 6707 Å, [O I] line at 6300 Å, C2 Swan bandheads at 5164 Å and 5635 Å, and strong 12, 13CN system lines in the 7995-8040 Å region. Most carbon isotopic ratios are similar to those found in other solar-metallicity giants, but MMU 152 has an unusual value of 12C/13C =6. Evaluation of the LiCNO abundances and 12C/13C ratios along with the present theoretical models suggests that all the red giants in our sample are core-helium-burning clump stars.

  19. IMPLICATIONS OF RAPID CORE ROTATION IN RED GIANTS FOR INTERNAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSPORT IN STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Tayar, Jamie; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    2013-09-20

    Core rotation rates have been measured for red giant stars using asteroseismology. These data, along with helioseismic measurements and open cluster spin-down studies, provide powerful clues about the nature and timescale for internal angular momentum transport in stars. We focus on two cases: the metal-poor red giant KIC 7341231 ({sup O}tto{sup )} and intermediate-mass core helium burning stars. For both, we examine limiting case studies for angular momentum coupling between cores and envelopes under the assumption of rigid rotation on the main sequence. We discuss the expected pattern of core rotation as a function of mass and radius. In the case of Otto, strong post-main-sequence coupling is ruled out and the measured core rotation rate is in the range of 23-33 times the surface value expected from standard spin-down models. The minimum coupling timescale (0.17-0.45 Gyr) is significantly longer than that inferred for young open cluster stars. This implies ineffective internal angular momentum transport in early first ascent giants. By contrast, the core rotation rates of evolved secondary clump stars are found to be consistent with strong coupling given their rapid main-sequence rotation. An extrapolation to the white dwarf regime predicts rotation periods between 330 and 0.0052 days, depending on mass and decoupling time. We identify two key ingredients that explain these features: the presence of a convective core and inefficient angular momentum transport in the presence of larger mean molecular weight gradients. Observational tests that can disentangle these effects are discussed.

  20. Implications of Rapid Core Rotation in Red Giants for Internal Angular Momentum Transport in Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayar, Jamie; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    2013-09-01

    Core rotation rates have been measured for red giant stars using asteroseismology. These data, along with helioseismic measurements and open cluster spin-down studies, provide powerful clues about the nature and timescale for internal angular momentum transport in stars. We focus on two cases: the metal-poor red giant KIC 7341231 ("Otto") and intermediate-mass core helium burning stars. For both, we examine limiting case studies for angular momentum coupling between cores and envelopes under the assumption of rigid rotation on the main sequence. We discuss the expected pattern of core rotation as a function of mass and radius. In the case of Otto, strong post-main-sequence coupling is ruled out and the measured core rotation rate is in the range of 23-33 times the surface value expected from standard spin-down models. The minimum coupling timescale (0.17-0.45 Gyr) is significantly longer than that inferred for young open cluster stars. This implies ineffective internal angular momentum transport in early first ascent giants. By contrast, the core rotation rates of evolved secondary clump stars are found to be consistent with strong coupling given their rapid main-sequence rotation. An extrapolation to the white dwarf regime predicts rotation periods between 330 and 0.0052 days, depending on mass and decoupling time. We identify two key ingredients that explain these features: the presence of a convective core and inefficient angular momentum transport in the presence of larger mean molecular weight gradients. Observational tests that can disentangle these effects are discussed.

  1. Five Groups of Red Giants with Distinct Chemical Composition in the Globular Cluster NGC 2808

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretta, Eugenio

    2015-09-01

    The chemical composition of multiple populations in the massive globular cluster (GC) NGC 2808 is addressed with the homogeneous abundance reanalysis of 140 red giant branch stars. UVES spectra for 31 stars and GIRAFFE spectra for the other giants were analyzed with the same procedures used for about 2500 giants in 23 GCs in our FLAMES survey, deriving abundances of Fe, O, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Sc, Cr, Mn, and Ni. Iron, elements from α capture, and those in the Fe group do not show intrinsic scatter. On our UVES scale, the metallicity of NGC 2808 is [Fe/H] =\\-1.129+/- 0.005+/- 0.034 (± statistical ± systematic error) with σ = 0.030 (31 stars). The main features related to proton-capture elements are retrieved, but the improved statistics and the smaller associated internal errors allow us to uncover five distinct groups of stars along the Na–O anticorrelation. We observe large depletions in Mg, anticorrelated with enhancements of Na and also Si, suggestive of unusually high temperatures for proton captures. About 14% of our sample is formed by giants with solar or subsolar [Mg/Fe] ratios. Using the [Na/Mg] ratios, we confirm the presence of five populations with different chemical compositions that we call P1, P2, I1, I2, and E in order of decreasing Mg and increasing Na abundances. Statistical tests show that the mean ratios in any pair of groups cannot be extracted from the same parent distribution. The overlap with the five populations recently detected from UV photometry is good but not perfect, confirming that more distinct components probably exist in this complex GC. Based on data collected at the ESO telescopes under program 072.D-0507 and during the FLAMES Science Verification program.

  2. An Extremely Lithium-rich Bright Red Giant in the Globular Cluster M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Robert P.; Peterson, Ruth C.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Sneden, Christopher; Fulbright, Jon P.; Langer, G. Edward

    1999-06-01

    We have serendipitously discovered an extremely lithium-rich star on the red giant branch of the globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272). An echelle spectrum obtained with the Keck I High-Resolution Echelle Spectrograph reveals a Li I λ6707 resonance doublet of 520 mÅ equivalent width, and our analysis places the star among the most Li-rich giants known: logε(Li)~=+3.0. We determine the elemental abundances of this star, IV-101, and three other cluster members of similar luminosity and color and conclude that IV-101 has abundance ratios typical of giants in M3 and M13 that have undergone significant mixing. We discuss mechanisms by which a low-mass star may be so enriched in Li, focusing on the mixing of material processed by the hydrogen-burning shell just below the convective envelope. While such enrichment could conceivably happen only rarely, it may in fact regularly occur during giant-branch evolution but be rarely detected because of rapid subsequent Li depletion. Based on observations obtained with the Keck I Telescope of the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the California Association for Research in Astronomy (CARA), Inc., on behalf of the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. This Letter is dedicated to the memory of our beloved colleague Ed Langer, who died after a brief illness on February 16, 1999. Ed brought a unique theoretical perspective to our globular cluster abundance studies. His career truly embodied the academic ideals of inspiration in both teaching and research. He made friends wherever he traveled, and was an inspiration to students. We will miss him greatly.

  3. Multi-wavelength Radio Continuum Emission Studies of Dust-free Red Giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Gorman, Eamon; Harper, Graham M.; Brown, Alexander; Dranke, Stephen; Richards, Anita M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-wavelength centimeter continuum observations of non-dusty, non-pulsating K spectral-type red giants directly sample their chromospheres and wind acceleration zones. Such stars are feeble emitters at these wavelengths, however, and previous observations have provided only a small number of modest signal-to-noise measurements slowly accumulated over three decades. We present multi-wavelength Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array thermal continuum observations of the wind acceleration zones of two dust-free red giants, Arcturus (alpha Boo: K2 III) and Aldebaran (alpha Tau: K5 III). Importantly, most of our observations of each star were carried out over just a few days, so that we obtained a snapshot of the different stellar atmospheric layers sampled at different wavelengths, independent of any long-term variability. We report the first detections at several wavelengths for each star including a detection at 10 cm (3.0 GHz: S band) for both stars and a 20 cm (1.5 GHz: L band) detection for alpha Boo. This is the first time single (non-binary) luminosity class III red giants have been detected at these continuum wavelengths. Our long-wavelength data sample the outer layers of alpha Boo's atmosphere where its wind velocity is approaching (or possibly has reached) its terminal value and the ionization balance is becoming frozen-in. For alpha Tau, however, our long-wavelength data are still sampling its inner atmosphere, where the wind is still accelerating probably due to its lower mass-loss rate. We compare our data with published semi-empirical models based on ultraviolet data, and the marked deviations highlight the need for new atmospheric models to be developed. Spectral indices are used to discuss the possible properties of the stellar atmospheres, and we find evidence for a rapidly cooling wind in the case of alpha Boo. Finally, we develop a simple analytical wind model for alpha Boo based on our new long-wavelength flux measurements.

  4. Prospects for asteroseismic inference on the envelope helium abundance in red giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broomhall, A.-M.; Miglio, A.; Montalbán, J.; Eggenberger, P.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Scuflaire, R.; Ventura, P.; Verner, G. A.

    2014-05-01

    Regions of rapid variation in the internal structure of a star are often referred to as acoustic glitches since they create a characteristic periodic signature in the frequencies of p modes. Here we examine the localized disturbance arising from the helium second ionization zone in red giant branch and clump stars. More specifically, we determine how accurately and precisely the parameters of the ionization zone can be obtained from the oscillation frequencies of stellar models. We use models produced by three different generation codes that not only cover a wide range of stages of evolution along the red giant phase but also incorporate different initial helium abundances. To study the acoustic glitch caused by the second ionization zone of helium we have determined the second differences in frequencies of modes with the same angular degree, l, and then we fit the periodic function described by Houdek & Gough to the second differences. We discuss the conditions under which such fits robustly and accurately determine the acoustic radius of the second ionization zone of helium. When the frequency of maximum amplitude of the p-mode oscillations was greater than 40 μHz a robust value for the radius of the ionization zone was recovered for the majority of models. The determined radii of the ionization zones as inferred from the mode frequencies were found to be coincident with the local maximum in the first adiabatic exponent described by the models, which is associated with the outer edge of the second ionization zone of helium. Finally, we consider whether this method can be used to distinguish stars with different helium abundances. Although a definite trend in the amplitude of the signal is observed any distinction would be difficult unless the stars come from populations with vastly different helium abundances or the uncertainties associated with the fitted parameters can be reduced. However, application of our methodology could be useful for distinguishing

  5. INTERACTION OF A GIANT PLANET IN AN INCLINED ORBIT WITH A CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Marzari, F.; Nelson, Andrew F. E-mail: andy.nelson@lanl.go

    2009-11-10

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of a Jovian-mass planet injected into an orbit highly inclined with respect to its nesting gaseous disk. Planet-planet scattering induced by convergent planetary migration and mean motion resonances may push a planet into such an out-of-plane configuration with inclinations as large as 20{sup 0}-30{sup 0}. In this scenario, the tidal interaction of the planet with the disk is more complex and, in addition to the usual Lindblad and corotation resonances, it also involves inclination resonances responsible for bending waves. We have performed three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the disk and of its interactions with the planet with a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. A main result is that the initial large eccentricity and inclination of the planetary orbit are rapidly damped on a timescale of the order of 10{sup 3} yr, almost independently of the initial semimajor axis and eccentricity of the planet. The disk is warped in response to the planet perturbations and it precesses. Inward migration also occurs when the planet is inclined, and it has a drift rate that is intermediate between type I and type II migration. The planet is not able to open a gap until its inclination becomes lower than approx10{sup 0}, when it also begins to accrete a significant amount of mass from the disk.

  6. Giant Fano factor and bistability in a Corbino disk in the quantum Hall effect breakdown regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Tokuro; Arakawa, Tomonori; Chida, Kensaku; Matsuo, Sadashige; Kobayashi, Kensuke

    2016-02-01

    We performed noise measurements for a Corbino disk in the quantum Hall effect breakdown regime. We investigated two Corbino-disk-type devices with different sizes and observed that the Fano factor increases when the length between the contacts doubles. This observation is consistent with the avalanche picture suggested by the bootstrap electron heating model. The temperature dependence of the Fano factor indicates that the avalanche effect becomes more prominent as temperature decreases. Moreover, in the highly nonlinear regime, negative differential resistance and temporal oscillation due to bistability are found. A possible interpretation of this result is that Zener tunneling of electrons between Landau levels occurs.

  7. IS DUST FORMING ON THE RED GIANT BRANCH IN 47 Tuc?

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Martha L.; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Sewilo, Marta; Shiao, Bernie; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; McDonald, Iain; Babler, Brian; Bracker, Steve; Meade, Marilyn; Block, Miwa; Engelbracht, Charles; Misselt, Karl; Hora, Joe; Indebetouw, Remy; Whitney, Barbara

    2010-03-10

    Using Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) observations from the SAGE-SMC Legacy program and archived Spitzer IRAC data, we investigate dust production in 47 Tuc, a nearby massive Galactic globular cluster. A previous study detected infrared excess, indicative of circumstellar dust, in a large population of stars in 47 Tuc, spanning the entire red giant branch (RGB). We show that those results suffered from effects caused by stellar blending and imaging artifacts and that it is likely that no stars below {approx}1 mag from the tip of the RGB are producing dust. The only stars that appear to harbor dust are variable stars, which are also the coolest and most luminous stars in the cluster.

  8. Giant Host Red Blood Cell Membrane Mimicking Polymersomes Bind Parasite Proteins and Malaria Parasites.

    PubMed

    Najer, Adrian; Thamboo, Sagana; Palivan, Cornelia G; Beck, Hans-Peter; Meier, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease that needs to be addressed using innovative approaches to counteract spread of drug resistance and to establish or optimize vaccination strategies. With our approach, we aim for a dual action with drug- and 'vaccine-like' activity against malaria. By inhibiting entry of malaria parasites into host red blood cells (RBCs) - using polymer vesicle-based (polymersome) nanomimics of RBC membranes - the life cycle of the parasite is interrupted and the exposed parasites are accessible to the host immune system. Here, we describe how host cell-sized RBC membrane mimics, formed with the same block copolymers as nanomimics, also bind the corresponding malaria parasite ligand and whole malaria parasites, similar to nanomimics. This was demonstrated using fluorescence imaging techniques and confirms the suitability of giant polymersomes (GUVs) as simple mimics for RBC membranes.

  9. Investigating the Properties of Granulation in the Red Giants Observed by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, S.; Hekker, S.; Trampedach, R.; Ballot, J.; Kallinger, T.; Buzasi, D.; García, R. A.; Huber, D.; Jiménez, A.; Mosser, B.; Bedding, T. R.; Elsworth, Y.; Régulo, C.; Stello, D.; Chaplin, W. J.; De Ridder, J.; Hale, S. J.; Kinemuchi, K.; Kjeldsen, H.; Mullally, F.; Thompson, S. E.

    2012-09-01

    More than 1000 red giants have been observed by NASA/Kepler mission during a nearly continuous period of ˜ 13 months. The resulting high-frequency resolution (< 0.03 μHz) allows us to study the granulation parameters of these stars. The granulation pattern results from the convection motions leading to upward flows of hot plasma and downward flows of cooler plasma. We fitted Harvey-like functions to the power spectra, to retrieve the timescale and amplitude of granulation. We show that there is an anti-correlation between both of these parameters and the position of maximum power of acoustic modes, while we also find a correlation with the radius, which agrees with the theory. We finally compare our results with 3D models of the convection.

  10. Deep genetic divergence in giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827) across a wide distributional range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, M. V.; Heras, S.; Maltagliati, F.; Roldán, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    The giant red shrimp, Aristaeomorpha foliacea, is a commercially important species in the Mediterranean Sea (MED), Mozambique Channel (MOZ), and north western Australia (AUS). 685 bp of the mitochondrial COI gene was sequenced in 317 individuals from six Mediterranean and two Indian Ocean localities. Genetic diversity estimates of Indian Ocean samples were higher than those of MED counterparts. AMOVA, phylogenetic tree, haplotype network and Bayesian assignment analyses detected three haplogroups, corresponding to MED, MOZ and AUS, separated by three and 38 mutational steps, respectively. Within MED shallow genetic divergence between populations was dependent on local oceanographical characteristics. Mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests provided a consistent indication of past population expansion in each region considered. Our results provide the first evidence of genetic structure in A. foliacea and suggest a scenario of allopatric speciation within the Indian Ocean that, however needs deeper examination.

  11. Condensation onto grains in the outflows from mass-losing red giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; Morris, M.

    1985-01-01

    In the outflows from red giants, grains are formed which are driven by radiation pressure. For the development of a model of the outflows, a detailed understanding of the interaction between the gas and dust is critical. The present investigation is concerned with condensation processes which occur after the grains nucleate near the stars. A physical process considered results from the cooling of the grains as they flow away from the star. Molecules which initially do not condense onto the grains can do so far from the star. It is shown that for some species this effect can be quite important in determining their gas-phase abundances in the outer circumstellar envelope. One of the major motivations of this investigation was provided by the desire to understand the physical conditions and molecular abundances in the outflows from the considered stars.

  12. Kepler-432 b: a massive planet in a highly eccentric orbit transiting a red giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciceri, S.; Lillo-Box, J.; Southworth, J.; Mancini, L.; Henning, Th.; Barrado, D.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first disclosure of the planetary nature of Kepler-432 b (aka Kepler object of interest KOI-1299.01). We accurately constrained its mass and eccentricity by high-precision radial velocity measurements obtained with the CAFE spectrograph at the CAHA 2.2-m telescope. By simultaneously fitting these new data and Kepler photometry, we found that Kepler-432 b is a dense transiting exoplanet with a mass of Mp = 4.87 ± 0.48MJup and radius of Rp = 1.120 ± 0.036RJup. The planet revolves every 52.5 d around a K giant star that ascends the red giant branch, and it moves on a highly eccentric orbit with e = 0.535 ± 0.030. By analysing two near-IR high-resolution images, we found that a star is located at 1.1'' from Kepler-432, but it is too faint to cause significant effects on the transit depth. Together with Kepler-56 and Kepler-91, Kepler-432 occupies an almost-desert region of parameter space, which is important for constraining the evolutionary processes of planetary systems. RV data (Table A.1) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/L5

  13. Digging in the coronal graveyard - A Rosat observation of the red giant Arcturus

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, T.R.; Fleming, T.A.; Schmitt, J.H.M.M. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching )

    1991-08-01

    A deep exposure of the bright star Arcturus (Alpha Bootis: K1 III) with the Roentgensatellit (Rosat) failed to detect soft X-ray emission from the archetype 'noncoronal' red giant. The 3-sigma upper limit in the energy band 0.1-2.4 keV corresponds to an X-ray luminosity of less than 3 x 10 to the 25th erg/s, equivalent to a coronal surface flux density of less than 0.0001 solar. The nondetection safely eliminates coronal irradiation as a possible mechanism to produce the highly variable He I 10830 feature and emphasizes the sharp decline in solarlike coronal activity that accompanies the evolution of low-mass single stars away from the main sequence. While the most conspicuous object in the Rosat field of view was not visible in X-rays, at least one fainter star is among the about 60 sources recorded: the Sigma Sct variable CN Boo, an A8 giant in the UMa Stream. 28 refs.

  14. Molecular rotational line profiles from oxygen-rich red giant winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justtanont, K.; Skinner, C. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a radiative transfer model of the dust and gas envelopes around late-type stars. The gas kinetic temperature for each star is calculated by solving equations of motion and the energy balance simultaneously. The main processes include viscous heating and adiabatic and radiative cooling. Heating is dominated by viscosity as the grains stream outward through the gas, with some contribution in oxygen-rich stars by near-IR pumping of H2O followed by collisional de-excitation in the inner envelope. For O-rich stars, rotational H2O cooling is a dominant mechanism in the middle part of the envelope, with CO cooling being less significant. We have applied our model to three well-studied oxygen-rich red giant stars. The three stars cover a wide range of mass-loss rates, and hence they have different temperature structures. The derived temperature structures are used in calculating CO line profiles for these objects. Comparison of the dust and gas mass-loss rates suggests that mass-loss rates are not constant during the asymptotic giant branch phase. In particular, the results show that the low CO 1-0 antenna temperatures of OH/IR stars reflect an earlier phase of much lower mass-loss rate.

  15. Li-rich red giant branch stars in the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, O. A.; Zoccali, M.; Monaco, L.; Hill, V.; Cassisi, S.; Minniti, D.; Renzini, A.; Barbuy, B.; Ortolani, S.; Gomez, A.

    2009-12-01

    Aims. We present lithium abundance determination for a sample of K giant stars in the Galactic bulge. The stars presented here are the only 13 stars with a detectable lithium line (6767.18 Å) among 400 stars for which we have spectra in this wavelength range, half of them in Baade's Window (b=-4^circ) and half in a field at b=-6^circ. Methods: The stars were observed with the GIRAFFE spectrograph of FLAMES mounted on VLT, with a spectral resolution of R˜20 000. Abundances were derived from spectral synthesis and the results are compared with those of stars with similar parameters, but no detectable Li line. Results: We find 13 stars with a detectable Li line, among which 2 have abundances A(Li)>2.7. No clear correlations were found between the Li abundance and those of other elements. With the exception of the two most Li rich stars, the others follow a fairly tight A(Li)-T_eff correlation. Conclusions: There is strong indication of a Li production phase during the red giant branch (RGB), acting either on a very short timescale, or selectively only in some stars. That the proposed Li production phase is associated with the RGB bump cannot be excluded, although our targets are significantly brighter than the predicted RGB bump magnitude for a population at 8 kpc.

  16. Digging in the coronal graveyard - A Rosat observation of the red giant Arcturus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Fleming, Thomas A.; Schmitt, Juergen H. M. M.

    1991-01-01

    A deep exposure of the bright star Arcturus (Alpha Bootis: K1 III) with the Roentgensatellit (Rosat) failed to detect soft X-ray emission from the archetype 'noncoronal' red giant. The 3-sigma upper limit in the energy band 0.1-2.4 keV corresponds to an X-ray luminosity of less than 3 x 10 to the 25th erg/s, equivalent to a coronal surface flux density of less than 0.0001 solar. The nondetection safely eliminates coronal irradiation as a possible mechanism to produce the highly variable He I 10830 feature and emphasizes the sharp decline in solarlike coronal activity that accompanies the evolution of low-mass single stars away from the main sequence. While the most conspicuous object in the Rosat field of view was not visible in X-rays, at least one fainter star is among the about 60 sources recorded: the Sigma Sct variable CN Boo, an A8 giant in the UMa Stream.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Constraints on the Winds and Astrospheres of Red Giant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Müller, Hans-Reinhard; Harper, Graham M.

    2016-10-01

    We report on an ultraviolet spectroscopic survey of red giants observed by the Hubble Space Telescope, focusing on spectra of the Mg ii h and k lines near 2800 Å in order to study stellar chromospheric emission, winds, and astrospheric absorption. We focus on spectral types between K2 III and M5 III, a spectral type range with stars that are noncoronal, but possessing strong, chromospheric winds. We find a very tight relation between Mg ii surface flux and photospheric temperature, supporting the notion that all K2-M5 III stars are emitting at a basal flux level. Wind velocities (V w ) are generally found to decrease with spectral type, with V w decreasing from ˜40 km s-1 at K2 III to ˜20 km s-1 at M5 III. We find two new detections of astrospheric absorption, for σ Pup (K5 III) and γ Eri (M1 III). This absorption signature had previously only been detected for α Tau (K5 III). For the three astrospheric detections, the temperature of the wind after the termination shock (TS) correlates with V w , but is lower than predicted by the Rankine-Hugoniot shock jump conditions, consistent with the idea that red giant TSs are radiative shocks rather than simple hydrodynamic shocks. A full hydrodynamic simulation of the γ Eri astrosphere is provided to explore this further. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-13462. This paper also presents observations obtained with the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.

  18. Can surface oxygen abundances of red giants be explained by the canonical mixing theory?*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Sato, Bun'ei; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki

    2015-04-01

    Extensive oxygen abundance determinations were carried out for 239 late-G/early-K giant stars of 1.5-5 M⊙ by applying the spectrum-fitting technique to O I 7771-5 and [O I] 6300/6363 lines based on the high-dispersion spectra in the red region newly obtained at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. Our main purpose was to clarify whether any significantly large (≲ 0.4-0.5 dex) O-deficit really exists in these evolved stars, which was once suspected by Takeda et al. (2008, PASJ, 60, 781) from the analysis of the [O I] 5577 line, since it (if real) cannot be explained by the current theory and may require the necessity of special non-canonical deep mixing in the envelope. We found, however, that the previous [O/H]5577 results (differential abundances relative to the Sun) were systematically underestimated compared to the more reliable [O/H]7773 (from O I 7771-5 triplet lines) or [O/H]6300 (from [O I] 6300 line) obtained in this study. Comparing the updated [O/Fe] ratios with the theoretically predicted surface abundance changes caused by mixing of nuclear-processed products dredged-up from the interior, we concluded that the oxygen deficiency in these red giants is insignificantly marginal (only by ≲ 0.1 dex), which does not contradict the expectation from the recent theoretical simulation. This consequence of reasonable consistency between theory and observation also applies to the extent of peculiarity in [C/Fe] and [Na/Fe], which were also examined by re-analyzing the previous equivalent-width data of C I 5052/5380 and Na I 6160 lines.

  19. A Puzzling Li-rich Red Giant in the APOGEE Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Allende-Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Stassun, Keivan; Fleming, Scott W.; Zasowski, Gail; Hearty, Fred; Nidever, David L.; Schneider, Donald P.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a spectroscopic study of the unusual Li-rich red giant (RG) recently discovered in NGC 6819. This star was observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey as part of the survey's calibration cluster sample. We use the high-resolution, near-infrared APOGEE spectrum to address its questionable cluster membership and test the hypothesis that Li was regenerated by nuclear processes and mixed to the surface. Previously reported [Fe/H] and radial velocity (RV) of the Li-rich star are consistent with cluster membership, and the star's optical and infrared colors place it on the cluster's red giant branch (RGB), below the luminosity bump. Most models of internal Li regeneration on the RGB can only explain Li-rich stars at the luminosity bump, but the currently favored model for the Li-rich star is a relatively new variation on Li regeneration that can explain the star's lower RGB position. This model predicts that the ratio of 12C/13C at the stellar surface should be reduced compared to normal Li-poor RGs, a signature we sought to measure. However, the Li-rich star's recently reported asterosesmic properties are inconsistent with cluster membership. Specifically, the log g inferred from asteroseismology is significantly lower than that of similar RGs in the cluster. We find the membership question to be unresolved with our analysis — our spectroscopic measurement of surface gravity confirms the asteroseismic result, but the detailed abundances and RVs that we measure are still consistent with cluster membership. Our Li-enrichment test is more conclusive. We find a C/N ratio that demonstrates that Li dilution should have occurred, but the 12C/13C is consistent with normal dredge-up and inconsistent with Li-enrichment mechanisms that require unusually deep mixing.

  20. Ransom, Religion, and Red Giants: C.S. Lewis and Fred Hoyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    Famed fantasy writer C.S. Lewis (1898-1963) was known to friends as a well-read astronomy aficionado. However, this medieval scholar and Christian apologist embraced a pre-Copernican universe (with its astrological overtones) in his Chronicles of Narnia series and defended the beauty and relevance of the geocentric model in his final academic work, "The Discarded Image". In the "Ransom Trilogy” ("Out of the Silent Planet", "Perelandra", and "That Hideous Strength") philologist Ransom (loosely based on Lewis's close friend J.R.R. Tolkien) travels to Lewis's visions of Mars and Venus, where he interacts with intelligent extraterrestrials, battles with evil scientists, and aids in the continuation of extraterrestrial Christian values. In the final book, Ransom is joined by a handful of colleagues in open warfare against the satanic N.I.C.E. (National Institute for Coordinated Experiments). Geneticist and evolutionary biologist J.B.S. Haldane criticized Lewis for his scientifically inaccurate descriptions of the planets, and his disdain for the scientific establishment. Lewis responded to the criticism in essays of his own. Another of Lewis's favorite scientific targets was atheist Fred Hoyle, whom he openly criticized for anti-Christian statements in Hoyle's BBC radio series. Writer and Lewis friend Dorothy L. Sayers voiced her own criticism of Hoyle. In a letter, Lewis dismissed Hoyle as "not a great philosopher (and none of my scientific colleagues think much of him as a scientist.” Given Lewis's lack of respect for Hoyle, and use of creative license in describing the planets, and the flat-earth, "geocentric” Narnia, it is surprising that Lewis very carefully includes an astronomically correct description of red giants in two novels in the Narnia series ("The Magician's Nephew" and "The Last Battle"). This inclusion is even more curious given that Fred Hoyle is well-known as one of the pioneers in the field of stellar death and the properties of red giants.

  1. Red giants in the outer halo of the elliptical galaxy NGC 5128/Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Sarah A.; Flynn, Chris; Harris, William E.; Valtonen, Mauri

    2015-03-01

    We used VIMOS on VLT to perform V and I band imaging of the outermost halo of NGC 5128/Centaurus A ((m - M)0 = 27.91±0.08), 65 kpc from the galaxy's center and along the major axis. The stellar population has been resolved to I0 ≈ 27 with a 50% completeness limit of I0 = 24.7, well below the tip of the red-giant branch (TRGB), which is seen at I0 ≈ 23.9. The surface density of NGC 5128 halo stars in our fields was sufficiently low that dim, unresolved background galaxies were a major contaminant in the source counts. We isolated a clean sample of red-giant-branch (RGB) stars extending to ≈0.8 mag below the TRGB through conservative magnitude and color cuts, to remove the (predominantly blue) unresolved background galaxies. We derived stellar metallicities from colors of the stars via isochrones and measured the density falloff of the halo as a function of metallicity by combining our observations with HST imaging taken of NGC 5128 halo fields closer to the galaxy center. We found both metal-rich and metal-poor stellar populations and found that the falloff of the two follows the same de Vaucouleurs' law profiles from ≈8 kpc out to ≈70 kpc. The metallicity distribution function (MDF) and the density falloff agree with the results of two recent studies of similar outermost halo fields in NGC 5128. We found no evidence of a "transition" in the radial profile of the halo, in which the metal-rich halo density would drop rapidly, leaving the underlying metal-poor halo to dominate by default out to greater radial extent, as has been seen in the outer halo of two other large galaxies. If NGC 5128 has such a transition, it must lie at larger galactocentric distances.

  2. SPIRAL ARMS IN THE ASYMMETRICALLY ILLUMINATED DISK OF MWC 758 AND CONSTRAINTS ON GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, C. A.; Muto, T.; Hashimoto, J.; Kwon, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Sai, S.; Currie, T.; Biller, B.; Thalmann, C.; Sitko, M. L.; Russell, R.; Wisniewski, J.; Dong, R.; Hornbeck, J.; Schneider, G.; Hines, D.; Martin, A. Moro; Feldt, M.; Henning, Th.; Pott, J.-U.; and others

    2013-01-01

    We present the first near-IR scattered light detection of the transitional disk associated with the Herbig Ae star MWC 758 using data obtained as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru, and 1.1 {mu}m Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS data. While submillimeter studies suggested there is a dust-depleted cavity with r = 0.''35, we find scattered light as close as 0.''1 (20-28 AU) from the star, with no visible cavity at H, K', or K{sub s} . We find two small-scaled spiral structures that asymmetrically shadow the outer disk. We model one of the spirals using spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h {approx} 0.18, indicating a dynamically warm disk. If the spiral pattern is excited by a perturber, we estimate its mass to be 5{sup +3} {sub -4} M{sub J} , in the range where planet filtration models predict accretion continuing onto the star. Using a combination of non-redundant aperture masking data at L' and angular differential imaging with Locally Optimized Combination of Images at K' and K{sub s} , we exclude stellar or massive brown dwarf companions within 300 mas of the Herbig Ae star, and all but planetary mass companions exterior to 0.''5. We reach 5{sigma} contrasts limiting companions to planetary masses, 3-4 M{sub J} at 1.''0 and 2 M{sub J} at 1.''55, using the COND models. Collectively, these data strengthen the case for MWC 758 already being a young planetary system.

  3. Spiral Arms in the Asymmetrically Illuminated Disk of MWC 758 and Constraints on Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, C. A.; Muto, T.; Hashimoto, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Currie, T.; Biller, B.; Thalmann, C.; Sitko, M. L.; Russell, R.; Wisniewski, J.; Dong, R.; Kwon, J.; Sai, S.; Hornbeck, J.; Schneider, G.; Hines, D.; Moro Martín, A.; Feldt, M.; Henning, Th.; Pott, J.-U.; Bonnefoy, M.; Bouwman, J.; Lacour, S.; Mueller, A.; Juhász, A.; Crida, A.; Chauvin, G.; Andrews, S.; Wilner, D.; Kraus, A.; Dahm, S.; Robitaille, T.; Jang-Condell, H.; Abe, L.; Akiyama, E.; Brandner, W.; Brandt, T.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Follette, K. B.; Goto, M.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Hodapp, K.; Ishii, M.; Iye, M.; Janson, M.; Kandori, R.; Knapp, G.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Kuzuhara, M.; Mayama, S.; McElwain, M.; Matsuo, T.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J.-I.; Nishimura, T.; Pyo, T.-S.; Serabyn, G.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Takami, M.; Takato, N.; Terada, H.; Tomono, D.; Turner, E.; Watanabe, M.; Yamada, T.; Takami, H.; Usuda, T.; Tamura, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first near-IR scattered light detection of the transitional disk associated with the Herbig Ae star MWC 758 using data obtained as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru, and 1.1 μm Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS data. While submillimeter studies suggested there is a dust-depleted cavity with r = 0.''35, we find scattered light as close as 0.''1 (20-28 AU) from the star, with no visible cavity at H, K', or Ks . We find two small-scaled spiral structures that asymmetrically shadow the outer disk. We model one of the spirals using spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h ~ 0.18, indicating a dynamically warm disk. If the spiral pattern is excited by a perturber, we estimate its mass to be 5+3 - 4 MJ , in the range where planet filtration models predict accretion continuing onto the star. Using a combination of non-redundant aperture masking data at L' and angular differential imaging with Locally Optimized Combination of Images at K' and Ks , we exclude stellar or massive brown dwarf companions within 300 mas of the Herbig Ae star, and all but planetary mass companions exterior to 0.''5. We reach 5σ contrasts limiting companions to planetary masses, 3-4 MJ at 1.''0 and 2 MJ at 1.''55, using the COND models. Collectively, these data strengthen the case for MWC 758 already being a young planetary system.

  4. Spiral Arms in the Asymmetrically Illuminated Disk of MWC 758 and Constraints on Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Muto, T.; Hashimoto, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Currie, T.; Biller, B.; Thalmann, C.; Sitko, M. L.; Russell, R.; Wisniewski, J.; Dong, R.; Kwon, J.; Sai, S.; Hornbeck, J.; Schneider, G.; Hines, D.; Moro Martin, A.; Feldt, M.; Henning, Th.; Pott, J.-U.; Bonnefoy, M.; Bouwman, J.; Lacour, S.; McElwain, M.; Serabyn, G.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first near-IR scattered light detection of the transitional disk associated with the Herbig Ae star MWC 758 using data obtained as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru, and 1.1 micrometer Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS data. While submillimeter studies suggested there is a dust-depleted cavity with r = 0".35, we find scattered light as close as 0".1 (20-28 AU) from the star, with no visible cavity at H, K', or Ks . We find two small-scaled spiral structures that asymmetrically shadow the outer disk. We model one of the spirals using spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h approximately 0.18, indicating a dynamically warm disk. If the spiral pattern is excited by a perturber, we estimate its mass to be 5(exp +3)(sub -4) M(sub J), in the range where planet filtration models predict accretion continuing onto the star. Using a combination of non-redundant aperture masking data at L' and angular differential imaging with Locally Optimized Combination of Images at K' and Ks , we exclude stellar or massive brown dwarf companions within 300 mas of the Herbig Ae star, and all but planetary mass companions exterior to 0".5. We reach 5 sigma contrasts limiting companions to planetary masses, 3-4 M(sub J) at 1".0 and 2 M(sub J) at 1".55, using the COND models. Collectively, these data strengthen the case for MWC 758 already being a young planetary system.

  5. Disk dwarf galaxy as the progenitor of the Andromeda giant stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirihara, Takanobu; Miki, Yohei; Mori, Masao; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro

    2016-08-01

    We present a study of the morphology of a progenitor galaxy that has been disrupted and formed a giant southern stellar stream in the halo of Andromeda galaxy(M31). N-body simulations of a minor merger of M31 with a dwarf galaxy suggest that the progenitor's rotation plays an important role in the formation of an asymmetric surface brightness distribution of the stream.

  6. Evidence for enhanced mixing on the super-meteoritic Li-rich red giant HD 233517

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Carroll, T. A.; Weber, M.; Granzer, T.

    2015-02-01

    Context. HD 233517 is among the most Li-rich stars in the sky. It is a rapidly rotating, single K giant thought to be on its first ascent on the red giant branch. The star has also the highest known infrared excess among any of the known first-ascent giants. Aims: We revisit the physical parameters of the system and aim to map its surface temperature distribution. Methods: New time-series photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy were obtained with our robotic facilities STELLA and Amadeus Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT) in 2007-2011. Inverse line-profile modelling is performed on a total of 167 échelle spectra and six Doppler images are presented. Results: Light and radial-velocity variations suggest a stellar rotation period of 47.6±0.3 d. The atmospheric parameters agree with previous studies and verify a super-meteoritic log 7Li abundance of 4.29±0.10 with undetected 6Li, while the metals are generally deficient by -0.4 dex with respect to the Sun. We determine a lower than normal isotopic carbon ratio of 12C/13C = 9+4-2. Our Doppler images indicate warm and cool spots with an average temperature contrast of just ±65 K with respect to the effective temperature. Doppler maps from Li i 670.78 reveal practically identical surface morphology, with a higher average contrast of ±160 K and errors that are five times larger. Reconstructions with simultaneously 1617 and 3007 spectral lines showed both a signal degradation with respect to our 56-line final image. An error analysis indicates an average temperature error per surface pixel of just ±4 K. Conclusions: HD 233517 appears to be an old (≈10-Gyr) single 0.95-M⊙ giant currently undergoing mild mass loss in the form of a wind. The cool and warm photospheric features are interpreted to be merely locations of suppressed and enhanced convection, respectively, probably intermingled by a yet undetected weak magnetic field. The low carbon-isotope ratio is indicative of extra mixing rather than of an

  7. AMPLITUDES OF SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS: CONSTRAINTS FROM RED GIANTS IN OPEN CLUSTERS OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R.; Benomar, Othman; Kallinger, Thomas; Basu, Sarbani; Mosser, BenoIt; Hekker, Saskia; Mathur, Savita; GarcIa, Rafael A.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Verner, Graham A.; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Meibom, Soeren; Molenda-Zakowicz, Joanna; Szabo, Robert

    2011-08-10

    Scaling relations that link asteroseismic quantities to global stellar properties are important for gaining understanding of the intricate physics that underpins stellar pulsations. The common notion that all stars in an open cluster have essentially the same distance, age, and initial composition implies that the stellar parameters can be measured to much higher precision than what is usually achievable for single stars. This makes clusters ideal for exploring the relation between the mode amplitude of solar-like oscillations and the global stellar properties. We have analyzed data obtained with NASA's Kepler space telescope to study solar-like oscillations in 100 red giant stars located in either of the three open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6819, and NGC 6811. By fitting the measured amplitudes to predictions from simple scaling relations that depend on luminosity, mass, and effective temperature, we find that the data cannot be described by any power of the luminosity-to-mass ratio as previously assumed. As a result we provide a new improved empirical relation which treats luminosity and mass separately. This relation turns out to also work remarkably well for main-sequence and subgiant stars. In addition, the measured amplitudes reveal the potential presence of a number of previously unknown unresolved binaries in the red clump in NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, pointing to an interesting new application for asteroseismology as a probe into the formation history of open clusters.

  8. ACCRETION THROUGH THE INNER EDGES OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS BY A GIANT SOLID STATE PUMP

    SciTech Connect

    Kelling, T.; Wurm, G.

    2013-09-01

    At the inner edge of a protoplanetary disk, solids are illuminated by stellar light. This illumination heats the solids and creates temperature gradients along their surfaces. Interactions with ambient gas molecules lead to a radial net gas flow. Every illuminated solid particle within the edge is an individual small gas pump transporting gas inward. In total, the inner edge can provide local mass flow rates as high as M-dot = 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  9. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF A ROTATING RED GIANT STAR. I. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELS OF TURBULENT CONVECTION AND ASSOCIATED MEAN FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, A. S. E-mail: palacios@graal.univ-montp2.fr

    2009-09-10

    With the development of one-dimensional stellar evolution codes including rotation and the increasing number of observational data for stars of various evolutionary stages, it becomes more and more possible to follow the evolution of the rotation profile and angular momentum distribution in stars. In this context, understanding the interplay between rotation and convection in the very extended envelopes of giant stars is very important considering that all low- and intermediate-mass stars become red giants after the central hydrogen burning phase. In this paper, we analyze the interplay between rotation and convection in the envelope of red giant stars using three-dimensional numerical experiments. We make use of the Anelastic Spherical Harmonics code to simulate the inner 50% of the envelope of a low-mass star on the red giant branch. We discuss the organization and dynamics of convection, and put a special emphasis on the distribution of angular momentum in such a rotating extended envelope. To do so, we explore two directions of the parameter space, namely, the bulk rotation rate and the Reynolds number with a series of four simulations. We find that turbulent convection in red giant stars is dynamically rich, and that it is particularly sensitive to the rotation rate of the star. Reynolds stresses and meridional circulation establish various differential rotation profiles (either cylindrical or shellular) depending on the convective Rossby number of the simulations, but they all agree that the radial shear is large. Temperature fluctuations are found to be large and in the slowly rotating cases, a dominant l = 1 temperature dipole influences the convective motions. Both baroclinic effects and turbulent advection are strong in all cases and mostly oppose one another.

  10. STRUCTURAL GLITCHES NEAR THE CORES OF RED GIANTS REVEALED BY OSCILLATIONS IN G-MODE PERIOD SPACINGS FROM STELLAR MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Cunha, M. S.; Avelino, P. P.; Stello, D.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Townsend, R. H. D.

    2015-06-01

    With recent advances in asteroseismology it is now possible to peer into the cores of red giants, potentially providing a way to study processes such as nuclear burning and mixing through their imprint as sharp structural variations—glitches—in the stellar cores. Here we show how such core glitches can affect the oscillations we observe in red giants. We derive an analytical expression describing the expected frequency pattern in the presence of a glitch. This formulation also accounts for the coupling between acoustic and gravity waves. From an extensive set of canonical stellar models we find glitch-induced variation in the period spacing and inertia of non-radial modes during several phases of red giant evolution. Significant changes are seen in the appearance of mode amplitude and frequency patterns in asteroseismic diagrams such as the power spectrum and the échelle diagram. Interestingly, along the red giant branch glitch-induced variation occurs only at the luminosity bump, potentially providing a direct seismic indicator of stars in that particular evolution stage. Similarly, we find the variation at only certain post-helium-ignition evolution stages, namely, in the early phases of helium core burning and at the beginning of helium shell burning, signifying the asymptotic giant branch bump. Based on our results, we note that assuming stars to be glitch-free, while they are not, can result in an incorrect estimate of the period spacing. We further note that including diffusion and mixing beyond classical Schwarzschild could affect the characteristics of the glitches, potentially providing a way to study these physical processes.

  11. The Puzzling Li-rich Red Giant Associated with NGC 6819

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia; Majewski, Steven R.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Shetrone, Matthew; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Stassun, Keivan G.; Fleming, Scott W.; Zasowski, Gail; Hearty, Fred; Nidever, David L.; Schneider, Donald P.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.

    2015-03-01

    A Li-rich red giant (RG) star (2M19411367+4003382) recently discovered in the direction of NGC 6819 belongs to the rare subset of Li-rich stars that have not yet evolved to the luminosity bump, an evolutionary stage where models predict Li can be replenished. The currently favored model to explain Li enhancement in first-ascent RGs like 2M19411367+4003382 requires deep mixing into the stellar interior. Testing this model requires a measurement of 12C/13C, which is possible to obtain from Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectra. However, the Li-rich star also has abnormal asteroseismic properties that call into question its membership in the cluster, even though its radial velocity and location on color-magnitude diagrams are consistent with membership. To address these puzzles, we have measured a wide array of abundances in the Li-rich star and three comparison stars using spectra taken as part of the APOGEE survey to determine the degree of stellar mixing, address the question of membership, and measure the surface gravity. We confirm that the Li-rich star is a RG with the same overall chemistry as the other cluster giants. However, its log g is significantly lower, consistent with the asteroseismology results and suggestive of a very low mass if the star is indeed a cluster member. Regardless of the cluster membership, the 12C/13C and C/N ratios of the Li-rich star are consistent with standard first dredge-up, indicating that Li dilution has already occurred, and inconsistent with internal Li enrichment scenarios that require deep mixing.

  12. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE ANALYSIS OF A NEUTRON-CAPTURE ENHANCED RED GIANT IN THE BULGE PLAUT FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael; McWilliam, Andrew E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: andy@obs.carnegiescience.edu

    2013-09-20

    We present chemical abundances for 27 elements ranging from oxygen to erbium in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] = –1.67) bulge red giant branch star 2MASS 18174532-3353235. The results are based on equivalent width and spectrum synthesis analyses of a high-resolution (R ∼ 30, 000) spectrum obtained with the Magellan-MIKE spectrograph. While the light (Z ∼< 30) element abundance patterns match those of similar metallicity bulge and halo stars, the strongly enhanced heavy element abundances are more similar to 'r-II' halo stars (e.g., CS 22892-052) typically found at [Fe/H] ∼< – 2.5. We find that the heaviest elements (Z ≥ 56) closely follow the scaled-solar r-process abundance pattern. We do not find evidence supporting significant s-process contributions; however, the intermediate mass elements (e.g., Y and Zr) appear to have been produced through a different process than the heaviest elements. The light and heavy element abundance patterns of 2MASS 18174532-3353235 are in good agreement with the more metal-poor r-process enhanced stars CS 22892-052 and BD +17{sup o}3248. 2MASS 18174532-3353235 also shares many chemical characteristics with the similar metallicity but comparatively α-poor Ursa Minor dwarf galaxy giant COS 82. Interestingly, the Mo and Ru abundances of 2MASS 18174532-3353235 are also strongly enhanced and follow a similar trend recently found to be common in moderately metal-poor main-sequence turn-off halo stars.

  13. Surprising Rapid Collapse of Sirius B from Red Giant to White Dwarf Through Mass Transfer to Sirius a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, Shahinaz; Ali, Ola

    2013-03-01

    Sirius was observed in antiquity as a red star. In his famous astronomy textbook the Almagest written 140 AD, Ptolemy described the star Sirius as fiery red. He curiously depicted it as one of six red-colored stars. The other five are class M and K stars, such as Arcturus and Betelgeuse. Apparent confirmation in ancient Greek and Roman sources are found and Sirius was also reported red in Europe about 1400 years ago. Sirius must have changed to a white dwarf in the night of Ascension. The star chapter in the Quran started with "by the star as it collapsed (1) your companion have not gone astray nor being misled (2), and in verse 49 which is the rotation period of the companion Sirius B around Sirius A, it is said" He is the Lord of Sirius (49). If Sirius actually was red what could have caused it to change into the brilliant bluish-white star we see today? What the naked eye perceives as a single star is actually a binary star system, consisting of a white main sequence star of spectral type A1V, termed Sirius A, and a faint white dwarf companion of spectral type DA2, termed Sirius B. The red color indicates that the star seen then was a red giant. It looks that what they have seen in antiquity was Sirius B which was then a red giant and it collapsed to form a white dwarf. Since there is no evidence of a planetary nebula, then the red Sirius paradox can be solved in terms of stellar evolution with mass transfer. Sirius B was the most massive star which evolved to a red giant and filled the Roche lobe. Mass transfer to Sirius A occurred through the Lagrangian point. Sirius A then became more massive while Sirius B lost mass and shrank. Sirius B then collapsed abruptly into a white dwarf. In the case of Algol, Ptolmy observed it as white star but it was red at the time of El sufi. At present it is white. The rate of mass transfer from Sirius B to Sirius A, and from Algol B to A is estimated from observational data of colour change from red to bullish white to be 0

  14. Study of KIC 8561221 observed by Kepler: an early red giant showing depressed dipolar modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, R. A.; Pérez Hernández, F.; Benomar, O.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Ballot, J.; Davies, G. R.; Doğan, G.; Stello, D.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Houdek, G.; Lignières, F.; Mathur, S.; Takata, M.; Ceillier, T.; Chaplin, W. J.; Mathis, S.; Mosser, B.; Ouazzani, R. M.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Reese, D. R.; Régulo, C.; Salabert, D.; Thompson, M. J.; van Saders, J. L.; Neiner, C.; De Ridder, J.

    2014-03-01

    Context. The continuous high-precision photometric observations provided by the CoRoT and Kepler space missions have allowed us to understand the structure and dynamics of red giants better using asteroseismic techniques. A small fraction of these stars show dipole modes with unexpectedly low amplitudes. The reduction in amplitude is more pronounced for stars with a higher frequency of maximum power, νmax. Aims: In this work we want to characterise KIC 8561221 in order to confirm that it is currently the least evolved star among this peculiar subset and to discuss several hypotheses that could help explain the reduction of the dipole mode amplitudes. Methods: We used Kepler short- and long-cadence data combined with spectroscopic observations to infer the stellar structure and dynamics of KIC 8561221. We then discussed different scenarios that could contribute to reducing the dipole amplitudes, such as a fast-rotating interior or the effect of a magnetic field on the properties of the modes. We also performed a detailed study of the inertia and damping of the modes. Results: We have been able to characterise 36 oscillations modes, in particular, a few dipole modes above νmax that exhibit nearly normal amplitudes. The frequencies of all the measured modes were used to determine the overall properties and the internal structure of the star. We have inferred a surface rotation period of ~91 days and uncovered a variation in the surface magnetic activity during the last 4 years. The analysis of the convective background did not reveal any difference compared to "normal" red giants. As expected, the internal regions of the star probed by the ℓ = 2 and 3 modes spin 4 to 8 times faster than the surface. Conclusions: With our grid of standard models we are able to properly fit the observed frequencies. Our model calculation of mode inertia and damping give no explanation for the depressed dipole modes. A fast-rotating core is also ruled out as a possible explanation

  15. Sperm of the giant grouper: cryopreservation, physiological and morphological analysis and application in hybridizations with red-spotted grouper.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongsheng; Jiang, Jing; Wang, Na; Qi, Wenshan; Zhai, Jieming; Li, Bo; Liang, You; Chen, Youming; Yang, Chuanjun; Chen, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop excellent germplasm resources for giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus), cryopreservation of giant grouper sperm was examined in the present study. Firstly, 13 kinds of sperm dilution (ELS1-3, EM1-2, TS-2, MPRS, ELRS0-6) were prepared with physiological salt, sucrose, glucose and fetal bovine serum. The physiological parameters of ELRS3 (ratio of fast motion, ratio of slow motion, time of fast motion, time of slow motion, lifespan and motility) and ELS3 (sperm ratio of slow motion, time of slow motion and motility) were significantly higher than those of the other dilutions (P < 0.05). Secondly, after adding 15% DMSO and 10% FBS to ELRS3 and ELS3, most physiological parameters of frozen sperm were also significantly higher than the other gradients (P < 0.05), and sperm motility was as high as 63.68 ± 4.16% to74.75 ± 12.71% (fresh sperm motility, 80.70 ± 1.37% to 80.71 ± 1.49%). Mixed with the above dilutions, a final volume of 105 ml semen was cryopreserved. Finally, the sperm of giant grouper cryopreserved with cryoprotectants (ELRS3 + 15% DMSO + 10% FBS) was used for electron-microscopic observation and crossbreeding with red-spotted groupers (Epinephelus akaara). The electron-microscopic observation revealed that part of the frozen-thawed sperm was cryodamaged, e.g., flagellum fracturing and mitochondria falling out, while the ultrastructure of sperm membrane, mitochondria and flagellum remained intact. Also, the fertilization and hatchability rates of giant grouper frozen sperm and red-spotted grouper eggs were as high as 94.56% and 75.56%, respectively. Thus, a technique for cryopreservation of giant grouper sperm was successfully developed and applied to crossbreeding with red-spotted grouper eggs. PMID:25985804

  16. Sperm of the giant grouper: cryopreservation, physiological and morphological analysis and application in hybridizations with red-spotted grouper

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, Yongsheng; JIANG, Jing; WANG, Na; QI, Wenshan; ZHAI, Jieming; LI, Bo; LIANG, You; CHEN, Youming; YANG, Chuanjun; CHEN, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop excellent germplasm resources for giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus), cryopreservation of giant grouper sperm was examined in the present study. Firstly, 13 kinds of sperm dilution (ELS1-3, EM1-2, TS-2, MPRS, ELRS0-6) were prepared with physiological salt, sucrose, glucose and fetal bovine serum. The physiological parameters of ELRS3 (ratio of fast motion, ratio of slow motion, time of fast motion, time of slow motion, lifespan and motility) and ELS3 (sperm ratio of slow motion, time of slow motion and motility) were significantly higher than those of the other dilutions (P < 0.05). Secondly, after adding 15% DMSO and 10% FBS to ELRS3 and ELS3, most physiological parameters of frozen sperm were also significantly higher than the other gradients (P < 0.05), and sperm motility was as high as 63.68 ± 4.16% to74.75 ± 12.71% (fresh sperm motility, 80.70 ± 1.37% to 80.71 ± 1.49%). Mixed with the above dilutions, a final volume of 105 ml semen was cryopreserved. Finally, the sperm of giant grouper cryopreserved with cryoprotectants (ELRS3 + 15% DMSO + 10% FBS) was used for electron-microscopic observation and crossbreeding with red-spotted groupers (Epinephelus akaara). The electron-microscopic observation revealed that part of the frozen-thawed sperm was cryodamaged, e.g., flagellum fracturing and mitochondria falling out, while the ultrastructure of sperm membrane, mitochondria and flagellum remained intact. Also, the fertilization and hatchability rates of giant grouper frozen sperm and red-spotted grouper eggs were as high as 94.56% and 75.56%, respectively. Thus, a technique for cryopreservation of giant grouper sperm was successfully developed and applied to crossbreeding with red-spotted grouper eggs. PMID:25985804

  17. Sperm of the giant grouper: cryopreservation, physiological and morphological analysis and application in hybridizations with red-spotted grouper.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongsheng; Jiang, Jing; Wang, Na; Qi, Wenshan; Zhai, Jieming; Li, Bo; Liang, You; Chen, Youming; Yang, Chuanjun; Chen, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop excellent germplasm resources for giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus), cryopreservation of giant grouper sperm was examined in the present study. Firstly, 13 kinds of sperm dilution (ELS1-3, EM1-2, TS-2, MPRS, ELRS0-6) were prepared with physiological salt, sucrose, glucose and fetal bovine serum. The physiological parameters of ELRS3 (ratio of fast motion, ratio of slow motion, time of fast motion, time of slow motion, lifespan and motility) and ELS3 (sperm ratio of slow motion, time of slow motion and motility) were significantly higher than those of the other dilutions (P < 0.05). Secondly, after adding 15% DMSO and 10% FBS to ELRS3 and ELS3, most physiological parameters of frozen sperm were also significantly higher than the other gradients (P < 0.05), and sperm motility was as high as 63.68 ± 4.16% to74.75 ± 12.71% (fresh sperm motility, 80.70 ± 1.37% to 80.71 ± 1.49%). Mixed with the above dilutions, a final volume of 105 ml semen was cryopreserved. Finally, the sperm of giant grouper cryopreserved with cryoprotectants (ELRS3 + 15% DMSO + 10% FBS) was used for electron-microscopic observation and crossbreeding with red-spotted groupers (Epinephelus akaara). The electron-microscopic observation revealed that part of the frozen-thawed sperm was cryodamaged, e.g., flagellum fracturing and mitochondria falling out, while the ultrastructure of sperm membrane, mitochondria and flagellum remained intact. Also, the fertilization and hatchability rates of giant grouper frozen sperm and red-spotted grouper eggs were as high as 94.56% and 75.56%, respectively. Thus, a technique for cryopreservation of giant grouper sperm was successfully developed and applied to crossbreeding with red-spotted grouper eggs.

  18. MASS OUTFLOW AND CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY OF RED GIANT STARS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. II. M13 AND M92

    SciTech Connect

    Meszaros, Sz.; Dupree, A. K.; Szalai, T. E-mail: dupree@cfa.harvard.edu

    2009-05-15

    High-resolution spectra of 123 red giant stars in the globular cluster M13 and 64 red giant stars in M92 were obtained with Hectochelle at the MMT telescope. Emission and line asymmetries in H{alpha} and Ca II K are identified, characterizing motions in the extended atmospheres and seeking differences attributable to metallicity in these clusters and M15. On the red giant branch, emission in H{alpha} generally appears in stars with T {sub eff} {approx}< 4500 K and log L/L {sub sun}{approx}> 2.75. Fainter stars showing emission are asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars or perhaps binary stars. The line-bisector for H{alpha} reveals the onset of chromospheric expansion in stars more luminous than log (L/L {sub sun}) {approx} 2.5 in all clusters, and this outflow velocity increases with stellar luminosity. However, the coolest giants in the metal-rich M13 show greatly reduced outflow in H{alpha} most probably due to decreased T {sub eff} and changing atmospheric structure. The Ca II K{sub 3} outflow velocities are larger than shown by H{alpha} at the same luminosity and signal accelerating outflows in the chromospheres. Stars clearly on the AGB show faster chromospheric outflows in H{alpha} than RGB objects. While the H{alpha} velocities on the RGB are similar for all metallicities, the AGB stars in the metal-poor M15 and M92 have higher outflow velocities than in the metal-rich M13. Comparison of these chromospheric line profiles in the paired metal-poor clusters, M15 and M92, shows remarkable similarities in the presence of emission and dynamical signatures, and does not reveal a source of the 'second-parameter' effect.

  19. Seismic constraints on the radial dependence of the internal rotation profiles of six Kepler subgiants and young red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deheuvels, S.; Doğan, G.; Goupil, M. J.; Appourchaux, T.; Benomar, O.; Bruntt, H.; Campante, T. L.; Casagrande, L.; Ceillier, T.; Davies, G. R.; De Cat, P.; Fu, J. N.; García, R. A.; Lobel, A.; Mosser, B.; Reese, D. R.; Regulo, C.; Schou, J.; Stahn, T.; Thygesen, A. O.; Yang, X. H.; Chaplin, W. J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Eggenberger, P.; Gizon, L.; Mathis, S.; Molenda-Żakowicz, J.; Pinsonneault, M.

    2014-04-01

    Context. We still do not understand which physical mechanisms are responsible for the transport of angular momentum inside stars. The recent detection of mixed modes that contain the clear signature of rotation in the spectra of Kepler subgiants and red giants gives us the opportunity to make progress on this question. Aims: Our aim is to probe the radial dependence of the rotation profiles for a sample of Kepler targets. For this purpose, subgiants and early red giants are particularly interesting targets because their rotational splittings are more sensitive to the rotation outside the deeper core than is the case for their more evolved counterparts. Methods: We first extracted the rotational splittings and frequencies of the modes for six young Kepler red giants. We then performed a seismic modeling of these stars using the evolutionary codes Cesam2k and astec. By using the observed splittings and the rotational kernels of the optimal models, we inverted the internal rotation profiles of the six stars. Results: We obtain estimates of the core rotation rates for these stars, and upper limits to the rotation in their convective envelope. We show that the rotation contrast between the core and the envelope increases during the subgiant branch. Our results also suggest that the core of subgiants spins up with time, while their envelope spins down. For two of the stars, we show that a discontinuous rotation profile with a deep discontinuity reproduces the observed splittings significantly better than a smooth rotation profile. Interestingly, the depths that are found to be most probable for the discontinuities roughly coincide with the location of the H-burning shell, which separates the layers that contract from those that expand. Conclusions: We characterized the differential rotation pattern of six young giants with a range of metallicities, and with both radiative and convective cores on the main sequence. This will bring observational constraints to the

  20. Systematic trend of water vapour absorption in red giant atmospheres revealed by high resolution TEXES 12 μm spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryde, N.; Lambert, J.; Farzone, M.; Richter, M. J.; Josselin, E.; Harper, G. M.; Eriksson, K.; Greathouse, T. K.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The structures of the outer atmospheres of red giants are very complex. Recent interpretations of a range of different observations have led to contradictory views of these regions. It is clear, however, that classical model photospheres are inadequate to describe the nature of the outer atmospheres. The notion of large optically thick molecular spheres around the stars (MOLspheres) has been invoked in order to explain spectro-interferometric observations and low- and high-resolution spectra. On the other hand high-resolution spectra in the mid-IR do not easily fit into this picture because they rule out any large sphere of water vapour in LTE surrounding red giants. Aims: In order to approach a unified scenario for these outer regions of red giants, more empirical evidence from different diagnostics are needed. Our aim here is to investigate high-resolution, mid-IR spectra for a range of red giants, spanning spectral types from early K to mid M. We want to study how the pure rotational lines of water vapour change with effective temperature, and whether we can find common properties that can put new constraints on the modelling of these regions, so that we can gain new insights. Methods: We have recorded mid-IR spectra at 12.2 - 12.4 μm at high spectral resolution of ten well-studied bright red giants, with TEXES mounted on the IRTF on Mauna Kea. These stars span effective temperatures from 3450 K to 4850 K. Results: We find that all red giants in our study cooler than 4300 K, spanning a wide range of effective temperatures (down to 3450 K), show water absorption lines stronger than expected and none are detected in emission, in line with what has been previously observed for a few stars. The strengths of the lines vary smoothly with spectral type. We identify several spectral features in the wavelength region that are undoubtedly formed in the photosphere. From a study of water-line ratios of the stars, we find that the excitation temperatures, in the

  1. Zinc abundances in Galactic bulge field red giants: Implications for damped Lyman-α systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, B.; Friaça, A. C. S.; da Silveira, C. R.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Renzini, A.; Ortolani, S.; Gómez, A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Zinc in stars is an important reference element because it is a proxy to Fe in studies of damped Lyman-α systems (DLAs), permitting a comparison of chemical evolution histories of bulge stellar populations and DLAs. In terms of nucleosynthesis, it behaves as an alpha element because it is enhanced in metal-poor stars. Abundance studies in different stellar populations can give hints to the Zn production in different sites. Aims: The aim of this work is to derive the iron-peak element Zn abundances in 56 bulge giants from high resolution spectra. These results are compared with data from other bulge samples, as well as from disk and halo stars, and damped Lyman-α systems, in order to better understand the chemical evolution in these environments. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained using FLAMES+UVES on the Very Large Telescope. We computed the Zn abundances using the Zn i lines at 4810.53 and 6362.34 Å. We considered the strong depression in the continuum of the Zn i 6362.34 Å line, which is caused by the wings of the Ca i 6361.79 Å line suffering from autoionization. CN lines blending the Zn i 6362.34 Å line are also included in the calculations. Results: We find [Zn/Fe] = +0.24 ± 0.02 in the range -1.3 < [Fe/H] < -0.5 and [Zn/Fe] = + 0.06 ± 0.02 in the range -0.5 < [Fe/H] < -0.1, whereas for [Fe/H] ≥ -0.1, it shows a spread of -0.60 < [Zn/Fe] < + 0.15, with most of these stars having low [Zn/Fe] < 0.0. These low zinc abundances at the high metallicity end of the bulge define a decreasing trend in [Zn/Fe] with increasing metallicities. A comparison with Zn abundances in DLA systems is presented, where a dust-depletion correction was applied for both Zn and Fe. When we take these corrections into account, the [Zn/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] of the DLAs fall in the same region as the thick disk and bulge stars. Finally, we present a chemical evolution model of Zn enrichment in massive spheroids, representing a typical classical bulge evolution

  2. Membership of Cepheids and red giants in 8 open clusters: NGC 129, 6067, 6649, 6664, IC 4725, LY 6, RU 79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermilliod, J. C.; Mayor, M.; Burki, G.

    The membership of 8 cluster Cepheids, DL Cas, Ev Sct, V367 Set, S Nor, TW Nor, V340 Nor, USgr and CS Vel, were examined by comparing their systemic radial velocity with that observed for the red giants in the same clusters. The membership is very probable in seven cases, the exception being CS Vel. Additional observations of main sequence stars are necessary to confirm conclusions. One spectroscopic binary was discovered among the Cepheids (DL Cas) and at least four were among the red giants. Orbits for two red giants, in NGC 129 and IC 4725 were determined. The position within the instability strip of the nonvariable F5Ib star in NGC 129 is due to its probable composite (gK+dB) character. The ratio of the number of Cepheids to the number of red giants is less than 1, in good agreement with the prediction of evolutionary models with core overshooting.

  3. Volatile Cycles and Glaciation: Earth and Mars (Now and Near a Red Giant Sun), and Moons of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Fegley, M. B.

    2003-05-01

    Glaciers are classically defined as perennial masses of ice showing geomorphic evidence of flow. This definition is expanded to include any flowing mass of solid volatiles condensed on planetary surfaces. Glacier-forming volatiles in this solar system may include water ice on Earth and Mars, carbon dioxide on Mars, sulfur on Io, and, in the future red giant phase of solar evolution, may encompass silicon monoxide or metallic magnesium and sodium glaciers on Earth and Mars. Comparable glaciers may occur on large rocky moons of hot Jupiters and comparably close-in "terrestrial" type planets. We have modeled the temperature distribution across the surfaces of red-giant phase Earth and Mars, without considering radiative effects of the gases and clouds, to illustrate these points. We have assumed alternate conditions of asynchronous and synchronous rotation and calculated the temperatures during the run-up along the red giant evolutionary branch. Near red giant solar maximum, Earth's subsolar temperature will exceed 2400 K for about a million years. A magma ocean will exist but will not be continuous across the globe; for a tidally locked Earth, solid continents will consist largely of atmospheric condensates of the more volatile metals and metal oxides, with shorelines and some buoyant 'bergs' composed of refractory Ca-Al-oxide residues, whereas some residues and condensates will sink to the core. Atmospheric partial pressures of Mg, MgO, SiO, SiO2, Fe, and FeO will total nearly 0.3 mbars. O and O2 partial pressures will sum to 1 mbar, and alkalis would initially be over 3 mbars. Condensation will occur by fractional chemical distillation. A chemical sequence of deposits will occur toward the pole and terminator. Some condensate deposits will flow glacier-like into the magma ocean, where they will redissolve, closing the cycle in a quasi-steady state familiar to glaciologists.

  4. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ge-Ru; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Du, Shuai-Zhi; Hu, Xiong-Feng; Wang, Hui-Bao; Zhang, Long-Xian; Yu, San-Ke

    2015-08-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an emerging and opportunistic enteric pathogen triggering diarrhea and enteric disease in humans and animals. Despite extensive research on this pathogen, the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi infection in precious wild animals of giant and red pandas have not been reported. In the present study, 82 faecal specimens were collected from 46 giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and 36 red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in the northwest of China. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi, an overall infection rate of 10.98% (9/82) was observed in pandas, with 8.70% (4/46) for giant pandas, and 13.89% (5/36) for red pandas. Two ITS genotypes were identified: the novel genotype I-like (n=4) and genotype EbpC (n=5). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) employing three microsatellites (MS1, MS3 and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4) showed that nine, six, six and nine positive products were amplified and sequenced successfully at four respective loci. A phylogenetic analysis based on a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences of E. bieneusi indicated that the genotype EbpC fell into 1d of group 1 of zoonotic potential, and the novel genotype I-like was clustered into group 2. The present study firstly indicated the presence of E. bieneusi in giant and red pandas, and these results suggested that integrated strategies should be implemented to effectively protect pandas and humans from infecting E. bieneusi in China. PMID:26079276

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Carbon in red giants in GCs and dSph galaxies (Kirby+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, E. N.; Guo, M.; Zhang, A. J.; Deng, M.; Cohen, J. G.; Guhathakurta, P.; Shetrone, M. D.; Lee, Y. S.; Rizzi, L.

    2015-07-01

    We obtained Keck/DEIMOS spectra of the carbon G band in red giants in Milky Way (MW) globular clusters (GCs) and dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) between 2011 Jul 29 and 2012 Mar 19. The GCs are NGC 2419, NGC 4590 (M68), and NGC 7078 (M15). The dSphs are Sculptor, Fornax, Ursa Minor, and Draco. See table 1. (3 data files).

  6. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ge-Ru; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Du, Shuai-Zhi; Hu, Xiong-Feng; Wang, Hui-Bao; Zhang, Long-Xian; Yu, San-Ke

    2015-08-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an emerging and opportunistic enteric pathogen triggering diarrhea and enteric disease in humans and animals. Despite extensive research on this pathogen, the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi infection in precious wild animals of giant and red pandas have not been reported. In the present study, 82 faecal specimens were collected from 46 giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and 36 red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in the northwest of China. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi, an overall infection rate of 10.98% (9/82) was observed in pandas, with 8.70% (4/46) for giant pandas, and 13.89% (5/36) for red pandas. Two ITS genotypes were identified: the novel genotype I-like (n=4) and genotype EbpC (n=5). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) employing three microsatellites (MS1, MS3 and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4) showed that nine, six, six and nine positive products were amplified and sequenced successfully at four respective loci. A phylogenetic analysis based on a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences of E. bieneusi indicated that the genotype EbpC fell into 1d of group 1 of zoonotic potential, and the novel genotype I-like was clustered into group 2. The present study firstly indicated the presence of E. bieneusi in giant and red pandas, and these results suggested that integrated strategies should be implemented to effectively protect pandas and humans from infecting E. bieneusi in China.

  7. Variations on Debris Disks III. Collisional Cascades and Giant Impacts in the Terrestrial Zones of Solar-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Bromley, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze two new sets of coagulation calculations for solid particles orbiting within the terrestrial zone of a solar-type star. In models of collisional cascades, numerical simulations demonstrate that the total mass, the mass in 1 mm and smaller particles, and the dust luminosity decline with time more rapidly than predicted by analytic models, \\propto {t}-n with n ≈ 1.1-1.2 instead of 1. Size distributions derived from the numerical calculations follow analytic predictions at r ≲ 0.1 km but are shallower than predicted at larger sizes. In simulations of planet formation, the dust luminosity declines more slowly than in pure collisional cascades, with n ≈ 0.5-0.8 instead of 1.1-1.2. Throughout this decline, giant impacts produce large, observable spikes in dust luminosity that last ˜0.01-0.1 Myr and recur every 1-10 Myr. If most solar-type stars have Earth mass planets with a ≲1-2 AU, observations of debris around 1-100 Myr stars allow interesting tests of theory. Current data preclude theories where terrestrial planets form out of 1000 km or larger planetesimals. Although the observed frequency of debris disks among ≳30 Myr old stars agrees with our calculations, the observed frequency of warm debris among 5-20 Myr old stars is smaller than predicted.

  8. Tracing chemical evolution over the extent of the Milky Way's disk with apogee red clump stars

    SciTech Connect

    Nidever, David L.; Bovy, Jo; Bird, Jonathan C.; Andrews, Brett H.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Weinberg, David H.; Hayden, Michael; Holtzman, Jon; Feuillet, Diane; Majewski, Steven R.; García Pérez, Ana E.; Smith, Verne; Robin, Annie C.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Cunha, Katia; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Zasowski, Gail; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shetrone, Matthew; and others

    2014-11-20

    We employ the first two years of data from the near-infrared, high-resolution SDSS-III/APOGEE spectroscopic survey to investigate the distribution of metallicity and α-element abundances of stars over a large part of the Milky Way disk. Using a sample of ≈10, 000 kinematically unbiased red-clump stars with ∼5% distance accuracy as tracers, the [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] distribution of this sample exhibits a bimodality in [α/Fe] at intermediate metallicities, –0.9 < [Fe/H] <–0.2, but at higher metallicities ([Fe/H] ∼+0.2) the two sequences smoothly merge. We investigate the effects of the APOGEE selection function and volume filling fraction and find that these have little qualitative impact on the α-element abundance patterns. The described abundance pattern is found throughout the range 5 < R < 11 kpc and 0 < |Z| < 2 kpc across the Galaxy. The [α/Fe] trend of the high-α sequence is surprisingly constant throughout the Galaxy, with little variation from region to region (∼10%). Using simple galactic chemical evolution models, we derive an average star-formation efficiency (SFE) in the high-α sequence of ∼4.5 × 10{sup –10} yr{sup –1}, which is quite close to the nearly constant value found in molecular-gas-dominated regions of nearby spirals. This result suggests that the early evolution of the Milky Way disk was characterized by stars that shared a similar star-formation history and were formed in a well-mixed, turbulent, and molecular-dominated ISM with a gas consumption timescale (SFE{sup –1}) of ∼2 Gyr. Finally, while the two α-element sequences in the inner Galaxy can be explained by a single chemical evolutionary track, this cannot hold in the outer Galaxy, requiring, instead, a mix of two or more populations with distinct enrichment histories.

  9. Red giant stars from the Sloan digital sky survey. II. Distances

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Kefeng; Chen, Yuqin; Carrell, Kenneth; Zhao, Jingkun; Zhao, Gang

    2014-10-10

    We present distance determinations for a large and clean sample of red giant branch stars selected from the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The distances are calculated based on both observational cluster fiducials and theoretical isochrones. Distributions of distances from the two methods are very similar with peaks at about 10 kpc and tails extending to more than 70 kpc. We find that distances from the two methods agree well for the majority of the sample stars; though, on average, distances based on isochrones are 10% higher than those based on fiducials. We test the accuracy of our distance determinations using 332 stars from 10 Galactic globular and open clusters. The average relative deviation from the literature cluster distances is 4% for the fiducial-based distances and 8% for the isochrone-based distances, both of which are within the uncertainties. We find that the effective temperature and surface gravity derived from low-resolution spectra are not accurate enough to essentially improve the performance of distance determinations. However, for stars with significant extinction, effective temperature may help to better constrain their distances to some extent. We make our sample stars and their distances available from an online catalog. The catalog comprises 17,941 stars with reasonable distance estimations reaching to more than 70 kpc, which is suitable for the investigation of the formation and evolution of the Galaxy, especially the Galactic halo.

  10. Interspecific Communicative and Coordinated Hunting between Groupers and Giant Moray Eels in the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bshary, Redouan; Hohner, Andrea; Ait-el-Djoudi, Karim; Fricke, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Intraspecific group hunting has received considerable attention because of the close links between cooperative behaviour and its cognitive demands. Accordingly, comparisons between species have focused on behaviours that can potentially distinguish between the different levels of cognitive complexity involved, such as “intentional” communication between partners in order to initiate a joint hunt, the adoption of different roles during a joint hunt (whether consistently or alternately), and the level of food sharing following a successful hunt. Here we report field observations from the Red Sea on the highly coordinated and communicative interspecific hunting between the grouper, Plectropomus pessuliferus, and the giant moray eel, Gymnothorax javanicus. We provide evidence of the following: (1) associations are nonrandom, (2) groupers signal to moray eels in order to initiate joint searching and recruit moray eels to prey hiding places, (3) signalling is dependent on grouper hunger level, and (4) both partners benefit from the association. The benefits of joint hunting appear to be due to complementary hunting skills, reflecting the evolved strategies of each species, rather than individual role specialisation during joint hunts. In addition, the partner species that catches a prey item swallows it whole immediately, making aggressive monopolisation of a carcass impossible. We propose that the potential for monopolisation of carcasses by one partner species represents the main constraint on the evolution of interspecific cooperative hunting for most potentially suitable predator combinations. PMID:17147471

  11. POPULATION EFFECTS ON THE METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION DERIVED FROM THE RED GIANT BRANCH

    SciTech Connect

    Ordoñez, Antonio J.; Sarajedini, Ata E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu

    2015-06-15

    We have tested the reliability of the red giant branch (RGB) as a metallicity indicator accounting for observational errors as well as the complexity of star formation histories and chemical evolution histories observed in various stellar systems. We generate model color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs) produced with a variety of evolutionary histories and compare the resultant metallicity estimates from the colors and magnitudes of RGB stars to the true input metallicities. We include realistic models for photometric errors and completeness in our synthetic CMDs. As expected, for simple simple stellar populations dominated by old stars, the RGB provides a very accurate estimate of the modular metallicity value for a population. An error in the age of a system targeted for this type of study may produce metallicity errors of a few tenths of a dex. The size of this metallicity error depends linearly on the age error, and we find this dependence to be stronger with more precise photometry. If the population has experienced any significant star formation within the last ∼6 Gyr, the metallicity estimates, [M/H], derived from the RGB may be in error by up to ∼0.5 dex. Perhaps the most important consideration for this technique is an accurate, independent estimate of the average age for the target stellar system, especially if it is probable that a significant fraction of the population formed less than ∼6 Gyr ago.

  12. Verification of asymptotic relation for mixed modes in red giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2014-11-01

    High-precision space observations, such as made by the Kepler and CoRoT missions, allow us to detect mixed modes for l = 1 modes in their high signal-to-noise photometry data. By means of asteroseismology, the inner structure of red giant (RG) stars is revealed for the first time with the help of mixed modes. We analyse these mixed modes of a 1.3 M⊙ RG model theoretically from the approximate asymptotic descriptions of oscillations. While fitting observed frequencies with the eigenvalue condition for mixed modes, a good estimate of period spacing and coupling strength is also acquired for more evolved models. We show that the behaviour of the mode inertia in a given mode varies dramatically when the coupling is strong. An approximation of period spacings is also obtained from the asymptotic dispersion relation, which provides a good estimate of the coupling strength as well as period spacing when g-mode-like mixed modes are sufficiently dense. By comparing the theoretical coupling strength from the integral expression with the ones from fitting methods, we confirmed that the theoretical asymptotic equation is problematic in the evanescent region due to the potential singularities as well as the use of the Cowling approximation.

  13. Distance moduli of open cluster NGC 6819 from Red Giant Clump stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedigamba, O. P.; Balona, L. A.; Medupe, R.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we study Kepler open cluster NGC 6819 using Kepler data of Red Giant Clump (RGC) single member (SM) stars. The Kepler data spans a period of 4 years starting in 2009. In particular, we derive distance moduli for each individual RGC star, from which we get the mean distance modulus of μ0 = 11.520 ± 0.105 mag for the cluster when we use reddening from the Kepler Input Catalogue (KIC) for each RGC star. A value of μ0 = 11.747 ± 0.086 mag is obtained when uniform reddening value E(B - V) = 0.15 is used for the cluster. The values of μ0 obtained with RGC stars are in agreement with the values in the literature with other methods. We report for the case of Kepler open cluster NGC 6819 that RGC stars can be used as 'distance candles' as has been done in the literature with other open clusters.

  14. Infrared tip of the red giant branch and distances to the MAFFEI/IC 342 group

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Po-Feng; Tully, R. Brent; Jacobs, Bradley A.; Rizzi, Luca; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Karachentsev, Igor D.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we extend the use of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method to near-infrared wavelengths from the previously used I-band, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Upon calibration of a color dependency of the TRGB magnitude, the IR TRGB yields a random uncertainty of ∼5% in relative distance. The IR TRGB methodology has an advantage over the previously used Advance Camera for Surveys F606W and F814W filter set for galaxies that suffer from severe extinction. Using the IR TRGB methodology, we obtain distances toward three principal galaxies in the Maffei/IC 342 complex, which are located at low Galactic latitudes. New distance estimates using the TRGB method are 3.45{sub −0.13}{sup +0.13} Mpc for IC 342, 3.37{sub −0.23}{sup +0.32} Mpc for Maffei 1, and 3.52{sub −0.30}{sup +0.32} Mpc for Maffei 2. The uncertainties are dominated by uncertain extinction, especially for Maffei 1 and Maffei 2. Our IR calibration demonstrates the viability of the TRGB methodology for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  15. Chemical Abundances of Red Giant Branch Stars in the Globular Clusters NGC 6333 and NGC 6366

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. M.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Kunder, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present chemical abundances and radial velocities for >20 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular clusters NGC 6333 ([Fe/H]≈-1.8) and NGC 6366 ([Fe/H]≈-0.6). The results are based on moderate resolution (R=18,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (>100) spectra obtained with the Hydra multifiber positioner and bench spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Both objects are likely associated with the Galactic bulge globular cluster system, and we therefore compare the cluster abundance patterns with those of nearby bulge field stars. Additionally, we investigate differences in the O-Na anticorrelation and neutron-capture element dispersion between the two clusters, and compare their abundance patterns with those of similar metallicity halo globular clusters. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under award No. AST-1003201 to C.I.J. C.A.P. gratefully acknowledges support from the Daniel Kirkwood Research Fund at Indiana University. R.M.R. acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-0709479 and AST-121120995.

  16. Chemical Abundances of Red Giant Branch Stars in the Globular Cluster NGC 288

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsyu, Tiffany; Johnson, C. I.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Lee, Y.; Rich, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present chemical abundances and radial velocities for ~30 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the globular cluster NGC 288. The results are based on moderate resolution (R≈18,000) and moderate signal-to-noise ratio 50-75) obtained with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the Blanco 4m telescope. NGC 288 has been shown to exhibit two separate RGBs and we investigate possible differences in metallicity and/or light element abundances between stars on each branch. We present a new filter tracing for the CTIO Calcium HK narrow band filter and explore its effects on previous globular cluster color-magnitude diagrams. We also compare the light element abundance patterns of NGC 288 to those of other similar metallicity halo clusters. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under award No.AST-1003201 to C.I.J. C.A.P. gratefully acknowledges support from the Daniel Kirkwood Research Fund at Indiana University. R.M.R. acknowledges support from NSF grants AST-0709479 and AST-121120995.

  17. Building the Galactic halo from globular clusters: evidence from chemically unusual red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, S. L.; Smolinski, J. P.; Beers, T. C.; Grebel, E. K.

    2011-10-01

    We present a spectroscopic search for halo field stars that originally formed in globular clusters. Using moderate-resolution SDSS-III/SEGUE-2 spectra of 561 red giants with typical halo metallicities (-1.8 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -1.0), we identify 16 stars, 3% of the sample, with CN and CH bandstrength behavior indicating depleted carbon and enhanced nitrogen abundances relative to the rest of the data set. Since globular clusters are the only environment known in which stars form with this pattern of atypical light-element abundances, we claim that these stars are second-generation globular cluster stars that have been lost to the halo field via normal cluster mass-loss processes. Extrapolating from theoretical models of two-generation globular cluster formation, this result suggests that globular clusters contributed significant numbers of stars to the construction of the Galactic halo: we calculate that a minimum of 17% of the present-day mass of the stellar halo was originally formed in globular clusters. The ratio of CN-strong to CN-normal stars drops with Galactocentric distance, suggesting that the inner-halo population may be the primary repository of these stars. Full Tables 1 and 3 are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/534/A136

  18. A Bayesian Approach to Locating the Red Giant Branch Tip Magnitude. I.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn, A. R.; Lewis, G. F.; Ibata, R. A.; Parker, Q. A.; Zucker, D. B.; McConnachie, A. W.; Martin, N. F.; Irwin, M. J.; Tanvir, N.; Fardal, M. A.; Ferguson, A. M. N.

    2011-10-01

    We present a new approach for identifying the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) which, as we show, works robustly even on sparsely populated targets. Moreover, the approach is highly adaptable to the available data for the stellar population under study, with prior information readily incorporable into the algorithm. The uncertainty in the derived distances is also made tangible and easily calculable from posterior probability distributions. We provide an outline of the development of the algorithm and present the results of tests designed to characterize its capabilities and limitations. We then apply the new algorithm to three M31 satellites: Andromeda I, Andromeda II, and the fainter Andromeda XXIII, using data from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS), and derive their distances as 731(+ 5) + 18 (- 4) - 17 kpc, 634(+ 2) + 15 (- 2) - 14 kpc, and 733(+ 13) + 23 (- 11) - 22 kpc, respectively, where the errors appearing in parentheses are the components intrinsic to the method, while the larger values give the errors after accounting for additional sources of error. These results agree well with the best distance determinations in the literature and provide the smallest uncertainties to date. This paper is an introduction to the workings and capabilities of our new approach in its basic form, while a follow-up paper shall make full use of the method's ability to incorporate priors and use the resulting algorithm to systematically obtain distances to all of M31's satellites identifiable in the PAndAS survey area.

  19. Iron Abundances and Atmospheric Parameters of Red Giants in the Open Cluster IC 4756

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Julie O.

    Three red giants were investigated within the open cluster IC 4756 using observations taken from the McDonald Observatory's 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope and the Sandiford Cassegrain Echelle Spectrometer (SES). Iron abundances were calculated for each star based on the equivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines measured using the line lists of Bubar and King (2010) and Schuler et al. (2005). Also derived were the basic atmospheric parameters: effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and microturbulence. Her 35, Her 85, and Her 249 were found to have corresponding [Fe I/H] of 0.06 +/- 0.04, -0.16 +/- 0.03, and -0.16 +/- 0.06 as derived from the neutral lines. These values, when compared to the results of other studies, suggest that the cluster has an overall metallicity within the solar to subsolar value. This would indicate IC 4756 as a slightly metal-poor object. The star Her 85 is also examined to determine if derived atmospheric parameters support the classification of more recent studies as a nonmember of the cluster. The studies base their decisions on its deviation in radial velocity from the cluster mean. It is concluded that there is little solid evidence to support the dismissal of Her 85 from metallicity studies of IC 4756 and present-day membership and proper motion studies with modern equipment are required to confirm or reject this theory.

  20. Solar-like oscillations in red giants observed with Kepler: comparison of global oscillation parameters from different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hekker, S.; Elsworth, Y.; De Ridder, J.; Mosser, B.; García, R. A.; Kallinger, T.; Mathur, S.; Huber, D.; Buzasi, D. L.; Preston, H. L.; Hale, S. J.; Ballot, J.; Chaplin, W. J.; Régulo, C.; Bedding, T. R.; Stello, D.; Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D. G.; Jenkins, J.; Allen, C.; Gilliland, R. L.; Kjeldsen, H.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The large number of stars for which uninterrupted high-precision photometric timeseries data are being collected with Kepler and CoRoT initiated the development of automated methods to analyse the stochastically excited oscillations in main-sequence, subgiant and red-giant stars. Aims: We investigate the differences in results for global oscillation parameters of G and K red-giant stars due to different methods and definitions. We also investigate uncertainties originating from the stochastic nature of the oscillations. Methods: For this investigation we use Kepler data obtained during the first four months of operation. These data have been analysed by different groups using already published methods and the results are compared. We also performed simulations to investigate the uncertainty on the resulting parameters due to different realizations of the stochastic signal. Results: We obtain results for the frequency of maximum oscillation power (ν_max) and the mean large separation (<Δν>) from different methods for over one thousand red-giant stars. The results for these parameters agree within a few percent and seem therefore robust to the different analysis methods and definitions used here. The uncertainties for ν_max and <Δν> due to differences in realization noise are not negligible and should be taken into account when using these results for stellar modelling. Table 7 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Purification and characterization of pepsin-solubilized collagen from skin and connective tissue of giant red sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zunying; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Su, Yi-Cheng

    2010-01-27

    Pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) was extracted from giant red sea cucumbers ( Parastichopus californicus ) and characterized for denaturation temperature (T(d)), maximum transition temperature (T(m)), enzyme-digested peptide maps, and gel-forming capability. SDS-PAGE showed that PSCs from giant red sea cucumber skin and connective tissue were both type I collagens, consisting of three alpha(1) chains of approximately 138 kDa each. The amino acid composition and peptide maps of PSCs digested by V8 protease were different from those of calf skin type I collagen. The T(d) and T(m) are 18.5 and 33.2 degrees C, respectively, for skin PSC and are 17.9 and 32.7 degrees C, respectively, for connective tissue PSC. Both skin and connective tissue PSCs exhibited good gel-forming capability at pH 6.5 and at an ionic strength of 300 mM salt (NaCl). Collagen isolated from giant red sea cucumbers might be used as an alternative to mammalian collagen in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Orbital and physical parameters of eclipsing binaries from the ASAS catalogue - IX. Spotted pairs with red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.; Smith, A. M. S.; Kozłowski, S. K.; Espinoza, N.; Jordán, A.; Brahm, R.; Hempel, M.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.

    2016-09-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric solutions for three spotted systems with red giant components. Absolute physical and orbital parameters for these double-lined detached eclipsing binary stars are presented for the first time. These were derived from the V-, and I-band ASAS and WASP photometry, and new radial velocities calculated from high quality optical spectra we obtained with a wide range of spectrographs and using the two-dimensional cross-correlation technique (TODCOR). All of the investigated systems (ASAS J184949-1518.7, BQ Aqr, and V1207 Cen) show the differential evolutionary phase of their components consisting of a main-sequence star or a subgiant and a red giant, and thus constitute very informative objects in terms of testing stellar evolution models. Additionally, the systems show significant chromospheric activity of both components. They can be also classified as classical RS CVn-type stars. Besides the standard analysis of radial velocities and photometry, we applied spectral disentangling to obtain separate spectra for both components of each analysed system which allowed for a more detailed spectroscopic study. We also compared the properties of red giant stars in binaries that show spots, with those that do not, and found that the activity phenomenon is substantially suppressed for stars with Rossby number higher than ˜1 and radii larger than ˜20 R⊙.

  3. Bayesian peak bagging analysis of 19 low-mass low-luminosity red giants observed with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, E.; De Ridder, J.; García, R. A.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Non-radial oscillations, observed in thousands of red giants by the space missions CoRoT and Kepler, allow us to greatly improve our understanding of stellar structure and evolution in cool low-mass stars. The currently available Kepler light curves contain an outstanding amount of information, but a detailed analysis of the individual oscillation modes in the observed power spectra, also known as peak bagging, is computationally demanding and challenging to perform on a large number of targets. Aims: Our intent is to perform for the first time a peak bagging analysis on a sample of 19 low-mass low-luminosity red giants observed by Kepler for more than four years. This allows us to provide high-quality asteroseismic measurements that can be exploited for an intensive testing of the physics used in stellar structure models, stellar evolution, and pulsation codes, as well as for refining existing asteroseismic scaling relations in the red giant branch regime. Methods: For this purpose, powerful and sophisticated analysis tools are needed. We exploit the Bayesian code Diamonds, using an efficient nested sampling Monte Carlo algorithm, to perform both a fast fitting of the individual oscillation modes and a peak detection test based on the Bayesian evidence. Results: We find good agreement for the parameters estimated in the background fitting phase with those given in the literature. We extract and characterize a total of 1618 oscillation modes, providing the largest set of detailed asteroseismic mode measurements ever published. We report on the evidence of a change in regime observed in the relation between linewidths and effective temperatures of the stars occurring at the bottom of the red giant branch. We show the presence of a linewidth depression or plateau around νmax for all the red giants of the sample. Lastly, we show a good agreement between our measurements of maximum mode amplitudes and existing maximum amplitudes from global analyses provided

  4. The chemical composition of red giants in 47 Tucanae. II. Magnesium isotopes and pollution scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thygesen, A. O.; Sbordone, L.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Ventura, P.; Yong, D.; Collet, R.; Christlieb, N.; Melendez, J.; Zaggia, S.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The phenomenon of multiple populations in globular clusters is still far from understood, with several proposed mechanisms to explain the observed behaviour. The study of elemental and isotopic abundance patterns are crucial for investigating the differences among candidate pollution mechanisms. Aims: We derive magnesium isotopic ratios for 13 stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) to provide new, detailed information about the nucleosynthesis that has occurred within the cluster. For the first time, the impact of 3D model stellar atmospheres on the derived Mg isotopic ratios is investigated. Methods: Using both tailored 1D atmospheric models and 3D hydrodynamical models, we derive magnesium isotopic ratios from four features of MgH near 5135 Å in 13 giants near the tip of the red giant branch, using high signal-to-noise, high-resolution spectra. Results: We derive the magnesium isotopic ratios for all stars and find no significant offset of the isotopic distribution between the pristine and the polluted populations. Furthermore, we do not detect any statistically significant differences in the spread in the Mg isotopes in either population. No trends were found between the Mg isotopes and [Al/Fe]. The inclusion of 3D atmospheres has a significant impact on the derived 25Mg/24Mg ratio, increasing it by a factor of up to 2.5, compared to 1D. The 26Mg/24Mg ratio, on the other hand, essentially remains unchanged. Conclusions: We confirm the results seen from other globular clusters, where no strong variation in the isotopic ratios is observed between stellar populations, for observed ranges in [Al/Fe]. We see no evidence for any significant activation of the Mg-Al burning chain. The use of 3D atmospheres causes an increase of a factor of up to 2.5 in the fraction of 25Mg, resolving part of the discrepancy between the observed isotopic fraction and the predictions from pollution models. Based on observations made with the ESO Very Large Telescope

  5. NGC 362: another globular cluster with a split red giant branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretta, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Gratton, R. G.; Lucatello, S.; D'Orazi, V.; Bellazzini, M.; Catanzaro, G.; Leone, F.; Momany, Y.; Sollima, A.

    2013-09-01

    We obtained FLAMES GIRAFFE+UVES spectra for both first- and second-generation red giant branch (RGB) stars in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 362 and used them to derive abundances of 21 atomic species for a sample of 92 stars. The surveyed elements include proton-capture (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si), α-capture (Ca, Ti), Fe-peak (Sc, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu), and neutron-capture elements (Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Dy). The analysis is fully consistent with that presented for twenty GCs in previous papers of this series. Stars in NGC 362 seem to be clustered into two discrete groups along the Na-O anti-correlation with a gap at [O/Na] ~ 0 dex. Na-rich, second generation stars show a trend to be more centrally concentrated, although the level of confidence is not very high. When compared to the classical second-parameter twin NGC 288 with similar metallicity but different horizontal branch type and a much lower total mass, the proton-capture processing in stars of NGC 362 seems to be more extreme, confirming previous analysis. We discovered the presence of a secondary RGB sequence, which is redder than the bulk of the RGB. A preliminary estimate shows that this sequence comprises about 6% of RGB stars. Our spectroscopic data and literature photometry indicate that this sequence is populated almost exclusively by giants rich in Ba and is probably rich in all s-process elements, as found in other clusters. In this regard, NGC 362 joins previously studied GCs like NGC 1851, NGC 6656 (M 22), and NGC 7089 (M 2). Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under programme 083.D-0208.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Tables 2-8 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/557/A138

  6. REVEALING PROBABLE UNIVERSAL FEATURES IN THE LOWER RED GIANT BRANCH LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kravtsov, V. V.

    2009-06-15

    This paper aims at demonstrating, for the first time, very probable universal peculiarities of the evolution of stars in the lower red giant branch (RGB) of Galactic globular clusters (GCs), reflected in two corresponding dips in the luminosity functions (LFs). By relying on the database of Hubble Space Telescope photometry of GCs, we analyze the lower RGB LFs of a sample of 18 GCs in a wide metallicity range, {delta}[Fe/H] {approx} 1.9 dex. We first show that in the F555W-(F439W-F555W) color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), the lower RGB of GCs, except for the most metal-poor of them, frequently shows an apparent 'knee'. It reveals itself as a fairly abrupt change of the RGB slope. At the same luminosity level, the RGB LFs show a feature in the form of a more or less pronounced dip. We find that the magnitude difference between the RGB base and the given feature is, on average, around {delta} F555W{sup dip} {sub base}{approx} 1.4 mag. It shows a marginal variation with metallicity, if any, comparable to the error. At the same time, the magnitude difference between the dip and the RGB bump, {delta} F555W{sup bump} {sub dip}, decreases with increasing metallicity and falls within the range 0.8 {approx}< {delta} F555W{sup bump} {sub dip} {approx}< 1.7 mag. Generalized LFs (GLFs) have been obtained for three subsamples of GCs within limited metallicity ranges and with different horizontal branch (HB) morphology. They reproduce the 'knee-related' dip that is statistically significant in two of the GLFs. This feature turns out to be more pronounced in the GLFs of GCs with either the blue or red HB morphology than with the intermediate one. The same GLFs also reveal an additional probable universal dip. It shows up below the RGB bump at {delta} F555W slightly increasing from {approx}0.3 to {approx}0.5 mag with increasing metallicity. Also, the statistical significance of this 'prebump' dip increases, on average, toward higher metallicity. Except for the well known RGB bump, no

  7. The chromosphere of VV cephei and the distribution of circumstellar dust around red giants and supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Wendy Hagen

    1992-01-01

    The work on this project has followed two separate paths of inquiry. The first project was entitled 'the Chromosphere of VV Cephei.' The examination of the archival spectra revealed significant changes in the spectra. Therefore, we obtained additional observing time with IUE to monitor the system during the summer of 1991. Short-term changes continue to be seen in both the overall spectrum and individual line profiles. Work continues on this object. The second project was entitled 'the Distribution of Circumstellar Dust around Red Giants and Supergiants.' A number of cool evolved stars are surrounded by dust shells of sufficient angular size as to appear extended in the IRAS survey data. The aim of this project has been to convolve the predictions of the flux distribution from model dust shells with the IRAS beam profiles in order to reproduce the observed IRAS scans. At the time of the last status report, the cross-scan profiles of the IRAS detectors had just been added to the modeling procedure. For scans in which the star passed near the detector center, there was no significant variation in predicted scan profile for different detectors. Scans in which the detector did not pass over the bright central star had been anticipated to be particularly useful in determining the dust distribution; however, significant differences in the predicted scan profiles were seen for different detector profiles. For this reason, and due to the cross-talk effects discussed in the previous status report, further work on the scans not including a central star has been postponed in favor of further analysis of scans passing over the central star.

  8. Probing interstellar extinction in the Tarantula Nebula with red giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, N.; Girardi, L.; Sabbi, E.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the properties of the interstellar extinction in a field of 3‧ × 3‧ located about 6‧ SW of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The observations with with the WFPC 2 camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope in the U, B, V , I and H bands show the presence of patchy extinction in this field. In particular, the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) reveals an elongated stellar sequence, running almost parallel to the main sequence (MS), which is in reality made up of stars belonging to the red giant clump (RC) and spread across the CMD by the considerable and uneven extinction in this region. This allows us to derive in a quantitative way both the extinction law in the range 3 000-8 000 Å and the values of the absolute extinction towards more than 100 objects, thereby setting statistically significant constraints on the properties of the extinction in this area. We find an extinction curve considerably flatter than the standard Galactic one and than those derived before towards a sample of sight lines in the LMC. The value of RV = 5.6 that we find implies that in this region large grains dominate. Comparing the extinction towards the individual RC stars and a similar number of stars in the upper MS reveals that the latter span a narrower range of E(B - V) values, contrary to what has been found elsewhere in the LMC. We are now extending these studies to 30 Doradus itself and to a large portion of the Tarantula nebula using existing HST observations at ultraviolet, optical and near infrared wavelengths.

  9. Red giants in the Small Magellanic Cloud - I. Disc and tidal stream kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, P. D.; Cole, A. A.; Subramaniam, A.; Keller, S.

    2014-08-01

    We present results from an extensive spectroscopic survey of field stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). 3037 sources, predominantly first-ascent red giants, spread across roughly 37.5 deg2, are analysed. The line-of-sight velocity field is dominated by the projection of the orbital motion of the SMC around the Large Magellanic Cloud/Milky Way. The residuals are inconsistent with both a non-rotating spheroid and a nearly face on disc system. The current sample and previous stellar and H I kinematics can be reconciled by rotating disc models with line-of-nodes position angle Θ ≈ 120°-130°, moderate inclination (25°-70°), and rotation curves rising at 20-40 km s-1 kpc-1. The metal-poor stars exhibit a lower velocity gradient and higher velocity dispersion than the metal-rich stars. If our interpretation of the velocity patterns as bulk rotation is appropriate, then some revision to simulations of the SMC orbit is required since these are generally tuned to the SMC disc line of nodes lying in a north-east-south-west (SW) direction. Residuals show strong spatial structure indicative of non-circular motions that increase in importance with increasing distance from the SMC centre. Kinematic substructure in the north-west part of our survey area is associated with the tidal tail or Counter-Bridge predicted by simulations. Lower line-of-sight velocities towards the Wing and the larger velocities just beyond the SW end of the SMC Bar are probably associated with stellar components of the Magellanic-Bridge and Counter-Bridge, respectively. Our results reinforce the notion that the intermediate-age stellar population of the SMC is subject to substantial stripping by external forces.

  10. A BAYESIAN APPROACH TO LOCATING THE RED GIANT BRANCH TIP MAGNITUDE. I

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, A. R.; Parker, Q. A.; Zucker, D. B.; Lewis, G. F.; Ibata, R. A.; McConnachie, A. W.; Martin, N. F.; Irwin, M. J.; Tanvir, N.; Fardal, M. A.; Ferguson, A. M. N.

    2011-10-20

    We present a new approach for identifying the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) which, as we show, works robustly even on sparsely populated targets. Moreover, the approach is highly adaptable to the available data for the stellar population under study, with prior information readily incorporable into the algorithm. The uncertainty in the derived distances is also made tangible and easily calculable from posterior probability distributions. We provide an outline of the development of the algorithm and present the results of tests designed to characterize its capabilities and limitations. We then apply the new algorithm to three M31 satellites: Andromeda I, Andromeda II, and the fainter Andromeda XXIII, using data from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS), and derive their distances as 731{sup (+5)+18}{sub (-4)-17} kpc, 634{sup (+2)+15}{sub (-2)-14} kpc, and 733{sup (+13)+23}{sub (-11)-22} kpc, respectively, where the errors appearing in parentheses are the components intrinsic to the method, while the larger values give the errors after accounting for additional sources of error. These results agree well with the best distance determinations in the literature and provide the smallest uncertainties to date. This paper is an introduction to the workings and capabilities of our new approach in its basic form, while a follow-up paper shall make full use of the method's ability to incorporate priors and use the resulting algorithm to systematically obtain distances to all of M31's satellites identifiable in the PAndAS survey area.

  11. Chemical composition of the giant red sea cucumber, Parastichopus californicus, commercially harvested in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Peter J; Oliveira, Alexandra CM; Demir, Necla; Smiley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Giant red sea cucumbers, Parastichopus californicus, are commercially harvested in the U.S. Pacific Northwest; however, the nutritional and chemical properties of its edible muscle bands and body wall have not been fully elucidated. In particular are the fatty acid profiles of P. californicus tissues, which have not been documented. Sea cucumbers were delivered live and muscle bands and body wall freeze dried, vacuum packed, and stored at –30°C until analyzed. Proximate composition of freeze-dried tissues varied greatly with muscle bands being composed of 68% protein, 12% ash, 9% carbohydrate, and 5% lipids, while the body wall was composed of 47% protein, 26% ash, 15% carbohydrate, and 8% lipids. The hydroxyproline, proline, and glycine contents of the body wall were much higher than those in muscle bands, consistent with the larger amount of connective tissue. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, and iron contents were higher in the body wall than those in muscle bands, whereas the opposite was observed for zinc content. Total long-chain n-3 fatty acid contents were 19% and 32% of total fatty acids in body wall and muscle bands, respectively. Muscle bands had higher content of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) than body wall at 22.6% and 12.3%, respectively. High content of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) was recorded in both body wall (7.1%) and muscle bands (9.9%). Overall, the fatty acid profiles of body wall and muscle bands of P. californicus resemble those described for other species; however, the distribution and occurrence of certain fatty acids is unique to P. californicus, being representative of the fatty acid composition of temperate-polar marine organisms. The chemical characterization of freeze-dried edible tissues from P. californicus demonstrated that these products have valuable nutritional properties. The body wall, a food product of lower market value than muscle bands, could be better utilized for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID

  12. Amino acid composition and functional properties of giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) collagen hydrolysates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zunying; Su, Yicheng; Zeng, Mingyong

    2011-03-01

    Giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were investigated. The effects of pH on the EAI, ESI FE and FS of hydrolysates were also investigated. The results indicated that the β and α 1 chains of the collagen were effectively hydrolyzed by trypsin at 50°c with an Enzyme/Substrate (E/S) ration of 1:20 (w:w). The DH of collagen was up to 17.3% after 3 h hydrolysis with trypsin. The hydrolysates had a molecular weight distribution of 1.1-17 kDa, and were abundant in glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), glutamic acid (Glu), alanine (Ala) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) residues. The hydrolysates were fractionated into three fractions (< 3 kDa, 3-10 kDa, and > 10 kDa), and the fraction of 3-10 kDa exhibited a higher EAI value than the fraction of > 10 kDa ( P<0.05). The fraction of > 10 kDa had higher FE and FS values than other fractions ( P<0.05). The pH had an important effect on the EAI, ESI, FE and FS. All the fractions showed undesirable emulsion and forming properties at pH 4.0. Under pH 7.0 and pH 10.0, the 3-10 kDa fraction showed higher EAI value and the fraction of > 10 kDa showed higher FE value, respectively. They are hoped to be utilized as functional ingredients in food and nutraceutical industries.

  13. Stellar encounter driven red-giant star mass loss in globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquato, Mario; Moraghan, Anthony; Chung, Chul; Lee, Young-Wook; De Luca, Andrea; Raimondo, Gabriella; Carini, Roberta; Brocato, Enzo

    2014-07-01

    Globular cluster (GC) color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are reasonably well understood in terms of standard stellar evolution. However, there are still some open issues, such as fully accounting for the horizontal branch (HB) morphology in terms of chemical and dynamical parameters. Mass loss on the red giant branch (RGB) shapes the mass distribution of the HB stars, and the color distribution in turn. The physical mechanisms driving mass loss are still unclear, as direct observations fail to reveal a clear correlation between mass-loss rate and stellar properties. The HB mass distribution is further complicated by helium-enhanced multiple stellar populations due to differences in the evolving mass along the HB. We present a simple analytical mass-loss model based on tidal stripping through Roche-Lobe overflow during stellar encounters. Our model naturally results in a non-Gaussian mass-loss distribution with high skewness and contains only two free parameters. We fit it to the HB mass distribution of four Galactic GCs, as obtained from fitting the CMD with zero age HB models. The best-fit model accurately reproduces the observed mass distribution. If confirmed on a wider sample of GCs, our results would account for the effects of dynamics in RGB mass-loss processes and provide a physically motivated procedure for synthetic CMDs of GCs. Our physical modeling of mass loss may result in the ability to disentangle the effects of dynamics and helium-enhanced multiple populations on the HB morphology and is instrumental in making HB morphology a probe of the dynamical state of GCs, leading to an improved understanding of their evolution.

  14. Hydra observations of aluminum abundances in the red giants ofthe globular clusters M80 and NGC 6752

    SciTech Connect

    Suntzeff, N B; Cavallo, R M; Pilachowski, C A

    2004-01-05

    Aluminum and other metal abundances were determined in 21 red giants in the globular clusters NGC 6752 and M80 as part of a larger study to determine whether the aluminum distribution on the red giant branch is related to the second parameter effect that causes clusters of similar metallicity to display different horizontal branch morphologies. The observations were obtained of the Al I lines near 6700 Angstroms with the CTIO Blanco 4-m telescope and Hydra multi-object spectrograph. The spectra have a resolving power of 18000 or 9400, with typical S/N ratios of 100-200. Mean [Fe/H] values obtained from the spectra are -1.58 for NGC 6751 and -1.73 for M80; this represents the spectroscopic iron abundance determination for M80. Both NGC 6752 and M80 display a spread in aluminum abundance with mean [Al/Fe] ratios of +0.51 and +0.37 respectively. No trend in the variation of the mean AI abundance with position on the giant branch is discernible in either cluster with our small sample.

  15. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of red giant stars. III. Line formation in the atmospheres of giants located close to the base of the red giant branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskas, V.; Kučinskas, A.; Steffen, M.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Prakapavičius, D.; Klevas, J.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.

    2013-11-01

    Aims: We utilize state-of-the-art three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical and classical 1D stellar model atmospheres to study the influence of convection on the formation properties of various atomic and molecular spectral lines in the atmospheres of four red giant stars, located close to the base of the red giant branch, RGB (Teff ≈ 5000 K, log g = 2.5), and characterized by four different metallicities, [M/H] = 0.0, -1.0, -2.0, -3.0. Methods: The role of convection in the spectral line formation is assessed with the aid of abundance corrections, i.e., the differences in abundances predicted for a given equivalent width of a particular spectral line with the 3D and 1D model atmospheres. The 3D hydrodynamical and classical 1D model atmospheres used in this study were calculated with the CO5BOLD and 1D LHD codes, respectively. Identical atmospheric parameters, chemical composition, equation of state, and opacities were used with both codes, therefore allowing a strictly differential analysis of the line formation properties in the 3D and 1D models. Results: We find that for lines of certain neutral atoms, such as Mg i, Ti i, Fe i, and Ni i, the abundance corrections strongly depend both on the metallicity of a given model atmosphere and the line excitation potential, χ. While abundance corrections for all lines of both neutral and ionized elements tend to be small at solar metallicity (≤±0.1 dex), for lines of neutral elements with low ionization potential and low-to-intermediate χ they quickly increase with decreasing metallicity, reaching in their extremes -0.6 to -0.8 dex. In all such cases the large abundance corrections are due to horizontal temperature fluctuations in the 3D hydrodynamical models. Lines of neutral elements with higher ionization potentials (Eion ≳ 10 eV) generally behave very similarly to lines of ionized elements characterized by low ionization potentials (Eion ≲ 6 eV). In the latter case, the abundance corrections are small

  16. Rotational and Radial Velocities of 1.3-2.2 M ⊙ Red Giants in Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.

    2014-06-01

    This study presents the rotational distribution of red giant (RG) stars in 11 old to intermediate age open clusters. The masses of these stars are all above the Kraft break, so they lose negligible amounts of their birth angular momentum (AM) during the main-sequence (MS) evolution. However, they do span a mass range with quite different AM distributions imparted during formation, with the stars less massive than ~1.6M ⊙ arriving on the MS with lower rotation rates than the more massive stars. The majority of RGs in this study are slow rotators across the entire red giant branch regardless of mass, supporting the picture that intermediate-mass stars rapidly spin down when they evolve off the MS and develop convection zones capable of driving a magnetic dynamo. Nevertheless, a small fraction of RGs in open clusters show some level of enhanced rotation, and faster rotators are as common in these clusters as in the field RG population. Most of these enhanced rotators appear to be red clump stars, which is also true of the underlying stellar sample, while others are clearly RGs that are above or below the clump. In addition to rotational velocities, the radial velocities (RVs) and membership probabilities of individual stars are also presented. Cluster heliocentric RVs for NGC 6005 and Pismis 18 are reported for the first time.

  17. TESTING SCALING RELATIONS FOR SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS FROM THE MAIN SEQUENCE TO RED GIANTS USING KEPLER DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, D.; Bedding, T. R.; Stello, D.; Hekker, S.; Mathur, S.; Mosser, B.; Verner, G. A.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Hale, S. J.; Chaplin, W. J.; Bonanno, A.; Buzasi, D. L.; Campante, T. L.; Kallinger, T.; Silva Aguirre, V.; De Ridder, J.; Garcia, R. A.; Frandsen, S.; Houdek, G.; and others

    2011-12-20

    We have analyzed solar-like oscillations in {approx}1700 stars observed by the Kepler Mission, spanning from the main sequence to the red clump. Using evolutionary models, we test asteroseismic scaling relations for the frequency of maximum power ({nu}{sub max}), the large frequency separation ({Delta}{nu}), and oscillation amplitudes. We show that the difference of the {Delta}{nu}-{nu}{sub max} relation for unevolved and evolved stars can be explained by different distributions in effective temperature and stellar mass, in agreement with what is expected from scaling relations. For oscillation amplitudes, we show that neither (L/M){sup s} scaling nor the revised scaling relation by Kjeldsen and Bedding is accurate for red-giant stars, and demonstrate that a revised scaling relation with a separate luminosity-mass dependence can be used to calculate amplitudes from the main sequence to red giants to a precision of {approx}25%. The residuals show an offset particularly for unevolved stars, suggesting that an additional physical dependency is necessary to fully reproduce the observed amplitudes. We investigate correlations between amplitudes and stellar activity, and find evidence that the effect of amplitude suppression is most pronounced for subgiant stars. Finally, we test the location of the cool edge of the instability strip in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram using solar-like oscillations and find the detections in the hottest stars compatible with a domain of hybrid stochastically excited and opacity driven pulsation.

  18. VLTI/AMBER Studies of the Atmospheric Structure and Fundamental Parameters of Red Giant and Supergiant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo-Torres, B.; Wittkowski, M.; Marcaide, J. M.; Abellan, F. J.; Chiavassa, A.; Fabregat, J.; Freytag, B.; Guirado, J. C.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Marti-Vidal, I.; Quirrenbach, A.; Scholz, M.; Wood, P. R.

    2015-08-01

    We present recent near-IR interferometric studies of red giant and supergiant stars, which are aimed at obtaining information on the structure of the atmospheric layers and constraining the fundamental parameters of these objects. The observed visibilities of six red supergiants (RSGs), and also of one of the five red giants observed, indicate large extensions of the molecular layers, as previously observed for Mira stars. These extensions are not predicted by hydrostatic PHOENIX model atmospheres, hydrodynamical (RHD) simulations of stellar convection, or self-excited pulsation models. All these models based on parameters of RSGs lead to atmospheric structures that are too compact compared to our observations. We discuss how alternative processes might explain the atmospheric extensions for these objects. As the continuum appears to be largely free of contamination by molecular layers, we can estimate reliable Rosseland angular radii for our stars. Together with distances and bolometric fluxes, we estimate the effective temperatures and luminosities of our targets, locate them in the HR diagram, and compare their positions to recent evolutionary tracks.

  19. Rotational and radial velocities of 1.3-2.2 M {sub ☉} red giants in open clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, Joleen K.

    2014-06-01

    This study presents the rotational distribution of red giant (RG) stars in 11 old to intermediate age open clusters. The masses of these stars are all above the Kraft break, so they lose negligible amounts of their birth angular momentum (AM) during the main-sequence (MS) evolution. However, they do span a mass range with quite different AM distributions imparted during formation, with the stars less massive than ∼1.6M {sub ☉} arriving on the MS with lower rotation rates than the more massive stars. The majority of RGs in this study are slow rotators across the entire red giant branch regardless of mass, supporting the picture that intermediate-mass stars rapidly spin down when they evolve off the MS and develop convection zones capable of driving a magnetic dynamo. Nevertheless, a small fraction of RGs in open clusters show some level of enhanced rotation, and faster rotators are as common in these clusters as in the field RG population. Most of these enhanced rotators appear to be red clump stars, which is also true of the underlying stellar sample, while others are clearly RGs that are above or below the clump. In addition to rotational velocities, the radial velocities (RVs) and membership probabilities of individual stars are also presented. Cluster heliocentric RVs for NGC 6005 and Pismis 18 are reported for the first time.

  20. An automated technique for locating metal-deficient red giants from objective-prism spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, C.; Morrison, H.L. )

    1990-10-01

    A semi-automated technique designed to locate metal-weak G and K giants from objective-prism spectra in combination with temperature information from direct plates is described. An accurate wavelength calibration of the spectra made it possible to measure abundance using a line-strength index based on Ca II H and K as a function of color. Criteria based on spectral features between 3500 and 5300 A are described which enable metal-weak giant candidates to be isolated from foreground dwarfs. The technique has been used to locate metal-weak giants in several Galactic fields. 39 refs.

  1. THE ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH AND THE TIP OF THE RED GIANT BRANCH AS PROBES OF STAR FORMATION HISTORY: THE NEARBY DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY KKH 98

    SciTech Connect

    Melbourne, J.; Williams, B.; Dalcanton, J.; Ammons, S. M.; Max, C.; Koo, D. C.; Dolphin, A. E-mail: ben@astro.washington.ed E-mail: ammons@ucolick.or E-mail: koo@ucolick.or E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.co

    2010-03-20

    We investigate the utility of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and the red giant branch (RGB) as probes of the star formation history (SFH) of the nearby (D = 2.5 Mpc) dwarf irregular galaxy, KKH 98. Near-infrared (near-IR) Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (AO) images resolve 592 IR-bright stars reaching over 1 mag below the tip of the RGB. Significantly deeper optical (F475W and F814W) Hubble Space Telescope images of the same field contain over 2500 stars, reaching to the red clump and the main-sequence turnoff for 0.5 Gyr old populations. Compared to the optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD), the near-IR CMD shows significantly tighter AGB sequences, providing a good probe of the intermediate-age (0.5-5 Gyr) populations. We match observed CMDs with stellar evolution models to recover the SFH of KKH 98. On average, the galaxy has experienced relatively constant low-level star formation (5 x 10{sup -4} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) for much of cosmic time. Except for the youngest main-sequence populations (age <0.1 Gyr), which are typically fainter than the AO data flux limit, the SFH estimated from the 592 IR-bright stars is a reasonable match to that derived from the much larger optical data set. Differences between the optical- and IR-derived SFHs for 0.1-1 Gyr populations suggest that current stellar evolution models may be overproducing the AGB by as much as a factor of 3 in this galaxy. At the depth of the AO data, the IR-luminous stars are not crowded. Therefore, these techniques can potentially be used to determine the stellar populations of galaxies at significantly further distances.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances of 4 metal-poor red giants in BooII (Ji+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, A. P.; Frebel, A.; Simon, J. D.; Geha, M.

    2016-04-01

    A total of 16 Boo II member stars were identified with Keck/DEIMOS observations (M. Geha et al. 2015, in preparation). We selected the four brightest members on the red giant branch sample for high-resolution follow-up (see Figure 1). The four target stars were observed with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph on the Clay telescope in the full optical wavelength range from 3500 to 9000Å in March 2010, 2011 and 2014 and in June 2015 (see table 1). (4 data files).

  3. High resolution spectroscopy of Red Giant Branch stars and the chemical evolution of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemasle, B.; de Boer, T. J. L.; Hill, V.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M. J.; Jablonka, P.; Venn, K.; Battaglia, G.; Starkenburg, E.; Shetrone, M.; Letarte, B.; Francois, P.; Helmi, A.; Primas, F.; Kaufer, A.; Szeifert, T.

    2014-12-01

    From VLT-FLAMES high-resolution spectra, we determine the abundances of several α, iron-peak and neutron-capture elements in 47 Red Giant Branch stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We confirm that SNe Ia started to contribute to the chemical enrichment of Fornax at [Fe/H] between --2.0 and --1.8 dex. Combining these abundances with accurate age estimates, we date the onset of SNe Ia to ≈ 12--10 Gyrs ago. Our results are compatible with an initial mass function that lacks the most massive stars and with a star formation going on throughout the whole history of Fornax.

  4. ASTEROSEISMOLOGY OF RED GIANTS FROM THE FIRST FOUR MONTHS OF KEPLER DATA: GLOBAL OSCILLATION PARAMETERS FOR 800 STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, D.; Bedding, T. R.; Stello, D.; White, T. R.; Mosser, B.; Mathur, S.; Kallinger, T.; Hekker, S.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Chaplin, W. J.; Hale, S. J.; Buzasi, D. L.; Preston, H. L.; De Ridder, J.; Gilliland, R. L.; Kjeldsen, H.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; GarcIa, R. A.; Clarke, B. D.

    2010-11-10

    We have studied solar-like oscillations in {approx}800 red giant stars using Kepler long-cadence photometry. The sample includes stars ranging in evolution from the lower part of the red giant branch to the helium main sequence. We investigate the relation between the large frequency separation ({Delta}{nu}) and the frequency of maximum power ({nu}{sub max}) and show that it is different for red giants than for main-sequence stars, which is consistent with evolutionary models and scaling relations. The distributions of {nu}{sub max} and {Delta}{nu} are in qualitative agreement with a simple stellar population model of the Kepler field, including the first evidence for a secondary clump population characterized by M {approx}> 2 M{sub sun} and {nu}{sub max} {approx_equal} 40-110 {mu}Hz. We measured the small frequency separations {delta}{nu}{sub 02} and {delta}{nu}{sub 01} in over 400 stars and {delta}{nu}{sub 03} in over 40. We present C-D diagrams for l = 1, 2, and 3 and show that the frequency separation ratios {delta}{nu}{sub 02}/{Delta}{nu} and {delta}{nu}{sub 01}/{Delta}{nu} have opposite trends as a function of {Delta}{nu}. The data show a narrowing of the l = 1 ridge toward lower {nu}{sub max}, in agreement with models predicting more efficient mode trapping in stars with higher luminosity. We investigate the offset {epsilon} in the asymptotic relation and find a clear correlation with {Delta}{nu}, demonstrating that it is related to fundamental stellar parameters. Finally, we present the first amplitude-{nu}{sub max} relation for Kepler red giants. We observe a lack of low-amplitude stars for {nu}{sub max} {approx}> 110 {mu}Hz and find that, for a given {nu}{sub max} between 40 and 110 {mu}Hz, stars with lower {Delta}{nu} (and consequently higher mass) tend to show lower amplitudes than stars with higher {Delta}{nu}.

  5. Non-thermal emission from standing relativistic shocks: an application to red giant winds interacting with AGN jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Ramon, V.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Galactic and extragalactic relativistic jets are surrounded by rich environments that are full of moving objects, such as stars and dense medium inhomogeneities. These objects can enter into the jets and generate shocks and non-thermal emission. Aims: We characterize the emitting properties of the downstream region of a standing shock formed due to the interaction of a relativistic jet with an obstacle. We focus on the case of red giants interacting with an extragalactic jet. Methods: We perform relativistic axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations of a relativistic jet meeting an obstacle of very large inertia. The results are interpreted in the framework of a red giant whose dense and slow wind interacts with the jet of an active galactic nucleus. Assuming that particles are accelerated in the standing shock generated in the jet as it impacts the red giant wind, we compute the non-thermal particle distribution, the Doppler boosting enhancement, and the non-thermal luminosity in gamma rays. Results: The available non-thermal energy from jet-obstacle interactions is potentially enhanced by a factor of ~100 when accounting for the whole surface of the shock induced by the obstacle, instead of just the obstacle section. The observer gamma-ray luminosity, including the effective obstacle size, the flow velocity and Doppler boosting effects, can be ~300 (γj/10)2 times higher than when the emitting flow is assumed at rest and only the obstacle section is considered, where γj is the jet Lorentz factor. For a whole population of red giants inside the jet of an active galactic nucleus, the predicted persistent gamma-ray luminosities may be potentially detectable for a jet pointing approximately to the observer. Conclusions: Obstacles interacting with relativistic outflows, for instance clouds and populations of stars for extragalactic jets, or stellar wind inhomogeneities in microquasar jets and in winds of pulsars in binaries, should be taken into account when

  6. ABUNDANCES OF C, N, Sr, AND Ba ON THE RED GIANT BRANCH OF {omega} CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, Laura M.; Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, John E. E-mail: gdc@mso.anu.edu.a

    2010-05-10

    Abundances relative to iron for carbon, nitrogen, strontium, and barium are presented for 33 stars on the red giant branch (RGB) of the globular cluster {omega} Centauri. They are based on intermediate-resolution spectroscopic data covering the blue spectral region analyzed using spectrum synthesis techniques. The data reveal the existence of a broad range in the abundances of these elements, and a comparison with similar data for main-sequence stars enables insight into the evolutionary history of the cluster. The majority of the RGB stars were found to be depleted in carbon, i.e., [C/Fe] < 0, while [N/Fe] for the same stars shows a range of {approx}1 dex, from [N/Fe] {approx} 0.7 to 1.7 dex. The strontium-to-iron abundance ratios varied from solar to mildly enhanced (0.0 {<=} [Sr/Fe] {<=} 0.8), with [Ba/Fe] generally equal to or greater than [Sr/Fe]. The carbon and nitrogen abundance ratios for the one known CH star in the sample, ROA 279, are [C/Fe] = 0.6 and [N/Fe] = 0.5 dex. Evidence for evolutionary mixing on the RGB is found from the fact that the relative carbon abundances on the main sequence are generally higher than those on the RGB. However, comparison of the RGB and main-sequence samples shows that the upper level of nitrogen enhancement is similar in both sets at [N/Fe] {approx} 2.0 dex. This is most likely the result of primordial rather than evolutionary mixing processes. One RGB star, ROA 276, was found to have Sr and Ba abundance ratios similar to the anomalous Sr-rich main-sequence star S2015448. High-resolution spectra of ROA 276 were obtained with the Magellan Telescope/MIKE spectrograph combination to confirm this result, revealing that ROA 276 is indeed an unusual star. For this star, calculations of the depletion effect, the potential change in surface abundance that results from the increased depth of the convective envelope as a star moves from the main sequence to the RGB, strongly suggest that the observed Sr enhancement in ROA 276 is of

  7. VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy of red giant branch stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemasle, B.; de Boer, T. J. L.; Hill, V.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M. J.; Jablonka, P.; Venn, K.; Battaglia, G.; Starkenburg, E.; Shetrone, M.; Letarte, B.; François, P.; Helmi, A.; Primas, F.; Kaufer, A.; Szeifert, T.

    2014-12-01

    Context. Fornax is one of the most massive dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. The Fornax field star population is dominated by intermediate age stars but star formation was going on over almost its entire history. It has been proposed that Fornax experienced a minor merger event. Aims: Despite recent progress, only the high metallicity end of Fornax field stars ([Fe/H] > -1.2 dex) has been sampled in larger number via high resolution spectroscopy. We want to better understand the full chemical evolution of this galaxy by better sampling the whole metallicity range, including more metal poor stars. Methods: We use the VLT-FLAMES multi-fibre spectrograph in high-resolution mode to determine the abundances of several α, iron-peak and neutron-capture elements in a sample of 47 individual red giant branch stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We combine these abundances with accurate age estimates derived from the age probability distribution from the colour-magnitude diagram of Fornax. Results: Similar to other dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the old, metal-poor stars of Fornax are typically α-rich while the young metal-rich stars are α-poor. In the classical scenario of the time delay between Type II (SNe II) and Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia), we confirm that SNe Ia started to contribute to the chemical enrichment at [Fe/H] between -2.0 and -1.8 dex. We find that the onset of SNe Ia took place between 12-10 Gyr ago. The high values of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] reflect the influence of SNe Ia and AGB stars in the abundance pattern of the younger stellar population of Fornax. Conclusions: Our findings of low [α/Fe] and enhanced [Eu/Mg] are compatible with an initial mass function that lacks the most massive stars and with star formation that kept going on throughout the whole history of Fornax. We find that massive stars kept enriching the interstellar medium in α-elements, although they were not the main contributor to the iron enrichment. Based on FLAMES

  8. UBV photometry of X-ray system with M2 III type red giant V934 her (4U 1700+24)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goranskij, V. P.; Metlova, N. V.; Barsukova, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    V934 Her is a detached system, consisting of a cool giant and a neutron star. The neutron star accretes matter fromthe stellarwind of the giant.Multicolor photoelectric observationsmade in 1997-2011 revealed a 415-day period, close to that, discovered spectroscopically from radial velocities. This period is considered to be the orbital period of orbital motion of the neutron star around the red giant. The wave with this period in the U-band has the largest amplitude 0m.12. We also detected multiperiodic pulsations of the red giant. The light curve in the V -band is dominated by a pulsation wave with the period of 28.82 days and the amplitude of 0m.10.

  9. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS, INTEGRATED RED GIANT BRANCH MASS LOSS, AND DUST PRODUCTION IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Boyer, M. L.; Gordon, K.; Meixner, M.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Whitney, B.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Hora, J. L.; Robitaille, T.; Babler, B.; Meade, M.; Block, M.; Misselt, K.

    2011-04-01

    Fundamental parameters and time evolution of mass loss are investigated for post-main-sequence stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104). This is accomplished by fitting spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to existing optical and infrared photometry and spectroscopy, to produce a true Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We confirm the cluster's distance as d = 4611{sup +213}{sub -200} pc and age as 12 {+-} 1 Gyr. Horizontal branch models appear to confirm that no more red giant branch mass loss occurs in 47 Tuc than in the more metal-poor {omega} Centauri, though difficulties arise due to inconsistencies between the models. Using our SEDs, we identify those stars that exhibit infrared excess, finding excess only among the brightest giants: dusty mass loss begins at a luminosity of {approx}1000 L{sub sun}, becoming ubiquitous above L = 2000 L{sub sun}. Recent claims of dust production around lower-luminosity giants cannot be reproduced, despite using the same archival Spitzer imagery.

  10. The puzzling MgAl anticorrelation in globular-cluster red giants: primordial plus deep mixing scenario?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denissenkov, P. A.; Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, J. E.; Weiss, A.

    1998-05-01

    Star-to-star abundance variations of C, N, O, Na and Al in globular-cluster red giants have been recently supplemented by the finding that [Mg/Fe] is depleted in stars with extremely large [Al/Fe] (Shetrone 1996a). To find out which of the magnesium isotopes is responsible for the observed depletion of [Mg/Fe] Shetrone (1996b) also undertook an isotopic analysis of Mg and found that it is (24) Mg which is depleted in Al-rich giants. On the other hand, Norris & Da Costa (1995) demonstrated that even in the massive globular cluster omega Cen which has intrinsic spreads in both [Fe/H] and the abundances of the s-process elements, [O/Fe] anticorrelates with [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] as in ``normal'' monometallic clusters. These new spectroscopic results allow us to test current models of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis, as well as those of the formation and chemical enrichment of globular clusters. In an effort to explain self-consistently these observations we have considered two possibilities: (1) a deep mixing scenario which assumes that in red giants some kind of (extra)mixing transports products of nuclear reactions from the hydrogen burning shell (HBS) to the base of the convective envelope; and (2) a combination of primordial and deep mixing scenarios. It is shown that (1) cannot account for the anticorrelation of [Mg/Fe] vs. [Al/Fe] without additional ad hoc assumptions, among which we identify a strong but still undetected low energy resonance in the reaction (24) Mg(p,gamma )(25) Al, and episodical increases of the HBS temperature up to the value T~ 7410(6) K. In (2) intermediate mass AGB stars are assumed to produce the decreased (24) Mg and increased (25) Mg initial abundances in some globular-cluster low mass stars and Al is synthesized at the expense of (25) Mg in the HBS and transported to the surface of the red giant by extramixing. We discuss advantages and deficiencies of both scenarios and propose some observational tests.

  11. Studies of Evolved Star Mass Loss: GRAMS Modeling of Red Supergiant and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Srinivasan, S.; Riebel, D.; Boyer, M.; Meixner, M.

    2012-01-01

    As proposed in our NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program (ADAP) proposal, my colleagues and I are studying mass loss from evolved stars. Such stars lose their own mass in their dying stages, and in their expelled winds they form stardust. To model mass loss from these evolved stars, my colleagues and I have constructed GRAMS: the Grid of Red supergiant and Asymptotic giant branch star ModelS. These GRAMS radiative transfer models are fit to optical through mid-infrared photometry of red supergiant (RSG) stars and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. I will discuss our current studies of mass loss from AGB and RSG stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), fitting GRAMS models to the photometry of SMC evolved star candidates identified from the SAGE-SMC (PI: K. Gordon) Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy survey. This work will be briefly compared to similar work we have done for the LMC. I will also discuss Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) studies of the dust produced by AGB and RSG stars in the LMC. BAS is grateful for support from the NASA-ADAP grant NNX11AB06G.

  12. Peak Bagging of red giant stars observed by Kepler: first results with a new method based on Bayesian nested sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, Enrico; De Ridder, Joris

    2015-09-01

    The peak bagging analysis, namely the fitting and identification of single oscillation modes in stars' power spectra, coupled to the very high-quality light curves of red giant stars observed by Kepler, can play a crucial role for studying stellar oscillations of different flavor with an unprecedented level of detail. A thorough study of stellar oscillations would thus allow for deeper testing of stellar structure models and new insights in stellar evolution theory. However, peak bagging inferences are in general very challenging problems due to the large number of observed oscillation modes, hence of free parameters that can be involved in the fitting models. Efficiency and robustness in performing the analysis is what may be needed to proceed further. For this purpose, we developed a new code implementing the Nested Sampling Monte Carlo (NSMC) algorithm, a powerful statistical method well suited for Bayesian analyses of complex problems. In this talk we show the peak bagging of a sample of high signal-to-noise red giant stars by exploiting recent Kepler datasets and a new criterion for the detection of an oscillation mode based on the computation of the Bayesian evidence. Preliminary results for frequencies and lifetimes for single oscillation modes, together with acoustic glitches, are therefore presented.

  13. Angular momentum redistribution by mixed modes in evolved low-mass stars. II. Spin-down of the core of red giants induced by mixed modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkacem, K.; Marques, J. P.; Goupil, M. J.; Mosser, B.; Sonoi, T.; Ouazzani, R. M.; Dupret, M. A.; Mathis, S.; Grosjean, M.

    2015-07-01

    The detection of mixed modes in subgiants and red giants by the CoRoT and Kepler space-borne missions allows us to investigate the internal structure of evolved low-mass stars, from the end of the main sequence to the central helium-burning phase. In particular, the measurement of the mean core rotation rate as a function of the evolution places stringent constraints on the physical mechanisms responsible for the angular momentum redistribution in stars. It showed that the current stellar evolution codes including the modelling of rotation fail to reproduce the observations. An additional physical process that efficiently extracts angular momentum from the core is thus necessary. Our aim is to assess the ability of mixed modes to do this. To this end, we developed a formalism that provides a modelling of the wave fluxes in both the mean angular momentum and the mean energy equations in a companion paper. In this article, mode amplitudes are modelled based on recent asteroseismic observations, and a quantitative estimate of the angular momentum transfer is obtained. This is performed for a benchmark model of 1.3 M⊙ at three evolutionary stages, representative of the evolved pulsating stars observed by CoRoT and Kepler. We show that mixed modes extract angular momentum from the innermost regions of subgiants and red giants. However, this transport of angular momentum from the core is unlikely to counterbalance the effect of the core contraction in subgiants and early red giants. In contrast, for more evolved red giants, mixed modes are found efficient enough to balance and exceed the effect of the core contraction, in particular in the hydrogen-burning shell. Our results thus indicate that mixed modes are a promising candidate to explain the observed spin-down of the core of evolved red giants, but that an other mechanism is to be invoked for subgiants and early red giants.

  14. The dynamic atmospheres of red giant stars. Spectral synthesis in high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowotny, W.

    2005-11-01

    Light is the only source of information we have to study distant stars. Our knowledge about the state of the matter inside stars has been gathered by analysing star light (photometry, spectroscopy, interferometry, polarimetry, etc.). Of central importance in this context are stellar atmospheres, which are the transition regions from the optically thick stellar interiors where the electromagnetic radiation is generated to the optically thin outer layers from where the photons can leave the star. However, the atmosphere of a star is not only the region where most of the observable radiation is emitted or in other words the layers which are "visible from outside". The atmosphere also leaves an imprint on the stellar spectrum as the radiation passes through, most of the line spectrum is formed there. Thus, the light serves as a probe for the physical processes within stellar atmospheres, especially spectroscopy is one of the major tools in stellar astrophysics. Applying the underlying physical principles in numerical simulations (model atmospheres, synthetic spectra) is the second -- complementary and necessary -- step towards a deeper understanding of stellar atmospheres and for deriving stellar parameters (e.g. T_eff, L, log g, chemical composition) of observed objects. This thesis is dedicated to the outer layers of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, which have rather remarkable properties compared to atmospheres of most other types of stars. AGB stars represent low- to intermediate mass stars at a late stage of their evolution. Forming a sub-group among all red giants, they exhibit large extensions, low effective temperatures and high luminosities. The evolutionary phase of the AGB -- complex but decisive for stellar evolution -- is characterised by several important phenomena as for example nucleo-synthesis in explosively burning shells (thermal pulses), convective processes (dredge up), large-amplitude pulsations with long periods or a pronounced mass loss. Red

  15. DISCOVERY OF A RED GIANT WITH SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS IN AN ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEM FROM KEPLER SPACE-BASED PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Hekker, S.; Debosscher, J.; De Ridder, J.; Aerts, C.; Van Winckel, H.; Beck, P. G.; Blomme, J.; Huber, D.; Hidas, M. G.; Stello, D.; Bedding, T. R.; Gilliland, R. L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Brown, T. M.; Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D.; Jenkins, J. M.; Pigulski, A.

    2010-04-20

    Oscillating stars in binary systems are among the most interesting stellar laboratories, as these can provide information on the stellar parameters and stellar internal structures. Here we present a red giant with solar-like oscillations in an eclipsing binary observed with the NASA Kepler satellite. We compute stellar parameters of the red giant from spectra and the asteroseismic mass and radius from the oscillations. Although only one eclipse has been observed so far, we can already determine that the secondary is a main-sequence F star in an eccentric orbit with a semi-major axis larger than 0.5 AU and orbital period longer than 75 days.

  16. Low-temperature crystallization of silicate dust in circumstellar disks.

    PubMed

    Molster, F J; Yamamura, I; Waters, L B; Tielens, A G; de Graauw, T; de Jong, T; de Koter, A; Malfait, K; van den Ancker, M E; van Winckel, H; Voors, R H; Waelkens, C

    1999-10-01

    Silicate dust in the interstellar medium is observed to be amorphous, yet silicate dust in comets and interplanetary dust particles is sometimes partially crystalline. The dust in disks that are thought to be forming planets around some young stars also appears to be partially crystalline. These observations suggest that as the dust goes from the precursor clouds to a planetary system, it must undergo some processing, but the nature and extent of this processing remain unknown. Here we report observations of highly crystalline silicate dust in the disks surrounding binary red-giant stars. The dust was created in amorphous form in the outer atmospheres of the red giants, and therefore must be processed in the disks to become crystalline. The temperatures in these disks are too low for the grains to anneal; therefore, some low-temperature process must be responsible. As the physical properties of the disks around young stars and red giants are similar, our results suggest that low-temperature crystallization of silicate grains also can occur in protoplanetary systems.

  17. Infrared excess around nearby red giant branch stars and Reimers law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewegen, M. A. T.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Mass loss is one of the fundamental properties of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, but for stars with initial masses below ~1 M⊙, the mass loss on the first red giant branch (RGB) actually dominates mass loss on the AGB. Nevertheless, mass loss on the RGB is still often parameterised by a simple Reimers law in stellar evolution models. Aims: We study the infrared excess and mass loss of a sample of nearby RGB stars with reliably measured Hipparcos parallaxes and compare the mass loss to that derived for luminous stars in clusters. Methods: The spectral energy distributions of a well-defined sample of 54 RGB stars are constructed, and fitted with the dust radiative transfer model DUSTY. The central stars are modelled by MARCS model atmospheres. In a first step, the best-fit MARCS model is derived, basically determining the effective temperature. In a second step, models with a finite dust optical depth are fitted and it is determined whether the reduction in χ2 in such models with one additional free parameter is statistically significant. Results: Among the 54 stars, 23 stars are found to have a significant infrared excess, which is interpreted as mass loss. The most luminous star with L = 1860 L⊙ is found to undergo mass loss, while none of the 5 stars with L < 262 L⊙ display evidence of mass loss. In the range 265 < L < 1500 L⊙, 22 stars out of 48 experience mass loss, which supports the notion of episodic mass loss. It is the first time that excess emission is found in stars fainter than ~600 L⊙. The dust optical depths are translated into mass-loss rates assuming a typical expansion velocity of 10 km s-1 and a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.005. In this case, fits to the stars with an excess result in log Ṁ (M⊙ yr-1) = (1.4 ± 0.4)log L + (-13.2 ± 1.2) and log Ṁ (M⊙ yr-1) = (0.9 ± 0.3)log (LR/M) + (-13.4 ± 1.3) assuming a mass of 1.1 M⊙ for all objects. We caution that if the expansion velocity and dust-to-gas ratio have different

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CaII spectroscopy of SMC red giants. IV. (Parisi+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Geisler, D.; Carraro, G.; Claria, J. J.; Villanova, S.; Gramajo, L. V.; Sarajedini, A.; Grocholski, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous work wherein we determined and analyzed the metallicity of 29 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters (Parisi et al. 2009, Cat. J/AJ/138/517; Parisi et al. 2015, Cat. J/AJ/149/154) and that of a sample of ~350 red giant field stars (Parisi et al. 2010, Cat. J/AJ/139/1168) surrounding the 15 SMC star clusters studied in Parisi et al. 2009 (Cat. J/AJ/138/517). Here we add the ~400 red giants in 15 fields that surround the 14 star clusters studied in Parisi et al. 2015 (Cat. J/AJ/149/154) (in Parisi et al. 2015, Cat. J/AJ/149/154, we discard the cluster B113, but we can still use the surrounding field stars). We repeat here the identical procedures followed in Parisi et al. 2010 (Cat. J/AJ/139/1168). We refer the reader to Parisi et al. 2015 (Cat. J/AJ/149/154) for details regarding the selection of the cluster sample, the spectroscopic targets, and the observations. The list of the star clusters studied in Parisi et al. 2015 (Cat. J/AJ/149/154) can be seen in Table1 of that paper. Each cluster was centered on the master chip, while surrounding field stars were observed in both the master and secondary CCD. Pre-images in the V and I bands and the spectra of selected stars were obtained as part of programs 0.82B-0505 and 384.B-0687. The selection of spectroscopic targets was made on the corresponding (V, V-I) CMD by choosing stars located along the red giant branch. The spectroscopic observations were performed in service mode with the instrument FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in mask exchange unit mode (MXU), with the same instrumental setup as in Grocholski et al. 2006 (Cat. J/AJ/132/1630) and Parisi et al. 2009 (Cat. J/AJ/138/517). A very few stars have signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)~15pixel-1, but the remaining targets have S/N between ~20 and ~80pixel-1. Information about exposure times, size of the slits, seeing, and characteristics of the obtained spectra can be found in Section 3 of Parisi et al. 2015 (Cat. J

  19. A comparison of the primary structures of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes M4 from giant panda, red panda, black bear and dog.

    PubMed

    Liang, S P; Zhang, L X

    1987-03-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase isozymes M4 have been isolated and purified from red panda (Ailurus fulgens), black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) and dog (Canis familiars) by affinity chromatography and compared with that from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Experimental results have shown that the N-termini, C-termini and the molecular weights of LDH-M subunits of red panda, black bear and dog are the same as those of the LDH-M subunit of giant panda. Analysis and comparison of HPLC peptide maps from the tryptic digests of the isozymes of red panda, black bear and dog have shown that most of their peptide fragments had the same retention time and amino acid composition as the corresponding peptide fragments from giant panda. Fragments with different retention times and/or amino acid compositions were sequenced. Careful examination of those variant amino acid residues demonstrated clearly that the primary structure of giant panda LDH-M subunit is unique and it appears that the giant panda might be classified as an independent family.

  20. High-resolution spectroscopic of red giants stars in NGC 2360

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales Silva, J. V.; Pereira, C. B.

    2014-10-01

    Open clusters are excellent laboratories to test our knowledge of the formation and evolution of the two components of the disk (thick and thin disk), and stellar structure and evolution, since the stars present the same age and distance reducing the uncertainties associated with field stars of the Galaxy. NGC 2360 is an open cluster with 0.85 Gyr, with galactocentric distance equal to 9.28 Kpc and height equal to -30 pc. We determine to 15 stars in the NGC 2360 using high resolution spectroscopy the atmospheric parameters and the chemical composition for Fe, Ni, Cr, Ca, Mg, Si, Ti, Na, Al, Ba, Y, Zr, La, Ce and Nd with measures of equivalent widths of absorption lines, and spectral synthesis for C, O and N. The spectra of 14 stars were obtained with FEROS at the 2.2m ESO telescopes at La Silla (Chile). Only one star was observed with UVES/VLT at Paranal Observatory. Atmospheric parameters and abundances were determined using the LTE atmosphere models of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. The abundance of alpha and iron-peak elements of NGC 2360 are typical disk abundances. We also observed a slight overabundance of the elements generated by the s-process in NGC 2360 with respect to field stars of the disk. The overabundance of the elements generated by the s-process occurs in young open clusters and may be linked to high-efficiency of these nucleosynthesis in low-mass stars (<1.5M_{odot}). However, this high-efficiency has not been explained by the stellar evolutionary models. Additional observations and high resolution spectroscopic analysis of intermediate-age open clusters (like NGC 2360) are necessary to confirm the slight overabundances of s-process elements with relation to field stars of the disk and old open clusters.

  1. Mode-locked red-emitting semiconductor disk laser with sub-250 fs pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bek, R. Kahle, H.; Schwarzbäck, T.; Jetter, M.; Michler, P.

    2013-12-09

    We report on passive mode locking of a semiconductor disk laser emitting pulses shorter than 250 fs at 664 nm with a repetition frequency of 836 MHz. A fast saturable absorber mirror fabricated by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy in a near-resonant design was used to enable the mode locking operation. It includes two GaInP quantum wells located close to the surface and an additional fused silica coating. The emission spectrum shows the superposition of a soliton-like part and a smaller “continuum” part.

  2. Membership of Cepheids and red giants in 8 open clusters - NGC 129, 6067, 6087, 6649, 6664, IC 4725, LY 6, RU 79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermilliod, J. C.; Mayor, M.; Burki, G.

    1987-09-01

    The membership of eight cluster Cepheids,DL Cas,EV Sct, V367 Sct, S Nor, TW Nor,V340 Nor, U Sgr and CS Vel, has been examined by comparing their systemic radial velocity with that observed for the red giants in the same clusters. The membership is very probable in seven cases, the only-exception being CS Vel. Additional observations of main sequence stars are necessary to confirm some of the conclusions. One spectroscopic binary was discovered among the Cepheids (DL Cas) and at least four were among the red giants. Orbits have been determined for two red giants, one in NGC 129 and one in IC 4725. The position within the instability strip of the nonvariable F5Ib star in NGC 129 is due to its probable composite (gK + dB) character. The ratio of the number of Cepheids to the number of red giants is less than 1, in good agreement with the prediction of evolutionary models with core overshooting. This study is based on 382 observations of 45 stars, obtained with the radial velocity scanner CORAVEL.

  3. A DISK AROUND THE PLANETARY-MASS COMPANION GSC 06214-00210 b: CLUES ABOUT THE FORMATION OF GAS GIANTS ON WIDE ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Kraus, Adam L.; Mann, Andrew W.; Ireland, Michael J.

    2011-12-20

    We present Keck OSIRIS 1.1-1.8 {mu}m adaptive optics integral field spectroscopy of the planetary-mass companion to GSC 06214-00210, a member of the {approx}5 Myr Upper Scorpius OB association. We infer a spectral type of L0 {+-} 1, and our spectrum exhibits multiple signs of youth. The most notable feature is exceptionally strong Pa{beta} emission (EW = -11.4 {+-} 0.3 A), which signals the presence of a circumplanetary accretion disk. The luminosity of GSC 06214-00210 b combined with its age yields a model-dependent mass of 14 {+-} 2 M{sub Jup}, making it the lowest-mass companion to show evidence of a disk. With a projected separation of 320 AU, the formation of GSC 06214-00210 b and other very low mass companions on similarly wide orbits is unclear. One proposed mechanism is formation at close separations followed by planet-planet scattering to much larger orbits. Since that scenario involves a close encounter with another massive body, which is probably destructive to circumplanetary disks, it is unlikely that GSC 06214-00210 b underwent a scattering event in the past. This implies that planet-planet scattering is not solely responsible for the population of gas giants on wide orbits. More generally, the identification of disks around young planetary companions on wide orbits offers a novel method to constrain the formation pathway of these objects, which is otherwise notoriously difficult to do for individual systems. We also refine the spectral type of the primary from M1 to K7 and detect a mild (2{sigma}) excess at 22 {mu}m using Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry.

  4. STAR-TO-STAR IRON ABUNDANCE VARIATIONS IN RED GIANT BRANCH STARS IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 3201

    SciTech Connect

    Simmerer, Jennifer; Ivans, Inese I.; Filler, Dan; Francois, Patrick; Charbonnel, Corinne; Monier, Richard; James, Gaeel E-mail: iii@physics.utah.edu E-mail: patrick.francois@obspm.fr E-mail: richard.monier@unice.fr

    2013-02-10

    We present the metallicity as traced by the abundance of iron in the retrograde globular cluster NGC 3201, measured from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 red giant branch stars. A spectroscopic analysis reveals a spread in [Fe/H] in the cluster stars at least as large as 0.4 dex. Star-to-star metallicity variations are supported both through photometry and through a detailed examination of spectra. We find no correlation between iron abundance and distance from the cluster core, as might be inferred from recent photometric studies. NGC 3201 is the lowest mass halo cluster to date to contain stars with significantly different [Fe/H] values.

  5. Amplitudes of solar-like oscillations in red giant stars. Evidence for non-adiabatic effects using CoRoT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.; Dupret, M.-A.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Baudin, F.; Caffau, E.; Goupil, M.-J.; Barban, C.

    2012-07-01

    Context. A growing number of solar-like oscillations has been detected in red giant stars thanks to the CoRoT and Kepler space-crafts. In the same way as for main-sequence stars, mode driving is attributed to turbulent convection in the uppermost convective layers of those stars. Aims: The seismic data gathered by CoRoT on red giant stars allow us to test the mode driving theory in physical conditions different from main-sequence stars. Methods: Using a set of 3D hydrodynamical models representative of the upper layers of sub- and red giant stars, we computed the acoustic mode energy supply rate ({p_max}). Assuming adiabatic pulsations and using global stellar models that assume that the surface stratification comes from the 3D hydrodynamical models, we computed the mode amplitude in terms of surface velocity. This was converted into intensity fluctuations using either a simplified adiabatic scaling relation or a non-adiabatic one. Results: From L and M (the luminosity and mass), the energy supply rate {p_max} is found to scale as (L/M)2.6 for both main-sequence and red giant stars, extending previous results. The theoretical amplitudes in velocity under-estimate the Doppler velocity measurements obtained so far from the ground for red giant stars by about 30%. In terms of intensity, the theoretical scaling law based on the adiabatic intensity-velocity scaling relation results in an under-estimation by a factor of about 2.5 with respect to the CoRoT seismic measurements. On the other hand, using the non-adiabatic intensity-velocity relation significantly reduces the discrepancy with the CoRoT data. The theoretical amplitudes remain 40% below, however, the CoRoT measurements. Conclusions: Our results show that scaling relations of mode amplitudes cannot be simply extended from main-sequence to red giant stars in terms of intensity on the basis of adiabatic relations because non-adiabatic effects for red giant stars are important and cannot be neglected. We discuss

  6. THREE DISCRETE GROUPS WITH HOMOGENEOUS CHEMISTRY ALONG THE RED GIANT BRANCH IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 2808

    SciTech Connect

    Carretta, E.

    2014-11-10

    We present the homogeneous reanalysis of Mg and Al abundances from high resolution UVES/FLAMES spectra for 31 red giants in the globular cluster NGC 2808. We found a well defined Mg-Al anticorrelation reaching a regime of subsolar Mg abundance ratios, with a spread of about 1.4 dex in [Al/Fe]. The main result from the improved statistics of our sample is that the distribution of stars is not continuous along the anticorrelation because they are neatly clustered into three distinct clumps, each with different chemical compositions. One group (P) shows a primordial composition of field stars of similar metallicity, and the other two (I and E) have increasing abundances of Al and decreasing abundances of Mg. The fraction of stars we found in the three components (P: 68%, I: 19%, E: 13%) is in excellent agreement with the ratios computed for the three distinct main sequences in NGC 2808: for the first time there is a clear correspondence between discrete photometric sequences of dwarfs and distinct groups of giants with homogeneous chemistry. The composition of the I group cannot be reproduced by mixing of matter with extreme processing in hot H-burning and gas with pristine, unprocessed composition, as also found in the recent analysis of three discrete groups in NGC 6752. This finding suggests that different classes of polluters were probably at work in NGC 2808 as well.

  7. THE DISTANCE TO M101 HOSTING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2011fe BASED ON THE TIP OF THE RED GIANT BRANCH

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung E-mail: isjang@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2012-11-20

    We present a new determination of the distance to M101, host of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2011fe, based on the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. Our determination is based on Hubble Space Telescope archival F555W and F814W images of nine fields within the galaxy. Color-magnitude diagrams of arm-free regions in all fields show a prominent red giant branch. We measure the I-band magnitudes of the TRGB, obtaining a mean value of I{sub TRGB} = 25.28 {+-} 0.01 (where the error is a standard error), using an edge-detection method. We derive a weighted mean value of distance modulus (m - M){sub 0} = 29.30 {+-} 0.01(random) {+-} 0.12(systematic), corresponding to a linear distance of 7.24 {+-} 0.03 {+-} 0.40 Mpc. While previous estimates for M101 show a large range (TRGB distances of (m - M){sub 0} = 29.05-29.42 and Cepheid distances of (m - M){sub 0} = 29.04-29.71), our measurements of the TRGB distances for nine fields show a small dispersion of only 0.02. We combine our distance estimate and photometry in the literature to derive absolute peak magnitudes in optical and near-infrared bands of SN 2011fe. Absolute maximum magnitudes of SN 2011fe are {approx}0.2 mag brighter in the optical band and much more in the NIR than the current calibrations of SNe Ia in the literature. From the optical maximum magnitudes of SN 2011fe we obtain a value of the Hubble constant, H{sub 0} = 65.0 {+-} 0.5(random) {+-} 5.7(systematic) km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}, slightly smaller than other recent determinations of H{sub 0}.

  8. Double-core evolution. 5: Three-dimensional effects in the merger of a red giant with a dwarf companion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terman, James L.; Taam, Ronald E.; Hernquist, Lars

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the common envelope phase of a binary system consisting of a 4.67 solar mass red giant and a 0.94 solar mass dwarf is studied using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. We demonstrate that the three-dimensional effects associated with the gravitational tidal torques lead to a rapid decay of the orbit on timescales approximately less than 1 yr. The relative orbit of the two cores in the common envelope is initally eccentric and tends to circularize as the orbital separation of the two cores decreases. The angular momentum lost from the orbital motion is distributed throughout the common envelope, and the double core does not evolve to a state of co-rotation for the evolutionary time followed. The energy dissipated from the relative orbit and deposited in the common envelope results in the ejection of approximately 13% of the mass of the envelope. The mass is ejected in all directions, but there is a preference for mass ejection in the orbital plane of the binary system. For example, approximately 80% of the ejected mass lies within 30 deg of the binary orbital plane. Because gravitational forces are long range, most of the energy and angular momentum is imparted to a small fraction of the common envelope resulting in an efficiency of the mass ejection process of approximately 15%. The core of the red giant executes significant displacement with respect to the center of mass of the system and contributes nearly equally to the total energy dissipation rate during the latter phases of the evolution. The degree of departure from synchronism of the initial binary system can be an important property of the system which can affect the outcome of the common envelope phase.

  9. News and Views: Low-mass stars pull weight in globular clusters; Red dwarf planets are common, too; More planets than stars in the Milky Way? After Bullet comes Musket Ball; Planets survive red giant phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-02-01

    Gravitational microlensing techniques have uncovered the first low-mass star found in a globular cluster, suggesting that previously undetectable stars may contribute to cluster masses, meaning that there is less dark matter to find. Data from NASA's Kepler mission suggest that small rocky planets may be common orbiting red dwarf stars - and because red dwarfs are common types of star, this means that rocky planets may be commonplace in the Milky Way. A survey using gravitational microlensing suggest that exoplanets are the exception rather than the rule in the Milky Way - and that small planets like Earth are more common than gas and ice giants. The Bullet Cluster famously allows mapping of the dark matter distribution during the merger of two clusters. Now a merging cluster named the Musket Ball shows a later stage in the process. Planets are not necessarily vaporized when a red giant star expands; the cores of gas giants may survive, but they would not be pleasant places to live. Data from NASA's Kepler mission has revealed two small planets orbiting a star after its red giant phase.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CaII triplet in red giant spectra (Da Costa, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, G. S.

    2016-07-01

    The data for this study consist of observations of Galactic globular and open clusters, which are used to provide a calibration between CaII triplet line strength and abundance [Fe/H], and observations of a sample of red giants in the disc of the LMC originally studied at high dispersion by Pompeia et al. (2008, Cat. J/A+A/480/379), and for which an updated analysis is available in Van der Swaelmen et al. (2013, Cat. J/A+A/560/A44). All observations were carried out at the Anglo-Australian Telescope using the 2dF multi-object fibre positioner and the AAOmega dual beam spectrograph1. The red arm of the spectrograph was configured with the 1700D grating centred at ~8600Å to give coverage of the CaII triplet lines with a resolution R of approximately 10000. The corresponding blue spectra are not used in this work. (2 data files).

  11. Unexpectedly large mass loss during the thermal pulse cycle of the red giant star R Sculptoris.

    PubMed

    Maercker, M; Mohamed, S; Vlemmings, W H T; Ramstedt, S; Groenewegen, M A T; Humphreys, E; Kerschbaum, F; Lindqvist, M; Olofsson, H; Paladini, C; Wittkowski, M; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Nyman, L-A

    2012-10-11

    The asymptotic-giant-branch star R Sculptoris is surrounded by a detached shell of dust and gas. The shell originates from a thermal pulse during which the star underwent a brief period of increased mass loss. It has hitherto been impossible to constrain observationally the timescales and mass-loss properties during and after a thermal pulse--parameters that determine the lifetime of the asymptotic giant branch and the amount of elements returned by the star. Here we report observations of CO emission from the circumstellar envelope and shell around R Sculptoris with an angular resolution of 1.3″. What was previously thought to be only a thin, spherical shell with a clumpy structure is revealed to also contain a spiral structure. Spiral structures associated with circumstellar envelopes have been previously seen, leading to the conclusion that the systems must be binaries. Combining the observational data with hydrodynamic simulations, we conclude that R Sculptoris is a binary system that underwent a thermal pulse about 1,800 years ago, lasting approximately 200 years. About 3 × 10(-3) solar masses of material were ejected at a velocity of 14.3 km s(-1) and at a rate around 30 times higher than the pre-pulse mass-loss rate. This shows that about three times more mass was returned to the interstellar medium during and immediately after the pulse than previously thought.

  12. Unexpectedly large mass loss during the thermal pulse cycle of the red giant star R Sculptoris.

    PubMed

    Maercker, M; Mohamed, S; Vlemmings, W H T; Ramstedt, S; Groenewegen, M A T; Humphreys, E; Kerschbaum, F; Lindqvist, M; Olofsson, H; Paladini, C; Wittkowski, M; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Nyman, L-A

    2012-10-11

    The asymptotic-giant-branch star R Sculptoris is surrounded by a detached shell of dust and gas. The shell originates from a thermal pulse during which the star underwent a brief period of increased mass loss. It has hitherto been impossible to constrain observationally the timescales and mass-loss properties during and after a thermal pulse--parameters that determine the lifetime of the asymptotic giant branch and the amount of elements returned by the star. Here we report observations of CO emission from the circumstellar envelope and shell around R Sculptoris with an angular resolution of 1.3″. What was previously thought to be only a thin, spherical shell with a clumpy structure is revealed to also contain a spiral structure. Spiral structures associated with circumstellar envelopes have been previously seen, leading to the conclusion that the systems must be binaries. Combining the observational data with hydrodynamic simulations, we conclude that R Sculptoris is a binary system that underwent a thermal pulse about 1,800 years ago, lasting approximately 200 years. About 3 × 10(-3) solar masses of material were ejected at a velocity of 14.3 km s(-1) and at a rate around 30 times higher than the pre-pulse mass-loss rate. This shows that about three times more mass was returned to the interstellar medium during and immediately after the pulse than previously thought. PMID:23060194

  13. Mass-loss on the red giant branch: the value and metallicity dependence of Reimers' η in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    The impact of metallicity on the mass-loss rate from red giant branch (RGB) stars is studied through its effect on the parameters of horizontal branch (HB) stars. The scaling factors from Reimers and Schröder and Cuntz are used to measure the efficiency of RGB mass-loss for typical stars in 56 well-studied Galactic globular clusters (GCs). The median values among clusters are, respectively, η _R = 0.477 ± 0.070 ^{+0.050}_{-0.062} and η _SC = 0.172 ± 0.024 ^{+0.018}_{-0.023} (standard deviation and systematic uncertainties, respectively). Over a factor of 200 in iron abundance, η varies by ≲30 per cent, thus mass-loss mechanisms on the RGB have very little metallicity dependence. Any remaining dependence is within the current systematic uncertainties on cluster ages and evolution models. The low standard deviation of η among clusters (≈14 per cent) contrasts with the variety of HB morphologies. Since η incorporates cluster age, this suggests that age accounts for the majority of the `second parameter problem', and that a Reimers-like law provides a good mass-loss model. The remaining spread in η correlates with cluster mass and density, suggesting helium enrichment provides the third parameter explaining HB morphology of GCs. We close by discussing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) mass-loss, finding that the AGB tip luminosity is better reproduced and η has less metallicity dependence if GCs are more co-eval than generally thought.

  14. Interferometric Mapping of SIO J=2-1 V=0 Emission from the Mass-Loss Envelopes of Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, R.; Bieging, J.; Wilner, D.

    Radiation-pressure on grains is widely held responsible for accelerating the mass-outflows in red giants to their terminal velocity - however, the question of how and where circumstellar dust condenses still remains unanswered. In oxygen-rich envelopes, refractory elements like Si are the probable constituents of grains, thus observations leading to a determination of the radial abudnance of Si-bearing molecules, such as SiO, can provide a unique probe of dust-related physical processes. Though the depletion of Si can occur through the condensation of substantial amounts of solid silicates close to the star, indicated by the rpesence of a broad 9 micron spectral feature, the strong SiO masers observed in these sources require a substantial fraction of the Si coming off the star to be in SiO- an alternate hypothesis suggests that SiO is depleted by adhesion onto cold grains at large circumstellar radii (approx. 1016 cm). In order to investigate th depletion of SiO in circumstellar envelopes, we have used the Hatcreek millimeter interferometer (B-array) to map the SiO J=2-1 (v=0) 86 GHz line emission from 3 nearby red giants IK Tau, RX Boo, and Chi Cyg, with spatial resolution approx. 7". The emission is largely circulalry symmetric, and marginally resolved (Fig. 1a, 2a). The deconvolved source-sizes are roughly less than or equal to 4.5" (approx. 1016 cm). The on-source spectra show rounded profiles, indicating optically-thick emission (Figs. 1b, 2b) with line-center intensities up to approx. 20K. The small spatial extent of the emission, high brightness temperature and large optical depth, imply that [SiO]/[H2] starts decreasing significantly at radii approaching 1016 cm - favouring the depletion of SiO by adhesion onto grains at this radius. Modelling of IRAM 30m (27" HPBW) SiO J=2-1 (v=0) data for several red giants (including our objects), also shows that [SiO]/[H2] is higher in the inner regions of the envelopes. Out future A-array mapping (resolution 2") will

  15. ON THE ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF A GIANT PLANET PAIR EMBEDDED IN A GASEOUS DISK. II. A SATURN-JUPITER CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Hui; Zhou Jilin

    2010-08-10

    We carry out a series of high-resolution (1024 x 1024) hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the orbital evolution of a Saturn-Jupiter pair embedded in a gaseous disk. This work extends the results of our previous work by exploring a different orbital configuration-Jupiter lies outside Saturn (q < 1, where q {identical_to} M{sub i} /M{sub o} is the mass ratio of the inner planet and the outer one). We focus on the effects of different initial separations (d) between the two planets and the various surface density profiles of the disk, where {sigma} {proportional_to} r {sup -}{alpha}. We also compare the results of different orbital configurations of the planet pair. Our results show that (1) when the initial separation is relatively large (d>d {sub iLr}, where d {sub iLr} is the distance between Jupiter and its first inner Lindblad resonance), the two planets undergo divergent migration. However, the inward migration of Saturn could be halted when Jupiter compresses the inner disk in which Saturn is embedded. (2) Convergent migration occurs when the initial separation is smaller (d < d {sub iLr}) and the density slope of the disk is nearly flat ({alpha} < 1/2). Saturn is then forced by Jupiter to migrate inward where the two planets are trapped into mean motion resonances (MMRs), and Saturn may get very close to the central star. (3) In the case of q < 1, the eccentricity of Saturn could be excited to a very high value (e{sub S} {approx} 0.4-0.5) by the MMRs and the system could maintain stability. These results explain the formation of MMRs in the exoplanet systems where the outer planet is more massive than the inner one. It also helps us to understand the origin of the 'hot Jupiter/Saturn' with a highly eccentric orbit.

  16. A novel multi-scale analysis to determine red giant branch metallicities of Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Christopher Thomas

    , (U--R)0 color-magnitude diagram plane as a way to roughly calculate metallicities of red giant branches in old, metal poor, complex stellar populations. For MI = 0, -1, and -2, I produce histograms in a discrete multi-scale method to uncover blended sub-populations within the red giant branches. I use the massive globular cluster, o Centauri, as a test population to show the soundness of the method. Then the method is used to uncover a second possible sub-population in both the Draco and Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxies for the first time.

  17. A BAYESIAN APPROACH TO LOCATING THE RED GIANT BRANCH TIP MAGNITUDE. II. DISTANCES TO THE SATELLITES OF M31

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, A. R.; Parker, Q. A.; Zucker, D. B.; Ibata, R. A.; Martin, N. F.; Lewis, G. F.; McConnachie, A. W.; Irwin, M. J.; Chapman, S. C.; Tanvir, N.; Fardal, M. A.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Valls-Gabaud, D.

    2012-10-10

    In 'A Bayesian Approach to Locating the Red Giant Branch Tip Magnitude (Part I)', a new technique was introduced for obtaining distances using the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) standard candle. Here we describe a useful complement to the technique with the potential to further reduce the uncertainty in our distance measurements by incorporating a matched-filter weighting scheme into the model likelihood calculations. In this scheme, stars are weighted according to their probability of being true object members. We then re-test our modified algorithm using random-realization artificial data to verify the validity of the generated posterior probability distributions (PPDs) and proceed to apply the algorithm to the satellite system of M31, culminating in a three-dimensional view of the system. Further to the distributions thus obtained, we apply a satellite-specific prior on the satellite distances to weight the resulting distance posterior distributions, based on the halo density profile. Thus in a single publication, using a single method, a comprehensive coverage of the distances to the companion galaxies of M31 is presented, encompassing the dwarf spheroidals Andromedas I-III, V, IX-XXVII, and XXX along with NGC 147, NGC 185, M33, and M31 itself. Of these, the distances to Andromedas XXIV-XXVII and Andromeda XXX have never before been derived using the TRGB. Object distances are determined from high-resolution tip magnitude posterior distributions generated using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique and associated sampling of these distributions to take into account uncertainties in foreground extinction and the absolute magnitude of the TRGB as well as photometric errors. The distance PPDs obtained for each object both with and without the aforementioned prior are made available to the reader in tabular form. The large object coverage takes advantage of the unprecedented size and photometric depth of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey. Finally, a

  18. A white dwarf companion to the main-sequence star 4 Omicron(1) Orionis and the binary hypothesis for the origin of peculiar red giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ake, Thomas B.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1988-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of the peculiar red giants (PRGs) called MS stars are investigated, and the discovery of a white dwarf (WD) companion to the MS star 4 Omicron(1) Orionis is reported. The observations and data analysis are discussed and compared with those for field WDs in order to derive parameters for the WD and the luminosity of the primary. Detection limits for the other MS stars investigated are derived, and the binary hypothesis for PRGs is reviewed.

  19. Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopic Studies of Oxygen-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Star and Red Supergiant Star Dust Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Srinivasan, Sundar; Speck, Angela; Volk, Kevin; Kemper, Ciska; Reach, William T.; Lagadec, Eric; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; McDonald, Iain; Meixner, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the dust emission features seen in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of Oxygen-rich (O-rich) asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars. The spectra come from the Spitzer Legacy program SAGE-Spectroscopy (PI: F. Kemper) and other archival Spitzer-IRS programs. The broad 10 and 20 micron emission features attributed to amorphous dust of silicate composition seen in the spectra show evidence for systematic differences in the centroid of both emission features between O-rich AGB and RSG populations. Radiative transfer modeling using the GRAMS grid of models of AGB and RSG stars suggests that the centroid differences are due to differences in dust properties. We present an update of our investigation of differences in dust composition, size, shape, etc that might be responsible for these spectral differences. We explore how these differences may arise from the different circumstellar environments around RSG and O-rich AGB stars. BAS acknowledges funding from NASA ADAP grant NNX13AD54G.

  20. Comparative Studies of the Dust around Red Supergiant and Oxygen-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin; Srinivasan, Sundar; Speck, Angela K.; Volk, Kevin; Kemper, Ciska; Reach, William; Lagadec, Eric; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; McDonald, Iain; Meixner, Margaret; Sloan, Greg; Jones, Olivia

    2015-08-01

    We analyze the dust emission features seen in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of red supergiant (RSG) and oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud and Small Magellanic Cloud galaxies and in various Milky Way globular clusters. The spectra come from the Spitzer Legacy program SAGE-Spectroscopy (PI: F. Kemper), the Spitzer program SMC-Spec (PI: G. Sloan), and other archival Spitzer-IRS programs. The broad 10 and 20 μm emission features attributed to amorphous dust of silicate composition seen in the spectra show evidence for systematic differences in the centroid of both emission features between O-rich AGB and RSG populations. Radiative transfer modeling using the GRAMS grid of models of AGB and RSG stars suggests that the centroid differences are due to differences in dust properties. We investigate differences in dust composition, size, shape, etc that might be responsible for these spectral differences. We explore how these differences may arise from the different circumstellar environments around RSG and O-rich AGB stars and assess effects of varying metallicity (LMC versus SMC versus Milky Way globular cluster) and other properties (mass-loss rate, luminosity, etc.) on the dust originating from these stars. BAS acknowledges funding from NASA ADAP grant NNX13AD54G.

  1. SIMULATING THE COMMON ENVELOPE PHASE OF A RED GIANT USING SMOOTHED-PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS AND UNIFORM-GRID CODES

    SciTech Connect

    Passy, Jean-Claude; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; De Marco, Orsola; Fryer, Chris L.; Diehl, Steven; Rockefeller, Gabriel; Herwig, Falk; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Bryan, Greg L.

    2012-01-01

    We use three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations to study the rapid infall phase of the common envelope (CE) interaction of a red giant branch star of mass equal to 0.88 M{sub Sun} and a companion star of mass ranging from 0.9 down to 0.1 M{sub Sun }. We first compare the results obtained using two different numerical techniques with different resolutions, and find very good agreement overall. We then compare the outcomes of those simulations with observed systems thought to have gone through a CE. The simulations fail to reproduce those systems in the sense that most of the envelope of the donor remains bound at the end of the simulations and the final orbital separations between the donor's remnant and the companion, ranging from 26.8 down to 5.9 R{sub Sun }, are larger than the ones observed. We suggest that this discrepancy vouches for recombination playing an essential role in the ejection of the envelope and/or significant shrinkage of the orbit happening in the subsequent phase.

  2. Three-dimensional computer simulations of feeding behaviour in red and giant pandas relate skull biomechanics with dietary niche partitioning.

    PubMed

    Figueirido, Borja; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Serrano-Alarcón, Francisco J; Martín-Serra, Alberto; Pastor, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    The red (Ailurus fulgens) and giant (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) pandas are mammalian carnivores convergently adapted to a bamboo feeding diet. However, whereas Ailurus forages almost entirely on younger leaves, fruits and tender trunks, Ailuropoda relies more on trunks and stems. Such difference in foraging mode is considered a strategy for resource partitioning where they are sympatric. Here, we use finite-element analysis to test for mechanical differences and similarities in skull performance between Ailurus and Ailuropoda related to diet. Feeding simulations suggest that the two panda species have similar ranges of mechanical efficiency and strain energy profiles across the dentition, reflecting their durophagous diet. However, the stress distributions and peaks in the skulls of Ailurus and Ailuropoda are remarkably different for biting at all tooth locations. Although the skull of Ailuropoda is capable of resisting higher stresses than the skull of Ailurus, the latter is able to distribute stresses more evenly throughout the skull. These differences in skull biomechanics reflect their distinct bamboo feeding preferences. Ailurus uses repetitive chewing in an extended mastication to feed on soft leaves, and Ailuropoda exhibits shorter and more discrete periods of chomp-and-swallow feeding to break down hard bamboo trunks.

  3. RED GIANT BRANCH BUMP BRIGHTNESS AND NUMBER COUNTS IN 72 GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS OBSERVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Nataf, David M.; Gould, Andrew P.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Udalski, Andrzej

    2013-04-01

    We present the broadest and most precise empirical investigation of red giant branch bump (RGBB) brightness and number counts ever conducted. We implement a new method and use data from two Hubble Space Telescope globular cluster (GC) surveys to measure the brightness and star counts of the RGBB in 72 GCs. The median measurement precision is 0.018 mag in the brightness and 31% in the number counts, respectively, reaching peak precision values of 0.005 mag and 10%. The position of the main-sequence turnoff and the number of horizontal branch stars are used as comparisons where appropriate. Several independent scientific conclusions are newly possible with our parameterization of the RGBB. Both brightness and number counts are shown to have second parameters in addition to their strong dependence on metallicity. The RGBBs are found to be anomalous in the GCs NGC 2808, 5286, 6388, and 6441, likely due to the presence of multiple populations. Finally, we use our empirical calibration to predict the properties of the Galactic bulge RGBB. The updated RGBB properties for the bulge are shown to differ from the GC-calibrated prediction, with the former having lower number counts, a lower brightness dispersion, and a brighter peak luminosity than would be expected from the latter. This discrepancy is well explained by the Galactic bulge having a higher helium abundance than expected from GCs, {Delta}Y {approx} +0.06 at the median metallicity.

  4. The Chemical Composition of Red Giant Branch Stars in the Galactic Globular Clusters NGC 6342 and NGC 6366

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Caldwell, Nelson; Rich, R. Michael; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Hsyu, Tiffany

    2016-07-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances for red giant branch stars in the Galactic bulge globular clusters NGC 6342 and NGC 6366. The velocities and abundances are based on measurements of high-resolution (R ≳ 20,000) spectra obtained with the MMT-Hectochelle and WIYN-Hydra spectrographs. We find that NGC 6342 has a heliocentric radial velocity of +112.5 km s-1 (σ = 8.6 km s-1), NGC 6366 has a heliocentric radial velocity of -122.3 km s-1 (σ = 1.5 km s-1), and both clusters have nearly identical metallicities ([Fe/H] ≈ -0.55). NGC 6366 shows evidence of a moderately extended O-Na anti-correlation, but more data are needed for NGC 6342 to determine if this cluster also exhibits the typical O-Na relation likely found in all other Galactic globular clusters. The two clusters are distinguished from similar metallicity field stars as having larger [Na/Fe] spreads and enhanced [La/Fe] ratios, but we find that NGC 6342 and NGC 6366 display α and Fe-peak element abundance patterns that are typical of other metal-rich ([Fe/H] > -1) inner Galaxy clusters. However, the median [La/Fe] abundance may vary from cluster-to-cluster.

  5. Exclusion of a luminous red giant as a companion star to the progenitor of supernova SN 2011fe.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidong; Bloom, Joshua S; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Miller, Adam A; Cenko, S Bradley; Jha, Saurabh W; Sullivan, Mark; Howell, D Andrew; Nugent, Peter E; Butler, Nathaniel R; Ofek, Eran O; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Richards, Joseph W; Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Bildsten, Lars; Shara, Michael M; Bibby, Joanne; Filippenko, Alexei V; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Kulkarni, S R; Law, Nicholas M; Poznanski, Dovi; Quimby, Robert M; McCully, Curtis; Patel, Brandon; Maguire, Kate; Shen, Ken J

    2011-12-15

    Type Ia supernovae are thought to result from a thermonuclear explosion of an accreting white dwarf in a binary system, but little is known of the precise nature of the companion star and the physical properties of the progenitor system. There are two classes of models: double-degenerate (involving two white dwarfs in a close binary system) and single-degenerate models. In the latter, the primary white dwarf accretes material from a secondary companion until conditions are such that carbon ignites, at a mass of 1.38 times the mass of the Sun. The type Ia supernova SN 2011fe was recently detected in a nearby galaxy. Here we report an analysis of archival images of the location of SN 2011fe. The luminosity of the progenitor system (especially the companion star) is 10-100 times fainter than previous limits on other type Ia supernova progenitor systems, allowing us to rule out luminous red giants and almost all helium stars as the mass-donating companion to the exploding white dwarf. PMID:22170681

  6. Disruption of a red giant star by a supermassive black hole and the case of PS1-10jh

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanović, Tamara; Cheng, Roseanne M.; Amaro-Seoane, Pau E-mail: rcheng@gatech.edu

    2014-06-20

    The development of a new generation of theoretical models for tidal disruptions is timely, as increasingly diverse events are being captured in surveys of the transient sky. Recently, Gezari et al. reported a discovery of a new class of tidal disruption events: the disruption of a helium-rich stellar core, thought to be a remnant of a red giant (RG) star. Motivated by this discovery and in anticipation of others, we consider tidal interaction of an RG star with a supermassive black hole (SMBH) which leads to the stripping of the stellar envelope and subsequent inspiral of the compact core toward the black hole. Once the stellar envelope is removed the inspiral of the core is driven by tidal heating as well as the emission of gravitational radiation until the core either falls into the SMBH or is tidally disrupted. In the case of the tidal disruption candidate PS1-10jh, we find that there is a set of orbital solutions at high eccentricities in which the tidally stripped hydrogen envelope is accreted by the SMBH before the helium core is disrupted. This places the RG core in a portion of parameter space where strong tidal heating can lift the degeneracy of the compact remnant and disrupt it before it reaches the tidal radius. We consider how this sequence of events explains the puzzling absence of the hydrogen emission lines from the spectrum of PS1-10jh and gives rise to its other observational features.

  7. Three-dimensional computer simulations of feeding behaviour in red and giant pandas relate skull biomechanics with dietary niche partitioning.

    PubMed

    Figueirido, Borja; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Serrano-Alarcón, Francisco J; Martín-Serra, Alberto; Pastor, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    The red (Ailurus fulgens) and giant (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) pandas are mammalian carnivores convergently adapted to a bamboo feeding diet. However, whereas Ailurus forages almost entirely on younger leaves, fruits and tender trunks, Ailuropoda relies more on trunks and stems. Such difference in foraging mode is considered a strategy for resource partitioning where they are sympatric. Here, we use finite-element analysis to test for mechanical differences and similarities in skull performance between Ailurus and Ailuropoda related to diet. Feeding simulations suggest that the two panda species have similar ranges of mechanical efficiency and strain energy profiles across the dentition, reflecting their durophagous diet. However, the stress distributions and peaks in the skulls of Ailurus and Ailuropoda are remarkably different for biting at all tooth locations. Although the skull of Ailuropoda is capable of resisting higher stresses than the skull of Ailurus, the latter is able to distribute stresses more evenly throughout the skull. These differences in skull biomechanics reflect their distinct bamboo feeding preferences. Ailurus uses repetitive chewing in an extended mastication to feed on soft leaves, and Ailuropoda exhibits shorter and more discrete periods of chomp-and-swallow feeding to break down hard bamboo trunks. PMID:24718096

  8. Wide Field Near-infrared Photometry of 12 Galactic Globular Clusters: Observations Versus Models on the Red Giant Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Roger E.; Hempel, Maren; Mauro, Francesco; Geisler, Douglas; Alonso-Garcia, Javier; Kinemuchi, Karen

    2015-12-01

    We present wide field near-infrared (near-IR) photometry of 12 Galactic globular clusters, typically extending from the tip of the cluster red giant branch (RGB) to the main sequence turnoff. Using recent homogenous values of cluster distance, reddening and metallicity, the resulting photometry is directly compared to the predictions of several recent libraries of stellar evolutionary models. Of the sets of models investigated, Dartmouth and Victoria-Regina models best reproduce the observed RGB morphology, albeit with offsets in J-{K}S color which vary in their significance in light of all sources of observational uncertainty. Therefore, we also present newly recalibrated relations between near-IR photometric indices describing the upper RGB versus cluster iron abundance as well as global metallicity. The influence of enhancements in alpha elements and helium are analyzed, and we find that the former affect the morphology of the upper RGB in accord with model predictions. Meanwhile, the empirical relations we derive are in good agreement with previous results, and minor discrepancies can likely be attributed to differences in the assumed cluster distances and reddenings. In addition, we present measurements of the horizontal branch (HB) and RGB bump magnitudes, finding a non-negligible dependence of the near-IR HB magnitude on cluster metallicity. Lastly, we discuss the influence of assumed cluster distances, reddenings and metallicities on our results, finding that our empirical relations are generally insensitive to these factors to within their uncertainties.

  9. Three-dimensional computer simulations of feeding behaviour in red and giant pandas relate skull biomechanics with dietary niche partitioning

    PubMed Central

    Figueirido, Borja; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Serrano-Alarcón, Francisco J.; Martín-Serra, Alberto; Pastor, Juan F.

    2014-01-01

    The red (Ailurus fulgens) and giant (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) pandas are mammalian carnivores convergently adapted to a bamboo feeding diet. However, whereas Ailurus forages almost entirely on younger leaves, fruits and tender trunks, Ailuropoda relies more on trunks and stems. Such difference in foraging mode is considered a strategy for resource partitioning where they are sympatric. Here, we use finite-element analysis to test for mechanical differences and similarities in skull performance between Ailurus and Ailuropoda related to diet. Feeding simulations suggest that the two panda species have similar ranges of mechanical efficiency and strain energy profiles across the dentition, reflecting their durophagous diet. However, the stress distributions and peaks in the skulls of Ailurus and Ailuropoda are remarkably different for biting at all tooth locations. Although the skull of Ailuropoda is capable of resisting higher stresses than the skull of Ailurus, the latter is able to distribute stresses more evenly throughout the skull. These differences in skull biomechanics reflect their distinct bamboo feeding preferences. Ailurus uses repetitive chewing in an extended mastication to feed on soft leaves, and Ailuropoda exhibits shorter and more discrete periods of chomp-and-swallow feeding to break down hard bamboo trunks. PMID:24718096

  10. Disruption of a Red Giant Star by a Supermassive Black Hole and the Case of PS1-10jh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanović, Tamara; Cheng, Roseanne M.; Amaro-Seoane, Pau

    2014-06-01

    The development of a new generation of theoretical models for tidal disruptions is timely, as increasingly diverse events are being captured in surveys of the transient sky. Recently, Gezari et al. reported a discovery of a new class of tidal disruption events: the disruption of a helium-rich stellar core, thought to be a remnant of a red giant (RG) star. Motivated by this discovery and in anticipation of others, we consider tidal interaction of an RG star with a supermassive black hole (SMBH) which leads to the stripping of the stellar envelope and subsequent inspiral of the compact core toward the black hole. Once the stellar envelope is removed the inspiral of the core is driven by tidal heating as well as the emission of gravitational radiation until the core either falls into the SMBH or is tidally disrupted. In the case of the tidal disruption candidate PS1-10jh, we find that there is a set of orbital solutions at high eccentricities in which the tidally stripped hydrogen envelope is accreted by the SMBH before the helium core is disrupted. This places the RG core in a portion of parameter space where strong tidal heating can lift the degeneracy of the compact remnant and disrupt it before it reaches the tidal radius. We consider how this sequence of events explains the puzzling absence of the hydrogen emission lines from the spectrum of PS1-10jh and gives rise to its other observational features.

  11. Exclusion of a luminous red giant as a companion star to the progenitor of supernova SN 2011fe.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidong; Bloom, Joshua S; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Miller, Adam A; Cenko, S Bradley; Jha, Saurabh W; Sullivan, Mark; Howell, D Andrew; Nugent, Peter E; Butler, Nathaniel R; Ofek, Eran O; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Richards, Joseph W; Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Bildsten, Lars; Shara, Michael M; Bibby, Joanne; Filippenko, Alexei V; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Kulkarni, S R; Law, Nicholas M; Poznanski, Dovi; Quimby, Robert M; McCully, Curtis; Patel, Brandon; Maguire, Kate; Shen, Ken J

    2011-12-14

    Type Ia supernovae are thought to result from a thermonuclear explosion of an accreting white dwarf in a binary system, but little is known of the precise nature of the companion star and the physical properties of the progenitor system. There are two classes of models: double-degenerate (involving two white dwarfs in a close binary system) and single-degenerate models. In the latter, the primary white dwarf accretes material from a secondary companion until conditions are such that carbon ignites, at a mass of 1.38 times the mass of the Sun. The type Ia supernova SN 2011fe was recently detected in a nearby galaxy. Here we report an analysis of archival images of the location of SN 2011fe. The luminosity of the progenitor system (especially the companion star) is 10-100 times fainter than previous limits on other type Ia supernova progenitor systems, allowing us to rule out luminous red giants and almost all helium stars as the mass-donating companion to the exploding white dwarf.

  12. Red Giant Branch Bump Brightness and Number Counts in 72 Galactic Globular Clusters Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataf, David M.; Gould, Andrew P.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Udalski, Andrzej

    2013-04-01

    We present the broadest and most precise empirical investigation of red giant branch bump (RGBB) brightness and number counts ever conducted. We implement a new method and use data from two Hubble Space Telescope globular cluster (GC) surveys to measure the brightness and star counts of the RGBB in 72 GCs. The median measurement precision is 0.018 mag in the brightness and 31% in the number counts, respectively, reaching peak precision values of 0.005 mag and 10%. The position of the main-sequence turnoff and the number of horizontal branch stars are used as comparisons where appropriate. Several independent scientific conclusions are newly possible with our parameterization of the RGBB. Both brightness and number counts are shown to have second parameters in addition to their strong dependence on metallicity. The RGBBs are found to be anomalous in the GCs NGC 2808, 5286, 6388, and 6441, likely due to the presence of multiple populations. Finally, we use our empirical calibration to predict the properties of the Galactic bulge RGBB. The updated RGBB properties for the bulge are shown to differ from the GC-calibrated prediction, with the former having lower number counts, a lower brightness dispersion, and a brighter peak luminosity than would be expected from the latter. This discrepancy is well explained by the Galactic bulge having a higher helium abundance than expected from GCs, ΔY ~ +0.06 at the median metallicity.

  13. On Potassium and Other Abundance Anomalies of Red Giants in NGC 2419

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliadis, C.; Karakas, A. I.; Prantzos, N.; Lattanzio, J. C.; Doherty, C. L.

    2016-02-01

    Globular clusters are of paramount importance for testing theories of stellar evolution and early galaxy formation. Strong evidence for multiple populations of stars in globular clusters derives from observed abundance anomalies. A puzzling example is the recently detected Mg-K anticorrelation in NGC 2419. We perform Monte Carlo nuclear reaction network calculations to constrain the temperature-density conditions that gave rise to the elemental abundances observed in this elusive cluster. We find a correlation between stellar temperature and density values that provide a satisfactory match between simulated and observed abundances in NGC 2419 for all relevant elements (Mg, Si, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, and V). Except at the highest densities (ρ ≳ 108 g cm-3), the acceptable conditions range from ≈100 MK at ≈108 g cm-3 to ≈200 MK at ≈10-4 g cm-3. This result accounts for uncertainties in nuclear reaction rates and variations in the assumed initial composition. We review hydrogen-burning sites and find that low-mass stars, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, massive stars, or supermassive stars cannot account for the observed abundance anomalies in NGC 2419. Super-AGB stars could be viable candidates for the polluter stars if stellar model parameters can be fine-tuned to produce higher temperatures. Novae, involving either CO or ONe white dwarfs, could be interesting polluter candidates, but a current lack of low-metallicity nova models precludes firmer conclusions. We also discuss whether additional constraints for the first-generation polluters can be obtained by future measurements of oxygen, or by evolving models of second-generation low-mass stars with a non-canonical initial composition.

  14. Infrared extinction in the inner Milky Way through red clump giants

    SciTech Connect

    González-Fernández, C.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Garzón, F.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Hammersley, P. L.

    2014-02-20

    While the shape of the extinction curve in the infrared is considered to be set and the extinction ratios between infrared bands are usually taken to be approximately constant, a number of recent studies point to either a spatially variable behavior of the exponent of the power law or a different extinction law altogether. In this paper, we propose a method to analyze the overall behavior of the interstellar extinction by means of the red-clump population, and we apply it to those areas of the Milky Way where the presence of interstellar matter is heavily felt: areas located in 5° < l < 30° and b = 0°. We show that the extinction ratios traditionally used for the near infrared could be inappropriate for the inner Galaxy and we analyze the behavior of the extinction law from 1 μm to 8 μm.

  15. ON THE ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF A GIANT PLANET PAIR EMBEDDED IN A GASEOUS DISK. I. JUPITER-SATURN CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Hui; Zhou Jilin

    2010-05-01

    We carry out a series of high-resolution (1024 x 1024) hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the orbital evolution of Jupiter and Saturn embedded in a gaseous protostellar disk. Our work extends the results in the classical papers of Masset and Snellgrove and Morbidelli and Crida by exploring various surface density profiles ({sigma}), where {sigma} {proportional_to} r {sup -{alpha}}. The stability of the mean motion resonances (MMRs) caused by the convergent migration of the two planets is studied as well. Our results show that (1) the gap formation process of Saturn is greatly delayed by the tidal perturbation of Jupiter. These perturbations cause inward or outward runaway migration of Saturn, depending on the density profiles on the disk. (2) The convergent migration rate increases as {alpha} increases and the type of MMRs depends on {alpha} as well. When 0 < {alpha} < 1, the convergent migration speed of Jupiter and Saturn is relatively slow, thus they are trapped into 2:1 MMR. When {alpha}>4/3, Saturn passes through the 2:1 MMR with Jupiter and is captured into the 3:2 MMR. (3) The 3:2 MMR turns out to be unstable when the eccentricity of Saturn (e{sub s} ) increases too high. The critical value above which instability will set in is e{sub s} {approx} 0.15. We also observe that the two planets are trapped into 2:1 MMR after the break of 3:2 MMR. This process may provide useful information for the formation of orbital configuration between Jupiter and Saturn in the solar system.

  16. Probing the Deep End of the Milky Way with Kepler: Asteroseismic Analysis of 854 Faint Red Giants Misclassified as Cool Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, S.; García, R. A.; Huber, D.; Regulo, C.; Stello, D.; Beck, P. G.; Houmani, K.; Salabert, D.

    2016-08-01

    Asteroseismology has proven to be an excellent tool to determine not only global stellar properties with good precision, but also to infer the stellar structure, dynamics, and evolution for a large sample of Kepler stars. Prior to the launch of the mission, the properties of Kepler targets were inferred from broadband photometry, leading to the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC). The KIC was later revised in the Kepler Star Properties Catalog, based on literature values and an asteroseismic analysis of stars that were unclassified in the KIC. Here, we present an asteroseismic analysis of 45,400 stars that were classified as dwarfs in the Kepler Star Properties Catalog. We found that around 2% of the sample shows acoustic modes in the typical frequency range that put them in the red-giant category rather than the cool dwarf category. We analyze the asteroseismic properties of these stars, derive their surface gravities, masses, and radii, and present updated effective temperatures and distances. We show that the sample is significantly fainter than the previously known oscillating giants in the Kepler field, with the faintest stars reaching down to a Kepler magnitude of Kp ˜ 16. We demonstrate that 404 stars are at distances beyond 5 kpc and that the stars are significantly less massive than for the original Kepler red-giant sample, consistent with a population of distant halo giants. A comparison with a galactic population model shows that up to 40 stars might be genuine halo giants, which would increase the number of known asteroseismic halo stars by a factor of 4. The detections presented here will provide a valuable sample for galactic archeology studies.

  17. On the cosmic ray spectrum from type II Supernovae expanding in their red giant presupernova wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardillo, Martina

    2015-12-01

    While from the energetic point of view SNRs are viable sources of Galactic CRs, the issue of whether they can accelerate protons up to PeV remains unsolved. Here we discuss particle acceleration at the forward shock of SN and discuss the possibility that the escaping particle current may excite a non-resonant instability that in turn leads to the formation of resonant modes confining particles close to the shock and increasing the maximum energy. This mechanism works throughout the expansion of the SN explosion, from the ejecta dominated (ED) to the Sedov-Taylor (ST) phase. Because of their higher explosion rate,we focus on type II SNae expanding in the slow, dense red supergiant wind. When the explosion occurs in such winds, the transition between the ED and the ST phase is likely to take place within a few tens of years. As a result, the spectrum of accelerated particles shows a break in the slope, at the maximum energy (EM) achieved at the beginning of the ST phase. Above this energy, the spectrum becomes steeper but remains a power law than developing an exponential cutoff. We show that for type II SNae typical parameters, proton EM can easily reach PeV energies, confirming that type II SNRs are the best candidate sources for CRs at the knee. We have tried to fit KASCADE-Grande, ARGO -YBJ and YAC1-Tibet Array data with our model but we could not find any parameter combination that could explain all data sets. Indeed the recent measurement of the proton and helium spectra in the knee region, with the ARGO-YBJ and YAC1-Tibet Array, has made the situation very confused. These measurements suggest that the knee in the light component is at 650 TeV, appreciably below the overall spectrum knee. This finding would resolve the problem of reaching very high energies in SNae, but, on the other hand, it would open a critical issue in the transition region between Galactic and extragalactic CRs.

  18. Asteroseismic study on cluster distance moduli for red giant branch stars in NGC 6791 and NGC 6819

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T.; Li, Y.; Hekker, S. E-mail: ly@ynao.ac.cn

    2014-05-01

    Stellar distance is an important basic parameter in stellar astrophysics. Stars in a cluster are thought to be formed coevally from the same interstellar cloud of gas and dust; therefore, they are expected to have common properties. These common properties strengthen our ability to constrain theoretical models and/or to determine fundamental parameters, such as stellar mass, metal fraction, and distance, when tested against an ensemble of cluster stars. Here we derive a new relation based on solar-like oscillations, photometric observations, and the theory of stellar structure and evolution of red giant branch stars to determine cluster distance moduli through the global oscillation parameters Δν and ν{sub max} and photometric data V. The values of Δν and ν{sub max} are derived from Kepler observations. At the same time, it is used to interpret the trends between V and Δν. From the analyses of this newly derived relation and observational data of NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, we devise a method in which all stars in a cluster are regarded as one entity to determine the cluster distance modulus. This approach fully reflects the characteristic of member stars in a cluster as a natural sample. From this method we derive true distance moduli of 13.09 ± 0.10 mag for NGC 6791 and 11.88 ± 0.14 mag for NGC 6819. Additionally, we find that the distance modulus only slightly depends on the metallicity [Fe/H] in the new relation. A change of 0.1 dex in [Fe/H] will lead to a change of 0.06 mag in the distance modulus.

  19. CA II TRIPLET SPECTROSCOPY OF SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD RED GIANTS. III. ABUNDANCES AND VELOCITIES FOR A SAMPLE OF 14 CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Marcionni, N.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Sarajedini, A.; Grocholski, A. J. E-mail: claria@oac.uncor.edu E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu

    2015-05-15

    We obtained spectra of red giants in 15 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters in the region of the Ca ii lines with FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope. We determined the mean metallicity and radial velocity with mean errors of 0.05 dex and 2.6 km s{sup −1}, respectively, from a mean of 6.5 members per cluster. One cluster (B113) was too young for a reliable metallicity determination and was excluded from the sample. We combined the sample studied here with 15 clusters previously studied by us using the same technique, and with 7 clusters whose metallicities determined by other authors are on a scale similar to ours. This compilation of 36 clusters is the largest SMC cluster sample currently available with accurate and homogeneously determined metallicities. We found a high probability that the metallicity distribution is bimodal, with potential peaks at −1.1 and −0.8 dex. Our data show no strong evidence of a metallicity gradient in the SMC clusters, somewhat at odds with recent evidence from Ca ii triplet spectra of a large sample of field stars. This may be revealing possible differences in the chemical history of clusters and field stars. Our clusters show a significant dispersion of metallicities, whatever age is considered, which could be reflecting the lack of a unique age–metallicity relation in this galaxy. None of the chemical evolution models currently available in the literature satisfactorily represents the global chemical enrichment processes of SMC clusters.

  20. Detection of solar-like oscillations in the red giant star ɛ Ophiuchi by MOST spacebased photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barban, C.; Matthews, J. M.; De Ridder, J.; Baudin, F.; Kuschnig, R.; Mazumdar, A.; Samadi, R.; Guenther, D. B.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Walker, G. A. H.; Weiss, W. W.

    2007-06-01

    Context: Solar-like oscillations have been discovered in a few red giants, including ɛ Oph, through spectroscopy. Acoustic modes around 60 μHz were clearly seen in this star, but daily aliasing of the groundbased data made it impossible to unambiguously isolate the p-mode frequencies in the eigenspectrum, and hence the correct value of the large spacing, to asteroseismically constrain the mass of this pulsating star. Aims: We obtained about 28 days of contiguous high-precision photometry of ɛ Oph in May-June 2005 with the MOST (Microvariability & Oscillations of STars) satellite. The thorough time sampling removes the ambiguity of the frequency identifications based on the groundbased discovery data. Methods: We identify equidistant peaks in the Fourier spectrum of the MOST photometry in the range where the p-modes were seen spectroscopically. Those peaks are searched by autocorrelation of the power spectrum to estimate the value of the large separation in the p-mode eigenspectrum. Having isolated the oscillation modes, we determine their mode parameters (frequency, amplitude and line width) by fitting the distribution of peaks to Lorentzian profiles. Results: The clear series of equidistant peaks in the power spectrum, with amplitudes from about 30 to 130 ppm, are consistent with radial modes spaced by a mean value of ( 5.3 ± 0.1) μHz. This large separation matches one of the two possibilities allowed by the groundbased observations thus constraining the stellar models to a much greater extent than previously possible. The line widths and Lorentzian fits indicate a rather short average mode lifetime: (2.7+0.6-0.8}) days. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, and the University of British Columbia, with the assistance of the University of Vienna.

  1. The tip of the red giant branch and distance of the Magellanic Clouds: results from the DENIS survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioni, M.-R. L.; van der Marel, R. P.; Loup, C.; Habing, H. J.

    2000-07-01

    We present a precise determination of the apparent magnitude of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) in the I (0.8 mu m), J (1.25 mu m), and K_S (2.15 mu m) bands from the luminosity function of a sample of data extracted from the DENIS catalogue towards the Magellanic Clouds (Cioni et al. \\cite{cio}). From the J and K_S magnitudes we derive bolometric magnitudes mbol. We present a new algorithm for the determination of the TRGB magnitude, which we describe in detail and test extensively using Monte-Carlo simulations. We note that any method that searches for a peak in the first derivative (used by most authors) or the second derivative (used by us) of the observed luminosity function does not yield an unbiased estimate for the actual magnitude of the TRGB discontinuity. We stress the importance of correcting for this bias, which is not generally done. We combine the results of our algorithm with theoretical predictions to derive the distance modulus of the Magellanic Clouds. We obtain m-M = 18.55 +/- 0.04 (formal) +/- 0.08 (systematic) for the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and m-M = 18.99 +/- 0.03 (formal) +/- 0.08 (systematic) for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). These are among the most accurate determinations of these quantities currently available, which is a direct consequence of the large size of our sample and the insensitivity of near infrared observations to dust extinction.

  2. A Radial Age Gradient in the Geometrically Thick Disk of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martig, Marie; Minchev, Ivan; Ness, Melissa; Fouesneau, Morgan; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2016-11-01

    In the Milky Way, the thick disk can be defined using individual stellar abundances, kinematics, or age, or geometrically, as stars high above the midplane. In nearby galaxies, where only a geometric definition can be used, thick disks appear to have large radial scale lengths, and their red colors suggest that they are uniformly old. The Milky Way’s geometrically thick disk is also radially extended, but it is far from chemically uniform: α-enhanced stars are confined within the inner Galaxy. In simulated galaxies, where old stars are centrally concentrated, geometrically thick disks are radially extended, too. Younger stellar populations flare in the simulated disks’ outer regions, bringing those stars high above the midplane. The resulting geometrically thick disks therefore show a radial age gradient, from old in their central regions to younger in their outskirts. Based on our age estimates for a large sample of giant stars in the APOGEE survey, we can now test this scenario for the Milky Way. We find that the geometrically defined thick disk in the Milky Way has indeed a strong radial age gradient: the median age for red clump stars goes from ∼9 Gyr in the inner disk to 5 Gyr in the outer disk. We propose that at least some nearby galaxies could also have thick disks that are not uniformly old, and that geometrically thick disks might be complex structures resulting from different formation mechanisms in their inner and outer parts.

  3. The Tip of the Red Giant Branch Distance to the Perfect Spiral Galaxy M74 Hosting Three Core-collapse Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, In Sung; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2014-09-01

    M74 (NGC 628) is a famous face-on spiral galaxy, hosting three core-collapse supernovae (SNe): SN Ic 2002ap, SN II-P 2003gd, and SN II-P 2013ej. However, its distance is not well known. We present a distance estimation for this galaxy based on the Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) method. We obtain photometry of the resolved stars in the arm-free region of M74 from F555W and F814W images in the Hubble Space Telescope archive. The color-magnitude diagram of the resolved stars shows a dominant red giant branch (RGB) as well as blue main sequence stars, red helium burning stars, and asymptotic giant branch stars. The I-band luminosity function of the RGB stars shows the TRGB to be at I TRGB = 26.13 ± 0.03 mag, and T RGB = 25.97 ± 0.03. From this, we derive the distance modulus to M74 to be 30.04 ± 0.04 (random) ± 0.12 (systematic) (corresponding to a linear distance of 10.19 ± 0.14 ± 0.56 Mpc). With this distance estimate, we calibrate the standardized candle method for SNe II-P. From the absolute magnitudes of SN 2003gd, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, H 0 = 72 ± 6 (random) ± 7 (systematic) km s-1 Mpc-1. It is similar to recent estimates based on the luminosity calibration of Type Ia supernovae.

  4. New asteroseismic scaling relations based on the Hayashi track relation applied to red giant branch stars in NGC 6791 and NGC 6819

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T.; Li, Y.; Hekker, S. E-mail: ly@ynao.ac.cn

    2014-01-20

    Stellar mass M, radius R, and gravity g are important basic parameters in stellar physics. Accurate values for these parameters can be obtained from the gravitational interaction between stars in multiple systems or from asteroseismology. Stars in a cluster are thought to be formed coevally from the same interstellar cloud of gas and dust. The cluster members are therefore expected to have some properties in common. These common properties strengthen our ability to constrain stellar models and asteroseismically derived M, R, and g when tested against an ensemble of cluster stars. Here we derive new scaling relations based on a relation for stars on the Hayashi track (√(T{sub eff})∼g{sup p}R{sup q}) to determine the masses and metallicities of red giant branch stars in open clusters NGC 6791 and NGC 6819 from the global oscillation parameters Δν (the large frequency separation) and ν{sub max} (frequency of maximum oscillation power). The Δν and ν{sub max} values are derived from Kepler observations. From the analysis of these new relations we derive: (1) direct observational evidence that the masses of red giant branch stars in a cluster are the same within their uncertainties, (2) new methods to derive M and z of the cluster in a self-consistent way from Δν and ν{sub max}, with lower intrinsic uncertainties, and (3) the mass dependence in the Δν - ν{sub max} relation for red giant branch stars.

  5. The Tip of the red giant branch distance to the perfect spiral galaxy M74 hosting three core-collapse supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Sung Jang, In; Gyoon Lee, Myung E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-09-01

    M74 (NGC 628) is a famous face-on spiral galaxy, hosting three core-collapse supernovae (SNe): SN Ic 2002ap, SN II-P 2003gd, and SN II-P 2013ej. However, its distance is not well known. We present a distance estimation for this galaxy based on the Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) method. We obtain photometry of the resolved stars in the arm-free region of M74 from F555W and F814W images in the Hubble Space Telescope archive. The color-magnitude diagram of the resolved stars shows a dominant red giant branch (RGB) as well as blue main sequence stars, red helium burning stars, and asymptotic giant branch stars. The I-band luminosity function of the RGB stars shows the TRGB to be at I {sub TRGB} = 26.13 ± 0.03 mag, and T {sub RGB} = 25.97 ± 0.03. From this, we derive the distance modulus to M74 to be 30.04 ± 0.04 (random) ± 0.12 (systematic) (corresponding to a linear distance of 10.19 ± 0.14 ± 0.56 Mpc). With this distance estimate, we calibrate the standardized candle method for SNe II-P. From the absolute magnitudes of SN 2003gd, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, H {sub 0} = 72 ± 6 (random) ± 7 (systematic) km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. It is similar to recent estimates based on the luminosity calibration of Type Ia supernovae.

  6. Unravelling The Chemical History Of The Solar Neighborhood With Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillet, Diane; Holtzman, Jon A.; Girardi, Leo; Apogee Team

    2015-01-01

    In the age of high-resolution spectroscopic surveys, elemental abundance measurements for large samples of stars allow us to identify individual populations within the Milky Way disk, however; absolute age measurements are needed to put the evolution of the stellar disk populations in a Galactic context. We present a sample of 700 local (d <400 pc) red giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1m telescope with the SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph, for which we estimate ages from the high-resolution spectroscopic stellar parameters and accurate distance measurements from Hipparcos. The high-resolution (R ˜ 23,000), near infrared (H-band, 1.5-1.7 μ m) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of the stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, and overall metallicity), as well as abundances of 15 individual elements. Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the masses of our stars to within 40%. We target giants because the relatively rapid evolution of stars up the red giant branch allows an age to be estimated based on the mass using a mass-age relation of evolved stars from model isochrones. Using these age estimates and the APOGEE abundances, we examine the abundance trends of individual elements with age in the solar neighborhood. As with other recent surveys of disk stars, we find older stars to be enhanced in α-elements, while younger stars have solar α-abundances. We find a flat age-metallicity relation with a large spread in metallicity at a given age, however; we note that our sample lacks metal-poor stars. This method of estimating ages of red giants is developed with the intent of estimating ages for the much larger sample of >10,000 APOGEE survey giants that will have parallax measurements from Gaia.

  7. Kiloparsec-Scale Simulations of Star Formation in Disk Galaxies III. Structure and Dynamics of Filaments and Clumps in Giant Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Michael J.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Van Loo, Sven

    2015-05-01

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of self-gravitating dense gas in a galactic disk, exploring scales ranging from 1 kpc down to ˜0.1 pc. Our primary goal is to understand how dense filaments form in giant molecular clouds (GMCs). These structures, often observed as infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) in the Galactic plane, are thought to be the precursors to massive stars and star clusters, so their formation may be the rate-limiting step controlling global star formation rates in galactic systems as described by the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. Our study follows on from Van Loo et al., which carried out simulations to 0.5 pc resolution and examined global aspects of the formation of dense gas clumps and the resulting star formation rate. Here, using our higher resolution, we examine the detailed structural, kinematic, and dynamical properties of dense filaments and clumps, including mass surface density (Σ) probability distribution functions, filament mass per unit length and its dispersion, lateral Σ profiles, filament fragmentation, filament velocity gradients and infall, and degree of filament and clump virialization. Where possible, these properties are compared to observations of IRDCs. By many metrics, especially too large mass fractions of high {Σ }\\gt 1 g c{{m}-2} material, too high mass per unit length dispersion due to dense clump formation, too high velocity gradients, and too high velocity dispersion for a given mass per unit length, the simulated filaments differ from observed IRDCs. We thus conclude that IRDCs do not form from global fast collapse of GMCs. Rather, we expect that IRDC formation and collapse are slowed significantly by the influence of dynamically important magnetic fields, which may thus play a crucial role in regulating galactic star formation rates.

  8. Phylogenetic Diversity, Distribution, and Cophylogeny of Giant Bacteria (Epulopiscium) with their Surgeonfish Hosts in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Sou; Ngugi, David K; Stingl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Epulopiscium is a group of giant bacteria found in high abundance in intestinal tracts of herbivorous surgeonfish. Despite their peculiarly large cell size (can be up to 600 μm), extreme polyploidy (some with over 100,000 genome copies per cell) and viviparity (whereby mother cells produce live offspring), details about their diversity, distribution or their role in the host gut are lacking. Previous studies have highlighted the existence of morphologically distinct Epulopiscium cell types (defined as morphotypes A to J) in some surgeonfish genera, but the corresponding genetic diversity and distribution among other surgeonfishes remain mostly unknown. Therefore, we investigated the phylogenetic diversity of Epulopiscium, distribution and co-occurrence in multiple hosts. Here, we identified eleven new phylogenetic clades, six of which were also morphologically characterized. Three of these novel clades were phylogenetically and morphologically similar to cigar-shaped type A1 cells, found in a wide range of surgeonfishes including Acanthurus nigrofuscus, while three were similar to smaller, rod-shaped type E that has not been phylogenetically classified thus far. Our results also confirmed that biogeography appears to have relatively little influence on Epulopiscium diversity, as clades found in the Great Barrier Reef and Hawaii were also recovered from the Red Sea. Although multiple symbiont clades inhabited a given species of host surgeonfish and multiple host species possessed a given symbiont clade, statistical analysis of host and symbiont phylogenies indicated significant cophylogeny, which in turn suggests co-evolutionary relationships. A cluster analysis of Epulopiscium sequences from previously published amplicon sequencing dataset revealed a similar pattern, where specific clades were consistently found in high abundance amongst closely related surgeonfishes. Differences in abundance may indicate specialization of clades to certain gut environments

  9. Phylogenetic Diversity, Distribution, and Cophylogeny of Giant Bacteria (Epulopiscium) with their Surgeonfish Hosts in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Sou; Ngugi, David K; Stingl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Epulopiscium is a group of giant bacteria found in high abundance in intestinal tracts of herbivorous surgeonfish. Despite their peculiarly large cell size (can be up to 600 μm), extreme polyploidy (some with over 100,000 genome copies per cell) and viviparity (whereby mother cells produce live offspring), details about their diversity, distribution or their role in the host gut are lacking. Previous studies have highlighted the existence of morphologically distinct Epulopiscium cell types (defined as morphotypes A to J) in some surgeonfish genera, but the corresponding genetic diversity and distribution among other surgeonfishes remain mostly unknown. Therefore, we investigated the phylogenetic diversity of Epulopiscium, distribution and co-occurrence in multiple hosts. Here, we identified eleven new phylogenetic clades, six of which were also morphologically characterized. Three of these novel clades were phylogenetically and morphologically similar to cigar-shaped type A1 cells, found in a wide range of surgeonfishes including Acanthurus nigrofuscus, while three were similar to smaller, rod-shaped type E that has not been phylogenetically classified thus far. Our results also confirmed that biogeography appears to have relatively little influence on Epulopiscium diversity, as clades found in the Great Barrier Reef and Hawaii were also recovered from the Red Sea. Although multiple symbiont clades inhabited a given species of host surgeonfish and multiple host species possessed a given symbiont clade, statistical analysis of host and symbiont phylogenies indicated significant cophylogeny, which in turn suggests co-evolutionary relationships. A cluster analysis of Epulopiscium sequences from previously published amplicon sequencing dataset revealed a similar pattern, where specific clades were consistently found in high abundance amongst closely related surgeonfishes. Differences in abundance may indicate specialization of clades to certain gut environments

  10. Phylogenetic Diversity, Distribution, and Cophylogeny of Giant Bacteria (Epulopiscium) with their Surgeonfish Hosts in the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Sou; Ngugi, David K.; Stingl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Epulopiscium is a group of giant bacteria found in high abundance in intestinal tracts of herbivorous surgeonfish. Despite their peculiarly large cell size (can be up to 600 μm), extreme polyploidy (some with over 100,000 genome copies per cell) and viviparity (whereby mother cells produce live offspring), details about their diversity, distribution or their role in the host gut are lacking. Previous studies have highlighted the existence of morphologically distinct Epulopiscium cell types (defined as morphotypes A to J) in some surgeonfish genera, but the corresponding genetic diversity and distribution among other surgeonfishes remain mostly unknown. Therefore, we investigated the phylogenetic diversity of Epulopiscium, distribution and co-occurrence in multiple hosts. Here, we identified eleven new phylogenetic clades, six of which were also morphologically characterized. Three of these novel clades were phylogenetically and morphologically similar to cigar-shaped type A1 cells, found in a wide range of surgeonfishes including Acanthurus nigrofuscus, while three were similar to smaller, rod-shaped type E that has not been phylogenetically classified thus far. Our results also confirmed that biogeography appears to have relatively little influence on Epulopiscium diversity, as clades found in the Great Barrier Reef and Hawaii were also recovered from the Red Sea. Although multiple symbiont clades inhabited a given species of host surgeonfish and multiple host species possessed a given symbiont clade, statistical analysis of host and symbiont phylogenies indicated significant cophylogeny, which in turn suggests co-evolutionary relationships. A cluster analysis of Epulopiscium sequences from previously published amplicon sequencing dataset revealed a similar pattern, where specific clades were consistently found in high abundance amongst closely related surgeonfishes. Differences in abundance may indicate specialization of clades to certain gut environments

  11. High-resolution abundance analysis of red giants in the metal-poor bulge globular cluster HP 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, B.; Cantelli, E.; Vemado, A.; Ernandes, H.; Ortolani, S.; Saviane, I.; Bica, E.; Minniti, D.; Dias, B.; Momany, Y.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Siqueira-Mello, C.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The globular cluster HP 1 is projected at only 3.̊33 from the Galactic center. Together with its distance, this makes it one of the most central globular clusters in the Milky Way. It has a blue horizontal branch (BHB) and a metallicity of [Fe/H] ≈ -1.0. This means that it probably is one of the oldest objects in the Galaxy. Abundance ratios can reveal the nucleosynthesis pattern of the first stars as well as the early chemical enrichment and early formation of stellar populations. Aims: High-resolution spectra obtained for six stars were analyzed to derive the abundances of the light elements C, N, O, Na, and Al, the alpha-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, and the heavy elements Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, and Eu. Methods: High-resolution spectra of six red giants that are confirmed members of the bulge globular cluster HP 1 were obtained with the 8 m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with the UVES spectrograph in FLAMES-UVES configuration. The spectroscopic parameter derivation was based on the excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe i and Fe ii. Results: We confirm a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.06 ± 0.10, by adding the two stars that were previously analyzed in HP 1. The alpha-elements O and Mg are enhanced by about +0.3 ≲ [O,Mg/Fe] ≲ +0.5 dex, Si is moderately enhanced with +0.15 ≲ [Si/Fe] ≲ +0.35 dex, while Ca and Ti show lower values of -0.04 ≲ [Ca,Ti/Fe] ≲ +0.28 dex. The r-element Eu is also enhanced with [Eu/Fe] ≈ +0.4, which together with O and Mg is indicative of early enrichment by type II supernovae. Na and Al are low, but it is unclear if Na-O are anticorrelated. The heavy elements are moderately enhanced, with -0.20 < [La/Fe] < +0.43 dex and 0.0 < [Ba/Fe] < +0.75 dex, which is compatible with r-process formation. The spread in Y, Zr, Ba, and La abundances, on the other hand, appears to be compatible with the spinstar scenario or other additional mechanisms such as the weak r-process. Observations collected at the European Southern

  12. OBSERVATIONAL PROPERTIES OF THE METAL-POOR THICK DISK OF THE MILKY WAY AND INSIGHTS INTO ITS ORIGINS

    SciTech Connect

    Ruchti, Gregory R.; Fulbright, Jon P.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Gilmore, Gerard F.; Bienayme, Olivier; Siebert, Arnaud; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Gibson, Brad K.; Grebel, Eva K.; Helmi, Amina; Munari, Ulisse; Navarro, Julio F.; Parker, Quentin A.; Reid, Warren; Seabroke, George M.; Siviero, Alessandro; Steinmetz, Matthias; Williams, Mary; Watson, Fred G.; Zwitter, Tomaz

    2011-08-10

    We have undertaken the study of the elemental abundances and kinematic properties of a metal-poor sample of candidate thick-disk stars selected from the Radial Velocity Experiment spectroscopic survey of bright stars to differentiate among the present scenarios of the formation of the thick disk. In this paper, we report on a sample of 214 red giant branch, 31 red clump/horizontal branch, and 74 main-sequence/sub-giant branch metal-poor stars, which serves to augment our previous sample of only giant stars. We find that the thick disk [{alpha}/Fe] ratios are enhanced and have little variation (<0.1 dex), in agreement with our previous study. The augmented sample further allows, for the first time, investigation of the gradients in the metal-poor thick disk. For stars with [Fe/H] < -1.2, the thick disk shows very small gradients, <0.03 {+-} 0.02 dex kpc{sup -1}, in {alpha}-enhancement, while we find a +0.01 {+-} 0.04 dex kpc{sup -1} radial gradient and a -0.09 {+-} 0.05 dex kpc{sup -1} vertical gradient in iron abundance. In addition, we show that the peak of the distribution of orbital eccentricities for our sample agrees better with models in which the stars that comprise the thick disk were formed primarily in the Galaxy, with direct accretion of stars contributing little. Our results thus disfavor direct accretion of stars from dwarf galaxies into the thick disk as a major contributor to the thick-disk population, but cannot discriminate between alternative models for the thick disk, such as those that invoke high-redshift (gas-rich) mergers, heating of a pre-existing thin stellar disk by a minor merger, or efficient radial migration of stars.

  13. Brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in captive giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens) from China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Cheng; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Dai, Jia-Yin; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Cheng-Lin; Guo, Wei; Xu, Mu-Qi; Mai, Bi-Xian; Weit, Fu-Wen

    2008-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were investigated in captive giant and red panda tissues from China. The total concentrations of OCPs, PCBs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in tissues ranged from 16.3 to 888 ng/g lipid weight (lw), 24.8 to 854 ng/g lw, and 16.4 to 2158 ng/g lw, respectively. p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH were major OCP contaminants. PCBs 99, 118, 153/132, 170, 180, and 209 were the major contributing congeners determined. Among PBDEs, congener BDE-209 was the most frequent and abundant, followed by BDE-206, BDE-208, BDE-207, BDE-203, BDE-47, and BDE-153. Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DeBDethane) was detected in 87 and 71% of the giant and red panda samples with concentrations up to 863 ng/g lw, respectively. The remarkable levels and dominance of BDE-209 and DeBDethane may relate to significant production, usage, or disposal of BFRs in China. The positive significant correlation between concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in captive pandas may suggest that the exposure routes of PBDEs and PCBs to panda are similar. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of DeBDethane in captive wildlife samples. Therefore, further studies are warranted to better understand DeBDethane production, transport, uptake, and toxicological effect.

  14. Evolution of the red sequence giant to dwarf ratio in galaxy clusters out to z ˜ 0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bildfell, C.; Hoekstra, H.; Babul, A.; Sand, D.; Graham, M.; Willis, J.; Urquhart, S.; Mahdavi, A.; Pritchet, C.; Zaritsky, D.; Franse, J.; Langelaan, P.

    2012-09-01

    We analyse deep g' and r' band data of 97 galaxy clusters imaged with MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope. We compute the number of luminous (giant) and faint (dwarf) galaxies using criteria based on the definitions of de Lucia et al. Due to excellent image quality and uniformity of the data and analysis, we probe the giant-to-dwarf ratio (GDR) out to z ˜ 0.55. With X-ray temperature (Tx) information for the majority of our clusters, we constrain, for the first time, the Tx-corrected giant and dwarf evolution separately. Our measurements support an evolving GDR over the redshift range 0.05 ≤ z ≤ 0.55. We show that modifying the (g' - r'), mr' and K-correction used to define dwarf and giant selection does not alter the conclusion regarding the presence of evolution. We parametrize the GDR evolution using a linear function of redshift ( GDR =αz+β) with a best-fitting slope of α = 0.88 ± 0.15 and normalization β = 0.44 ± 0.03. Contrary to claims of a large intrinsic scatter, we find that the GDR data can be fully accounted for using observational errors alone. Consistently, we find no evidence for a correlation between GDR and cluster mass (via Tx or weak lensing). Finally, the data suggest that the evolution of the GDR at z < 0.2 is driven primarily by dry merging of the massive giant galaxies, which when considered with previous results at higher redshift, suggests a change in the dominant mechanism that mediates the GDR.

  15. Re-inflated Warm Jupiters around Red Giants: A New Test for Models of Hot Jupiter Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Eric D.; Jonathan, Fortney

    2015-12-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first transiting hot Jupiter, models have sought to explain the anomalously large radii of highly irradiated gas giants. We now know that the size of the hot Jupiter radius anomaly scales strongly with a planet’s level of irradiation and numerous models have since been developed to help explain these inflated radii. In general however, these models can be grouped into two broad categories: 1) models that directly inflate planetary radii by depositing a fraction of the incident irradiation in the convective interior and 2) models that simply slow a planet’s radiative cooling allowing it to retain more heat from formation and thereby delay contraction. Here we propose a new test to distinguish between these two classes of models, by examining the post-main sequence radius evolution of gas giants with moderate orbital periods of ~10-30 days. If hot Jupiter inflation actively deposits heat in a planets interior then current and upcoming transit surveys should uncover a new population of “re-inflated” gas giants around post main sequence stars.

  16. EVOLUTION OF THE SYMBIOTIC NOVA PU VUL-OUTBURSTING WHITE DWARF, NEBULAE, AND PULSATING RED GIANT COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Mikolajewska, Joanna; Hachisu, Izumi

    2012-05-01

    We present a composite light-curve model of the symbiotic nova PU Vul (Nova Vulpeculae 1979) that shows a long-lasting flat optical peak followed by a slow decline. Our model light curve consists of three components of emission, i.e., an outbursting white dwarf (WD), its M-giant companion, and the nebulae. The WD component dominates in the flat peak while the nebulae dominate after the photospheric temperature of the WD rises to log T (K) {approx}> 4.5, suggesting its WD origin. We analyze the 1980 and 1994 eclipses to be total eclipses of the WD occulted by the pulsating M-giant companion with two sources of the nebular emission; one is an unocculted nebula of the M-giant's cool-wind origin and the other is a partially occulted nebula associated to the WD. We confirmed our theoretical outburst model of PU Vul by new observational estimates, which spanned 32 yr, of the temperature and radius. Also our eclipse analysis confirmed that the WD photosphere decreased by two orders of magnitude between the 1980 and 1994 eclipses. We obtain the reddening E(B - V) {approx} 0.3 and distance to PU Vul d {approx} 4.7 kpc. We interpret the recent recovery of brightness in terms of eclipse of the hot nebula surrounding the WD, suggesting that hydrogen burning is ongoing. To detect supersoft X-rays, we recommend X-ray observations around 2014 June when absorption by neutral hydrogen is minimum.

  17. Toward long-term all-sky time domain surveys-SINDICS: a prospective concept for a Seismic INDICes Survey of half a million red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Eric; Haywood, Misha; Mosser, Benoit; García, Rafael A.; Babusiaux, Carine; Ballot, Jérôme; Samadi, Reza; Katz, David; Belkacem, Kevin; Bernardi, Pernelle; Buey, Tristan

    2015-09-01

    CoRoT and Kepler have brought a new and deep experience in long-term photometric surveys and how to use them. This is true for exoplanets characterizing, stellar seismology and beyond for studying several other phenomena, like granulation or activity. Based on this experience, it has been possible to propose new generation projects, like TESS and PLATO, with more specific scientific objectives and more ambitious observational programs in terms of sky coverage and/or duration of the observations. In this context and as a prospective exercise, we explore here the possibility to set up an all-sky survey optimized for seismic indices measurement, providing masses, radii and evolution stages for half a million solar-type pulsators (subgiants and red giants), in our galactic neighborhood and allowing unprecedented stellar population studies.

  18. A histological study of ovarian development in the giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Crustacea: Decapoda: Aristeidae) from the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Perdichizzi, Anna; Pirrera, Laura; Micale, Valeria; Muglia, Ugo; Rinelli, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive features of the giant red shrimp, Aristaeomorpha foliacea, were investigated in the southern Tyrrhenian sea by experimental trawl sampling. The annual length-frequency distribution showed a multimodal trend in females, ranging between 16 and 67 mm carapace length (CL), and a unimodal trend in males (18-45 mm CL). Mature males occurred in different proportions all year round, while females displayed seasonal maturity (June-September), with a peak in July. Six oocyte developmental stages were identified, the most advanced of which (Pv, postvitellogenic) had never been described before in this species. Ovary development followed a group-synchronous pattern, with the yolked oocyte stock clearly separated from the reservoir of unyolked oocytes, suggesting that A. foliacea is a total spawner, with determinate fecundity. Based upon histological findings, a revision of macroscopic maturity staging employed in Mediterranean bottom trawl surveys (MEDITS) is proposed. PMID:22629127

  19. A Histological Study of Ovarian Development in the Giant Red Shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Crustacea: Decapoda: Aristeidae) from the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Western Mediterranean)

    PubMed Central

    Perdichizzi, Anna; Pirrera, Laura; Micale, Valeria; Muglia, Ugo; Rinelli, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive features of the giant red shrimp, Aristaeomorpha foliacea, were investigated in the southern Tyrrhenian sea by experimental trawl sampling. The annual length-frequency distribution showed a multimodal trend in females, ranging between 16 and 67 mm carapace length (CL), and a unimodal trend in males (18–45 mm CL). Mature males occurred in different proportions all year round, while females displayed seasonal maturity (June—September), with a peak in July. Six oocyte developmental stages were identified, the most advanced of which (Pv, postvitellogenic) had never been described before in this species. Ovary development followed a group-synchronous pattern, with the yolked oocyte stock clearly separated from the reservoir of unyolked oocytes, suggesting that A. foliacea is a total spawner, with determinate fecundity. Based upon histological findings, a revision of macroscopic maturity staging employed in Mediterranean bottom trawl surveys (MEDITS) is proposed. PMID:22629127

  20. Compulsory Deep Mixing of 3He and CNO Isotopes in the Envelopes of low-mass Red Giants

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleton, P P; Dearborn, D P; Lattanzio, J C

    2007-03-20

    Three-dimensional stellar modeling has enabled us to identify a deep-mixing mechanism that must operate in all low mass giants. This mixing process is not optional, and is driven by a molecular weight inversion created by the {sup 3}He({sup 3}He,2p){sup 4}He reaction. In this paper we characterize the behavior of this mixing, and study its impact on the envelope abundances. It not only eliminates the problem of {sup 3}He overproduction, reconciling stellar and big bang nucleosynthesis with observations, but solves the discrepancy between observed and calculated CNO isotope ratios in low mass giants, a problem of more than 3 decades standing. This mixing mechanism operates rapidly once the hydrogen burning shell approaches the material homogenized by the surface convection zone. In agreement with observations, Pop I stars between 0.8 and 2.0 M{sub {circle_dot}} develop {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios of 14.5 {+-} 1.5, while Pop II stars process the carbon to ratios of 4.0 {+-} 0.5. In stars less than 1.25 M{sub {circle_dot}}, this mechanism also destroys 90% to 95% of the {sup 3}He produced on the main sequence.

  1. The identification of extreme asymptotic giant branch stars and red supergiants in M33 with 24 μm variability

    SciTech Connect

    Montiel, Edward J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Johnson, Christopher B.; Srinivasan, Sundar; Engelbracht, Charles W.

    2015-02-01

    We present the first detection of 24 μm variability in 24 sources in the Local Group galaxy M33. These results are based on 4 epochs of Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer observations, which are irregularly spaced over ∼750 days. We find that these sources are constrained exclusively to the Holmberg radius of the galaxy, which increases their chances of being members of M33. We have constructed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) ranging from the optical to the submillimeter to investigate the nature of these objects. We find that 23 of our objects are most likely heavily self-obscured, evolved stars, while the remaining source is the Giant H ii region, NGC 604. We believe that the observed variability is the intrinsic variability of the central star reprocessed through their circumstellar dust shells. Radiative transfer modeling was carried out to determine their likely chemical composition, luminosity, and dust production rate (DPR). As a sample, our modeling has determined an average luminosity of (3.8±0.9)×10{sup 4} L{sub ⊙} and a total DPR of (2.3±0.1)×10{sup −5} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Most of the sources, given the high DPRs and short wavelength obscuration, are likely extreme asymptotic giant branch (XAGB) stars. Five of the sources are found to have luminosities above the classical AGB limit (M{sub bol} <−7.1 mag, L > 54,000 L{sub ⊙}), which classifies them as probable red supergiants (RSGs). Almost all of the sources are classified as oxygen-rich. As also seen in the LMC, a significant fraction of the dust in M33 is produced by a handful of XAGB and RSG stars.

  2. The apogee red-clump catalog: Precise distances, velocities, and high-resolution elemental abundances over a large area of the Milky Way's disk

    SciTech Connect

    Bovy, Jo; Nidever, David L.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Girardi, Léo; Rodrigues, Thaíse S.; Zasowski, Gail; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Majewski, Steven R.; Holtzman, Jon; Hayden, Michael R.; Epstein, Courtney; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Andrews, Brett; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Stello, Dennis; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Basu, Sarbani; Beers, Timothy C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; and others

    2014-08-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III's Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey covering all of the major components of the Galaxy, including the dust-obscured regions of the inner Milky Way disk and bulge. Here we present a sample of 10,341 likely red-clump stars (RC) from the first two years of APOGEE operations, selected based on their position in color-metallicity-surface-gravity-effective-temperature space using a new method calibrated using stellar evolution models and high-quality asteroseismology data. The narrowness of the RC locus in color-metallicity-luminosity space allows us to assign distances to the stars with an accuracy of 5%-10%. The sample extends to typical distances of about 3 kpc from the Sun, with some stars out to 8 kpc, and spans a volume of approximately 100 kpc{sup 3} over 5 kpc ≲ R ≲ 14 kpc, |Z| ≲ 2 kpc, and –15° ≲ Galactocentric azimuth ≲ 30°. The APOGEE red-clump (APOGEE-RC) catalog contains photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, reddening estimates, distances, line-of-sight velocities, stellar parameters and elemental abundances determined from the high-resolution APOGEE spectra, and matches to major proper motion catalogs. We determine the survey selection function for this data set and discuss how the RC selection samples the underlying stellar populations. We use this sample to limit any azimuthal variations in the median metallicity within the ≈45° azimuthal region covered by the current sample to be ≤0.02 dex, which is more than an order of magnitude smaller than the radial metallicity gradient. This result constrains coherent non-axisymmetric flows within a few kiloparsecs from the Sun.

  3. Gas in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2008-01-01

    Gas makes up the bulk of the mass in a protoplanetary disk, but it is much more difficult to observe than the smaller dust component. The l ifetime of gas in a disk has far-reaching consequences. including lim iting the time available for giant planet formation and controlling t he migration of planetary bodies of all sizes, from Jupiters to meter-sized planetesimals. Here I will discuss what is known about the gas component of protoplanetary disks, highlighting recent results from i nfrared studies with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Exciting upcoming o pportunities for gas studies will also be discussed. In particular, the first large far-IR survey of gas tracers from young disks will be p erformed using the Herschel Space Observatory, as part of the "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems" (GASPS) Open Time Key Project.

  4. Gas in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2008-01-01

    Gas makes up the bulk of the mass in a protoplanetary disk, but it is much more difficult to observe than the smaller dust component. The lifetime of gas in a disk has far-reaching consequences, including limiting the time available for giant planet formation and controlling the migration of planetary bodies of all sizes, from Jupiters to meter-sized planetesimals. Here I will discuss what is known about the gas component of protoplanetary disks, highlighting recent results from infrared studies with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Exciting upcoming opportunities for gas studies will also be discussed. In particular, the first large far-IR survey of gas tracers from young disks will be performed using the Herschel Space Observatory, as part of the 'Gas in Protoplanetary Systems' (GASPS) Open Time Key Project.

  5. THE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. VI. THE ANCIENT STAR-FORMING DISK OF NGC 404

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Stilp, Adrienne; Dolphin, Andrew; Seth, Anil C.; Weisz, Daniel; Skillman, Evan E-mail: jd@astro.washington.ed E-mail: roskar@astro.washington.ed E-mail: aseth@cfa.harvard.ed E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.ed

    2010-06-10

    We present HST/WFPC2 observations across the disk of the nearby isolated dwarf S0 galaxy NGC 404, which hosts an extended gas disk. The locations of our fields contain a roughly equal mixture of bulge and disk stars. All of our resolved stellar photometry reaches m {sub F814W} = 26 (M {sub F814W} = -1.4), which covers 2.5 mag of the red giant branch and main-sequence stars with ages <300 Myr. Our deepest field reaches m {sub F814W} = 27.2 (M {sub F814W} = -0.2), sufficient to resolve the red clump and main-sequence stars with ages <500 Myr. Although we detect trace amounts of star formation at times more recent than 10 Gyr ago for all fields, the proportion of red giant stars to asymptotic giants and main-sequence stars suggests that the disk is dominated by an ancient (>10 Gyr) population. Detailed modeling of the color-magnitude diagram suggests that {approx}70% of the stellar mass in the NGC 404 disk formed by z {approx} 2 (10 Gyr ago) and at least {approx}90% formed prior to z {approx} 1 (8 Gyr ago). These results indicate that the stellar populations of the NGC 404 disk are on average significantly older than those of other nearby disk galaxies, suggesting that early- and late-type disks may have different long-term evolutionary histories, not simply differences in their recent star formation rates. Comparisons of the spatial distribution of the young stellar mass and FUV emission in Galaxy Evolution Explorer images show that the brightest FUV regions contain the youngest stars, but that some young stars (<160 Myr) lie outside of these regions. FUV luminosity appears to be strongly affected by both age and stellar mass within individual regions. Finally, we use our measurements to infer the relationship between the star formation rate and the gas density of the disk at previous epochs. We find that most of the history of the NGC 404 disk is consistent with star formation that has decreased with the gas density according to the Schmidt law. However, {approx} 0

  6. Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopic Studies of the Properties of Dust from Oxygen-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch and Red Supergiant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Speck, A.; Volk, K.; Kemper, C.; Reach, W. T.; Lagadec, E.; Bernard, J.; McDonald, I.; Meixner, M.; Srinivasan, S.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the dust emission features seen in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of Oxygen-rich (O-rich) asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars. The spectra come from the Spitzer Legacy program SAGE-Spectroscopy (PI: F. Kemper) and other archival Spitzer-IRS programs. The broad 10 and 20 micron emission features attributed to amorphous dust of silicate composition seen in the spectra show evidence for systematic differences in the centroid of both emission features between O-rich AGB and RSG populations. Radiative transfer modeling using the GRAMS grid of models of AGB and RSG stars suggests that the centroid differences are due to differences in dust properties. We investigate differences in dust composition, size, shape, etc that might be responsible for these spectral differences. We explore how these differences may arise from the different circumstellar environments around RSG and O-rich AGB stars. BAS acknowledges funding from NASA ADAP grant NNX13AD54G.

  7. TWO DISTINCT RED GIANT BRANCH POPULATIONS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 2419 AS TRACERS OF A MERGER EVENT IN THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young-Wook; Han, Sang-Il; Joo, Seok-Joo; Jang, Sohee; Na, Chongsam; Lim, Dongwook; Kim, Hak-Sub; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Okamoto, Sakurako; Arimoto, Nobuo

    2013-11-20

    Recent spectroscopic observations of the outer halo globular cluster (GC) NGC 2419 show that it is unique among GCs, in terms of chemical abundance patterns, and some suggest that it was originated in the nucleus of a dwarf galaxy. Here we show, from the Subaru narrowband photometry employing a calcium filter, that the red giant branch (RGB) of this GC is split into two distinct subpopulations. Comparison with spectroscopy has confirmed that the redder RGB stars in the hk[=(Ca–b) – (b – y)] index are enhanced in [Ca/H] by ∼0.2 dex compared to the bluer RGB stars. Our population model further indicates that the calcium-rich second generation stars are also enhanced in helium abundance by a large amount (ΔY = 0.19). Our photometry, together with the results for other massive GCs (e.g., ω Cen, M22, and NGC 1851), suggests that the discrete distribution of RGB stars in the hk index might be a universal characteristic of this growing group of peculiar GCs. The planned narrowband calcium photometry for the Local Group dwarf galaxies would help to establish an empirical connection between these GCs and the primordial building blocks in the hierarchical merging paradigm of galaxy formation.

  8. Toward shrimp consumption without chemicals: Combined effects of freezing and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on some quality characteristics of Giant Red Shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) during storage.

    PubMed

    Bono, Gioacchino; Okpala, Charles Odilichukwu R; Alberio, Giuseppina R A; Messina, Concetta M; Santulli, Andrea; Giacalone, Gabriele; Spagna, Giovanni

    2016-04-15

    The combined effects of freezing and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (100% N2 and 50% N2+50% CO2) on some quality characteristics of Giant Red Shrimp (GRS) (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) was studied during 12-month storage. In particular, the quality characteristics determined proximal and gas compositions, melanosis scores, pH, total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as well as free amino acid (FAA). In addition, the emergent data were compared to those subject to vacuum packaging as well as conventional preservative method of sulphite treatment (SUL). Most determined qualities exhibited quantitative differences with storage. By comparisons, while pH and TVB-N statistically varied between treatments (P<0.05) and TBA that ranged between ∼0.15 and 0.30 mg MDA/kg appeared least at end of storage for 100% N2 treated-group, the latter having decreased melanosis scores showed such treatments with high promise to keep the colour of GRS sample hence, potential replacement for SUL group. By comparisons also, while some individual FAA values showed increases especially at the 100% N2-treated group, the total FAAs statistically differed with storage (P<0.05). The combination of freezing and MAP treatments as preservative treatment method shows high promise to influence some quality characteristics of GRS samples of this study. PMID:26616991

  9. SO and SO2 in mass-loss envelopes of red giants - Probes of nonequilibrium circumstellar chemistry and mass-loss rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Wannier, Peter G.

    1992-01-01

    SO emission was searched for in one or more of four transitions toward 23 oxygen-rich red giant or supergiant stars and one S star, selected primarily on the basis of their nonmaser SiO emission. SO was detected in a total of 14 circumstellar envelopes, 13 of which are new detections. The circumstellar abundance of SO (and SO2) is significantly enhanced over the equilibrium value achieved in the photospheres of these stars. In general, the SO abundances are significantly larger than predicted by nonequilibrium circumstellar chemistry models. Sulfur cannot be significantly depleted onto circumstellar grains, and probably exists as H2S (and/or SH) in the inner regions of the envelopes. The SO rotational-level population in most circumstellar envelopes observed is characterized by excitation temperatures less than or approximately equal to 50 K. The circumstellar abundance of SO2 is comparable to, or larger than, that of SO, ruling out the 'large' value adopted for the unshielded photodissociation rate for SO2 in recent models.

  10. Toward shrimp consumption without chemicals: Combined effects of freezing and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on some quality characteristics of Giant Red Shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) during storage.

    PubMed

    Bono, Gioacchino; Okpala, Charles Odilichukwu R; Alberio, Giuseppina R A; Messina, Concetta M; Santulli, Andrea; Giacalone, Gabriele; Spagna, Giovanni

    2016-04-15

    The combined effects of freezing and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (100% N2 and 50% N2+50% CO2) on some quality characteristics of Giant Red Shrimp (GRS) (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) was studied during 12-month storage. In particular, the quality characteristics determined proximal and gas compositions, melanosis scores, pH, total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as well as free amino acid (FAA). In addition, the emergent data were compared to those subject to vacuum packaging as well as conventional preservative method of sulphite treatment (SUL). Most determined qualities exhibited quantitative differences with storage. By comparisons, while pH and TVB-N statistically varied between treatments (P<0.05) and TBA that ranged between ∼0.15 and 0.30 mg MDA/kg appeared least at end of storage for 100% N2 treated-group, the latter having decreased melanosis scores showed such treatments with high promise to keep the colour of GRS sample hence, potential replacement for SUL group. By comparisons also, while some individual FAA values showed increases especially at the 100% N2-treated group, the total FAAs statistically differed with storage (P<0.05). The combination of freezing and MAP treatments as preservative treatment method shows high promise to influence some quality characteristics of GRS samples of this study.

  11. The Abundances of Neutron-capture Species in the Very Metal-poor Globular Cluster M15: A Uniform Analysis of Red Giant Branch and Red Horizontal Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Kraft, Robert P.; Sneden, Christopher; Preston, George W.; Cowan, John J.; Smith, Graeme H.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Burley, Gregory S.

    2011-06-01

    The globular cluster M15 is unique in its display of star-to-star variations in the neutron-capture elements. Comprehensive abundance surveys have been previously conducted for handfuls of M15 red giant branch (RGB) and red horizontal branch (RHB) stars. No attempt has been made to perform a single, self-consistent analysis of these stars, which exhibit a wide range in atmospheric parameters. In the current effort, a new comparative abundance derivation is presented for three RGB and six RHB members of the cluster. The analysis employs an updated version of the line transfer code MOOG, which now appropriately treats coherent, isotropic scattering. The apparent discrepancy in the previously reported values for the metallicity of M15 RGB and RHB stars is addressed and a resolute disparity of Δ(RHB - RGB) ≈ 0.1 dex in the iron abundance was found. The anti-correlative behavior of the light neutron-capture elements (Sr, Y, Zr) is clearly demonstrated with both Ba and Eu, standard markers of the s- and r-process, respectively. No conclusive detection of Pb was made in the RGB targets. Consequently for the M15 cluster, this suggests that the main component of the s-process has made a negligible contribution to those elements normally dominated by this process in solar system material. Additionally for the M15 sample, a large Eu abundance spread is confirmed, which is comparable to that of the halo field at the same metallicity. These abundance results are considered in the discussion of the chemical inhomogeneity and nucleosynthetic history of M15.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances for red giants in NGC 6342 and NGC 6366 (Johnson+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. I.; Caldwell, N.; Rich, R. M.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Hsyu, T.

    2016-09-01

    The spectra for this project were obtained using the Hectochelle and Hydra multi-fiber bench spectrographs mounted on the MMT 6.5m and WIYN 3.5m telescopes, respectively. NGC6342 was observed with Hectochelle on 2014 June 18 and also with Hydra on 2013 June 27. However, NGC6366 was only observed with Hydra on 2012 May 18. The Hectochelle observations consisted of a 2400 and 2065s exposure set using the 110 line/mm Echelle grating, the "CJ26" filter, and 2*1 (spatial*dispersion) binning to achieve a resolving power of R=λ/Δλ~38000. Similarly, the Hydra observations consisted of 3*3600s exposures with the bench configured to use the 316line/mm Echelle grating, the X18 filter, the red camera and fibers, and 2*1 binning to achieve a resolving power of R~18000. The spectra spanned approximately 6140-6310Å for the Hectochelle data and 6080-6390Å for the Hydra data. The target stars for both clusters were selected using photometry and coordinates available through the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS; Cutri et al. 2003, Cat. II/246). (5 data files).

  13. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A.; Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Natta, A.; Scholz, A.

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  14. Disk Dispersal Around Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David

    2004-01-01

    We first review the evidence pertaining to the lifetimes of planet-forming disks of gas and dust around young stars and discuss possible disk dispersal mechanisms: 1) viscous accretion of material onto the central source, 2) close stellar encounters, 3) stellar winds, and 4) photoevaporation caused by the heating of the disk surface by ultraviolet radiation. Photoevaporation is likely the most important dispersal mechanism for the outer regions of disks, and this talk focuses on the evaporation caused by the presence of a nearby, luminous star rather than the central star itself. We also focus on disks around low-mass stars like the Sun rather than high-mass stars, which we have treated previously. Stars often form in clusters and the ultraviolet flux from the most luminous star in the cluster can have a dramatic effect on the disk orbiting a nearby low-mass star. We apply our theoretical models to the evaporating protoplanetary disks (or "proplyds") in the Trapezium cluster in Orion, to the formation of gas giant planets like Jupiter around Sun-like stars in the Galaxy, and to the formation of Kuiper belts around low mass stars. We find a possible explanation for the differences between Neptune and Jupiter, and make a prediction concerning recent searches for giant planets in large clusters. We discuss recent models of the infrared spectra from gaseous disks around young stars.

  15. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    bulges because the latter retain a `memory' of their disky origin. That is, they have one or more characteristics of disks: (1) flatter shapes than those of classical bulges, (2) correspondingly large ratios of ordered to random velocities, (3) small velocity dispersions with respect to the Faber-Jackson correlation between velocity dispersion and bulge luminosity, (4) spiral structure or nuclear bars in the `bulge' part of the light profile, (5) nearly exponential brightness profiles and (6) starbursts. So the cleanest examples of pseudobulges are recognisable. However, pseudo and classical bulges can coexist in the same galaxy. I review two important implications of secular evolution: (1) The existence of pseudobulges highlights a problem with our theory of galaxy formation by hierarchical clustering. We cannot explain galaxies that are completely bulgeless. Galaxy mergers are expected to happen often enough so that every giant galaxy should have a classical bulge. But we observe that bulgeless giant galaxies are common in field environments. We now realise that many dense centres of galaxies that we used to think are bulges were not made by mergers; they were grown out of disks. So the challenge gets more difficult. This is the biggest problem faced by our theory of galaxy formation. (2) Pseudobulges are observed to contain supermassive black holes (BHs), but they do not show the well-known, tight correlations between BH mass and the mass and velocity dispersion of the host bulge. This leads to the suggestion that there are two fundamentally different BH feeding processes. Rapid global inward gas transport in galaxy mergers leads to giant BHs that correlate with host ellipticals and classical bulges, whereas local and more stochastic feeding of small BHs in largely bulgeless galaxies evidently involves too little energy feedback to result in BH-host coevolution. It is an important success of the secular evolution picture that morphological differences can be used to

  16. ASTE CO (3-2) MAPPING TOWARD THE WHOLE OPTICAL DISK OF M 83: PROPERTIES OF INTER-ARM GIANT MOLECULAR-CLOUD ASSOCIATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Tosaki, Tomoka; Kuno, Nario; Fukuhara, Masayuki; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Handa, Toshihiro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Ezawa, Hajime; Sorai, Kazuo; Tanaka, Kunihiko

    2009-12-01

    We present a new on-the-fly mapping of CO (J = 3-2) line emission with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment toward the 8' x 8' (or 10.5 x 10.5 kpc at the distance of 4.5 Mpc) region of the nearby barred spiral galaxy M 83 at an effective resolution of 25''. Due to its very high sensitivity, our CO (J = 3 - 2) map can depict not only spiral arm structures but also spur-like substructures extended in inter-arm regions. This spur-like substructures in CO (J = 3-2) emission are well coincident with the distribution of massive star-forming regions traced by Halpha luminosity and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera 8 mum emission. We have identified 54 CO (J = 3-2) clumps as Giant Molecular-cloud Associations (GMAs) employing the CLUMPFIND algorithm, and have obtained their sizes, velocity dispersions, virial masses, and CO luminosity masses. We found that the virial parameter alpha, which is defined as the ratio of the virial mass to the CO luminosity mass, is almost unity for GMAs in spiral arms, whereas there exist some GMAs whose alpha are 3-10 in the inter-arm region. We found that GMAs with higher alpha tend not to be associated with massive star-forming regions, while other virialized GMAs are. Since alpha mainly depends on velocity dispersion of the GMA, we suppose that the onset of star formation in these unvirialized GMAs with higher alpha are suppressed by an increase in internal velocity dispersions of giant molecular clouds within these GMAs due to shear motion.

  17. Ca II Triplet Spectroscopy of Small Magellanic Cloud Red Giants. IV. Abundances for a Large Sample of Field Stars and Comparison with the Cluster Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Geisler, D.; Carraro, G.; Clariá, J. J.; Villanova, S.; Gramajo, L. V.; Sarajedini, A.; Grocholski, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper represents a major step forward in the systematic and homogeneous study of Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) star clusters and field stars carried out by applying the calcium triplet technique. We present in this work the radial velocity and metallicity of approximately 400 red giant stars in 15 SMC fields, with typical errors of about 7 km s-1 and 0.16 dex, respectively. We added to this information our previously determined metallicity values for 29 clusters and approximately 350 field stars using the identical techniques. Using this enlarged sample, we analyze the metallicity distribution and gradient in this galaxy. We also compare the chemical properties of the clusters and of their surrounding fields. We find a number of surprising results. While the clusters, taken as a whole, show no strong evidence for a metallicity gradient (MG), the field stars exhibit a clear negative gradient in the inner region of the SMC, consistent with the recent results of Dobbie et al. For distances to the center of the galaxy less than 4°, field stars show a considerably smaller metallicity dispersion than that of the clusters. However, in the external SMC regions, clusters and field stars exhibit similar metallicity dispersions. Moreover, in the inner region of the SMC, clusters appear to be concentrated in two groups: one more metal-poor and another more metal-rich than field stars. Individually considered, neither cluster group presents an MG. Most surprisingly, the MG for both stellar populations (clusters and field stars) appears to reverse sign in the outer regions of the SMC. The difference between the cluster metallicity and the mean metallicity of the surrounding field stars turns out to be a strong function of the cluster metallicity. These results could be indicating different chemical evolution histories for these two SMC stellar populations. They could also indicate variations in the chemical behavior of the SMC in its internal and external regions.

  18. Looks like a duck, moves like a duck, but does it quack like a duck? Asteroseismology of red-giant stars in clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglio, Andrea; Brogaard, Karsten; Handberg, Rasmus

    2015-08-01

    Undoubtedly one the highlights of the Kepler asteroseismology programme has been the detection of solar-like oscillations in giants belonging to the open clusters NGC 6791, NGC 6819, and NGC 6811. The availability of such constraints has made it possible to infer precise stellar properties (e.g. radius, mass, evolutionary state, age) on a star-by-star basis.These constraints give us a “new pair of eyes” to look at clusters, and they open several exciting opportunities. Based on a detailed analysis of the complete set of 4-years-long Kepler data, we present clear evidence for stars that have undergone non-standard evolution (evolved blue stragglers, low-mass Li-rich stars). We then illustrate the potential of integrated-mass-loss and mass-loss-dispersion measurements in both NGC6791 and NGC6819, which suggest a small true mass scatter among the red-clump stars and thus a very small mass-loss dispersion.We will then show examples of how our analysis based on individual-mode frequencies, as opposed to average seismic parameters and scaling relations, allow us to determine with higher accuracy stellar properties, and to probe features in the deep stellar interior (i.e. acoustic glitches related to Helium ionisation, properties of near-core mixing in the He-core-burning phase).Finally, we will discuss the prospects for seismic analyses of other clusters, in particular the globular cluster M4 which could reveal new insights into mass-loss dispersion and its effect on the horizontal-branch morphology.

  19. Ca II Triplet Spectroscopy of Small Magellanic Cloud Red Giants. IV. Abundances for a Large Sample of Field Stars and Comparison with the Cluster Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Geisler, D.; Carraro, G.; Clariá, J. J.; Villanova, S.; Gramajo, L. V.; Sarajedini, A.; Grocholski, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper represents a major step forward in the systematic and homogeneous study of Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) star clusters and field stars carried out by applying the calcium triplet technique. We present in this work the radial velocity and metallicity of approximately 400 red giant stars in 15 SMC fields, with typical errors of about 7 km s‑1 and 0.16 dex, respectively. We added to this information our previously determined metallicity values for 29 clusters and approximately 350 field stars using the identical techniques. Using this enlarged sample, we analyze the metallicity distribution and gradient in this galaxy. We also compare the chemical properties of the clusters and of their surrounding fields. We find a number of surprising results. While the clusters, taken as a whole, show no strong evidence for a metallicity gradient (MG), the field stars exhibit a clear negative gradient in the inner region of the SMC, consistent with the recent results of Dobbie et al. For distances to the center of the galaxy less than 4°, field stars show a considerably smaller metallicity dispersion than that of the clusters. However, in the external SMC regions, clusters and field stars exhibit similar metallicity dispersions. Moreover, in the inner region of the SMC, clusters appear to be concentrated in two groups: one more metal-poor and another more metal-rich than field stars. Individually considered, neither cluster group presents an MG. Most surprisingly, the MG for both stellar populations (clusters and field stars) appears to reverse sign in the outer regions of the SMC. The difference between the cluster metallicity and the mean metallicity of the surrounding field stars turns out to be a strong function of the cluster metallicity. These results could be indicating different chemical evolution histories for these two SMC stellar populations. They could also indicate variations in the chemical behavior of the SMC in its internal and external regions.

  20. The Carina project. VII. Toward the breaking of the age-metallicity degeneracy of red giant branch stars using the C {sub U,} {sub B,} {sub I} index

    SciTech Connect

    Monelli, M.; Milone, A. P.; Gallart, C.; Aparicio, A.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Walker, A. R.; Nonino, M.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Pulone, L.; Thévenin, F.

    2014-12-01

    We present an analysis of photometric and spectroscopic data of the Carina dSph galaxy, testing a new approach similar to that used to disentangle multiple populations in Galactic globular clusters (GCs). We show that a proper color combination is able to separate a significant fraction of the red giant branch (RGB) of the two main Carina populations (the old one, ∼12 Gyr, and the intermediate-age one, 4-8 Gyr). In particular, the c {sub U,} {sub B,} {sub I} = (U – B) – (B – I) pseudo-color allows us to follow the RGB of both populations along a relevant portion of the RGB. We find that the oldest stars have a more negative c {sub U,} {sub B,} {sub I} pseudo-color than intermediate-age ones. We correlate the pseudo-color of RGB stars with their chemical properties, finding a significant trend between the iron content and the c {sub U,} {sub B,} {sub I}. Stars belonging to the old population are systematically more metal-poor ([Fe/H] =–2.32 ± 0.08 dex) than the intermediate-age ones ([Fe/H] =–1.82 ± 0.03 dex). This gives solid evidence of the chemical evolution history of this galaxy, and we have a new diagnostic that can allow us to break the age-metallicity degeneracy of H-burning advanced evolutionary phases. We compared the distribution of stars in the c {sub U,} {sub B,} {sub I} plane with theoretical isochrones, finding that no satisfactory agreement can be reached with models developed in a theoretical framework based on standard heavy element distributions. Finally, we discuss possible systematic differences when compared with multiple populations in GCs.

  1. The morphology of the sub-giant branch and red clump reveal no sign of age spreads in intermediate-age clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, N.; Niederhofer, F.

    2015-04-01

    A recent surprise in stellar cluster research, made possible through the precision of Hubble Space Telescope photometry, was that some intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) clusters in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds have main-sequence turn-off (MSTO) widths that are significantly broader than would be expected for a simple stellar population (SSP). One interpretation of these extended MSTOs (eMSTOs) is that age spreads of the order of ˜500 Myr exist within the clusters, radically redefining our view of stellar clusters, which are traditionally thought of as single-age, single-metallicity stellar populations. Here we test this interpretation by studying other regions of the CMD that should also be affected by such large age spreads, namely the width of the sub-giant branch (SGB) and the red clump (RC). We study two massive clusters in the LMC that display the eMSTO phenomenon (NGC 1806 and NGC 1846) and show that both have SGB and RC morphologies that are in conflict with expectations if large age spreads exist within the clusters. We conclude that the SGB and RC widths are inconsistent with extended star formation histories within these clusters, hence age spreads are not likely to be the cause of the eMSTO phenomenon. Our results are in agreement with recent studies that also have cast doubt on whether large age spreads can exist in massive clusters; namely the failure to find age spreads in young massive clusters, a lack of gas/dust detected within massive clusters, and homogeneous abundances within clusters that exhibit the eMSTO phenomenon.

  2. The Contribution of Thermally-Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch and Red Supergiant Starts to the Luminosities of the Magellanic Clouds at 1-24 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melbourne, J.; Boyer, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    We present the near-through mid-infrared flux contribution of thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) and massive red supergiant (RSG) stars to the luminosities of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively). Combined, the peak contribution from these cool evolved stars occurs at approx 3 - 4 micron, where they produce 32% of the SMC light, and 25% of the LMC flux. The TP-AGB star contribution also peaks at approx 3 - 4 micron and amounts to 21% in both galaxies. The contribution from RSG stars peaks at shorter wavelengths, 2.2 micron, where they provide 11% of the SMC flux, and 7% for the LMC. Both TP-AGB and RSG stars are short lived, and thus potentially impose a large stochastic scatter on the near-IR derived mass-to-light (M/L) ratios of galaxies at rest-frame 1 - 4 micron. To minimize their impact on stellar mass estimates, one can use the M/L ratio at shorter wavelengths (e.g., at 0.8 - 1 micron). At longer wavelengths (much > 8 micron), emission from dust in the interstellar medium dominates the flux. In the LMC, which shows strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission at 8 micron, TP-AGB and RSG contribute less than 4% of the 8 micron flux. However, 19% of the SMC 8 micron flux is from evolved stars, nearly half of which is produced by the rarest, dustiest, carbon-rich TP-AGB stars. Thus, star formation rates of galaxies, based on an 8 micron flux (e.g., observed-frame 24 micron at z = 2), may be biased modestly high, especially for galaxies with little PAH emission.

  3. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io

  4. Formation of Giant Planets and Brown Dwarves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2003-01-01

    According to the prevailing core instability model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. Models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. Ongoing theoretical modeling of accretion of giant planet atmospheres, as well as observations of protoplanetary disks, will help decide this issue. Observations of extrasolar planets around main sequence stars can only provide a lower limit on giant planet formation frequency . This is because after giant planets form, gravitational interactions with material within the protoplanetary disk may cause them to migrat inwards and be lost to the central star. The core instability model can only produce planets greater than a few jovian masses within protoplanetary disks that are more viscous than most such disks are believed to be. Thus, few brown dwarves (objects massive enough to undergo substantial deuterium fusion, estimated to occur above approximately 13 jovian masses) are likely to be formed in this manner. Most brown dwarves, as well as an unknown number of free-floating objects of planetary mass, are probably formed as are stars, by the collapse of extended gas/dust clouds into more compact objects.

  5. Gravitational Instability in Planetesimal Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolin, Bryce T.; Lithwick, Yoram; Pan, Margaret; Rein, Hanno; Wu, Yanqin

    2014-11-01

    Gravitational instability (GI) has been proposed as a method of forming giant gas planets enhanced by disk thermodynamics in a protoplanetary disk (Boss, 1997, Science 276; Durisen et al., 2007, Protostars and Planets V) and as a method of forming planetesimals through the focusing of boulders by the interaction between solids and gases in a turbulent circumstellar disk (Johansen et al., 2007, Nature 448; Youdin & Goodman, 2005, Astrophys. J. 620). GI is mediated through a gaseous circumstellar disk in each each of these scenarios. We explore the possibility of GI occurring in a planetesimal disk devoid of gas. In this regime, mutual collisions between planetesimals are required to dissipate their orbital shear and velocity dispersion enough for collapse to occur as described by the Toomre stability criterion (Toomre, 1964, Astrophys. J. 139; Toomre, 1981, Structure and Evolution of Normal Galaxies). How frequent must collisions be between planetesimals in a gravitationally stable planetesimal disk for GI to occur? Are there collisional rates where GI is postponed indefinitely in an equilibrium state between gravitational stirring and collisional cooling? We present 3D shearing sheet simulations using the REBOUND N-body code with the symplectic epicyclic integrator (Rein & Liu, 2011, A&A 537; Rein & Tremaine, 2011, MNRAS 415) in which the candidate collision rates are within a few orders of magnitude of the disk dynamical lifetime. Our simulations suggest that collisions rate directly controls disk cooling. The shape of the disk cooling curve is independent of the collision rate when scaled to the collision time.

  6. SEARCHING FOR GAS GIANT PLANETS ON SOLAR SYSTEM SCALES: VLT NACO/APP OBSERVATIONS OF THE DEBRIS DISK HOST STARS HD172555 AND HD115892

    SciTech Connect

    Quanz, Sascha P.; Meyer, Michael R.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Girard, Julien H. V.; Kasper, Markus

    2011-08-01

    Using the Apodizing Phase Plate (APP) coronagraph of Very Large Telescope/NACO we searched for planetary mass companions around HD115892 and HD172555 in the thermal infrared at 4 {mu}m. Both objects harbor unusually luminous debris disks for their age and it has been suggested that small dust grains were produced recently in transient events (e.g., a collision) in these systems. Such a collision of planetesimals or protoplanets could have been dynamically triggered by yet unseen companions. We did not detect any companions in our images but derived the following detection limits: for both objects we would have detected companions with apparent magnitudes between {approx}13.2 and 14.1 mag at angular separations between 0.''4 and 1.''0 at the 5{sigma} level. For HD115892 we were sensitive to companions with 12.1 mag even at 0.''3. Using theoretical models these magnitudes are converted into mass limits. For HD115892 we would have detected objects with 10-15 M{sub Jup} at angular separations between 0.''4 and 1.''0 (7-18 AU). At 0.''3 ({approx}5.5 AU) the detection limit was {approx}>25 M{sub Jup}. For HD172555 we reached detection limits between 2 and 3 M{sub Jup} at separations between 0.''5 and 1.''0 (15-29 AU). At 0.''4 ({approx}11 AU) the detection limit was {approx}>4 M{sub Jup}. Despite the non-detections, our data demonstrate the unprecedented contrast performance of NACO/APP in the thermal infrared at very small inner working angles and we show that our observations are mostly background limited at separations {approx}>0.''5.

  7. The Young Outer Disk of M83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2010-08-01

    Deep near-infrared images recorded with NICI on Gemini South are used to investigate the evolved stellar content in the outer southeast quadrant of the spiral galaxy M83. A diffuse population of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is detected, indicating that there are stars outside of the previously identified young and intermediate age star clusters in the outer disk. The brightest AGB stars have M K >= -8, and the AGB luminosity function (LF) is well matched by model LFs that assume ages <=1 Gyr. The specific star formation rate (SFR) during the past few Gyr estimated from AGB star counts is consistent with that computed from mid-infrared observations of star clusters at similar radii, and it is concluded that the disruption timescale for star clusters in the outer disk is Lt1 Gyr. The LF and specific frequency of AGB stars vary with galactocentric radius, in a manner that is indicative of lower luminosity-weighted ages at larger radii. Modest numbers of red supergiants are also found, indicating that there has been star formation during the past 100 Myr, while the ratio of C stars to M giants is consistent with that expected for a solar metallicity system that has experienced a constant SFR for the past few Gyr. The results drawn from the properties of resolved AGB stars are broadly consistent with those deduced from integrated light observations in the UV. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a co-operative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council of Canada (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), the Ministerio da Ciencia e Technologia (Brazil), and the Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion Productiva (Argentina).

  8. THE ROLE OF MULTIPLICITY IN DISK EVOLUTION AND PLANET FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael J.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Martinache, Frantz

    2012-01-20

    The past decade has seen a revolution in our understanding of protoplanetary disk evolution and planet formation in single-star systems. However, the majority of solar-type stars form in binary systems, so the impact of binary companions on protoplanetary disks is an important element in our understanding of planet formation. We have compiled a combined multiplicity/disk census of Taurus-Auriga, plus a restricted sample of close binaries in other regions, in order to explore the role of multiplicity in disk evolution. Our results imply that the tidal influence of a close ({approx}<40 AU) binary companion significantly hastens the process of protoplanetary disk dispersal, as {approx}2/3 of all close binaries promptly disperse their disks within {approx}<1 Myr after formation. However, prompt disk dispersal only occurs for a small fraction of wide binaries and single stars, with {approx}80%-90% retaining their disks for at least {approx}2-3 Myr (but rarely for more than {approx}5 Myr). Our new constraints on the disk clearing timescale have significant implications for giant planet formation; most single stars have 3-5 Myr within which to form giant planets, whereas most close binary systems would have to form giant planets within {approx}<1 Myr. If core accretion is the primary mode for giant planet formation, then gas giants in close binaries should be rare. Conversely, since almost all single stars have a similar period of time within which to form gas giants, their relative rarity in radial velocity (RV) surveys indicates either that the giant planet formation timescale is very well matched to the disk dispersal timescale or that features beyond the disk lifetime set the likelihood of giant planet formation.

  9. Herniated Disk

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep them in place. As you age, the disks break down or degenerate. As they do, they lose their cushioning ability. This can lead to pain if the back is stressed. A herniated disk is a disk that ruptures. This allows the ...

  10. DUSTY DISKS AROUND WHITE DWARFS. I. ORIGIN OF DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ruobing; Wang Yan; Lin, D. N. C.; Liu, X.-W. E-mail: yuw123@psu.ed E-mail: liuxw@bac.pku.edu.c

    2010-06-01

    A significant fraction of the mature FGK stars have cool dusty disks at least an order of magnitude brighter than the solar system's outer zodiacal light. Since such dusts must be continually replenished, they are generally assumed to be the collisional fragments of residual planetesimals analogous to the Kuiper-Belt objects. At least 10% of solar-type stars also bear gas giant planets. The fraction of stars with known gas giants or detectable debris disks (or both) appears to increase with the stellar mass. Here, we examine the dynamical evolution of systems of long-period gas giant planets and residual planetesimals as their host stars evolve off the main sequence, lose mass, and form planetary nebula around remnant white dwarf cores. The orbits of distant gas giant planets and super-km-size planetesimals expand adiabatically. During the most intense asymptotic giant branch mass-loss phase, sub-meter-size particles migrate toward their host stars due to the strong hydrodynamical drag by the intense stellar wind. Along their migration paths, gas giant planets capture and sweep up sub-km-size planetesimals onto their mean-motion resonances. These planetesimals also acquire modest eccentricities which are determined by the mass of the perturbing planets, and the rate and speed of stellar mass loss. The swept-up planetesimals undergo disruptive collisions which lead to the production of grains with an extended size range. The radiation drag on these particles is ineffective against the planets' resonant barrier and they form 30-50 AU size rings which can effectively reprocess the stellar irradiation in the form of FIR continuum. We identify the recently discovered dust ring around the white dwarf WD 2226-210 at the center of the Helix nebula as a prototype of such disks and suggest such rings may be common.

  11. Origins of the thick disk of the Milky Way Galaxy as traced by the elemental abundances of metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruchti, Gregory Randal

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of disks in galaxies in the early universe is very important for understanding the forms of galaxies today. Recent studies of the Milky Way Galaxy, an ideal galaxy for analyzing individual stars within its disk, indicate that the formation of the Galactic disk is very complex. Most of these studies, however, contain very few stars at low metallicities. Metal-poor stars are important, because they are potential survivors of the earliest star formation in the disk of the Milky Way Galaxy. I therefore measured elemental abundances of a statistically significant sample of metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≲ - 1.0) stars in the disk of the Galaxy, chosen from the RAVE survey in order to study the early formation history of the Galactic disk. I report on a sample of 214 red giant branch, 31 red clump/horizontal branch, and 74 dwarf/sub-giant metal-poor thick-disk candidate stars. I found that the [alpha/Fe] ratios are enhanced implying that enrichment proceeded by purely core-collapse supernovae. This requires that star formation in each star forming region had a short duration. The relative lack of scatter in the [alpha/Fe] ratios implies good mixing in the interstellar medium prior to star formation. In addition, the ratios resemble that of the halo, indicating that the halo and thick disk share a similar massive star initial mass function. I further looked for radial or vertical gradients in metallicity or alpha-enhancement for the metal-poor thick disk, never before done for such a sample. I found no radial gradient and a moderate vertical gradient in my derived iron abundance, and only minimal-amplitude gradients in [alpha/Fe]. In addition, I show that the distribution of orbital eccentricities for my metal-poor thick-disk stars requires that the thick disk was formed primarily in situ, with direct accretion being extremely minimal. I conclude that the alpha-enhancement of the metal-poor thick disk, and the lack of obvious radial or

  12. Accretion of solid materials onto circumplanetary disks from protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigawa, Takayuki; Maruta, Akito; Machida, Masahiro N.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the accretion of solid materials onto circumplanetary disks from heliocentric orbits rotating in protoplanetary disks, which is a key process for the formation of regular satellite systems. In the late stage of the gas-capturing phase of giant planet formation, the accreting gas from protoplanetary disks forms circumplanetary disks. Since the accretion flow toward the circumplanetary disks affects the particle motion through gas drag force, we use hydrodynamic simulation data for the gas drag term to calculate the motion of solid materials. We consider a wide range of size for the solid particles (10{sup –2}-10{sup 6} m), and find that the accretion efficiency of the solid particles peaks around 10 m sized particles because energy dissipation of drag with circum-planetary disk gas in this size regime is most effective. The efficiency for particles larger than 10 m becomes lower because gas drag becomes less effective. For particles smaller than 10 m, the efficiency is lower because the particles are strongly coupled with the background gas flow, which prevents particles from accretion. We also find that the distance from the planet where the particles are captured by the circumplanetary disks is in a narrow range and well described as a function of the particle size.

  13. Resolving the stellar halos of six massive disk galaxies beyond the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Radburn-Smith, David J.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Holwerda, Benne; Streich, David

    2016-08-01

    Models of galaxy formation in a hierarchical universe predict substantial scatter in the halo-to-halo stellar properties, owing to stochasticity in galaxies' merger histories. Currently, only few detailed observations of stellar halos are available, mainly for the Milky Way and M31. We present the stellar halo color/metallicity and density profiles of red giant branch stars out to ~60 kpc along the minor axis of six massive nearby Milky Way-like galaxies beyond the Local Group from the Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disks and Star clusters (GHOSTS) HST survey. This enlargement of the sample of galaxies with observations of stellar halo properties is needed to understand the range of possible halo properties, i.e. not only the mean properties but also the halo-to-halo scatter, what a `typical' halo looks like, and how similar the Milky Way halo is to other halos beyond the Local Group.

  14. Red Clump Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi, Léo

    2016-09-01

    Low-mass stars in their core-helium-burning stage define the sharpest feature present in the color-magnitude diagrams of nearby galaxy systems: the red clump (RC). This feature has given rise to a series of methods aimed at measuring the distributions of stellar distances and extinctions, especially in the Magellanic Clouds and Milky Way Bulge. Because the RC is easily recognizable within the data of large spectroscopic and asteroseismic surveys, it is a useful probe of stellar densities, kinematics, and chemical abundances across the Milky Way disk; it can be applied up to larger distances than that allowed by dwarfs; and it has better accuracy than is possible with other kinds of giants. Here, we discuss the reasons for the RC narrowness in several sets of observational data, its fine structure, and the presence of systematic changes in the RC properties as regards age, metallicity, and the observed passband. These factors set the limits on the validity and accuracy of several RC methods defined in the literature.

  15. Photoevaporating Disks Around Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David

    2004-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation from the central star or from a nearby massive star heats the surfaces of protoplanetary disks and causes the outer, less gravitationally bound part of the disks, to photoevaporate into interstellar space. Photoevaporation is likely the most important dispersal mechanism for the outer regions of disks. We focus in this talk on disks around low-mass stars like the Sun rather than high-mass stars, which we have treated previously. Stars often form in clusters and the ultraviolet flux from the most luminous star in the cluster can have a dramatic effect on the disk orbiting a nearby low-mass star. We apply our theoretical models to the evaporating protoplanetary disks (or "proplyds") in the Trapezium cluster in Orion, to the formation of gas giant planets like Jupiter around Sun-like stars in the Galaxy, and to the formation of Kuiper belts around low mass stars. We discuss recent models of the effects of the radiation from the central low mass star including both the predicted infrared spectra from the heated disks as well as preliminary results on the photoevaporation rates.

  16. Disk Dispersal Around Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Yorke, Harold W.; Johnstone, Doug; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    We review the evidence pertaining to the lifetimes of planet-forming disks and discuss possible disk dispersal mechanisms: 1) viscous accretion of material onto the central source, 2) close stellar encounters, 3) stellar winds, and 4) by ultraviolet radiation. We focus on 3) and 4) and describe the quasi-steady state appearance and the overall evolution of disks under the influence of winds and radiation from the central star and of radiation from external OB stars. Viscous accretion likely dominates disk dispersal in the, inner disk (r approx. less than A 10 AU), while photoevaporation is the principal process of disk dispersal outside of r approximately greater than 10 AU. Disk dispersed timescales are compared and discussed in relation to theoretical estimates for planet formation timescales. Photoevaporation may explain the large differences in the hydrogen content of the giant planets in the solar system. The commonly held belief that our early sun's stellar wind dispersed the solar nebula is called into question.

  17. Cannibals in the thick disk: the young α-rich stars as evolved blue stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jofré, P.; Jorissen, A.; Van Eck, S.; Izzard, R. G.; Masseron, T.; Hawkins, K.; Gilmore, G.; Paladini, C.; Escorza, A.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Manick, R.

    2016-10-01

    Spectro-seismic measurements of red giants enabled the recent discovery of stars in the thick disk that are more massive than 1.4 M⊙. While it has been claimed that most of these stars are younger than the rest of the typical thick disk stars, we show evidence that they might be products of mass transfer in binary evolution, notably evolved blue stragglers. We took new measurements of the radial velocities in a sample of 26 stars from APOKASC, including 13 "young" stars and 13 "old" stars with similar stellar parameters but with masses below 1.2 M⊙ and found that more of the young starsappear to be in binary systems with respect to the old stars.Furthermore, we show that the young stars do not follow the expected trend of [C/H] ratios versus mass for individual stars. However, with a population synthesis of low-mass stars including binary evolution and mass transfer, we can reproduce the observed [C/N] ratios versus mass. Our study shows how asteroseismology of solar-type red giants provides us with a unique opportunity to study the evolution of field blue stragglers after they have left the main-sequence.

  18. Optical Disks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, John C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This four-article section focuses on information storage capacity of the optical disk covering the information workstation (uses microcomputer, optical disk, compact disc to provide reference information, information content, work product support); use of laser videodisc technology for dissemination of agricultural information; encoding databases…

  19. A TALE OF DWARFS AND GIANTS: USING A z = 1.62 CLUSTER TO UNDERSTAND HOW THE RED SEQUENCE GREW OVER THE LAST 9.5 BILLION YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnick, Gregory H.; Tran, Kim-Vy; Papovich, Casey; Momcheva, Ivelina; Willmer, Christopher

    2012-08-10

    We study the red sequence in a cluster of galaxies at z = 1.62 and follow its evolution over the intervening 9.5 Gyr to the present day. Using deep YJK{sub s} imaging with the HAWK-I instrument on the Very Large Telescope, we identify a tight red sequence and construct its rest-frame i-band luminosity function (LF). There is a marked deficit of faint red galaxies in the cluster that causes a turnover in the LF. We compare the red-sequence LF to that for clusters at z < 0.8, correcting the luminosities for passive evolution. The shape of the cluster red-sequence LF does not evolve between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 but at z < 0.6 the faint population builds up significantly. Meanwhile, between z = 1.62 and 0.6 the inferred total light on the red sequence grows by a factor of {approx}2 and the bright end of the LF becomes more populated. We construct a simple model for red-sequence evolution that grows the red sequence in total luminosity and matches the constant LF shape at z > 0.6. In this model the cluster accretes blue galaxies from the field whose star formation is quenched and who are subsequently allowed to merge. We find that three to four mergers among cluster galaxies during the 4 Gyr between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 match the observed LF evolution between the two redshifts. The inferred merger rate is consistent with other studies of this cluster. Our result supports the picture that galaxy merging during the major growth phase of massive clusters is an important process in shaping the red-sequence population at all luminosities.

  20. Detailed Abundance Analysis of a Metal-poor Giant in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryde, N.; Fritz, T. K.; Rich, R. M.; Thorsbro, B.; Schultheis, M.; Origlia, L.; Chatzopoulos, S.

    2016-11-01

    We report the first results from our program to examine the metallicity distribution of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster connected to Sgr A*, with the goal of inferring the star formation and enrichment history of this system, as well as its connection and relationship with the central 100 pc of the bulge/bar system. We present the first high-resolution (R ∼ 24,000), detailed abundance analysis of a K = 10.2 metal-poor, alpha-enhanced red giant projected at 1.5 pc from the Galactic center, using NIRSPEC on Keck II. A careful analysis of the dynamics and color of the star locates it at about {26}-16+54 pc line-of-sight distance in front of the nuclear cluster. It probably belongs to one of the nuclear components (cluster or disk), not to the bar/bulge or classical disk. A detailed spectroscopic synthesis, using a new line list in the K band, finds [Fe/H] ∼ ‑1.0 and [α/Fe] ∼ +0.4, consistent with stars of similar metallicity in the bulge. As known giants with comparable [Fe/H] and alpha enhancement are old, we conclude that this star is most likely to be a representative of the ∼10 Gyr old population. This is also the most metal-poor-confirmed red giant yet discovered in the vicinity of the nuclear cluster of the Galactic center. We consider recent reports in the literature of a surprisingly large number of metal-poor giants in the Galactic center, but the reported gravity of {log}g∼ 4 for these stars calls into question their reported metallicities.

  1. Formation of giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magni, G.; Coradini, A.

    2003-04-01

    In this presentation we address the problem of the formation of giant planets and their regular satellites. We study in particular the problem of formation of the Jupiter System comparing the results of the model with the present characteristics of the system, in order to identify what are those better represented by our approach. In fact here, using a 3-D hydro-dynamical code, we study the modalities of gas accretion onto a solid core, believed to be the seed from which Jupiter started. To do that we have modelled three main regions: the central planet, a turbulent accretion disk surrounding it and an extended region from which the gas is collected. In the extended region we treat the gas as a frictionless fluid. Our main goal is to identify what are the characteristics of the planet during its growth and the physical parameters affecting its growth at the expenses of the nebular gas present in the feeding zone. Moreover we want to understand what are the thermodynamical parameters characterizing the gas captured by the planet and swirling around it. Finally, we check if a disk can be formed in prograde rotation around the planet and if this disk can survive the final phases of the planet formation. Due to the interaction between the accreting planet and the disk it has been necessary to develop a complete model of the Jupiter’s structure. In fact the radiation emitted by the growing planet heats up the surrounding gas. In turn the planet’s thermodynamic structure depend on the mass accretion rate onto it. When the accretion is rapid, shock waves in the gas are formed close to the planet. This region cannot be safely treated by a numerical code; for this reason we have developed a semi-analytically model of a a turbulent accretion disk to be considered as transition between the planet and the surrounding disk.

  2. The Penn State - Toruń Centre for Astronomy Planet Search stars. II. Lithium abundance analysis of the red giant clump sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamów, M.; Niedzielski, A.; Villaver, E.; Wolszczan, A.; Nowak, G.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Standard stellar evolution theory does not predict existence of Li-rich giant stars. Several mechanisms for Li-enrichment have been proposed to operate at certain locations inside some stars. The actual mechanism operating in real stars is still unknown. Aims: Using the sample of 348 stars from the Penn State - Toruń Centre for Astronomy Planet Search, for which uniformly determined atmospheric parameters are available, with chemical abundances and rotational velocities presented here, we investigate various channels of Li enrichment in giants. We also study Li-overabundant giants in more detail in search for origin of their peculiarities. Methods: Our work is based on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope spectra obtained with the High Resolution Spectrograph, which we use for determination of abundances and rotational velocities. The Li abundance was determined from the 7Li λ670.8 nm line, while we use a more extended set of lines for α-elements abundances. In a series of Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, we compare Li-overabundant giants with other stars in the sample. We also use available IR photometric and kinematical data in search for evidence of mass-loss. We investigate properties of the most Li-abundant giants in more detail by using multi-epoch precise radial velocities. Results: We present Li and α-elements abundances, as well as rotational velocities for 348 stars. We detected Li in 92 stars, of which 82 are giants. Eleven of them show significant Li abundance A(Li)NLTE> 1.4 and seven of them are Li-overabundant objects, according to common criterion of A(Li) > 1.5 and their location on HR diagram, including TYC 0684-00553-1 and TYC 3105-00152-1, which are two giants with Li abundances close to meteoritic level. For another 271 stars, upper limits of Li abundance are presented. We confirmed three objects with increased stellar rotation. We show that Li-overabundant giants are among the most massive stars from our sample and show larger than average

  3. A Kiloparsec-scale Nuclear Stellar Disk in the Milky Way as a Possible Explanation of the High Velocity Peaks in the Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debattista, Victor P.; Ness, Melissa; Earp, Samuel W. F.; Cole, David R.

    2015-10-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment has measured the stellar velocities of red giant stars in the inner Milky Way. We confirm that the line of sight velocity distributions (LOSVDs) in the mid-plane exhibit a second peak at high velocities, whereas those at | b| =2^\\circ do not. We use a high resolution simulation of a barred galaxy, which crucially includes gas and star formation, to guide our interpretation of the LOSVDs. We show that the data are fully consistent with the presence of a thin, rapidly rotating, nuclear disk extending to ∼1 kpc. This nuclear disk is orientated perpendicular to the bar and is likely to be composed of stars on x2 orbits. The gas in the simulation is able to fall onto such orbits, leading to stars populating an orthogonal disk.

  4. Uncommon Manifestations of Intervertebral Disk Pathologic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Diehn, Felix E; Maus, Timothy P; Morris, Jonathan M; Carr, Carrie M; Kotsenas, Amy L; Luetmer, Patrick H; Lehman, Vance T; Thielen, Kent R; Nassr, Ahmad; Wald, John T

    2016-01-01

    Beyond the familiar disk herniations with typical clinical features, intervertebral disk pathologic conditions can have a wide spectrum of imaging and clinical manifestations. The goal of this review is to illustrate and discuss unusual manifestations of intervertebral disk pathologic conditions that radiologists may encounter, including disk herniations in unusual locations, those with atypical imaging features, and those with uncommon pathophysiologic findings. Examples of atypical disk herniations presented include dorsal epidural, intradural, symptomatic thoracic (including giant calcified), extreme lateral (retroperitoneal), fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-avid, acute intravertebral (Schmorl node), and massive lumbar disk herniations. Examples of atypical pathophysiologic conditions covered are discal cysts, fibrocartilaginous emboli to the spinal cord, tiny calcified disks or disk-level spiculated osteophytes causing spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and intracranial hypotension, and pediatric acute calcific discitis. This broad gamut of disease includes a variety of sizes of disk pathologic conditions, from the tiny (eg, the minuscule calcified disks causing high-flow CSF leaks) to the extremely large (eg, giant calcified thoracic intradural disk herniations causing myelopathy). A spectrum of clinical acuity is represented, from hyperacute fibrocartilaginous emboli causing spinal cord infarct, to acute Schmorl nodes, to chronic intradural herniations. The entities included are characterized by a range of clinical courses, from the typically devastating cord infarct caused by fibrocartilaginous emboli, to the usually spontaneously resolving pediatric acute calcific discitis. Several conditions have important differential diagnostic considerations, and others have relatively diagnostic imaging findings. The pathophysiologic findings are well understood for some of these entities and poorly defined for others. Radiologists' knowledge of this broad scope of

  5. Supersized Disk (Artist's Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated ImageData Graph

    This illustration compares the size of a gargantuan star and its surrounding dusty disk (top) to that of our solar system. Monstrous disks like this one were discovered around two 'hypergiant' stars by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Astronomers believe these disks might contain the early 'seeds' of planets, or possibly leftover debris from planets that already formed.

    The hypergiant stars, called R 66 and R 126, are located about 170,000 light-years away in our Milky Way's nearest neighbor galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. The stars are about 100 times wider than the sun, or big enough to encompass an orbit equivalent to Earth's. The plump stars are heavy, at 30 and 70 times the mass of the sun, respectively. They are the most massive stars known to sport disks.

    The disks themselves are also bloated, with masses equal to several Jupiters. The disks begin at a distance approximately 120 times greater than that between Earth and the sun, or 120 astronomical units, and terminate at a distance of about 2,500 astronomical units.

    Hypergiant stars are the puffed-up, aging descendants of the most massive class of stars, called 'O' stars. The stars are so massive that their cores ultimately collapse under their own weight, triggering incredible explosions called supernovae. If any planets circled near the stars during one of these blasts, they would most likely be destroyed.

    The orbital distances in this picture are plotted on a logarithmic scale. This means that a given distance shown here represents proportionally larger actual distances as you move to the right. The sun and planets in our solar system have been scaled up in size for better viewing. Little Dust Grains in Giant Stellar Disks The graph above of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the composition of a monstrous disk of what may be planet-forming dust circling the colossal 'hypergiant' star

  6. Debris Disks in Aggregate: Using Hubble Space Telescope Coronagraphic Imagery to Understand the Scattered-Light Disk Detection Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite more than a decade of coronagraphic imaging of debris disk candidate stars, only 16 have been imaged in scattered light. Since imaged disks provide our best insight into processes which sculpt disks, and can provide signposts of the presence of giant planets at distances which would elude radial velocity and transit surveys, we need to understand under what conditions we detect the disks in scattered light, how these disks differ from the majority of debris disks, and how to increase the yield of disks which are imaged with 0.1" angular resolution. In this talk, I will review what we have learned from a shallow HSTINICMOS NIR survey of debris disks, and present first results from our on-going HST /STIS optical imaging of bright scattered-light disks.

  7. Herniated disk

    MedlinePlus

    ... roots. Slipped disks occur more often in middle-aged and older men, usually after strenuous activity. Other ... calm the nerves Muscle relaxants to relieve back spasms LIFESTYLE CHANGES If you are overweight, diet and ...

  8. Locating the Great Red Spot: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesniak, Michael V.; Stapleton, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Red Spot, a persistent storm in Jupiter's atmosphere, is the most prominent feature of that planet's disk as viewed from Earth. Combined with the fact that Jupiter is a gas giant planet and has no visible surface with discernible landmarks, this means that following the passage of the Great Red Spot is the primary method of observing the planet's rotation. Therefore, it is paramount for any program which generates synthetic images of the planet to accurately place the feature. The U.S. Naval Observatory's "Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object" online web service (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/diskmap.php) is such a program. The Great Red Spot's planetary latitude is locked between two of Jupiter's striated atmospheric layers at 22 °S. However, its planetary longitude is not constant; over time it migrates east and west along the atmospheric layer boundary it is trapped within. Observing and recording its longitude is made difficult because Jupiter's atmosphere is subject to differential rotation and the Great Red Spot slowly migrates with respect to the surrounding atmospheric layers. Furthermore, the Great Red Spot does not move at a uniform rate. Currently its relative motion is approximately 0°.051 per day. Since its first recorded observation in 1831, the Great Red Spot has made almost three complete laps around the planet at the 22nd parallel. "Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object" operates over any requested date between 1700 and 2100 A.D. Therefore, our treatment of the Great Red Spot needs to take into account both historical positions and future predicted motion. Based on researching past observations of the spot's position on the disk, we find that its behavior prior to 2009 is best represented by a 10-part piecewise function. Each component of the piecewise function is a 2nd order polynomial. Observations from 2009-present are better fit with a linear function; this function is used for future years by extrapolation. Using these fits

  9. THE NATURE OF TRANSITION CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS. II. SOUTHERN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Gisela A.; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto; Cieza, Lucas A.; Merin, Bruno; Smith Castelli, Analia V.; Allen, Lori E.; Morrell, Nidia

    2012-04-10

    Transition disk objects are pre-main-sequence stars with little or no near-IR excess and significant far-IR excess, implying inner opacity holes in their disks. Here we present a multifrequency study of transition disk candidates located in Lupus I, III, IV, V, VI, Corona Australis, and Scorpius. Complementing the information provided by Spitzer with adaptive optics (AO) imaging (NaCo, VLT), submillimeter photometry (APEX), and echelle spectroscopy (Magellan, Du Pont Telescopes), we estimate the multiplicity, disk mass, and accretion rate for each object in our sample in order to identify the mechanism potentially responsible for its inner hole. We find that our transition disks show a rich diversity in their spectral energy distribution morphology, have disk masses ranging from {approx}<1 to 10 M{sub JUP}, and accretion rates ranging from {approx}<10{sup -11} to 10{sup -7.7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Of the 17 bona fide transition disks in our sample, three, nine, three, and two objects are consistent with giant planet formation, grain growth, photoevaporation, and debris disks, respectively. Two disks could be circumbinary, which offers tidal truncation as an alternative origin of the inner hole. We find the same heterogeneity of the transition disk population in Lupus III, IV, and Corona Australis as in our previous analysis of transition disks in Ophiuchus while all transition disk candidates selected in Lupus V, VI turned out to be contaminating background asymptotic giant branch stars. All transition disks classified as photoevaporating disks have small disk masses, which indicates that photoevaporation must be less efficient than predicted by most recent models. The three systems that are excellent candidates for harboring giant planets potentially represent invaluable laboratories to study planet formation with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array.

  10. Overcoming Migration during Giant Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thommes, Edward W.; Nilsson, Leif; Murray, Norman

    2007-02-01

    In the core accretion model, gas giant formation is a race between growth and migration; for a core to become a Jovian planet, it must accrete its envelope before it spirals into the host star. We use a multizone numerical model to extend our previous investigation of the ``window of opportunity'' for gas giant formation within a disk. When the collision cross section enhancement due to core atmospheres is taken into account, we find that a broad range of protoplanetary disks possess such a window.

  11. Plasmofluidic Disk Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Min-Suk; Ku, Bonwoo; Kim, Yonghan

    2016-01-01

    Waveguide-coupled silicon ring or disk resonators have been used for optical signal processing and sensing. Large-scale integration of optical devices demands continuous reduction in their footprints, and ultimately they need to be replaced by silicon-based plasmonic resonators. However, few waveguide-coupled silicon-based plasmonic resonators have been realized until now. Moreover, fluid cannot interact effectively with them since their resonance modes are strongly confined in solid regions. To solve this problem, this paper reports realized plasmofluidic disk resonators (PDRs). The PDR consists of a submicrometer radius silicon disk and metal laterally surrounding the disk with a 30-nm-wide channel in between. The channel is filled with fluid, and the resonance mode of the PDR is strongly confined in the fluid. The PDR coupled to a metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal waveguide is implemented by using standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. If the refractive index of the fluid increases by 0.141, the transmission spectrum of the waveguide coupled to the PDR of radius 0.9 μm red-shifts by 30 nm. The PDR can be used as a refractive index sensor requiring a very small amount of analyte. Plus, the PDR filled with liquid crystal may be an ultracompact intensity modulator which is effectively controlled by small driving voltage. PMID:26979929

  12. AN ALMA DISK MASS FOR THE CANDIDATE PROTOPLANETARY COMPANION TO FW TAU

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Adam L.; Andrews, Sean M.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Herczeg, Gregory; Ireland, Michael J.; Liu, Michael C.; Metchev, Stanimir; Cruz, Kelle L.

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the FW Tau system, a close binary pair of M5 stars with a wide-orbit (300 AU projected separation) substellar companion. The companion is extremely faint and red in the optical and near-infrared, but boasts a weak far-infrared excess and optical/near-infrared emission lines indicative of a primordial accretion disk of gas and dust. The component-resolved 1.3 mm continuum emission is found to be associated only with the companion, with a flux (1.78 ± 0.03 mJy) that indicates a dust mass of 1-2 M {sub ⊕}. While this mass reservoir is insufficient to form a giant planet, it is more than sufficient to produce an analog of the Kepler-42 exoplanetary system or the Galilean satellites. The mass and geometry of the disk-bearing FW Tau companion remains unclear. Near-infrared spectroscopy shows deep water bands that indicate a spectral type later than M5, but substantial veiling prevents a more accurate determination of the effective temperature (and hence mass). Both a disk-bearing ''planetary-mass'' companion seen in direct light or a brown dwarf tertiary viewed in light scattered by an edge-on disk or envelope remain possibilities.

  13. Chemical abundance gradients from open clusters in the Milky Way disk: Results from the APOGEE survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, K.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Souto, D.; Thompson, B.; Zasowski, G.; Allende Prieto, C.; Carrera, R.; Chiappini, C.; Donor, J.; García-Hernández, D. A.; García Pérez, A. E.; Hayden, M. R.; Holtzman, J.; Jackson, K. M.; Johnson, J. A.; Majewski, S. R.; Mészáros, S.; Meyer, B.; Nidever, D. L.; O'Connell, J.; Schiavon, R. P.; Schultheis, M.; Shetrone, M.; Simmons, A.; Smith, V. V.; et al.

    2016-09-01

    Metallicity gradients provide strong constraints for understanding the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. We report on radial abundance gradients of Fe, Ni, Ca, Si, and Mg obtained from a sample of 304 red-giant members of 29 disk open clusters, mostly concentrated at galactocentric distances between ˜ 8-15 kpc, but including two open clusters in the outer disk. The observations are from the APOGEE survey. The chemical abundances were derived automatically by the ASPCAP pipeline and these are part of the SDSS III Data Release 12. The gradients, obtained from least squares fits to the data, are relatively flat, with slopes ranging from -0.026 to -0.033 dex kpc-1 for the α-elements [O/H], [Ca/H], [Si/H], and [Mg/H], and -0.035 dex kpc-1 and -0.040 dex kpc-1 for [Fe/H] and [Ni/H], respectively. Our results are not at odds with the possibility that metallicity ([Fe/H]) gradients are steeper in the inner disk ({R_GC˜ 7}-12 kpc) and flatter towards the outer disk. The open cluster sample studied spans a significant range in age. When breaking the sample into age bins, there is some indication that the younger open cluster population in our sample (log age < 8.7) has a flatter metallicity gradient when compared with the gradients obtained from older open clusters.

  14. Studies on the ingestion characteristics of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Dai, Xi-Lin; Jiang, Min; Zhu, Zheng-Guo; Yang, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xian-Zhong; Xu, Gui-Rong; Ding, Fu-Jiang

    2000-12-01

    The ingestion of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn had continuity and the ingestion high peak occurred at night. Light and temperature had significant effects on the daily ingestion rate (DIR) of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Red light and blue light favorably induced favorable ingestion. In the adaptive range of temperature, the DIR increased with rising temperature and feeding frequency, but decreased with rising body weight.

  15. Giant Impacts on Earth-Like Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Earth has experienced a large number of impacts, from the cratering events that may have caused mass extinctions to the enormous impact believed to have formed the Moon. A new study examines whether our planets impact history is typical for Earth-like worlds.N-Body ChallengesTimeline placing the authors simulations in context of the history of our solar system (click for a closer look). [Quintana et al. 2016]The final stages of terrestrial planet formation are thought to be dominated by giant impacts of bodies in the protoplanetary disk. During this stage, protoplanets smash into one another and accrete, greatly influencing the growth, composition, and habitability of the final planets.There are two major challenges when simulating this N-body planet formation. The first is fragmentation: since computational time scales as N^2, simulating lots of bodies that split into many more bodies is very computationally intensive. For this reason, fragmentation is usually ignored; simulations instead assume perfect accretion during collisions.Total number of bodies remaining within the authors simulations over time, with fragmentation included (grey) and ignored (red). Both simulations result in the same final number of bodies, but the ones that include fragmentation take more time to reach that final number. [Quintana et al. 2016]The second challengeis that many-body systems are chaotic, which means its necessary to do a large number of simulations to make statistical statements about outcomes.Adding FragmentationA team of scientists led by Elisa Quintana (NASA NPP Senior Fellow at the Ames Research Center) has recently pushed at these challenges by modeling inner-planet formation using a code that does include fragmentation. The team ran 140 simulations with and 140 without the effects of fragmentation using similar initial conditions to understand how including fragmentation affects the outcome.Quintana and collaborators then used the fragmentation-inclusive simulations to

  16. Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    Beyond the inner solar system's terrestrial planets, with their compact orbits and rock -metal compositions, lies the realm of the outer solar system and the giant planets. Here the distance between planets jumps by an order of magnitude relative to the spacing of the terrestrial planets, and the masses of the giants are one to two orders of magnitude greater than Venus and Earth - the largest terrestrial bodies. Composition changes as well, since the giant planets are largely gaseous, with inferred admixtures of ice, rock, and metal, while the terrestrial planets are essentially pure rock and metal. The giant planets have many more moons than do the terrestrial planets, and the range of magnetic field strengths is larger in the outer solar system. It is the giant planets that sport rings, ranging from the magnificent ones around Saturn to the variable ring arcs of Neptune. Were it not for the fact that only Earth supports abundant life (with life possibly existing, but not proved to exist, in the martian crust and liquid water regions underneath the ice of Jupiter's moon Europa), the terrestrial planets would pale in interest next to the giant planets for any extraterrestrial visitor.

  17. DO GIANT PLANETS SURVIVE TYPE II MIGRATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: ida@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2013-09-10

    Planetary migration is one of the most serious problems to systematically understand the observations of exoplanets. We clarify that the theoretically predicted type II, migration (like type I migration) is too fast, by developing detailed analytical arguments in which the timescale of type II migration is compared with the disk lifetime. In the disk-dominated regime, the type II migration timescale is characterized by a local viscous diffusion timescale, while the disk lifetime is characterized by a global diffusion timescale that is much longer than the local one. Even in the planet-dominated regime where the inertia of the planet mass reduces the migration speed, the timescale is still shorter than the disk lifetime except in the final disk evolution stage where the total disk mass decays below the planet mass. This suggests that most giant planets plunge into the central stars within the disk lifetime, and it contradicts the exoplanet observations that gas giants are piled up at r {approx}> 1 AU. We examine additional processes that may arise in protoplanetary disks: dead zones, photoevaporation of gas, and gas flow across a gap formed by a type II migrator. Although they make the type II migration timescale closer to the disk lifetime, we show that none of them can act as an effective barrier for rapid type II migration with the current knowledge of these processes. We point out that gas flow across a gap and the fraction of the flow accreted onto the planets are uncertain and they may have the potential to solve the problem. Much more detailed investigation for each process may be needed to explain the observed distribution of gas giants in extrasolar planetary systems.

  18. Tomographic Sounding of Protoplanetary and Transitional Disks: Using Inner Disk Variability at Near to Mid-IR Wavelengths to Probe Conditions in the Outer Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Sitko, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Spitzer synoptic monitoring of young stellar associations has demonstrated that variability among young stars and their disks is ubiquitous. The Spitzer studies have been limited by target visibility windows and cover only a short temporal baseline in years. A complementary approach is to focus on stars chosen for high-value observations (e.g. high-contrast imaging, interferometry, or access to wavelengths which are difficult to achieve from the ground) where the synoptic data can augment the imagery or interferometry as well as probing disk structure. In this talk, we discuss how synoptic data for two protoplanetary disks, MWC 480 and HD 163296, constrain the dust disk scale height, account for variable disk illumination, and can be used to locate emission features, such as the IR bands commonly associated with PAHs in the disk, as part of our SOFIA cycle 1 study. Similar variability is now known for several pre-transitional disks, where synoptic data can be used to identify inner disks which are not coplanar with the outer disk, and which may be relicts of giant planet-giant planet scattering events. Despite the logistical difficulties in arranging supporting, coordinated observations in tandem with high-value observations, such data have allowed us to place imagery in context, constrained structures in inner disks not accessible to direct imagery, and may be a tool for identifying systems where planet scattering events have occurred.

  19. Tracking Advanced Planetary Systems (TAPAS) with HARPS-N. IV. TYC 3667-1280-1: The most massive red giant star hosting a warm Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, A.; Villaver, E.; Nowak, G.; Adamów, M.; Maciejewski, G.; Kowalik, K.; Wolszczan, A.; Deka-Szymankiewicz, B.; Adamczyk, M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. We present the latest result of the TAPAS project that is devoted to intense monitoring of planetary candidates that are identified within the PennState-Toruń planet search. Aims: We aim to detect planetary systems around evolved stars to be able to build sound statistics on the frequency and intrinsic nature of these systems, and to deliver in-depth studies of selected planetary systems with evidence of star-planet interaction processes. Methods: The paper is based on precise radial velocity measurements: 13 epochs collected over 1920 days with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and its High-Resolution Spectrograph, and 22 epochs of ultra-precise HARPS-N data collected over 961 days. Results: We present a warm-Jupiter (Teq = 1350 K, m2 sin i = 5.4 ± 0.4 MJ) companion with an orbital period of 26.468 days in a circular (e = 0.036) orbit around a giant evolved (log g = 3.11 ± 0.09, R = 6.26 ± 0.86 R⊙) star with M⋆ = 1.87 ± 0.17 M⊙. This is the most massive and oldest star found to be hosting a close-in giant planet. Its proximity to its host (a = 0.21 au) means that the planet has a 13.9 ± 2.0% probability of transits; this calls for photometric follow-up study. Conclusions: This massive warm Jupiter with a near circular orbit around an evolved massive star can help set constraints on general migration mechanisms for warm Jupiters and, given its high equilibrium temperature, can help test energy deposition models in hot Jupiters. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto

  20. ORBITAL MIGRATION OF PROTOPLANETS IN A MARGINALLY GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, Alan P.

    2013-02-20

    Core accretion and disk instability require giant protoplanets to form in the presence of disk gas. Protoplanet migration models generally assume disk masses low enough that the disk's self-gravity can be neglected. However, disk instability requires a disk massive enough to be marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU). Even for core accretion, an FU Orionis outburst may require a brief MGU disk phase. We present a new set of three-dimensional, gravitational radiation hydrodynamics models of MGU disks with multiple protoplanets, which interact gravitationally with the disk and with each other, including disk gas mass accretion. Initial protoplanet masses are 0.01 to 10 M {sub Circled-Plus} for core accretion models, and 0.1 to 3 M {sub Jup} for Nice scenario models, starting on circular orbits with radii of 6, 8, 10, or 12 AU, inside a 0.091 M {sub Sun} disk extending from 4 to 20 AU around a 1 M {sub Sun} protostar. Evolutions are followed for up to {approx}4000 yr and involve phases of relative stability (e {approx} 0.1) interspersed with chaotic phases (e {approx} 0.4) of orbital interchanges. The 0.01 to 10 M {sub Circled-Plus} cores can orbit stably for {approx}1000 yr: monotonic inward or outward orbital migration of the type seen in low mass disks does not occur. A system with giant planet masses similar to our solar system (1.0, 0.33, 0.1, 0.1 M {sub Jup}) was stable for over 1000 yr, and a Jupiter-Saturn-like system was stable for over 3800 yr, implying that our giant planets might well survive an MGU disk phase.

  1. A new approach to detailed structural decomposition from the splash and phat surveys: Kicked-up disk stars in the Andromeda galaxy?

    SciTech Connect

    Dorman, Claire E.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; and others

    2013-12-20

    We characterize the bulge, disk, and halo subcomponents in the Andromeda galaxy (M31) over the radial range 4 kpc < R {sub proj} < 225 kpc. The cospatial nature of these subcomponents renders them difficult to disentangle using surface brightness (SB) information alone, especially interior to ∼20 kpc. Our new decomposition technique combines information from the luminosity function (LF) of over 1.5 million bright (20 < m {sub 814W} < 22) stars from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey, radial velocities of over 5000 red giant branch stars in the same magnitude range from the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo survey, and integrated I-band SB profiles from various sources. We use an affine-invariant Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to fit an appropriate toy model to these three data sets. The bulge, disk, and halo SB profiles are modeled as a Sérsic, exponential, and cored power law, respectively, and the LFs are modeled as broken power laws. We present probability distributions for each of 32 parameters describing the SB profiles and LFs of the three subcomponents. We find that the number of stars with a disk-like LF is 5.2% ± 2.1% larger than the number with disk-like (dynamically cold) kinematics, suggesting that some stars born in the disk have been dynamically heated to the point that they are kinematically indistinguishable from halo members. This is the first kinematical evidence for a 'kicked-up disk' halo population in M31. The fraction of kicked-up disk stars is consistent with that found in simulations. We also find evidence for a radially varying disk LF, consistent with a negative metallicity gradient in the stellar disk.

  2. Rotation and Granulation of the K2 Giant alpha SER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, David F.

    2016-07-01

    The red giant α Ser was observed over 10 seasons, 2001–2010, at the Elginfield Observatory with the high-resolution coudé spectrograph. Season-mean radial velocities appear to show a small secular rise ˜11 ± 3 m s‑1 yr‑1. The absolute spectroscopic radial velocity with convective blueshifts taken into account is 2730 m s‑1. Ten line-depth ratios were investigated and show that the star's temperature is constant with any secular variation below 1.3 ± 1.0 K over the 11 years of observation. Fourier analysis of the line broadening yields v sin i = 2.0 ± 0.3 km s‑1 and a radial-tangential macroturbulence dispersion ζ RT = 4.50 ± 0.10 km s‑1. The third-granulation-signature plot shows that the granulation velocities of α Ser are only 0.55 ± 0.10 as large as the Sun's. The line bisector of Fe i λ6253 has the usual “C” shape and when mapped onto the third-signature plot results in a flux deficit that is slightly broader than seen in other measured K giants. The deficit fractional area of 12.3 ± 1.5% suggests a temperature difference between granules and lanes of 105 K as seen averaged over the stellar disk.

  3. Production of Lithium in the Galactic Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casuso, E.; Beckman, J. E.

    2000-07-01

    The abundance of Li in stars formed within the past 5 Gyr is logN(Li)=3.2(+/-0.2), while the corresponding value for the oldest stars in the Galaxy is logN(Li)=2.2(+/-0.2). The global evidence suggests that the latter represents the full, or the major, part of the primordial abundance, so that the difference of an order of magnitude is due to Li produced in the Galaxy. It is well known that spallation of interstellar CNO by 4He and protons in Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) can produce Li, but models yield a shortfall of almost an order of magnitude compared with the current observed abundance range. Another GCR reaction, α+α fusion, has been invoked to explain some Li production in the early Galaxy, but application of this to the disk yielded too much early Li or too little current Li. These failures led to a search for alternative mechanisms, essentially stellar, at particular phases of evolution: the helium flash phase in asymptotic giant branch stars, in novae, and in supernovae (SNe). Here we stress the importance of the observed upper envelope in the plot of Li versus Fe in stars as a constraint on any mechanism in any model aiming to account for disk Li. We show that a good match can be found assuming that low-energy GCRs produce the Li, with the α+α reaction as the key mechanism, although production in supernovae cannot at this stage be excluded. There is an apparent time delay in the Li production, relative to O and Fe, which if confirmed could be explained by the origin of a low-energy α-particle component in processes associated with stars of intermediate and low mass. The α-flux at a given epoch would then be proportional to the amount of gas expelled by low- and intermediate-mass stars in the Galaxy, though the acceleration of these α-particles could still be linked to more energetic events as supernova explosions. The present scenario appears to account coherently for the closely related observations of the temporal evolution in the Galaxy (halo+disk

  4. Chemical Abundances of Symbiotic Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałan, C.; Mikołajewska, J.; Hinkle, K. H.; Joyce, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution (R ˜ 50000), near-IR spectra were used to measure photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak for 24 symbiotic giants. Spectrum synthesis was employed using local thermal equilibrium and hydrostatic model atmospheres. The metallicities are distributed in a wide range with maximum around [Fe/H] ˜-0.4 - - 0.3 dex. Enrichment in 14N indicates that all the sample giants have experienced the first dredge-up. The relative abundance of [Ti/Fe] is generally large in red symbiotic systems.

  5. KINEMATICAL AND CHEMICAL VERTICAL STRUCTURE OF THE GALACTIC THICK DISK. I. THICK DISK KINEMATICS ,

    SciTech Connect

    Moni Bidin, C.; Carraro, G.; Mendez, R. A.

    2012-03-10

    The variation of the kinematical properties of the Galactic thick disk with Galactic height Z is studied by means of 412 red giants observed in the direction of the south Galactic pole up to 4.5 kpc from the plane. We confirm the non-null mean radial motion toward the Galactic anticenter found by other authors, but we find that it changes sign at |Z| = 3 kpc, and the proposed inward motion of the local standard of rest alone cannot explain these observations. The rotational velocity decreases with |Z| by -30 km s{sup -1} kpc{sup -1}, but the data are better represented by a power law with index 1.25, similar to that proposed from the analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. All the velocity dispersions increase with |Z|, but the vertical gradients are small. The dispersions grow proportionally, with no significant variation of the anisotropy. The ratio {sigma}{sub U}/{sigma}{sub W} = 2 suggests that the thick disk could have formed from a low-latitude merging event. The vertex deviation increases with Galactic height, reaching {approx}20 Degree-Sign at |Z| = 3.5 kpc. The tilt angle also increases, and the orientation of the ellipsoid in the radial-vertical plane is constantly intermediate between the alignment with the cylindrical and the spherical coordinate systems. The tilt angle at |Z| = 2 kpc coincides with the expectations of MOdified Newtonian Dynamics, but an extension of the calculations to higher |Z| is required to perform a conclusive test. Finally, between 2.5 and 3.5 kpc we detect deviations from the linear trend of many kinematical quantities, suggesting that some kinematical substructure could be present.

  6. Kinematical and Chemical Vertical Structure of the Galactic Thick Disk. I. Thick Disk Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moni Bidin, C.; Carraro, G.; Méndez, R. A.

    2012-03-01

    The variation of the kinematical properties of the Galactic thick disk with Galactic height Z is studied by means of 412 red giants observed in the direction of the south Galactic pole up to 4.5 kpc from the plane. We confirm the non-null mean radial motion toward the Galactic anticenter found by other authors, but we find that it changes sign at |Z| = 3 kpc, and the proposed inward motion of the local standard of rest alone cannot explain these observations. The rotational velocity decreases with |Z| by -30 km s-1 kpc-1, but the data are better represented by a power law with index 1.25, similar to that proposed from the analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. All the velocity dispersions increase with |Z|, but the vertical gradients are small. The dispersions grow proportionally, with no significant variation of the anisotropy. The ratio σU/σW = 2 suggests that the thick disk could have formed from a low-latitude merging event. The vertex deviation increases with Galactic height, reaching ~20° at |Z| = 3.5 kpc. The tilt angle also increases, and the orientation of the ellipsoid in the radial-vertical plane is constantly intermediate between the alignment with the cylindrical and the spherical coordinate systems. The tilt angle at |Z| = 2 kpc coincides with the expectations of MOdified Newtonian Dynamics, but an extension of the calculations to higher |Z| is required to perform a conclusive test. Finally, between 2.5 and 3.5 kpc we detect deviations from the linear trend of many kinematical quantities, suggesting that some kinematical substructure could be present. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal IDs 075.B-0459(A), 077.B-0348(A)). This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan and the duPont Telescopes, located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  7. NLTE and LTE Lick Indices for Red Giants from [Fe/H] 0.0 to -6.0 at SDSS and IDS Spectral Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, C. Ian; Young, Mitchell E.; Layden, Nicholas

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the dependence of the complete system of 22 Lick indices on overall metallicity scaled from solar abundances, [{{M}}/{{H}}], from the solar value, 0.0, down to the extremely metal-poor (XMP) value of -6.0, for late-type giant stars (MK luminosity class III, {log}g=2.0) of MK spectral class late-K to late-F (3750\\lt {T}{eff}\\lt 6500 K) of the type that are detected as “fossils” of early galaxy formation in the Galactic halo and in extra-galactic structures. Our investigation is based on synthetic index values, I, derived from atmospheric models and synthetic spectra computed with PHOENIX in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) and Non-LTE (NLTE), where the synthetic spectra have been convolved to the spectral resolution, R, of both IDS and SDSS (and LAMOST) spectroscopy. We identify nine indices, that we designate “Lick-XMP,” that remain both detectable and significantly [{{M}}/{{H}}]-dependent down to [{{M}}/{{H}}] values of at least ˜ -5.0, and down to [{{M}}/{{H}}] ˜ -6.0 in five cases, while also remaining well-behaved (single-valued as a function of [{{M}}/{{H}}] and positive in linear units). For these nine indices, we study the dependence of I on NLTE effects, and on spectral resolution. For our LTE I values for spectra of SDSS resolution, we present the fitted polynomial coefficients, {C}{{n}}, from multi-variate linear regression for I with terms up to third order in the independent variable pairs ({T}{eff}, [{{M}}/{{H}}] ) and (V-K, [{{M}}/{{H}}]), and compare them to the fitted {C}{{n}} values of Worthey et al. at IDS spectral resolution. For this fitted I data-set we present tables of LTE partial derivatives, \\frac{\\partial I}{\\partial {T}{eff}}{| }[{{M}/{{H}}]}, \\frac{\\displaystyle \\partial I}{\\partial [{{M}}/{{H}}]}{| }{T{eff}}, \\frac{\\displaystyle \\partial I}{\\partial (V-K)}{| }[{{M}/{{H}}]}, and \\frac{\\partial I}{\\partial [{{M}}/{{H}}]}{| }(V-K), that can be used to infer the relation between a given

  8. Water scorpions (Heteroptera, Nepidae) and giant water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae): sources of new members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Simek, Petr; Marco, Heather G

    2007-07-01

    Two novel octapeptide members of the AKH/RPCH family have been identified from the corpora cardiaca (CC) of two species of water bugs. The giant water bug Lethocerus indicus (family: Belostomatidae) contains a peptide code-named Letin-AKH with the sequence pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Tyr-Trp amide, and the water scorpion Nepa cinerea (family: Nepidae) has the peptide code-named Nepci-AKH with the sequence pGlu-Leu/Ile-Asn-Phe-Ser-Ser-Gly-Trp amide. The sequences were deduced from the multiple MS(N) electrospray mass data from crude CC extracts. Synthetic peptides were made and co-elution on reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with the natural peptide from crude gland extract confirmed the accuracy of the deduced sequence for Letin-AKH and demonstrated that Nepci-AKH contains a Leu residue at position 2 and not an Ile residue. A previously characterized member of the AKH/RPCH family was identified in the stick water scorpion Ranatra linearis by mass spectrometry: Grybi-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp amide) has the same mass (919 Da) as Nepci-AKH and differs in two positions from Nepci-AKH (residues 2 and 6). The apparent function of the peptides is to achieve lipid mobilization in the species under investigation; indications for this came from conspecific bioassays using the appropriate synthetic peptides for injecting into the insects. This function is very likely linked to dispersal flight metabolism of water bugs. Swimming activity in N. cinerea also results in an increase in lipid concentration in the hemolymph.

  9. Giant Planet Accretion And Migration: Surviving The Type I Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thommes, Edward; Murray, N.

    2006-06-01

    In the core accretion model of gas giant planet formation, a large solid core about 10X the Earth's mass forms first, then accumulates its massive envelope ( 100 or more Earth masses) of gas. However, inward planet migration due to gravitational interaction with the proto-stellar gas disk poses a big hazard in this model. Core-sized bodies undergo rapid "type I" migration; for typical parameters their migration timescale is much shorter than their accretion timescale. How, then, do growing cores avoid spiraling into the central star before they ever get the chance to become gas giants? I will present a simple model of core formation in a gas disk which is viscously evolving. It turns out that as the disk accretes onto the star, a window of opportunity for successful core growth may open. I will discuss what implications this model has for the link between disk properties and the likelihood of forming gas giants.

  10. Search for (Tidal) Streams in Disks and Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmithuesen, O.; Bomans, D. J.; Dettmar, R.-J.

    2008-10-01

    Here we present results of our ongoing project on the search for tidal streams in disk and halos of galaxies outside the Local Group. At present we have investigated NGC 300, M 83, M 33 and NGC 7793. Most of the data was observed with the Wide-Field-Imager at the ESO/MPG 2.2-m telescope and reduced with the THELI-Pipeline. We carried out stellar photometry on all these images and searched for over-densities in the stellar counts of red giant branch populations. For instance in NGC 300 this search revealed the presence of a break in the red giant branch counts at about 8.75 kpc away from the center and the presence of blue stars all over the field of view. The M 83 images showed three low surface brightness features, of which two were formerly seen only on photographic plates. Using the transformation to the standard magnitude system derived from the stellar sources we were able to calculate an average surface brightness for these three streams. But we did not detect any sign of substructure in the stellar counts itself down to a magnitude limit of 24.5 magnitudes for the stellar sources. Using the M 33 and NGC 7793 datasets we started to introduce an additional search algorithm. While until then the search had been carried out using an adapted binning strategy to reveal such over-densities we experimented using four dimensional cluster-finding algorithms from the field of data-mining as an addition.

  11. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  12. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  13. Dispersal of Disks Around Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We review the evidence pertaining to the lifetimes of planet-forming disks and discuss possible disk dispersal mechanisms: 1) viscous accretion of material onto the central source; 2) close stellar encounters; 3) stellar winds; and 4) photoevaporation by ultraviolet radiation. We focus on 3) and 4) and describe the quasi-steady state appearance and the overall evolution of disks under the influence of winds and radiation from the central star and of radiation from external OB stars. Viscous accretion likely dominates disk dispersal in the inner disk (r approx. or less than 10 AU), while photoevaporation is the principal process of disk dispersal outside of r approx. or greater than 10 AU for low mass stars. Disk dispersal timescales are compared and discussed in relation to theoretical estimates for planet formation timescales. Photoevaporation may explain the large differences in the hydrogen content of the giant planets in the solar system. The commonly held belief that our early sun's stellar wind dispersed he solar nebula is called into question. Finally, we model the small bright objects ('proplyds') observed in the Orion Nebula as disks around young, low mass stars which are externally illuminated by the UV (ultraviolet) photons from the nearby massive star Theta(1)C.

  14. Dispersal of Disks Around Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David

    2001-01-01

    We review the evidence pertaining to the lifetimes of planet-forming disks and discuss possible disk dispersal mechanisms: 1) viscous accretion of material onto the central source, 2) close stellar encounters, 3) stellar winds, and 4) photoevaporation by ultraviolet radiation. We focus on 3) and 4) and describe the quasi-steady state appearance and the overall evolution of disks under the influence of winds and radiation from the central star and of radiation from external OB stars. Viscous accretion likely dominates disk dispersal in the inner disk (r < or approx. equals 10 AU), while photoevaporation is the principal process of disk dispersal outside of r > or approx. equals 10 AU for low mass stars. Disk dispersal timescales are compared and discussed in relation to theoretical estimates for planet formation timescales. Photoevaporation may explain the large differences in the hydrogen content of the giant planets in the solar system. The commonly held belief that our early sun's stellar wind dispersed the solar nebula is called into question. Finally, we model the small bright objects ("proplyds") observed in the Orion Nebula as disks around young, low mass stars which are externally illuminated by the UV photons from the nearby massive star Theta(sup 1)C.

  15. Tracking Advanced Planetary Systems (TAPAS) with HARPS-N . I. A multiple planetary system around the red giant star TYC 1422-614-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, A.; Villaver, E.; Wolszczan, A.; Adamów, M.; Kowalik, K.; Maciejewski, G.; Nowak, G.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Deka, B.; Adamczyk, M.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Stars that have evolved off the main sequence are crucial for expanding the frontiers of knowledge on exoplanets toward higher stellar masses and for constraining star-planet interaction mechanisms. These stars have an intrinsic activity, however, which complicates the interpretation of precise radial velocity (RV) measurements, and therefore they are often avoided in planet searches. Over the past ten years, we have monitored about 1000 evolved stars for RV variations in search for low-mass companions under the Penn State - Toruń Centre for Astronomy Planet Search program with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Selected prospective candidates that required higher RV precision measurements have been followed with HARPS-N at the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Aims: We aim to detect planetary systems around evolved stars, to be able to build sound statistics on the frequency and intrinsic nature of these systems, and to deliver in-depth studies of selected planetary systems with evidence of star-planet interaction processes. Methods: We obtained 69 epochs of precise RV measurements for TYC 1422-614-1 collected over 3651 days with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, and 17 epochs of ultra-precise HARPS-N data collected over 408 days. We complemented these RV data with photometric time-series from the All Sky Automatic Survey archive. Results: We report the discovery of a multiple planetary system around the evolved K2 giant star TYC 1422-614-1. The system orbiting the 1.15 M⊙ star is composed of a planet with mass msini = 2.5 MJ in a 0.69 AU orbit, and a planet or brown dwarf with msini = 10 MJ in an orbit of 1.37 AU. The multiple planetary system orbiting TYC 1422-614-1 is the first finding of the TAPAS project, a HARPS-N monitoring of evolved planetary systems identified with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University

  16. Spot evolution on the red giant star XX Triangulum. A starspot-decay analysis based on time-series Doppler imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Künstler, A.; Carroll, T. A.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Solar spots appear to decay linearly proportional to their size. The decay rate of solar spots is directly related to magnetic diffusivity, which itself is a key quantity for the length of a magnetic-activity cycle. Is a linear spot decay also seen on other stars, and is this in agreement with the large range of solar and stellar activity cycle lengths? Aims: We investigate the evolution of starspots on the rapidly-rotating (Prot≈24 d) K0 giant XX Tri, using consecutive time-series Doppler images. Our aim is to obtain a well-sampled movie of the stellar surface over many years, and thereby detect and quantify a starspot decay law for further comparison with the Sun. Methods: We obtained continuous high-resolution and phase-resolved spectroscopy with the 1.2-m robotic STELLA telescope on Tenerife over six years, and these observations are ongoing. For each observing season, we obtained between 5 to 7 independent Doppler images, one per stellar rotation, making up a total of 36 maps. All images were reconstructed with our line-profile inversion code iMap. A wavelet analysis was implemented for denoising the line profiles. To quantify starspot area decay and growth, we match the observed images with simplified spot models based on a Monte Carlo approach. Results: It is shown that the surface of XX Tri is covered with large high-latitude and even polar spots and with occasional small equatorial spots. Just over the course of six years, we see a systematically changing spot distribution with various timescales and morphology, such as spot fragmentation and spot merging as well as spot decay and formation. An average linear decay of D = -0.022 ± 0.002 SH/day is inferred. We found evidence of an active longitude in phase toward the (unseen) companion star. Furthermore, we detect a weak solar-like differential rotation with a surface shear of α = 0.016 ± 0.003. From the decay rate, we determine a turbulent diffusivity of ηT = (6.3 ± 0.5) × 1014 cm2/s and

  17. Gemini spectroscopy of the outer disk star cluster BH176

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharina, M. E.; Donzelli, C. J.; Davoust, E.; Shimansky, V. V.; Charbonnel, C.

    2014-10-01

    Context. BH176 is an old metal-rich star cluster. It is spatially and kinematically consistent with belonging to the Monoceros Ring. It is larger in size and more distant from the Galactic plane than typical open clusters, and it does not belong to the Galactic bulge. Aims: Our aim is to determine the origin of this unique object by accurately determining its distance, metallicity, and age. The best way to reach this goal is to combine spectroscopic and photometric methods. Methods: We present medium-resolution observations of red clump and red giant branch stars in BH176 obtained with the Gemini South Multi-Object Spectrograph. We derive radial velocities, metallicities, effective temperatures, and surface gravities of the observed stars and use these parameters to distinguish member stars from field objects. Results: We determine the following parameters for BH176: Vh = 0 ± 15 km s-1, [Fe/H] = -0.1 ± 0.1, age 7 ± 0.5 Gyr, E(V - I) = 0.79 ± 0.03, distance 15.2 ± 0.2 kpc, α-element abundance [α/Fe] ~ 0.25 dex (the mean of [Mg/Fe], and [Ca/Fe]). Conclusions: BH176 is a member of old Galactic open clusters that presumably belong to the thick disk. It may have originated as a massive star cluster after the encounter of the forming thin disk with a high-velocity gas cloud or as a satellite dwarf galaxy. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. YOUNG SOLAR SYSTEM's FIFTH GIANT PLANET?

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David

    2011-12-15

    Studies of solar system formation suggest that the solar system's giant planets formed and migrated in the protoplanetary disk to reach the resonant orbits with all planets inside {approx}15 AU from the Sun. After the gas disk's dispersal, Uranus and Neptune were likely scattered by the gas giants, and approached their current orbits while dispersing the transplanetary disk of planetesimals, whose remains survived to this time in the region known as the Kuiper Belt. Here we performed N-body integrations of the scattering phase between giant planets in an attempt to determine which initial states are plausible. We found that the dynamical simulations starting with a resonant system of four giant planets have a low success rate in matching the present orbits of giant planets and various other constraints (e.g., survival of the terrestrial planets). The dynamical evolution is typically too violent, if Jupiter and Saturn start in the 3:2 resonance, and leads to final systems with fewer than four planets. Several initial states stand out in that they show a relatively large likelihood of success in matching the constraints. Some of the statistically best results were obtained when assuming that the solar system initially had five giant planets and one ice giant, with the mass comparable to that of Uranus and Neptune, and which was ejected to interstellar space by Jupiter. This possibility appears to be conceivable in view of the recent discovery of a large number of free-floating planets in interstellar space, which indicates that planet ejection should be common.

  19. Exotic Earths: forming habitable worlds with giant planet migration.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Sean N; Mandell, Avi M; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2006-09-01

    Close-in giant planets (e.g., "hot Jupiters") are thought to form far from their host stars and migrate inward, through the terrestrial planet zone, via torques with a massive gaseous disk. Here we simulate terrestrial planet growth during and after giant planet migration. Several-Earth-mass planets also form interior to the migrating jovian planet, analogous to recently discovered "hot Earths." Very-water-rich, Earth-mass planets form from surviving material outside the giant planet's orbit, often in the habitable zone and with low orbital eccentricities. More than a third of the known systems of giant planets may harbor Earth-like planets.

  20. Exotic Earths: forming habitable worlds with giant planet migration.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Sean N; Mandell, Avi M; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2006-09-01

    Close-in giant planets (e.g., "hot Jupiters") are thought to form far from their host stars and migrate inward, through the terrestrial planet zone, via torques with a massive gaseous disk. Here we simulate terrestrial planet growth during and after giant planet migration. Several-Earth-mass planets also form interior to the migrating jovian planet, analogous to recently discovered "hot Earths." Very-water-rich, Earth-mass planets form from surviving material outside the giant planet's orbit, often in the habitable zone and with low orbital eccentricities. More than a third of the known systems of giant planets may harbor Earth-like planets. PMID:16960000

  1. ALMA observations of protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogerheijde, Michiel

    2015-08-01

    The Universe is filled with planetary systems, as recent detections of exo-planets have shown. Such systems grow out of disks of gas and dust that surround newly formed stars. The ground work for our understanding of the structure, composition, and evolution of such disks has been laid with infrared telescopes in the 1980's, 1990's, and 2000's, as well as with millimeter interferometers operating in the United States, France, and Japan. With the construction of the Atacama Large Millimeter / submillimeter Array, a new era of studying planet-forming disks has started. The unprecedented leap in sensitivity and angular resolution that ALMA offers, has truely revolutionized our understanding of disks. No longer featureless objects consisting of gas and smalll dust, they are now seen to harbor a rich structure and chemistry. The ongoing planet-formation process sculpts many disks into systems of rings and arcs; grains grown to millimeter-sizes collect in high-pressure areas where they could grow out to asteroids or comets or further generations of planets. This wealth of new information directly addresses bottlenecks in our theoretical understanding of planet formation, such as the question how grains can grow past the 'meter-sized' barrier or overcome the 'drift barrier', and how gas and ice evolve together and ultimately determine the elemental compositions of both giant and terrestrial planets. I will review the recent ALMA results on protoplanetary disks, presenting results on individual objects and from the first populations studies. I will conclude with a forward look, on what we might expect from ALMA in this area for the years and decades to come.

  2. Giant increase in the metal-enhanced fluorescence of organic molecules in nanoporous alumina templates and large molecule-specific red/blue-shift of the fluorescence peak.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, S; Kanchibotla, B; Nelson, J D; Edwards, J D; Anderson, J; Tepper, G C; Bandyopadhyay, S

    2014-10-01

    The fluorescence of organic fluorophore molecules is enhanced when they are placed in contact with certain metals (Al, Ag, Cu, Au, etc.) whose surface plasmon waves couple into the radiative modes of the molecules and increase the radiative efficiency. Here, we report a hitherto unknown size dependence of this metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) effect in the nanoscale. When the molecules are deposited in nanoporous anodic alumina films with exposed aluminum at the bottom of the pores, they form organic nanowires standing on aluminum nanoparticles whose plasmon waves have much larger amplitudes. This increases the MEF strongly, resulting in several orders of magnitude increase in the fluorescence intensity of the organic fluorophores. The increase in intensity shows an inverse superlinear dependence on nanowire diameter because the nanowires also act as plasmonic "waveguides" that concentrate the plasmons and increase the coupling of the plasmons with the radiative modes of the molecules. Furthermore, if the nanoporous template housing the nanowires has built-in electric fields due to space charges, a strong molecule-specific red- or blue-shift is induced in the fluorescence peak owing to a renormalization of the dipole moment of the molecule. This can be exploited to detect minute amounts of target molecules in a mixture using their optical signature (fluorescence) despite the presence of confounding background signals. It can result in a unique new technology for biosensing and chemical sensing.

  3. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    bulges because the latter retain a `memory' of their disky origin. That is, they have one or more characteristics of disks: (1) flatter shapes than those of classical bulges, (2) correspondingly large ratios of ordered to random velocities, (3) small velocity dispersions with respect to the Faber-Jackson correlation between velocity dispersion and bulge luminosity, (4) spiral structure or nuclear bars in the `bulge' part of the light profile, (5) nearly exponential brightness profiles and (6) starbursts. So the cleanest examples of pseudobulges are recognisable. However, pseudo and classical bulges can coexist in the same galaxy. I review two important implications of secular evolution: (1) The existence of pseudobulges highlights a problem with our theory of galaxy formation by hierarchical clustering. We cannot explain galaxies that are completely bulgeless. Galaxy mergers are expected to happen often enough so that every giant galaxy should have a classical bulge. But we observe that bulgeless giant galaxies are common in field environments. We now realise that many dense centres of galaxies that we used to think are bulges were not made by mergers; they were grown out of disks. So the challenge gets more difficult. This is the biggest problem faced by our theory of galaxy formation. (2) Pseudobulges are observed to contain supermassive black holes (BHs), but they do not show the well-known, tight correlations between BH mass and the mass and velocity dispersion of the host bulge. This leads to the suggestion that there are two fundamentally different BH feeding processes. Rapid global inward gas transport in galaxy mergers leads to giant BHs that correlate with host ellipticals and classical bulges, whereas local and more stochastic feeding of small BHs in largely bulgeless galaxies evidently involves too little energy feedback to result in BH-host coevolution. It is an important success of the secular evolution picture that morphological differences can be used to

  4. Stellar metallicity of the extended disk and distance of the spiral galaxy NGC 3621

    SciTech Connect

    Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio; Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert E-mail: bresolin@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: Miguel.Urbaneja-Perez@uibk.ac.at

    2014-06-10

    Low resolution (∼4.5 Å) ESO VLT/FORS spectra of blue supergiant stars are analyzed to determine stellar metallicities (based on elements such as iron, titanium, and magnesium) in the extended disk of the spiral galaxy, NGC 3621. Mildly subsolar metallicity (–0.30 dex) is found for the outer objects beyond 7 kpc, independent of galactocentric radius and compatible with the absence of a metallicity gradient, confirming the results of a recent investigation of interstellar medium H II region gas oxygen abundances. The stellar metallicities are slightly higher than those from the H II regions when based on measurements of the weak forbidden auroral oxygen line at 4363 Å but lower than the ones obtained with the R {sub 23} strong line method. It is shown that the present level of metallicity in the extended disk cannot be the result of chemical evolution over the age of the disk with the present rate of in situ star formation. Additional mechanisms must be involved. In addition to metallicity, stellar effective temperatures, gravities, interstellar reddening, and bolometric magnitudes are determined. After the application of individual reddening corrections for each target, the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relationship of blue supergiant stars is used to obtain a distance modulus of 29.07 ± 0.09 mag (distance D = 6.52 ± 0.28 Mpc). This new distance is discussed in relation to Cepheid and the tip of the red giant branch distances.

  5. ON INFRARED EXCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH Li-RICH K GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Gibbs, John C.; Cashen, Sarah; Datta, Ashwin; Hodgson, Emily; Lince, Megan; Deeb, J. Elin; Larsen, Estefania; Altepeter, Shailyn; Bucksbee, Ethan; Clarke, Matthew; Black, David V.

    2015-10-15

    Infrared (IR) excesses around K-type red giants (RGs) have previously been discovered using Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, and past studies have suggested a link between RGs with overabundant Li and IR excesses, implying the ejection of circumstellar shells or disks. We revisit the question of IR excesses around RGs using higher spatial resolution IR data, primarily from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Our goal was to elucidate the link between three unusual RG properties: fast rotation, enriched Li, and IR excess. Our sample of RGs includes those with previous IR detections, a sample with well-defined rotation and Li abundance measurements with no previous IR measurements, and a large sample of RGs asserted to be Li-rich in the literature; we have 316 targets thought to be K giants, about 40% of which we take to be Li-rich. In 24 cases with previous detections of IR excess at low spatial resolution, we believe that source confusion is playing a role, in that either (a) the source that is bright in the optical is not responsible for the IR flux, or (b) there is more than one source responsible for the IR flux as measured in IRAS. We looked for IR excesses in the remaining sources, identifying 28 that have significant IR excesses by ∼20 μm (with possible excesses for 2 additional sources). There appears to be an intriguing correlation in that the largest IR excesses are all in Li-rich K giants, though very few Li-rich K giants have IR excesses (large or small). These largest IR excesses also tend to be found in the fastest rotators. There is no correlation of IR excess with the carbon isotopic ratio, {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C. IR excesses by 20 μm, though relatively rare, are at least twice as common among our sample of Li-rich K giants. If dust shell production is a common by-product of Li enrichment mechanisms, these observations suggest that the IR excess stage is very short-lived, which is supported by theoretical calculations. Conversely, the

  6. On Infrared Excesses Associated with Li-rich K Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Gibbs, John C.; Deeb, J. Elin; Larsen, Estefania; Black, David V.; Altepeter, Shailyn; Bucksbee, Ethan; Cashen, Sarah; Clarke, Matthew; Datta, Ashwin; Hodgson, Emily; Lince, Megan

    2015-10-01

    Infrared (IR) excesses around K-type red giants (RGs) have previously been discovered using Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, and past studies have suggested a link between RGs with overabundant Li and IR excesses, implying the ejection of circumstellar shells or disks. We revisit the question of IR excesses around RGs using higher spatial resolution IR data, primarily from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Our goal was to elucidate the link between three unusual RG properties: fast rotation, enriched Li, and IR excess. Our sample of RGs includes those with previous IR detections, a sample with well-defined rotation and Li abundance measurements with no previous IR measurements, and a large sample of RGs asserted to be Li-rich in the literature; we have 316 targets thought to be K giants, about 40% of which we take to be Li-rich. In 24 cases with previous detections of IR excess at low spatial resolution, we believe that source confusion is playing a role, in that either (a) the source that is bright in the optical is not responsible for the IR flux, or (b) there is more than one source responsible for the IR flux as measured in IRAS. We looked for IR excesses in the remaining sources, identifying 28 that have significant IR excesses by ∼20 μm (with possible excesses for 2 additional sources). There appears to be an intriguing correlation in that the largest IR excesses are all in Li-rich K giants, though very few Li-rich K giants have IR excesses (large or small). These largest IR excesses also tend to be found in the fastest rotators. There is no correlation of IR excess with the carbon isotopic ratio, 12C/13C. IR excesses by 20 μm, though relatively rare, are at least twice as common among our sample of Li-rich K giants. If dust shell production is a common by-product of Li enrichment mechanisms, these observations suggest that the IR excess stage is very short-lived, which is supported by theoretical calculations. Conversely, the Li

  7. On Infrared Excesses Associated with Li-Rich K Giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Gibbs, John C.; Deeb, J. Elin; Larsen, Estefania; Black, David V.; Altepeter, Shailyn; Bucksbee, Ethan; Cashen, Sarah; Clarke, Matthew; Datta, Ashwin; Hodgson, Emily; Lince, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) excesses around K-type red giants (RGs) have previously been discovered using Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, and past studies have suggested a link between RGs with overabundant lithium and IR excesses, implying the ejection of circumstellar shells or disks. We revisit the question of IR excesses around RGs using higher spatial resolution IR data, primarily from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Our goal was to elucidate the link between three unusual RG properties: fast rotation, enriched lithium, and IR excess. Our sample of RGs includes those with previous IR detections, a sample with well-defined rotation and lithium abundance measurements with no previous IR measurements, and a large sample of RGs asserted to be lithium-rich in the literature; we have 316 targets thought to be K giants, about 40% of which we take to be Li-rich. In 24 cases with previous detections of IR excess at low spatial resolution, we believe that source confusion is playing a role, in that either (a) the source that is bright in the optical is not responsible for the IR flux, or (b) there is more than one source responsible for the IR flux as measured in IRAS. We looked for IR excesses in the remaining sources, identifying 28 that have significant IR excesses by approximately 20 micrometers (with possible excesses for 2 additional sources). There appears to be an intriguing correlation in that the largest IR excesses are all in Li-rich K giants, though very few lithium-rich K giants have IR excesses (large or small). These largest IR excesses also tend to be found in the fastest rotators. There is no correlation of IR excess with the carbon isotopic ratio, 12C/13C. IR excesses by 20 micrometers, though relatively rare, are at least twice as common among our sample of lithium-rich K giants. If dust shell production is a common by-product of Li enrichment mechanisms, these observations suggest that the IR excess stage is very short-lived, which is supported

  8. Type II Migration and Giant Planet Survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Type II migration, in which a newly formed large planet opens a gap in its precursor circumstellar nebula and subsequently evolves with it, has been implicated as a delivery mechanism responsible for close stellar companions. Large scale migration is possible in a viscously spreading disk of surface density sigma (r,t) when most of it is sacrificed to the primary in order to promote a small portion of the disk to much higher angular momentum orbits. Embedded planets generally follow its evolution unless their own angular momentum is comparable to that of the disk. The fraction of the starting disk mass, M (sub d) = 2pi integral rsigma(r,0)dr, that is consumed by the star depends on the distance at which material escapes the disk's outer boundary. If the disk is allowed to expand indefinitely, virtually all of the disk will fall into the primary in order to send a vanishingly small portion to infinity. For such a case, it is difficult to explain the survival of any giant planets, including Jupiter and Saturn. Realistically, however, there are processes that could truncate a disk at a finite distance, r(sub d). Recent numerical modeling has illustrated that planets can survive in this case. We show here that much of these results can be understood by simple conservation arguments.

  9. A Database of Cepheid Distance Moduli and Tip of the Red Giant Branch, Globular Cluster Luminosity Function, Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function, and Surface Brightness Fluctuation Data Useful for Distance Determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarese, , Laura; Ford, Holland C.; Huchra, John; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.; Mould, Jeremy R.; Sakai, , Shoko; Freedman, Wendy L.; Stetson, Peter B.; Madore, Barry F.; Gibson, Brad K.; Graham, John A.; Hughes, Shaun M.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Macri, Lucas; Sebo, Kim; Silbermann, N. A.

    2000-06-01

    We present a compilation of Cepheid distance moduli and data for four secondary distance indicators that employ stars in the old stellar populations: the planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF), the globular cluster luminosity function (GCLF), the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB), and the surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) method. The database includes all data published as of 1999 July 15. The main strength of this compilation resides in the fact that all data are on a consistent and homogeneous system: all Cepheid distances are derived using the same calibration of the period-luminosity relation, the treatment of errors is consistent for all indicators, and measurements that are not considered reliable are excluded. As such, the database is ideal for comparing any of the distance indicators considered, or for deriving a Cepheid calibration to any secondary distance indicator, such as the Tully-Fisher relation, the Type Ia supernovae, or the fundamental plane for elliptical galaxies. This task has already been undertaken by Ferrarese et al., Sakai et al., Kelson et al., and Gibson et al. Specifically, the database includes (1) Cepheid distances, extinctions, and metallicities; (2) reddened apparent λ5007 Å magnitudes of the PNLF cutoff; (3) reddened apparent magnitudes and colors of the turnover of the GCLF (in both the V and B bands); (4) reddened apparent magnitudes of the TRGB (in the I band) and V-I colors at 0.5 mag fainter than the TRGB; and (5) reddened apparent surface brightness fluctuation magnitudes measured in Kron-Cousin I, K', and Kshort, and using the F814W filter with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2. In addition, for every galaxy in the database we give reddening estimates from IRAS/DIRBE as well as H I maps, J2000 coordinates, Hubble and T-type morphological classification, apparent total magnitude in B, and systemic velocity.

  10. Fast Radial Flows in Transition Disk Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Chiang, Eugene; Andrews, Sean M.

    2014-02-01

    Protoplanetary "transition" disks have large, mass-depleted central cavities, yet also deliver gas onto their host stars at rates comparable to disks without holes. The paradox of simultaneous transparency and accretion can be explained if gas flows inward at much higher radial speeds inside the cavity than outside the cavity, since surface density (and by extension optical depth) varies inversely with inflow velocity at fixed accretion rate. Radial speeds within the cavity might even have to approach free-fall values to explain the huge surface density contrasts inferred for transition disks. We identify observational diagnostics of fast radial inflow in channel maps made in optically thick spectral lines. Signatures include (1) twisted isophotes in maps made at low systemic velocities and (2) rotation of structures observed between maps made in high-velocity line wings. As a test case, we apply our new diagnostic tools to archival Atacama Large Millimeter Array data on the transition disk HD 142527 and uncover evidence for free-fall radial velocities inside its cavity. Although the observed kinematics are also consistent with a disk warp, the radial inflow scenario is preferred because it predicts low surface densities that appear consistent with recent observations of optically thin CO isotopologues in this disk. How material in the disk cavity sheds its angular momentum wholesale to fall freely onto the star is an unsolved problem; gravitational torques exerted by giant planets or brown dwarfs are briefly discussed as a candidate mechanism.

  11. Fast radial flows in transition disk holes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Chiang, Eugene

    2014-02-20

    Protoplanetary 'transition' disks have large, mass-depleted central cavities, yet also deliver gas onto their host stars at rates comparable to disks without holes. The paradox of simultaneous transparency and accretion can be explained if gas flows inward at much higher radial speeds inside the cavity than outside the cavity, since surface density (and by extension optical depth) varies inversely with inflow velocity at fixed accretion rate. Radial speeds within the cavity might even have to approach free-fall values to explain the huge surface density contrasts inferred for transition disks. We identify observational diagnostics of fast radial inflow in channel maps made in optically thick spectral lines. Signatures include (1) twisted isophotes in maps made at low systemic velocities and (2) rotation of structures observed between maps made in high-velocity line wings. As a test case, we apply our new diagnostic tools to archival Atacama Large Millimeter Array data on the transition disk HD 142527 and uncover evidence for free-fall radial velocities inside its cavity. Although the observed kinematics are also consistent with a disk warp, the radial inflow scenario is preferred because it predicts low surface densities that appear consistent with recent observations of optically thin CO isotopologues in this disk. How material in the disk cavity sheds its angular momentum wholesale to fall freely onto the star is an unsolved problem; gravitational torques exerted by giant planets or brown dwarfs are briefly discussed as a candidate mechanism.

  12. Giant Axonal Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Giant Axonal Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Giant Axonal Neuropathy? Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare inherited ...

  13. CAPTURE OF PLANETESIMALS BY GAS DRAG FROM CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Keiji; Suetsugu, Ryo; Tanigawa, Takayuki

    2013-12-01

    Growing giant planets have circumplanetary disks around them in the late stage of their formation if their mass is sufficiently large. We examine capture of relatively large planetesimals that are decoupled from the gas inflow, due to gas drag from a circumplanetary disk of a growing giant planet. Assuming that the structure of the circumplanetary disk is axisymmetric, and solving the three-body problem including gas drag, we perform analytic and numerical calculations for capture of planetesimals. When planetesimal random velocity is small, planetesimals approaching in the retrograde direction are more easily captured, owing to their larger velocity relative to the gas. Planetesimals with large orbital inclinations interact with the disk for a short period of time and show lower capture rates. The effect of ablation on capture rates seems insignificant, although mass loss due to ablation would be significant in the case of high random velocity. We also examine the effect of non-uniform radial distribution of planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk due to gap opening by the planet. When the random velocity of planetesimals is small, the planetesimal capture rate decreases rapidly as the half width of the gap in the planetesimal disk increases from two planetary Hil