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Sample records for disorders occupational cancers

  1. Occupational Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Carcinogen List Cancer Clusters Cancer Policy at NIOSH Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) Related Topics Asbestos ... Toxicology Program Report on Carcinogens NIOSH Pocket Guide Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) Recent NIOSH Research ...

  2. Occupational cancer in Britain. Preventing occupational cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-06-19

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed.

  3. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-05-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects.

  4. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  5. Occupational Psychiatric Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    We searched databases and used various online resources to identify and systematically review all articles on occupational psychiatric disorders among Korean workers published in English and Korean before 2009. Three kinds of occupational psychiatric disorders were studied: disorders related to job stress and mental illness, psychiatric symptoms emerging in victims of industrial injuries, and occupational psychiatric disorders compensated by Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI). Korea does not maintain official statistical records for occupational psychiatric disorders, but several studies have estimated the number of occupational psychiatric disorders using the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL, formerly KLWC) database. The major compensated occupational psychiatric disorders in Korea were "personality and behavioral disorders due to brain disease, damage, and dysfunction", "other mental disorders due to brain damage and dysfunction and to physical diseases", "reactions to severe stress and adjustment disorders", and "depressive episodes". The most common work-related psychiatric disorders, excluding accidents, were "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders" followed by "mood disorders". PMID:21258596

  6. Occupation and Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ward, Mary H.; Valle, Curt T. Della; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Numerous occupational and environmental exposures have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormones, but much less is known about their relationships with thyroid cancer. Here we review the epidemiology studies of occupations and occupational exposures and thyroid cancer incidence to provide insight into preventable risk factors for thyroid cancer. Methods The published literature was searched using the Web of Knowledge database for all articles through August 2013 that had in their text “occupation” “job” ”employment” or “work” and “thyroid cancer”. After excluding 10 mortality studies and 4 studies with less than 5 exposed incident cases, we summarized the findings of 30 articles that examined thyroid cancer incidence in relation to occupations or occupational exposure. The studies were grouped by exposure/occupation category, study design, and exposure assessment approach. Where available, gender stratified results are reported. Results The most studied (19 of 30 studies) and the most consistent associations were observed for radiation-exposed workers and health care occupations. Suggestive, but inconsistent, associations were observed in studies of pesticide-exposed workers and agricultural occupations. Findings for other exposures and occupation groups were largely null. The majority of studies had few exposed cases and assessed exposure based on occupation or industry category, self-report, or generic (population-based) job exposure matrices. Conclusion The suggestive, but inconsistent findings for many of the occupational exposures reviewed here indicate that more studies with larger numbers of cases and better exposure assessment are necessary, particularly for exposures known to disrupt thyroid homeostasis. PMID:24604144

  7. Occupational cancer in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    González, C A; Agudo, A

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

  8. Occupational Neurological Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a literature review of occupational neurological disorders and related research in Korea, focusing on chemical hazards. We reviewed occupational neurological disorders investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute of Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency between 1992 and 2009, categorizing them as neurological disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or as neurodegenerative disorders. We also examined peer-reviewed journal articles related to neurotoxicology, published from 1984 to 2009. Outbreaks of occupational neurological disorder of the CNS due to inorganic mercury and carbon disulfide poisoning had helped prompt the development of the occupational safety and health system of Korea. Other major neurological disorders of the CNS included methyl bromide intoxication and chronic toxic encephalopathy. Most of the PNS disorders were n-hexane-induced peripheral neuritis, reported from the electronics industry. Reports of manganese-induced Parkinsonism resulted in the introduction of neuroimaging techniques to occupational medicine. Since the late 1990s, the direction of research has been moving toward degenerative disorder and early effect of neurotoxicity. To understand the early effects of neurotoxic chemicals in the preclinical stage, more follow-up studies of a longer duration are necessary. PMID:21258587

  9. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Coultas, D.B.; Samet, J.M. )

    1992-06-01

    The overall importance of occupational agents as a cause of lung cancer has been a controversial subject since the 1970s. A federal report, released in the late 1970s, projected a surprisingly high burden of occupational lung cancer; for asbestos and four other agents, from 61,000 to 98,000 cases annually were attributed to these agents alone. Many estimates followed, some much more conservative. For example, Doll and Peto estimated that 15% of lung cancer in men and 5% in women could be attributed to occupational exposures. A number of population-based case-control studies also provide relevant estimates. In a recent literature review, Vineis and Simonato cited attributable risk estimates for occupation and lung cancer that ranged from 4% to 40%; for asbestos alone, the estimates ranged from 1% to 5%. These estimates would be expected to vary across locations and over time. Nevertheless, these recent estimates indicate that occupation remains an important cause of lung cancer. Approaches to Prevention. Prevention of lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to agents or industrial processes that cause lung cancer may involve several strategies, including eliminating or reducing exposures, smoking cessation, screening, and chemo-prevention. For example, changes in industrial processes that have eliminated or reduced exposures to chloromethyl ethers and nickel compounds have provided evidence of reduced risk of lung cancer following these changes. Although occupational exposures are important causes of lung cancer, cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of lung cancer. For adults, the work site offers an important location to target smoking cessation efforts. In fact, the work site may be the only place to reach many smokers.

  10. Occupational cancer in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Brüske-Hohlfeld, I

    1999-01-01

    As in probably mostly all other European countries, the incidence of occupational cancer in Germany increased steadily after World War II. In 1994 about 1,600 cases of occupational cancer were compensated--more than ever before. More than half of these cases were lung cancer, most caused either by asbestos (n=545) or by ionizing radiation ((italic)n(/italic)=306). Other frequent target organs of asbestos were the pleura and the peritoneum with 495 cases of mesotheliomas. Asbestos was the single most important risk factor for occupational cancer, causing more than 1000 deaths per year. All other malignant diseases, such as bladder cancer, leukemia, angiosarcoma of the liver, adenocarcinoma of the nose or nasal sinuses, and skin cancer, were comparatively rare. Although primary exposure to ionizing radiation in uranium ore mining occurred in the 1950s and attributable lung cancers seem to be on the decline, this is not true for asbestos, where the peak incidence in lung cancer and mesothelioma has not been reached yet. Images Figure 2 PMID:10350508

  11. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  12. SHOULDER DISORDERS AND OCCUPATION

    PubMed Central

    Linaker, CH; Walker-Bone, K

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder pain is very common and causes substantial morbidity. Standardised classification systems based upon presumed patho-anatomical origins have proved poorly reproducible and hampered epidemiological research. Despite this, there is evidence that exposure to combinations of physical workplace strains such as overhead working, heavy lifting and forceful work as well as working in an awkward posture increase the risk of shoulder disorders. Psychosocial risk factors are also associated. There is currently little evidence to suggest that either primary prevention or treatment strategies in the workplace are very effective and more research is required, particularly around the cost-effectiveness of different strategies. PMID:26612238

  13. Occupational respiratory cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2010-12-01

    Malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are representative examples of occupational cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, and the incidence of malignant mesothelioma is expected to increase sharply in the near future. Although information about lung carcinogen exposure is limited, it is estimated that the number of workers exposed to carcinogens has declined. The first official case of occupational cancer was malignant mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure in the asbestos textile industry in 1992. Since then, compensation for occupational respiratory cancer has increased. The majority of compensated lung cancer was due to underlying pneumoconiosis. Other main causative agents of occupational lung cancer included asbestos, hexavalent chromium, and crystalline silica. Related jobs included welders, foundry workers, platers, plumbers, and vehicle maintenance workers. Compensated malignant mesotheliomas were associated with asbestos exposure. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Korea have indicated an elevated risk of lung cancer in pneumoconiosis patients, foundry workers, and asbestos textile workers. Occupational respiratory cancer has increased during the last 10 to 20 yr though carcinogen-exposed population has declined in the same period. More efforts to advance the systems for the investigation, prevention and management of occupational respiratory cancer are needed. PMID:21258597

  14. Occupational exposure and lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Aggeliki; Li, Chen; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for male and the second most usual cancer for women after breast cancer. Currently there are available several non-specific cytotoxic agents and several targeted agents for lung cancer therapy. However; early stage diagnosis is still unavailable and several efforts are being made towards this direction. Novel biomarkers are being investigated along with new biopsy techniques. The occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents is an everyday phenomenon. Therefore until efficient early diagnosis is available, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is necessary. In the current mini-review occupational and environmental carcinogenic agents will be presented. PMID:24102018

  15. [Isocyanates: occupational exposures and disorders].

    PubMed

    Baur, X

    2003-09-01

    Isocyanates are extensively used for the production of different foams and elastomers. They also serve as glues, lacquer hardeners, inks, adhesives, fillers, finishes, sealants, coating and insulation materials. Usually, their application results in inhalative, partly also in cutaneous uptake. This review describes occupational exposures to isocyanates as well as hazardous effects. Isocyanates are used in the automotive/mechanical engineering/building and construction/mining/casting/electricity and electronic/plastics/printing/timber and furniture/white goods and textile industry, partly also in medicine. Hazardous exposures to thermal degradation products of isocyanate-based polyurethanes and other materials have also be taken into consideration. Obstructive airway diseases are the major disorder caused by isocyanates. Rare cases suffer from extrinsic allergic alveolitis or eczema. In addition to regulation-based primary prevention qualitative medical surveillance mostly prevents disorders. There is also a need for the establishment of a validated biomonitoring of endangered employees. PMID:13680473

  16. [Isocyanates: occupational exposures and disorders].

    PubMed

    Baur, X

    2003-09-01

    Isocyanates are extensively used for the production of different foams and elastomers. They also serve as glues, lacquer hardeners, inks, adhesives, fillers, finishes, sealants, coating and insulation materials. Usually, their application results in inhalative, partly also in cutaneous uptake. This review describes occupational exposures to isocyanates as well as hazardous effects. Isocyanates are used in the automotive/mechanical engineering/building and construction/mining/casting/electricity and electronic/plastics/printing/timber and furniture/white goods and textile industry, partly also in medicine. Hazardous exposures to thermal degradation products of isocyanate-based polyurethanes and other materials have also be taken into consideration. Obstructive airway diseases are the major disorder caused by isocyanates. Rare cases suffer from extrinsic allergic alveolitis or eczema. In addition to regulation-based primary prevention qualitative medical surveillance mostly prevents disorders. There is also a need for the establishment of a validated biomonitoring of endangered employees.

  17. Occupational and Environmental Bronchiolar Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Occupational and environmental causes of bronchiolar disorders are recognized on the basis of case reports, case series, and, less commonly, epidemiologic investigations. Pathology may be limited to the bronchioles or also involve other components of the respiratory tract, including the alveoli. A range of clinical, functional, and radiographic findings, including symptomatic disease lacking abnormalities on noninvasive testing, poses a diagnostic challenge and highlights the value of surgical biopsy. Disease clusters in workplaces and communities have identified new etiologies, drawn attention to indolent disease that may otherwise have been categorized as idiopathic, and expanded the spectrum of histopathologic responses to an exposure. More sensitive noninvasive diagnostic tools, evidence-based therapies, and ongoing epidemiologic investigation of at-risk populations are needed to identify, treat, and prevent exposure-related bronchiolar disorders. PMID:26024345

  18. Occupational exposure and urological cancer.

    PubMed

    Golka, Klaus; Wiese, Andreas; Assennato, Giorgio; Bolt, Hermann M

    2004-02-01

    Occupational exposure is definitely a major cause of cancer. In the field of urology, the urinary bladder is the most important target. A classical cause of bladder cancer is exposure to carcinogenic aromatic amines, especially benzidine and beta-naphthylamine. Such exposures were related to work places in the chemical industry, implying production and processing of classical aromatic amines, and in the rubber industry. Occupational bladder cancer has also been observed in dyers, painters and hairdressers. Even some occupations with much lower exposures to carcinogenic aromatic amines, like coke oven workers or workers in the rubber industry after the ban on beta-naphthylamine, are at risk. In these occupations, exposure to complex mixtures of substances containing combustion products (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) or nitrosamines is common. Renal cell cancer has been observed as an occupational disease in cases of very high exposure to trichloroethylene having led to narcotic or prenarcotic symptoms. Occupationally related cancers of the prostate or the testes appear currently not relevant.

  19. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation. PMID:21275584

  20. Occupational cancer in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Blair, Aaron; Marrett, Loraine; Beane Freeman, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Studies of occupational exposures have made major contributions to our understanding of human carcinogenesis. About one third of the factors identified as definite or probable human carcinogens were first investigated in the workplace and these exposures exact a considerable toll on working populations. There are many additional workplace exposures that are suspect carcinogens that require further evaluation to ensure a safe work environment. Information from occupational investigations is also relevant to the general population because many occupational exposures can be found outside the workplace. Much of our understanding about occupational cancer has been obtained from studies largely composed of white men in developed countries. The movement of industry from developed to developing countries underscores the need for future investigations to include more diverse populations. PMID:21489219

  1. Common Occupational Disorders: Asthma, COPD, Dermatitis, and Musculoskeletal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bepko, Jennifer; Mansalis, Katherine

    2016-06-15

    An occupational illness is an event or exposure that occurs in the workplace that causes or contributes to a condition or worsens a preexisting condition. If an occupational disorder is suspected, a directed history should be taken with particular attention to establishing a temporal relationship of symptoms and exposure at work. Occupational asthma is the most prevalent occupational lung disorder in industrialized countries and presents with classic asthma symptoms (cough, difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing). Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been linked with exposure to nonspecific vapors, gases, dusts, fumes, and cigarette smoke. Occupational contact dermatitis is the most common dermal exposure. It can be caused by exposure to a variety of agents, including primary irritants or sensitizers, physical agents, mechanical trauma, and biologic agents. Occupational musculoskeletal disorders include many common repetitive injuries such as carpal tunnel syndrome and medial or lateral epicondylitis. Treatment of occupational disorders is generally the same as for nonoccupational disorders. Ideally, the exposure should be controlled to protect the worker. The impact of an occupational injury reaches beyond lost wages and can have a negative impact on quality of life.

  2. [Occupational hazards and bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Nizamova, R S

    1991-01-01

    Occupational exposure to health hazards was studied in 258 industrial workers who had developed cancer of the bladder against 454 matched controls. All the test subjects and controls were residents of the Tambov Province centers of chemical industry. Statistical significance (relative risk-4.7) was established for exposure to aromatic amines. For those contacting with aniline dyes the relative risk (RR) made up 2.4. The risk to develop bladder cancer in powder shops (RR-3.2) was attributed to the hazards of dyes and diphenylamine. In leather-shoe and textile industry the exposure to dyes was not safe (RR-6.1), neither was it to chemicals, oil products, pesticides, overheating (RR-3.2, 1.6, 3.2 and 2.9, respectively). It is stated that in line with a significant risk to develop bladder cancer at exposure to aromatic amines there exist a number of occupational factors contributing to this risk.

  3. Occupation and prostate cancer risk in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sharma-Wagner, S; Chokkalingam, A P; Malker, H S; Stone, B J; McLaughlin, J K; Hsing, A W

    2000-05-01

    To provide new leads regarding occupational prostate cancer risk factors, we linked 36,269 prostate cancer cases reported to the Swedish National Cancer Registry during 1961 to 1979 with employment information from the 1960 National Census. Standardized incidence ratios for prostate cancer, within major (1-digit), general (2-digit), and specific (3-digit) industries and occupations, were calculated. Significant excess risks were seen for agriculture-related industries, soap and perfume manufacture, and leather processing industries. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios were also seen for the following occupations: farmers, leather workers, and white-collar occupations. Our results suggest that farmers; certain occupations and industries with exposures to cadmium, herbicides, and fertilizers; and men with low occupational physical activity levels have elevated prostate cancer risks. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and identify specific exposures related to excess risk in these occupations and industries.

  4. Occupational factors and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Norell, S; Ahlbom, A; Olin, R; Erwald, R; Jacobson, G; Lindberg-Navier, I; Wiechel, K L

    1986-11-01

    The relation between occupational factors and pancreatic cancer has been studied by two different approaches: a population based case-control study with two series of controls and a retrospective cohort study based on register data. With both approaches, some support was found for an association with occupational exposure to petroleum products. Associations were also indicated with exposure to paint thinner (case-control study) and work in painting and in paint and varnish factories (cohort study), for exposure to detergents, floor cleaning agents, or polish (case-control study) and with floor polishing or window cleaning (cohort study), and for exposure to refuse (case-control study) and work in refuse disposal plants (cohort study). PMID:3790458

  5. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer. PMID:26998264

  6. An overview of occupational voice disorders in Poland.

    PubMed

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2013-10-01

    Occupational voice disorders make the most frequently certified category of occupational diseases in Poland, making up approximately 20% of all cases. This study presents the current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of occupational voice disorders. It stresses the importance of the evaluation of vocal loading by means of objective measurements. Furthermore, this study discusses the medico-legal aspects of the procedure of certifying occupational voice disorders in Poland. The paper also describes the preventive programs addressed particularly to teachers, including multidisciplinary and holistic management of occupational dysphonia. Their role in the improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH) arrangement for vocally demanding professions is emphasized.

  7. Reporting of occupational cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Skov, T; Mikkelsen, S; Svane, O; Lynge, E

    1990-12-01

    Many patients with occupational diseases fail to obtain compensation because their disease is not recognized as occupational and reported to the authorities. The present study examined the reporting of pleural mesotheliomas and sinonasal adenocarcinomas--cancers with well-known associations with occupational exposures to asbestos and wood dust--in Denmark in 1983-1987. The estimated underreporting was around 50%. Examination of the medical records of patients who had not been reported in 1986-1987 revealed that in most cases the medical records did not contain sufficiently detailed information about occupational exposures. It was recommended that a formal screening interview be carried out whenever a diagnosis is made of a potential occupational cancer. Medical associations may play a major role by issuing guidelines addressing occupational diseases within the fields of their expertise.

  8. Muscoloskeletal disorders and occupational stress of violinists.

    PubMed

    Savino, E; Iannelli, S; Forcella, L; Narciso, L; Faraso, G; Bonifaci, G; Sannolo, N

    2013-01-01

    Although musculoskeletal disorders are the most frequent cause of occupational diseases in musicians, very few studies have focused attention on a single category of instruments, in particular on the violin. This involves, in its practice, almost all the areas of the body, besides being in the category of strings which is the most numerous in an orchestra. A specific protocol, investigating postural and clinical profiles of the musculoskeletal apparatus as well as job stress, was utilized in a conservatory on graduates in the tenth year of violin study, who regularly participated in activities of orchestras or string quartets. The investigation revealed target segments of osteoarticular apparatus (jaw, vertebral spine, shoulders, elbows, hands and fingers, lower limbs) electively subjected to overuse, as well as muscle contracture of trapezoids and hyperkeratosis of fingers and clavicle. Although the work environment was comfortable, most violinists claimed to undergo intense rhythms and competitiveness. This study, highlighting subclinical occupational diseases in young musicians (violinists) suggests adequate prevention measures.

  9. Occupational cancer in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, D

    1999-01-01

    Most of the known occupational hazards of cancer have occurred in the United Kingdom. Over recent decades a contraction of manufacturing industry and legal controls on carcinogens have led to reductions in exposure, but cases continue to occur, often as a consequence of exposures 20 or more years ago. By far the most important occupational cause of cancer in the United Kingdom is asbestos, which currently accounts for some 600 cases of mesothelioma and perhaps 100 cases of bronchial carcinoma per year. Recent trends suggest that the number of mesothelioma cases attributable to asbestos will increase over the next few decades. Exposure to sunlight in outdoor work may cause several hundred cases of nonmelanomatous skin cancer per year, and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could be responsible for a similar number of skin and lung tumors. Other known occupational hazards of cancer are unlikely to account for more than 100 cases per year in total. PMID:10350506

  10. Trends in compensation for deaths from occupational cancer in Canada: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Del Bianco, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational cancer is the leading cause of work-related deaths, yet it is often unrecognized and under reported, and associated claims for compensation go unfiled. We sought to examine trends in deaths from occupational cancer, high-risk industries and exposures, and commonly compensated categories of occupational cancers. In addition, we compared deaths from occupational lung cancer for which compensation had been given with total deaths from lung cancer. Methods We used data from the Association of Workers’ Compensation Boards of Canada pertaining to the nature and source of the injury or disease and the industry in which it occurred (by jurisdiction) to describe trends in compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer in Canada for the period 1997–2010. We used data published by the Canadian Cancer Society in Canadian Cancer Statistics to compare compensated occupational lung cancer deaths with total estimated lung cancer deaths for the period between 2006 and 2010. Results Compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer have increased in recent years and surpassed those for traumatic injuries and disorders in Canada, particularly in Ontario. Between 1997 and 2010, one-half of all compensated deaths from occupational cancer in Canada were from Ontario. High-risk industries for occupational cancer include manufacturing, construction, mining and, more recently, government services. Deaths from lung cancer and mesothelioma comprise most of the compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer in Ontario and Canada. These diseases are usually the result of asbestos exposure. The burden of other occupational carcinogens is not reflected in claims data. Interpretation Although the number of accepted claims for deaths from occupational cancers has increased in recent years, these claims likely only represent a fraction of the true burden of this problem. Increased education of patients, workers at high risk of exposure and health

  11. Occupational cancer burden in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Lesley; Hutchings, Sally J; Fortunato, Lea; Young, Charlotte; Evans, Gareth S; Brown, Terry; Bevan, Ruth; Slack, Rebecca; Holmes, Phillip; Bagga, Sanjeev; Cherrie, John W; Van Tongeren, Martie

    2012-06-19

    A sound knowledge base is required to target resources to reduce workplace exposure to carcinogens. This project aimed to provide an objective estimate of the burden of cancer in Britain due to occupation. This volume presents extensive analyses for all carcinogens and occupational circumstances defined as definite or probable human occupational carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This article outlines the structure of the supplement - two methodological papers (statistical approach and exposure assessment), eight papers presenting the cancer-specific results grouped by broad anatomical site, a paper giving industry sector results and one discussing work-related cancer-prevention strategies. A brief summary of the methods and an overview of the updated overall results are given in this introductory paper. A general discussion of the overall strengths and limitations of the study is also presented. Overall, 8010 (5.3%) total cancer deaths in Britain and 13,598 cancer registrations were attributable to occupation in 2005 and 2004, respectively. The importance of cancer sites such as mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma and stomach cancers are highlighted, as are carcinogens such as asbestos, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists, as well as occupational circumstances such as shift work and occupation as a painter or welder. The methods developed for this project are being adapted by other countries and extended to include social and economic impact evaluation.

  12. Muscoloskeletal disorders and occupational stress of violinists.

    PubMed

    Savino, E; Iannelli, S; Forcella, L; Narciso, L; Faraso, G; Bonifaci, G; Sannolo, N

    2013-01-01

    Although musculoskeletal disorders are the most frequent cause of occupational diseases in musicians, very few studies have focused attention on a single category of instruments, in particular on the violin. This involves, in its practice, almost all the areas of the body, besides being in the category of strings which is the most numerous in an orchestra. A specific protocol, investigating postural and clinical profiles of the musculoskeletal apparatus as well as job stress, was utilized in a conservatory on graduates in the tenth year of violin study, who regularly participated in activities of orchestras or string quartets. The investigation revealed target segments of osteoarticular apparatus (jaw, vertebral spine, shoulders, elbows, hands and fingers, lower limbs) electively subjected to overuse, as well as muscle contracture of trapezoids and hyperkeratosis of fingers and clavicle. Although the work environment was comfortable, most violinists claimed to undergo intense rhythms and competitiveness. This study, highlighting subclinical occupational diseases in young musicians (violinists) suggests adequate prevention measures. PMID:24152849

  13. Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kjaerheim, K

    1999-01-01

    Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries benefits from certain structural advantages, including the existence of computerized population registries, national cancer registries with high-quality data on cancer incidence, and a personal identification number for each inhabitant. This article outlines the utilization of this research infrastructure in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, together with research examples from the different countries. Future research on occupational cancer in this region requires that national legislation on electronic handling of sensitive personal information should not be stricter than the European Union Directive on individual protection with regard to personal data. A personal identification number is essential both for keeping up the high quality of data of the registers and for the high quality of the process of linking the different data sources together. Although previous occupational research has focused on male workers, a broader approach is needed in the future, including a study of how cancer risk in women may be affected by occupational activity and the question of possible cancer risk in offspring of men and women exposed to workplace carcinogens. PMID:10350505

  14. [Epidemiological investigation on bladder cancer and occupations].

    PubMed

    Obata, K; Ohno, Y; Aoki, K

    1989-12-01

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in Boston, U.S.A., Manchester, U.K., and Nagoya, Japan to assess the associations of occupations with bladder cancer in men. In Nagoya, cancer cases were identified through Nagoya Bladder Cancer Registry, and controls were randomly selected from the general population using electoral registers. Study subjects, all males, analyzed were 430 cases and 397 controls in Boston; 339 and 493 in Manchester, and 220 and 443 in Nagoya, respectively. Occupations significantly related to an increased bladder cancer risk were those manufacturing or handling dyes, leather, paint or organic chemicals in Boston, and leather or medical workers in Manchester. Occupations significantly associated with bladder cancer development were not found in Nagoya. In general, risk related to occupations was relatively higher in the younger age group (less than 65 years old) than in the older age group (greater than or equal to 65 yrs old). Statistically significant differences in bladder cancer risk were not demonstrated between manufacturing workers and service workers.

  15. [Lung Cancer as an Occupational Disease].

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Woitowitz, H-J

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently encountered cancer types. According to the latest WHO data, about 10 % of this disease are due to occupational exposure to cancerogens. Asbestos is still the number one carcinogen. Further frequent causes include quarz and ionizing radiation (uranium mining). Probable causes of the disease can be identified only with the help of detailed occupational history taken by a medical specialist and qualified exposure assessment. Without clarifying the cause of the disease, there is neither a correct insurance procedure nor compensation for the victim, and furthermore, required preventive measures cannot be initiated. PMID:27512930

  16. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Santibañez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesús; Alguacil, Juan; de la Hera, Manuela García; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  17. Occupation-related risks for colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegelman, D.; Wegman, D.H.

    1985-11-01

    Several population data bases were used to generate hypotheses about associations between colorectal cancer and workplace exposures. The Third National Cancer Survey interview sample was used to select 343 male and 208 female cases and 626 male and 1,235 female cancer controls. Potential work exposures were assigned with the use of data from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Hazard Survey. Dietary factors were modeled from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Work-related stress was considered with the use of a model based on the U.S. Department of Labor's Quality of Employment Survey. Other risk factors included age, race, ponderosity, and menopausal status. Logistic analysis yielded hypotheses for colon cancer risk in males with potentially high exposure to solvents, abrasives, and fuel oil and in those in jobs with high demand and low control (high stress). Hypotheses emerged for females with potentially high exposure to dyes, solvents, and grinding wheel dust.

  18. Occupational Therapy Use by Older Adults With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Weinberger, Morris; Meyer, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Occupational therapy may significantly improve cancer survivors’ ability to participate in activities, thereby improving quality of life. Little is known, however, about the use of occupational therapy services by adults with cancer. The objective of this study was to understand what shapes patterns of occupational therapy use to help improve service delivery. We examined older (age >65 yr) adults diagnosed with breast, prostate, lung, or melanoma (skin) cancer between 2004 and 2007 (N = 27,131) using North Carolina Central Cancer Registry data linked to Medicare billing claims. Survivors who used occupational therapy within 1 yr before their cancer diagnosis were more likely to use occupational therapy after diagnosis but also experienced the highest levels of comorbidities. Survivors with Stage 4 cancers or lung cancer were less likely to use occupational therapy. These findings suggest possible disparities in utilization of occupational therapy by older adults with cancer. PMID:25184473

  19. Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Kvåle, G; Bjelke, E; Heuch, I

    1986-02-15

    The importance of occupation held longest as a risk factor for lung cancer was examined in a prospective study in Norway of 11,995 men, among whom 125 cases occurred in a follow-up from 1966 through 1978. Based on information about occupation held longest, the respondents were classified into 3 groups according to suspected exposure to respiratory carcinogens at the workplace. After stratification for age, place of residence and cigarette smoking, we found a highly significant relative risk of 2.6 for those judged to have experienced definite exposure versus the group with no workplace exposure. The apparent risk-enhancing effect of occupational exposure was observed for all histologic subtypes. Stratification including a socioeconomic factor score led to a moderate reduction in the relative risk estimate. High risk estimates still obtained, however, for a limited number of occupations, the highest for workers in the mining and quarrying industries. Although the interpretation of the observed effect associated with a crude index of occupational exposure may be difficult, our results suggest that between 13 and 27% of the lung cancer cases observed among Norwegian men in the relevant time period can be attributed to harmful work-place exposure. PMID:3943919

  20. Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Kvåle, G; Bjelke, E; Heuch, I

    1986-02-15

    The importance of occupation held longest as a risk factor for lung cancer was examined in a prospective study in Norway of 11,995 men, among whom 125 cases occurred in a follow-up from 1966 through 1978. Based on information about occupation held longest, the respondents were classified into 3 groups according to suspected exposure to respiratory carcinogens at the workplace. After stratification for age, place of residence and cigarette smoking, we found a highly significant relative risk of 2.6 for those judged to have experienced definite exposure versus the group with no workplace exposure. The apparent risk-enhancing effect of occupational exposure was observed for all histologic subtypes. Stratification including a socioeconomic factor score led to a moderate reduction in the relative risk estimate. High risk estimates still obtained, however, for a limited number of occupations, the highest for workers in the mining and quarrying industries. Although the interpretation of the observed effect associated with a crude index of occupational exposure may be difficult, our results suggest that between 13 and 27% of the lung cancer cases observed among Norwegian men in the relevant time period can be attributed to harmful work-place exposure.

  1. [The Netherlands Expertise Center for Occupational and Respiratory Disorders].

    PubMed

    Rooyackers, J M

    2006-06-01

    In 2000 the Netherlands Expertise Centre for Occupational Respiratory Disorders (NECORD) was started as a centre of expertise in occupational health. The centre received a grant from the ministry of Health Welfare and Sport for a period of 5 years. Their mission was to collect, develop and implement knowledge in the fields of diagnosis, treatment, reintegration and prevention of work-related health- and occupational disorders. In cooperation with two other institutes for health, NECORD has become a multidisciplinary clinical occupational respiratory health service. Occupational hygienists, occupational health physicians and chest physicians are working on three programmes: research projects on the prevalence and monitoring of respiratory health effects resulting from exposure to substances in the work place; patient care (out-patient clinic); and support of professionals (website, helpdesk, development and implementation of guidelines, education and postgraduate training).

  2. Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-01-01

    Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

  3. Bladder cancer and occupational exposure to leather.

    PubMed Central

    Marrett, L D; Hartge, P; Meigs, J W

    1986-01-01

    A large case-control study of bladder cancer (2982 cases; 5782 controls) included information about occupational exposure to leather. Occupational histories of exposed white study subjects were reviewed and 150 were determined to have had "true" on the job exposure to leather. The odds ratio estimate (OR) of bladder cancer associated with such exposure in white subjects (n = 8063) was 1.4 (95% confidence limits = 1.0, 1.9) after adjustment for sex, age, and cigarette smoking. The risk was highest in those first employed in a leather job before 1945, although no dose-response relation with duration of leather employment was found. Subjects employed in "dusty" leather jobs had a slightly higher risk than those with other types of leather jobs. Our results are consistent with reports of an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with exposure to leather. Although the agents responsible have not been identified, our findings of an increased risk associated with exposure in the earlier years of this century and in dusty jobs suggest that leather dusts may be important. PMID:3947575

  4. Occupational chemical exposures among cosmetologists: risk of reproductive disorders.

    PubMed

    Pak, Victoria M; Powers, Martha; Liu, Jianghong

    2013-12-01

    More research is needed to understand possible occupational reproductive risks for cosmetologists, specifically hairdressers and nail technicians, two occupations that often share workspace and exposure to hair dyes and nail polish. Cosmetologists are predominantly females of reproductive age; thus, they may be at higher risk for the effects of exposure to reproductive toxins. The purpose of this article is to inform nurses and public health professionals about occupational exposures for cosmetologists and discuss interventions to reduce the risks of reproductive disorders among susceptible worker populations. PMID:24328919

  5. Priorities for development of research methods in occupational cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Elizabeth M; Schulte, Paul A; Bayard, Steve; Blair, Aaron; Brandt-Rauf, Paul; Butler, Mary Ann; Dankovic, David; Hubbs, Ann F; Jones, Carol; Karstadt, Myra; Kedderis, Gregory L; Melnick, Ronald; Redlich, Carrie A; Rothman, Nathaniel; Savage, Russell E; Sprinker, Michael; Toraason, Mark; Weston, Ainsley; Olshan, Andrew F; Stewart, Patricia; Zahm, Sheila Hoar

    2003-01-01

    Occupational cancer research methods was identified in 1996 as 1 of 21 priority research areas in the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). To implement NORA, teams of experts from various sectors were formed and given the charge to further define research needs and develop strategies to enhance or augment research in each priority area. This article is a product of that process. Focus on occupational cancer research methods is important both because occupational factors play a significant role in a number of cancers, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality, and also because occupational cohorts (because of higher exposure levels) often provide unique opportunities to evaluate health effects of environmental toxicants and understand the carcinogenic process in humans. Despite an explosion of new methods for cancer research in general, these have not been widely applied to occupational cancer research. In this article we identify needs and gaps in occupational cancer research methods in four broad areas: identification of occupational carcinogens, design of epidemiologic studies, risk assessment, and primary and secondary prevention. Progress in occupational cancer will require interdisciplinary research involving epidemiologists, industrial hygienists, toxicologists, and molecular biologists. PMID:12524210

  6. Geographical pathology as a method for detecting occupational cancer.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, J R

    1977-08-01

    Geographical pathology points to environmental factors in cancer and helps estimate their potential magnitude. An occupational contribution was established by 1972 for cancer of the mouth, lung, bladder, and skin. Additionally partly based on geographical pathology, an occupational etiology is accepted for some cancer of nasopharynx, brain, liver, pleura, nasal sinus, bone and bone marrow, and possibly stomach. For identifying new occupational factors based on geographical comparisons, both an optimal size of work force to be followed-up and a sufficiently high proportion of work force in the geographical unit's population are necessary. Hypothetical variations based on 30-year follow-up of asbestos workers illustrate this. Cancer surveys and registries can greatly facilitate detection of occupational cancer. Evidence for occupational factors in the geographical pathology of lymphosarcoma is briefly summarized; but no conclusions are reached.

  7. Importance of environmental and occupational factors in cancer.

    PubMed

    Higginson, J

    1980-01-01

    Geographic and temporal variations in cancer incidence, changes in migrants, differences between males and females, as well as case history studies are discussed. Cancers of the workplace can be divided into those related to "point-source" industrial pollution and those where the social milieu or "life-style" of the occupation play a role (e.g., job-associated cancers). In the future, considerably more effort is necessary in studying the life-style factors in specific occupational settings. It is important not to forget that occupational cancer is essentially an excess risk over the background risks. PMID:7463524

  8. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J H

    1988-01-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation. PMID:3378013

  9. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J H

    1988-05-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation.

  10. A current global view of environmental and occupational cancers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mihi

    2011-07-01

    This review is focused on current information of avoidable environmental pollution and occupational exposure as causes of cancer. Approximately 2% to 8% of all cancers are thought to be due to occupation. In addition, occupational and environmental cancers have their own characteristics, e.g., specific chemicals and cancers, multiple factors, multiple causation and interaction, or latency period. Concerning carcinogens, asbestos/silica/wood dust, soot/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [benzo(a) pyrene], heavy metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), aromatic amines (4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine), organic solvents (benzene or vinyl chloride), radiation/radon, or indoor pollutants (formaldehyde, tobacco smoking) are mentioned with their specific cancers, e.g., lung, skin, and bladder cancers, mesothelioma or leukemia, and exposure routes, rubber or pigment manufacturing, textile, painting, insulation, mining, and so on. In addition, nanoparticles, electromagnetic waves, and climate changes are suspected as future carcinogenic sources. Moreover, the aspects of environmental and occupational cancers are quite different between developing and developed countries. The recent follow-up of occupational cancers in Nordic countries shows a good example for developed countries. On the other hand, newly industrializing countries face an increased burden of occupational and environmental cancers. Developing countries are particularly suffering from preventable cancers in mining, agriculture, or industries without proper implication of safety regulations. Therefore, industrialized countries are expected to educate and provide support for developing countries. In addition, citizens can encounter new environmental and occupational carcinogen nominators such as nanomaterials, electromagnetic wave, and climate exchanges. As their carcinogenicity or involvement in carcinogenesis is not clearly unknown, proper consideration for them should be taken into account. For these purposes, new

  11. Xiphoid syndrome: an uncommon occupational disorder.

    PubMed

    Yapici Ugurlar, O; Ugurlar, M; Ozel, A; Erturk, S M

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 45-year-old man, complaining of swelling and pain in his epigastric region for the last 3 years. According to his medical history, he had undergone various investigations and treatments for gastro-oesophageal reflux, without relief. He had had a history of chronic repeated microtraumas to his sternum during 9 years of working as a carpenter, as a result of placing wood against his anterior chest wall and pushing the former into a plank cutting machine. On examination, a tender swelling was palpable as an immobile, hard mass showing minimal protrusion under the skin on the xiphoid process. He was diagnosed as having xiphoid syndrome. We prescribed anti-inflammatory medication and advised him to avoid pressure on his anterior chest wall, especially on the sternum, while cutting wood. At follow-up, the symptoms were relieved. Xiphoid syndrome may be seen in people performing hard physical work who incur sustained pressure or friction on their anterior chest wall. The case emphasizes the importance of the occupational history as well as clinical and radiological investigation of unusual conditions as mentioned above. PMID:24336479

  12. Epidemiologic characteristics of compensated occupational lung cancers among Korean workers.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Kyoung Sook

    2014-11-01

    An understanding of the characteristics of occupational lung cancer is important to establish policies that prevent carcinogen exposure and to compensate workers exposed to lung carcinogens. This study analyzed the characteristics of occupational lung cancers in workers who were compensated under the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Law between 1994 and 2011. A total of 179 occupational lung cancers were compensated. The main carcinogenic exposure was asbestos, followed by crystalline silica and hexavalent chromium. The mean exposure duration and latency were 19.8 and 23.2 yr. The most common industry was manufacturing, followed by construction and transportation. The most common occupation was maintenance and repair, followed by foundry work, welding, painting, and spinning or weaving. Although asbestos was predominant carcinogen, the proportion of these cases was relatively low compared to other developed countries. Proper surveillance system is needed to monitor occupational lung cancer and improve prevention measures. PMID:25408577

  13. Occupational Lung Cancer Surveillance in South Korea, 2006-2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Won, Jong Uk; Moon, Jai Dong; Kim, Young-Chul; Koh, Sang Baek; Yong, Suk Joong; Kim, Soo Geun; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Inah; Kim, Jung Il; Kim, Jung Won; Lee, Eui-cheol; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Dong Mug; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The lung cancer mortality in Korea has increased remarkably during the last 20 years, and has been the first leading cause of cancer-related deaths since 2000. The aim of the current study was to examine the time trends of occupational lung cancer and carcinogens exposure during the period 2006-2009 in South Korea, by assessing the proportion of occupational burden. Methods We defined occupational lung cancer for surveillance, and developed a reporting protocol and reporting website for the surveillance of occupational lung cancer. The study patients were chosen from 9 participating university hospitals in the following 7 areas: Seoul, Incheon, Wonju, Daejeon, Daegu, Busan, and Gwangju. Results The combined proportion of definite and probable occupational lung cancer among all lung cancers investigated in this study was 10.0%, 8.6%, 10.7%, and 15.8% in the years 2006 to 2009, respectively, with an average of 11.7% over the four-year study period. The main carcinogens were asbestos, crystalline silica, radon, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust particles, chromium, and nickel. Conclusion We estimated that about 11.7% of the incident lung cancer was preventable. This reveals the potential to considerably reduce lung cancer by intervention in occupational fields. PMID:22953173

  14. The proportion of cancer attributable to occupational exposures

    PubMed Central

    Purdue, Mark P.; Hutchings, Sally J.; Rushton, Lesley; Silverman, Debra T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To review the literature on the estimation of the population attributable fraction (PAF) of cancer due to occupational exposures and to describe challenges in the estimation of this metric. To help illustrate the inherent challenges, we also estimate PAFs for selected cancers diagnosed in the United States in 2010 attributable to work as a painter (causally associated with bladder and lung cancer) and shiftwork (possibly associated with breast cancer). Methods We reviewed and summarized previous reports providing quantitative estimates of PAF for total cancer due to occupational exposures. We calculated PAF estimates for painters and shiftwork using methodology from a detailed investigation of the occupational cancer burden in Great Britain, with adaptations made for the U.S. population. Results The estimated occupation-attributable fraction for total cancer generally ranged between 2% and 8% (men, 3-14%; women, 1-2%) based on previous reports. We calculated that employment as a painter accounted for a very small proportion of cancers of the bladder and lung diagnosed in the United States in 2010, with PAFs of 0.5% for each site. In contrast, our calculations suggest that the potential impact of shiftwork on breast cancer (if causal) could be substantial, with a PAF of 5.7%, translating to 11,777 attributable breast cancers. Conclusions Continued efforts to estimate the occupational cancer burden will be important as scientific evidence and economic trends evolve. Such projects should consider the challenges involved in PAF estimation, which we summarize in this report. PMID:25487971

  15. Occupational Therapy for Adults With Cancer: Why It Matters.

    PubMed

    Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Williams, Grant R; Campbell, Claudine; Munoz, Lauro A; Muss, Hyman B

    2016-03-01

    Adults with cancer may be at risk for limitations in functional status and quality of life (QOL). Occupational therapy is a supportive service with the specific mission to help people functionally engage in life as safely and independently as possible with the primary goal of improving QOL. Unfortunately, for people with cancer, occupational therapy remains underused. The overall purpose of this review is to provide an understanding of what occupational therapy is and its relevance to patients with cancer, highlight the reasons to refer, and, last, provide general advice on how to access services.

  16. Occupational cancer in France: epidemiology, toxicology, prevention, and compensation.

    PubMed Central

    Aubrun, J C; Binet, S; Bozec, C; Brochard, P; Dimerman, S; Fontaine, B; Guénel, P; Luce, D; Martinet, Y; Moulin, J J; Mur, J M; Pietruszynski, M; Vallayer, C

    1999-01-01

    This article is a description of the current situation in France with regard to occupational cancer: research, prevention, and occupation. Toxicologic experiments are carried out using (italic)in vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) tests, particularly using transgenic mice. Several epidemiologic studies have been conducted over the last decades: population-based case-control studies; mortality studies and cancer incidence studies carried out in historical cohorts of workers employed in the industry; and case-control studies nested in occupational cohorts. French ethical aspects of toxicologic and epidemiologic studies are described. The results thus obtained are used to establish regulations for the prevention and the compensation of cancers attributable to occupational exposure. This French regulation for prevention of occupational cancer involves several partners: (italic)a(/italic)) the states authorities, including labor inspectors, responsible for preparing and implementing the labor legislation and for supervising its application, particularly in the fields of occupational health and safety and working conditions; (italic)b(/italic)) the Social Security Organisation for the analysis of present or potential occupational risks based on tests, visits in plants, complaints or requests from various sources, and statistics. These activities are performed within the framework of the general French policy for the prevention of occupational cancer. This organization includes the National Institute for Research and Safety, particularly involved in research in the various fields of occupational risks--animal toxicology, biologic monitoring, exposure measurements epidemiology, psychology, ergonomy, electronic systems and machineries, exposure to chemicals, noise, heat, vibration, and lighting; and (italic)c(/italic)) companies where the regulation defines the role of the plant manager, the occupational physician, and the Health, Safety and Working Conditions

  17. Occupational risk factors for female breast cancer: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, M S; Labrèche, F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although progress has been made in identifying personal risk factors and in improving treatment for female breast cancer, incidence rates continue to increase. With women now occupying a sizable fraction of the workforce, it is worth inquiring whether there are occupational risk factors for breast cancer. This is a review of occupational studies on female breast cancer. METHODS: Suitable reports and published articles with associations of female breast cancer and occupation were identified from technical reports, by searching the MEDLINE bibliographic data base, and by reviewing each paper on cancer that was published in 20 major journals during the period from about 1971-94. RESULTS: A total of 115 studies were identified; 19 studies relied exclusively on data collected for administrative purposes, and there were four incident case-control studies and 92 cohort studies. Although data for individual industries, occupations, and exposures were sparse, there was limited evidence of an association with employment in the pharmaceutical industry and among cosmetologists and beauticians. Associations were also found for chemists and occupations with possible exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, but potential methodological weaknesses preclude drawing any definite conclusions. There was little support for increased risks among textiles workers, dry cleaning workers, and nuclear industry workers. CONCLUSIONS: Few high quality occupational studies directed specifically toward women have been carried out to allow the unambiguous identification of occupational risk factors for breast cancer. It is suggested that investigations that account for non-occupational risk factors and that assess exposure in a more detailed way be carried out. One strategy already suggested is to conduct population based, case-control studies in which subjects are interviewed about their occupational histories and exposure to chemical and physical agents which are

  18. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among occupational therapists in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, JuHyung

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to identify general characteristics of occupational therapists in Korea and to investigate the present conditions of their work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD) in order to present preliminary data for its prevention and directions for improvement. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted by performing a survey about WRMD among 95 occupational therapists working in Korea. Frequency analysis was conducted for the work-related general characteristics of subjects and for parts of the body with musculoskeletal disorder, and a χ(2) test was used to analyze the association between the presence of WRMD characteristics and each general characteristic. [Results] The parts of the body involved the most were the shoulders, hands, and neck (in decreasing order), and the work-related general characteristics shown to be associated with WRMD were the gender and the mean length of employment period. [Conclusion] The results of this study revealed that occupational therapists in Korea were extremely vulnerable to WRMD, and that realistic measures should be prepared swiftly for its prevention and treatment.

  19. Occupational associations with lung cancer in two Ontario cities.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, M M

    1995-01-01

    A death certificate based case-control study of lung cancer in two Ontario cities was performed to estimate the risk of lung cancer attributable to occupation in Ontario, and to estimate the proportion of occupational lung cancers receiving compensation from the Workers' Compensation Board. Occupation and industry were identified from the death certificate. A priori occupations for analysis were those whose members had received compensation for occupational cancer from the Ontario Workers' Compensation Board. Population attributable risks were computed using the relative risks observed in this study and employment data from the 1986 Census of Canada. Subjects were all men (N = 967) between the ages of 45 and 75 years resident in the cities of Hamilton and Sault Ste-Marie who died of lung cancer from 1979 to 1988. Controls (2,821) were matched on age, year of death, and city of residence. In agreement with other studies, an increased risk of lung cancer was observed for workers in the construction sector, for miners, and for truck drivers. It was estimated that only a small proportion of lung cancers attributable to occupation are compensated in Ontario. It is believed that many occupational cancers go uncompensated because of the failure to file claims, rather than because claims are rejected by Compensation Boards. Physicians are in a position to advise patients about the possibility of compensable disease and to act as advocates for them. By recognizing compensable illness, physicians have the opportunity to ease the financial burden of patients and their families. The challenge is a difficult one, but it is well worth pursuing.

  20. Occupational associations with lung cancer in two Ontario cities.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, M M

    1995-01-01

    A death certificate based case-control study of lung cancer in two Ontario cities was performed to estimate the risk of lung cancer attributable to occupation in Ontario, and to estimate the proportion of occupational lung cancers receiving compensation from the Workers' Compensation Board. Occupation and industry were identified from the death certificate. A priori occupations for analysis were those whose members had received compensation for occupational cancer from the Ontario Workers' Compensation Board. Population attributable risks were computed using the relative risks observed in this study and employment data from the 1986 Census of Canada. Subjects were all men (N = 967) between the ages of 45 and 75 years resident in the cities of Hamilton and Sault Ste-Marie who died of lung cancer from 1979 to 1988. Controls (2,821) were matched on age, year of death, and city of residence. In agreement with other studies, an increased risk of lung cancer was observed for workers in the construction sector, for miners, and for truck drivers. It was estimated that only a small proportion of lung cancers attributable to occupation are compensated in Ontario. It is believed that many occupational cancers go uncompensated because of the failure to file claims, rather than because claims are rejected by Compensation Boards. Physicians are in a position to advise patients about the possibility of compensable disease and to act as advocates for them. By recognizing compensable illness, physicians have the opportunity to ease the financial burden of patients and their families. The challenge is a difficult one, but it is well worth pursuing. PMID:7900730

  1. Occupation as a risk identifier for breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, C H; Burnett, C A; Halperin, W E; Seligman, P J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Breast cancer mortality may be reduced if the disease is detected early through targeted screening programs. Current screening guidelines are based solely on a woman's age. Because working populations are accessible for intervention, occupational identification may be a way of helping to define and locate risk groups and target prevention. METHODS. We used a database consisting of 2.9 million occupationally coded death certificates collected from 23 states between 1979 and 1987 to calculate age-adjusted, race-specific proportionate mortality ratios for breast cancer according to occupation. We performed case-control analyses on occupational groups and on stratifications within the teaching profession. RESULTS. We found a number of significant associations between occupation and frequency of breast cancer. For example, white female professional, managerial, and clerical workers all had high proportions of breast cancer death. High rates of breast cancer in teachers were found in both proportionate mortality ratio and case-control analyses. CONCLUSIONS. These findings may serve as in an aid in the effective targeting of work-site health promotion programs. They suggest that occupationally coded mortality data can be a useful adjunct in the difficult task of identifying groups at risk of preventable disease. PMID:8363008

  2. [Management of occupational bladder cancer in Japan (Vol. 1)].

    PubMed

    Ishizu, Sumiko; Hashida, Chise

    2007-01-01

    By examining historical documents regarding occupational bladder cancer in Japan, we interpreted and followed the progress made in developing preventive measures against the outbreak of occupational bladder cancer in Japanese dye industries after World War II, and documented how these measures became well organized. During Dr. M. H. C. Williams's, who was an industrial physician for the British ICI Company, occasional visits to Japan, he encouraged the enforcement of such measures, considering them to be as important in occupational health in Japan as in Western countries. He received permission to implement these measures in Japanese dye companies. A urine cell diagnostic system was already being employed in Japanese industries as a method of diagnosing occupational bladder cancer, and its use was promoted by engineers, urologists, and pathologists even before the Industrial Safety and Health Law was enacted in 1972. It took about 10 years for these measures to become standardized industry-wide. The use of these measures has had a considerable effect on the early diagnosis of patients and extended patients' life spans. Eventually, the life spans of such patients became approximately the same as that of the average Japanese male. Some patients unfortunately died of occupational bladder cancer. Others were examined using these measures not only while employed but also after retirement. Therefore, some patients in whom occupational bladder cancer was detected are still alive at over eighty years of age.

  3. Assessment criteria for compensation of occupational bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Schops, Wolfgang; Jungmann, Olaf; Zumbe, Jurgen; Zellner, Michael; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In Germany, more than 100 bladder tumor cases are annually recognized as occupational disease and compensated, given that medical experts regard exposure to carcinogenic aromatic amines as a likely cause of cancer. The amount of compensation is initially based on the tumor staging and grading at the time of initial diagnosis ("basic MdE") (MdE--reduction of earning capacity) and is adapted after a recurrence-free period of 2 and 5 years, respectively. In the event of treatment or tumor-related secondary conditions, the monthly compensation increases based on the severity of the objectified functional disorder. In the following article, medical experts specializing in this field provide a complete list of all known disorders, including treatment-related loss of a kidney or erectile dysfunction. In addition, the weighting of medical criteria in the assessment and calculation of the compensation is analyzed in greater detail. Since the given criteria are based on comprehensible experiences of urologists with their patients, they also provide medical experts in other countries with valuable points of reference for the calculation of the compensation.

  4. Overview of preventable industrial causes of occupational cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, E

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes what is known about preventable causes of occupational cancer, including single agents, complex mixtures, and broad occupational associations. Epidemiologic methods have been very successful in documenting cancer risks associated with single agents. Epidemiologic data are most conclusive when an exposure-response relationship can be demonstrated. Examples of agents for which epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an exposure-response relationship include benzene and (concurrent exposure to) ortho-toluidine and aniline. Vinyl chloride and bischloromethyl ether are examples of associations between single agents and rare histologic types of cancer. It is more difficult to conduct epidemiologic studies to identify cancer risks associated with complex mixtures. Studies of diesel exhaust and lung cancer and metal machining oils are cited as having employed advanced industrial hygiene and epidemiologic methods for studies of complex mixtures. Elevated cancer risks have also been identified in broad occupational groups, including painters and dry cleaners. Epidemiologic case-control studies are often used to detect such associations but are limited in their abilities to detect the causal agents. Major gaps exist in knowledge of occupational cancer risks among women workers and workers of color. Because epidemiologic research measures illness and mortality that have already occurred, a positive study can be interpreted to represent a failure in prevention. The challenge we face in the next decade is to identify interventions earlier in the causal pathway (toxicologic testing, biomarkers of exposure or precancerous changes, institution of engineering and good industrial hygiene practices to reduce occupational exposure levels) so that occupational cancer can be prevented. PMID:8741783

  5. Association of temporomandibular disorder with occupational visual display terminal use

    PubMed Central

    SHIGEISHI, HIDEO

    2016-01-01

    Increased visual display terminal (VDT) use has raised the prevalence of VDT-related adverse conditions, such as dry eye disease, and musculoskeletal and psychopathological symptoms, in office workers, including temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Many factors contributing to TMD have been identified, such as parafunctional habit (bruxism and teeth clenching), trauma, mental disorders, lifestyle, poor health, and nutrition, as well as hormonal factors (i.e., estrogen). It is likely that various contributing factors overlap in TMD development in individuals who routinely use a VDT for work. However, the relationship between TMD and VDT use has not been fully elucidated. In this mini-review, findings of recent studies of TMD in relation to occupational VDT use in Japan are discussed, as well as characteristic features and prevention strategies. PMID:27330747

  6. Occupation and smoking as risk determinants of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, E; Teppo, L; Hakulinen, T; Rimpelä, M

    1983-09-01

    The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of lung cancer was determined for different occupational groups in Finland. The data on all cases of lung cancer diagnosed in Finland in age groups of 35-69 years in 1971-1975 were supplemented by information on occupation from the 1970 census (Central Statistical Office). The expected numbers of cases were based on the sex, age and occupation-specific numbers of person-years computed in the Central Statistical Office, and sex- and age-specific incidence rates of lung cancer among the economically active population (as defined 1 January 1971). Compared with the risk of the total economically active population, the relative risk of those not active (SIR) was 1.69 for men and 0.86 for women. Lower than expected relative risks were encountered among highly educated and white-collar male workers (religious, legal, pedagogical, medical, technical and administrative work), in sales work, transport service work and among farmers. High SIRs were found in mining and quarrying, forestry, woodworking (joiners), construction, painting and among unskilled workers. Among women the numbers of cases were small and only one significant SIR was obtained; the risk was lower than expected in farming. Data on the smoking habits of males in different main occupational categories in Finland show that variation between different occupational groups in the prevalence of smoking closely corresponds to that in the SIR for lung cancer (R = 0.96). PMID:6629617

  7. Occupation and smoking as risk determinants of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, E; Teppo, L; Hakulinen, T; Rimpelä, M

    1983-09-01

    The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of lung cancer was determined for different occupational groups in Finland. The data on all cases of lung cancer diagnosed in Finland in age groups of 35-69 years in 1971-1975 were supplemented by information on occupation from the 1970 census (Central Statistical Office). The expected numbers of cases were based on the sex, age and occupation-specific numbers of person-years computed in the Central Statistical Office, and sex- and age-specific incidence rates of lung cancer among the economically active population (as defined 1 January 1971). Compared with the risk of the total economically active population, the relative risk of those not active (SIR) was 1.69 for men and 0.86 for women. Lower than expected relative risks were encountered among highly educated and white-collar male workers (religious, legal, pedagogical, medical, technical and administrative work), in sales work, transport service work and among farmers. High SIRs were found in mining and quarrying, forestry, woodworking (joiners), construction, painting and among unskilled workers. Among women the numbers of cases were small and only one significant SIR was obtained; the risk was lower than expected in farming. Data on the smoking habits of males in different main occupational categories in Finland show that variation between different occupational groups in the prevalence of smoking closely corresponds to that in the SIR for lung cancer (R = 0.96).

  8. Occupational skin cancer induced by ultraviolet radiation and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, T L; Fartasch, M; Drexler, H; Schmitt, J

    2012-08-01

    Skin cancer is by far the most common kind of cancer diagnosed in many western countries and ultraviolet radiation is the most important risk factor for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Although employees at several workplaces are exposed to increased levels of UV radiation, skin cancer due to long-term intense occupational exposure to UV radiation is often not considered as occupational disease. The actually available evidence in the epidemiological literature clearly indicates that occupational UV radiation exposure is a substantial and robust risk factor for the development of cutaneous SCC and also clearly shows a significant risk for developing BCC. There is enough scientific evidence that outdoor workers have an increased risk of developing work-related occupational skin cancer due to natural UV radiation exposure and adequate prevention strategies must be implemented. The three measures which are successful and of particular importance in the prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer in outdoor workers are changes in behaviour regarding awareness of health and disease resulting from exposure to natural UV radiation, protection from direct UV radiation by wearing suitable clothing, and regular and correct use of appropriate sunscreens.

  9. Occupational exposures and lung cancer in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Menvielle, G; Luce, D; Fevotte, J; Bugel, I; Salomon, C; Goldberg, P; Billon-Galland, M; Goldberg, M

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study the associations between occupational exposures and the risk of lung cancer in New Caledonia. Methods: All cases diagnosed between January 1993 and December 1995 (228 lung cancers) and 305 population controls were included. Detailed information on lifetime job history, smoking, and other potential risk factors was collected by interview. Occupational exposures were assessed from the questionnaires by an industrial hygienist, without knowledge of case-control status. Results: No significant association was found with exposures related to nickel mining and refining, the main industrial activity in the territory. Among men, an excess risk of lung cancer was found for bus and truck drivers. Increased risks were also observed in men with the highest level of cumulative exposure to cleaning products and inorganic fertilisers. Exposure to field dust was associated with lung cancer risk in both sexes, and risk increased with cumulative exposure level. In some areas tremolite asbestos derived from local outcroppings was used as a whitewash. The association between exposure to field dust and lung cancer was limited to men and women exposed to this whitewash—that is, living in areas where the soil may contain tremolite. Conclusion: This study shows several associations between occupational exposures and lung cancer. The findings suggest that exposure to tremolite fibres from cultivated fields may increase the risk of lung cancer in New Caledonia. PMID:12883019

  10. Setting priorities for occupational cancer research and control: synthesis of the results of occupational disease surveillance studies.

    PubMed

    Dubrow, R; Wegman, D H

    1983-12-01

    The objectives of this paper were 1) to identify occupations with potentially high cancer risk by combining the results of 12 major occupational disease surveillance studies, 2) to develop a quantitative methodology for accomplishing the first objective, and 3) to make recommendations concerning priorities for occupational cancer research and control on the basis of the results of this analysis in conjunction with other available epidemiologic, industrial hygiene, toxicologic, and employment data. It was suggested that the first priority be the investigation and control of occupational exposure to asbestos, particularly in the automobile repair and construction industries. Of the 34 occupational groups found to be at high risk for lung cancer in this analysis, 18 have potential asbestos exposure. The second priority was suggested to be research into the consistent lung-cancer excess found among motor vehicle drivers. This excess may be due to occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine exhaust, to cigarette smoking, or to both of these factors. PMID:6581356

  11. Investigation of occupational cancer clusters: theory and practice.

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, P A; Ehrenberg, R L; Singal, M

    1987-01-01

    Local and federal government agencies are often asked to investigate apparent clusters of cancer in communities or workplaces. Often these investigations cannot utilize the methods that have been developed for evaluation of disease clusters because the clusters are too small, and the populations to be studied and the periods of time to be covered are determined in an a posteriori manner. Still, government investigators are called upon to render an official opinion of the apparent clusters. Application of a theoretical approach to cluster analysis must give way to a more pragmatic approach. A review of 61 investigations of apparent clusters conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) during the period 1978-84 showed that most of the clusters contained five or fewer cases and had no plausible occupational etiology. Despite the few clusters that were identified, these investigations generally provided a service to workers and employers who were concerned about occupational cancer. PMID:3789238

  12. Incidence of digestive cancers and occupational exposure to asbestos.

    PubMed

    de La Provôté, S; Desoubeaux, N; Paris, C; Letourneux, M; Raffaelli, C; Galateau-Salle, F; Gignoux, M; Launoy, G

    2002-12-01

    While the role of exposure to asbestos in the development of several cancers such as mesotheliomas and bronchopulmonary cancers is now well established, the possible relationship between digestive cancers, other than peritoneal mesotheliomas, and occupational exposure to asbestos is still controversial. The great majority of the studies are based on mortality data. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between digestive cancer incidence and occupational exposure to asbestos in a population of subjects for whom precise occupational exposure data and precise incidence data were available. The population consisted of salaried and retired workers from a company using asbestos to manufacture fireproof textiles and friction materials. There were 1454 men (79.9%) and 366 women (20.1%). A cumulative exposure index and a mean exposure concentration in fibres/ml for each subject were calculated with the aid of an in-house job-exposure matrix. The number of cases of digestive cancer observed was compared with the expected and Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) was estimated. Precise occupational exposure data allowed us to study the dose-response relationship between asbestos exposure and risk of digestive cancer using Cox model. Fifty-six digestive cancers occurred in the study population over the 18-year follow-up period for 48.4 expected (SIR = 1.16 [0.87-1.50]). Comparing with incidence in the county, SIR was not significant for any of the digestive localization, but for peritoneum. However, even after taking into account the potential confounders via the Cox model, there was a significant dose-response relationship between the occurrence of digestive cancers and the mean exposure concentration, even after exclusion of peritoneum cancers. Our study provides initial evidence suggesting a relationship between occupational exposure to asbestos and the risk of digestive cancer: first, it is a study of incidence although the risk evidenced is not significant

  13. Occupation and renal cell cancer in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Charbotel, Barbara; Moore, Lee E; Karami, Sara; Zaridze, David G; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollárová, Helena; Foretova, Lenka; Bencko, Vladimir; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Ferro, Gilles; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Stewart, Patricia; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Objective Central and Eastern Europe has among the highest rates of renal cell cancer worldwide. Few studies have been conducted in these areas to investigate the possible role of occupational exposures in renal cell cancer etiology. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of renal cell cancer with employment in specific occupations and industries. Methods From 1999–2003, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study in seven areas of the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Russia. A detailed occupational history was collected from renal cell cancer cases and controls, together with information on potential confounders. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cancer risk were calculated for having ever been employed in selected jobs and industries, with follow-up analyses examining duration of employment. Results A total of 992 histologically confirmed incident renal cell cancer cases and 1,465 controls were included in the analysis. An increased risk of renal cell cancer was observed for workers in agricultural labor and animal husbandry (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.05, 1.93), particularly among women employed as general farm workers (OR=2.73, 95% CI 1.05, 7.13). Risk gradients for agricultural work increased with longer employment. An overall increased risk of renal cell cancer was seen among architects and engineers (OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.35, 2.65), and mechanical engineers (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.03, 2.84). Conclusions Our data suggest an association between renal cell cancer and agricultural work, particularly among female workers. PMID:19737732

  14. Esophageal cancer and occupation in a cohort of Swedish men.

    PubMed

    Chow, W H; McLaughlin, J K; Malker, H S; Linet, M S; Weiner, J A; Stone, B J

    1995-05-01

    Using the Cancer Environment Registry of Sweden, which links the 1960 census information on employment with cancer incidence data from 1961-1979, we conducted a systematic, population-based assessment of esophageal cancer incidence by industry and occupation for men in Sweden. A general reduction in esophageal cancer incidence was found among agricultural and professional workers, whereas excess incidence was found among business, sales, and some craftsmen and production jobs. Elevated incidence was associated with several specific industries, including the food (SIR = 1.3, p < 0.05), beverage and tobacco (SIR = 1.8, p < 0.05) industries, vulcanizing shops within the rubber industry (SIR = 4.7, p < 0.01), and certain automotive building industries. Incidence also was increased among brewery workers (SIR = 4.2, p < 0.01) and butchers (SIR = 2.1, p < 0.01), and among individuals with certain service jobs, particularly waiters in the hotel and restaurant industry (SIR = 3.1, p < 0.01). Some of the occupational associations may be explained by lifestyle factors such as alcohol drinking and smoking, whereas others are specific and tend to support those of earlier investigations. This study adds to the evidence of a small but possibly important role of occupation in esophageal cancer etiology. PMID:7611309

  15. Occupational exposure and cancer of the pancreas: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Pietri, F; Clavel, F

    1991-01-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed about the aetiology of cancer of the pancreas, especially concerning the effects of tobacco, coffee, alcohol, diet, and pancreatic pathology. Results of numerous epidemiological studies are, however, inconsistent. Chemical carcinogens have been implicated as possible risk factors. Animal studies have been carried out to determine the role of these chemical factors but, except for nitrosamines and their derivatives (components of tobacco), chemicals have not been proved carcinogenic for the pancreas. Many studies have also been conducted among occupational groups. Several of them showed an excess risk of cancer of the pancreas, especially in the chemical and petroleum industries. The lack of accuracy about the nature of products used, however, does not permit a definitive conclusion as to their carcinogenic role. This paper is a review of publications about occupational exposures and cancer of the pancreas. PMID:1911399

  16. Monitoring occupational exposure to cancer chemotherapy drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, E. S.; Connor, T. H.

    1996-01-01

    Reports of the health effects of handling cytotoxic drugs and compliance with guidelines for handling these agents are briefly reviewed, and studies using analytical and biological methods of detecting exposure are evaluated. There is little conclusive evidence of detrimental health effects from occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Work practices have improved since the issuance of guidelines for handling these drugs, but compliance with the recommended practices is still inadequate. Of 64 reports published since 1979 on studies of workers' exposure to these drugs, 53 involved studies of changes in cellular or molecular endpoints (biological markers) and 12 described chemical analyses of drugs or their metabolites in urine (2 involved both, and 2 reported the same study). The primary biological markers used were urine mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange, and chromosomal aberrations; other studies involved formation of micronuclei and measurements of urinary thioethers. The studies had small sample sizes, and the methods were qualitative, nonspecific, subject to many confounders, and possibly not sensitive enough to detect most occupational exposures. Since none of the currently available biological and analytical methods is sufficiently reliable or reproducible for routine monitoring of exposure in the workplace, further studies using these methods are not recommended; efforts should focus instead on wide-spread implementation of improved practices for handling cytotoxic drugs.

  17. Occupational Therapy: Meeting the Needs of Families of People With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kuhaneck, Heather Miller; Watling, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapy has much to offer to families of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, people outside the profession may be unaware of occupational therapy's breadth and scope. It is our responsibility and our duty to express the full range of occupational therapy services through research, clinical practice, advocacy, and consumer education. This special issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy, with its focus on autism, embarks on this endeavor by highlighting research and theoretical articles that address the various aspects of occupational therapy practice that can help to fully meet the needs of people with ASD and their families.

  18. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  19. Bladder cancer and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bonassi, S; Merlo, F; Pearce, N; Puntoni, R

    1989-10-15

    The association between occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and bladder cancer development was investigated in a population-based case-control study carried out in the Bormida valley, Italy. One hundred and twenty-one male cases and 342 male controls, matched age, were collected from local hospitals. Occupational exposure to PAH and aromatic amines (AA) was evaluated by means of a job exposure matrix, constructed specifically for this study. Subjects considered as sharing a "definite exposure to PAH" showed an increased risk even after adjustment for cigarette smoking and exposure to AA (OR = 2.14, 95% CL 0.82-5.60). No elevation in risk was found for the category "possible exposure to PAH" (OR = 1.05, 95% CL 0.45-2.44). The findings of this study are consistent with previous studies indicating PAH as a risk factor for bladder cancer. A possible residual confounding effect due to AA impurities is discussed.

  20. Pleural mesotheliomas are underreported as occupational cancer in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Andersson, E; Torén, K

    1995-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate to what degree malignant pleural mesotheliomas were reported as occupational cancers. The study included all malignant pleural mesotheliomas (n = 210) found in the Cancer Registry 1980-1989 from four Swedish counties. Whether or not a case was reported as occupational cancer was found in the Swedish Register of Reported Occupational Diseases. To evaluate the presence of exposure histories, the chest department files for 58 mesotheliomas from one county were reviewed. The reporting was low, with only 75 mesotheliomas (36%) reported. All the cases were men, and for the men, the reporting frequency was 42%. The reporting was significantly lower for the last part of the decade than for the first part. The reporting frequency decreased with age. In the review of the chest department files, an exposure history was found in 93% of the reported cases and in 47% of the unreported cases. It is concluded that physicians must give more priority to exposure histories in patients with pleural mesotheliomas.

  1. Referral for Occupational Therapy after Diagnosis of Developmental Disorder by German Child Psychiatrists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Marcel; Drosselmeyer, Julia; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to assess how many patients received occupational therapy after diagnosis of developmental disorder (DD) in child psychiatrist practices in Germany and which factors influenced the prescription of occupational therapy. Methods: This study was a retrospective database analysis in Germany utilising the Disease…

  2. Prevention and Early Detection of Occupational Cancers - a View of Information Technology Solutions.

    PubMed

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Azadmanjir, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of people die each year from cancer due to occupational causes. To reduce cancer in workers, preventive strategies should be used in the high-risk workplace. The effective prevention of occupational cancer requires knowledge of carcinogen agents. Like other areas of healthcare industry, occupational health has been affected by information technology solutions to improve prevention, early detection, treatment and finally the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the healthcare system. Information technology solutions are thus an important issue in the healthcare field. Information about occupational cancer in information systems is important for policy makers, managers, physicians, patients and researchers; because examples that include high quality data about occupational cancer patients and occupational cancer causes are able to determine the worker groups which require special attention. As a result exposed workers who are vulnerable can undergo screening and be considered for preventive interventions.

  3. Occupation and bladder cancer: a death-certificate study.

    PubMed Central

    Dolin, P. J.; Cook-Mozaffari, P.

    1992-01-01

    Occupational statements on death certificates of 2,457 males aged 25-64 who died from bladder cancer in selected coastal and estaurine regions of England and Wales during 1965-1980 were studied. Excess mortality was found for deck and engine room crew of ships, railway workers, electrical and electronic workers, shoemakers and repairers, and tobacco workers. An excess of cases also occurred among food workers, particularly those employed in the bread and flour confectionary industry or involved in the extraction of animal and vegetable oils and fats. Use of a job-exposure matrix revealed elevated risk for occupations in which most workers were exposed to paints and pigments, benzene and cutting oils. PMID:1520596

  4. Nasal cancer in England and Wales: an occupational survey.

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, E D; Cowdell, R H; Rang, E H

    1981-01-01

    A national survey of the incidence of nasal cancer in England and Wales during the period 1963-7 with special reference to occupation confirmed the well-known increases in incidence of nasal cancer in cabinet makers and wood machinists, together with the absence of any significant increase in carpenters and joiners, and the increases in boot and shoe operatives and repairers, and in nickel smelters in South Wales. The significant excesses of cases found among coalminers, furnacemen in the gas, coke, and chemical industry, and furnacemen and labourers in foundries may be associated with exposure to coal and coke dust or may be spurious. No excess of nasal cancer was found among male textile workers. Excesses of uncertain significance were found among tailors and dressmakers, bakers and pastry cooks, and printers. Apart from the well-known relationships between adenocarcinoma and work in the furniture and footwear industries there is no definite indication in this survey of any association between a particular histological type of nasal tumour and occupation in England and Wales. PMID:7272233

  5. Risk for prostate cancer by occupation and industry: a 24-state death certificate study.

    PubMed

    Krstev, S; Baris, D; Stewart, P A; Hayes, R B; Blair, A; Dosemeci, M

    1998-11-01

    Current knowledge of the etiology of prostate cancer is limited. Numerous studies have suggested that certain occupations and industries may be associated with the occurrence of prostate cancer. Information on occupation and industry on death certificates from 24 states gathered from 1984 to 1993 was used in case control study on prostate cancer. A total of 60,878 men with prostate cancer as underlying cause of death was selected and matched with controls who died of all other causes except cancer. Similar to the findings of our parallel large case control study of prostate cancer, we observed excess risks in some white-collar occupations, such as administrators, managers, teachers, engineers, and sales occupations. However, some blue-collar occupations, such as power plant operators and stationary engineers, brickmasons, machinery maintenance workers, airplane pilots, longshoreman, railroad industry workers, and other occupations with potential exposure to PAH also showed risk of excess prostate cancer. Risk was significantly decreased for blue-collar occupations, including farm workers, commercial fishermen, mechanics and repairers, structural metal workers, mining, printing, winding, dry cleaning, textile machine operators, cooks, bakers, and bartenders. Although we observed excess risks of prostate cancer among some low socioeconomic status (SES) occupations, the overall results suggest that the effects of higher SES cannot be ruled out in associations between occupational factors and the risk of prostate cancer. PMID:9787844

  6. Cancer risk and occupational exposure to aflatoxins in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J. H.; Dragsted, L.; Autrup, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of cancer risk among male employees at 241 livestock feed processing companies in Denmark was conducted on the basis of a data linkage system for detailed investigation of occupational cancer providing employment histories back until 1964, established at the Danish Cancer Registry. Crops imported for feed production have often been contaminated with highly variable concentrations of aflatoxins; an estimated average concentration of at least 140 micrograms aflatoxin B1 kg-1 prepared mixed cattle feed prevailed in the past, yielding a daily intake for workers via the respiratory route of approximately 170 ng. Risk was established on the basis of cancer cases among male workers, whose employment in one of the companies was the job they had held for the longest time since 1964. Elevated risks for liver cancer and for cancers of the biliary tract were observed, which increased by two- to three-fold significance after a 10-year latency. Exposure to aflatoxins in the imported crops was judged to be the most probable explanation for these findings, although the influence of lifestyle factors, e.g. alcohol consumption on the results cannot be fully disregarded. Increased risks for salivary gland tumours and multiple myeloma were also detected. However, due to multiple comparisons carried out in this study these new associations must await further confirmation. A decreased risk for lung cancer was observed; despite possible negative confounding due to the smoking habits of the employees, the lung does not seem to be a target organ for the carcinogenic effect of inhaled aflatoxins in humans. PMID:3179193

  7. Resilience in Daily Occupations of Indonesian Mothers of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Tri Budi; Ito, Yuko; Ohshima, Nobuo; Hidaka, Mikiyo; Bontje, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated how resilience functions in the context of daily occupations for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fourteen mothers of children with ASD participated in two focus groups that were used to elicit stories of the mothers' resilience in daily occupations. A constant comparative method was used for data analysis. A model of resilience in daily occupations of mothers of children with ASD was developed consisting of four categories: (1) creating and re-creating accepting conditions, (2) finding solutions, (3) striving for balance among daily occupations, and (4) thinking about the child's future. Sources of resilience were found to reside in both the mothers themselves and their social environments. Occupational therapy practitioners can use these findings in developing supportive approaches aimed at mothers, family members, and other people in the lives of children with ASD.

  8. Resilience in Daily Occupations of Indonesian Mothers of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Tri Budi; Ito, Yuko; Ohshima, Nobuo; Hidaka, Mikiyo; Bontje, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated how resilience functions in the context of daily occupations for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fourteen mothers of children with ASD participated in two focus groups that were used to elicit stories of the mothers' resilience in daily occupations. A constant comparative method was used for data analysis. A model of resilience in daily occupations of mothers of children with ASD was developed consisting of four categories: (1) creating and re-creating accepting conditions, (2) finding solutions, (3) striving for balance among daily occupations, and (4) thinking about the child's future. Sources of resilience were found to reside in both the mothers themselves and their social environments. Occupational therapy practitioners can use these findings in developing supportive approaches aimed at mothers, family members, and other people in the lives of children with ASD. PMID:26356659

  9. Occupational cancer burden in developing countries and the problem of informal workers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Most workplaces in developing countries are “informal”, i.e. they are not regularly surveyed/inspected and laws for workers’ protection are not implemented. Research on occupational risks in informal workplaces and the related cancer burden is needed. The results of studies addressing exposures among informal workers are difficult to generalize because of the specificities of social contexts, and study populations are small. The estimation of the burden of cancers attributable to occupational exposures is also made difficult by the fact that occupational cancers are usually clinically indistinguishable from those unrelated to occupation. PMID:21489206

  10. Neurodegeneration and Cancer: Where the Disorder Prevails

    PubMed Central

    Klus, Petr; Cirillo, Davide; Botta Orfila, Teresa; Gaetano Tartaglia, Gian

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that genes up-regulated in cancer are often down-regulated in neurodegenerative disorders and vice versa. The fact that apparently unrelated diseases share functional pathways suggests a link between their etiopathogenesis and the properties of molecules involved. Are there specific features that explain the exclusive association of proteins with either cancer or neurodegeneration? We performed a large-scale analysis of physico-chemical properties to understand what characteristics differentiate classes of diseases. We found that structural disorder significantly distinguishes proteins up-regulated in neurodegenerative diseases from those linked to cancer. We also observed high correlation between structural disorder and age of onset in Frontotemporal Dementia, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, which strongly supports the role of protein unfolding in neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26493371

  11. Silica dust and lung cancer: results from the Nordic occupational mortality and cancer incidence registers

    SciTech Connect

    Lynge, E.; Kurppa, K.; Kristofersen, L.; Malker, H.; Sauli, H.

    1986-10-01

    Autopsy studies of the relationship between silicosis and lung cancer have been mainly negative; but recent epidemiologic studies have indicated a positive association, and an excess lung cancer risk has been observed in some occupational groups with exposure to silica dust. For the further shedding of light on the possible association between silica dust and lung cancer, analysis was made on mortality and cancer incidence data available in census-based record linkage studies from the Nordic countries for males in occupational groups with potential exposure to silica dust. The study showed an excess lung cancer risk for foundry workers in all the Nordic countries and for miners in Sweden. These results were consistent with findings from previous in-depth epidemiologic studies. The lung cancer risk did not differ significantly from that of the respective national populations for males working in excavation; stone quarries; sand and gravel pits; and glass, porcelain, ceramic, and tile manufacture. Stonecutters, who are probably not exposed to known lung carcinogens at the workplace but in some places to high concentrations of silica dust, showed a significant excess lung cancer risk in both Finland and Denmark. Excess lung cancer risks furthermore were seen for Finish miners, for Finnish males in excavation work, and for Danish glassworkers.

  12. Common Mental Disorders among Occupational Groups: Contributions of the Latent Class Model.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Santos, Kionna Oliveira; Martins Carvalho, Fernando; de Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) is widely used for evaluating common mental disorders. However, few studies have evaluated the SRQ-20 measurements performance in occupational groups. This study aimed to describe manifestation patterns of common mental disorders symptoms among workers populations, by using latent class analysis. Methods. Data derived from 9,959 Brazilian workers, obtained from four cross-sectional studies that used similar methodology, among groups of informal workers, teachers, healthcare workers, and urban workers. Common mental disorders were measured by using SRQ-20. Latent class analysis was performed on each database separately. Results. Three classes of symptoms were confirmed in the occupational categories investigated. In all studies, class I met better criteria for suspicion of common mental disorders. Class II discriminated workers with intermediate probability of answers to the items belonging to anxiety, sadness, and energy decrease that configure common mental disorders. Class III was composed of subgroups of workers with low probability to respond positively to questions for screening common mental disorders. Conclusions. Three patterns of symptoms of common mental disorders were identified in the occupational groups investigated, ranging from distinctive features to low probabilities of occurrence. The SRQ-20 measurements showed stability in capturing nonpsychotic symptoms. PMID:27630999

  13. Common Mental Disorders among Occupational Groups: Contributions of the Latent Class Model

    PubMed Central

    Martins Carvalho, Fernando; de Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) is widely used for evaluating common mental disorders. However, few studies have evaluated the SRQ-20 measurements performance in occupational groups. This study aimed to describe manifestation patterns of common mental disorders symptoms among workers populations, by using latent class analysis. Methods. Data derived from 9,959 Brazilian workers, obtained from four cross-sectional studies that used similar methodology, among groups of informal workers, teachers, healthcare workers, and urban workers. Common mental disorders were measured by using SRQ-20. Latent class analysis was performed on each database separately. Results. Three classes of symptoms were confirmed in the occupational categories investigated. In all studies, class I met better criteria for suspicion of common mental disorders. Class II discriminated workers with intermediate probability of answers to the items belonging to anxiety, sadness, and energy decrease that configure common mental disorders. Class III was composed of subgroups of workers with low probability to respond positively to questions for screening common mental disorders. Conclusions. Three patterns of symptoms of common mental disorders were identified in the occupational groups investigated, ranging from distinctive features to low probabilities of occurrence. The SRQ-20 measurements showed stability in capturing nonpsychotic symptoms.

  14. Common Mental Disorders among Occupational Groups: Contributions of the Latent Class Model

    PubMed Central

    Martins Carvalho, Fernando; de Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) is widely used for evaluating common mental disorders. However, few studies have evaluated the SRQ-20 measurements performance in occupational groups. This study aimed to describe manifestation patterns of common mental disorders symptoms among workers populations, by using latent class analysis. Methods. Data derived from 9,959 Brazilian workers, obtained from four cross-sectional studies that used similar methodology, among groups of informal workers, teachers, healthcare workers, and urban workers. Common mental disorders were measured by using SRQ-20. Latent class analysis was performed on each database separately. Results. Three classes of symptoms were confirmed in the occupational categories investigated. In all studies, class I met better criteria for suspicion of common mental disorders. Class II discriminated workers with intermediate probability of answers to the items belonging to anxiety, sadness, and energy decrease that configure common mental disorders. Class III was composed of subgroups of workers with low probability to respond positively to questions for screening common mental disorders. Conclusions. Three patterns of symptoms of common mental disorders were identified in the occupational groups investigated, ranging from distinctive features to low probabilities of occurrence. The SRQ-20 measurements showed stability in capturing nonpsychotic symptoms. PMID:27630999

  15. Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in male breast cancer: a case-control study in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Sara; Cyr, Diane; Lynge, Elsebeth; Orsi, Laurent; Sabroe, Svend; Merletti, Franco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Baumgardt-Elms, Cornelia; Kaerlev, Linda; Eriksson, Mikael; Hardell, Lennart; Févotte, Joëlle; Guénel, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Male breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown etiology. Besides genetic or hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected to play a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer in men may help to identify mammary carcinogens in the environment. Methods Occupational risk factors of male breast cancer were investigated in a multi-centre case-control study conducted in 8 European countries, including 104 cases and 1901 controls. Lifetime work history was obtained during in-person interviews. Occupational exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (alkylphenolic compounds, phthalates, PCBs and dioxins) were assessed on a case-by-case basis from expert judgment. Results Male breast cancer incidence was more particularly increased in motor vehicle mechanics (OR=2.1, CI 1.0–4.4) with a dose-effect relationship with duration employment. It was also increased in paper makers and painters, and in workers in forestry and logging, health and social work, and manufacture of furniture. The odds ratio for exposure to alkylphenolic compounds above median was 3.8 (CI 1.5–9.5). This association persisted after adjustment for occupational exposures to other environmental estrogens. Conclusion These findings suggest that some environmental chemicals are possible mammary carcinogens. Gasoline, organic petroleum solvents or PAH can be suspected from the consistent elevated risk of male breast cancer observed in motor vehicle mechanics. Endocrine disruptors such as alkylphenolic compounds may play a role in breast cancer. PMID:20798010

  16. Tobacco use, occupation, coffee, various nutrients, and bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Howe, G R; Burch, J D; Miller, A B; Cook, G M; Esteve, J; Morrison, B; Gordon, P; Chambers, L W; Fodor, G; Winsor, G M

    1980-04-01

    In a Canadian population-based case-control study of 480 males and 152 female case-control pairs, the relative risk for development of bladder cancer for ever used versus never used cigarettes was 3.9 for males and 2.4 for females, with a dose-response relationship in both sexes. A reduced risk was associated with the use of filter cigarettes compared to nonfilter cigarettes. After control for cigarette usage, a significant risk was noted for male pipe smokers. For male ex-smokers the risk after 15 years of no smoking was less than one-half that of current male smokers. Bladder cancer risk was found for workers in the chemical, rubber, photographic, petroleum, medical, and food processing industries among males and for workers occupationally exposed to dust or fumes among both sexes. Bladder cancer risk was elevated for males consuming all types of coffee, regular coffee, and instant coffee and for females consuming instant coffee, but no dose-response relationship was found. Risk was found for males consuming water from nonpublic supples but not for females. No risk was observed in males or females consuming nitrate-containing foods, beverages other than coffee, or fiddlehead greens. Hair dye usage in females and phenacetin usage in males and females carried no risk. Divergent findings by area for aspirin suggested that an overall association was not causal. Reevaluation of the data on artificial sweeteners confirmed a significant bladder cancer risk in males and a dose-response relationship. The cumulated population attributable risk for bladder cancer was 90% for males from cigarette smoking, industrial exposure, and exposure to nonpublic water supplies and 29% for females from cigarette smoking, industrial exposure, and instant coffee consumption.

  17. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Environment, occupation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Espina, Carolina; Straif, Kurt; Friis, Søren; Kogevinas, Manolis; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vainio, Harri; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    People are exposed throughout life to a wide range of environmental and occupational pollutants from different sources at home, in the workplace or in the general environment - exposures that normally cannot be directly controlled by the individual. Several chemicals, metals, dusts, fibres, and occupations have been established to be causally associated with an increased risk of specific cancers, such as cancers of the lung, skin and urinary bladder, and mesothelioma. Significant amounts of air pollutants - mainly from road transport and industry - continue to be emitted in the European Union (EU); an increased occurrence of lung cancer has been attributed to air pollution even in areas below the EU limits for daily air pollution. Additionally, a wide range of pesticides as well as industrial and household chemicals may lead to widespread human exposure, mainly through food and water. For most environmental pollutants, the most effective measures are regulations and community actions aimed at reducing and eliminating the exposures. Thus, it is imperative to raise awareness about environmental and occupational carcinogens in order to motivate individuals to be proactive in advocating protection and supporting initiatives aimed at reducing pollution. Regulations are not homogeneous across EU countries, and protective measures in the workplace are not used consistently by all workers all the time; compliance with regulations needs to be continuously monitored and enforced. Therefore, the recommendation on Environment and Occupation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer, focusing on what individuals can do to reduce their cancer risk, reads: "In the workplace, protect yourself against cancer-causing substances by following health and safety instructions."

  18. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Environment, occupation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Espina, Carolina; Straif, Kurt; Friis, Søren; Kogevinas, Manolis; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vainio, Harri; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    People are exposed throughout life to a wide range of environmental and occupational pollutants from different sources at home, in the workplace or in the general environment - exposures that normally cannot be directly controlled by the individual. Several chemicals, metals, dusts, fibres, and occupations have been established to be causally associated with an increased risk of specific cancers, such as cancers of the lung, skin and urinary bladder, and mesothelioma. Significant amounts of air pollutants - mainly from road transport and industry - continue to be emitted in the European Union (EU); an increased occurrence of lung cancer has been attributed to air pollution even in areas below the EU limits for daily air pollution. Additionally, a wide range of pesticides as well as industrial and household chemicals may lead to widespread human exposure, mainly through food and water. For most environmental pollutants, the most effective measures are regulations and community actions aimed at reducing and eliminating the exposures. Thus, it is imperative to raise awareness about environmental and occupational carcinogens in order to motivate individuals to be proactive in advocating protection and supporting initiatives aimed at reducing pollution. Regulations are not homogeneous across EU countries, and protective measures in the workplace are not used consistently by all workers all the time; compliance with regulations needs to be continuously monitored and enforced. Therefore, the recommendation on Environment and Occupation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer, focusing on what individuals can do to reduce their cancer risk, reads: "In the workplace, protect yourself against cancer-causing substances by following health and safety instructions." PMID:26164655

  19. International renal-cell cancer study. IV. Occupation.

    PubMed

    Mandel, J S; McLaughlin, J K; Schlehofer, B; Mellemgaard, A; Helmert, U; Lindblad, P; McCredie, M; Adami, H O

    1995-05-29

    The relationship between renal-cell cancer (RCC) and occupation was investigated in an international multicenter population-based case-control study. Study centers in Australia, Denmark, Germany, Sweden and the United States interviewed 1732 incident RCC cases and 2309 controls. Significant associations were found with employment in the blast-furnace or the coke-oven industry [relative risk (RR), 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.7], the iron and steel industry (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.2) and exposure to asbestos (RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8), cadmium (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.9), dry-cleaning solvents (RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7), gasoline (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) and other petroleum products (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.1). Asbestos, petroleum products and dry-cleaning solvents appear to merit further investigation, in view of the relationship between risk and duration of employment or exposure and after adjustment for confounding. There was a negative association between RCC and education, but it was not consistent across all centers. Overall, the results of our multicenter case-control study suggest that occupation may be more important in the etiology of RCC than indicated by earlier studies. PMID:7768630

  20. Occupational exposures and pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ojajarvi, I; Partanen, T.; Ahlbom, A.; Boffetta, P.; Hakulinen, T.; Jourenkova, N.; Kauppinen, T.; Kogevinas, M.; Porta, M.; Vainio, H.; Weiderpass, E.; Wesseling, C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Consolidation of epidemiological data on pancreatic cancer and worksite exposures.
METHODS—Publications during 1969-98 were surveyed. Studies without verified exposures were excluded. Meta-analyses were conducted on data from 92 studies covering 161 populations, with results for 23 agents or groups of agents. With a standard format, five epidemiologists extracted risk estimates and variables of the structure and quality of each study. The extracted data were centrally checked. Random meta-models were applied.
RESULTS—Based on 20 populations, exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) solvents and related compounds was associated with a meta-risk ratio (MRR) of 1.4 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0 to 1.8). Nickel and nickel compounds were considered in four populations (1.9; 1.2 to 3.2). Excesses were found also for chromium and chromium compounds (1.4; 0.9 to 2.3), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (1.5; 0.9 to 2.5), organochlorine insecticides (1.5; 0.6 to 3.7), silica dust (1.4; 0.9 to 2.0), and aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon solvents (1.3; 0.8 to 2.8). Evidence on pancreatic carcinogenicity was weak or non-positive for the following agents: acrylonitrile (1.1; 0.0 to 6.2); arsenic (1.0; 0.6 to 1.5); asbestos (1.1; 0.9 to 1.5); diesel engine exhaust (1.0; 0.9 to 1.3); electromagnetic fields (1.1; 0.8 to 1.4); formaldehyde (0.8; 0.5 to 1.0); flour dust (1.1; 0.3 to 3.2); cadmium and cadmium compounds (0.7; 0.4 to 1.4); gasoline (1.0; 0.8 to 1.2); herbicides (1.0; 0.8 to 1.3); iron and iron compounds (1.3; 0.7 to 2.5); lead and lead compounds (1.1; 0.8 to 1.5); man-made vitreous fibres (1.0; 0.6 to 1.6); oil mist (0.9; 0.8 to 1.0); and wood dust (1.1; 0.9 to 2.5). The occupational aetiological fraction of pancreatic cancer was estimated at 12%. In a subpopulation exposed to CHC solvents and related compounds, it was 29%; to chromium and chromium compounds, 23%; to nickel and nickel compounds, 47%; to

  1. The Role of the Occupational Therapist in the Treatment of Children with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Robert; Holliday, Megan; Schultz, Amy; Moser, Christy

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood eating disorders is increasing in pediatric practice across the country. It is therefore important for occupational therapists to be familiar with current research, resources, and intervention strategies related to a variety of eating diagnoses. In this column we highlight basic definitions of a variety of eating…

  2. Sources of Occupational Stress for Teachers of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, J. Ron; Maculan, Amelia; Roberts, Maura L.; Ohlund, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    Occupational stress ratings from 415 teachers of students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) was modeled by regression, using teacher demographic characteristics, working conditions, and the ability to work with children with EBD as factors. All working condition variables, professional experience, and ability to work with externalizing…

  3. Asbestos-related occupational cancers compensated under the Spanish National Insurance System, 1978–2011

    PubMed Central

    García-Gómez, Montserrat; Menéndez-Navarro, Alfredo; López, Rosario Castañeda

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 1978, asbestos-related occupational cancers were added to the Spanish list of occupational diseases. However, there are no full accounts of compensated cases since their inclusion. Objective: To analyze the cases of asbestos-related cancer recognized as occupational in Spain between 1978 and 2011. Methods: Cases were obtained from the Spanish Employment Ministry. Specific incidence rates by year, economic activity, and occupation were obtained. We compared mortality rates of mesothelioma and bronchus and lung cancer mortality in Spain and the European Union. Results: Between 1978 and 2011, 164 asbestos-related occupational cancers were recognized in Spain, with a mean annual rate of 0·08 per 105 employees (0·13 in males, 0·002 in females). Under-recognition rates were an estimated 93·6% (males) and 99·7% (females) for pleural mesothelioma and 98·8% (males) and 100% (females) for bronchus and lung cancer. In Europe for the year 2000, asbestos-related occupational cancer rates ranged from 0·04 per 105 employees in Spain to 7·32 per 105 employees in Norway. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence of gross under-recognition of asbestos-related occupational cancers in Spain. Future work should investigate cases treated in the National Healthcare System to better establish the impact of asbestos on health in Spain. PMID:25335827

  4. [Etiological aspects of occupational cancer in printing industry].

    PubMed

    Il'icheva, S A; Zaridze, D G

    2004-01-01

    Research of oncology lethality from workplace exposures is one of the most effective approaches to studying the etiology of malignant neoplasms. However, certain problems of methodology compromise the informative value of such research whose purpose is to identify the carcinogens. Addition of data on morbidity and lethality in heterogeneous industrial categories, whose typical feature are inhomogeneous exposures, is a major methodological problem. The fact that the studied occupational populations are limited to male subjects is another important problem. The most adequate epidemiological study projects were analyzed and compared with the results of our own case study, which dealt, for the first time in the history of our country, with investigating the lethality causes of 1552 males and 3473 females occupied as compositors, printers and bookbinders at two major printing enterprises in the city of Moscow. According to the authors, an exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. benzopirin, could be a reliably higher risk of mortality of melanoma and of ovarian cancer among female press operators. With regard for experimental and epidemiological research, the authors believe it appropriate to put forward the below hypothesis: a many-year exposure to minimal quantities of asbestos contained in the paper dust was the key trigger inducing the malignant mesothelioma and ovarian cancer in bookbinders and printers.

  5. Musculoskeletal symptoms, postural disorders and occupational risk factors: correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Comper, Maria Luiza C; Macedo, Felipe; Padula, Rosimeire S

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) include a list of inflammatory and degenerative diseases characterized by the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms, compensatory posture changes and functional disabilities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the kinetic/functional characteristics of textile plant workers, their level of exposure to risk factors and the contribution these make to musculoskeletal symptoms. The sample of 42 workers answered the Nordic Questionnaire and the Job Factors Questionnaire. The kinetic/functional characteristics of each worker were verified by a blinded evaluator. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation. Musculoskeletal symptoms were more prevalent in the spinal region and upper limbs. The exposure levels to risk factors were identified as a serious problem. Postural disorders, musculoskeletal symptoms and risk factors were correlated (P ≤ 0.05).

  6. Lung cancer and environmental tobacco smoke: occupational risk to nonsmokers.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, K G

    1999-01-01

    The principal epidemiologic evidence that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increases the risk of lung cancer in (lifelong) nonsmokers is from studies of nonsmoking women married to smokers. This article estimates exposure-response curves for 14 studies (1, 249+ cases, 7 countries) with data on lung cancer categorized by the number of cigarettes/day smoked by the husband. The pooled results from the five U.S. studies alone are extrapolated to ETS levels in the workplace using measures of serum cotinine and nicotine samples from personal monitors as markers of exposure to ETS. It is predicted that the increase in lung cancer risk for nonsmoking women from average ETS exposure at work (among those exposed at work) is on the order of 25% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 8, 41) relative to background risk (i.e., with no ETS exposure from any source). This compares to an estimate of 39% (95% CI = 5, 65) for nonsmoking women whose husbands smoke at the adult male smoker's average of 25 cigarettes/day. At the 95th percentiles of exposure, the estimate from spousal smoking is 85% (95% CI = 32, 156), compared to 91% (95% CI = 34, 167) from workplace ETS exposure. Subject to the validity of the assumptions required in this approach, the outcome supports the conclusion that there is a significant excess risk from occupational exposure to ETS. The excess risk from ETS at work is typically lower than that from spousal smoking, but may be higher at the 95th percentiles of exposure. PMID:10592148

  7. Physical Therapy for Musculoskeletal Disorders of Workers: Role of Physical Therapists in Occupational Health.

    PubMed

    Asada, Fuminari; Takano, Kenichiro

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders in workers decrease the productivity of companies and result in socioeconomic losses. Low back pain accounted for approximately 60% of occupational diseases in the past and this is still true at present, making it a major occupational health problem in Japan. Herein, the findings about low back pain are explained as follows: the correlation between imaging examination findings and low back pain is low; psychosocial factors are involved in the onset of low back pain and how it becomes chronic; and improvement of activity is more useful than rest. Furthermore, the advantages of employing physical therapists for improving occupational health are as follows: they can 1) evaluate and intervene ergonomically; 2) provide instructions using a behavioral modification technique based on psychosocial factors; and 3) provide instructions regarding exercise programs considering obstacles to the development of a good exercise habit (painful diseases including osteoarthritis and other diseases such as hypertension and diabetes). In addition, falling, whose incidence has recently been increasing and is an important issue in occupational health, is examined from the aspect of musculoskeletal disorders. The following activities of physical therapists are introduced: the items to be checked during a tour of inspection of a workplace and detailed descriptions of work management and working environment management measures. Physical therapists are rarely involved in studies of low back pain and falling, but their knowledge and skills have been demonstrated to contribute to improving occupational health. PMID:27246149

  8. Re-defining one's occupational self 2 years after breast cancer: a case study.

    PubMed

    Newman, Robin M

    2013-01-01

    Margaret*, a 56 year-old Caucasian Stage III breast cancer survivor, participated in a 5 week occupational therapy pilot program, called Take Action. This program was designed for breast cancer survivors who self-reported changes in cognitive function following completion of chemotherapy. The goals of the program were to improve participants' knowledge and use of strategies to enhance occupational performance and to improve satisfaction and performance of meaningful daily activities or occupations. Through a client-centered and evidence-based approach, this case study highlights the importance of incorporating the survivors' sense of self into an occupation-based intervention. Occupational therapists play an important role in facilitating exploration of sense of self in the survivorship phase of care to support occupational performance in self care, productivity, work, leisure and social participation. This case study highlights the important work of redefining oneself in the survivorship phase of care. (*denotes name change). PMID:24004739

  9. [Could the Quebec Tumor Registry be used to identify risks of occupational cancers?].

    PubMed

    De Guire, L; Armstrong, B; Case, B; Cyr, D

    1989-01-01

    Many countries have used their tumor registries to conduct studies on cancer and occupation. In the past, the Quebec Tumor Registry (QTR) has collected information on occupation of cases. The form currently in use has a space to include this information but it is not mandatory to do so. Among male cases of naso-sinusal, pleural and ocular cancer, diagnosed between 1975 and 1979, and aged 16 to 64, 72% had information on occupation. The occupation registered at the QTR and the occupation given by the case himself during epidemiological studies on bladder cancer and leukemia are respectively the same in 64% and 69% of cases. The association between mesothelioma and work in asbestos related industries was not found in the present study. Explanations and recommendations are given.

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Social and Occupational Functioning of People With Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lauren C; Petruzzi, Liana J; Greene, M Claire; Mueser, Kim T; Borba, Christina P C; Henderson, David C

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to clarify the contribution of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to interpersonal and occupational functioning in people with schizophrenia. Self-report questionnaires and semistructured interviews were used to evaluate PTSD and brain injury, positive symptoms, depression, substance abuse, occupational and social functioning, and intelligence. Multiple regressions assessed the relationship between predictors and functional impairment. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were present in 76% of participants, with 12% of participants meeting diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Participants with PTSD had higher rates of depression and more severe positive symptoms. Results of multiple regressions indicated that PTSD symptoms were the only significant predictor of patient-rated interpersonal and occupational functioning. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were not associated with interviewer-rated interpersonal or occupational functioning or employment. While more research is needed, screening and treatment for exposure to traumatic events and PTSD symptoms might be indicated for individuals with schizophrenia. Availability of PTSD assessment and evidence-based treatments for people with schizophrenia is a crucial and often unmet health service need. PMID:27105458

  11. Gastrointestinal cancer mortality of workers in occupations with high asbestos exposures.

    PubMed

    Kang, S K; Burnett, C A; Freund, E; Walker, J; Lalich, N; Sestito, J

    1997-06-01

    Asbestos, which is a well-known risk factor for lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma, has also been suggested as a gastrointestinal (GI) carcinogen. This study was conducted to assess the relationship between high asbestos exposure occupations and the occurrence of G1 cancer. Death certificate data were analyzed from 4,943,566 decedents with information on occupation and industry from 28 states from 1979 through 1990. Elevated proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) for mesothelioma were used to identify occupations potentially having many workers exposed to asbestos. All PMRs were age-adjusted and sex- and race-specific. The PMRs for GI cancers in white males were then calculated for these occupations after excluding mesothelioma, lung cancer, and non-malignant respiratory disease from all deaths. We identified 15,524 cases of GI cancer in the 12 occupations with elevated PMRs for mesothelioma. When these occupations were combined, the PMRs for esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer were significantly elevated at 108 (95% confidence interval = 107-110), 110 (106-113), and 109 (107-110), respectively. Esophageal cancer was elevated in sheet metal workers and mechanical workers. Gastric cancer was elevated in supervisors in production and managers. Colorectal cancer was elevated in mechanical and electrical and electronic engineers. However, high exposure occupations like insulation, construction painter supervisors, plumbers, furnace operators, and construction electricians showed no elevations of GI cancers. In conclusion, this death certificate study supports an association between asbestos exposure and some GI cancer, however the magnitude of this effect is very small.

  12. Occupation and cancer of the larynx: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bayer, O; Cámara, R; Zeissig, S R; Ressing, M; Dietz, A; Locati, L D; Ramroth, H; Singer, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between occupational exposure, defined by occupational categories and job title, and laryngeal cancer. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 tobacco and alcohol-adjusted case-control studies including data from 6,906 exposed cases and 10,816 exposed controls was performed to investigate the frequency of laryngeal cancer in different occupations. Job classifications were harmonized using the International Standard Classification of Occupations. Pooled odds ratios (OR [95 % confidence intervals (CI)]) were calculated for the different occupational groups. A significantly increased risk of laryngeal cancer was observed for the occupational category of 'production-related workers, transport equipment operators, and laborers' (OR=1.3 [1.2-1.4]); particularly at risk were occupations as: miners (OR=1.6 [1.2-2.1]), tailors (OR=1.7 [1.2-2.3]), blacksmith and toolmakers (OR=1.5 [1.2-1.7]), painters (OR=1.4 [1.1-1.9]), bricklayers and carpenters (OR=1.3 [1.2-1.5]), and transport equipment operators (OR=1.3 [1.2-1.5]). Individuals working as 'professional, technical, and related workers' (OR=0.7 [0.6- 0.8]), 'administrative and managerial workers' (OR=0.6 [0.4-0.7]), or 'clerical and related workers' (OR=0.8 [0.7-0.9]) had laryngeal cancer less frequently. Occupational exposure, defined by occupational categories and job title, is likely to be an independent risk factor for laryngeal cancer. Further research on specific occupations with increased risk of laryngeal cancer is warranted to explore the underlying mechanisms.

  13. Environmental and Occupational Interventions for Primary Prevention of Cancer: A Cross-Sectorial Policy Framework

    PubMed Central

    Espina, Carolina; Porta, Miquel; Schüz, Joachim; Aguado, Ildefonso Hernández; Percival, Robert V.; Dora, Carlos; Slevin, Terry; Guzman, Julietta Rodriguez; Meredith, Tim; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nearly 13 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur worldwide each year; 63% of cancer deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. A substantial proportion of all cancers are attributable to carcinogenic exposures in the environment and the workplace. Objective: We aimed to develop an evidence-based global vision and strategy for the primary prevention of environmental and occupational cancer. Methods: We identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “environmental,” “occupational,” “exposure,” “cancer,” “primary prevention,” and “interventions.” To supplement the literature review, we convened an international conference titled “Environmental and Occupational Determinants of Cancer: Interventions for Primary Prevention” under the auspices of the World Health Organization, in Asturias, Spain, on 17–18 March 2011. Discussion: Many cancers of environmental and occupational origin could be prevented. Prevention is most effectively achieved through primary prevention policies that reduce or eliminate involuntary exposures to proven and probable carcinogens. Such strategies can be implemented in a straightforward and cost-effective way based on current knowledge, and they have the added benefit of synergistically reducing risks for other noncommunicable diseases by reducing exposures to shared risk factors. Conclusions: Opportunities exist to revitalize comprehensive global cancer control policies by incorporating primary interventions against environmental and occupational carcinogens. PMID:23384642

  14. Parental occupation at periconception: findings from the United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, P; Fear, N; Stockton, D

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study the risk of childhood cancer in relation to parental occupation and related exposures. Methods: Self reported occupational data from mothers and fathers of 3838 children with cancer and 7629 control children were analysed. Odds ratios were calculated for 31 "occupational groups" by parent, diagnostic group (leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), central nervous system tumours, and other cancers) and time of exposure (periconception, birth, and diagnosis). Results: Findings did not support the hypothesis that occupational exposure of fathers to ionising radiation increases the risk of childhood cancer in their offspring. Specific examination of periconceptual chemical exposures showed small but statistically significant increased risks for leukaemia and ALL among children whose fathers were exposed to exhaust fumes, driving, and/or inhaled particulate hydrocarbons. In the remaining analyses, a fourfold increase in the risk of other cancers was observed among the children of fathers working with leather but based on small numbers. Both maternal and paternal exposure to textile dust was related to an increased risk of other cancers. Conclusion: Results failed to produce any strong evidence to link parental occupational exposures with an increased risk of childhood cancer. No relation was found for paternal periconceptual exposure to ionising radiation. The consistency of the associations observed between childhood leukaemia and paternal occupational exposure to exhaust fumes, driving, and/or inhaled particulate hydrocarbons at periconception suggest a small risk for vehicle related exhaust. However, other explanations cannot be excluded and further research into the nature of the associations is required. PMID:14634180

  15. Art and multiple personality disorder: an expressive framework for occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Frye, B

    1990-11-01

    Patients with multiple personality and dissociative disorders have learned to create an alternate identity system, originally designed to protect them from experiencing the pain of inescapable, unrelieved trauma and abuse. The resulting amnesia and identity confusion cause significant dysfunction in daily living. Issues of trust and control are paramount, and occupational therapists are challenged with the task of engaging these patients in meaningful activity. Although these patients often avoid structured groups, they have generally been responsive to expressive art opportunities as an initial activity. This paper outlines an expressive framework by which occupational therapists can therapeutically manage the artwork behaviors of the patient with dissociative or multiple personality disorder. The material presented is based on clinical observation of more than a dozen patients with multiple personality disorder in various stages of recovery and of many persons with dissociative trauma who may have multiple personality disorder. These observations took place within an acute care, inpatient occupational therapy setting. Guidelines for the creation of a positive working alliance and therapeutic climate for self-expression are outlined, and a progressive model for the viewing of patients' art products is described.

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder in reserve veterans: important reintegration considerations for the occupational health nurse.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Lynn A; Burns, Candace

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental health concern for returning U.S. military personnel who have a higher prevalence rate of PTSD than the general population. Among the military population, reserve service members are at increased risk of developing PTSD compared with full-time active duty service members mainly due to difficulty reintegrating into civilian life. Understanding the social risk factors along with the protective effects social support has on PTSD in veterans will provide occupational health professionals the opportunity to support reserve veterans with adjustment into post-deployment life. This literature review examines PTSD in reserve veterans, with a focus on occupational factors, social factors, guideline recommendations, available resources, as well as provides suggestions for occupational health nurses caring for reserve veterans returning to the workplace.

  17. Formulating a return-to-work decision for employees with major depressive disorders: occupational therapists’ experiences

    PubMed Central

    Ramano, Enos

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is worldwide one of the most concerning health problems as it is associated with reduced work productivity and permanent disability. Occupational therapists are often called upon to make a return-to-work decision on employees with MDD in order to facilitate continued employment. Sustaining employment is in alignment with achieving the Millennium Development Goal 1: Eradicating extreme poverty, as it is known that people suffering from mental health disorders are frequently denied employment opportunities leading to reduced financial resources and therefore possible poverty. Aim This study described occupational therapists’ experiences of formulating a return-to-work decision on employees with MDD. It formed part of a larger study. Setting Occupational therapists working in vocational rehabilitation or mental health in South Africa with a postgraduate qualification in vocational rehabilitation or mental health participated in the study. Method A qualitative research design was used. Two separate focus groups explored 11 occupational therapists’ experiences of formulating a return-to-work decision on employees with MDD. Ethics clearance number: S34/2007. Results Seven themes emerged, which were, (1) the biographical profile of the employee, (2) point of view of employer, (3) point of view of employee, (4) point of view of occupational therapist, (5) declaring the employee as temporary incapacitated, (6) declaring the employee as permanently incapacitated and (7) employee’s level of motivation. Conclusion Occupational therapists ought to have sound knowledge, skill, experience and the ability to collaborate with employees and employers in formulating a return-to-work decision. PMID:27380839

  18. [Post-traumatic stress disorder: a problem for occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Koniarek, J

    2000-01-01

    The impact of the mental stress on the human functioning and health has been evidenced in numerous studies. The majority of these studies focus on adverse effects of a long-term stress. Recently, a growing attention has been paid to the relationship between health and acute stress induced by sudden and short-lasting events or experiences characterised by particular intensity. A traumatic stress is one of the forms of the acute stress. It is some kind of reaction to an event in which life of an individual is directly threatened (serious injury, endangered physical integrity, etc.) or he/she witnesses sudden death, serious injury or life-threatening situation of other people. Traumatic experiences may lead among others to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The review of the studies, presented in this paper, indicates that the proportion of people with traumatic experiences ranges between 40 and 90% depending on the population. There are professions (rescue services, the police, etc.) with inherent traumatic experiences. About 10% of people with traumatic experiences develop PTSD. The author indicates factors responsible for the development of PTSD. The society, particularly people whose professions involve traumatic experiences, and those employed in various institutions responsible for health care should be aware of health problems related to this kind of experiences. PMID:11002473

  19. [Nervous system disorders induced by occupational exposure to arsenic and its inorganic compounds: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Sińczuk-Walczak, Halina

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the effect of arsenic (As) and its inorganic compounds on the nervous system. In humans, inhalation exposure mostly occurs in occupational conditions. In the occupational environment, the most extensive exposure to this element is observed in the copper industry. Chronic As poisoning is manifested by skin and mucous membrane lesions, impairment of the nervous system in the form of disorders of psychic functions and polyneuropathies, retrobulbar neuritis, disorders of peripheral circulation and the risk for Raynaud's syndrome. Arsenic-induced polyneuropathy is usually a very serious and chronic disease. A complete recovery is observed in only 15-20% of patients. As-induced encephalopathy is an irreversible process. PMID:20187500

  20. [Nervous system disorders induced by occupational exposure to arsenic and its inorganic compounds: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Sińczuk-Walczak, Halina

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the effect of arsenic (As) and its inorganic compounds on the nervous system. In humans, inhalation exposure mostly occurs in occupational conditions. In the occupational environment, the most extensive exposure to this element is observed in the copper industry. Chronic As poisoning is manifested by skin and mucous membrane lesions, impairment of the nervous system in the form of disorders of psychic functions and polyneuropathies, retrobulbar neuritis, disorders of peripheral circulation and the risk for Raynaud's syndrome. Arsenic-induced polyneuropathy is usually a very serious and chronic disease. A complete recovery is observed in only 15-20% of patients. As-induced encephalopathy is an irreversible process.

  1. Relation of occupations to the regional differences of lung cancer motality in Fukuoka Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, T; Yamasaki, M

    1977-07-01

    Geographic pattern of lung cancer mortality in Fukuoka Prefecture showed elevated mortalities among males in the Chikuho district where many coal-mines had long been operated as one of the biggest coal-mining areas in Japan. The analysis in relations of occupations to lung cancer mortality revealed that consistently significant correlations exist between lung cancer mortality, and mining and quarrying occupations in every census year after World War II. No other occupations showed consistent relations to lung cancer though a few significant correlations were found only in the recent years. The results appear to suggest that elevated risk of lung cancer among coal-mining workers may exist and deserve further analytical study. PMID:592541

  2. Association of brain cancer with dental x-rays and occupation in Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Neuberger, J.S.; Brownson, R.C.; Morantz, R.A.; Chin, T.D. )

    1991-01-01

    This investigation of a brain cancer cluster in Missouri used two approaches to investigate associations with potential risk factors. In a case-control study in a rural town, we interviewed surrogates of cases and controls about potential risk factors. We found a statistically significant positive association of brain cancer with reported exposure to dental x-rays. Occupation was not associated with the cluster in the rural town. In a standardized proportional mortality study for the state of Missouri, we calculated the observed and expected proportion of brain cancers by occupation and industry in Missouri decedents. We found that motor vehicle manufacturers, beauty shop workers, managers and administrators, elementary school teachers, and hairdressers and cosmetologists had significantly elevated proportions of brain cancer. Brain tumors are inconsistently associated with occupation in the literature. Further study of brain cancer etiology with respect to dental x-ray exposures seems warranted.

  3. Relation of occupations to the regional differences of lung cancer motality in Fukuoka Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, T; Yamasaki, M

    1977-07-01

    Geographic pattern of lung cancer mortality in Fukuoka Prefecture showed elevated mortalities among males in the Chikuho district where many coal-mines had long been operated as one of the biggest coal-mining areas in Japan. The analysis in relations of occupations to lung cancer mortality revealed that consistently significant correlations exist between lung cancer mortality, and mining and quarrying occupations in every census year after World War II. No other occupations showed consistent relations to lung cancer though a few significant correlations were found only in the recent years. The results appear to suggest that elevated risk of lung cancer among coal-mining workers may exist and deserve further analytical study.

  4. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and related occupational causative factors among electricity linemen: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Padmanathan, Vinothini; Joseph, Leonard; Omar, Baharudin; Nawawi, Roslizawati

    2016-01-01

    Occupational tasks of linemen are highly associated with the development of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs). Although linemen are prone to develop WRMDs, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of WRMDs and related occupational causative factors. Therefore, the present review was conducted to report on the prevalence of WRMDs and to outline causative risk factors within occupational tasks in the lineman profession. Literature search was conducted in various databases such as Scopus, PubMed and ScienceDirect for articles published between 1996-2013. The articles were analyzed, selected and retrieved based on predetermined objectives, inclusion criteria and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). In the review process only articles published in English were considered. The review identified moderate to high prevalence of WRMDs among the linemen population. Back and shoulder regions were highly affected compared to the other body regions. The review also reported occupational tasks such as bar installation, insulator fixation and manual handling of tools as high risk tasks that lead to the development of WRMDs. In addition, occupational tools such as ladders, manual cutters and manual presses were also identified as a potential ergonomic hazard. In conclusion, the current review identified that WRMDs are common in the back and shoulder regions among linemen. Also, a number of occupational risk factors were identified to be associated with WRMDs among the linemen. Hence, future research on prevention and intervention studies concerning lineman profession population in order to develop a good job practice are recommended. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5):725-734.

  5. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and related occupational causative factors among electricity linemen: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Padmanathan, Vinothini; Joseph, Leonard; Omar, Baharudin; Nawawi, Roslizawati

    2016-01-01

    Occupational tasks of linemen are highly associated with the development of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs). Although linemen are prone to develop WRMDs, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of WRMDs and related occupational causative factors. Therefore, the present review was conducted to report on the prevalence of WRMDs and to outline causative risk factors within occupational tasks in the lineman profession. Literature search was conducted in various databases such as Scopus, PubMed and ScienceDirect for articles published between 1996-2013. The articles were analyzed, selected and retrieved based on predetermined objectives, inclusion criteria and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). In the review process only articles published in English were considered. The review identified moderate to high prevalence of WRMDs among the linemen population. Back and shoulder regions were highly affected compared to the other body regions. The review also reported occupational tasks such as bar installation, insulator fixation and manual handling of tools as high risk tasks that lead to the development of WRMDs. In addition, occupational tools such as ladders, manual cutters and manual presses were also identified as a potential ergonomic hazard. In conclusion, the current review identified that WRMDs are common in the back and shoulder regions among linemen. Also, a number of occupational risk factors were identified to be associated with WRMDs among the linemen. Hence, future research on prevention and intervention studies concerning lineman profession population in order to develop a good job practice are recommended. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5):725-734. PMID:27518883

  6. Effects of occupational therapy on quality of life of patients with metastatic prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huri, Meral; Huri, Emre; Kayihan, Hulya; Altuntas, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficiency of occupational therapy relative to a home program in improving quality of life (QoL) among men who were treated for metastatic prostate cancer (MPC). Methods: Fifty-five men were assigned randomly to either the 12-week cognitive behavioral therapy based occupational therapy (OT-CBSM) intervention (treatment group) or a home program (control group) between March 2012 and August 2014 in the Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to measure the occupational performance and identify difficulties in daily living activities. The QoL and symptom status were measured by The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and its Prostate Cancer Module. A 12-week OT-CBSM intervention including client-centered training of daily living activities, recreational group activities, and cognitive behavioral stress management intervention were applied. Results: The COPM performance and satisfaction scores, which indicate occupational participation and QoL increased statistically in the treatment group in relation to men who were included in the home-program (p≤0.05). Conclusion: A 12-week OT-CBSM intervention was effective in improving QoL in men treated for MPC, and these changes were associated significantly with occupational performance. PMID:26219446

  7. Occupation and cancer - follow-up of 15 million people in five Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Lynge, Elsebeth; Gunnarsdottir, Holmfridur Kolbrun; Sparén, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kjaerheim, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    We present up to 45 years of cancer incidence data by occupational category for the Nordic populations. The study covers the 15 million people aged 30-64 years in the 1960, 1970, 1980/1981 and/or 1990 censuses in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and the 2.8 million incident cancer cases diagnosed in these people in a follow-up until about 2005. The study was undertaken as a cohort study with linkage of individual records based on the personal identity codes used in all the Nordic countries. In the censuses, information on occupation for each person was provided through free text in self-administered questionnaires. The data were centrally coded and computerised in the statistical offices. For the present study, the original occupational codes were reclassified into 53 occupational categories and one group of economically inactive persons. All Nordic countries have a nation-wide registration of incident cancer cases during the entire study period. For the present study the incident cancer cases were classified into 49 primary diagnostic categories. Some categories have been further divided according to sub-site or morphological type. The observed number of cancer cases in each group of persons defined by country, sex, age, period and occupation was compared with the expected number calculated from the stratum specific person years and the incidence rates for the national population. The result was presented as a standardised incidence ratio, SIR, defined as the observed number of cases divided by the expected number. For all cancers combined (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer), the study showed a wide variation among men from an SIR of 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.66-0.95) in domestic assistants to 1.48 (1.43-1.54) in waiters. The occupations with the highest SIRs also included workers producing beverage and tobacco, seamen and chimney sweeps. Among women, the SIRs varied from 0.58 (0.37-0.87) in seafarers to 1.27 (1.19-1.35) in tobacco workers. Low

  8. Use of birth certificates to examine maternal occupational exposures and autism spectrum disorders in offspring.

    PubMed

    Windham, Gayle C; Sumner, Austin; Li, Sherian X; Anderson, Meredith; Katz, Elizabeth; Croen, Lisa A; Grether, Judith K

    2013-02-01

    The continuing rise in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders has led to heightened interest in the role of nongenetic factors, including exogenous exposures, but little research has been conducted. To explore a possible role in autism etiology, we used data available from our prior studies to examine potential occupational exposures, as these may occur at higher levels than environmental exposures. Parental occupation was obtained from birth certificates for 284 children with autism and 659 controls, born in 1994 in the San Francisco Bay Area. Self-reported occupation and industry were coded into eight exposure/chemical groups based on potential neurotoxicity or reprotoxicity by a board-certified physician in occupational medicine and an industrial hygienist blinded to case-control status. Mothers of autistic children were twice as likely to work in occupations considered exposed (14.4%) as mothers of controls (7.2%) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.3 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.3-4.2]). The exposure categories of the greatest frequency among case mothers were exhaust and combustion products (AOR = 12.0 [95% CI 1.4-104.6]) and disinfectants (AOR = 4.0 [95% CI 1.4-12.0]). Paternal occupational exposure was not associated with autism, potentially consistent with a direct in-utero exposure effect. There are several limitations of this hypothesis-generating study, including lack of detail on workplace and job duties, leading to possible misclassification and low proportion exposed. However, this misclassification would not be biased by case-control status and is unlikely to explain the associations we did find, suggesting that further research on exogenous exposures may yield useful etiologic clues. PMID:23361991

  9. Use of birth certificates to examine maternal occupational exposures and autism spectrum disorders in offspring.

    PubMed

    Windham, Gayle C; Sumner, Austin; Li, Sherian X; Anderson, Meredith; Katz, Elizabeth; Croen, Lisa A; Grether, Judith K

    2013-02-01

    The continuing rise in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders has led to heightened interest in the role of nongenetic factors, including exogenous exposures, but little research has been conducted. To explore a possible role in autism etiology, we used data available from our prior studies to examine potential occupational exposures, as these may occur at higher levels than environmental exposures. Parental occupation was obtained from birth certificates for 284 children with autism and 659 controls, born in 1994 in the San Francisco Bay Area. Self-reported occupation and industry were coded into eight exposure/chemical groups based on potential neurotoxicity or reprotoxicity by a board-certified physician in occupational medicine and an industrial hygienist blinded to case-control status. Mothers of autistic children were twice as likely to work in occupations considered exposed (14.4%) as mothers of controls (7.2%) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.3 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.3-4.2]). The exposure categories of the greatest frequency among case mothers were exhaust and combustion products (AOR = 12.0 [95% CI 1.4-104.6]) and disinfectants (AOR = 4.0 [95% CI 1.4-12.0]). Paternal occupational exposure was not associated with autism, potentially consistent with a direct in-utero exposure effect. There are several limitations of this hypothesis-generating study, including lack of detail on workplace and job duties, leading to possible misclassification and low proportion exposed. However, this misclassification would not be biased by case-control status and is unlikely to explain the associations we did find, suggesting that further research on exogenous exposures may yield useful etiologic clues.

  10. Interaction between tobacco smoking and occupational exposures in the causation of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Steenland, K; Thun, M

    1986-02-01

    The nature of the interaction between smoking and occupational exposure is controversial, in part because of lack of agreement on the definition of interaction and in part because of the scarcity of adequate epidemiologic data. Occupational investigators have assessed interaction primarily as a departure from an additive rather than from a multiplicative model of relative risks (or rate ratios). To determine whether smoking modifies the effect of occupational lung carcinogens, the literature was reviewed for the only four established occupational lung carcinogens for which there are data on smoking: radon daughters, asbestos, arsenic, and chloromethyl ethers. Where possible, departure was assessed from both an additive (synergism) and a multiplicative model (effect modification). Only nine studies were considered to have sufficient sample size and to provide sufficient information on tobacco use and occupational exposure to evaluate interaction. The existing data were contradictory for three of the agents studied: asbestos, radon daughters, and arsenic. Inconclusive or contradictory findings may result from small sample size or lack of comparability of the level of occupational or tobacco exposure. It is noteworthy that, for these four agents, whenever smoking did modify the effect of occupational exposure, the lung cancer rate ratio was greater for nonsmokers (compared to nonexposed nonsmokers) than smokers (compared to nonexposed smokers). However, with the exception of chloromethyl ethers, absolute lung cancer rates were higher for smokers than nonsmokers, regardless of occupational exposure.

  11. Breast cancer risk after occupational solvent exposure: the influence of timing and setting.

    PubMed

    Ekenga, Christine C; Parks, Christine G; D'Aloisio, Aimee A; DeRoo, Lisa A; Sandler, Dale P

    2014-06-01

    Organic solvents are ubiquitous in occupational settings where they may contribute to risks for carcinogenesis. However, there is limited information on organic solvents as human breast carcinogens. We examined the relationship between occupational exposure to solvents and breast cancer in a prospective study of 47,661 women with an occupational history in the Sister Study cohort. Occupational solvent exposure was categorized using self-reported job-specific solvent use collected at baseline. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to assess breast cancer risk, adjusting for established breast cancer risk factors. A total of 1,798 women were diagnosed with breast cancer during follow-up, including 1,255 invasive cases. Overall the risk of invasive breast cancer was not associated with lifetime exposure to solvents [HR, 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88-1.24]. Parous women who worked with solvents before their first full-term birth had an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive invasive breast cancer compared with women who never worked with solvents (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.03-1.86). A significantly elevated risk for estrogen receptor-positive invasive breast cancer was associated with solvent exposure among clinical laboratory technologists and technicians (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.07-3.73). Occupational exposure to solvents before first birth, a critical period of breast tissue differentiation, may result in increased vulnerability for breast cancer. Our findings suggest a need for future studies in this area to focus on exposure time windows and solvent types in different occupational settings.

  12. Surveillance of nasal and bladder cancer to locate sources of exposure to occupational carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, K; Morgan, M S; Checkoway, H; Franklin, G; Spinelli, J J; van Belle, G; Weiss, N S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To locate sources of occupational exposure to nasal and bladder carcinogens for surveillance follow up in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: Incident cases of nasal cancer (n = 48), bladder cancer (n = 105), and population based controls (n = 159) matched for sex and age, were interviewed about their jobs, exposures, and smoking histories. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for 57 occupational groups with stratified exact methods to control for age, sex, and smoking. RESULTS: Occupational groups at increased risk of nasal cancer included: textile workers (six cases, OR 7.6); miners, drillers, and blasters (six cases, OR 3.5); welders (two cases, OR 3.5); pulp and paper workers (three cases, OR 3.1); and plumbers and pipefitters (two cases, OR 3.0). Nasal cancer ORs were not increased in occupations exposed to wood dust, possibly due to low exposures in local wood industries. Strongly increased risks of bladder cancer were found for sheet metal workers (four cases, OR 5.3), miners (19 cases, OR 4.5), gardeners (six cases, OR 3.7), and hairdressers (three cases, OR 3.2). Among occupations originally considered at risk, the following had increased risks of bladder cancer: painters (four cases, OR 2.8); laundry workers (five cases, OR 2.3); chemical and petroleum workers (15 cases, OR 1.8); machinists (eight cases, OR 1.6); and textile workers (three cases, OR 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: Occupational groups with increased risks and three or more cases with similar duties were selected for surveillance follow up. For nasal cancer, these included textile workers (five were garment makers) and pulp and paper workers (three performed maintenance tasks likely to entail stainless steel welding). For bladder cancer, these included miners (12 worked underground), machinists (five worked in traditional machining), hairdressers (three had applied hair dyes), and laundry workers (three were drycleaners). PMID:9245952

  13. Breast cancer risk after occupational solvent exposure: the influence of timing and setting

    PubMed Central

    Ekenga, Christine C; Parks, Christine G.; D’Aloisio, Aimee A.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    Organic solvents are ubiquitous in occupational settings where they may contribute to risks for carcinogenesis. However, there is limited information on organic solvents as human breast carcinogens. We examined the relationship between occupational exposure to solvents and breast cancer in a prospective study of 47,661 women with an occupational history in the Sister Study cohort. Occupational solvent exposure was categorized using self-reported job-specific solvent use collected at baseline. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to assess breast cancer risk, adjusting for established breast cancer risk factors. A total of 1,798 women were diagnosed with breast cancer during follow-up, including 1,255 invasive cases. Overall, the risk of invasive breast cancer was not associated with lifetime exposure to solvents (HR: 1.04; 95% CI = 0.88–1.24). Parous women who worked with solvents prior to their first full-term birth had an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive invasive breast cancer compared to women who never worked with solvents (HR: 1.39; 95% CI = 1.03–1.86). A significantly elevated risk for estrogen receptor-positive invasive breast cancer was associated with solvent exposure among clinical laboratory technologists and technicians (HR: 2.00; 95%CI: 1.07–3.73). Occupational exposure to solvents prior to first birth, a critical period of breast tissue differentiation, may result in increased vulnerability for breast cancer. Our findings suggest a need for future studies in this area to focus on exposure time windows and solvent types in different occupational settings. PMID:24879566

  14. Lung cancer and occupation: results of a multicentre case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Morabia, A; Markowitz, S; Garibaldi, K; Wynder, E L

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to estimate the risk of lung cancer attributable to occupational factors and not due to tobacco. At 24 hospitals in nine metropolitan areas in the United States, 1793 male lung cancer cases were matched for race, age, hospital, year of interview, and cigarette smoking (never smoker, ex-smoker, smoker (1-19 and > or = 20 cigarettes per day)) to two types of controls (cancer and non-cancer hospital patients). Information on usual occupation, exposure to specific potential carcinogens, and cigarette smoking was obtained by interview. Risk of lung cancer was increased significantly for electricians; sheetmetal workers and tinsmiths; bookbinders and related printing trade workers; cranemen, derrickmen, and hoistmen; moulders, heat treaters, annealers and other heated metal workers; and construction labourers. All of these occupations are potentially exposed to known carcinogens. Odds ratios (ORs) were increased for exposure to coal dust (adjusted OR = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-2.1). After stratification, this association was statistically significant only after 10 or more years of exposure. Lung cancer was also related to exposure to asbestos (adjusted OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.5-2.2). The ORs increased with increasing duration of exposure to asbestos for all smoking categories except for current smokers of 1-19 cigarettes per day. The statistical power to detect ORs among occupations that were previously reported to be at increased risk of lung cancer but that failed to show an OR of at least 1.5 in the current study was small. The cumulative population attributable risk (PAR) of lung cancer due to occupation was 9.2%. It is concluded that occupational factors play an important part in the development of lung cancer independently of cigarette smoking. Because occupations at high risk of lung cancer were under-represented, the cumulative PAR of the present study is likely to be an underestimate of the true contribution of

  15. Glycosylation site occupancy in health, congenital disorder of glycosylation and fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Hülsmeier, Andreas J.; Tobler, Micha; Burda, Patricie; Hennet, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation is an integral part in health and disease, as emphasized by the growing number of identified glycosylation defects. In humans, proteins are modified with a diverse range of glycoforms synthesized in complex biosynthetic pathways. Glycosylation disorders have been described in congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) as well as in acquired disease conditions such and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A hallmark in a subset of CDG cases is the reduced glycosylation site occupancy of asparagine-linked glycans. Using an optimized method protocol, we determined the glycosylation site occupancy from four proteins of hepatic and lymphatic origin from CDG and NAFLD patients. We found variable degrees of site occupancy, depending on the tissue of origin and the disease condition. In CDG glycosylation sites of IgG2 and IgA1 were occupied to normal levels. In NAFLD haptoglobin and transferrin glycosylation sites were hyper-glycosylated, a property qualifying for its use as a potential biomarker. Furthermore, we observed, that glycosylation sites of liver-originating transferrin and haptoglobin are differentially occupied under physiological conditions, a further instance not noticed in serum proteins to date. Our findings suggest the use of serum protein hyperglycosylation as a biomarker for early stages of NAFLD. PMID:27725718

  16. Cognitive Deficits as a Mediator of Poor Occupational Function in Remitted Major Depressive Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Young Sup; Rosenblat, Joshua D.; Kakar, Ron; Bahk, Won-Myong; McIntyre, Roger S.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients have been described in numerous studies. However, few reports have aimed to describe cognitive deficits in the remitted state of MDD and the mediational effect of cognitive deficits on occupational outcome. The aim of the current review is to synthesize the literature on the mediating and moderating effects of specific domains of cognition on occupational impairment among people with remitted MDD. In addition, predictors of cognitive deficits found to be vocationally important will be examined. Upon examination of the extant literature, attention, executive function and verbal memory are areas of consistent impairment in remitted MDD patients. Cognitive domains shown to have considerable impact on vocational functioning include deficits in memory, attention, learning and executive function. Factors that adversely affect cognitive function related to occupational accommodation include higher age, late age at onset, residual depressive symptoms, history of melancholic/psychotic depression, and physical/psychiatric comorbidity, whereas higher levels of education showed a protective effect against cognitive deficit. Cognitive deficits are a principal mediator of occupational impairment in remitted MDD patients. Therapeutic interventions specifically targeting cognitive deficits in MDD are needed, even in the remitted state, to improve functional recovery, especially in patients who have a higher risk of cognitive deficit. PMID:26792035

  17. Glutathione S-transferase P1 ILE105Val polymorphism in occupationally exposed bladder cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Kopps, Silke; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Prager, Hans-Martin; Roemer, Hermann C; Lohlein, Dietrich; Weistenhofer, Wobbeke; Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The genotype glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) influences the risk for bladder cancer among Chinese workers occupationally exposed to benzidine. Studies of Caucasian bladder cancer cases without known occupational exposures showed conflicting results. Research was thus conducted to define the role of GSTP1 genotypes in Caucasian bladder cancer cases with an occupational history of exposure to aromatic amines. DNA from 143 cases reported to the Industrial Professional Associations (Berufsgenossenschaften) in Germany from 1996 to 2004, who had contracted urothelial cancer due to occupational exposure, and 196 patients from one Department of Surgery in Dortmund, without known malignancy in their medical history, were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (LightCycler) in relation to GSTP1 A1578G (Ile105Val) polymorphism. Among the subjects with bladder cancer, 46% presented the AA genotype, 39% the AG genotype, and 15% the GG genotype. In the surgical (noncancer) control group analyzed, 42% presented the AA genotype, 42% the AG genotype, and 16% the GG genotype. A subgroup of bladder cancer cases, represented by 46 painters, showed a distribution of 41% of the AA genotype, 48% of the AG genotype, and 11% of the GG genotype. Data indicated that in Caucasians exposed to aromatic amines the GSTP1 A1578G polymorphism did not appear to play a significant role as a predisposing factor for bladder cancer incidence.

  18. [Nervous system disorders induced by occupational exposure to aluminium compounds: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Sińczuk-Walczak, H

    2001-01-01

    This is a review of the literature on the effect of aluminum (Al) and its compounds on the nervous system. The role of aluminum in etiology of some degenerative diseases of the nervous system, e.g. Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or dementia, is presented. The special attention was turned to the effects of aluminum on the nervous system functions in persons occupationally exposed to metal-containing dusts and fumes, manifested mostly by neurobehavioral disorders and changes in the brain bioelectric functions and less frequently pronounced by clinical neurological symptoms.

  19. Skin cancer induced by natural UV-radiation as an occupational disease—requirements for its notification and recognition.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, Thomas L; Brandenburg, Stephan; Aberer, Werner; Bauer, Andrea; Drexler, Hans; Fartasch, Manigé; John, Swen Malte; Krohn, Steffen; Palfner, Stefanie; Römer, Wolfgang; Schuhmacher-Stock, Uta; Elsner, Peter

    2014-12-01

    In Germany over 2.5 million employees have an increased risk of skin cancer due to their occupational exposure to natural UV-irradiation. The medical consultation board "Occupational diseases" of the Ministry of Labor and Social affairs has investigated the association between occupational UV-irradiation and skin cancer risk and recommends to add the following new occupational disease into the appendix1 of the German ordinance on occupational diseases: "Squamous cell carcinoma and multiple actinic keratosis due to natural UV-irradiation". In this article we report in the view of the German Society of Occupational and Environmental Dermatology (ABD) and the German Statutory accident insurance (DGUV), whose criteria have to be fulfilled for the notification and recognition of an occupational skin cancer due to natural UV-irradiation.

  20. Cancer and occupational exposure to inorganic lead compounds: a meta-analysis of published data.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, H; Boffetta, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To review and summarise the epidemiological evidence on the carcinogenicity of occupational exposure to inorganic lead. METHODS--Case-control and cohort studies were reviewed and combined for meta-analysis. Fixed and random effect methods were used to estimate the summary effects. RESULTS--The combined results show a significant excess risk of overall cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, and bladder cancer, with relative risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in the meta-analysis of 1.11 (1.05-1.17), 1.33 (1.18-1.49), 1.29 (1.10-1.50), and 1.41 (1.16-1.71) respectively. The RR (95% CI) for kidney cancer was also high, but did not reach significance (1.19 (0.96-1.48)). A separate analysis of studies of heavily exposed workers provided slightly increased RRs for cancers of the stomach (1.50) and lung (1.42). CONCLUSIONS--The findings from the workers with heavy exposure to lead provided some evidence to support the hypothesis of an association between stomach and lung cancer and exposure to lead. The main limitation of the present analysis is that the excess risks do not take account of potential confounders, because little information was available for other occupational exposures, smoking, and dietary habits. To some extent, the risk of lung cancer might be explained by confounders such as tobacco smoking and exposure to other occupational carcinogens. The excess risk of stomach cancer may also be explained, at least in part, by non-occupational factors. For bladder and kidney cancers, the excess risks are only suggestive of a true effect because of possible publication bias. PMID:7757170

  1. A case-control study of occupational sunlight exposure and renal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Karami, Sara; Colt, Joanne S; Stewart, Patricia A; Schwartz, Kendra; Davis, Faith G; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wacholder, Sholom; Graubard, Barry I; Purdue, Mark P; Moore, Lee E

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological evidence of a relationship between vitamin D and kidney cancer risk has been inconsistent despite experimental data indicating that vitamin D and its metabolites may inhibit carcinogenesis. Previously we reported an inverse association between renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk and occupational ultraviolet (UV) exposure among European men. In this study, we examined the association between occupational UV exposure and RCC risk among US residents and investigated whether this association varied by race and sex. Lifetime occupational data for 1,217 RCC cases and 1,235 controls in a population-based case-control study, conducted from 2002 to 2007, were assessed for occupational UV exposure. We evaluated exposure metrics in quartiles based on control exposure levels and calculated associations between RCC risk and occupational UV exposure using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for sex, race, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, center, education, family history of cancer and dietary vitamin D intake. A general pattern of decreasing RCC risk with increasing UV exposure was observed. Cases had significantly lower cumulative occupational UV exposure than controls (fourth quartile vs. first: odds ratio = 0.74 [95% confidence interval = 0.56-0.99], p-trend = 0.03). Similar results were observed for other UV exposure metrics. The association with occupational UV exposure was stronger for women than for men, but did not differ by race. Our findings suggest an inverse association between occupational UV exposure and RCC, particularly among women. Given the sex finding discrepancies in this study versus our previous study, additional research is need to clarify whether the protective effects of occupational UV exposure and RCC risk are real.

  2. Multidimensional analysis of the effect of occupational exposure to organic solvents on lung cancer risk: the ICARE study

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Francesca; Liverani, Silvia; Guida, Florence; Matrat, Mireille; Cenée, Sylvie; Azizi, Lamiae; Menvielle, Gwenn; Sanchez, Marie; Pilorget, Corinne; Lapôtre-Ledoux, Bénédicte; Luce, Danièle; Richardson, Sylvia; Stücker, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between lung cancer and occupational exposure to organic solvents is discussed. Since different solvents are often used simultaneously, it is difficult to assess the role of individual substances. Objectives The present study is focused on an in-depth investigation of the potential association between lung cancer risk and occupational exposure to a large group of organic solvents, taking into account the well-known risk factors for lung cancer, tobacco smoking and occupational exposure to asbestos. Methods We analysed data from the Investigation of occupational and environmental causes of respiratory cancers (ICARE) study, a large French population-based case–control study, set up between 2001 and 2007. A total of 2276 male cases and 2780 male controls were interviewed, and long-life occupational history was collected. In order to overcome the analytical difficulties created by multiple correlated exposures, we carried out a novel type of analysis based on Bayesian profile regression. Results After analysis with conventional logistic regression methods, none of the 11 solvents examined were associated with lung cancer risk. Through a profile regression approach, we did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and lung cancer. However, we identified clusters at high risk that are related to occupations known to be at risk of developing lung cancer, such as painters. Conclusions Organic solvents do not appear to be substantial contributors to the occupational risk of lung cancer for the occupations known to be at risk. PMID:26911986

  3. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the risk of lung cancer in Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Kachuri, Linda; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Harris, Shelley A

    2014-07-01

    Crystalline silica is a recognized carcinogen, but the association with lung cancer at lower levels of exposure has not been well characterized. This study investigated the relationship between occupational silica exposure and lung cancer and the combined effects of cigarette smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted in eight Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain a lifetime occupational history and information on other risk factors. Occupational hygienists assigned silica exposures to each job based on concentration, frequency and reliability. Data from 1681 incident lung cancer cases and 2053 controls were analyzed using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Models included adjustments for cigarette smoking, lifetime residential second-hand smoke and occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions. Relative to the unexposed, increasing duration of silica exposure at any concentration was associated with a significant trend in lung cancer risk (OR ≥ 30 years: 1.67, 1.21-2.24; ptrend  = 0.002). The highest tertile of cumulative silica exposure was associated with lung cancer (OR = 1.81, 1.34-2.42; ptrend  = 0.004) relative to the lowest. Men exposed to silica for ≥30 years with ≥40 cigarette pack-years had the highest risk relative to those unexposed with <10 pack-years (OR = 42.53, 23.54-76.83). The joint relationship with smoking was consistent with a multiplicative model. Our findings suggest that occupational exposure to silica is a risk factor for lung cancer, independently from active and passive smoking, as well as from exposure to other lung carcinogens. PMID:24272527

  4. Occupational exposure and laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer risk in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Shangina, O.; Brennan, P.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Mates, D.; Fabianova, E.; Fletcher, T.; Mannetje, A.; Boffetta, P.; Zaridze, D.

    2006-08-15

    A multicenter case-control study was conducted during 1999-2002 in four European countries (Poland, Romania, Russia, and Slovakia) to evaluate the role of occupational exposures in risk of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer. Male cancer cases (34 hypopharyngeal, 316 laryngeal) with full data on occupational history and nonoccupational factors were compared with 728 hospital controls for occupational exposure to 73 suspected carcinogens. Occupational history was evaluated by industrial hygienists blinded to case/control status. Elevated risks for over exposure to coal dust were found for both hypopharyngeal (odds ratio (OR) = 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 14.89) and laryngeal (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.94, 3.47) cancer, with clear dose-response patterns. Inclusion of a 20-year lag in the analysis strengthened these associations. Hypopharyngeal cancer risk was also significantly associated with exposure to mild steel dust (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.39, 6.64) and iron compounds and fumes (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.29, 5.84), without clear dose-response relations. Laryngeal cancer was significantly associated with exposure to hard-alloys dust (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.57) and chlorinated solvents (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.61), without dose-response relations. A possible link between high formaldehyde exposure and laryngeal cancer was suggested. These data indicate that occupational exposure to coal dust may play a role in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Other possible relations need further evaluation.

  5. Occupation, smoking, opium, and bladder cancer: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Ghadimi, Tayeb; Gheitasi, Bahman; Nili, Sayran; Karimi, Mohammad; Ghaderi, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, control group included patients who referred to a specialized clinic in the same city and hospitals where patients had been registered. Data were entered into SPSS software. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated for occupational variables and other characteristics. Then, using logistic regression, the association between cancer and drugs was studied while smoking was controlled. Results: Cigarette smoking, even after quitting, was also associated with bladder cancer (OR = 2.549). Considering the classification of occupations, the OR of working in metal industry in patients was 10.629. Multivariate analysis showed that use of the drug by itself can be a risk factor for bladder cancer. Drug abuse together with the control of smoking increased the risk of bladder cancer by 4.959. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, contact with metal industries such as welding, and working with tin was found as a risk factor for bladder cancer. In addition, cigarette smoking and opium abuse individually were associated with bladder cancer. PMID:26942139

  6. Cancer incidence among women in the workplace: a study of the association between occupation and industry and 11 cancer sites.

    PubMed

    Swanson, G M; Burns, P B

    1995-03-01

    Few studies of the occupational etiology of cancer have focused upon the risks that women experience in the workplace. In this case-referent study of 11 cancer sites (lung, colon, rectum, bladder, esophagus, liver, salivary gland, stomach, eye, melanoma of the skin, mesothelioma), 7686 women in the Detroit area were interviewed to obtain lifetime histories of employment, tobacco use, and adult health, as well as demographic information. The results provide both methodologic and substantive leads for future investigations of the association between women's employment and their risk of cancer. We found that 63% of respondents had a usual occupation of housewife. Methodologic issues are discussed about the implications of this finding for sample size and statistical analysis when conducting such studies. New observations that merit further investigation include an association between salivary gland cancer and employment in hairdressing shops, esophageal cancer and employment in restaurants, and bladder cancer and employment in computer manufacturing. Further research is needed to understand the occupational etiology of cancer among women; such studies must consider specific methodologic issues.

  7. Osteoarthritis and meniscus disorders of the knee as occupational diseases of miners

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, G; Nichols, L

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether kneeling or squatting for prolonged periods is sufficiently causally associated with an increased risk of injury or degenerative disease of the knee joint as to meet the classic criteria to be considered an occupational disease of coal miners for whom these are or have been routine working postures. Method: Systematic literature searches were made for studies relating to kneeling and squatting as part of the working environment of coal mines and the role of these postures in causation of knee disorders in coal miners, analogous occupations, populations, and communities. The working environment and potentially damaging forces on the knee when kneeling or squatting were described. Papers on the incidence or prevalence of knee disorders in occupational and other groups were scored against five criteria independently by each author, and from this a single consensus score representing the overall strength of evidence given by the research was awarded. The evidence was then weighed against the criteria for an occupational disease. Results: Nineteen published papers were scored, the majority of which focussed on osteoarthritis as the outcome of interest. Few of the studies found focussed specifically on miners, and those that did tended to involve small numbers of subjects and were carried out before 1960, when the mining population was at its largest but epidemiological evidence of the risk factors for knee disorders was not well established. The non-mining studies in the review represent groups of workers with a similar or lesser kneeling content in their work. Conclusion: The papers reviewed provide sufficient evidence to conclude that work involving kneeling and/or squatting is causally associated with an increased risk of osteoarthritis of the knee. In some of the more recent epidemiologically sound studies, frequent or prolonged kneeling or squatting doubles the general risk of osteoarthritis of the knees found in the general population

  8. Stomach cancer and occupational exposure to asbestos: a meta-analysis of occupational cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, L; Rushton, L

    2015-01-01

    Background: A recent Monographs Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there is limited evidence for a causal association between exposure to asbestos and stomach cancer. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate this association. Random effects models were used to summarise the relative risks across studies. Sources of heterogeneity were explored through subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Results: We identified 40 mortality cohort studies from 37 separate papers, and cancer incidence data were extracted for 15 separate cohorts from 14 papers. The overall meta-SMR for stomach cancer for total cohort was 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.03–1.27), with heterogeneous results across studies. Statistically significant excesses were observed in North America and Australia but not in Europe, and for generic asbestos workers and insulators. Meta-SMRs were larger for cohorts reporting a SMR for lung cancer above 2 and cohort sizes below 1000. Conclusions: Our results support the conclusion by IARC that exposure to asbestos is associated with a moderate increased risk of stomach cancer. PMID:25928706

  9. Environmental and Occupational Causes of Cancer New Evidence, 2005–2007

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Richard W.; Jacobs, Molly M.; Loechler, Edward L

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary What do we currently know about the occupational and environmental causes of cancer? As of 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified 415 known or suspected carcinogens. Cancer arises through an extremely complicated web of multiple causes. We will likely never know the full range of agents or combinations of agents that cause cancer. However, we do know that preventing exposure to individual carcinogens prevents the disease. Declines in cancer rates – such as the drop in male lung cancer cases from the reduction in tobacco smoking or the drop in bladder cancer among cohorts of dye workers from the elimination of exposure to specific aromatic amines – provides evidence that preventing cancer is possible when we act on what we know. Although the overall age-adjusted cancer incidence rates in the U.S. among both men and women have declined in the last decade, rates of several types of cancers are on the rise; some of these cancers are linked to environmental and occupational exposures. This report chronicles the most recent epidemiological evidence linking occupational and environmental exposures with cancer. Peer-reviewed scientific studies published from January 2005-June 2007 were reviewed, supplementing our state-of-the-evidence report published in September 2005. Despite weaknesses in some individual studies, we consider the evidence linking the increased risk of several types of cancer with specific exposures somewhat strengthened by recent publications, among them: brain cancer from exposure to non-ionizing radiation, particularly radiofrequency fields emitted by mobile telephones;breast cancer from exposure to the pesticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) prior to puberty;leukemia from exposure to 1,3-butadiene;lung cancer from exposure to air pollution;non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) from exposure to pesticides and solvents; andprostate cancer from exposure to pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  10. On the interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and smoking and its relationship to lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pershagen, G; Wall, S; Taube, A; Linnman, L

    1981-12-01

    The interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and tobacco smoking and its relationship to lung cancer mortality among 228 deceased Swedish copper smelter workers was studied with the case-referent technique. Arsenic exposure was assessed via detailed company records, and information on smoking habits was gathered from the next of kin. The age standardized rate ratio for death from lung cancer was 3.0 for arsenic-exposed nonsmokers and 4.9 for smokers without occupational arsenic exposure in relation to nonarsenic-exposed nonsmokers. For arsenic-exposed smokers the rate ratio was 14.6, indicating a multiplicative effect of the two exposures. Eighty-five percent of all deaths from long cancer among the smelter workers could be "explained" by arsenic exposure and/or smoking. The interaction between arsenic and smoking suggests that a strong preventive effect on lung cancer incidence could be obtained by decreasing either one of the exposures or by disaggregating them.

  11. Construction occupations, asbestos exposure, and cancer of the colon and rectum.

    PubMed

    Demers, R Y; Burns, P B; Swanson, G M

    1994-09-01

    Colorectal cancer affects more than 157,000 Americans annually. Occupational risk from exposure to asbestos dust has been implicated, leading us to explore further the possible association between colorectal cancer and asbestos. Two hundred sixty-one cases of colon and rectal cancer and 183 control cases were identified within a large, population-based case-control study conducted in southeast Michigan. Employment in occupations historically known to involve heavy exposure to asbestos was used as a surrogate for asbestos exposure. Cancers of the colon showed reduced odds ratios. Our findings differ substantially from those of the previous studies showing elevated risk. Further study is needed to address the same question, with specified asbestos exposure assessment and control for potentially significant confounders such as physical activity and diet.

  12. Interdisciplinary Residential Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on Symptom Severity and Occupational Performance and Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Speicher, Sarah M.; Walter, Kristen H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examined outcomes of an 8-wk residential treatment program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD. Twenty-six veterans completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory–2nd Edition, and PTSD Checklist before and after treatment. RESULTS. Veterans demonstrated significant improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction with their performance, as well as in PTSD and depression symptom severity after residential PTSD/TBI treatment. Additionally, improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction were associated with decreases in depression symptom severity. CONCLUSION. Although preliminary, results suggest that veterans with PTSD and a history of TBI experienced significant decreases in PTSD and depression symptom severity and improvement in self-perception of performance and satisfaction in problematic occupational areas. Changes in occupational areas and depression symptom severity were related, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary treatment. PMID:25005504

  13. Occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions and lung cancer in Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Sahni, Vanita; Johnson, Kenneth C

    2011-07-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies diesel exhaust as a probable human carcinogen; this decision is based largely from lung cancer evidence. Gasoline exhaust is classified as a possible carcinogen. Epidemiological studies are needed that improve upon some of the limitations of previous research with respect to the characterization of exposure, and the control for the potential confounding influence of smoking and other occupational exposures. Our objective was to investigate associations between occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions and lung cancer. We used a case-control study design that involved men 40 years of age and older at the time of interview. Analyses are based on 1681 incident cases of lung cancer and 2,053 population controls. A self-reported questionnaire elicited a lifetime occupational history, including general tasks, and information on other potential risk factors. Occupational exposures to diesel and gasoline emissions, crystalline silica, and asbestos were assigned to each job held by study subjects by industrial hygienists who were blind to case-control status. Exposure metrics for diesel and gasoline emissions that were modeled included: ever exposure, cumulative exposure, and concentration of exposure. We found a dose-response relationship between cumulative occupational exposure to diesel engine emissions and lung cancer. This association was more pronounced for the squamous and large cell subtypes with adjusted odds ratios across the three increasing tertiles of cumulative lifetime exposure relative to those with no exposure of 0.99, 1.25, and 1.32 (p=0.04) for squamous cell carcinoma, and 1.06, 1.19, 1.68 (p=0.02) for large cell carcinoma. While the association with cumulative exposure to gasoline was weakly positive, it was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that exposure to diesel engine emissions increases the risk of lung cancer particularly for squamous and large cell

  14. Occupational Risk Factors for Selected Cancers Among African American and White Men in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Nathaniel C.; Levine, Robert S.; Hall, H. Irene; Cosby, Otis; Brann, Edward A.; Hennekens, Charles H.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined occupational risks for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease, and soft-tissue sarcoma among African American and White men. Methods. Race-specific multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted using data from a large US population-based case–control study. Results. Significant occupational risks were limited to African Americans; chromium was associated with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (odds ratio [OR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 12.9) and wood dust was associated with Hodgkin’s disease (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.6, 13.3) and soft-tissue sarcoma (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.6, 8.6). Conclusions. Race-specific occupational risk factors for cancer were evident only among African American men. This may reflect racial disparities in levels of exposure to occupational carcinogens. PMID:14534232

  15. Occupation, tobacco use, coffee, and bladder cancer in the county of Mataro (Spain).

    PubMed

    González, C A; Lopez-Abente, G; Errezola, M; Castejón, J; Estrada, A; Garcia-Milá, M; Gili, P; Huguet, M; Serrat, M; Soler, F

    1985-05-01

    This report presents the results of an epidemiologic case-control study. The study includes 58 cases and 116 controls from both sexes, selected from the Admission Register of the Hospital and from the Death Registry Office of the local city authorities. Controls have been matched to cases by age, sex, place of residence and source of selection. The results demonstrated no increased risk associated with coffee consumption. Habitual smokers present a 2.3 times higher risk than nonsmokers. The estimated relative risk for occupation standardized by age and smoking habit, is 5.5. A multiplicative effect of the simultaneous action of smoking and occupational exposure has been observed to be an estimated relative risk of 11.7. The attributable risk of the population has been estimated to be 39% for smokers and 12% for occupational exposure. A strong association was found between bladder cancer and occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances, especially in the dye and print textile industries.

  16. Occupational exposure to magnetic fields and breast cancer among Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Harris, Shelley A; Demers, Paul A; Johnson, Kenneth C; Agnew, David A; Villeneuve, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Occupational magnetic field (MF) exposure has been suggested as a risk factor for breast cancer in both men and women. Due to the rarity of this disease in men, most epidemiologic studies investigating this relationship have been limited by small sample sizes. Herein, associations of several measures of occupational MF exposure with breast cancer in men were investigated using data from the population-based case-control component of the Canadian National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance System. Lifetime job histories were provided by 115 cases and 570 controls. Average MF exposure of individual jobs was classified into three categories (<0.3, 0.3 to <0.6, or ≥0.6 μT) through expert blinded review of participant's lifetime occupational histories. The impact of highest average and cumulative MF exposure, as well as exposure duration and specific exposure-time windows, on cancer risk was examined using logistic regression. The proportion of cases (25%) with a highest average exposure of ≥0.3 μT was higher than among controls (22%). We found an elevated risk of breast cancer in men who were exposed to ≥0.6 μT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80, 95% CI = 0.82-3.95) when compared to those with exposures <0.3 μT. Those exposed to occupational MF fields for at least 30 years had a nearly threefold increase in risk of breast cancer (OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 0.98-7.82) when compared to those with background levels of exposure. Findings for the other time-related MF variables were inconsistent. Our analysis, in one of the largest case-control studies of breast cancer in men conducted to date, provides limited support for the hypothesis that exposure to MF increases the risk breast cancer in men.

  17. Occupational exposures and colorectal cancers: A quantitative overview of epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Oddone, Enrico; Modonesi, Carlo; Gatta, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    A traditional belief widespread across the biomedical community was that dietary habits and genetic predisposition were the basic factors causing colorectal cancer. In more recent times, however, a growing evidence has shown that other determinants can be very important in increasing (or reducing) incidence of this malignancy. The hypothesis that environmental and occupational risk factors are associated with colorectal cancer is gaining ground, and high risks of colorectal cancer have been reported among workers in some industrial branches. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic relationship between colorectal cancer and occupational exposures to several industrial activities, by means of a scientific literature review and meta-analysis. This work pointed out increased risks of colorectal cancer for labourers occupied in industries with a wide use of chemical compounds, such as leather (RR = 1.70, 95%CI: 1.24-2.34), basic metals (RR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.07-1.65), plastic and rubber manufacturing (RR = 1.30, 95%CI: 0.98-1.71 and RR = 1.27, 95%CI: 0.92-1.76, respectively), besides workers in the sector of repair and installation of machinery exposed to asbestos (RR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.07-1.84). Based on our results, the estimated crude excess risk fraction attributable to occupational exposure ranged from about 11% to about 15%. However, homogeneous pattern of association between colorectal cancer and industrial branches did not emerge from this review. PMID:25253943

  18. Perceptions of Health Promotion and Cancer Prevention among Adults in Working-Class Occupations and Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Roberta E.; Barbeau, Elizabeth; Hunt, Mary Kay; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Emmons, Karen M.; Gagne, Joshua; Sorensen, Glorian

    2008-01-01

    A social-contextual approach to cancer prevention among participants associated with the working class may result in behavior-change messages that are more relevant to them and contribute to a reduction in health disparities among classes. This article reports findings from a qualitative study of adults in working-class occupations and/or living…

  19. Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, P; Jourenkova, N; Gustavsson, P

    1997-05-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cancer is reviewed. High occupational exposure to PAHs occurs in several industries and occupations. Covered here are aluminum production, coal gasification, coke production, iron and steel foundries, tar distillation, shale oil extraction, wood impregnation, roofing, road paving, carbon black production, carbon electrode production, chimney sweeping, and calcium carbide production. In addition, workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust in the transport industry and in related occupations are exposed to PAHs and nitro-PAHs. Heavy exposure to PAHs entails a substantial risk of lung, skin, and bladder cancer, which is not likely to be due to other carcinogenic exposures present in the same industries. The lung seems to be the major target organ of PAH carcinogenicity and increased risk is present in most of the industries and occupations listed above. An increased risk of skin cancer follows high dermal exposure. An increase in bladder cancer risk is found mainly in industries with high exposure to PAHs from coal tars and pitches. Increased risks have been reported for other organs, namely the larynx and the kidney; the available evidence, however, is inconclusive. The results of studies addressing environmental PAH exposure are consistent with these conclusions.

  20. Functional Deficits and Quality of Life Among Cancer Survivors: Implications for Occupational Therapy in Cancer Survivorship Care.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eric J; Lokietz, Nicole C; Lozano, Rachel L; Parke, Megan A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore functional deficits and perceived quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors. Sixty-six participants completed the Post Cancer Outcome Survey developed for the purpose of this study. The results indicated (1) modest to moderate degrees of functional deficits in 28 of the 70 items measuring areas of occupation, performance skills, body functions, and psychosocial well-being within the first year after cancer treatment; (2) significantly lower perceived QoL during the first year of survivorship compared with that before diagnosis, at present, and 5 yr hereafter (p < .001); (3) significant moderate negative correlations between the reported functional deficits and QoL (rs = -.45 to -.57); and (4) a very low percentage of participants (4.5%) receiving occupational therapy during the first year posttreatment. Functional difficulties and compromised QoL identified in this study indicate the need for occupational therapy among cancer survivors. Increasing clients' awareness of occupational therapy for postcancer care is also suggested.

  1. Functional Deficits and Quality of Life Among Cancer Survivors: Implications for Occupational Therapy in Cancer Survivorship Care.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eric J; Lokietz, Nicole C; Lozano, Rachel L; Parke, Megan A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore functional deficits and perceived quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors. Sixty-six participants completed the Post Cancer Outcome Survey developed for the purpose of this study. The results indicated (1) modest to moderate degrees of functional deficits in 28 of the 70 items measuring areas of occupation, performance skills, body functions, and psychosocial well-being within the first year after cancer treatment; (2) significantly lower perceived QoL during the first year of survivorship compared with that before diagnosis, at present, and 5 yr hereafter (p < .001); (3) significant moderate negative correlations between the reported functional deficits and QoL (rs = -.45 to -.57); and (4) a very low percentage of participants (4.5%) receiving occupational therapy during the first year posttreatment. Functional difficulties and compromised QoL identified in this study indicate the need for occupational therapy among cancer survivors. Increasing clients' awareness of occupational therapy for postcancer care is also suggested. PMID:26565104

  2. Mortality study of beryllium industry workers' occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, T.F.

    1980-02-01

    A cohort of 3685 white males employed during 1937 to 1948 in two major industries manufacturing beryllium was followed to the end of 1976 to evaluate lung cancer mortality experience. Lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers was contrasted with that of workers employed in the viscose rayon industry. Study results demonstrated that lung cancer mortality among berylliumm-exposed workers was significantly greater than that expected on the basis of lung cancer mortality experience of workers in the viscose rayon industry having similar employment patterns. The results of the present study are consistent with earlier animal bioassay studies and recent epidemiologic studies indicating that beryllium is carcinogenic. The results of the present study are not consistent with speculation attributing the excessive lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers to personal characteristics of individuals having unstable employment patterns.

  3. Occupational exposure to beryllium and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Fryzek, Jon P; Mandel, Jack S

    2012-02-01

    There is controversy on whether occupational exposure to beryllium causes lung cancer. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiologic studies on cancer among workers exposed to beryllium, including a study of seven U.S. production plants which has been recently updated, a study of patients with beryllium disease (largely overlapping with the former study) and several smaller studies. A small excess mortality from lung cancer was detected in the large cohort, which was partially explained by confounding by tobacco smoking and urban residence. Other potential confounders have not been addressed. The excess mortality was mainly among workers employed (often for a short duration) in the early phase of the manufacturing industry. There was no relation with duration of employment or cumulative exposure, whereas average and maximum exposure were associated with lung cancer risk. The use of lagged exposure variables resulted in associations with lung cancer risk; however, these associations were due to confounding by year of birth and year of hire. The studies of beryllium disease patients do not provide independent evidence and the results from other studies do not support the hypothesis of an increased risk of lung cancer or any other cancer. Overall, the available evidence does not support a conclusion that a causal association has been established between occupational exposure to beryllium and the risk of cancer.

  4. Risk of urinary bladder cancer: a case-control analysis of industry and occupation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Uncertainty remains about urinary bladder cancer (UBC) risk for many occupations. Here, we investigate the association between occupation, industry and UBC. Methods Lifetime occupational history was collected by in-person interview for 604 newly diagnosed UBC patients and 604 cancer-free controls. Each job title was assigned a two-digit industry code and a three-digit occupation code. Odds ratios (ORs) for UBC associated with ever being employed in an industry or occupation were calculated by unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, gender and smoking status. We also examined UBC risk by duration of employment (>0 to <10, ≥10 years) in industry or occupation. Results Significantly increased risk of UBC was observed among waiters and bartenders (OR 2.87; 95% CI 1.05 to 7.72) and occupations related to medicine and health (OR 2.17; 95% CI 1.21 to 3.92), agricultural production, livestock and animal specialties (OR 1.90; 95% CI 1.03 to 3.49), electrical assembly, installation and repair (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.65), communications (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.00 to 3.01), and health services (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.44). For these occupations we also observed a significant excess risk of UBC for long-term work (i.e. ≥10 years), with the exception of waiters and bartenders. Employment for 10 years or more was associated with increased risk of UBC in general farmers (OR 9.58; 95% CI 2.18 to 42.05), agricultural production of crops (OR 3.36; 95% CI 1.10 to 10.27), occupations related to bench working (OR 4.76; 95% CI 1.74 to 13.01), agricultural, fishery, forestry & related (OR 4.58; 95% CI 1.97 to 10.65), transportation equipment (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.03 to 6.97), and structural work (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.95). Conclusions This study provides evidence of increased risk of UBC for occupations that were previously reported as at-risk. Workers in several occupation and industry groups have a significantly higher risk of UBC, particularly when duration

  5. Cancer-associated rheumatic disorders: clues to occult neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Nashitz, J E; Rosner, I; Rozenbaum, M; Elias, N; Yeshurun, D

    1995-02-01

    Interest in the rheumatologic manifestations of cancer is related in part to practical considerations, ie, earlier cancer diagnosis is possible through enhanced awareness of cancer-associated rheumatic syndromes. The spectrum of rheumatic disorders associated with cancer includes over 30 conditions, including hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, polymyalgia rheumatica, palmar fasciitis with polyarthritis, most autoimmune connective tissue diseases, and the more recently described antiphospholipid syndrome. It is generally held that extensive search for occult malignancy in most rheumatologic disorders is not cost efficient and not recommended unless accompanied by specific findings suggestive of malignancy. The present article discusses the supplementary findings that may justify malignancy evaluation.

  6. OCCUPATION AND BREAST CANCER RISK AMONG SHANGHAI WOMEN IN A POPULATION-BASED COHORT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Bu-Tian; Blair, Aaron; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Chow, Wong-Ho; Hauptmann, Michael; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Yang, Gong; Lubin, Jay; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rothman, Nat; Zheng, W

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A total of 74,942 female subjects were recruited in a population-based cohort study in Shanghai, China between 1997 and 2000. We examined the relationship between occupation and breast cancer risk by using baseline data from the cohort study. Methods Cases were 586 women previously diagnosed with breast cancer at baseline and 438 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer by December 2004 during follow-up. Eight controls were randomly selected for each case from cancer-free cohort members and frequency-matched to the cases by year of birth and age at diagnosis, respectively. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer risk associated with occupations adjusting for typical breast cancer risk factors. Results In the prevalent breast cancer data analysis, increased risks of breast cancer were associated with technicians in engineering/agriculture/forestry (OR= 1.6, 1.0-2.4), teaching personnel (OR=1.5, 1.1-2.0), tailoring/sewing workers (OR=1.6, 1.0-2.7), examiners/measurers/testers (OR=1.5, 1.1-2.1) among those who started the jobs at least 20 years ago. In the incident cases, the significantly increased risks were associated with medical/health care workers (OR=1.4, 1.0-2.0), administrative clerical workers (OR=1.5, 1.0-2.4), postal/telecommunication workers (OR=2.2, 1.0-5.5), and odd-job workers (OR=1.7, 1.1-2.8) among those who started the jobs at least 20 years ago. The excess risks were found in both prevalent and incident cases for postal/telecommunication workers and purchasing/marketing personnel, although ORs reached only marginal significance. Conclusions This study suggests that white-collar professionals and several production occupations may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:18067183

  7. DNA methylation and nucleosome occupancy regulate the cancer germline antigen gene MAGEA11

    PubMed Central

    James, Smitha R; Cedeno, Carlos D; Sharma, Ashok; Zhang, Wa; Mohler, James L; Odunsi, Kunle; Wilson, Elizabeth M; Karpf, Adam R

    2013-01-01

    MAGEA11 is a cancer germline (CG) antigen and androgen receptor co-activator. Its expression in cancers other than prostate, and its mechanism of activation, has not been reported. In silico analyses reveal that MAGEA11 is frequently expressed in human cancers, is increased during tumor progression, and correlates with poor prognosis and survival. In prostate and epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC), MAGEA11 expression was associated with promoter and global DNA hypomethylation, and with activation of other CG genes. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and/or histone deacetylases (HDACs) activated MAGEA11 in a cell line specific manner. MAGEA11 promoter activity was directly repressed by DNA methylation, and partially depended on Sp1, as pharmacological or genetic targeting of Sp1 reduced MAGEA11 promoter activity and endogenous gene expression. Importantly, DNA methylation regulated nucleosome occupancy specifically at the -1 positioned nucleosome of MAGEA11. Methylation of a single Ets site near the transcriptional start site (TSS) correlated with -1 nucleosome occupancy and, by itself, strongly repressed MAGEA11 promoter activity. Thus, DNA methylation regulates nucleosome occupancy at MAGEA11, and this appears to function cooperatively with sequence-specific transcription factors to regulate gene expression. MAGEA11 regulation is highly instructive for understanding mechanisms regulating CG antigen genes in human cancer. PMID:23839233

  8. Analysis of occupational asbestos exposure and lung cancer mortality using the g formula.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephen R; Richardson, David B; Chu, Haitao; Naimi, Ashley I

    2013-05-01

    We employed the parametric G formula to analyze lung cancer mortality in a cohort of textile manufacturing workers who were occupationally exposed to asbestos in South Carolina. A total of 3,002 adults with a median age of 24 years at enrollment (58% male, 81% Caucasian) were followed for 117,471 person-years between 1940 and 2001, and 195 lung cancer deaths were observed. Chrysotile asbestos exposure was measured in fiber-years per milliliter of air, and annual occupational exposures were estimated on the basis of detailed work histories. Sixteen percent of person-years involved exposure to asbestos, with a median exposure of 3.30 fiber-years/mL among those exposed. Lung cancer mortality by age 90 years under the observed asbestos exposure was 9.44%. In comparison with observed asbestos exposure, if the facility had operated under the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration asbestos exposure standard of <0.1 fibers/mL, we estimate that the cohort would have experienced 24% less lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). A further reduction in asbestos exposure to a standard of <0.05 fibers/mL was estimated to have resulted in a minimal additional reduction in lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.92).

  9. Case-control study of bladder cancer in New Jersey. I. Occupational exposures in white males.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, J B; Stemhagen, A; Mogielnicki, A P; Altman, R; Abe, T; Mason, T J

    1984-05-01

    The occupational bladder cancer risk for New Jersey white males was estimated with the use of both industry-job title-based and exposure-based analyses of data from 658 incident cases and 1,258 general population controls. The overall bladder cancer risk attributable to occupational exposures was estimated as 20-22%. A wide variety of employment categories and exposures contributed to this risk. Odds ratios were significantly high for employment as garage and gas station workers and food counter workers and/or cooks and for exposure to leather, rubber, paint, printing ink, and other organic compounds. Odds ratios for textile mill workers, chemical workers, and metal workers for the a priori high-risk employment category and odds ratios for those exposed to dyes, chlorinated compounds, and rubber showed significant differences between younger and older subjects. Bladder cancer risk associated with occupational exposures was not limited to persons with initial exposures before 25 years of age. However, there was significantly decreasing risk for bladder cancer with increasing age at first exposure for chemical workers and metal workers and for the a priori high-risk materials and metals. Drivers and/or deliverymen and miscellaneous laborers had significantly increasing bladder cancer risk with increasing duration of employment.

  10. Rising lung cancer death rates among black men: the importance of occupation and social class.

    PubMed

    Miller, W J; Cooper, R

    1982-03-01

    From 1950 to 1977 the age-adjusted cancer death rates for nonwhite men in the United States rose an astonishing 63.2 percent, while rates for white men increased 22.2 percent and fell slightly for women of both races. The bulk of this increase can be accounted for by cancer of the lung. As a serious health problem that is increasing in severity, cancer in black men deserves close attention and definitive action. This discussion focuses on basic epidemiological relationships in the origins of this epidemic, particularly in regard to the relative importance of occupation, cigarette smoking, and social class.

  11. Diesel exhaust and coal mine dust: lung cancer risk in occupational settings

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, B.; Jockel, K.H.

    2006-09-15

    Conflicting evidence on the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust (DE) and coal mine dust in occupational settings exist. Exposure measurement in most studies is inferred on the basis of job classifications and may lead to misclassification. Confounding behavioral factors (i.e., smoking) and occupational risk factors (exposure to asbestos, arsenic, radon) need to be considered. We evaluated the epidemiological evidence and current findings of the carcinogenicity of DE and coal mine dust in occupational settings. Pertaining literature was identified through Medline search and recent review articles. Strengths and limitations of recent approaches are discussed. Many epidemiological studies have addressed the question of carcinogenicity in workers exposed to DE, and most showed a low-to-medium increase in the risk of bronchial carcinoma. The pooled relative risk (RR) estimates lie between 1.33 and 1.47, and a consistent rise in risk across various job categories and study designs point to a causal relationship. Data on the carcinogenicity of coal mine dust are less consistent and the potential for confounding by unmeasured risk factors (arsenic, radon, DE) are higher. While silica as one of its components has been evaluated as carcinogenic, there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of pure coal dust according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). There is sufficient evidence for a causal relationship between DE and lung cancer in occupational settings. The evidence for coal mine dust is less convincing, but individual studies show an increase in risk of lung cancer in exposed workers. 4 refs.

  12. Relationship between Occupational Stress and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korean Male Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A growing body of literature has documented that job stress is associated with the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). However, the association of WMSDs with job stress has not yet been fully studied in Korean male firefighters. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of WMSDs in almost all Korean male firefighters and to clarify the effect of job stress on the occurrence of WMSDs. Methods The study design was cross-sectional, and 21,466 firefighters were recruited. The study design included a structured questionnaire to assess general characteristics, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (optional KOSS-26), Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and WMSDs. The chi-square test, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to look for a correlation between general characteristics and job stress, and the occurrence of WMSD. Results Back pain is the most common WMSD. Among the job stress subgroup, physical environment, job demands, organizational system, occupational climate, lack of reward and job insecurity were related to the occurrence of WMSDs. However, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict were not related to the occurrence of WMSDs. Conclusion Job stress was related to the occurrence of WMSDs in Korean male firefighters. To reduce the occurrence of WMSDs, a job stress management program may be required. PMID:24472292

  13. Efficacy of Kinesiology Taping for Recovery from Occupational Wrist Disorders Experienced by a Physical Therapist

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byeong-Jo; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this paper was to report the efficacy of kinesiology taping for recovery from wrist pain and limited range of motion (ROM) in a physical therapist with repetitive strain injuries. [Subjects] A 32 year-old male physical therapist developed recurring severe pain in the dominant wrist and limited active ROM with extremely painful supination. [Methods] The kinesiology tape was applied to the lumbricals, musculi interossei dorsales, palmares, the wrist extensor and flexor muscles, and the wrist joint for 3 weeks for an average of 10 h/day. [Results] After application of the kinesiology tape, the Numeric Pain Rating Scale and Patient-rated Wrist Evaluation scores decreased, and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale score increased in comparison with the initial score. [Conclusion] Repeated kinesiology taping of the wrist muscles and joint could be an effective method for recovery from occupational wrist disorders experienced by physical therapists. PMID:25013301

  14. Efficacy of kinesiology taping for recovery from occupational wrist disorders experienced by a physical therapist.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeong-Jo; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this paper was to report the efficacy of kinesiology taping for recovery from wrist pain and limited range of motion (ROM) in a physical therapist with repetitive strain injuries. [Subjects] A 32 year-old male physical therapist developed recurring severe pain in the dominant wrist and limited active ROM with extremely painful supination. [Methods] The kinesiology tape was applied to the lumbricals, musculi interossei dorsales, palmares, the wrist extensor and flexor muscles, and the wrist joint for 3 weeks for an average of 10 h/day. [Results] After application of the kinesiology tape, the Numeric Pain Rating Scale and Patient-rated Wrist Evaluation scores decreased, and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale score increased in comparison with the initial score. [Conclusion] Repeated kinesiology taping of the wrist muscles and joint could be an effective method for recovery from occupational wrist disorders experienced by physical therapists.

  15. Identification of Occupational Cancer Risks in British Columbia, Canada: A Population-Based Case—Control Study of 1,155 Cases of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Raymond; Le, Nhu; Band, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Objective Cancer has been recognized to have environmental origin, but occupational cancer risk studies have not been fully documented. The objective of this paper was to identify occupations and industries with elevated colon cancer risk based on lifetime occupational histories collected from 15,463 incident cancer cases. Method A group matched case-control design was used. All cases were diagnosed with histologically proven colon cancers, with cancer controls being all other cancer sites, excluding rectum, lung and unknown primary, diagnosed at the same period of time from the British Columbia Cancer Registry. Data analyses were done on all 597 Canadian standard occupation titles and 1,104 standard industry titles using conditional logistic regression for matched data sets and the likelihood ratio test. Results Excess colon cancer risks was observed in a number of occupations and industries, particularly those with low physical activity and those involving exposure to asbestos, wood dusts, engine exhaust and diesel engine emissions, and ammonia. Discussion The results of our study are in line with those from the literature and further suggest that exposure to wood dusts and to ammonia may carry an increased occupational risk of colon cancer. PMID:22073015

  16. Role of solar UVB irradiance and smoking in cancer as inferred from cancer incidence rates by occupation in Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiance and vitamin D reduce the risk of incidence and death for many types of cancer. However, most of that evidence comes from midlatitude regions, where solar UVB doses are generally high in summer. Data on cancer standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) by sex and 54 occupation categories based on 1.4 million male and 1.36 million female cancer cases for 1961–2005 in the five Nordic countries provide the basis for an ecological study of the role of solar UVB in the risk of many types of cancer at high latitudes. Lip cancer SIRs less lung cancer SIRs for men was the best index of solar UVB dose, which was weakly inversely correlated with both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) SIRs. Lung cancer SIRs were used as the index of the effects of smoking. For men, the UVB index was significantly inversely correlated with 14 types of internal cancer—bladder, breast, colon, gallbladder, kidney, laryngeal, liver, lung, oral, pancreatic, pharyngeal, prostate, rectal and small intestine cancer. For women, the same UVB index was inversely correlated with bladder, breast and colon cancer. These results generally agree with findings from other studies. These results provide more support for the UVB-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis and suggest that widespread fear of chronic solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance may be misplaced. PMID:22928078

  17. Occupation and educational inequalities in laryngeal cancer: the use of a job index

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies tried to assess the association between socioeconomic status and laryngeal cancer. Alcohol and tobacco consumption explain already a large part of the social inequalities. Occupational exposures might explain a part of the remaining but the components and pathways of the socioeconomic contribution have yet to be fully disentangled. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of occupation using different occupational indices, differentiating between physical, psycho-social and toxic exposures and trying to summarize the occupational burden into one variable. Methods A population-based case–control study conducted in Germany in 1998–2000 included 208 male cases and 702 controls. Information on occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption and education was collected with face-to-face interviews. A recently developed job-classification index was used to account for the occupational burden. A sub-index focussed on jobs involving potentially carcinogenic agents (CAI) for the upper aero digestive tract. Results When adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption, higher odds ratios (ORs) were found for lower education. This OR decreased after further adjustment using the physical and psycho-social job indices (OR = 3.2, 95%-CI: 1.5-6.8), similar to the OR using the sub-index CAI (OR = 3.0, 95%-CI: 1.4-6.5). Conclusions The use of an easily applicable control variable, simply constructed on standard occupational job classifications, provides the possibility to differentiate between educational and occupational contributions. Such an index might indirectly reflect the effect of carcinogenic agents, which are not collected in many studies. PMID:24246148

  18. [Early recognition of lung cancer in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Preiß, K; Rehbock, B

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that working with asbestos and placing it on the market have been banned in Germany since 1993 according to the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances, asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and pleura are still the leading cause of death in occupational diseases. The maximum industrial usage of asbestos was reached in former West Germany in the late 1970s and in former East Germany the late 1980s. Occupational diseases, mainly mesotheliomas and lung cancer emerging now are thus caused by asbestos exposure which occurred 30-40 years earlier. It is known that the combination of smoking and asbestos exposure results in a superadditive increase in the risk to develop lung cancer. No suitable screening methods for early detection of malignant mesothelioma are currently available and the therapeutic options are still very limited; however, the national lung screening trial (NLST) has shown for the first time that by employing low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in heavy smokers, lung cancer mortality can be significantly reduced. According to current knowledge the resulting survival benefits far outweigh the potential risks involved in the diagnostic work-up of suspicious lesions. These results in association with the recommendations of international medical societies and organizations were pivotal as the German statutory accident insurance (DGUV) decided to provide LDCT as a special occupational medical examination for workers previously exposed to asbestos and with a particularly high risk for developing lung cancer. PMID:27502004

  19. Occupational factors and the incidence of cancer of the bladder in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Risch, H A; Burch, J D; Miller, A B; Hill, G B; Steele, R; Howe, G R

    1988-01-01

    During 1979-82, a case-control study of occupational factors and urinary bladder cancer was conducted in Edmonton, Calgary, Toronto, and Kingston, Canada. A total of 826 histologically verified cases of cancer were individually matched by sex, age, and area of residence to 792 randomly selected population controls. Subjects were specifically asked about employment in several industries thought relevant to risk of bladder cancer. Information was also obtained on lifelong occupational history, with special attention given regarding exposures to fumes, dusts, smoke, and chemicals. In addition, subjects provided data on past medical and residential history, on intake of certain dietary items, and on exposure to tobacco and other lifestyle factors. Conditional logistic regression methods were used for the analysis. Under adjustment for cumulative lifetime cigarette consumption, it appeared that for both men and women, most of the occupational factors examined were not associated with significant alteration in risk of bladder cancer. For exposures during the period eight to 28 years before diagnosis, however, raised risk was suggested for men employed at least six months in the chemicals industry (odds ratio = 2.37, p = 0.004), in dye manufacturing or the dyeing of cloth (OR = 3.62 and 4.63, p = 0.041 and 0.035, respectively), as tailors (OR = 3.85, p = 0.015), or in jobs in which contact with diesel or traffic fumes occurred (OR = 1.69, p = 0.0008). Increased risk was also seen for men occupationally exposed to tars or asphalt (OR = 3.11, p = 0.019). This study then, at least for men, supports perhaps a few of the suspect industries as related to risk of bladder cancer. PMID:3395572

  20. Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, Miquel Bosch de Basea, Magda; Benavides, Fernando G.; Lopez, Tomas; Fernandez, Esteve; Marco, Esther; Alguacil, Juan; Grimalt, Joan O.; Puigdomenech, Elisa

    2008-11-15

    Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers.

  1. A survey of cancer and occupation in young and middle aged men. I. Cancers of the respiratory tract.

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Osmond, C; Acheson, E D

    1986-01-01

    In a search for clues to previously industrial carcinogens the occupational and smoking histories of young and middle aged men with different types of cancer were compared. The study population comprised men aged 18-54 and resident in the counties of Cleveland, Humberside, and Cheshire (including the Wirral). From hospital and cancer registration records 2942 members of the study population in whom cancers were diagnosed during the period 1975-80 were identified retrospectively. The occupational and smoking histories of these patients were sought by a postal questionnaire addressed either to the patients themselves or, if they had died, to their next of kin. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 52.1%. Additionally, limited occupational information was obtained for 89% of cases from their hospital notes. Analysis of these data suggests that no serious bias arose as a consequence of the incomplete response to the questionnaire. This paper concentrates on the results for cancers of the respiratory tract and mesothelioma. Mesothelioma was found to cluster in laggers, electricians, and shipyard workers, and nasal carcinoma in woodworkers. Carcinomas of the larynx and of the bronchus were examined by formal statistical techniques, each being compared with a control group made up of all other cancers combined. Several interesting occupational and industrial associations were shown, in particular, an excess of bronchial carcinoma in the leather industry (RR = 2.6, CI 1.2-6.0), in building labourers (RR = 1.7, CI 1.0-2.9) and other construction workers (RR = 1.8, CI 1.0-3.0), in bakers and pastry cooks (RR = 3.6, CI 1.3-10.4). and in cooks (RR = 2.5, CI 1.2-5.1). In addition, a small cluster of lung tumours was observed in men who had worked as dental mechanics. PMID:3707871

  2. A survey of cancer and occupation in young and middle aged men. I. Cancers of the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Osmond, C; Acheson, E D

    1986-05-01

    In a search for clues to previously industrial carcinogens the occupational and smoking histories of young and middle aged men with different types of cancer were compared. The study population comprised men aged 18-54 and resident in the counties of Cleveland, Humberside, and Cheshire (including the Wirral). From hospital and cancer registration records 2942 members of the study population in whom cancers were diagnosed during the period 1975-80 were identified retrospectively. The occupational and smoking histories of these patients were sought by a postal questionnaire addressed either to the patients themselves or, if they had died, to their next of kin. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 52.1%. Additionally, limited occupational information was obtained for 89% of cases from their hospital notes. Analysis of these data suggests that no serious bias arose as a consequence of the incomplete response to the questionnaire. This paper concentrates on the results for cancers of the respiratory tract and mesothelioma. Mesothelioma was found to cluster in laggers, electricians, and shipyard workers, and nasal carcinoma in woodworkers. Carcinomas of the larynx and of the bronchus were examined by formal statistical techniques, each being compared with a control group made up of all other cancers combined. Several interesting occupational and industrial associations were shown, in particular, an excess of bronchial carcinoma in the leather industry (RR = 2.6, CI 1.2-6.0), in building labourers (RR = 1.7, CI 1.0-2.9) and other construction workers (RR = 1.8, CI 1.0-3.0), in bakers and pastry cooks (RR = 3.6, CI 1.3-10.4). and in cooks (RR = 2.5, CI 1.2-5.1). In addition, a small cluster of lung tumours was observed in men who had worked as dental mechanics.

  3. Elevated titanium levels in Iraqi children with neurodevelopmental disorders echo findings in occupation soldiers.

    PubMed

    Savabieasfahani, M; Alaani, S; Tafash, M; Dastgiri, S; Al-Sabbak, M

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic release of pollutants into the environment is especially harmful to growing fetuses and young children. These populations are at an increased risk of damage because exposure to pollutants during critical periods of development can cause many impairments. Children's exposure to mixtures of metals could be responsible for the rising numbers of neurological disorders surfacing in Iraqi children. Titanium (Ti) and magnesium (Mg) are heavily used in war industries. Exposure to Ti and Mg has been linked to the dust in occupation soldiers' lungs. Hair samples of children in Hawija, Iraq (n = 13) contained significantly higher levels of Ti compared to Iranian children (n = 13) living near the Iraqi border (2080 ± 940 vs 707 ± 421 μg/kg, p < 0.0001). Magnesium was 1.7 times higher in Hawija children compared to Iranian children (115,763 ± 118,155 vs 67,650 ± 46,729 μg/kg). In samples from Hawija, Ti was 1.3 times higher in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (2198 ± 1108 vs 1942 ± 779 μg/kg), and Mg was 1.9 times higher in children without neurodevelopmental disorders (155,618 ± 140,791 vs 81,602 ± 91,940 μg/kg). Lead, arsenic, and cadmium in Hawija children with neurodevelopmental disorders (n = 6) were 2.5, 2.2, and 1.37 times higher compared to non-disabled children (n = 7). To get a clear understanding of the current status of neurodevelopmental disorders in Iraqi children and to determine the magnitude of this suspected global health issue, registries should be set up to compile and aggregate data from hospitals, clinics, and health centers across the country. Functional registries can develop collaborations with researchers toward finding causes of these disorders in Iraqi children and toward preventing them. PMID:25446717

  4. Bladder cancer and occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions among Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Latifovic, Lidija; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Kachuri, Linda; Harris, Shelley A

    2015-12-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel exhaust as a carcinogen based on lung cancer evidence; however, few studies have investigated the effect of engine emissions on bladder cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions and bladder cancer in men using data from the Canadian National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance System; a population-based case-control study. This analysis included 658 bladder cancer cases and 1360 controls with information on lifetime occupational histories and a large number of possible cancer risk factors. A job-exposure matrix for engine emissions was supplemented by expert review to assign values for each job across three dimensions of exposure: concentration, frequency, and reliability. Odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression. Relative to unexposed, men ever exposed to high concentrations of diesel emissions were at an increased risk of bladder cancer (OR = 1.64, 0.87-3.08), but this result was not significant, and those with >10 years of exposure to diesel emissions at high concentrations had a greater than twofold increase in risk (OR = 2.45, 1.04-5.74). Increased risk of bladder cancer was also observed with >30% of work time exposed to gasoline engine emissions (OR = 1.59, 1.04-2.43) relative to the unexposed, but only among men that had never been exposed to diesel emissions. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that exposure to high concentrations of diesel engine emissions may increase the risk of bladder cancer.

  5. Bladder cancer and occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions among Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Latifovic, Lidija; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Kachuri, Linda; Harris, Shelley A

    2015-12-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel exhaust as a carcinogen based on lung cancer evidence; however, few studies have investigated the effect of engine emissions on bladder cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions and bladder cancer in men using data from the Canadian National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance System; a population-based case-control study. This analysis included 658 bladder cancer cases and 1360 controls with information on lifetime occupational histories and a large number of possible cancer risk factors. A job-exposure matrix for engine emissions was supplemented by expert review to assign values for each job across three dimensions of exposure: concentration, frequency, and reliability. Odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression. Relative to unexposed, men ever exposed to high concentrations of diesel emissions were at an increased risk of bladder cancer (OR = 1.64, 0.87-3.08), but this result was not significant, and those with >10 years of exposure to diesel emissions at high concentrations had a greater than twofold increase in risk (OR = 2.45, 1.04-5.74). Increased risk of bladder cancer was also observed with >30% of work time exposed to gasoline engine emissions (OR = 1.59, 1.04-2.43) relative to the unexposed, but only among men that had never been exposed to diesel emissions. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that exposure to high concentrations of diesel engine emissions may increase the risk of bladder cancer. PMID:26511593

  6. Personality disorders, but not cancer severity or treatment type, are risk factors for later generalised anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder in non metastatic breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Anne-Laure; Brunault, Paul; Huguet, Grégoire; Suzanne, Isabelle; Senon, Jean-Louis; Body, Gilles; Rusch, Emmanuel; Magnin, Guillaume; Voyer, Mélanie; Réveillère, Christian; Camus, Vincent

    2016-02-28

    This study aimed to determine whether personality disorders were associated with later Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in breast cancer patients. This longitudinal and multicentric study included 120 French non-metastatic breast cancer patients. After cancer diagnosis (T1) and 7 months after diagnosis (T3), we assessed MDD and GAD (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0). We assessed personality disorders 3 months after diagnosis (VKP). We used multiple logistic regression analysis to determine what were the factors associated with GAD and MDD at T3. At T3, prevalence rate was 10.8% for MDD and 19.2% for GAD. GAD at T3 was significantly and independently associated with GAD at T1 and with existence of a personality disorder, no matter the cluster type. MDD at T3 was significantly and independently associated with MDD at T1 and with the existence of a cluster C personality disorder. Initial cancer severity and the type of treatment used were not associated with GAD or MDD at T3. Breast cancer patients with personality disorders are at higher risk for GAD and MDD at the end of treatment. Patients with GAD should be screened for personality disorders. Specific interventions for patients with personality disorders could prevent psychiatric disorders.

  7. Reducing aluminum: an occupation possibly associated with bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Thériault, G; De Guire, L; Cordier, S

    1981-02-15

    A case-control study, undertaken to identify reasons for the exceptionally high incidence of bladder cancer among men in the Chicoutimi census division of the province of Quebec, revealed an increased risk associated with employment in the electrolysis department of an aluminum reduction plant. The estimated relative risk was 2.83 (95% confidence interval; 1.06 to 7.54). An interaction was found between such employment and cigarette smoking, resulting in a combined relative risk of 5.70 (95% confidence interval: 2.00 to 12.30). These findings suggest that employment in an aluminum reduction plant accounts for part of the excess of bladder cancer in the region studied.

  8. Reducing aluminum: an occupation possibly associated with bladder cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Thériault, G; De Guire, L; Cordier, S

    1981-01-01

    A case-control study, undertaken to identify reasons for the exceptionally high incidence of bladder cancer among men in the Chicoutimi census division of the province of Quebec, revealed an increased risk associated with employment in the electrolysis department of an aluminum reduction plant. The estimated relative risk was 2.83 (95% confidence interval; 1.06 to 7.54). An interaction was found between such employment and cigarette smoking, resulting in a combined relative risk of 5.70 (95% confidence interval: 2.00 to 12.30). These findings suggest that employment in an aluminum reduction plant accounts for part of the excess of bladder cancer in the region studied. PMID:7214271

  9. Smoking, occupational exposure to rubber, and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z F; Yu, S Z; Li, W X; Choi, B C

    1989-01-01

    A cohort of 1624 employees (957 men, 667 women) in a rubber factory in Shanghai have been followed up since 1972 and their 12 year mortality experience is presented. The relative risk of lung cancer for smokers was 8.5 for men and 11.4 for women and for rubber workers exposed to curing agents or talc powder 3.2 for men and 4.6 for women. PMID:2920138

  10. Insomnia in Shift Work Disorder Relates to Occupational and Neurophysiological Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, Ren; Gumenyuk, Valentina; Roth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine whether occupational and neurophysiological decrements within shift work disorder (SWD) are differentially related to its two diagnostic symptoms, insomnia and excessive sleepiness. Methods: Thirty-four permanent night workers participated in an overnight lab protocol including a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and an event-related brain potential (ERP) task testing auditory target detection (P3a and P3b). At 16:00, each subject completed an Endicott Work Productivity Scale (EWPS), two Insomnia Severity Indices (ISI-Day, ISI-Night), and an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Subjects were grouped by ISI and ESS scores into clinical phenotypes. This study compared EWPS and ERP results between alert insomniacs (“AI,” reporting insomnia without sleepiness), sleepy insomniacs (“SI,” reporting both insomnia and sleepiness), and controls. Results: The AI group was most impaired on the EWPS, significantly more impaired than controls (25.8 ± 14.8 vs. 12.3 ± 9.4, p < 0.05). SI were not statistically different from controls (19.5 ± 8.7 vs. 12.3 ± 9.4, p > 0.05). Compared to controls, AI showed significantly attenuated P3a response (Fcz, Czp, Cpz, mean difference [MD] 1.62–1.77, p < 0.05) and target-detection P3b response (Fcz, Czp, Cpz, MD 1.28–1.64, p < 0.05). P3b in SI was not different from controls (p > 0.10), and P3a was only different at one electrode site (Cpz, MD 1.43, p < 0.01). Neither the MSLT nor the ESS correlated with EWPS scores or ERP (P3a/P3b) amplitudes (p > 0.10). However, the mean of the ISI measurements correlated with the EWPS (r = 0.409, p < 0.01) and the attention-to-novelty P3a (r = −0.410, p < 0.01). Conclusions: Among shift work disorder patients, insomnia is linked to functional and cognitive impairments. Insomniacs with normal sleepiness showed more severe impairments than insomniacs who also reported excessive sleepiness. Citation: Belcher R, Gumenyuk V, Roth T. Insomnia in shift work disorder

  11. Semi-quantitative exposure assessment of occupational exposure to wood dust and nasopharyngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ekpanyaskul, Chatchai; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Ekburanawat, Wiwat; Brennan, Paul; Mannetje, Andrea; Thetkathuek, Anamai; Saejiw, Nutjaree; Ruangsuwan, Tassanu; Boffetta, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to wood dust is one cause of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC); however, assessing this exposure remains problematic. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a semi-quantitative exposure assessment method and then utilize it to evaluate the association between occupational exposure to wood dust and the development of NPC. In addition, variations in risk by histology were examined. A case-control study was conducted with 327 newly diagnosed cases of NPC at the National Cancer Institute and regional cancer centers in Thailand with 1:1 controls matched for age, gender and geographical residence. Occupational information was obtained through personal interviews. The potential probability, frequency and intensity of exposure to wood dust were assessed on a job-by-job basis by experienced experts. Analysis was performed by conditional logistic regression and presented in odds ratio (ORs) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, a non significant relationship between occupational wood dust exposure and NPC risk for all subjects was observed (ORs=1.61, 95%CI 0.99-2.59); however, the risk became significant when analyses focused on types 2 and 3 of NPC (ORs=1.62, 95%CI 1.03-2.74). The significant association was stronger for those exposed to wood dust for >10 year (ORs=2.26, 95%CI 1.10-4.63), for those with first-time exposure at age>25 year (ORs=2.07, 95%CI 1.08-3.94), and for those who had a high cumulative exposure (ORs=2.17, 95%CI 1.03-4.58) when compared with those considered unexposed. In conclusion, wood dust is likely to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 or 3 NPC in the Thai population. The results of this study show that semi-quantitative exposure assessment is suitable for occupational exposure assessment in a case control study and complements the information from self-reporting.

  12. The Relationship between Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following cancer diagnosis. Patients who were recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy (N = 82) were assessed for ASD within the initial month following their diagnosis and reassessed (n =…

  13. Occupational risk factors for brain cancer: a population-based case-control study in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Zheng, T; Cantor, K P; Zhang, Y; Keim, S; Lynch, C F

    2001-04-01

    A number of occupations and industries have been inconsistently associated with the risk of brain cancer. To further explore possible relationships, we conducted a population-based case-control study of brain glioma in the state of Iowa, involving 375 histologically confirmed incident cases and 2434 population-based controls. Among men, the industries and/or occupations that had a significantly increased risk for employment of more than 10 years included roofing, siding, and sheet metalworking; newspaper work; rubber and plastics products, particularly tires and inner tubes; miscellaneous manufacturing industries; wholesale trade of durable goods, grain, and field beans; cleaning and building service occupations; miscellaneous mechanics and repairers; and janitors and cleaners. Subjects who worked in plumbing, heating, and air conditioning; electrical services; gasoline service stations; and military occupations also experienced a significantly increased risk. Among women, significant excess risk was observed for occupations in agricultural services and farming, apparel and textile products, electrical and electronic equipment manufacturing, various retail sales, record-keeping, and restaurant service. Workers in industries with a potential for gasoline or motor exhaust exposures experienced a non-significant excess risk of brain glioma.

  14. Occupational risk factors for pancreatic cancer among female textile workers in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, W; Ray, R M; Gao, D L; Fitzgibbons, E D; Seixas, N S; Camp, J E; Wernli, K J; Astrakianakis, G; Feng, Z; Thomas, D B; Checkoway, H

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether occupational exposures to dusts and chemicals in the Shanghai textile industry are associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. Methods A case cohort study nested in a cohort of 267 400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China was conducted among 180 incident pancreatic cancer cases and an age stratified randomly selected comparison subcohort (n = 3188). A complete occupational history of work in the textile industry was obtained for each woman, and was linked to a job exposure matrix developed for the textile industry to estimate exposures to specific dusts and chemicals. Cumulative exposures to cotton dust and endotoxin were reconstructed from historical and contemporaneous measurements. Results After adjusting for smoking status, a trend of decreasing risk of pancreatic cancer was observed for increasing cumulative exposures to cotton dust and endotoxin with a lag of 20 years. The hazard ratios for women cumulatively exposed to >143.4 mg/m3× years of cotton dust and >3530.6 EU/m3× years of endotoxin were 0.6 (95% CI 0.3 to 0.9) and 0.5 (95% CI 0.3 to 0.9), respectively, compared to unexposed women. There was little evidence that exposures to other textile dusts and chemicals were associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. Conclusions Occupational exposure to cotton dust and endotoxin in the textile industry may have reduced risks of pancreatic cancer in this cohort. These associations should be replicated by others before making a firm conclusion of their possible effects on pancreatic cancer. PMID:16847032

  15. Occupational Diesel Exposure, Duration of Employment, and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Picciotto, Sally; Costello, Sadie; Eisen, Ellen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: If less healthy workers terminate employment earlier, thus accumulating less exposure, yet remain at greater risk of the health outcome, estimated health effects of cumulative exposure will be biased downward. If exposure also affects termination of employment, then the bias cannot be addressed using conventional methods. We examined these conditions as a prelude to a reanalysis of lung cancer mortality in the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study. Methods: We applied an accelerated failure time model to assess the effect of exposures to respirable elemental carbon (a surrogate for diesel) on time to termination of employment among nonmetal miners who ever worked underground (n = 8,307). We then applied the parametric g-formula to assess how possible interventions setting respirable elemental carbon exposure limits would have changed lifetime risk of lung cancer, adjusting for time-varying employment status. Results: Median time to termination was 36% shorter (95% confidence interval = 33%, 39%), per interquartile range width increase in respirable elemental carbon exposure. Lung cancer risk decreased with more stringent interventions, with a risk ratio of 0.8 (95% confidence interval = 0.5, 1.1) comparing a limit of ≤25 µg/m3 respirable elemental carbon to no intervention. The fraction of cases attributable to diesel exposure was 27% in this population. Conclusions: The g-formula controlled for time-varying confounding by employment status, the signature of healthy worker survivor bias, which was also affected by diesel exposure. It also offers an alternative approach to risk assessment for estimating excess cumulative risk, and the impact of interventions based entirely on an observed population. PMID:26426944

  16. Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer and occupation: results of a case control-study.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, P; Leclerc, A; Luce, D; Morcet, J F; Brugère, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To ascertain whether certain occupations are associated with laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer. METHODS: A hospital based case-control study was carried out in 15 hospitals in France. It included 528 male cases diagnosed between January 1989 and April 1991, and 305 male controls with various other types of cancer. Interviews were carried out to obtain lifetime job histories and information on potential confounders. Logistic regression was used to compute the odds ratios (OR) for each of about 80 occupations and industries. RESULTS: There was an excess risk of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer among service workers (OR 2.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3 to 3.9), agricultural and animal husbandry workers (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.8), miners and quarrymen (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.9 to 4.3), plumbers and pipe fitters (OR 2.6, 95% CI 0.8 to 8.1), glass formers and potters (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 18) transport equipment operators (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.5), and unskilled workers (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9). Analysis by industrial branch showed an excess risk for coal mining (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.1), manufacture of metal products (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.3), and administration and sanitary services (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that occupational exposure might have a role in generating laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer, and indicate the need for further evaluation of these findings, an for the identification of the carcinogens which might account for the excess risks found for certain occupations. PMID:9282123

  17. [Cancer of the bladder occurring in occupational dye users: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Ando, M; Takeda, H; Mizuo, T; Yokokawa, M; Ushiyama, T

    1984-02-01

    Two cases of occupational dye users were found to have bladder tumors. Case 1 was a 32-year-old male, who had worked at the Yuzen process for the last 7 years. Multiple papillary tumors were seen on the whole wall of the bladder endoscopically and total cysto-urethrectomy and ileal conduit were performed. The pathological examination of the bladder tumors revealed non-invasive transitional cell carcinoma grade I--II. His post-operative course has been uneventful without any signs of tumor recurrence for 31 months. Case 2 was a 46-year-old male, who had worked at the throwing stained silk for the last 28 years. He suffered from severe hematuria for six months. A big egg-sized nonpapillary tumor on the posterior wall of the bladder was found and bilateral cutaneous-ureterostomy was performed but severe gross hematuria remained. Total cysto-urethrectomy was performed but the patient died of progressive disease 5 months later. The bladder tumor was a grade III invasive transitional cell carcinoma. The fact that process workers in the dye manufacturing industry have a high risk of bladder cancer has been well known and mass screening examination on them has been systematically performed. Though there is a higher relative risk of bladder cancer in occupational dye users, systematic screening examination has not been done. We emphasize the necessity for establishing systematic mass screening examination of occupational dye users for the early diagnosis of bladder cancer.

  18. Quantitative cancer risk assessment for dioxins using an occupational cohort.

    PubMed Central

    Becher, H; Steindorf, K; Flesch-Janys, D

    1998-01-01

    We consider a cohort of 1189 male German factory workers (production period 1952-1984) who produced phenoxy herbicides and were exposed to dioxins. Follow-up until the end of 1992 yielded a significantly increased standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for total cancer (SMR 141; 95% confidence interval 117-168). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) concentrations up to 2252 ng/kg body fat were measured in 275 cohort members. Other higher chlorinated dioxins and furans also occurred in high concentrations. For quantitative analysis, the integrated TCDD concentration over time was used as an exposure variable, which was calculated using results from half-life estimation for TCDD and workplace history data. The other congeners were expressed as toxic equivalency (TEQ) and compared to TCDD using international toxic equivalency factors. Poisson and Cox regressions were used to investigate dose-response relationships. Various covariables (e.g., exposure to beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, employment characteristics) were considered. In all analyses, TCDD and TEQ exposures were related to total cancer mortality. The power model yielded a relative risk (RR) function RR(x) = (1 + 0.17x)0.326 for TCDD (in microgram/kilogram blood fat x years)--only a slightly better fit than a linear RR function--and RR(x) = (1 + 0.023x)0.795 for TEQ. Investigations on latency did not show strong effects. Different methods were applied to investigate the robustness of the results and yielded almost identical results. The results were used for unit risk estimation. Taking into account different sources of variation, an interval of 10(-3) to 10(-2) for the additional lifetime cancer risk under a daily intake of 1 pg TCDD/kg body weight/day was estimated from the dose-response models considered. Uncertainties regarding the dose-response function remain. These data did not indicate the existence of a threshold value; however, such a value cannot be excluded with any certainty. PMID:9599714

  19. Childhood cancer in the offspring of male sawmill workers occupationally exposed to chlorophenate fungicides.

    PubMed Central

    Heacock, H; Hertzman, C; Demers, P A; Gallagher, R; Hogg, R S; Teschke, K; Hershler, R; Bajdik, C D; Dimich-Ward, H; Marion, S A; Ostry, A; Kelly, S

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether paternal occupational exposure to chlorophenol fungicides and their dioxin contaminants is associated with childhood cancer in the offspring of sawmill workers. We used data from 23,829 British Columbian sawmill workers employed for at least 1 continuous year between 1950 and 1985 in 11 sawmills that used chlorophenates. Probabilistic linkage of the sawmill worker cohort to the provincial marriage and birth files produced an offspring cohort of 19,674 children born at least 1 year after the initiation of employment in the period 1952-1988. We then linked the offspring cohort to the British Columbia Cancer Registry. We included all malignancies in cases younger than 20 years of age that appeared on the cancer registry between 1969 and 1993. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using the British Columbia population as a reference. A nested case-control analysis assessed the effects of paternal cumulative exposure and windows of exposure on the risk of developing cancer in the offspring. We identified 40 cases of cancer during 259,919 person-years of follow-up. The all-cancer SIR was 1.0 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-1.4]; the SIR for leukemia was 1.0 (CI, 0.5-1.8); and the SIR for brain cancer was 1.3 (CI, 0.6-2.5). The nested case-control analysis showed slightly increased risks in the highest categories of chlorophenol exposure, although none was statistically significant. Our analyses provide little evidence to support a relationship between the risk of childhood cancer and paternal occupational exposure to chlorophenate fungicides in British Columbian sawmills. PMID:10856022

  20. Case-control study of occupational exposures and male breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cocco, P.; Figgs, L.; Dosemeci, M.; Hayes, R.; Linet, M. S.; Hsing, A. W.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether risk of male breast cancer is associated with workplace exposures. METHODS: A case-control study of 178 cases of male breast cancer and 1041 controls was carried out with data from the United States national mortality follow-back survey, which collected questionnaire information from proxy respondents of a 1% sample of all 1986 United States deaths among subjects aged 25-74 years. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields, high temperatures, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), herbicides, other pesticides, and organic solvents was assessed by applying job- exposure matrices, based on the 1980 United States census occupation and industry codes, to the longest job held by study subjects as reported by the informants. A socioeconomic status index was created by combining information on annual family income, education, assets, and occupation to assess the association of socioeconomic status with male breast cancer. Relative risks were derived from logistic regression modelling, which included age, socioeconomic status, marital status, and body mass index, as well as occupational exposures. RESULTS: Risk for male breast cancer increased significantly with increasing socioeconomic status index (test for trend: p < 0.01), but the risks associated with individual socioeconomic status variables were smaller and the trends were not significant. A significant increase in risk of male breast cancer was associated with employment in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills (odds ratio (OR) 3.4; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1 to 10.1, based on six cases), and motor vehicle manufacturing (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.2 to 8.2, based on seven cases). However, exposures to electromagnetic fields, high temperature, PAHs, herbicides, other pesticides, and organic solvents were not associated with risk of male breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The role of workplace exposures in increasing risk of breast cancer among men employed in motor vehicle

  1. [When contronted with a new lung cancer case, are we often thinking of and searching for an occupational etiology?].

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Carmen-Florina; Gavriliţă, Lorica

    2002-01-01

    Besides smoking, the occupational exposure to carcinogens could be an important etiological factor responsible in almost 15% of lung cancer cases. In a retrospective study carried out on 304 patients (244 men and 60 females; mean age 63.4 years and median 64.6 years), diagnosed between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2001, we looked for the percent of patients sent for consultation in Occupational Pathology department, the number of those who had a declaration of their cancer as occupation related and the carcinogens responsible. Sixty patients (19.7%) had a consultation in Occupational Pathology department and an occupational disease declaration was done on 27 of them. Among the patients non consulted in the Occupational Pathology department, an occupational exposure could have been suspected in 37 (12.2%) for the reason of the nature of their jobs. The principal carcinogens found were: asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, welding smoke, crystalline silica and metallic powders. It seems necessary to try to search, by taking a detailed work history, for an exposure to a possible carcinogen during occupational life of the patients having diagnosed with a lung cancer.

  2. Validating the measurement of executive functions in an occupational context for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Stern, Adi; Maeir, Adina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objectives of this study were to better understand the cognitive profile of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), their occupational performance, and their quality of life (QoL) and to examine the validity of a cognitive-functional evaluation (CFE) battery for these adults. METHOD. Eighty-one adults with ADHD and 58 without ADHD completed ADHD symptom ratings, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version, and the Adult ADHD Quality-of-Life Scale. An occupational performance interview was administered to the ADHD group. RESULTS. A broad range of occupational concerns were reported. We found significant differences between groups on all measures. In the ADHD group, we found medium significant correlations among the measures. CONCLUSION. Adults with ADHD experience cognitive and functional difficulties in their daily lives associated with QoL. The results support the use of a CFE battery that has been shown to be sensitive and specific for these adults. PMID:25397767

  3. Validating the measurement of executive functions in an occupational context for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Stern, Adi; Maeir, Adina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objectives of this study were to better understand the cognitive profile of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), their occupational performance, and their quality of life (QoL) and to examine the validity of a cognitive-functional evaluation (CFE) battery for these adults. METHOD. Eighty-one adults with ADHD and 58 without ADHD completed ADHD symptom ratings, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version, and the Adult ADHD Quality-of-Life Scale. An occupational performance interview was administered to the ADHD group. RESULTS. A broad range of occupational concerns were reported. We found significant differences between groups on all measures. In the ADHD group, we found medium significant correlations among the measures. CONCLUSION. Adults with ADHD experience cognitive and functional difficulties in their daily lives associated with QoL. The results support the use of a CFE battery that has been shown to be sensitive and specific for these adults.

  4. Occupational exposure to eight organic dusts and respiratory cancer among Finns

    PubMed Central

    Laakkonen, A; Kyyrönen, P; Kauppinen, T; Pukkala, E I

    2006-01-01

    Background There is inconclusive evidence concerning cancer risks of organic dusts. Aim The carcinogenic exposures are mainly inhalatory and the authors therefore studied associations between occupational exposure to eight different organic dusts and respiratory cancers in Finland. Methods The authors followed up a cohort of all economically active Finns born between 1906 and 1945 for 30 million person‐years during 1971–95. Incident cases of nasal, laryngeal, and lung cancer and mesotheliomas were identified through a record linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry. Occupations from the population census in 1970 were converted to exposures to eight organic dusts with a job‐exposure matrix (FINJEM). Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated as a product of prevalence, level, and estimated duration of exposure. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, period, and social class were calculated for each organic dust using the economically active population as the reference. Results A total of 20 426 incident cases of respiratory cancer were observed. Slightly increased risk was observed among men exposed to wood dust for nasal cancer (SIR 1.42, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.44). For laryngeal cancer, men exposed to plant dust (mainly grain millers) had a raised SIR in the high exposure class (SIR 3.55, 95% CI 1.30 to 7.72). Men exposed to wood dust had a raised SIR for lung cancer, but only in the low exposure class (SIR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.18). Women exposed to wood dust showed an increased SIR for mesotheliomas in the low exposure class (SIR 4.57, 95% CI 1.25 to 11.7) and some excess in the medium exposure category. Conclusions Exposure to organic dusts is unlikely to be a major risk factor of respiratory cancer. Even exposure to wood dust which is a major exposure in Finland seems to have minor effect for nasal cancer. The authors found suggestive evidence that exposure to grain dust may increase the risk of laryngeal cancer

  5. Modification of Occupational Exposures on Bladder Cancer Risk by Common Genetic Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Jonine D; Koutros, Stella; Colt, Joanne S; Kogevinas, Manolis; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Real, Francisco X; Friesen, Melissa C; Baris, Dalsu; Stewart, Patricia; Schwenn, Molly; Johnson, Alison; Karagas, Margaret R; Armenti, Karla R; Moore, Lee E; Schned, Alan; Lenz, Petra; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Banday, A Rouf; Paquin, Ashley; Ylaya, Kris; Chung, Joon-Yong; Hewitt, Stephen M; Nickerson, Michael L; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Malats, Núria; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Chanock, Stephen J; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Silverman, Debra T

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have demonstrated gene/environment interactions in cancer research. Using data on high-risk occupations for 2258 case patients and 2410 control patients from two bladder cancer studies, we observed that three of 16 known or candidate bladder cancer susceptibility variants displayed statistically significant and consistent evidence of additive interactions; specifically, the GSTM1 deletion polymorphism (P interaction ≤ .001), rs11892031 (UGT1A, P interaction = .01), and rs798766 (TMEM129-TACC3-FGFR3, P interaction = .03). There was limited evidence for multiplicative interactions. When we examined detailed data on a prevalent occupational exposure associated with increased bladder cancer risk, straight metalworking fluids, we also observed statistically significant additive interaction for rs798766 (TMEM129-TACC3-FGFR3, P interaction = .02), with the interaction more apparent in patients with tumors positive for FGFR3 expression. All statistical tests were two-sided. The interaction we observed for rs798766 (TMEM129-TACC3-FGFR3) with specific exposure to straight metalworking fluids illustrates the value of integrating germline genetic variation, environmental exposures, and tumor marker data to provide insight into the mechanisms of bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:26374428

  6. N-acetyltransferase-2 and medical history in bladder cancer cases with a suspected occupational disease (BK 1301) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Weistenhofer, Wobbeke; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    In 187 bladder cancer cases reported to the employers' liability insurance association in Germany as suspected cases of an occupational disease produced by aromatic amines, N- acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) activity status, occupational exposure data, period of latency, and clinical parameters were determined. In 83 out of 187 cases surveyed within the period 1991-1999, the NAT2 acetylator status was investigated by determining the molar ratio of an acetylated and a nonacetylated caffeine metabolite in urine (phenotyping) and/or by NAT2 genotyping according to standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol. The proportion of slow NAT2 acetylators in the surveyed 83 bladder cancer cases was 67%. In the entire group of surveyed 187 cases, mean duration of exposure was 17.6 yr and mean period of latency was 34.7 yr. Occupational exposures to potential bladder carcinogens were observed in 73 occupations, including chemical industry (25%), and occupations as a painter and/or varnisher (23%) were most often encountered. In 12% of the surveyed bladder cancer cases, a second primary malignancy was observed. The NAT2 distribution observed in the 83 cases is comparable to the proportion in 40 occupationally exposed bladder cancer cases in a Department of Urology located close to a former German production site of benzidine-based azo dyes, but higher than in most studies involving NAT2 genetic status in bladder cancer cases.

  7. A case-control study on occupational risk factors for sino-nasal cancer

    PubMed Central

    d’Errico, A; Pasian, S; Baratti, A; Zanelli, R; Alfonzo, S; Gilardi, L; Beatrice, F; Bena, A; Costa, G

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Sino-nasal cancer has been consistently associated with exposure to wood dust, leather dust, nickel and chromium compounds; for other occupational hazards, the findings are somewhat mixed. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of sino-nasal epithelial cancer (SNEC) by histological type with prior exposure to suspected occupational risk factors and, in particular, those in metalworking. Methods: Between 1996 and 2000, incident cases were collected on a monthly basis from hospitals throughout the Piedmont region of Italy by the regional Sino-nasal Cancer Registry. A questionnaire on occupational history, completed by 113 cases and 336 hospital controls, was used to assign exposure to occupational hazards. The relationship between SNEC and cumulative exposure to these hazards was explored using unconditional logistic regression to statistically adjust for age, sex, smoking and co-exposures, allowing for a 10-year latency period. Results: The risk of adenocarcinoma was significantly increased with ever-exposure to wood dust (odds ratio; OR = 58.6), and to leather dust (OR = 32.8) and organic solvents (OR = 4.3) after controlling for wood dust, whereas ever-exposure to welding fumes (OR = 3.7) and arsenic (OR = 4.4) significantly increased the risk for squamous cell carcinoma. For each of these hazards, a significant increasing trend in risk across ordered cumulative exposure categories was found and, except for arsenic, a significantly increased risk with ever-exposure at low intensity. Treating cumulative exposure on a continuous scale, a significant effect of textile dusts was also observed for adenocarcinoma. For a mixed group of other histological types, a significant association was found with wood dust and organic solvents. Conclusions: Some occupational risk factors for SNEC were confirmed, and dose–response relationships were observed for other hazards that merit further investigation. The high risk for

  8. Pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer risks in relation to occupational history and asbestos lung burden

    PubMed Central

    Gilham, Clare; Rake, Christine; Burdett, Garry; Nicholson, Andrew G; Davison, Leslie; Franchini, Angelo; Carpenter, James; Hodgson, John; Darnton, Andrew; Peto, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Background We have conducted a population-based study of pleural mesothelioma patients with occupational histories and measured asbestos lung burdens in occupationally exposed workers and in the general population. The relationship between lung burden and risk, particularly at environmental exposure levels, will enable future mesothelioma rates in people born after 1965 who never installed asbestos to be predicted from their asbestos lung burdens. Methods Following personal interview asbestos fibres longer than 5 µm were counted by transmission electron microscopy in lung samples obtained from 133 patients with mesothelioma and 262 patients with lung cancer. ORs for mesothelioma were converted to lifetime risks. Results Lifetime mesothelioma risk is approximately 0.02% per 1000 amphibole fibres per gram of dry lung tissue over a more than 100-fold range, from 1 to 4 in the most heavily exposed building workers to less than 1 in 500 in most of the population. The asbestos fibres counted were amosite (75%), crocidolite (18%), other amphiboles (5%) and chrysotile (2%). Conclusions The approximate linearity of the dose–response together with lung burden measurements in younger people will provide reasonably reliable predictions of future mesothelioma rates in those born since 1965 whose risks cannot yet be seen in national rates. Burdens in those born more recently will indicate the continuing occupational and environmental hazards under current asbestos control regulations. Our results confirm the major contribution of amosite to UK mesothelioma incidence and the substantial contribution of non-occupational exposure, particularly in women. PMID:26715106

  9. Occupation and five cancers: a case-control study using death certificates.

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, C; Coggon, D; Osmond, C; Acheson, E D

    1987-01-01

    A case-control approach has been used to examine mortality from five cancers--oesophagus, pancreas, cutaneous melanoma, kidney, and brain--among young and middle aged men resident in three English counties. The areas studied were chosen because they include major centres of chemical manufacture. By combining data from 20 years it was possible to look at local industries with greater statistical power than is possible using routine national statistics. Each case was matched with up to four controls of similar age who died in the same year from other causes. The occupations and industries recorded on death certificates were coded to standard classifications and risk estimates derived for each job category. Where positive associations were found the records of the cases concerned were examined in greater detail to see whether the risk was limited to specific combinations of occupation and industry. The most interesting findings to emerge were risks of brain cancer associated with the production of meat and fish products (relative risk (RR) = 9.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-36.8) and with mineral oil refining (RR = 2.9, CI 1.2-7.0), and a cluster of four deaths from melanoma among refinery workers (RR = 16.0, CI CI 1.8-143.2). A job-exposure matrix was applied to the data but gave no strong indications of further disease associations. Local analyses of occupational mortality such as this can usefully supplement national statistics. PMID:3689708

  10. Occupational characteristics of respiratory cancer patients exposed to asbestos in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everatt, R. Petrauskaitdot e.; Smolianskiedot n, G.; Tossavainen, A.; Cicdot enas, S.; Jankauskas, R.

    2009-02-01

    Objective: To assess characteristics of asbestos exposure in respiratory cancer patients in Lithuania. Methods. Information on occupational exposure to asbestos was collected by personal interviews and occupational characteristics were evaluated among 183 lung cancer and mesothelioma patients with cumulative asbestos exposure >=0.01 fibre years hospitalized at the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius. Additionally, some results of workplace air measurements were reviewed. Results. Cases with estimated cumulative exposure >=5 fibre years had worked mainly in the construction industry (49%), installation and maintenance (13%), foundry and metal products manufacturing (6%), heating trades and boilerhouses (6%) as fitters/maintenance technicians, construction workers, welders, electricians or foremen. Typical asbestos materials used by the patients were asbestos powder, asbestos cement sheets and pipes, asbestos cord, brake and clutch linings. Patients were exposed to asbestos when insulating boilers, furnaces, pipes in power stations, industrial facilities, ships, locomotives, buildings, while covering and repairing roofs, at the asbestos cement plant or unloading asbestos products. Most patients with estimated cumulative exposure of >=0.01-4.9 fibre years worked as lorry, bus or tractor drivers and motor vehicle mechanics. In 2002-2007 workplace air asbestos concentrations exceeded the limit value of 0.1 f/cm3 in 11 samples out of 208 measurements. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that since the 1960s occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos was extensive in Lithuania.

  11. Incidence of cancer in persons with occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Guénel, P; Raskmark, P; Andersen, J B; Lynge, E

    1993-01-01

    Several studies suggest that work in electrical occupations is associated with an increased risk of cancer, mainly leukaemia and brain tumours. These studies may, however, not be representative if there is a publication bias where mainly positive results are reported. To study an unselected population the incidence of cancer was followed up over a 17 year period (1970-87) in a cohort of 2.8 million Danes aged 20-64 years in 1970. Each person was classified by his or her industry and occupation in 1970. Before tabulation of the data on incidence of cancer, each industry-occupation group was coded for potential exposure to magnetic fields above the threshold 0.3 microT. Some 154,000 men were considered intermittently exposed and 18,000 continuously exposed. The numbers for women were 79,000 and 4000 respectively. Intermittent exposure was not associated with an increased risk of leukaemia, brain tumours, or melanoma. Men with continuous exposure, however, had an excess risk of leukaemia (observed (obs) 39, expected (exp) 23.80, obs/exp 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.24) with equal contributions from acute and other leukaemias. These men had no excess risk of brain tumours or melanoma. A risk for breast cancer was suggested in exposed men but not in women. The risk for leukaemia in continuously exposed men was mainly in electricians in installation works and iron foundry workers. Besides electromagnetic fields other exposures should be considered as possible aetiological agents. PMID:8398864

  12. Breast Cancer and Occupation: The Need for Action: APHA Policy Statement Number 20146, Issued November 18, 2014.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women in the United States and other countries, making it a major public health concern. Despite significant scientific evidence about its known or suspected causes, research and prevention measures to identify and eliminate occupational and other environmental hazards and risk factors for breast cancer remain largely overlooked. As a result, hazards continue unabated for women generally, especially those who work outside the home. The science linking breast cancer and occupation in particular is growing. Researchers have identified commonly used chemicals that induce breast tumors in test animals. Animal studies link chemicals that mimic reproductive hormones to elevated breast cancer rates. Other animal and human studies link chemical exposures to increased breast cancer rates, including two recent investigations focused on occupational hazards. But the latter are the exception. Studies that attempt to identify and characterize workplace agents linked to breast cancer, as well as intervention studies focusing on the use of less toxic processes and substances, are limited. In what might be construed as a case of gender and social class bias, many research and funding agencies have ignored or downplayed the role of occupational studies despite their relevance to prevention efforts. Action required starts with making a national priority of promoting and supporting research on occupational and other environmental causes of breast cancer. Other public health actions include hazard surveillance and primary prevention activities such as reductions in the use of toxic materials, informed substitution, and green chemistry efforts. The original document is accessible at the APHA website, http://www.apha.org/policies-and-advocacy/public-health-policy-statements/policy-database/2015/01/07/14/55/breast-cancer-and-occupation.

  13. Disordered signaling governing ferroportin transcription favors breast cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Zhang, Shuping; Wang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Wenli; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Daoqiang; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Zhihong; Xu, Yong; Liu, Sijin

    2015-01-01

    Iron is a necessary chemical element needed by all organisms. Iron metabolism is finely tuned in mammals, and the hepcidin-ferroportin (FPN) axis is the central signaling in governing systemic iron homeostasis. Deregulation of this signaling would lead to iron disorders and likely other diseases including cancers. Reduced FPN was previously found to correlate with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Nonetheless, the biological effects of abnormal FPN expression in tumor cells remain largely unexplored, and the mechanisms underlying misregulated expression of FPN in cancers keep elusive. In the current study, we scrutinized the effects of abnormal FPN on tumor growth and the molecular mechanisms of diminished tumor FPN. Downregulation of FPN significantly promoted breast cancer growth, whereas FPN upregulation impeded tumor growth. We demonstrated that the transcription factors Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2) and MZF-1 (myeloid zinc finger-1) synergistically transactivated FPN expression in breast cancer cells. Moreover, CpG island methylation at the FPN promoter was the reason of attenuated FPN expression. Downregulation of Nrf2 and MZF-1 and hypermethylation of the FPN promoter were concurrently associated with decreased FPN concentration in breast tumors. Taken together, our study highlighted the contribution of disordered iron metabolism to breast cancer growth, and also signified an oncogenic effect of misregulated ferroportin in breast cancers. This work represents a promising starting point to the possibility of restraining breast cancer through targeting FPN or its upstream regulatory factors.

  14. Review of carcinogenicity of asbestos and proposal of approval standards of an occupational cancer caused by asbestos in Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Sanghyuk; Youn, Kan-Woo; Shin, Donghee; Lee, Myeoung-Jun; Choi, Sang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenicity of asbestos has been well established for decades and it has similar approval standards in most advanced countries based on a number of studies and international meetings. However, Korea has been lagging behind such international standards. In this study, we proposed the approval standards of an occupational cancer due to asbestos through intensive review on the Helsinki Criteria, post-Helsinki studies, job exposure matrix (JEM) based on the analysis of domestic reports and recognized occupational lung cancer cases in Korea. The main contents of proposed approval standards are as follows; ① In recognizing an asbestos-induced lung cancer, diagnosis of asbestosis should be based on CT. In addition, initial findings of asbestosis on CT should be considered. ② High Exposure industries and occupations to asbestos should be also taken into account in Korea ③ An expert's determination is warranted in case of a worker who has been concurrently exposed to other carcinogens, even if the asbestos exposure duration is less than 10 years. ④ Determination of a larynx cancer due to asbestos exposure has the same approval standards with an asbestos-induced lung cancer. However, for an ovarian cancer, an expert's judgment is necessary even if asbestosis, pleural plaque or pleural thickening and high concentration asbestos exposure are confirmed. ⑤ Cigarette smoking status or the extent should not affect determination of an occupational cancer caused by asbestos as smoking and asbestos have a synergistic effect in causing a lung cancer and they are involved in carcinogenesis in a complicated manner.

  15. Occupational Exposure to Magnetic Fields and Breast Cancer Among Women Textile Workers in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M.; Thomas, David B.; Yost, Michael; Davis, Scott; Breslow, Norman; Gao, Dao Li; Fitzgibbons, E. Dawn; Camp, Janice E.; Wong, Eva; Wernli, Karen J.; Checkoway, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) is hypothesized to increase the risk of breast cancer by reducing production of melatonin by the pineal gland. A nested case-cohort study was conducted to investigate the association between occupational exposure to MFs and the risk of breast cancer within a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. The study included 1,687 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1989 to 2000 and 4,702 noncases selected from the cohort. Subjects’ complete work histories were linked to a job–exposure matrix developed specifically for the present study to estimate cumulative MF exposure. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling that was adapted for the case-cohort design. Hazard ratios were estimated in relation to cumulative exposure during a woman's entire working years. No association was observed between cumulative exposure to MFs and overall risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of cumulative exposure was 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.87, 1.21). Similar null findings were observed when exposures were lagged and stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis. The findings do not support the hypothesis that MF exposure increases the risk of breast cancer. PMID:24043439

  16. The Relationship between the Occupational Exposure of Trichloroethylene and Kidney Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been widely used as a degreasing agent in many manufacturing industries. Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer presented “sufficient evidence” for the causal relationship between TCE and kidney cancer. The aim of this study was to review the epidemiologic evidences regarding the relationship between TCE exposure and kidney cancer in Korean work environments. The results from the cohort studies were inconsistent, but according to the meta-analysis and case–control studies, an increased risk for kidney cancer was present in the exposure group and the dose–response relationship could be identified using various measures of exposure. In Korea, TCE is a commonly used chemical for cleaning or degreasing processes by various manufacturers; average exposure levels of TCE vary widely. When occupational physicians evaluate work-relatedness kidney cancers, they must consider past exposure levels, which could be very high (>100 ppm in some cases) and associated with jobs, such as plating, cleaning, or degreasing. The exposure levels at a manual job could be higher than an automated job. The peak level of TCE could also be considered an important exposure-related variable due to the possibility of carcinogenesis associated with high TCE doses. This review could be a comprehensive reference for assessing work-related TCE exposure and kidney cancer in Korea. PMID:24955246

  17. Occupational exposure to magnetic fields and breast cancer among women textile workers in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M; Thomas, David B; Yost, Michael; Davis, Scott; Breslow, Norman; Gao, Dao Li; Fitzgibbons, E Dawn; Camp, Janice E; Wong, Eva; Wernli, Karen J; Checkoway, Harvey

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) is hypothesized to increase the risk of breast cancer by reducing production of melatonin by the pineal gland. A nested case-cohort study was conducted to investigate the association between occupational exposure to MFs and the risk of breast cancer within a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. The study included 1,687 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1989 to 2000 and 4,702 noncases selected from the cohort. Subjects' complete work histories were linked to a job-exposure matrix developed specifically for the present study to estimate cumulative MF exposure. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling that was adapted for the case-cohort design. Hazard ratios were estimated in relation to cumulative exposure during a woman's entire working years. No association was observed between cumulative exposure to MFs and overall risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of cumulative exposure was 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.87, 1.21). Similar null findings were observed when exposures were lagged and stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis. The findings do not support the hypothesis that MF exposure increases the risk of breast cancer. PMID:24043439

  18. [Prevention of occupational solar UV radiation-induced epithelial skin cancer].

    PubMed

    Bauer, A; Beissert, S; Knuschke, P

    2015-03-01

    Malignancies of the skin, with an incidence of more than 200,000 newly registered cases/year, are the most frequently notified malignances in Germany. In Europe, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) account for about 30 cases/100,000 persons and 50-100 cases/100,000 persons, respectively. Ultraviolet (UV) exposure is the main risk factor to induce these cancers. Increased incidence rates were shown for persons having red/blonde hair as well as light eye colour, acquire sun burns easily, hardly tan and develop freckles. The majority of the malignancies and precursor lesions are acquired by UV exposure in leisure time. However, in highly occupationally UV-exposed outdoor workers, UV monitoring revealed that exposure levels are 2-3 times higher compared to the general population. Occupations likely to be highly exposed are farmers, forestry workers, gardeners, landscapers, fishermen and seafarers, construction workers, builders, tin smiths, sport teachers, mountain guides, etc. Recent metaanalyses showed that occupational UV exposure is a relevant and independent risk factor for SCC and to a lesser extent also for BCC. To prevent occupationally caused malignancies of the skin a significant reduction of occupationally acquired UV dosages in outdoor workers is mandatory. Relevant factors influencing the cumulative sun exposure in outdoor workers are the amount of UV exposure, the specific tasks to be performed in the sun as well as the UV protection habits of the workers. Besides adequate behavior, textile protection by headgear and clothing as well as the regular use of sunscreens and sun glasses are important.

  19. Occupational exposure to arsenic and risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer in a multinational European study.

    PubMed

    Surdu, Simona; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Bloom, Michael S; Boscoe, Francis P; Carpenter, David O; Haase, Richard F; Gurzau, Eugen; Rudnai, Peter; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Févotte, Joëlle; Vahter, Marie; Leonardi, Giovanni; Goessler, Walter; Kumar, Rajiv; Fletcher, Tony

    2013-11-01

    Occupational studies show a high risk of lung cancer related to arsenic exposure by inhalation; however, only a few studies, and with conflicting results, previously examined a potential link between arsenic exposure at work and skin cancer. The aim of this study is to assess airborne arsenic exposures at the workplace and to quantify associations with nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). The study sample consists of 618 incident cases of NMSC and 527 hospital-based controls aged 30-79 years from Hungary, Romania and Slovakia. Exposures were evaluated by local experts using occupational histories. Information on host factors and other exposures was collected and used to adjust the associations of interest using multivariable logistic regression. The lifetime prevalence of exposure to work-related arsenic is 23.9% for cases and 15.5% for controls. No significant association between arsenic exposure in the workplace and NMSC was detected, although an increased adjusted odd ratio was observed for participants with higher cumulative lifetime workplace exposure to arsenic in dust and fumes compared to referents [odds ratios (OR) = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.76-4.95]. There is evidence for modification of the workplace arsenic-NMSC association by work-related sunlight exposure in women, with a markedly increased adjusted OR in the presence of workplace sunlight exposure (OR = 10.22, 95% CI = 2.48-42.07). Workplace coexposure to arsenic and sunlight may thus pose an increased risk of NMSC.

  20. Occupational risk factors for cancer of the pancreas: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Pietri, F; Clavel, F; Auquier, A; Flamant, R

    1990-01-01

    The role of the occupational environment in the occurrence of cancer of the pancreas was analysed in a case-control study of 171 cases of pancreatic cancer and 317 controls matched for age at interview, sex, hospital, and interviewer. The study was conducted in France between 1982 and 1985 and covered 15 important industries and various other occupations. The results are given for the whole population, a subgroup of manual workers (46 cases and 108 controls), and a subgroup of French nationals (114 cases and 253 controls). After adjustment for cigarette smoking, and coffee and alcohol consumption, workers in the food industry (OR = 1.86) and the leather industry (OR = 1.63) showed higher risks than other industries. In the sub-group of French nationals only the risk associated with the textile industry was significantly higher than unity (OR = 2.30). No significant increase in risk was associated with work in any of the other branches studied; printing showed a moderate increase in risk (OR = 1.54). The subgroup of manual workers showed an increase in risk for cancer of the pancreas among those working in the building materials and building trades classification (OR = 2.16) and transportation (OR = 1.57). PMID:2378821

  1. Oral and pharyngeal cancer and occupation: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Huebner, W W; Schoenberg, J B; Kelsey, J L; Wilcox, H B; McLaughlin, J K; Greenberg, R S; Preston-Martin, S; Austin, D F; Stemhagen, A; Blot, W J

    1992-07-01

    We studied the relation between occupation and oral and pharyngeal cancer with a population-based case-control study conducted in four areas of the United States. The study group included 1,114 incident male and female cases and 1,268 frequency-matched controls. After adjustment for age, race, smoking, alcohol, and study location, an analysis of lifetime occupational histories revealed a small number of noteworthy associations. Risk was increased among male carpet installers (23 cases, 4 controls), with an adjusted odds ratio of 7.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4-24.9], and tended to rise with longer duration of employment. A decreased risk was found among male and female textile mill workers (odds ratio 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.88). Previously reported increases in oral cancer risks among printing workers, electrical and electronics workers, and workers other than carpet installers who were possibly exposed to formaldehyde were not found in this study. For several employment groups, including male machinists, primary metal industry workers, petroleum industry workers, painters, furniture and fixture industry workers, woodworking machine operators, and workers with inferred exposure to fossil fuel combustion, odds ratios were approximately 2.0 for cancers of pharyngeal sites.

  2. [Present aspects and problems regarding occupational bladder cancer due to exposure to aromatic amines].

    PubMed

    Yamamura, J

    1989-12-01

    About a century has passed since the first case of bladder cancer due to occupational exposure to carcinogenic aromatic amines was reported. In the major developed countries of the world, it is forbidden to manufacture and/or to use such aromatic amines. In Japan in the 1950's, many workers were exposed to carcinogenic aromatic amines, but in 1972, the Labor Safety and Health Act came into force and manufacturing and/or using of four kinds of aromatic amines were forbidden. Recently it has been reported that the risk of bladder cancer in workers exposed to aromatic amines before the ban of these chemicals is approximately from several times to a hundred times compared with the general population, and some reports say that dose-response relationship was observed. The important issues now are the carcinogenicity of other kinds of aromatic amines besides benzidine and 2-naphthylamine, carcinogenicity of metabolites of several substances like synthetic dyes, and carcinogenic aromatic amines as impurities in substances imported from developing countries. The type of exposure to these carcinogens changes low level and long period exposures. In addition to the chemical or dye industries, an increased risk of bladder cancer was observed among workers handling leather and rubber and those engaged in printing, textile industries, hairdressing, truck driving and so on. In the future, it will be necessary to cooperate with the departments of epidemiology, toxicology and clinical medicine for the purpose of estimating the risk of these occupations and the health care administration of the exposed workers.

  3. Occupation and bladder cancer in males: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Vineis, P; Magnani, C

    1985-05-15

    A case-control study of 512 male cases of bladder cancer and 596 male hospital controls (all living in the province of Turin, Northern Italy, an area with a high proportion of car workers) has been analyzed for occupations. Relative risks were 1.8 (95% c.l. 0.9-3.6) for the textile industry, 3.8 (1.3-11.5) for the leather industry, 1.8 (0.8-4.0) for printing, 8.8 (2.7-28.6) for dyestuff production, 1.2 (0.6-2.4) for tire production and 2.5 (1.0-6.0) for other rubber goods, 2.0 (0.9-4.5) for brickyards and related activities. A relative risk of 3.1 (0.9-10.5) was found for turners having started work before 1940 and with at least 10 years of activity. For truck drivers the relative risk was 1.2 (0.6-2.5). A job-exposure matrix was developed for the development of new hypotheses; an association with bladder cancer was found for aromatic amines only. The attributable risk percent in the population was estimated as 10%, when only those occupations consistently associated with bladder cancer were considered.

  4. Incidence of cancer among Nordic airline pilots over five decades: occupational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, Eero; Aspholm, Rafael; Auvinen, Anssi; Eliasch, Harald; Gundestrup, Maryanne; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Hrafnkelsson, Jón; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Storm, Hans; Tveten, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence of cancer among male airline pilots in the Nordic countries, with special reference to risk related to cosmic radiation. Design Retrospective cohort study, with follow up of cancer incidence through the national cancer registries. Setting Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Participants 10 032 male airline pilots, with an average follow up of 17 years. Main outcome measures Standardised incidence ratios, with expected numbers based on national cancer incidence rates; dose-response analysis using Poisson regression. Results 466 cases of cancer were diagnosed compared with 456 expected. The only significantly increased standardised incidence ratios were for skin cancer: melanoma 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.0), non-melanoma 2.1 (1.7 to 2.8), basal cell carcinoma 2.5 (1.9 to 3.2). The relative risk of skin cancers increased with the estimated radiation dose. The relative risk of prostate cancer increased with increasing number of flight hours in long distance aircraft. Conclusions This study does not indicate a marked increase in cancer risk attributable to cosmic radiation, although some influence of cosmic radiation on skin cancer cannot be entirely excluded. The suggestion of an association between number of long distance flights (possibly related to circadian hormonal disturbances) and prostate cancer needs to be confirmed. What is already known on this topicAirline pilots are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and other potentially carcinogenic elementsIn the studies published so far, dose-response patterns have not been characterisedWhat this study addsNo marked risk of cancer attributable to cosmic radiation is observed in airline pilotsA threefold excess of skin cancers is seen among pilots with longer careers, but the influence of recreational exposure to ultraviolet light cannot be quantifiedA slight increase in risk of prostate cancer with increasing number of long haul flights suggests a need

  5. Life style and occupational risk factors for bladder cancer in Germany. A case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Kunze, E.; Chang-Claude, J.; Frentzel-Beyme, R. )

    1992-04-01

    A hospital-based, case-control study of 531 male and 144 female matched pairs was conducted in Germany to analyze the role of nonoccupational and occupational risk factors in the etiology of tumors of the lower urinary tract (bladder cancer). Smoking of cigarettes was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.6 for men and 3.2 for women, compared with not smoking and showed a significant dose- and time-response relationship for both sexes. Heavy pipe smoking significantly increased the risk (OR = 1.9 in men), and smoking of cigars did not alter the risk of bladder cancer. Controlling for smoking, a significantly twofold or more increase in risk was found for heavy consumption of coffee in both sexes and for heavy intake of beer in males. Increasing levels of total fluid intake were associated with increasing, smoking-adjusted risks in men. Significant associations were found for chronic infection of the lower urinary tract (OR = 1.8), familial history of bladder cancer (OR = 2.5), and frequent consumption of high fat meals (OR = 1.4) among men and for frequent consumption of canned food in both sexes. With regard to occupational history, significantly elevated odds ratios were found for ever-employment in the printing (5.0), plastics and synthetics (2.6), rubber (2.5), mining (2.0), and dyestuffs (1.9) industries, for exposure to spray paints (2.9), zinc (2.3), chromium/chromate (2.2), oils (1.5), petroleum (1.4), stone dust (1.4) and metal dust/fumes (1.3), and for occupation as mining worker (2.0) and truck driver (1.8) among men. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed significant contribution of coffee and beer drinking, ingestion of canned food, and familial occurrence of urothelial tumors to the risk of bladder cancer in men after accounting for the effects of tobacco smoking, occupational exposures, and a history of bladder infection.

  6. Smell and Taste Disorders Resulting from Cancer and Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jennifer; Wakefield, Claire E; Laing, David G

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in both adult and pediatric patients undergoing treatment for cancer. Patients commonly attribute difficulties maintaining food intake to an altered taste developed during treatment. This review summarizes what is known about taste and smell dysfunction in patients with undergoing chemotherapy as their main treatment modality. Self-reported taste and smell alterations are prevalent in upwards of 86% of cancer patients. There is some evidence for decreased taste sensitivity in cancer patients when assessed using common gustatory tests. In some patients, taste and smell alterations may continue well after their cancer treatment has been completed. Such disorders can increase distress, reduce appetite and contribute towards poor nutritional status in cancer patients. There remain no effective interventions for improving the appetite or nutritional intake of patients with cancer experiencing taste and smell changes. There is a lack of consistency in assessment methodologies for measuring taste and smell changes in cancer patients and we therefore recommend that future work use well-established methods. Research should also take into account the role of food hedonics, food flavor and texture in assessing the association between taste dysfunction, poor oral intake and malnutrition in cancer patients. Both adult and child cancer patients should be counselled on the potential impact taste and smell dysfunction can have on their appetite and oral intake.

  7. Exposure-Response Estimates for Diesel Engine Exhaust and Lung Cancer Mortality Based on Data from Three Occupational Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Debra T.; Garshick, Eric; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Portengen, Lützen; Steenland, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) has recently been classified as a known human carcinogen. Objective: We derived a meta-exposure–response curve (ERC) for DEE and lung cancer mortality and estimated lifetime excess risks (ELRs) of lung cancer mortality based on assumed occupational and environmental exposure scenarios. Methods: We conducted a meta-regression of lung cancer mortality and cumulative exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a proxy measure of DEE, based on relative risk (RR) estimates reported by three large occupational cohort studies (including two studies of workers in the trucking industry and one study of miners). Based on the derived risk function, we calculated ELRs for several lifetime occupational and environmental exposure scenarios and also calculated the fractions of annual lung cancer deaths attributable to DEE. Results: We estimated a lnRR of 0.00098 (95% CI: 0.00055, 0.0014) for lung cancer mortality with each 1-μg/m3-year increase in cumulative EC based on a linear meta-regression model. Corresponding lnRRs for the individual studies ranged from 0.00061 to 0.0012. Estimated numbers of excess lung cancer deaths through 80 years of age for lifetime occupational exposures of 1, 10, and 25 μg/m3 EC were 17, 200, and 689 per 10,000, respectively. For lifetime environmental exposure to 0.8 μg/m3 EC, we estimated 21 excess lung cancer deaths per 10,000. Based on broad assumptions regarding past occupational and environmental exposures, we estimated that approximately 6% of annual lung cancer deaths may be due to DEE exposure. Conclusions: Combined data from three U.S. occupational cohort studies suggest that DEE at levels common in the workplace and in outdoor air appear to pose substantial excess lifetime risks of lung cancer, above the usually acceptable limits in the United States and Europe, which are generally set at 1/1,000 and 1/100,000 based on lifetime exposure for the occupational and general population, respectively. Citation

  8. Occupational exposure to anti-cancer drugs: A review of effects of new technology.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Nitin; Yiannakis, Dennis; Turner, Andrew; Sewell, Graham J

    2014-08-01

    Because anti-cancer drugs are non-selective, they affect both cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Being carcinogenic and mutagenic, many anticancer drugs therefore present a major health risk to healthcare staff working with them. This paper reviews the means by which exposure to anti-cancer drugs in the workplace may be monitored, assessed and reduced. Both biological monitoring, using non-selective methods or compound-selective methods, and environmental monitoring have provided information on the nature and degree of exposure in the workplace. Pharmaceutical isolators, used for the compounding of cytotoxic IV infusions and the preparation of injectable drugs, provide a physical barrier between pharmacists and cytotoxic drugs and reduce direct exposure. However, the interior of isolators and the contents thereof (e.g. infusion bags and syringes) are readily contaminated by aerosols and spillages and afford a secondary source of exposure to pharmacists, nurses and cleaning staff. Closed system transfer devices (CSTDs), designed to prohibit the transfer of contaminants into the working environment during drug transfer between the vial and syringe, have been successful in further reducing, but not eliminating surface contamination. Given that the number of patients requiring treatment with chemotherapeutic agents is predicted to increase, further efforts to reduce occupational exposure to anti-cancer drugs, including the refinement and wider use of CTSDs, are recommended.

  9. Occupational Exposure to Asbestos and Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, M. Constanza; Straif, Kurt; Reina, Margarita; Al-Alem, Umaima; Demers, Paul A.; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A recent Monographs Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is sufficient evidence for a causal association between exposure to asbestos and ovarian cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate this association. Data sources: Searches of PubMed and unpublished data yielded a total of 18 cohort studies of women occupationally exposed to asbestos. Data extraction: Two authors independently abstracted data; any disagreement was resolved by consulting a third reviewer. Data synthesis: All but one study reported standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) comparing observed numbers of deaths with expected numbers for the general population; the exception was a study that reported standardized incidence ratios. For simplicity, we refer to all effect estimates as SMRs. The overall pooled SMR estimate for ovarian cancer was 1.77 (95% confidence interval, 1.37–2.28), with a moderate degree of heterogeneity among the studies (I2 = 35.3%, p = 0.061). Effect estimates were stronger for cohorts compensated for asbestosis, cohorts with estimated lung cancer SMRs > 2.0, and studies conducted in Europe compared with other geographic regions. Effect estimates were similar for studies with and without pathologic confirmation, and we found no evidence of publication bias (Egger’s test p-value = 0.162). Conclusions: Our study supports the IARC conclusion that exposure to asbestos is associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:21642044

  10. Occupational risk factors for nasopharyngeal cancer among female textile workers in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, W; Ray, R M; Gao, D L; Fitzgibbons, E D; Seixas, N S; Camp, J E; Wernli, K J; Astrakianakis, G; Feng, Z; Thomas, D B; Checkoway, H

    2006-01-01

    Aims To investigate whether occupational exposure to dusts and chemicals in the Chinese textile industry are associated with risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. Methods Sixty seven nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cases identified during 1989–98 and a random sample (n = 3188) of women were included in a case cohort study nested in a cohort of 267 400 women textile workers in Shanghai, China. A complete occupational history of work in the textile industry was obtained for each woman. A job exposure matrix developed by experienced industrial hygienists was used to assess exposures to specific dusts and chemicals. Results Risk of NPC is associated with cumulative exposure to cotton dust. The hazard ratio for women cumulatively exposed to >143.4 mg/m3 × years of cotton dust was 3.6 (95% CI 1.8 to 7.2) compared with unexposed women. Trends of increasing risk were also found with increasing duration of exposure to acids and caustics (p = 0.05), and with years worked in dyeing processes (p = 0.06). Women who worked at least 10 years in dyeing processes had a 3.6‐fold excess risk of NPC (95% CI 1.0 to 12.1). Conclusions Occupational exposure to cotton dust, acids, and caustics, and work in dyeing and printing jobs in the textile industry may have increased risk of NPC in this cohort. PMID:16361404

  11. [Compensable occupational disease and cancer: how to improve the recognition rate? "Cursus Laboris" Project in Midi-Pyrenees: feasibility study].

    PubMed

    Rougé-Bugat, Marie-Eve; Hérin, Fabrice; Julien, Sylvie; Oustric, Stéphane; Forichon, Emmanuel; Delaperche, Florence; Bauvin, Eric; Delord, Jean-Pierre; Grosclaude, Pascale

    2012-10-01

    Five to ten percent of cancers are of occupational origin but only 0.5% of cancers are compensable occupational diseases recognized in 2001. The project "Curriculum Laboris" was launched in Midi-Pyrenees with the objective to establish an organization to improve the identification, reporting and recognition of occupational cancers. The project consisted firstly in creating an online training module for professionals. Furthermore, a pilot has identified patients with lung, bladder, head and neck or hematologic cancer. Afterwards, four investigators realized an interview with the patients "marked" to define their careers. Finally, a group of experts produced advice, providing the general practitioner, the aid element in drafting the initial medical certificate (CMI) as part of the recognition process. Twenty-three patients were identified, 21 surveys were carried out. Six returns were filed and actually recognized. The generalization of our device measures meet the Cancer Plan II 2009 to 2013 and may improve the number of cancers recognized as compensable occupational diseases.

  12. Smoking, occupation, history of selected diseases and bladder cancer risk in Manisa, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erdurak, Koray; Dundar, Pinar E; Ozyurt, Beyhan C; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo; Tay, Ziya

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify and quantify the reasons for the high bladder cancer rates in Turkey. We conducted a case-control study in Manisa, Turkey, in 2011. The study included 173 patients with incident, histologically confirmed bladder cancer and 282 controls who were frequency matched by age, sex and geographic area, admitted to the main hospital of Manisa for a wide range of acute diseases. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from multiple logistic regression models. Compared with never smokers, the OR was 2.9 (95% CI 1.5-5.4) for moderate (<20 cigarettes/day) and 4.0 (95% CI 1.7-9.6) for heavy smokers. The association was stronger for unfiltered black tobacco (OR=5.4) and for longer duration of smoking (≥40 years, OR=5.3). There was a strong inverse correlation with social class indicators, with ORs of 0.2 (95% CI 0.1-0.4) for more-educated compared with less-educated individuals. There was no significant association with a group of five occupations a priori defined as being of high risk (OR=1.3), nor with farming (OR=1.2). Bladder cancer risk was directly related to the history of urinary tract infections (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.1) but not to diabetes (OR=0.7) or kidney (OR=0.7) and prostate (OR=1.3) diseases. Tobacco is the major risk factor for bladder cancer in Manisa, being responsible for 56% of cases; urinary tract infections account for 19% of cases, whereas the role of occupational exposure is limited in this, predominantly rural, population.

  13. Systematic review of sleep disorders in cancer patients: can the prevalence of sleep disorders be ascertained?

    PubMed

    Otte, Julie L; Carpenter, Janet S; Manchanda, Shalini; Rand, Kevin L; Skaar, Todd C; Weaver, Michael; Chernyak, Yelena; Zhong, Xin; Igega, Christele; Landis, Carol

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep is vital to all human functioning and poor sleep is a known problem in cancer, it is unclear whether the overall prevalence of the various types of sleep disorders in cancer is known. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate if the prevalence of sleep disorders could be ascertained from the current body of literature regarding sleep in cancer. This was a critical and systematic review of peer-reviewed, English-language, original articles published from 1980 through 15 October 2013, identified using electronic search engines, a set of key words, and prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information from 254 full-text, English-language articles was abstracted onto a paper checklist by one reviewer, with a second reviewer randomly verifying 50% (k = 99%). All abstracted data were entered into an electronic database, verified for accuracy, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequencies in SPSS (v.20) (North Castle, NY). Studies of sleep and cancer focus on specific types of symptoms of poor sleep, and there are no published prevalence studies that focus on underlying sleep disorders. Challenging the current paradigm of the way sleep is studied in cancer could produce better clinical screening tools for use in oncology clinics leading to better triaging of patients with sleep complaints to sleep specialists, and overall improvement in sleep quality.

  14. Occupational cancer in the European part of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

    PubMed Central

    Bulbulyan, M A; Boffetta, P

    1999-01-01

    Precise information on the number of workers currently exposed to carcinogens in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is lacking. However, the large number of workers employed in high-risk industries such as the chemical and metal industries suggests that the number of workers potentially exposed to carcinogens may be large. In the CIS, women account for almost 50% of the industrial work force. Although no precise data are available on the number of cancers caused by occupational exposures, indirect evidence suggests that the magnitude of the problem is comparable to that observed in Western Europe, representing some 20,000 cases per year. The large number of women employed in the past and at present in industries that create potential exposure to carcinogens is a special characteristic of the CIS. In recent years an increasing amount of high-quality research has been conducted on occupational cancer in the CIS; there is, however, room for further improvement. International training programs should be established, and funds from international research and development programs should be devoted to this area. In recent years, following privatization of many large-scale industries, access to employment and exposure data is becoming increasingly difficult. PMID:10350512

  15. Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Lipsett, M; Campleman, S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We undertook a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the relationship between occupational diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer. METHODS: Thirty of 47 studies initially identified as potentially relevant met specified inclusion criteria. We extracted or calculated 39 independent estimates of relative risk and derived pooled estimates of risk for all studies and for numerous study subsets by using a random-effects model. We also examined interstudy heterogeneity by using linear metaregressions. RESULTS: There was substantial heterogeneity in the pooled risk estimates for all studies combined and for most subsets. Several factors consistent with higher study quality, however, contributed to increased pooled estimates of risk and lower heterogeneity, including (1) adjustment for confounding by cigarette smoking and other covariates, (2) having a lower likelihood of selection bias, and (3) having increased study power. CONCLUSION: This analysis provides quantitative support for prior qualitative reviews that have ascribed an etiologic role to occupational diesel exhaust exposure in lung cancer induction. Among study populations most likely to have had substantial exposure to diesel exhaust, the pooled smoking-adjusted relative risk was 1.47 (95% confidence interval = 1.29, 1.67). PMID:10394308

  16. Disorders of endocrine function following cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Bajorunas, D R

    1980-07-01

    There is a growing body of literature detailing the endocrine consequences of cancer therapy. Certain conclusions can be drawn from the data presented. Patients who have received incidental hypothalamic--pituitary gland irradiation need to be followed carefully with serial dynamic hormonal evaluations, as they are at high risk of developing growth hormone and prolactin abnormalities and can develop other pituitary tropic hormone deficiencies as well. Children especially should be monitored closely as GH deficiency can be corrected if detected early. Patients who have received radiation to the head and neck region will need long-term (up to 30 years) surveillance for the development of thyroid cancer, hyperparathyroidism or hypothyroidism. Persistent elevations of TSH after incidental thyroidal irradiation are frequently seen and should be reversed with thyroid hormone administration in an attempt to minimize TSH stimulation of the irradiated gland. Radiation to the gonads will cause graded damage dependent on the dose delivered and the mode of fractionation. Age in a woman seems to be a significant factor of radiation sensitivity. Certain chemotherapeutic agents are radiomimetic in their gonadal effects; to date the alkylating agents have been most commonly implicated. FSH elevations herald gonadal damage (aspermia or loss of follicles) and should be looked for in patients receiving abdominal radiation or systemic chemotherapy. Leydig cell dysfunction occurs less frequently. Of all the iatrogenic endocrine complications discussed, some are eminently treatable, and some are quite preventable. Greater awareness of the unexpectedly high incidence of hormonal dysfunction can help lessen therapy-induced morbidity in long-term cancer survivors.

  17. Risk factors for kidney cancer in New South Wales. IV. Occupation.

    PubMed Central

    McCredie, M; Stewart, J H

    1993-01-01

    In a population based case-control study of kidney cancer in New South Wales, data from structured interviews with 489 cases of renal cell cancer (RCC), 147 cases of renal pelvic cancer (CaRP), and 523 controls from the electoral roles were obtained about employment in certain industries or occupations, and exposure to particular chemicals chosen because of suspected associations with kidney cancer. A low level of education increased the risk for CaRP but not RCC. After adjustment for known risk factors, exposure to asbestos significantly increased the risk for RCC (relative risk (RR) = 1.62; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-2.53). Working in the dry cleaning industry had a stronger link with CaRP (RR = 4.68; 95% CI 1.32-16.56) than with RCC (RR = 2.49; 95% CI 0.97-6.35). Working in the iron and steel industry doubled the risk for CaRP (RR = 2.13; 95% CI 1.04-4.39) whereas employment in the petroleum refining industry had a non-significant association with CaRP (RR = 2.60; 95% CI 0.88-7.63) and none with RCC. PMID:8494775

  18. Role of Occupational Stress and Burnout in Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Embassy Personnel of Foreign Countries in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Aghilinejad, Mashaallah; Sadeghi, Zargham; Abdullah, Amer; Sarebanha, Shima; Bahrami-Ahmadi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Occupation is one of the major parts of our daily lives that might cause a great amount of stress. Stress and job burnout are linked together. The association between musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and burnout syndrome as a psychosocial factor was investigated previously. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the role of occupational stress and burnout in musculoskeletal complaint among diplomatic employees of different embassies in Iran. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we assessed 200 employees of the foreign countries embassies in Iran. The participants were selected randomly from all the embassy personnel. Study questionnaires were delivered to the participants and finally 161 questionnaires were returned to the researchers (response rate: 80.5%). An assessment of burnout and MSD were made using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Nordic questionnaires. The work place stress was measured by the work place stress questionnaire. Results: Mean occupational stress was significantly higher among embassy personnel with MSD than among the personnel without this syndrome during the preceding week (17.18 ± 3.42 and 16.06 ± 2.19, respectively; P = 0.02) and the preceding year (17.17 ± 3.11 and 16.74 ± 3.03, respectively; P < 0.01) to the study. Only smoking and occupational stress were identified as independent predictors of MSD among embassy personnel. Conclusions: It seems that association between musculoskeletal complaints and burnout syndrome was more complex than being attributed to only occupation stress. Further studies are recommended to determine other related factors to this association. PMID:25031868

  19. Cancer incidence in professional flight crew and air traffic control officers: disentangling the effect of occupational versus lifestyle exposures.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Silva, Isabel; De Stavola, Bianca; Pizzi, Costanza; Evans, Anthony D; Evans, Sally A

    2013-01-15

    Flight crew are occupationally exposed to several potentially carcinogenic hazards; however, previous investigations have been hampered by lack of information on lifestyle exposures. The authors identified, through the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority medical records, a cohort of 16,329 flight crew and 3,165 air traffic control officers (ATCOs) and assembled data on their occupational and lifestyle exposures. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated to compare cancer incidence in each occupation to that of the general population; internal analyses were conducted by fitting Cox regression models. All-cancer incidence was 20-29% lower in each occupation than in the general population, mainly due to a lower incidence of smoking-related cancers [SIR (95% CI) = 0.33 (0.27-0.38) and 0.42 (0.28-0.60) for flight crew and ATCOs, respectively], consistent with their much lower prevalence of smoking. Skin melanoma rates were increased in both flight crew (SIR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.45-2.38) and ATCOs (2.66; 1.55-4.25), with rates among the former increasing with increasing number of flight hours (p-trend = 0.02). However, internal analyses revealed no differences in skin melanoma rates between flight crew and ATCOs (hazard ratio: 0.78, 95% CI = 0.37-1.66) and identified skin that burns easily when exposed to sunlight (p = 0.001) and sunbathing to get a tan (p = 0.07) as the strongest risk predictors of skin melanoma in both occupations. The similar site-specific cancer risks between the two occupational groups argue against risks among flight crew being driven by occupation-specific exposures. The skin melanoma excess reflects sun-related behaviour rather than cosmic radiation exposure.

  20. An evidence-based analysis of epidemiologic associations between lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers and occupational exposure to gasoline.

    PubMed

    Keenan, J J; Gaffney, S; Gross, S A; Ronk, C J; Paustenbach, D J; Galbraith, D; Kerger, B D

    2013-10-01

    The presence of benzene in motor gasoline has been a health concern for potential increased risk of acute myelogenous leukemia and perhaps other lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers for approximately 40 years. Because of the widespread and increasing use of gasoline by consumers and the high exposure potential of occupational cohorts, a thorough understanding of this issue is important. The current study utilizes an evidence-based approach to examine whether or not the available epidemiologic studies demonstrate a strong and consistent association between occupational exposure to gasoline and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers. Among 67 epidemiologic studies initially identified, 54 were ranked according to specific criteria relating to the relevance and robustness of each study for answering the research question. The 30 highest-ranked studies were sorted into three tiers of evidence and were analyzed for strength, specificity, consistency, temporality, dose-response trends and coherence. Meta statistics were also calculated for each general and specific lymphatic/hematopoietic cancer category with adequate data. The evidence-based analysis did not confirm any strong and consistent association between occupational exposure to gasoline and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers based on the epidemiologic studies available to date. These epidemiologic findings, combined with the evidence showing relatively low occupational benzene vapor exposures associated with gasoline formulations during the last three decades, suggest that current motor gasoline formulations are not associated with increased lymphatic/hematopoietic cancer risks related to benzene.

  1. [Reactive anxiety crisis and chronic adjustment disorder: a unique case of work injury and suspected occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Taino, Giuseppe; Pizzuto, Cristina; Pezzuto, Cristina; Pucci, Ennio; Imbriani, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to describe a case of work injury and occupational disease which is unique for the type of disease diagnosed, conditions of onset and mode of management by INAIL (Italian National Institute of Insurance for Injuries at Work and Occupational Diseases). A worker, after a verbal animated dispute with some collegues and superiors, had an acute psychiatric agitation attack and went to the nearest emergency room, where he was subjected to clinical exams. No neuropsychiatric alteration was found, but the physicians diagnosed an anxiety crisis reactive to the work environment. Consequently, the medical certificate for work injury was edited and sent to INAIL. The worker has been off work for 110 days because of a anxious and depressive syndrome, due to the verbal conflict. In a later assessment, INAIL recognized only the first 30 days of the employee's time off as injury at work, while judging the following period off work as related to affectivity disturbance due to common disease, not related to work environment. The following year, "anxious-depressive syndrome" is worsened and attributed by the same worker to the recurrence of acts of persecution and discrimination against him at work. For this reason he applied for recognition of occupational disease diagnosed as "Chronic Adjustment Disorder with prolonged depressive reaction and somatic anxiety, which developed into a protracted conflict marked the employment situation". INAIL rejected that request, but in the same year the employee has submitted the complaint for "mobbing". Even this request was rejected. Literature shows many examples of traumatic events during working activities which cause psychiatric disturbances. These events include industrial disasters, explosions, transport and mining accidents, accidents in psychiatric units with high risks of assaults, armed conflicts, war, assault and sexual assault, natural disasters. Victims show symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) or post

  2. [Reactive anxiety crisis and chronic adjustment disorder: a unique case of work injury and suspected occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Taino, Giuseppe; Pizzuto, Cristina; Pezzuto, Cristina; Pucci, Ennio; Imbriani, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to describe a case of work injury and occupational disease which is unique for the type of disease diagnosed, conditions of onset and mode of management by INAIL (Italian National Institute of Insurance for Injuries at Work and Occupational Diseases). A worker, after a verbal animated dispute with some collegues and superiors, had an acute psychiatric agitation attack and went to the nearest emergency room, where he was subjected to clinical exams. No neuropsychiatric alteration was found, but the physicians diagnosed an anxiety crisis reactive to the work environment. Consequently, the medical certificate for work injury was edited and sent to INAIL. The worker has been off work for 110 days because of a anxious and depressive syndrome, due to the verbal conflict. In a later assessment, INAIL recognized only the first 30 days of the employee's time off as injury at work, while judging the following period off work as related to affectivity disturbance due to common disease, not related to work environment. The following year, "anxious-depressive syndrome" is worsened and attributed by the same worker to the recurrence of acts of persecution and discrimination against him at work. For this reason he applied for recognition of occupational disease diagnosed as "Chronic Adjustment Disorder with prolonged depressive reaction and somatic anxiety, which developed into a protracted conflict marked the employment situation". INAIL rejected that request, but in the same year the employee has submitted the complaint for "mobbing". Even this request was rejected. Literature shows many examples of traumatic events during working activities which cause psychiatric disturbances. These events include industrial disasters, explosions, transport and mining accidents, accidents in psychiatric units with high risks of assaults, armed conflicts, war, assault and sexual assault, natural disasters. Victims show symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) or post

  3. A case-control study of bladder cancer using city directories as a source of occupational data.

    PubMed

    Steenland, K; Burnett, C; Osorio, A M

    1987-08-01

    Commercial city directories, currently produced in 1,250 United States cities, potentially provide yearly information on occupation and employer for all city residents over age 18 years. To investigate the usefulness of these occupational data, the authors have conducted a case-control study of male bladder cancer mortality in Hamilton County, Ohio (which includes Cincinnati). A total of 731 bladder cancer cases who died during 1960-1982 were matched on age, sex, race, date-of-death, and residence at death to two controls per case. Risks of bladder cancer death were calculated by occupation, industry, and specific employer, using both city directories (multiple statements) and death certificates (single statement). Four companies showed a significant excess bladder cancer risk when using city directories. Only one would have been identified using death certificates, which ask for usual lifetime type of industry rather than a specific company name. Using city directories, significant positive associations were found between bladder cancer and occupation as an engineer, tailor, carpenter, furnace operator, blending machine operator, chemist, pressing machine operator, house cleaner, or salesman. For industry, the authors found significant positive associations for the textile, chemical, grain mill, foundry, petroleum, building service, entertainment, and advertising industries. A significant increase in risk for those with 20 or more years of employment was seen for those employed as truck drivers and furnace operators, or those employed in the railroad industry. A check of the validity of city directory data indicated that 77 per cent of the listings agreed with Social Security earnings reports for employer in any given year. One limitation of Hamilton County city directory data was the fairly large number of yearly listings without any occupational data (15 per cent for occupation, 36 per cent for employer). While city directory data do provide work history over

  4. Unfoldomics of prostate cancer: on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Landau, Kevin S; Na, Insung; Schenck, Ryan O; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic diseases such as prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are highly prevalent among men. The number of studies focused on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer is rather limited. The goal of this study is to analyze the prevalence and degree of disorder in proteins that were previously associated with the prostate cancer pathogenesis and to compare these proteins to the entire human proteome. The analysis of these datasets provides means for drawing conclusions on the roles of disordered proteins in this common male disease. We also hope that the results of our analysis can potentially lead to future experimental studies of these proteins to find novel pathways associated with this disease.

  5. Unfoldomics of prostate cancer: on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Kevin S; Na, Insung; Schenck, Ryan O; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic diseases such as prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are highly prevalent among men. The number of studies focused on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer is rather limited. The goal of this study is to analyze the prevalence and degree of disorder in proteins that were previously associated with the prostate cancer pathogenesis and to compare these proteins to the entire human proteome. The analysis of these datasets provides means for drawing conclusions on the roles of disordered proteins in this common male disease. We also hope that the results of our analysis can potentially lead to future experimental studies of these proteins to find novel pathways associated with this disease. PMID:27453073

  6. Lung cancer and diesel exhaust: an updated critical review of the occupational epidemiology literature

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, John F.; Nicolich, Mark J.; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    A recent review concluded that the evidence from epidemiology studies was indeterminate and that additional studies were required to support the diesel exhaust-lung cancer hypothesis. This updated review includes seven recent studies. Two population-based studies concluded that significant exposure-response (E-R) trends between cumulative diesel exhaust and lung cancer were unlikely to be entirely explained by bias or confounding. Those studies have quality data on life-style risk factors, but do not allow definitive conclusions because of inconsistent E-R trends, qualitative exposure estimates and exposure misclassification (insufficient latency based on job title), and selection bias from low participation rates. Non-definitive results are consistent with the larger body of population studies. An NCI/NIOSH cohort mortality and nested case-control study of non-metal miners have some surrogate-based quantitative diesel exposure estimates (including highest exposure measured as respirable elemental carbon (REC) in the workplace) and smoking histories. The authors concluded that diesel exhaust may cause lung cancer. Nonetheless, the results are non-definitive because the conclusions are based on E-R patterns where high exposures were deleted to achieve significant results, where a posteriori adjustments were made to augment results, and where inappropriate adjustments were made for the “negative confounding” effects of smoking even though current smoking was not associated with diesel exposure and therefore could not be a confounder. Three cohort studies of bus drivers and truck drivers are in effect air pollution studies without estimates of diesel exhaust exposure and so are not sufficient for assessing the lung cancer-diesel exhaust hypothesis. Results from all occupational cohort studies with quantitative estimates of exposure have limitations, including weak and inconsistent E-R associations that could be explained by bias, confounding or chance, exposure

  7. Shared Occupational Risks for Transitional Cell Cancer of the Bladder and Renal Pelvis among Men and Women in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robin Taylor; Donahue, Mark; Gridley, Gloria; Adami, Johanna; ghormli, Laure El; Dosemeci, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Background: Unlike cancer of the bladder, cancer of the renal pelvis is not considered an occupational cancer and little is known about risks among women. Methods: Using the Swedish national census and cancer registry-linked data (1971-1989), we identified transitional cell cancers of the renal pelvis (N=1374) and bladder (N=21,591). Correlation between cancer sites for the Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR) were determined using Pearson's coefficient of the log SIR. Relative risks of job exposure matrix variables were calculated using Poisson regression. Results: Both cancer sites were significantly elevated among women and men employed in the machine/electronics industry, sedentary work, and indoor work, as well as among men employed in the shop and construction metal industry, contributing 10-14% of cases among men. Risks by industry were more highly correlated among women (r=0.49, p=0.002) than men (r=0.24, p=0.04). Conclusion: Cancers of the renal pelvis and bladder share common occupational risk factors that may be more frequent among women. In addition, there may be several jobs that pose an increased risk specifically for cancer of the renal pelvis but not bladder. PMID:18067176

  8. Meta-analysis of dioxin cancer dose response for three occupational cohorts.

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Kenny S; Canady, Richard; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a meta analysis of data from three cohorts occupationally exposed to TCDD and related compounds. A statistically significant (p = 0.02) trend was found in total cancer mortality with increasing dioxin exposure. The trend tests show an increase in total cancer at cumulative TEQ (unit of measurement for TCDD-like compounds that is defined as the amount of TCDD that would produce the same toxicity as a mixture of TCDD-like compounds) serum levels that would result from lifetime intake of 7 pg TEQ/kg body weight/day, with no increase at 6 pg/kg/day. A linear dose response provided a good fit to the combined data and predicted an ED(01) (dioxin exposure resulting in a 0.01 increase in lifetime risk of cancer mortality) of 45 pg/kg/day (95% confidence interval, 21-324). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that current lifetime human exposures to dioxin average approximately 1 pg/kg/day (99% percentile: 3 pg/kg/day). Although it appears unlikely that current exposures through foods would reach either 7 pg/kg/day or the ED(01), our analysis argues for careful consideration of the upper ranges of long-term average exposures for dioxins. PMID:12727594

  9. Hierarchical Regression for Multiple Comparisons in a Case-Control Study of Occupational Risks for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, Marine; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Merletti, Franco; Peters, Susan; Simonato, Lorenzo; Steenland, Kyle; Pearce, Neil; Maule, Milena

    2012-01-01

    Background Occupational studies often involve multiple comparisons and therefore suffer from false positive findings. Semi-Bayes adjustment methods have sometimes been used to address this issue. Hierarchical regression is a more general approach, including Semi-Bayes adjustment as a special case, that aims at improving the validity of standard maximum-likelihood estimates in the presence of multiple comparisons by incorporating similarities between the exposures of interest in a second-stage model. Methodology/Principal Findings We re-analysed data from an occupational case-control study of lung cancer, applying hierarchical regression. In the second-stage model, we included the exposure to three known lung carcinogens (asbestos, chromium and silica) for each occupation, under the assumption that occupations entailing similar carcinogenic exposures are associated with similar risks of lung cancer. Hierarchical regression estimates had smaller confidence intervals than maximum-likelihood estimates. The shrinkage toward the null was stronger for extreme, less stable estimates (e.g., “specialised farmers”: maximum-likelihood OR: 3.44, 95%CI 0.90–13.17; hierarchical regression OR: 1.53, 95%CI 0.63–3.68). Unlike Semi-Bayes adjustment toward the global mean, hierarchical regression did not shrink all the ORs towards the null (e.g., “Metal smelting, converting and refining furnacemen”: maximum-likelihood OR: 1.07, Semi-Bayes OR: 1.06, hierarchical regression OR: 1.26). Conclusions/Significance Hierarchical regression could be a valuable tool in occupational studies in which disease risk is estimated for a large amount of occupations when we have information available on the key carcinogenic exposures involved in each occupation. With the constant progress in exposure assessment methods in occupational settings and the availability of Job Exposure Matrices, it should become easier to apply this approach. PMID:22701732

  10. Does Sickness Absence Due to Psychiatric Disorder Predict Cause-specific Mortality? A 16-Year Follow-up of the GAZEL Occupational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, Maria; Ferrie, Jane E.; Alexanderson, Kristina; Goldberg, Marcel; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Head, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Mental disorders are a frequent cause of morbidity and sickness absence in working populations; however, the status of psychiatric sickness absence as a predictor of mortality is not established. The authors tested the hypothesis that psychiatric sickness absence predicts mortality from leading medical causes. Data were derived from the French GAZEL cohort study (n = 19,962). Physician-certified sickness absence records were extracted from administrative files (1990–1992) and were linked to mortality data from France's national registry of mortality (1993–2008, mean follow-up: 15.5 years). Analyses were conducted by using Cox regression models. Compared with workers with no sickness absence, those absent due to psychiatric disorder were at increased risk of cause-specific mortality (hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, gender, occupational grade, other sickness absence—suicide: 6.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.07, 11.75; cardiovascular disease: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.08; and smoking-related cancer: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.53). After full adjustment, the excess risk of suicide remained significant (HR = 5.13, 95% CI: 2.60, 10.13) but failed to reach statistical significance for fatal cardiovascular disease (HR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.95, 2.66) and smoking-related cancer (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.03). Psychiatric sickness absence records could help identify individuals at risk of premature mortality and serve to monitor workers’ health. PMID:20732935

  11. Occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde and risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer among Finnish men

    PubMed Central

    Siew, Sie Sie; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Pukkala, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Controversy exists over whether or not occupational inhalation exposure to wood dust and/or formaldehyde increases risk for respiratory cancers. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer in relation to occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde among Finnish men. The cohort of all Finnish men born between the years 1906 and 1945 and in employment during 1970 was followed up through the Finnish Cancer Registry for cases of cancers of the nose (n = 292), nasopharynx (n = 149), and lung (n = 30,137) during the period 1971–1995. The subjects’ occupations, as recorded in the population census in 1970, were converted to estimates of exposure to wood dust, formaldehyde, asbestos, and silica dust through the Finnish job-exposure matrix. Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated based on the prevalence, average level, and estimated duration of exposure. The relative risk (RR) estimates for the CE categories of wood dust and formaldehyde were defined by Poisson regression, with adjustments made for smoking, socioeconomic status, and exposure to asbestos and/or silica dust. Men exposed to wood dust had a significant excess risk of nasal cancer overall (RR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–2.38), and specifically nasal squamous cell carcinoma (RR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.19–3.31). Workers exposed to formaldehyde had an RR of 1.18 (95% CI, 1.12–1.25) for lung cancer. There was no indication that CE to wood dust or formaldehyde would increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. Occupational exposure to wood dust appeared to increase the risk of nasal cancer but not of nasopharyngeal or lung cancer. The slight excess risk of lung cancer observed for exposure to formaldehyde may be the result of residual confounding from smoking. In summary, this study provides further evidence that exposure to wood dust in a variety of occupations may increase the risk of nasal cancer. PMID:22904644

  12. Return to work of cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study into the quality of rehabilitation by occupational physicians

    PubMed Central

    Verbeek, J; Spelten, E; Kammeijer, M; Sprangers, M

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To describe and assess the quality of rehabilitation of cancer survivors by occupational physicians and to relate the quality of the process of occupational rehabilitation to the outcome of return to work. Methods: One hundred occupational physicians of a cohort of cancer survivors were interviewed about return to work management. Quality of rehabilitation was assessed by means of four indicators that related to performance in knowledge of cancer and treatment, continuity of care, patients complaints, and relations at work. The cohort of patients was prospectively followed for 12 months to assess time to return to work and rate of return to work. Patients' and physicians' satisfaction with care was also assessed. The relation between performance and these outcome measures was studied in a multivariate analysis, taking into account the influence of other work and disease related factors that could potentially predict return to work. Results: For knowledge of cancer and treatment, only 3% had optimal performance because occupational physicians did not communicate with treating physicians. For continuity of care, patient complaints, and relations at work, performance was optimal for 55%, 78%, and 60% of the physicians respectively. After adjustment for other prognostic factors, overall physician's performance (hazard ratio (HR) 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.8) and continuity of care (HR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.9) were related to the return to work of patients. Overall optimal performance was also related to a small but significant higher level of satisfaction with care, both for patients and physicians. Conclusion: Quality of occupational rehabilitation of cancer survivors can be improved substantially, especially with regard to communication between physicians and continuity of care. There is a need for the development of more effective rehabilitation procedures which should be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. PMID:12709521

  13. Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. Methods 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1146 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case–control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration). Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82); bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53); automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88), food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53), and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92). Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4) and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5). Conclusions These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, and

  14. Sleeping in the arms of cancer: a review of sleeping disorders among patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Harris, Brande; Ross, Jeanette; Sanchez-Reilly, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that cancer patients experience lack of sleep, which affects their symptoms and decrease their much needed energy, particularly while undergoing treatment. Insomnia, which is defined as a predominant complaint of dissatisfaction with sleep quantity or quality during different phases of the sleep cycle, could easily affect patients' quality of life and even cancer treatment outcomes. In this article, we review the current research on and treatments for insomnia, as well as explore cancer-related fatigue and its connections to sleep disorders. PMID:25299138

  15. Nested Case-control Study of Occupational Radiation Exposure and Breast and Esophagus Cancer Risk among Medical Diagnostic X Ray Workers in Jiangsu of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Ru; Fang, Qiao-Qiao; Tang, Wei-Ming; Xu, Xiao-San; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Liu, Yu-Fei; Yu, Ning-Le; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Medical diagnostic X-ray workers are one occupational group that expose to the long-term low-dose external radiation over their working lifetime, and they may under risk of different cancers. This study aims to determine the relationship between the occupational X-ray radiation exposure and cancer risk among these workers in Jiangsu, China. We conducted Nested case-control study to investigate the occupational X-ray radiation exposure and cancer risk. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire, which includes but not limits to demographic data, personal behaviors and family history of cancer. Retrospective dose reconstruction was conducted to estimate the cumulative doses of the x-ray workers. Inferential statistics, t-test and 2 tests were used to compare the differences between each group. We used the logistic regression model to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of cancer by adjusting the age, gender. All 34 breast cancer cases and 45 esophageal cancer cases that detected in a cohort conducted among health workers between 1950~2011 were included in this presented study, and 158 cancer-free controls were selected by frequency-matched (1:2). Our study found that the occupational radiation exposure was associated with a significantly increased cancer risk compared with the control, especially in breast cancer and esophageal cancer (adjusted OR=2.90, 95% CI: 1.19-7.04 for breast cancer; OR=4.19, 95% CI: 1.87-9.38 for esophageal cancer, and OR=3.43, 95% CI: 1.92-6.12 for total cancer, respectively). The occupational X-ray radiation exposure was associated with increasing cancer risk, which indicates that proper intervention and prevention strategies may be needed in order to bring down the occupational cancer risk.

  16. Molecular signaling involving intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Anna; Manna, Sara La; Novellino, Ettore; Malfitano, Anna Maria; Marasco, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Investigations on cellular protein interaction networks (PINs) reveal that proteins that constitute hubs in a PIN are notably enriched in Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) compared to proteins that constitute edges, highlighting the role of IDPs in signaling pathways. Most IDPs rapidly undergo disorder-to-order transitions upon binding to their biological targets to perform their function. Conformational dynamics enables IDPs to be versatile and to interact with a broad range of interactors under normal physiological conditions where their expression is tightly modulated. IDPs are involved in many cellular processes such as cellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, and splicing; thus, their high-specificity/low-affinity interactions play crucial roles in many human diseases including cancer. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in men worldwide. Therefore, identifying molecular mechanisms of the oncogenic signaling pathways that are involved in prostate carcinogenesis is crucial. In this review, we focus on the aspects of cellular pathways leading to PCa in which IDPs exert a primary role. PMID:27212129

  17. [Evaluation of the cancer risk among men exposed to occupational asbestos dust based on cohort studies].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Kaczmarek, T; Szymczak, W

    1991-01-01

    The results of the study of a cohort of 2403 men occupationally exposed to chrysotile asbestos dust during the manufacture of various asbestos products have been reported. The study covered the period 1945-1985. Cohort availability was 91%. Risk estimates were based on SMR and SRR calculated by the man-year method. The general Polish male population served for the reference. The analysis was performed for sub-cohorts selected according to the period of employment in the plant, taking into account the dust dose and the age at the moment of the beginning of employment under exposed conditions. A significantly increased risk of pulmonary carcinoma (SMR: 238.0-211.0) and of gastric carcinoma (SMR: 197.9-238.5) was found in men exposed to high doses of the asbestos dust (above 50 mg/m3 x years). No statistically significant increases in the mortality rates either from cancer in general or from the cancer varieties specified above were detected in men exposed to low doses of dust. One case of death from pleural mesothelioma was reported.

  18. The association of benign and malignant ovarian adenofibromas with breast cancer and thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elvio G; Tornos, Carmen; Malpica, Anais; Deavers, Michael T; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Gershenson, David M

    2002-01-01

    An unexpected association with breast cancer and thyroid disorders was found during a review of 91 cases of benign and malignant ovarian adenofibromas. Sixty-three tumors were benign, 11 had areas of borderline neoplasms, and 17 had a component of carcinoma. Such tumors were divided into glandular/cystic (61 cases) and papillary (30 cases) according to their gross and microscopic appearance. Among the 61 patients with glandular/cystic adenofibromas, 13 (21%) had breast cancer and 19 (31%) also had thyroid disorders. Among the 30 patients with papillary adenofibromas there were no cases of breast cancer and only 2 patients had thyroid disorders. The average age of the patients with ovarian adenofibroma and breast cancer or thyroid disorders was higher (66 years) than that of patients without breast cancer or thyroid disorders (55 years). More patients with breast cancer and thyroid disorders had bilateral adenofibromas than patients without breast cancer or thyroid disorders. We also reviewed the medical records of 100 patients with ovarian cancer without adenofibroma component, 100 patients with breast cancer, and 100 patients with ovarian and breast cancer. Six percent of patients with ovarian cancer had breast cancer and 16% of each one of these groups had thyroid disorders. This unexpected association found between glandular/cystic adenofibromas, breast cancer, and thyroid disorders might be explained by defects common to these organs. Disorders of some of these organs have been linked by common genetic changes and it is known that these organs are under the influence of similar hormones. Mutations of PTEN have been found in breast and thyroid cancer. The thyroid and ovaries are controlled by glycoprotein hormones of the pituitary gland, which have common alpha subunits.

  19. Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers and occupational exposure to formaldehyde and various dusts: a case-control study in France

    PubMed Central

    Laforest, L.; Luce, D.; Goldberg, P.; Begin, D.; Gerin, M.; Demers, P.; Brugere, J.; Leclerc, A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—A case-control study was conducted in France to assess possible associations between occupational exposures and squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and hypopharynx.
METHODS—The study was restricted to men, and included 201 hypopharyngeal cancers, 296 laryngeal cancers, and 296 controls (patients with other tumour sites). Detailed information on smoking, alcohol consumption, and lifetime occupational history was collected. Occupational exposure to seven substances (formaldehyde, leather dust, wood dust, flour dust, coal dust, silica dust, and textile dust) was assessed with a job exposure matrix. Exposure variables used in the analysis were probability, duration, and cumulative level of exposure. Odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression, and were adjusted for major confounding factors (age, smoking, alcohol, and when relevant other occupational exposures).
RESULTS—Hypopharyngeal cancer was found to be associated with exposure to coal dust (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.40), with a significant rise in risk with probability (p<0.005 for trend) and level (p<0.007 for trend) of exposure. Exposure to coal dust was also associated with an increased risk of laryngeal cancer (OR 1.67, 95% CI 0.92 to 3.02), but no dose-response pattern was found. A significant relation, limited to hypopharyngeal cancer, was found with the probability of exposure to formaldehyde (p<0.005 for trend), with a fourfold risk for the highest category (OR 3.78 , 95% CI 1.50 to 9.49). When subjects exposed to formaldehyde with a low probability were excluded, the risk also increased with duration (p<0.04) and cumulative level of exposure (p<0.14). No significant association was found for any other substance.
CONCLUSION—These results indicate that exposure to formaldehyde and coal dust may increase the risk of hypopharyngeal cancer.


Keywords: laryngeal cancer; hypopharyngeal cancer

  20. The influence of lactation, occupational exposures and postmenopausal hormone use on the incidence of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.P.

    1992-01-01

    A self-administered questionnaire was completely by 1,018 women diagnosed with breast cancer during 1988-1989 identified through the British Columbia Cancer Registry and by 1,025 controls selected at random from the Provincial Voters List. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, occupational and reproductive history as well as hormone use. Premenopausal women who ceased lactation within the first month had a relative risk of 3.0, adjusted for age and parity (95% C.I. = 1.6-5.4), compared to women who had breast fed two months or longer. Among women who nursed for at least two months, there was an indication of decreasing risk with increasing duration of nursing. Among post-menopausal women, no relation between lactation history and breast cancer risk was evident. Premenopausal women who reported ever having been a data processing operator (OR = 3.8), hairdresser (OR = 5.5), janitor/housekeeper (OR = 2.1), or having worked in the food processing (OR = 2.7) were found to have an excess risk of breast cancer. Among postmenopausal women, an excess risk was seen for nursing or medical workers (OR = 1.4) whereas a reduced risk was observed among waitresses/bartenders (OR = 0.5), textile workers (OR = 0.5) or defense industry personnel (OR = 0.4). The effect of menopausal hormone use was evaluated among 699 cases and 685 controls who were postmenopausal due to natural causes or to a hysterectomy. There was no overall increase in risk of breast cancer associated with ever use of unopposed estrogen (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.8-1.3). For estrogen use of ten years or longer, the relative risk was 1.6 (95% CI = 1.1-2.5). The risk estimate for current users was somewhat elevated (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-2.0). Compared to women who never used hormone preparations, women who had used estrogen plus progestogen had a relative risk of 1.2 (95% CI = 0.6-2.2).

  1. Susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer: relevance of rs9642880[T], GSTM1 0/0 and occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Golka, Klaus; Hermes, Matthias; Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Bolt, Hermann M; Roth, Gerhard; Dietrich, Holger; Prager, Hans-Martin; Ickstadt, Katja; Hengstler, Jan G

    2009-11-01

    Recently, a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism association study has identified a sequence variant 30 kb upstream of the c-Myc gene (allele T of rs9642880) that confers susceptibility to bladder cancer. However, the role of exposure to bladder carcinogens has not been considered. This prompted us to analyse the relevance of this polymorphism in 515 bladder cancer cases and 893 controls where the quality and quantity of occupational exposure to bladder carcinogens has been documented. When we analysed a hospital-based case-control series not selected for occupational exposure, rs9642880[T] was influential, in contrast to GSTM1 0/0. However, in a case-control series of patients that have been occupationally exposed to aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, rs9642880[T] was not influential but GSTM1 0/0 was significantly associated with bladder cancer risk. Therefore, the degree to which rs9642880[T] and GSTM1 0/0 confer susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer seems to depend on the extent of exposure to urinary bladder carcinogens.

  2. [Skin and occupational artificial UV-radiation].

    PubMed

    Fartasch, M; Wittlich, M; Broding, H C; Gellert, B; Blome, H; Brüning, T

    2012-10-01

    In various areas of professional activity, exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation coming from artificial sources may occur. These UV rays differ from the solar UV radiation due to their intensity and spectrum. We review current developments with the introduction of statutory exposure limit values for jobs with UV radiation from artificial sources, a selection of relevant activities with artificial UV exposure and an overview of the occurrence of skin disorders and dermatologically relevant skin diseases caused by these specific occupational exposures. The latter is relevant for medical advice in occupational dermatology and occupational medicine. On the basis of existing studies on welders and studies regarding occupations with "open flames" (using the example of the glassblower) it is evident that so far no reliable data exist regarding the chronic photodamage or the occurrence of UV-typical skin cancers, but instead clear evidence exists regarding the regular occurrence of acute light damage in these occupations.

  3. Occupation and skin cancer: the results of the HELIOS-I multicenter case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Berta; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Tormo, Maria José; Rosso, Stefano; Schraub, Simon; Gafà, Lorenzo; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Wechsler, Janine; Zanetti, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Background Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most frequent tumour among Caucasian populations worldwide. Among the risk factors associated with this tumour, there are host-related factors and several environmental agents. A greater likelihood of high exposure to physical agents (with the exception of solar radiation) and chemical agents depends on the work setting. Our objective is to evaluate the role of occupational exposures in NMSC, with special emphasis on risk factors other than solar radiation and skin type. Methods We analysed 1585 cases (1333 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 183 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)) and 1507 controls drawn from the Helios-I multicenter study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression mixed models. Results For NMSC as a whole (both histological types), miners and quarrymen, secondary education teachers, and masons registered excess risk, regardless of exposure to solar radiation and skin type (OR 7.04, 95% CI 2.44–20.31; OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.05–2.89 and OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.04–2.27, respectively). Frequency of BCC proved higher among railway engine drivers and firemen (OR 4.55; 95% CI 0.96–21.57), specialised farmers (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.05–2.59) and salesmen (OR 3.02; 95% CI 1.05–2.86), in addition to miners and quarrymen and secondary education teachers (OR 7.96; 95% CI 2.72–23.23 and OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.05–2.94 respectively). The occupations that registered a higher risk of SCC (though not of BCC) were those involving direct contact with livestock, construction workers not elsewhere classified (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.12–7.74), stationary engine and related equipment operators not elsewhere classified (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.13–21.04) and masons (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.36–4.78). Conclusion Exposure to hazardous air pollutants, arsenic, ionizing radiations and burns may explain a good part of the associations observed in this study. The Helios study affords an excellent

  4. An ergonomics study on posture-related discomfort and occupational-related disorders among stonecutters of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Das, Banibrata; Das, Tamal; Ghoshal, Goutam; Ghosh, Tirthankar

    2010-01-01

    Stonecutting and setting are important tasks in a construction site. A field study was conducted to assess occupational-related disorders and to conduct ergonomics assessment among stonecutters. The study focused on (a) the duration of work per day, (b) the working environment and working activities and (c) the feeling of discomfort in different parts of the body. A detailed posture analysis was performed with the Ovako working posture analysis system (OWAS). It was observed that stonecutters worked continuously in awkward postures during stonecutting and setting. Consequently, they suffered from discomfort in different parts of their body, specifically in the lower back, knees and shoulders, which mainly prevented them from continuing their work. This study also revealed that stonecutters had to work in congested work areas with a poor level of illumination. The noise level and dust particles emitted during stonecutting activities could affect stonecutters.

  5. Contact urticaria from rubber gloves: an occupational skin disorder for health care workers.

    PubMed

    Tanglertsampan, C; Patrakarn, S; Vassansiri, E

    1998-01-01

    Rubber allergy is an important occupational health problem for an increasing number of patients. It may produce a type I urticarial reaction, or more commonly, a type IV delayed eczematous dermatitis. The risk groups include health care workers, rubber industry workers, and children with spina bifida (meningomyelocele) and urogenital abnormalities. In this report, we describe a physician with a relevant history who was found to have type I hypersensitivity to rubber by prick test and use test. Our aim is to increase awareness among physicians, discuss diagnosis and management, and review the literature. PMID:9470325

  6. Occupation and Bladder Cancer in a Population-Based Case-control Study in Northern New England

    PubMed Central

    Colt, Joanne S.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Schwenn, Molly; Baris, Dalsu; Johnson, Alison; Stewart, Patricia; Verrill, Castine; Moore, Lee E.; Lubin, Jay; Ward, Mary H.; Samanic, Claudine; Rothman, Nathaniel; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Schned, Alan; Cherala, Sai; Silverman, Debra T.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We used data from a large, population-based case-control study in New England to examine relationships between occupation, industry, and bladder cancer risk. Methods Lifetime occupational histories were obtained by personal interview from 1,158 patients newly diagnosed with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder between 2001 and 2004 among residents of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, and from 1,402 population controls selected from Department of Motor Vehicle records (ages 30 to 64 years) or Medicare beneficiary records (65 to 79 years). Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for demographic factors, smoking, and employment in high-risk occupations other than the one being analyzed. Results Male precision metalworkers and metalworking/plasticworking machine operators had significantly elevated risks and significant trends in risk with duration of employment (precision metalworkers: OR=2.2; CI: 1.4, 3.4, Ptrend =0.0065; metalworking/plasticworking machine operators: OR=1.6; CI: 1.01, 2.6, Ptrend=0.047). Other occupations/industries for which risk increased significantly with duration of employment included: for men, textile machine operators, mechanics/repairers, automobile mechanics, plumbers, computer systems analysts, information clerks, and landscape and horticultural services industry workers; and for women, service occupations, health services, cleaning and building services, management-related occupations, electronic components and accessories manufacturing, and transportation equipment manufacturing. Men reporting use of metalworking fluids (MWF) had a significantly elevated bladder cancer risk (OR=1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.5), Conclusions Our findings for metalworkers and for MWF exposure support the hypothesis that some component(s) of MWF may be carcinogenic to the bladder in humans. Our results also corroborate many other previously-reported associations between bladder

  7. Accuracy of industry and occupation on death certificates of electric utility workers: implications for epidemiologic studies of magnetic fields and cancer.

    PubMed

    Andrews, K W; Savitz, D A

    1999-12-01

    A substantial epidemiologic literature has relied on occupation and industry information from death certificates to make inferences about the association of electric and magnetic field exposure with cancer, but the validity of the occupational data on death certificates is questionable. We compared occupation and industry information from death certificates to company work histories for 793 electric utility workers who died from brain cancer (n=143), leukemia (n=156), lung cancer (n=246, randomly sampled), and non-cancer causes (n=248, randomly sampled). Nearly 75% of death certificates correctly indicated utility industry employment and of those, 48% matched the longest held occupation derived from company work histories. Hence, only 36% matched on both industry and occupation. We computed odds ratios relating occupations involving magnetic field exposure to brain cancer and leukemia both for the occupation listed on the death certificate and for the longest-held occupation based on company records in order to examine the impact of exposure misclassification based on reliance on the death certificate information. For brain cancer, the odds ratio was 1.2 based on death certificates and 1.7 based on company work history, suggesting some attenuation due to misclassification. For leukemia, death certificate information yielded an odds ratio of 0.9, whereas company work histories yielded an odds ratio of 1.3. Although work histories are limited to the period of employment in a specific company, these data suggest that there is substantial misclassification in use of death certificate information on industry and occupation of utility workers, as found in other industries. The limited quality of occupation and industry information on death certificates argues against relying on such information to evaluate modest associations with mortality.

  8. Cost Effectiveness of the Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy (IOT) Conceptual Model as a Guide for Intervention with Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikiugu, Moses N.; Anderson, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of using the Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy (IOT) conceptual practice model as a guide for intervention to assist teenagers with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) transition successfully into adulthood. The cost effectiveness analysis was based on a project…

  9. Occupational neurology.

    PubMed

    Feldman, R G

    1987-01-01

    The nervous system is vulnerable to the effects of certain chemicals and physical conditions found in the work environment. The activities of an occupational neurologist focus on the evaluation of patients with neurological disorders caused by occupational or environmental conditions. When one is making a differential diagnosis in patients with neurological disorders, the possibility of toxic exposure or encounters with physical factors in the workplace must not be overlooked. Central to an accurate clinical diagnosis is the patient's history. A diagnosis of an occupational or environmental neurological problem requires a careful assessment of the clinical abnormalities and confirmation of these disabilities by objective tests such as nerve conduction velocity, evoked potentials, electroencephalogram, neuropsychological batteries, or nerve biopsy. On the basis of information about hazards in the workplace, safety standards and environmental and biological monitoring can be implemented in the workplace to reduce the risks of undue injury. Clinical manifestations of headache, memory disturbance, and peripheral neuropathy are commonly encountered presentations of the effects of occupational hazards. Physicians in everyday clinical practice must be aware of the signs and symptoms associated with exposure to possible neurotoxins and work methods. Occupational and environmental circumstances must be explored when evaluating patients with neurologic disorders.

  10. p53 protein, EGF receptor, and anti-p53 antibodies in serum from patients with occupationally derived lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J; Presek, P; Braun, A; Bauer, P; Konietzko, N; Wiesner, B; Woitowitz, H J

    1999-08-01

    The oncogene product epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R), the tumour suppressor gene product p53 and anti-p53 antibodies are detectable in the serum of certain cancer patients. Increased levels of some of these products were reported in lung cancer patients after occupational asbestos exposure and after exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or vinylchloride. In the first step, this study investigated the possible diagnostic value of serum EGF-R, p53-protein and anti-p53 antibodies, measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in lung tumour patients. In addition to being investigated on a molecular epidemiological basis, these parameters were examined as biomarkers of carcinogenesis, especially with regard to asbestos incorporation effects or of radon-induced lung cancers. Also, a possible effect of cigarette smoking and age dependence were studied. A total of 116 male patients with lung or pleural tumours were examined. The histological classification was four small-cell cancers, six large-cell cancers, 32 adenocarcinomas, 47 squamous carcinomas, 12 mixed lung carcinomas, five diffuse malignant mesotheliomas and ten lung metastasis of extrapulmonary tumours. Twenty-two lung cancers and all mesotheliomas were related to asbestos, 22 lung cancers were related to ionizing radiation and 61 patients had cigarette smoke-related lung cancer. Besides these patients 50 male patients with non-malignant lung or pleural diseases were included; of the latter eight subjects suffered from asbestosis. Controls were 129 male subjects without any lung disease. No significantly elevated or decreased serum values for p53 protein, EGF-R, or anti-p53 antibodies as a function of histological tumour type, age, or degree and type of exposure (asbestos, smoking, ionizing radiation) could be found. The utility of p53-protein, EGF-R and anti-p53 antibodies as routine biomarkers for screening occupationally derived lung cancers is limited.

  11. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  12. Helping Children with Sensory Processing Disorders: The Role of Occupational Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Normally functioning sensory systems develop through sensory experiences. Children are stimulated through their senses in many different ways. Even though a person's sensory system is intact, he or she may have a sensory processing disorder (SPD), also known as sensory integration dysfunction. This means the person's brain does not correctly…

  13. Phenotypic plasticity in prostate cancer: role of intrinsically disordered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Steven M; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Levine, Herbert; Kulkarni, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    A striking characteristic of cancer cells is their remarkable phenotypic plasticity, which is the ability to switch states or phenotypes in response to environmental fluctuations. Phenotypic changes such as a partial or complete epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that play important roles in their survival and proliferation, and development of resistance to therapeutic treatments, are widely believed to arise due to somatic mutations in the genome. However, there is a growing concern that such a deterministic view is not entirely consistent with multiple lines of evidence, which indicate that stochasticity may also play an important role in driving phenotypic plasticity. Here, we discuss how stochasticity in protein interaction networks (PINs) may play a key role in determining phenotypic plasticity in prostate cancer (PCa). Specifically, we point out that the key players driving transitions among different phenotypes (epithelial, mesenchymal, and hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal), including ZEB1, SNAI1, OVOL1, and OVOL2, are intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and discuss how plasticity at the molecular level may contribute to stochasticity in phenotypic switching by rewiring PINs. We conclude by suggesting that targeting IDPs implicated in EMT in PCa may be a new strategy to gain additional insights and develop novel treatments for this disease, which is the most common form of cancer in adult men. PMID:27427552

  14. Phenotypic plasticity in prostate cancer: role of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Steven M; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Levine, Herbert; Kulkarni, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    A striking characteristic of cancer cells is their remarkable phenotypic plasticity, which is the ability to switch states or phenotypes in response to environmental fluctuations. Phenotypic changes such as a partial or complete epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that play important roles in their survival and proliferation, and development of resistance to therapeutic treatments, are widely believed to arise due to somatic mutations in the genome. However, there is a growing concern that such a deterministic view is not entirely consistent with multiple lines of evidence, which indicate that stochasticity may also play an important role in driving phenotypic plasticity. Here, we discuss how stochasticity in protein interaction networks (PINs) may play a key role in determining phenotypic plasticity in prostate cancer (PCa). Specifically, we point out that the key players driving transitions among different phenotypes (epithelial, mesenchymal, and hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal), including ZEB1, SNAI1, OVOL1, and OVOL2, are intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and discuss how plasticity at the molecular level may contribute to stochasticity in phenotypic switching by rewiring PINs. We conclude by suggesting that targeting IDPs implicated in EMT in PCa may be a new strategy to gain additional insights and develop novel treatments for this disease, which is the most common form of cancer in adult men. PMID:27427552

  15. Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

  16. Occupation and ovarian cancer: a case-control study in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area, 1978-1981.

    PubMed

    Hartge, P; Stewart, P

    1994-08-01

    Ovarian cancer risk factors may be genetic, reproductive, or hormonal in nature. Occupational exposure to talc and other carcinogenic substances has not been studied in relation to ovarian cancer risk. We therefore examined the job histories of 296 women aged 20 to 79 who were diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer in the Washington, DC area in 1978 to 1981, comparing them to 343 hospital controls, matched for age and race. A blind exposure assessment, evaluating each job/industry combination for potential exposure to talc, ionizing radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and solvents was conducted by an industrial hygienist blind to case-control status. Women exposed to talc had a relative risk of ovarian cancer below the null, but the confidence interval was wide and there was no evidence of a trend. Women exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons had an elevated relative risk, also with a wide confidence interval and no evidence of a trend with duration.

  17. Occupation and ovarian cancer: a case-control study in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area, 1978-1981.

    PubMed

    Hartge, P; Stewart, P

    1994-08-01

    Ovarian cancer risk factors may be genetic, reproductive, or hormonal in nature. Occupational exposure to talc and other carcinogenic substances has not been studied in relation to ovarian cancer risk. We therefore examined the job histories of 296 women aged 20 to 79 who were diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer in the Washington, DC area in 1978 to 1981, comparing them to 343 hospital controls, matched for age and race. A blind exposure assessment, evaluating each job/industry combination for potential exposure to talc, ionizing radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and solvents was conducted by an industrial hygienist blind to case-control status. Women exposed to talc had a relative risk of ovarian cancer below the null, but the confidence interval was wide and there was no evidence of a trend. Women exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons had an elevated relative risk, also with a wide confidence interval and no evidence of a trend with duration. PMID:7807277

  18. Colorectal cancer incidence among female textile workers in Shanghai, China: a case-cohort analysis of occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    De Roos, A J; Ray, R M; Gao, D L; Wernli, K J; Fitzgibbons, E D; Ziding, F; Astrakianakis, G; Thomas, D B; Checkoway, H

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested increased risks of colorectal cancers among textile industry workers, potentially related to synthetic fibers. To investigate risks of colon and rectum cancers in relation to these and other textile industry exposures, we conducted a case-cohort study nested within a cohort study of female employees from the Shanghai Textile Industry Bureau (STIB). Cox proportional hazard regression modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for colon and rectum cancers associated with duration of employment (e.g., 0, >0 to <10, 10 to <20 years, > or =20 years) in various jobs classified according to process type and exposures to specific agents. Our findings indicate that certain long term exposures may pose increased risk of colorectal cancers, especially dyes and dye intermediates with colon cancer (> or =20 years exposure versus never, HR=3.9; 95% CI: 1.4-10.6), and maintenance occupation (HR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.0-5.7) and metals exposure (HR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.6) with rectum cancer. A decreased risk of rectum cancer was associated with exposure to natural fibers such as cotton (HR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.5-0.9), and a trend of decreasing rectum cancer incidence was observed by category of cumulative quantitative cotton dust or endotoxin exposures, when exposures were lagged by 20 years.

  19. Occupational exposure to magnetic fields in relation to mortality from brain cancer among electricity generation and transmission workers.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, J M; McBride, D I; Sorahan, T; Paddle, G M; van Tongeren, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the risks of mortality from brain cancer are related to occupational exposure to magnetic fields. METHODS: A total of 112 cases of primary brain cancer (1972-91) were identified from a cohort of 84,018 male and female employees of the (then) Central Electricity Generating Board and its privatised successor companies. Individual cumulative occupational exposures to magnetic fields were estimated by linking available computerised job history data with magnetic field measurements collected over 675 person-workshifts. Estimated exposure histories of the case workers were compared with those of 654 control workers drawn from the cohort (nested case-control study), by means of conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: For exposure assessments based on arithmetic means, the risk of mortality from brain cancer for subjects with an estimated cumulative exposure to magnetic fields of 5.4-13.4 microT.y v subjects with lower exposures (0.0-5.3 microT.y) was 1.04 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.60 to 1.80). The corresponding relative risk in subjects with higher exposures (> or = 13.5 microT.y) was 0.95 (95% CI 0.54 to 1.69). There was no indication of a positive trend for cumulative exposure and risk of mortality from brain cancer either when the analysis used exposure assessments based on geometric means or when the analysis was restricted to exposures received within five years of the case diagnosis (or corresponding period for controls). CONCLUSIONS: Although the exposure categorisation was based solely on recent observations, the study findings do not support the hypothesis that the risk of brain cancer is associated with occupational exposure to magnetic fields. PMID:9072027

  20. Occupational Lead Exposure and Associations with Selected Cancers: The Shanghai Men’s and Women’s Health Study Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Linda M.; Friesen, Melissa C.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Koh, Dong-Hee; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Locke, Sarah J.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Purdue, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies of occupational lead exposure have suggested increased risks of cancers of the stomach, lung, kidney, brain, and meninges; however, the totality of the evidence is inconsistent. Objective We investigated the relationship between occupational lead exposure and cancer incidence at the five abovementioned sites in two prospective cohorts in Shanghai, China. Methods Annual job/industry-specific estimates of lead fume and lead dust exposure, derived from a statistical model combining expert lead intensity ratings with inspection measurements, were applied to the lifetime work histories of participants from the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS; n = 73,363) and the Shanghai Men’s Health Study (SMHS; n = 61,379) to estimate cumulative exposure to lead fume and lead dust. These metrics were then combined into an overall occupational lead exposure variable. Cohort-specific relative hazard rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing exposed and unexposed participants were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression and combined by meta-analysis. Results The proportions of SWHS and SMHS participants with estimated occupational lead exposure were 8.9% and 6.9%, respectively. Lead exposure was positively associated with meningioma risk in women only (n = 38 unexposed and 9 exposed cases; RR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.0), particularly with above-median cumulative exposure (RR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.3, 7.4). However, all 12 meningioma cases among men were classified as unexposed to lead. We also observed non-significant associations with lead exposure for cancers of the kidney (n = 157 unexposed and 17 ever exposed cases; RR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.9, 2.3) and brain (n = 67 unexposed and 10 ever exposed cases; RR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.7, 4.8) overall. Conclusions Our findings, though limited by small numbers of cases, suggest that lead is associated with the risk of several cancers in women and men. Citation Liao LM, Friesen MC, Xiang YB

  1. The Course of Psychological Disorders in the 1st Year After Cancer Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders over the first 12-month period following a cancer diagnosis. Individuals recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy were assessed for ASD within…

  2. Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation and Risk of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer in a Multinational European Study

    PubMed Central

    Surdu, Simona; Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Bloom, Michael S.; Boscoe, Francis P.; Carpenter, David O.; Haase, Richard F.; Gurzau, Eugen; Rudnai, Peter; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Févotte, Joëlle; Leonardi, Giovanni; Vahter, Marie; Goessler, Walter; Kumar, Rajiv; Fletcher, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that ambient sunlight plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). However, there is ongoing controversy regarding the relevance of occupational exposure to natural and artificial ultraviolet radiation (UV) radiation. Objectives We investigated potential associations between natural and artificial UV radiation exposure at work with NMSC in a case-control study conducted in Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. Methods Occupational exposures were classified by expert assessment for 527 controls and 618 NMSC cases (515 basal cell carcinoma, BCC). Covariate information was collected via interview and multiple logistic regression models were used to assess associations between UV exposure and NMSC. Results Lifetime prevalence of occupational exposure in the participants was 13% for natural UV radiation and 7% for artificial UV radiation. Significant negative associations between occupational exposure to natural UV radiation and NMSC were detected for all who had ever been exposed (odds ratio (OR) 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27–0.80); similar results were detected using a semi-quantitative metric of cumulative exposure. The effects were modified by skin complexion, with significantly decreased risks of BCC among participants with light skin complexion. No associations were observed in relation to occupational artificial UV radiation exposure. Conclusions The protective effect of occupational exposure to natural UV radiation was unexpected, but limited to light-skinned people, suggesting adequate sun-protection behaviors. Further investigations focusing on variations in the individual genetic susceptibility and potential interactions with environmental and other relevant factors are planned. PMID:23638051

  3. Post-traumatic stress disorder and occupational characteristics of police officers in Republic of Korea: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Inah; Won, Jong-Uk; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective South Korean police officers have a greater workload compared to their counterparts in advanced countries. However, few studies have evaluated the occupational challenges that South Korean police officers face. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the police officer's job characteristics and risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among South Korean police officers. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Police officers in South Korea. Participants 3817 police officers with a traumatic event over a 1-year period. Main outcome measures Officers with a response to the Impact of Event Scale (revised Korean version) score of ≥26 were classified as high risk, and we evaluated their age, sex, department and rank, as well as the frequency and type of traumatic events that they experienced. Results Among the respondents, 41.11% were classified as having a high risk of PTSD. From the perspective of the rank, Inspector group (46.0%) and Assistant Inspector group (42.7%) show the highest frequencies of PTSD. From the perspective of their working division, Intelligence and National Security Division (43.6%) show the highest frequency, followed by the Police Precinct (43.5%) and the Traffic Affairs Management Department (43.3%). It is shown that working in different departments was associated with the prevalence of PTSD (p=0.004). Conclusions The high-risk classification was observed in 41.11% of all officers who had experienced traumatic events, and this frequency is greater than that for other specialised occupations (eg, firefighters). Therefore, we conclude that groups with an elevated proportion of high-risk respondents should be a priority for PTSD treatment, which may help increase its therapeutic effect and improve the awareness of PTSD among South Korean police officers. PMID:26951212

  4. Super Enhancers in Cancers, Complex Disease, and Developmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Niederriter, Adrienne R.; Varshney, Arushi; Parker, Stephen C. J.; Martin, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, unique areas of transcriptional regulation termed super-enhancers have been identified and implicated in human disease. Defined by their magnitude of size, transcription factor density, and binding of transcriptional machinery, super-enhancers have been associated with genes driving cell differentiation. While their functions are not completely understood, it is clear that these regions driving high-level transcription are susceptible to perturbation, and trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occur within super-enhancers of disease-relevant cell types. Here we review evidence for super-enhancer involvement in cancers, complex diseases, and developmental disorders and discuss interactions between super-enhancers and cofactors/chromatin regulators. PMID:26569311

  5. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and occupational health problems among groundnut farmers of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Banibrata; Ghosh, Tirthankar; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of the study was to determine the nature and extent of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and physiological and thermal working stress among the groundnut farmers. In the present investigation, eighty-five groundnut farmers were recruited from the villages of Tarakeswar of West Bengal, India. Eighty-five control office workers were also selected as a control group. The modified Nordic questionnaire and a posture analysis using the OWAS method were applied in the case of groundnut farmers. The working environment and physiological stress of the groundnut cultivators were also assessed. The analysis of working posture indicated that most of the groundnut cultivation activities needed corrective measures as soon as possible. Most of the groundnut farmers suffered from discomfort at different parts of the body, especially at the lower back (99%), knee (92%), ankle (66%), shoulder (61%) and hand (60%) regions. This study also showed that groundnut farmers suffered from excessive thermal (33.4 degrees C) and physiological stress (heart rate rose up to 121.5 beats/min, systolic and diastolic blood pressure up to 132 and 80 mm/Hg, respectively, PEFR values are 403 lit/min) which affects their health. From the observation and analysis of the results, it was concluded that the health of the groundnut farmers was highly affected by improper body postures and work-load. Twisting, bending, and awkward postures during work could lead to musculoskeletal disorders among them.

  6. Cognitive disorders and occupational exposure to organophosphates: results from the PHYTONER study.

    PubMed

    Blanc-Lapierre, Audrey; Bouvier, Ghislaine; Gruber, Anne; Leffondré, Karen; Lebailly, Pierre; Fabrigoule, Colette; Baldi, Isabelle

    2013-05-15

    The involvement of organophosphate insecticides in cognitive disorders is supported by epidemiologic and biological evidence, but the effects of long-term exposure remain debated. We studied the association between organophosphate exposure and cognitive performance in vine workers from the PHYTONER study cohort in the Bordeaux area of France. Results from interviews of 614 subjects conducted at the 4-year follow-up between 2001 and 2003 were analyzed. Exposure to pesticides since 1950 was assessed with cumulative exposure scores for 34 organophosphates combining an historical crop-exposure pesticide matrix and field exposure studies, taking into account the characteristics of treatment (mixing, spraying, equipment cleaning) and reentry tasks. For the 11 organophosphates retained in the analysis, exposure (ever vs. never) was associated with low cognitive performance. No dose-effect relationship was found, but an increased risk was observed with a 50-mg increase in the cumulative score, which was greater with mevinphos (Benton Visual Retention Test: odds ratio = 3.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.54, 6.88; Trail Making Test, part A: odds ratio = 3.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.39, 6.62). Our results support the hypothesis that cognitive disorders observed in vine workers may be associated with exposure to specific organophosphates. PMID:23535900

  7. CONSENSUS REPORT: Recognizing non-melanoma skin cancer, including actinic keratosis, as an occupational disease - A Call to Action.

    PubMed

    John, S M; Trakatelli, M; Gehring, R; Finlay, K; Fionda, C; Wittlich, M; Augustin, M; Hilpert, G; Barroso Dias, J M; Ulrich, C; Pellacani, G

    2016-04-01

    1. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is by far the most common cancer diagnosed in westernized countries, and one of the few almost preventable cancers if detected and treated early as up to 90% of NMSC may be attributed to excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation. 2. The incidence of NMSC is increasing: 2-3 million people are diagnosed worldwide annually, with an average yearly increase of 3-8% among white populations in Australia, Europe, the US and Canada over the last 30 years. 3. The link between solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and certain forms of NMSC is clearly recognized. It is estimated that outdoor workers are exposed to an UV radiation dose 2-3 times higher than indoor workers, and there is a growing body of research linking UV radiation exposure in outdoor workers to NMSC: I. Occupationally UV-exposed workers are at least at a 43% higher risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and almost doubled risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) compared to the average population, with risk increasing with decreasing latitude. II. The risk for BCC, SCC and actinic keratosis (AK) among workers who have worked outdoors for more than 5 years is 3-fold higher than the risk among those with no years of working outdoors. 4. Primary prevention, early detection, treatment and regular follow-up of skin cancer (NMSC and melanoma) are shown to be beneficial from a health economic perspective. 5. Action is needed at international, European and national level to legislate for recognizing AK and NMSC as an occupational disease, which has the potential to improve access to compensation and drive preventative activities. 6. This report is a Call to Action for: I. The engagement of key stakeholders, including supranational institutions, national governments, trade organizations, employers, workers and patient organizations to drive change in prevention and protection of at-risk groups. II. Employers should be obliged to prevent outdoor worker's UV exposure from exceeding limit values

  8. CONSENSUS REPORT: Recognizing non-melanoma skin cancer, including actinic keratosis, as an occupational disease - A Call to Action.

    PubMed

    John, S M; Trakatelli, M; Gehring, R; Finlay, K; Fionda, C; Wittlich, M; Augustin, M; Hilpert, G; Barroso Dias, J M; Ulrich, C; Pellacani, G

    2016-04-01

    1. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is by far the most common cancer diagnosed in westernized countries, and one of the few almost preventable cancers if detected and treated early as up to 90% of NMSC may be attributed to excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation. 2. The incidence of NMSC is increasing: 2-3 million people are diagnosed worldwide annually, with an average yearly increase of 3-8% among white populations in Australia, Europe, the US and Canada over the last 30 years. 3. The link between solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and certain forms of NMSC is clearly recognized. It is estimated that outdoor workers are exposed to an UV radiation dose 2-3 times higher than indoor workers, and there is a growing body of research linking UV radiation exposure in outdoor workers to NMSC: I. Occupationally UV-exposed workers are at least at a 43% higher risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and almost doubled risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) compared to the average population, with risk increasing with decreasing latitude. II. The risk for BCC, SCC and actinic keratosis (AK) among workers who have worked outdoors for more than 5 years is 3-fold higher than the risk among those with no years of working outdoors. 4. Primary prevention, early detection, treatment and regular follow-up of skin cancer (NMSC and melanoma) are shown to be beneficial from a health economic perspective. 5. Action is needed at international, European and national level to legislate for recognizing AK and NMSC as an occupational disease, which has the potential to improve access to compensation and drive preventative activities. 6. This report is a Call to Action for: I. The engagement of key stakeholders, including supranational institutions, national governments, trade organizations, employers, workers and patient organizations to drive change in prevention and protection of at-risk groups. II. Employers should be obliged to prevent outdoor worker's UV exposure from exceeding limit values

  9. Indicators of Cellular and Developmental Disorders in Multiple Primary Cancers.

    PubMed

    Redzović, Arnela; Dintinjana, Renata Dobrila; Nacinović, Antica Duletić

    2016-04-01

    In human organism development is a very complex and highly regulated system that enables the functional balance of each organ in a whole body. Disorders and tumor micro-environment weaken host immune system that is not able to recognize the tumor as a unknown body and fight against its uncontrollable forces. Tumor avoids the immune system in a way that promotes immunosuppression and orientation cytokine production towards Th2 immune responses which are responsible for infection appearances. Some of infectious agents (viruses) can cause oncogene activation and inhibition of tumor suppressor genes. It is also known that oncology treatment can be detrimental to the host immune system. The drugs or radiation can activate different signaling pathways which lead to a vicious circle from which there is no return. Experimental models of tumor biology and molecular events in vivo are patients who have multiple primary cancers (MPC) diagnosed during life. Such patients confirm the complexity of disorders that occur in the cell and explain all the influences and contributions to developmental tumor cascade. PMID:27301239

  10. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1991 projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The report presents information on projects conducted by NIOSH in 1991 aimed at improving working conditions and worker health. The planning format for 1991 was depicted using a flow chart. Each division of NIOSH was listed along with phone numbers and brief descriptions of the projects conducted by the division. Summaries were included of national prevention strategies for occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, occupational cardiovascular diseases, disorders of reproduction, neurotoxic disorders, noise induced hearing loss, dermatological conditions, and psychological disorders. The purpose of each NIOSH project was described, and projects were categorized by program areas. These programs areas included the subjects of the national prevention strategies, agriculture related projects, construction related projects, assistance requests, and administration.

  11. Occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Ofir Guiron, Talia; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies on exposure to pesticides and risk of prostate cancer (PC) provide inconsistent results. We aimed to explore various potential sources of heterogeneity not previously assessed and to derive updated risk estimates from homogenous studies. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases for case-control and cohort studies published from 1985 to April 2014. We assessed the quality of the articles using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was explored using subset analyses and metaregression. Fifty-two studies were included in the review and 25 in the meta-analysis. No association was found between low exposure to pesticides and PC, but association was significant for high exposure, pooled OR 1.33 (1.02 to 1.63), I(2)=44.8%, p=0.024. Heterogeneity was explained by a number of variables including method used to assess exposure. Pooled OR was weak and non-significant for studies measuring serum pesticide level, 1.12 (0.74 to 1.50), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.966. For studies applying self-reporting of exposure, pooled estimate was 1.34 (0.91 to 1.77), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.493, while a high significant association was detected for grouped exposure assessment, 2.24 (1.36 to 3.11), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.955. In spite of a weak significant association detected when pooling ORs for high occupational exposure to pesticides, the magnitude of the association was related to the method of exposure assessment used by the original studies. A family history-pesticide exposure interaction was also observed for a number of pesticides.

  12. Associations of Educational Attainment, Occupation, Social Class and Major Depressive Disorder among Han Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feihu; Li, Yajuan; Wang, Junhui; Flint, Jonathan; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Shenxun; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is higher in those with low levels of educational attainment, the unemployed and those with low social status. However the extent to which these factors cause MDD is unclear. Most of the available data comes from studies in developed countries, and these findings may not extrapolate to developing countries. Examining the relationship between MDD and socio economic status in China is likely to add to the debate because of the radical economic and social changes occurring in China over the last 30 years. Principal findings We report results from 3,639 Chinese women with recurrent MDD and 3,800 controls. Highly significant odds ratios (ORs) were observed between MDD and full time employment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25–0.46, logP = 78), social status (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77–0.87, logP = 13.3) and education attainment (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86–0.90, logP = 6.8). We found a monotonic relationship between increasing age and increasing levels of educational attainment. Those with only primary school education have significantly more episodes of MDD (mean 6.5, P-value = 0.009) and have a clinically more severe disorder, while those with higher educational attainment are likely to manifest more comorbid anxiety disorders. Conclusions In China lower socioeconomic position is associated with increased rates of MDD, as it is elsewhere in the world. Significantly more episodes of MDD occur among those with lower educational attainment (rather than longer episodes of disease), consistent with the hypothesis that the lower socioeconomic position increases the likelihood of developing MDD. The phenomenology of MDD varies according to the degree of educational attainment: higher educational attainment not only appears to protect against MDD but alters its presentation, to a more anxious phenotype. PMID:24497966

  13. p16INK4A inactivation mechanisms in non-small-cell lung cancer patients occupationally exposed to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Andujar, Pascal; Wang, Jinhui; Descatha, Alexis; Galateau-Sallé, Françoise; Abd-Alsamad, Issam; Billon-Galland, Marie-Annick; Blons, Hélène; Clin, Bénédicte; Danel, Claire; Housset, Bruno; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Letourneux, Marc; Monnet, Isabelle; Régnard, Jean-François; Renier, Annie; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Pairon, Jean-Claude; Jaurand, Marie-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that asbestos fibers constitute the major occupational risk factor and that asbestos acts synergistically with tobacco smoking to induce lung cancer. Although some somatic gene alterations in lung cancer have been linked to tobacco smoke, few data are available on the role of asbestos fibers. P16/CDKN2A is an important tumor suppressor gene that is frequently altered in lung cancer via promoter 5'-CpG island hypermethylation and homozygous deletion, and rarely via point mutation. Many studies suggest that tobacco smoking produces P16/CDKN2A promoter hypermethylation in lung cancer, but the status of this gene in relation to asbestos exposure has yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of P16/CDKN2A alterations in lung cancer in asbestos-exposed patients. P16/CDKN2A gene status was studied in 75 human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases with well-defined smoking habits, and detailed assessment of asbestos exposure, based on occupational questionnaire and determination of asbestos bodies in lung tissue. The results of this study confirm published data on the effect of tobacco smoke on P16/CDKN2A gene alterations, characterized by significantly higher P16/CDKN2A promoter hypermethylation in heavy smokers (more than 40 pack-years (P-Y)) than in smokers of less than 40 P-Y. These results also demonstrate a higher incidence of loss of heterozygosity and homozygous deletion in asbestos-exposed cases, after adjustment for age and cumulative tobacco consumption, than in unexposed cases (P=0.0062). This study suggests that P16/CDKN2A gene inactivation in asbestos-exposed NSCLC cases mainly occurs via deletion, a feature also found in malignant mesothelioma, a tumor independent of tobacco smoking but associated with asbestos exposure, suggesting a possible relationship with an effect of asbestos fibers.

  14. Interprofessional clinical education for occupational therapy and psychology students: a social skills training program for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Howell, Dana M; Wittman, Peggy; Bundy, Myra Beth

    2012-01-01

    An interprofessional clinical learning experience was developed for pre-licensure occupational therapy (OT) and psychology graduate students. Students worked in interprofessional teams to plan and implement a social skills training program for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The objectives were to provide a hands-on, student-led clinical experience; facilitate interprofessional collaborative learning through leadership partnerships and teach children with ASD to engage in appropriate social skill behaviors. Concurrently, faculty performed qualitative research to explore how the students worked together to provide intervention to the children. Data were collected via interview, direct observation of student planning sessions and student interprofessional interactions, and collection of posts from an online social network site used for session planning. There were six student participants and two faculty participants. Four themes emerged: learning who I am as a professional, learning to appreciate our professional differences, learning to communicate with each other and figuring it out, for the benefit of the kids. This interprofessional clinical learning experience and research helps ensure that students are adequately prepared to represent their profession as part of a diverse interprofessional health care team.

  15. Respiratory disorders in two workers of customs depositories occupationally exposed to mouldy tobacco.

    PubMed

    Mackiewicz, Barbara; Skórska, Czesława; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Larsson, Lennart; Szponar, Bogumiła; Milanowski, Janusz; Czekajska-Chehab, Elzbieta; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Cholewa, Grazyna; Szymańska, Jolanta; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2008-01-01

    Work-related respiratory symptoms, including dyspnoea, cough, fever, tiredness and malaise, were recorded in two customs officers employed in 2 depositories of confiscated cigarettes, of which one showed signs of dampness. Microbiological sampling of the air and the cigarettes stored in a damp depository revealed the presence of potentially pathogenic fungi and bacteria and the biochemical markers of bacterial lipopolysaccharide and fungal biomass. The Penicillium species (P. simplicissimum, P. inflatum, P. commune) dominated in the damp depository, while in the other one Aspergillus fumigatus was prevalent. The patients under study did not show a specific sensitization to microbial allergens in the precipitin test, the test for inhibition of leukocyte migration and the bronchial provocation challenge, except for a weak reaction to fungal allergens in the test for inhibition of leukocyte migration. Moreover, one patient responded with subjective symptoms after exposure to inhalation of increased doses of Penicillium simplicissimum antigen. Both cases were diagnosed as a specific form of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). It is hypothesized that the symptoms were evoked most probably by the non-specific action of low molecular fungal metabolites, such as mycotoxins or VOCs (volatile organic compounds), with the possible contribution of bacterial endotoxin. However, as there is no a direct proof to support this presumption, and the effects of nicotine and other tobacco constituents cannot be excluded, further studies are needed to elucidate etiopathogenesis of the disorders associated with the exposure to stored tobacco. PMID:19061269

  16. Depression, Somatization, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Born of Occupation After World War II in Comparison With a General Population.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Marie; Kuwert, Philipp; Braehler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2015-10-01

    At the end of World War II and during the first decade after the war, roughly 200,000 children were fathered in intimate contacts between German women and foreign soldiers. The experiences of these German occupation children (GOC) have been so far described in case reports and from historical perspective only. Research on psychosocial consequences of growing up as a GOC has been missing so far. This study examined traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization, and depression in GOC (N = 146) using self-report instruments: Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire. Findings have then been compared with a representative birth cohort-matched sample from the German general population (N = 977). German occupation children showed significantly higher prevalence rates of most traumatic experiences, higher point prevalence rates of full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and somatization than the control group. In summary, GOC often grew up under difficult conditions (e.g., poverty, single mothers, and stigmatization). Even decades later, they showed higher rates of different mental disorders and higher comorbidity. These findings underline the complex and long-term impact of their burdened social, financial, and familial conditions. The results underpin the importance of conceptualizing occupation children as a vulnerable group in postconflict settings.

  17. Occupational rehabilitation programs for musculoskeletal pain and common mental health disorders: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-term sick leave has considerably negative impact on the individual and society. Hence, the need to identify effective occupational rehabilitation programs is pressing. In Norway, group based occupational rehabilitation programs merging patients with different diagnoses have existed for many years, but no rigorous evaluation has been performed. The described randomized controlled trial aims primarily to compare two structured multicomponent inpatient rehabilitation programs, differing in length and content, with a comparative cognitive intervention. Secondarily the two inpatient programs will be compared with each other, and with a usual care reference group. Methods/design The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial with parallel groups. The Social Security Office performs monthly extractions of sick listed individuals aged 18–60 years, on sick leave 2–12 months, with sick leave status 50% - 100% due to musculoskeletal, mental or unspecific disorders. Sick-listed persons are randomized twice: 1) to receive one of two invitations to participate in the study or not receive an invitation, where the latter “untouched” control group will be monitored for future sick leave in the National Social Security Register, and 2) after inclusion, to a Long or Short inpatient multicomponent rehabilitation program (depending on which invitation was sent) or an outpatient cognitive behavioral therapy group comparative program. The Long program consists of 3 ½ weeks with full rehabilitation days. The Short program consists of 4 + 4 full days, separated by two weeks, in which a workplace visit will be performed if desirable. Three areas of rehabilitation are targeted: mental training, physical training and work-related problem solving. The primary outcome is number of sick leave days. Secondary outcomes include time until full sustainable return to work, health related quality of life, health related behavior, functional status, somatic and

  18. UV-induced occupational skin cancer: possibilities of secondary individual prevention in the "Dermatologist's Procedure".

    PubMed

    Elsner, Peter; Blome, Otto; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig

    2013-07-01

    Invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as a "quasi occupational disease" according to §9 Section 2 of the German Social Code Book (SGB) VII typically develops on chronically UV-damaged skin from actinic keratoses. After the Medical Scientific Committee of the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs has confirmed the legal criteria for acknowledging UV-induced SCC as an occupational disease, it is expected that the condition will be added to the official list of occupational diseases issued by the Federal Government in the near future. The Social Accident Insurance is required by law (§3 Occupational Disease Regulation) to prevent these tumors by "all appropriate means". There are excellent therapeutic and preventive measures for the management of actinic keratoses to avoid the development of SCC. The "Dermatologist's Procedure" according to §§ 41-43 of the agreement between the Social Accident Insurance and the Federal Medical Association was established in Germany in 1972 to take preventive measures in insured persons with skin lesions possibly developing into an occupational disease, or worsening it, or leading to a recurrence of it This procedure proved to be very successful in the prevention of severe and/or recurring skin diseases forcing a worker to leave his job. On the basis of this agreement, the Social Accident Insurance has the instruments to independently provide preventive measures for the new occupational skin disease SCC induced by natural UV light according to §9 Section 2 of the German Social Code Book (SGB) VII.

  19. Cancer comortality patterns in schizophrenia and psychotic disorders: a new methodological approach for unique databases.

    PubMed

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Tschopp, Alois; Bopp, Matthias; Gutzwiller, Felix; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of cancer comortality in deaths registered with schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. It focused on the question of whether the proportions of different types of cancer diverge when they are co-registered with schizophrenia/psychotic disorders or with other causes of death in mortality statistics. We developed an analysis approach applicable to common mortality statistics data when no linkage with morbidity databases or other registers is possible. The analysis covered Swiss mortality data from a 39-year period (1969 - 2007) and was confined to the most frequent cancers. We applied a two-step case-control analysis with bootstrapping (1000 repetitions). The cases were defined by the cancer-schizophrenia registrations for each specific cancer, whereas the controls were matched from the remaining cases (matching criteria: sex, age, region, subperiod). Cancers with deviant standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) included stomach cancer (1.6; 2.2 after reweighting), lung cancer (0.8; 0.5 after reweighting) and breast cancer (1.6; 1.5 after reweighting). The comortality pattern of cancers in schizophrenia and psychotic disorders diverges from the pattern found in other co-registered causes of death. The relatively low frequency of lung cancers is particularly paradoxical in view of the smoking habits of schizophrenia patients.

  20. Sleep disorders and fatigue: special issues in the older adult with cancer.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Louis; Morrison, Laura J

    2014-01-01

    Older adults with cancer reporting fatigue and sleep disorders often have coexisting geriatric syndromes and are at high risk of further functional decline. This review summarizes special considerations in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders and fatigue when older persons with cancer present with multiple comorbidities, polypharmacy, dementia, delirium, and/or falls. Physicians caring for these older adults need to be aware of the unique diagnostic and treatment concerns in this population so that these patients can receive optimal care.

  1. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  2. Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  3. Occupational and environmental risk factors of adult primary brain cancers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J; Al Zayadi, A; Guzman, A

    2011-04-01

    The incidence of brain neoplasm has been progressively increasing in recent years in the industrialized countries. One of the reasons for this increased incidence could be better access to health care and improved diagnosis in the industrialized countries. It also appears that Caucasians have a higher incidence than blacks or Hispanics or Asians. A number of risk factors have been identified and described including the genetic, ethnic and age-based factors. Certain occupational and environmental factors are also believed to influence the risk of primary adult brain tumors. Potential occupational and environmental factors include exposure to diagnostic and therapeutic radiations, electromagnetic radiation from cellular phones and other wireless devices, infectious agents, air pollution and residence near landfills and high-voltage power lines and jobs as firefighters, farmers, physician, chemists and jobs in industries such as petrochemical, power generation, synthetic rubber manufacturing, agricultural chemicals manufacturing. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine occupational and environmental risk factors of brain neoplasm. A range of occupational and environmental exposures are evaluated for significance of their relationship with adult primary brain tumors. On the basis of this review we suggest a concurrent evaluation of multiple risk factors both within and beyond occupational and environmental domains. The concurrent approach needs to consider better exposure assessment techniques, lifetime occupational exposures, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and lifestyle and dietary habits. This approach needs to be interdisciplinary with contributions from neurologists, oncologists, epidemiologists and molecular biologists. Conclusive evidence that has eluded multitude of studies with single focus and single exposure needs to multifaceted and multidisciplinary. PMID:23022824

  4. Frequency and Correlates of Posttraumatic-Stress-Disorder-Like Symptoms after Treatment for Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordova, Matthew J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed Quality Of Life (QOL) and symptoms similar to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women posttreatment for breast cancer. Negatively related PTSD symptomatology to QOL, income, and age. Time since treatment, type of cytotoxic treatment, and stage of disease were unrelated to PTSD symptoms. Suggests that in breast cancer survivors,…

  5. A Prospective Study of Autobiographical Memory and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between autobiographical memory and the onset and maintenance of distressing memories following cancer. In Study 1, participants recently diagnosed with head, neck, or lung cancer were assessed for acute stress disorder (ASD). Participants with ASD reported fewer specific memories than did…

  6. An Occupational Study in Nurses: Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and Cancer in Comparison to Health Check-up Female

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. It is known that a great extent of radiation is emitted from the medical instruments used in hospitals and that radiation exposure can cause thyroid cancer. However, the correlation between occupational radiation exposure in hospitals and thyroid disease is not extensively recognized. Methods. The subjects of the study were female nurses, who worked at a single hospital and female, who had undergone a health examination at the same hospital during the same period. The 1,024 nurses and 2,631 healthy women were enrolled for the present study. All the participants were screened using thyroid ultrasonography, and fine-needle aspiration & cytology was performed on potentially malignant nodules. Results. Thyroid nodules were present in 315 nurses (30.8%) and 1,023 health check-up female (38.9%). Typically, 107 nurses (10.4%) and 201 health check-up female (7.6%) had suspicious nodule and were further tested with ultrasonography guided fine-needle aspiration & cytology. The 16 nurses (1.6%) and 38 health check-up female (1.4%) were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. The prevalence of thyroid nodules was enhanced in both the groups and a significant increase was noted in health check-up female group (P<0.05); however, no difference was seen in the incidence of thyroid cancer in both the groups (P>0.05). Conclusion. In our study, working in a hospital does not increase the prevalence of thyroid nodules or thyroid cancer. PMID:27334518

  7. Mortality and cancer incidence following occupational radiation exposure: third analysis of the National Registry for Radiation Workers.

    PubMed

    Muirhead, C R; O'Hagan, J A; Haylock, R G E; Phillipson, M A; Willcock, T; Berridge, G L C; Zhang, W

    2009-01-13

    Mortality and cancer incidence were studied in the National Registry for Radiation Workers in, relative to earlier analyses, an enlarged cohort of 174 541 persons, with longer follow-up (to 2001) and, for the first time, cancer registration data. SMRs for all causes and all malignant neoplasms were 81 and 84 respectively, demonstrating a 'healthy worker effect'. Within the cohort, mortality and incidence from both leukaemia excluding CLL and the grouping of all malignant neoplasms excluding leukaemia increased to a statistically significant extent with increasing radiation dose. Estimates of the trend in risk with dose were similar to those for the Japanese A-bomb survivors, with 90% confidence intervals that excluded both risks more than 2-3 times greater than the A-bomb values and no raised risk. Some evidence of an increasing trend with dose in mortality from all circulatory diseases may, at least partly, be due to confounding by smoking. This analysis provides the most precise estimates to date of mortality and cancer risks following occupational radiation exposure and strengthens the evidence for raised risks from these exposures. The cancer risk estimates are consistent with values used to set radiation protection standards. PMID:19127272

  8. Mortality and cancer incidence following occupational radiation exposure: third analysis of the National Registry for Radiation Workers

    PubMed Central

    Muirhead, C R; O'Hagan, J A; Haylock, R G E; Phillipson, M A; Willcock, T; Berridge, G L C; Zhang, W

    2009-01-01

    Mortality and cancer incidence were studied in the National Registry for Radiation Workers in, relative to earlier analyses, an enlarged cohort of 174 541 persons, with longer follow-up (to 2001) and, for the first time, cancer registration data. SMRs for all causes and all malignant neoplasms were 81 and 84 respectively, demonstrating a ‘healthy worker effect'. Within the cohort, mortality and incidence from both leukaemia excluding CLL and the grouping of all malignant neoplasms excluding leukaemia increased to a statistically significant extent with increasing radiation dose. Estimates of the trend in risk with dose were similar to those for the Japanese A-bomb survivors, with 90% confidence intervals that excluded both risks more than 2–3 times greater than the A-bomb values and no raised risk. Some evidence of an increasing trend with dose in mortality from all circulatory diseases may, at least partly, be due to confounding by smoking. This analysis provides the most precise estimates to date of mortality and cancer risks following occupational radiation exposure and strengthens the evidence for raised risks from these exposures. The cancer risk estimates are consistent with values used to set radiation protection standards. PMID:19127272

  9. Cadmium exposure and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies among the general and occupational populations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Xun, Pengcheng; Nishijo, Muneko; Carter, Sue; He, Ka

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association of cadmium exposure with the risk of prostate cancer in both the general and occupational populations. Online database searches were performed for studies of prostate cancer risk and cadmium exposure. Twelve cohort studies (5 in the general, 7 in occupational populations) and 9 case-control studies (3 in the general, 6 in occupational populations) were identified. Five/seven cohort studies in the general and occupational populations consist of 78,263/13, 434 participants with a mean follow-up of 12.1/43.0 years, respectively. Case-control studies include 334 cases/670 controls in the general population, and 1,315 cases/4,477 controls in occupational populations. Comparing the highest to the lowest category of cadmium exposure in the general population, the weighted relative risk of prostate cancer incidence and mortality among cohort studies, and the weighted odds ratio in case-control studies were 1.05 (95%CI [0.91, 1.22]), 0.83 (95%CI [0.35, 1.98]), and 1.27 (95%CI [0.58,2.78]), respectively. For occupational populations, the weighted OR in case-control studies was 1.17 (95%CI [0.85, 1.62]), and the weighted standardized mortality ratio in cohort studies was 98 (95%CI [75, 126]). Accumulated epidemiological evidence does not support the hypothesis that cadmium exposure may increase the risk of prostate cancer in either the general or occupational populations. PMID:27174617

  10. Occupational exposure to asbestos and man‐made vitreous fibres and risk of lung cancer: a multicentre case‐control study in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Carel, Rafael; Olsson, Ann C; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia‐Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Cassidy, Adrian; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Fevotte, Joelle; Fletcher, Tony; Mannetje, Andrea ‘t; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the contribution of occupational exposure to asbestos and man‐made vitreous fibres (MMVF) to lung cancer in high‐risk populations in Europe. Methods A multicentre case‐control study was conducted in six Central and Eastern European countries and the UK, during the period 1998–2002. Comprehensive occupational and sociodemographic information was collected from 2205 newly diagnosed male lung cancer cases and 2305 frequency matched controls. Odds ratios (OR) of lung cancer were calculated after adjusting for other relevant occupational exposures and tobacco smoking. Results The OR for asbestos exposure was 0.92 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.15) in Central and Eastern Europe and 1.85 (95% CI 1.07 to 3.21) in the UK. Similar ORs were found for exposure to amphibole asbestos. The OR for MMVF exposure was 1.23 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.71) with no evidence of heterogeneity by country. No synergistic effect either between asbestos and MMVF or between any of them and smoking was found. Conclusion In this large community‐based study occupational exposure to asbestos and MMVF does not appear to contribute to the lung cancer burden in men in Central and Eastern Europe. In contrast, in the UK the authors found an increased risk of lung cancer following exposure to asbestos. Differences in fibre type and circumstances of exposure may explain these results. PMID:17053017

  11. Identification of occupational cancer risks in British Columbia. A population-based case-control study of 995 incident breast cancer cases by menopausal status, controlling for confounding factors.

    PubMed

    Band, P R; Le, N D; Fang, R; Deschamps, M; Gallagher, R P; Yang, P

    2000-03-01

    Lifetime occupational histories as well as information on known and suspected breast cancer risk factors were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire from 1018 women with incident breast cancer ascertained from the British Columbia Cancer Registry, and from 1020 population controls. A matched case-control study design was used. Conditional logistic regression for matched sets data and the likelihood ratio were used in a two-step procedure and were performed separately for pre-menopausal women, post-menopausal women, and for all cases combined. Excess risk was noted for several white-collar occupations. Significantly increased risk was observed: (1) among pre-menopausal women: in electronic data-processing operators; barbers and hairdressers; in sales and material processing occupations; and in the food, clothing, chemical and transportation industries; (2) among post-menopausal women: in schoolteaching; in medicine, health, and nursing occupations; in laundry and dry-cleaning occupations; and in the aircraft and automotive, including gasoline service station, industries. Several significant associations were also seen in the combined group of pre- and post-menopausal women, particularly in crop farmers and in the fruit and vegetable, publishing and printing, and motor vehicle repair industries. The results of this study suggest excess breast cancer risk in a number of occupations and industries, notably those that entail exposure to solvents and pesticides. PMID:10738708

  12. [Occupational asthma].

    PubMed

    Pauli, G; Bessot, J C; Gourdon, C

    1992-12-01

    The diagnosis of occupational asthma requires the integration of a multiplicity of data; the history, cutaneous skin tests, biological tests, respiratory function tests and non-specific tests of bronchial hyperreactivity and specific bronchial provocation test. The history search for the presence of an atopic state, the occurrence of similar disorders in members of the same firm and also the timing of symptoms in relation to the occupational activities. Cutaneous tests are particularly helpful in IgE-mediated asthma in relation to the inhalation of animal or vegetable materials of glycoprotein origin. For haptens, the need for their prior coupling to a protein carrier causes problems which have not been entirely resolved. Laboratory tests run into the same snags. Respiratory function and non-specific bronchial provocation tests, confirm the diagnosis of asthma and enable the medium and long term prognostic to be assessed. Specific bronchial provocation tests are the most appropriate tests to establish an aetiological diagnosis in occupational asthma. Different technical methods are possible: quantitative administration of allergen aerosols, realistic tests, and tests using exposure chambers to achieve true test doses. The products responsible for occupational asthma are multiple. The different substances are characterised in a simplified manner: first animal matter (mammalian and arthropod allergens), secondly substances of vegetable origin (roots, leaves, flowers, grain and flour, wood and its derivates) and finally chemical products. The chemical products are primarily from the pharmaceutical and metal industries and above all from the plastics industry. PMID:1296320

  13. Clinical and Pathological Implications of Concurrent Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders and Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, L. L.; Ferreira, R. C.; Marcello, M. A.; Vassallo, J.; Ward, L. S.

    2011-01-01

    Cooccurrences of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer (DTC) have been repeatedly reported. Both CLT and DTC, mainly papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), share some epidemiological and molecular features. In fact, thyroid lymphocytic inflammatory reaction has been observed in association with PTC at variable frequency, although the precise relationship between the two diseases is still debated. It also remains a matter of debate whether the association with a CLT or even an autoimmune disorder could influence the prognosis of PTC. A better understanding about clinical implications of autoimmunity in concurrent thyroid cancer could raise new insights of thyroid cancer immunotherapy. In addition, elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in autoimmune disease and concurrent cancer allowed us to identify new therapeutic strategies against thyroid cancer. The objective of this article was to review recent literature on the association of these disorders and its potential significance. PMID:21403889

  14. A Case-Control Study of Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluids and Bladder Cancer Risk Among Men

    PubMed Central

    Colt, Joanne S.; Friesen, Melissa C.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Donguk, Park; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R.; Armenti, Karla; Waddell, Richard; Verrill, Castine; Ward, Mary H.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Moore, Lee E.; Koutros, Stella; Baris, Dalsu; Silverman, Debra T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Metalworking has been associated with an excess risk of bladder cancer in over 20 studies. Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are suspected as the responsible exposure, but epidemiologic data are limited. We investigated this association among men in the New England Bladder Cancer Study using state-of-the-art, quantitative exposure assessment methods. Methods Cases (n=895) and population controls (n=1,031) provided occupational histories during personal interviews. For selected jobs, exposure-oriented modules were administered to collect information on use of three MWF types: (1) straight (mineral oil, additives), (2) soluble (mineral oil, water, additives), and (3) synthetic (water, organics, additives) or semi-synthetic (hybrid of soluble and synthetic). We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating bladder cancer risk to a variety of exposure metrics, adjusting for smoking and other factors. Non-metalworkers who had held jobs with possible exposure to mineral oil were analyzed separately. Results Bladder cancer risk was elevated among men who reported using straight MWFs (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1–2.8); risk increased monotonically with increasing cumulative exposure (p=0.041). Use of soluble MWFs was associated with a 50% increased risk (95% CI=0.96–2.5). ORs were nonsignificantly elevated for synthetic/semi-synthetic MWFs based on a small number of exposed men. Non-metalworkers holding jobs with possible exposure to mineral oil had a 40% increased risk (95% CI=1.1–1.8). Conclusions Exposure to straight MWFs was associated with a significantly increased bladder cancer risk, as was employment in non-metalworking jobs with possible exposure to mineral oil. These findings strengthen prior evidence for mineral oil as a bladder carcinogen. PMID:25201311

  15. A Case-Control Study of Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluids and Bladder Cancer Risk Among Men

    PubMed Central

    Colt, Joanne S.; Friesen, Melissa C.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Donguk, Park; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R.; Armenti, Karla; Waddell, Richard; Verrill, Castine; Ward, Mary H.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Moore, Lee E.; Koutros, Stella; Baris, Dalsu; Silverman, Debra T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Metalworking has been associated with an excess risk of bladder cancer in over 20 studies. Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are suspected as the responsible exposure, but epidemiologic data are limited. We investigated this association among men in the New England Bladder Cancer Study using state-of-the-art, quantitative exposure assessment methods. Methods Cases (n=895) and population controls (n=1,031) provided occupational histories during personal interviews. For selected jobs, exposure-oriented modules were administered to collect information on use of three MWF types: (1) straight (mineral oil, additives), (2) soluble (mineral oil, water, additives), and (3) synthetic (water, organics, additives) or semi-synthetic (hybrid of soluble and synthetic). We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating bladder cancer risk to a variety of exposure metrics, adjusting for smoking and other factors. Non-metalworkers who had held jobs with possible exposure to mineral oil were analyzed separately. Results Bladder cancer risk was elevated among men who reported using straight MWFs (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1–2.8); risk increased monotonically with increasing cumulative exposure (p=0.041). Use of soluble MWFs was associated with a 50% increased risk (95% CI=0.96–2.5). ORs were nonsignificantly elevated for synthetic/semi-synthetic MWFs based on a small number of exposed men. Non-metalworkers holding jobs with possible exposure to mineral oil had a 40% increased risk (95% CI=1.1–1.8). Conclusions Exposure to straight MWFs was associated with a significantly increased bladder cancer risk, as was employment in non-metalworking jobs with possible exposure to mineral oil. These findings strengthen prior evidence for mineral oil as a bladder carcinogen. PMID:25018457

  16. What is the value of occupational therapy in return to work for breast cancer patients? A qualitative inquiry among experts.

    PubMed

    Désiron, H A M; Donceel, P; Godderis, L; Van Hoof, E; de Rijk, A

    2015-03-01

    An increasing number of patients are confronted with breast cancer (BC) and functional limitations after treatment. Occupational therapy (OT) is successful in return to work (RTW), but not yet available for BC patients. This paper explores experts' opinions on OT interventions for RTW in BC patients in the Belgian context. Primary data were topic-interviews with all heads of OT departments in Flemish University Hospitals (n = 5). Secondary data were four focus group interviews with care professionals in oncological rehabilitation (n = 41). All data were transcribed and thematic analysis was used. Integrated in multidisciplinary teamwork, OT interventions should have a holistic and client-centred approach, start early in the rehabilitation process, include workplace visits and contacts with relevant stakeholders, and use goal setting to start up tailor made rehabilitation, linking assessment of abilities and work. Occupational therapists are regarded as professionals who can effectively answer BC patients unmet needs regarding RTW due to their skill to bridge between care and workplace. According to the experts, OT interventions supporting RTW in BC patients are useful when integrated in regular healthcare. They agree on the components but organisational barriers should be removed, for example not providing reimbursement for including this type of support trough healthcare insurance. PMID:24961966

  17. Lung Cancer Risk from Occupational and Environmental Radon and Role of Smoking in Two Czech Nested Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tomasek, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of lung cancer from combined exposure to radon and smoking. Methodologically, it is based on case-control studies nested within two Czech cohort studies of nearly 11,000 miners followed-up for mortality in 1952–2010 and nearly 12,000 inhabitants exposed to high levels of radon in homes, with mortality follow-up in 1960–2010. In addition to recorded radon exposure, these studies use information on smoking collected from the subjects or their relatives. A total of 1,029 and 370 cases with smoking information have been observed in the occupational and environmental (residential) studies, respectively. Three or four control subjects have been individually matched to cases according to sex, year of birth, and age. The combined effect from radon and smoking is analyzed in terms of geometric mixture models of which the additive and multiplicative models are special cases. The resulting models are relatively close to the additive interaction (mixing parameter 0.2 and 0.3 in the occupational and residential studies, respectively). The impact of the resulting model in the residential radon study is illustrated by estimates of lifetime risk in hypothetical populations of smokers and non-smokers. In comparison to the multiplicative risk model, the lifetime risk from the best geometric mixture model is considerably higher, particularly in the non-smoking population. PMID:23470882

  18. Lung cancer risk from occupational and environmental radon and role of smoking in two Czech nested case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Tomasek, Ladislav

    2013-03-07

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of lung cancer from combined exposure to radon and smoking. Methodologically, it is based on case-control studies nested within two Czech cohort studies of nearly 11,000 miners followed-up for mortality in 1952-2010 and nearly 12,000 inhabitants exposed to high levels of radon in homes, with mortality follow-up in 1960-2010. In addition to recorded radon exposure, these studies use information on smoking collected from the subjects or their relatives. A total of 1,029 and 370 cases with smoking information have been observed in the occupational and environmental (residential) studies, respectively. Three or four control subjects have been individually matched to cases according to sex, year of birth, and age. The combined effect from radon and smoking is analyzed in terms of geometric mixture models of which the additive and multiplicative models are special cases. The resulting models are relatively close to the additive interaction (mixing parameter 0.2 and 0.3 in the occupational and residential studies, respectively). The impact of the resulting model in the residential radon study is illustrated by estimates of lifetime risk in hypothetical populations of smokers and non-smokers. In comparison to the multiplicative risk model, the lifetime risk from the best geometric mixture model is considerably higher, particularly in the non-smoking population.

  19. What is the value of occupational therapy in return to work for breast cancer patients? A qualitative inquiry among experts.

    PubMed

    Désiron, H A M; Donceel, P; Godderis, L; Van Hoof, E; de Rijk, A

    2015-03-01

    An increasing number of patients are confronted with breast cancer (BC) and functional limitations after treatment. Occupational therapy (OT) is successful in return to work (RTW), but not yet available for BC patients. This paper explores experts' opinions on OT interventions for RTW in BC patients in the Belgian context. Primary data were topic-interviews with all heads of OT departments in Flemish University Hospitals (n = 5). Secondary data were four focus group interviews with care professionals in oncological rehabilitation (n = 41). All data were transcribed and thematic analysis was used. Integrated in multidisciplinary teamwork, OT interventions should have a holistic and client-centred approach, start early in the rehabilitation process, include workplace visits and contacts with relevant stakeholders, and use goal setting to start up tailor made rehabilitation, linking assessment of abilities and work. Occupational therapists are regarded as professionals who can effectively answer BC patients unmet needs regarding RTW due to their skill to bridge between care and workplace. According to the experts, OT interventions supporting RTW in BC patients are useful when integrated in regular healthcare. They agree on the components but organisational barriers should be removed, for example not providing reimbursement for including this type of support trough healthcare insurance.

  20. Investigation of eating disorders in cancer patients and its relevance with body image

    PubMed Central

    Hossein, Seyyed Abbas; Bahrami, Masoud; Mohamadirizi, Shahla; Paknaad, Zamzam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorder is one of the most common health problems with clinical and psychological consequences, which can affect body image in cancer patients. Similar studies in this area for checking the status of this disorder and its relevance with body image in patients with cancer are limited. Therefore, this study was designed with the aim of determination of eating disorders in patients with cancer and their relevance with body image. Materials and Methods: The research was a cross-correlation study. It was carried out in Sayed-Al-Shohada Hospital affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Two hundred and ten patients with cancer were selected and were asked tocomplete the demographic and disease characteristics questionnaire, the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ), and eating disorders questionnaire. SPSS statistical software, version 14 was used for statistical analysis’-Test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for analyzing the obtained data. Results: The mean values of age, body mass index (BMI), and duration of illness were 48.2 ± 13.20 years, 24.6 ± 4.6kg/m2, and 25.64 ± 21.24months, respectively. Most patients were married (87%), without university education (96%), unemployed (67%), and with incomes below their requirement (52%). Most patients were diagnosed with breast cancer (36.5%). They received chemotherapy as the main treatment (56.2%). In addition, mean ± SD of eating disorders and body image were 12.84 ± 4.7 and184.40 ± 43.68, respectively. Also, 49.7% of patients with cancer had an eating disorder. Among these, 29% had experiences of anorexia and 20.7% had bulimia. There was a significant negative correlation between the score of body image and eating disorders (r = −0.47, P = 0.01). Conclusions: Findings of this study showed that most patients with cancer had experienced symptoms of eating disorders. This may lead to a negative impact on

  1. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & ... traumatic amputations cancer severe hand injuries multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy , and other chronic illnesses Occupational therapists might: help ...

  2. Occupation and malignant melanoma: a study based on cancer registration data in England and Wales and in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Vågerö, D; Swerdlow, A J; Beral, V

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the incidence of malignant melanoma according to occupation is presented using data from two national cancer registries. The data relate to 3991 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma, 662 cases of ocular melanoma, and 179 cases of noncutaneous, non-ocular melanoma in subjects aged 15-64 in England and Wales diagnosed from 1971 to 1978 and to 5003 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma diagnosed from 1961 to 1979 in Sweden in subjects born between 1896 and 1940. Professional workers of both sexes in both countries experienced an excess incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma. An excess of ocular melanoma and of non-cutaneous, non-ocular melanoma also existed for this group in England and Wales. Pharmacists, medical doctors, and dentists had a high incidence of cutaneous melanoma in both countries and were represented three times when listing the top 20 occupations in both countries and both genders. Combining the data from cutaneous malignant melanoma over both sexes and both registries the occupations with the highest incidence ratios (expressed as a percentage) were: airline pilots, incidence ratio (IR) = 273, (95% confidence limits 118-538); finance and insurance brokers IR = 245 (140-398); professional accountants IR = 208 (134-307); dentists IR = 207 (133-309); inspectors and supervisors in transport IR = 206 (133-304); pharmacists IR = 198 (115-318); professionals not elsewhere classified IR = 196 (155-243); judges IR = 196 (126-289); doctors IR = 188 (140-248); university teachers IR = 188 (110-302); and chemists IR = 188 (111-296). No particular exposure in the workplace seemed to link these groups and only a few worked in high technology environments. Many of the highest risk groups have in common a high level of education. In England and Wales and in Sweden this might correlate particularly with foreign travel abroad was more unusual than it is now, but evidence on present and past exposure to sun by occupation is needed to clarify the

  3. Quantitative cancer risk assessment for occupational exposures to asphalt fumes during built-up roofing asphalt (BURA) operations.

    PubMed

    Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Mayfield, David B; Goodman, Julie E; Butler, Eric L; Nascarella, Marc A; Williams, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer qualitatively characterized occupational exposure to oxidized bitumen emissions during roofing as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). We examine chemistry, exposure, epidemiology and animal toxicity data to explore quantitative risks for roofing workers applying built-up roofing asphalt (BURA). Epidemiology studies do not consistently report elevated risks, and generally do not have sufficient exposure information or adequately control for confounders, precluding their use for dose-response analysis. Dermal carcinogenicity bioassays using mice report increased tumor incidence with single high doses. In order to quantify potential cancer risks, we develop time-to-tumor model methods [consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dose-response analysis and mixtures guidelines] using the dose-time-response shape of concurrent exposures to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) as concurrent controls (which had several exposure levels) to infer presumed parallel dose-time-response curves for BURA-fume condensate. We compare EPA relative potency factor approaches, based on observed relative potency of BURA to B[a]P in similar experiments, and direct observation of the inferred BURA dose-time-response (scaled to humans) as means for characterizing a dermal unit risk factor. We apply similar approaches to limited data on asphalt-fume inhalation and respiratory cancers in rats. We also develop a method for adjusting potency estimates for asphalts that vary in composition using measured fluorescence. Overall, the various methods indicate that cancer risks to roofers from both dermal and inhalation exposure to BURA are within a range typically deemed acceptable within regulatory frameworks. The approaches developed may be useful in assessing carcinogenic potency of other complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic compounds. PMID:26515283

  4. Bladder cancer and occupational exposures in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

    PubMed

    Geller, Frank; Urfer, Wolfgang; Golka, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to carcinogenic substances and development of bladder cancer was assessed from a case-control study conducted in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The study consisted of 156 cases with bladder cancer and 336 controls with prostate cancer. The primary focus was the role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), since most individuals were considered exposed mainly to substances in this group. Data were collected from male patients who had applied for cancer rehabilitation treatment. Nominally significant smoking-adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimates were obtained for frequent exposures to bitumen (OR = 2.92, 95% CI 1.32-6.48) and tar (OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.04-4.21) and an ever exposure to paints (OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.10-2.61). A frequent exposure to pitch showed a non-significant elevated risk (OR = 3.06, 95% CI 0.77-12.10).

  5. Occupational Exposures and Lung Cancer Risk among Minnesota Taconite Mining Workers

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Elizabeth M; Alexander, Bruce H; MacLehose, Richard F; Nelson, Heather H; Ryan, Andrew D; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between employment duration, elongate mineral particle (EMP) exposure, and silica exposure and the risk of lung cancer in the taconite mining industry. Methods We conducted a nested case control study of lung cancer within a cohort of Minnesota taconite iron mining workers employed by any of the mining companies in operation in 1983. Lung cancer cases were identified by vital records and cancer registry data through 2010. Two age-matched controls were selected from risk sets of cohort members alive and lung cancer free at the time of case diagnosis. Calendar time-specific exposure estimates were made for every job and were used to estimate workers’ cumulative exposures. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. We evaluated total lung cancer risk and risk of histological subtype by total work duration and by cumulative EMP and silica exposure by quartile of the exposure distribution. Results A total of 1,706 cases and 3,381 controls were included in the analysis. After adjusting for work in hematite mining, asbestos exposure, and sex, the OR for total duration of employment was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.96–1.01). The ORs for quartile 4 versus 1 of EMP and silica exposure were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.57–1.19) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.70–1.35) respectively. The risk of each histological subtype of lung cancer did not change with increasing exposure. Conclusions This study suggests that the estimated taconite mining exposures do not increase the risk for the development of lung cancer. PMID:25977445

  6. The silence: the asbestos industry and early occupational cancer research--a case study.

    PubMed Central

    Lilienfeld, D E

    1991-01-01

    To gain insight into corporate activities regarding the identification of occupational carcinogens earlier in this century, the actions of one industry, the asbestos industry, were reviewed. This industry, in concert with many of its insurers, systematically developed and then suppressed information on the carcinogenicity of asbestos. The development of warnings for those exposed to the asbestos was delayed. As a result, millions of workers were exposed to the carcinogen and hundreds of thousands died. These events are placed into the context of similar activities in other industries during this time. Images p792-a p793-a p796-a PMID:2029056

  7. Cancer complicating chronic ulcerative and scarifying mucocutaneous disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, R.P. )

    1987-01-01

    Skin affected by a burn cancer is scarred, ulcerated, and often appears as erythema ab igne clinically in adjacent skin. The latent period in burn scar malignancy is much longer for SCC than BCC. Malignant melanoma and various sarcomas are reported to arise in burn scars, too. The other extreme on the temperature scale can less often result in enough permanent acral damage that poor wound healing may eventually result in cancer, usually SCC. About 1% of patients with chronic osteomyelitis develop cancer, usually SCC in sinus tracts. As with tumors arising in burn scars and chronic leg ulcers of varied etiology, black patients are disproportionately overrepresented in osteomyelitic malignancy. In nearly all of the patients with radiation-induced skin cancer, concomitant radiodermatitis is present. As with burn scar and osteomyelitic cancer, x-ray related cancer has a long latent period. Similar to burn scar cancer, SCC predominates in osteomyelitis and occurs on the extremities. BCC, when it arises, is more common on the face and neck in burn- and radiation-induced tumors. Multiple tumors are frequent as is recurrence in x-ray malignancy. Mortality is high: one out of three to four patients with burn scar, osteomyelitic, and radiation cancer die of dermatosis-related malignancy. Recently, radioactivity-contaminated gold rings have been implicated in causing SCC. Carcinoma tends to occur in irradiated benign dermatoses whereas sarcomas tend to complicate irradiated malignancies. Stasis ulceration and anogenital fistulae may rarely lead to cancer, SCC in the former and adenocarcinoma in the latter. SCC can rarely develop in four related conditions (acne conglobata, dissecting perifolliculitis of the scalp, hidradenitis suppurativa, and pilonidal sinus) after a lengthy latent period; prognosis is poor with a high metastatic rate. 147 references.

  8. Occupational Exposure to Hydrazine and Subsequent Risk of Lung Cancer: 50-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Joan K.; Wald, Nicholas J.; Springett, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hydrazine is carcinogenic in animals, but there is inadequate evidence to determine if it is carcinogenic in humans. This study aimed to evaluate the association between hydrazine exposure and the risk of lung cancer. Methods The cause specific mortality rates of a cohort of 427 men who were employed at an English factory that produced hydrazine between 1945 and 1971 were compared with national mortality rates. Results By the end of December 2012 205 deaths had occurred. For men in the highest exposure category with greater than two years exposure and after more than ten years since first exposure the relative risks compared with national rates were: 0.85 (95% CI: 0.18–2.48) for lung cancer, 0.61 (95% CI: 0.07–2.21) for cancers of the digestive system, and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.05–1.57) for other cancers. Conclusions After 50 years of follow up, the results provide no evidence of an increased risk of death from lung cancer or death from any other cause. PMID:26394402

  9. Occupational Cancer in the Black Population: The Health Effects of Job Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, David

    1983-01-01

    Cancer mortality rates among black workers employed in several United States industries are higher than those of their white co-workers and of the national black population. As a result of discriminatory employment patterns, blacks are disproportionately employed in “high-hazard” jobs, where they are exposed to carcinogens and other disease-producing substances. The elevated cancer mortality rates in black workers in these industries are a direct consequence of discriminatory employment patterns. The implications of these findings for physician practice, research, and national regulatory policy are discussed. PMID:6358521

  10. Occupational Exposure to Carbofuran and the Incidence of Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Matthew R.; Lee, Won Jin; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Alavanja, Michael C. R.

    2005-01-01

    Carbofuran is a carbamate insecticide registered for use on a variety of food crops including corn, alfalfa, rice, and tobacco. An estimated 5 million pounds of carbofuran is used annually in the United States, and 45% of urban African-American women have detectable levels of carbofuran in their plasma. Nitrosated carbofuran has demonstrated mutagenic properties. We examined exposure to carbofuran and several tumor sites among 49,877 licensed pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. We obtained information regarding years of use, frequency of use in an average year, and when use began for 22 pesticides using self-administered questionnaires. Poisson regression was used to calculate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusting for potential confounders. Lung cancer risk was 3-fold higher for those with > 109 days of lifetime exposure to carbofuran (RR = 3.05; 95% CI, 0.94–9.87) compared with those with < 9 lifetime exposure days, with a significant dose–response trend for both days of use per year and total years of use. However, carbofuran use was not associated with lung cancer risk when nonexposed persons were used as the referent. In addition, carbofuran exposure was not associated with any other cancer site examined. Although carbamate pesticides are suspected human carcinogens, these results should be interpreted cautiously because there was no a priori hypothesis specifically linking carbofuran to lung cancer. PMID:15743716

  11. Risk of cancer in an occupationally exposed cohort with increased level of chromosomal aberrations.

    PubMed Central

    Smerhovsky, Z; Landa, K; Rössner, P; Brabec, M; Zudova, Z; Hola, N; Pokorna, Z; Mareckova, J; Hurychova, D

    2001-01-01

    We used cytogenetic analysis to carry out a cohort study in which the major objective was to test the association between frequency of chromosomal aberrations and subsequent risk of cancer. In spite of the extensive use of the cytogenetic analysis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in biomonitoring of exposure to various mutagens and carcinogens on an ecologic level, the long-term effects of an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in individuals are still uncertain. Few epidemiologic studies have addressed this issue, and a moderate risk of cancer in individuals with an elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations has been observed. In the present study, we analyzed data on 8,962 cytogenetic tests and 3,973 subjects. We found a significant and strong association between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and cancer incidence in a group of miners exposed to radon, where a 1% increase in frequency of chromosomal aberrations was followed by a 64% increase in risk of cancer (p < 0.000). In contrast, the collected data are inadequate for a critical evaluation of the association with exposure to other chemicals. PMID:11171523

  12. Upper body pain and functional disorders in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Michael D; Keole, Nandita

    2014-02-01

    Upper body pain and dysfunction are common in survivors of breast cancer. Disorders of the upper body can result directly from breast cancer or from the surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or hormonal therapies used in its treatment. Although considerable information is available regarding impairments such as pain and restricted shoulder range of motion associated with breast cancer and its treatment, relatively little information is available about the specific neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, lymphovascular, and other diagnostic entities that underlie those impairments. This article will detail the common and specific causes of upper body pain and dysfunction in breast cancer survivors, including postsurgical pain, rotator cuff disease, adhesive capsulitis, arthralgias, cervical radiculopathy, brachial plexopathy, mononeuropathy, postmastectomy pain syndrome, lymphedema, axillary web syndrome, deep vein thrombosis, and cellulitis. Diagnostic specificity is a key first step to safely and effectively restore function and quality of life to breast cancer survivors. PMID:24360839

  13. Risk of oesophageal cancer among patients previously hospitalised with eating disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, David H.; Nowell, Siân L.; Clark, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma might be increased in patients with a history of eating disorders due to acidic damage to oesophageal mucosa caused by self-induced vomiting practiced as a method of weight control. Eating disorders have also been associated with risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus, including alcohol use disorders, as well as smoking and nutritional deficiencies, which have been associated with both main sub-types of oesophageal cancer. There have been several case reports of oesophageal cancer (both main sub-types) arising in patients with a history of eating disorders. Methods We used linked records of hospitalisation, cancer registration and mortality in Scotland spanning 1981–2012 to investigate the risk of oesophageal cancer among patients with a prior history of hospitalisation with eating disorder. The cohort was restricted to patients aged ≥10 years and <60 years at the date of first admission with eating disorder. Disregarding the first year of follow-up, we calculated indirectly standardised incidence ratios using the general population as the reference group to generate expected numbers of cases (based on age-, sex-, socio-economic deprivation category-, and calendar period-specific rates of disease). Results After exclusions, the cohort consisted of 3617 individuals contributing 52,455 person-years at risk. The median duration of follow-up was 13.9 years. Seven oesophageal cancers were identified, as compared with 1.14 expected, yielding a standardised incidence ratio of 6.1 (95% confidence interval: 2.5–12.6). All were squamous cell carcinomas arising in females with a prior history of anorexia nervosa. Conclusions Patients hospitalised previously with eating disorders are at increased risk of developing oesophageal cancer. Confounding by established risk factors (alcohol, smoking, and nutritional deficiency) seems a more likely explanation than acidic damage

  14. Cancer of the larynx and other occupational hazards of mustard gas workers

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, K.P.; Skegg, D.C.; Stell, P.M.; Doll, R.

    1981-06-01

    An attempt was made to tract 511 men and women who manufactured mustard gas during the 1939-1945 war. Despite limitations in the identifying data available, 428 (84%) were traced to the end of 1974. The numbers of deaths from all neoplasms combined (45) and from all other causes (136) were slightly greater than those expected from national death rates, but not significantly so. Two deaths were attributed to carcinoma of the larynx and one to carcinoma of the trachea, compared with an expected number of 0.40 (P less than 0.02). Carcinoma of the larynx was also mentioned on the death certificate of another man. Seven subjects are known to have developed cancer of the larynx, compared with 0.75 expected (P less than 0.001). Excess mortality was also observed from cancer of the lung, pneumonia and accidents, but the excesses were small and difficult to interpret.

  15. Smoking, alcohol, occupation, and hair dye use in cancer of the lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Nomura, A; Kolonel, L N; Yoshizawa, C N

    1989-12-01

    This case-control study was based on 137 Caucasian and 124 Japanese cases of urinary tract cancer identified in Hawaii between 1977 and 1986. Each case was matched on sex, age, and race to two population-based controls. Heavy cigarette smokers (41 or more pack-years for men; 21 or more pack-years for women) had a significantly elevated risk compared with nonsmokers (odds ratio (OR) = 6.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-11.1 for the men; OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.3 for the women). When the men and women were combined, employment in high-risk industries (includes machinery, automotive, and textiles, among others) was significantly associated with cancer risk (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3). Alcohol intake and hair dye use showed weaker positive associations with risk that were not statistically significant.

  16. [History of the radiation damage in occupations].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryuji

    2014-03-01

    In the year following Röntgen`s discovery of X-rays in 1895, approximately 60 cases of hand dermatitis and hair loss induced by radiation were reported. People using X-rays in their occupation, including X-ray tube manufacturers, physicians, and engineers, experienced chronic radiation dermatitis and were the first to be diagnosed with occupational radiation exposure. Reports of later appearing disorders, including skin cancer, suffered by doctors and engineers, were regarded as serious occupational diseases. In the 1910's, blood disorders, including leukemia, in people with occupational exposure to radiation came into focus. Dial painters applying radium to watches with a luminous dial clock face suffered osteomyelitis from about 1914. Other radiation damage reports include radiation death and carcinogenesis in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, and radiation death in the Tokai-mura JCO accident in 1999. The details of radiation damage in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011 have not yet been reported, but must be followed in the future.

  17. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Motor Exhaust and Lung Cancer: A Dose-Response Relationship Hidden by Asbestos Exposure Adjustment? The ICARE Study

    PubMed Central

    Matrat, Mireille; Guida, Florence; Cénée, Sylvie; Févotte, Joelle; Carton, Matthieu; Cyr, Diane; Menvielle, Gwenn; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Radoï, Loredana; Schmaus, Annie; Bara, Simona; Velten, Michel; Luce, Danièle; Stücker, Isabelle; The Icare Study Group

    2015-01-01

    Background. In a French large population-based case-control study we investigated the dose-response relationship between lung cancer and occupational exposure to diesel motor exhaust (DME), taking into account asbestos exposure. Methods. Exposure to DME was assessed by questionnaire. Asbestos was taken into account through a global indicator of exposure to occupational carcinogens or by a specific JEM. Results. We found a crude dose response relationship with most of the indicators of DME exposure, including with the cumulative exposure index. All results were affected by adjustment for asbestos exposure. The dose response relationships between DME and lung cancer were observed among subjects never exposed to asbestos. Conclusions. Exposure to DME and to asbestos is frequently found among the same subjects, which may explain why dose-response relationships in previous studies that adjusted for asbestos exposure were inconsistent. PMID:26425123

  18. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND CANCER RISK FOR WORKERS AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    PubMed Central

    BAHR, DEBRA E.; ALDRICH, TIMOTHY E.; SEIDU, DAZAR; BRION, GAIL M.; TOLLERUD, DAVID J.; MULDOON, SUSAN; REINHART, NANCY; YOUSEEFAGHA, AHMED; MCKINNEY, PAUL; HUGHES, THERESE; CHAN, CAROLINE; RICE, CAROL; BREWER, DAVID E.; FREYBERG, RONALD W.; MOHLENKAMP, ADRIANE MOSER; HAHN, KRISTEN; HORNUNG, RICHARD; HO, MONA; DASTIDAR, ANIRUDDHA; FREITAS, SAMANTHA; SAMAN, DANIEL; RAVDAL, HEGE; SCUTCHFIELD, DOUGLAS; EGER, KENNETH J.; MINOR, STEVE

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) became operational in 1952; it is located in the western part of Kentucky. We conducted a mortality study for adverse health effects that workers may have suffered while working at the plant, including exposures to chemicals. Materials and Methods We studied a cohort of 6820 workers at the PGDP for the period 1953 to 2003; there were a total of 1672 deaths to cohort members. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a specific concern for this workforce; exposure to TCE occurred primarily in departments that clean the process equipment. The Life Table Analysis System (LTAS) program developed by NIOSH was used to calculate the standardized mortality ratios for the worker cohort and standardized rate ratio relative to exposure to TCE (the U.S. population is the referent for age-adjustment). LTAS calculated a significantly low overall SMR for these workers of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.72–0.79). A further review of three major cancers of interest to Kentucky produced significantly low SMR for trachea, bronchus, lung cancer (0.75, 95% CI: 0.72–0.79) and high SMR for Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (1.49, 95% CI: 1.02–2.10). Results No significant SMR was observed for leukemia and no significant SRRs were observed for any disease. Both the leukemia and lung cancer results were examined and determined to reflect regional mortality patterns. However, the Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma finding suggests a curious amplification when living cases are included with the mortality experience. Conclusions Further examination is recommended of this recurrent finding from all three U.S. Gaseous Diffusion plants. PMID:21468904

  19. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and subsequent risk of solid cancer--A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Ida; Basit, Saima; Jensen, Allan; Lykke, Jacob Alexander; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Kjær, Susanne K; Melbye, Mads; Boyd, Heather Allison

    2016-07-01

    Women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) have higher levels of antiangiogenic growth factors during pregnancy than women with normotensive pregnancies. Since angiogenesis is necessary for solid cancer growth and spread, we hypothesized that women with a history of HDP might have a reduced risk of solid cancers (cancers other than lymphomas, hematologic cancers and nonmelanoma skin cancers) later in life. In a register-based cohort study of 1.08 million women giving birth at least once between 1978 and 2011, we used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) comparing solid cancer rates for women with and without a history of HDP. In this cohort, 68,236 women (6.3%) had ≥1 pregnancy complicated by HDP and 42,236 women (3.9%) developed solid tumors during follow-up. A history of HDP was not associated with a clinically meaningful reduction in the overall rate of solid cancer (HR 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.92-1.00), regardless of HDP severity or time since HDP, nor was there a general tendency toward reduced solid cancer rates across organ sites. A history of HDP was only significantly associated with decreased rates of breast and lung cancers and with increased rates of endometrial and urinary tract cancers. Overall, our results do not support the hypothesis that women with a history of HDP have a reduced overall risk of solid cancer due to a persistent post-HDP antiangiogenic state or an innate tendency toward antiangiogenesis. Observed associations with specific cancers may instead be due to other pregnancy-related mechanisms or to residual/unmeasured confounding.

  20. Premature aging and cancer in nucleotide excision repair-disorders

    PubMed Central

    Diderich, K.; Alanazi, M.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    During past decades the major impact of DNA damage on cancer as ‘disease of the genes’ has become abundantly apparent. In addition to cancer recent years have also uncovered a very strong association of DNA damage with many features of (premature) aging. The notion that DNA repair systems not only protect against cancer but equally against too fast aging has become evident from a systematic, integral analysis of a variety of mouse mutants carrying defects in e.g. transcription-coupled repair with or without an additional impairment of global genome nucleotide excision repair and the corresponding segmental premature aging syndromes in man. A striking correlation between the degree of the DNA repair deficiency and the acceleration of specific progeroid symptoms has been discovered for those repair systems that primarily protect from the cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of DNA damage. These observations are explained from the perspective of nucleotide excision repair mouse mutant and human syndromes. However, similar principles likely apply to other DNA repair pathways including interstrand crosslink repair and double strand break repair and genome maintenance systems in general, supporting the notion that DNA damage constitutes an important intermediate in the process of aging. PMID:21680258

  1. Cytoprotection against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage by alpha-lipoic acid: implications in reducing occupational cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Budhwar, Roli; Nigam, Akanksha; Priya, Shivam

    2009-11-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (LA), the metabolic antioxidant, was evaluated for its potential to protect against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage. Potassium dichromate was administered to Swiss albino mice orally ad libitum at the doses of 5, 10 or 25 mg/kg body weight in drinking water to set DNA damage in cells, which was characterized in mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cells and bone marrow cells using single-cell gel electrophoresis and analyses of generated comets for Tail moment, Tail DNA and Tail length. DNA damage was dose dependent. Cytoprotection by LA was remarkable. LA (5, 10 and 25 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally) in pre-, co- and post-toxicant administration schedule abrogated DNA damage substantially in both cell types. Protection by LA was also dose dependent. LA annulled DNA damage by Cr(6+) in plasmid relaxation assay. A negligible DNA damage resulted during interaction of Cr(6+) and LA. Compared to ascorbate, LA emerged as a better antioxidant and least DNA damaging. In conclusion, our study advocated an experimental therapeutic research potential in LA against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage for reduction of occupational cancer risk in humans. PMID:19710206

  2. Does an immigrant health paradox exist among Asian Americans? Associations of nativity and occupational class with self-rated health and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    John, Dolly A; de Castro, A B; Martin, Diane P; Duran, Bonnie; Takeuchi, David T

    2012-12-01

    A robust socioeconomic gradient in health is well-documented, with higher socioeconomic status (SES) associated with better health across the SES spectrum. However, recent studies of U.S. racial/ethnic minorities and immigrants show complex SES-health patterns (e.g., flat gradients), with individuals of low SES having similar or better health than their richer, U.S.-born and more acculturated counterparts, a so-called "epidemiological paradox" or "immigrant health paradox". To examine whether this exists among Asian Americans, we investigate how nativity and occupational class (white-collar, blue-collar, service, unemployed) are associated with subjective health (self-rated physical health, self-rated mental health) and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders (any mental disorder, anxiety, depression). We analyzed data from 1530 Asian respondents to the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study in the labor force using hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models controlling for confounders, subjective social status (SSS), material and psychosocial factors theorized to explain health inequalities. Compared to U.S.-born Asians, immigrants had worse socioeconomic profiles, and controlling for age and gender, increased odds for reporting fair/poor mental health and decreased odds for any DSM-IV mental disorder and anxiety. No strong occupational class-health gradients were found. The foreign-born health-protective effect persisted after controlling for SSS but became nonsignificant after controlling for material and psychosocial factors. Speaking fair/poor English was strongly associated with all outcomes. Material and psychosocial factors were associated with some outcomes--perceived financial need with subjective health, uninsurance with self-rated mental health and depression, social support, discrimination and acculturative stress with all or most DSM-IV outcomes. Our findings caution against using terms like "immigrant health paradox" which oversimplify

  3. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Jealth) report on occupational safety and health for FY 1985, under Public Law 91-596

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The organization of NIOSH itself is briefly described and highlights of the occupational safety and health program conducted by NIOSH during fiscal year 1985 are reviewed. To combat illnesses related to work it is necessary to identify them and to establish various surveillance studies to quantify their existence. Studies conducted include the National Occupational Health Survey of Mines, a national study of coal-workers' pneumoconiosis, a fatal-accident circumstances and epidemiology study. Health-hazard evaluations were made during 1985 concerning occupational lung disease, indoor air quality, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancer, hazardous-waste sites, severe occupational traumatic injuries, neurotoxic disorders, and mixed categories such as exposure of roofers to chemicals. Efforts made to control exposures included studies of respirator limitations, protection against fibrous aerosols, vapor breakthrough times, physiological response to wearing protective clothing, ventilation systems, ethylene-oxide control, semiconductor manufacturing, and asbestos removal.

  4. A survey of occupational cancer in the rubber and cablemaking industries: results of five-year analysis, 1967-71

    PubMed Central

    Fox, A. J.; Lindars, D. C.; Owen, R.

    1974-01-01

    Fox, A. J., Lindars, D. C., and Owen, R. (1974).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,31, 140-151. A survey of occupational cancer in the rubber and cablemaking industries: results of five-year analysis, 1967-71. A mortality study of 40 867 subjects employed in the rubber and cablemaking industries on 1 February 1967 is reported. No evidence is found of a continued excess risk of neoplasms of the bladder in people who entered the industry after 1949. For those employed before that date, during the period when known bladder carcinogens were in use, the SMR is higher than predicted, indicating that men are still dying with occupationally induced tumours. An excess of all neoplasms was noted in the five years of the study. In certain sections of the industry (tyre manufacture, belting hose rubber with asbestos, and flooring industry) there is a particular excess of bronchial carcinoma. In those sections which use asbestos such an excess is not altogether surprising, but this does not apply to the tyre industry. The latter industry is sufficiently large (16 035 men in the study compared with 4 350 in the belting, hose rubber with asbestos, and flooring industry) for attention to be focused on particular operations. Two job groups are found to share the excess: moulding, press, autoclave, and pan curemen; and finished goods, packaging, and despatch. Job selection may play a part in the latter, as the work is generally considered suitable for older and perhaps less healthy people. Crude analyses have been undertaken to indicate whether the excesses are due to regional differences or to the population comprising an abnormally high proportion of smokers. No excesses are found in other smoking-related diseases. Although the effects of differences in smoking habit and regional differences cannot be ruled out, the indications are against these factors being the primary cause. The difficulties of this type of study are discussed. It is emphasized that the results can be used

  5. The Construction of Family Occupations: A Study of Families with Children Who Have Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    A qualitative study of daily experiences and adaptations of 17 families with children who have attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder found that parents develop strategies to enable children's competence with tasks. Successful strategies required changes in the daily routines of other family members. (SK)

  6. An assessment of occupation and industry data from death certificates and hospital medical records for population-based cancer surveillance.

    PubMed

    Swanson, G M; Schwartz, A G; Burrows, R W

    1984-05-01

    This study analyzed 30,194 incident cases and 4,301 death certificates for completeness of occupational reporting. Analysis of data accuracy was based upon a comparison of more than 2,000 death certificates with incident abstracts and 352 death certificates with interview data. Death certificates had a higher proportion with occupation (94.3%) and industry (93.4%) reported than did incident abstracts of hospital medical records (39.0% and 63.5%, respectively). Compared with occupational history data obtained by interview, 76.1% of the death certificates were exact matches for usual occupation and industry.

  7. Conversion disorder as psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in suspected cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Xavier F; Sharma, Jennifer S; Dar, Syma A

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), a form of conversion disorder, are paroxysmal episodes resembling epilepsy while lacking electrographic correlation. The phenomenon has rarely been reported in elderly patients and has not been associated with a new-onset medical diagnosis. We present the case of an 81-year-old female with no past psychiatric or traumatic history who developed PNES within the context of a new, suspected cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first such reported case of a suspected cancer (or otherwise medical) diagnosis contributing directly and temporally to the development of PNES. Discussion of involved psychosocial variables follows the vignette, and a brief review of relevant literature is offered.

  8. [Musculoskeletal disorders of upper extremities caused by biomechanical overload: methods and criteria for the description of occupational exposure].

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, E; Colombini, D

    1996-01-01

    This article presents and discusses a model for describing and evaluating the principal risk factors characterising occupational exposure: frequency and repetitiveness of movements, use of force, type of posture and movements, distribution of recovery periods, presence of other influential (complementary) factors. For each risk factor, the authors propose a method of practical detection in the field, as well as criteria for classifying and interpreting the results based on a critical review of the available literature on the subject. Numerous examples are supplied to better illustrate the concepts presented. The various factors considered are classified using numbers or indexes, so that they can be integrated into a concise exposure index described by the authors elsewhere in this volume.

  9. Risk of cancer from occupational exposure to ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study of workers in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States (INWORKS)

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, Elisabeth; Daniels, Robert D; Gillies, Michael; O’Hagan, Jacqueline A; Hamra, Ghassan B; Haylock, Richard; Laurier, Dominique; Leuraud, Klervi; Moissonnier, Monika; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is protracted exposure to low doses of ionising radiation associated with an increased risk of solid cancer? Methods In this cohort study, 308 297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66 632 known deaths by the end of follow-up, 17 957 were due to solid cancers. Study answer and limitations Results suggest a linear increase in the rate of cancer with increasing radiation exposure. The average cumulative colon dose estimated among exposed workers was 20.9 mGy (median 4.1 mGy). The estimated rate of mortality from all cancers excluding leukaemia increased with cumulative dose by 48% per Gy (90% confidence interval 20% to 79%), lagged by 10 years. Similar associations were seen for mortality from all solid cancers (47% (18% to 79%)), and within each country. The estimated association over the dose range of 0-100 mGy was similar in magnitude to that obtained over the entire dose range but less precise. Smoking and occupational asbestos exposure are potential confounders; however, exclusion of deaths from lung cancer and pleural cancer did not affect the estimated association. Despite substantial efforts to characterise the performance of the radiation dosimeters used, the possibility of measurement error remains. What this study adds The study provides a direct estimate of the association between protracted low dose exposure to ionising radiation and solid cancer mortality. Although high dose rate exposures are thought to be more dangerous than low dose rate exposures, the risk per unit of radiation dose for cancer among radiation workers was similar to estimates derived from studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Quantifying the cancer risks associated

  10. Marine natural product drug discovery: Leads for treatment of inflammation, cancer, infections, and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Villa, Francisco A; Gerwick, Lena

    2010-06-01

    Natural products, secondary metabolites, isolated from plants, animals and microbes are important sources for bioactive molecules that in many cases have been developed into treatments for diseases. This review will focus on describing the potential for finding new treatments from marine natural products for inflammation, cancer, infections, and neurological disorders. Historically terrestrial natural products have been studied to a greater extent and such classic drugs as aspirin, vincristine and many of the antibiotics are derived from terrestrial natural products. The need for new therapeutics in the four areas mentioned is dire. Within the last 30 years marine natural products, with their unique structures and high level of halogenation, have shown many promising activities against the inflammatory response, cancer, infections and neurological disorders. The review will outline examples of such compounds and activities.

  11. Clinical and Molecular Features of Laron Syndrome, A Genetic Disorder Protecting from Cancer.

    PubMed

    Janecka, Anna; Kołodziej-Rzepa, Marta; Biesaga, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Laron syndrome (LS) is a rare, genetic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The disease is caused by mutations of the growth hormone (GH) gene, leading to GH/insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF1) signalling pathway defect. Patients with LS have characteristic biochemical features, such as a high serum level of GH and low IGF1 concentration. Laron syndrome was first described by the Israeli physician Zvi Laron in 1966. Globally, around 350 people are affected by this syndrome and there are two large groups living in separate geographic regions: Israel (69 individuals) and Ecuador (90 individuals). They are all characterized by typical appearance such as dwarfism, facial phenotype, obesity and hypogenitalism. Additionally, they suffer from hypoglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and sleep disorders, but surprisingly have a very low cancer risk. Therefore, studies on LS offer a unique opportunity to better understand carcinogenesis and develop new strategies of cancer treatment. PMID:27381597

  12. Marine natural product drug discovery: Leads for treatment of inflammation, cancer, infections, and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Villa, Francisco A; Gerwick, Lena

    2010-06-01

    Natural products, secondary metabolites, isolated from plants, animals and microbes are important sources for bioactive molecules that in many cases have been developed into treatments for diseases. This review will focus on describing the potential for finding new treatments from marine natural products for inflammation, cancer, infections, and neurological disorders. Historically terrestrial natural products have been studied to a greater extent and such classic drugs as aspirin, vincristine and many of the antibiotics are derived from terrestrial natural products. The need for new therapeutics in the four areas mentioned is dire. Within the last 30 years marine natural products, with their unique structures and high level of halogenation, have shown many promising activities against the inflammatory response, cancer, infections and neurological disorders. The review will outline examples of such compounds and activities. PMID:20441539

  13. Conformational Stability and Catalytic Activity of PTEN Variants Linked to Cancers and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Sean B.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoinositides are membrane components that play critical regulatory roles in mammalian cells. The enzyme PTEN, which catalyzes the dephosphorylation of the phosphoinositide PIP3, is damaged in most sporadic tumors. Mutations in the PTEN gene have also been linked to autism spectrum disorders and other forms of delayed development. Here, human PTEN is shown to be on the cusp of unfolding under physiological conditions. Variants of human PTEN linked to somatic cancers and disorders on the autism spectrum are shown to be impaired in their conformational stability, catalytic activity, or both. Those variants linked only to autism have higher activity than those linked to cancers. PTEN-L, which is a secreted trans-active isoform, has greater conformational stability than does the wild-type enzyme. These data indicate that PTEN is a fragile enzyme cast in a crucial role in cellular metabolism, and suggest that PTEN-L is a repository for a critical catalytic activity. PMID:25647146

  14. [The occupational health of medical personnel of psychiatric institutions].

    PubMed

    Ruzhenskaia, E V

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the issues of self-assessment of occupational health by medical personnel of psychiatric service. The main issues and areas of occupation health disorders are identified. The main directions of disorders prevention are presented.

  15. The Risk of Cancer in Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Hu, Li-Yu; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chang, Wen-Han; Tang, Pei-Ling; Chen, Pan-Ming; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies suggest a link between anxiety disorders and cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of cancer among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using a nationwide population-based dataset. We recruited newly diagnosed OCD patients without antecedent cancer from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2002 and 2011. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated for 22 specific cancer types among OCD patients and we determined the SIRs for subgroups according to age and sex group. In addition, because of a potential detection bias, a subgroup analysis stratified with the duration of the OCD diagnosis was carried out. Among the 52,656 OCD patients, who were followed up for 259,945 person-years (median follow-up = 4.9 years), there were 718 cases of cancer. Patients with OCD did not exhibit an increased overall cancer risk relative to the general population (SIR 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98–1.13). An increased SIR was observed among OCD patients only within the first year of OCD diagnosis (SIR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01–1.43). This study indicated that the overall cancer risk was not elevated among OCD patients. An increased SIR observed among OCD patients within the first year of OCD diagnosis may be caused by a surveillance bias, and because paraneoplastic manifestations presented with obsessive-compulsive behaviors. Prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:26945419

  16. Predictors for Reconstruction and Mood Disorder Associated With Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer and Mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hsueh-Hsing; Chu, Chun-Hui; Wu, Li-Fen; Hsieh, Pi-Ching; Chang, Kun-Chia; Li, Chung-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance medical claims to investigate the predictors for operative modes chosen by early-stage breast cancer patients; as well as to assess whether operative modes are associated with risk of mood disorder. We included 36,377 patients with breast cancer who received surgery between 2000 and 2008, and were followed to the end of 2010; they were further classified into 3 groups: mastectomy alone (n = 34,900), along with early reconstruction (n = 1080), and along with delayed reconstruction (n = 397). The results showed that age, insurance premium, urbanization level, and postsurgery chemotherapy and radiotherapy were all significant predictors for the selection of operative modes. Breast cancer patients with mastectomy alone, early reconstruction, and delayed reconstruction showed a cumulative incidence rate of mood disorder of 36.90%, 41.56%, and 33.89%, respectively. The multiple cox proportional model further revealed that early (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93–1.21) and delayed (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.96–1.42) reconstruction were associated with a slightly higher but insignificant risk of mood disorder, as compared to the patients received no reconstruction. PMID:26817890

  17. Ability of Dental Students in Spain to Identify Potentially Malignant Disorders and Oral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cerero-Lapiedra, Rocío; Esparza-Gómez, Germán C; Casado-de la Cruz, Laura; Domínguez-Gordillo, Adelaida A; Corral-Linaza, César; Seoane-Romero, Juan M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of students at the School of Dentistry, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain, to diagnose oral cancer and other potentially malignant disorders, as well as to compare their ability at different stages of the learning process and evaluate their knowledge retention. Students were surveyed after they had studied oral medicine and oral pathology at two time points: midway through and near the end of their studies. The survey consisted of questions about 40 photographs of benign oral lesions, malignant oral lesions, and potentially malignant disorders. The response rate for all groups was greater than 70%. The results showed that these students' overall success rate in differentiating benign from malignant lesions averaged 73.9%. When the distinction for potentially malignant disorders was included, their average overall success rate decreased to 42.8% (p<0.001). Furthermore, the students' average success rate was at its lowest at the end of the dental program (p<0.001). Results from this study suggest that, given these students' difficulties in identifying potentially malignant disorders, an increased emphasis on cancer education in the dental curriculum may be needed for future practitioners to master this ability. PMID:26246535

  18. Orexin receptors: multi-functional therapeutic targets for sleeping disorders, eating disorders, drug addiction, cancers and other physiological disorders.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tian-Rui; Yang, Yang; Ward, Richard; Gao, Linghuan; Liu, Ying

    2013-12-01

    The orexin peptides (orexin A, orexin B) and their receptors (orexin receptor type 1, orexin receptor type 2) are involved in multiple physiological processes such as the regulation of sleep/wakefulness state, energy homeostasis and reward seeking. A result of this has been the development of small-molecule orexin receptor antagonists as novel therapies for the treatment of insomnia and drug addiction. Increased levels of signaling via the orexin peptide/receptor system may protect against obesity, while somewhat unexpectedly, orexins acting at orexin receptors induce dramatic apoptosis resulting in the significant reduction of cell growth in various cancer cell lines. Meanwhile, the orexin peptide/receptor system is also involved in cardiovascular modulation, neuroendocrine and reproduction regulation. This review summarizes the latest developments in deciphering the biology of orexin signaling as well as efforts to manipulate orexin signaling pharmacologically.

  19. Cerebellar Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... balance. Problems with the cerebellum include Cancer Genetic disorders Ataxias - failure of muscle control in the arms and legs that result in movement disorders Degeneration - disorders caused by brain cells decreasing in ...

  20. Complex Relationships between Occupation, Environment, DNA Adducts, Genetic Polymorphisms and Bladder Cancer in a Case-Control Study Using a Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Porru, Stefano; Pavanello, Sofia; Carta, Angela; Arici, Cecilia; Simeone, Claudio; Izzotti, Alberto; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    DNA adducts are considered an integrate measure of carcinogen exposure and the initial step of carcinogenesis. Their levels in more accessible peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) mirror that in the bladder tissue. In this study we explore whether the formation of PBL DNA adducts may be associated with bladder cancer (BC) risk, and how this relationship is modulated by genetic polymorphisms, environmental and occupational risk factors for BC. These complex interrelationships, including direct and indirect effects of each variable, were appraised using the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, study population included 199 BC cases and 213 non-cancer controls, all Caucasian males. Data were collected on lifetime smoking, coffee drinking, dietary habits and lifetime occupation, with particular reference to exposure to aromatic amines (AAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). No indirect paths were found, disproving hypothesis on association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk. DNA adducts were instead positively associated with occupational cumulative exposure to AAs (p = 0.028), whereas XRCC1 Arg 399 (p<0.006) was related with a decreased adduct levels, but with no impact on BC risk. Previous findings on increased BC risk by packyears (p<0.001), coffee (p<0.001), cumulative AAs exposure (p = 0.041) and MnSOD (p = 0.009) and a decreased risk by MPO (p<0.008) were also confirmed by SEM analysis. Our results for the first time make evident an association between occupational cumulative exposure to AAs with DNA adducts and BC risk, strengthening the central role of AAs in bladder carcinogenesis. However the lack of an association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk advises that these snapshot measurements are not representative of relevant exposures. This would envisage new scenarios for biomarker discovery and new challenges such as repeated measurements at different critical life

  1. Cadmium exposure and risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and case-control studies among individuals without occupational exposure history.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Xun, Pengcheng; Nishijo, Muneko; Sekikawa, Akira; He, Ka

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly types of cancer for both genders. Classified as a human carcinogen, cadmium has been related to diverse cancers. However, the association between cadmium exposure and the risk of pancreatic cancer is still unclear. We quantitatively reviewed the observational studies on the association of cadmium exposure with pancreatic cancer risk among individuals without occupational exposure history published through July 2014 in PubMed by using a fixed-effect model. Four prospective cohort studies (112,934 participants with 335 events) and two case-control studies (177 cases and 539 controls) were identified. The summarized relative risk (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.05 (95% CI = 1.58-2.66), comparing the highest to the lowest category of cadmium exposure. This positive association persisted in men (RR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.04-3.05) but not in women (RR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.63-1.65). Further research is needed to provide more solid evidence on the association of cadmium exposure with pancreatic cancer risk and to elucidate the underlying biological mechanism of the potential gender difference.

  2. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and childhood cancer: a concise review of case reports and future research considerations.

    PubMed

    Burd, Larry; Peterson, Leah; Kobrinsky, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    We reviewed the published literature on the relationship between childhood cancer and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). A Pub Med search identified 12 subjects with the co-occurrence of FASD and cancer. We included an additional case from the author's institution. Neuroblastomas comprised 6 of the 13 (46%) case reports, yet neuroblastomas comprise only about 10% of childhood cancers (z = 4.1; P < 0.001). Other than rhabdomyosarcoma, no other cancer was reported more than once. Few cases of childhood cancer associated with FASD were identified likely due to under ascertainment of FASD.

  3. Primary liver cancer and occupation in men: a case-control study in a high-incidence area in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Porru, S; Placidi, D; Carta, A; Gelatti, U; Ribero, M L; Tagger, A; Boffetta, P; Donato, F

    2001-12-15

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the association between occupation and risk of liver cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was carried out during 1997-1999 in the Province of Brescia, a highly industrialized area in Northern Italy with a high incidence of this neoplasm. The cases were 144 male patients with incident liver cancer (96% hepatocellular carcinoma). Controls were 283 male patients, matched to cases on age (+/-5 years), period and hospital of admission. Information on lifetime occupational history and alcohol consumption was obtained via interview. Specific occupational exposures to pesticides, solvents and other suspected hepatocarcinogens were evaluated. A blood sample was collected to detect hepatitis B and C infections. Odds ratios (OR) of occupational exposure and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for age, residence, education, heavy alcohol intake, hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibodies positivity were computed. A statistically significant increased OR was observed for employment in repair of motor vehicles (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1-12.3; 9 exposed cases, 10 exposed controls). Increased ORs, although not statistically significant, were found for field-crop farm workers, food and beverage processors, blacksmiths and machine-tool operators, electrical fitters, clerical workers, manufacture of industrial machinery and personal and household services. A slightly increased OR was noted in workers exposed to toluene and xylene (OR 1.4; 95% CI 0.7-3.0, 23 cases, 36 controls); the OR was 2.8 (95% CI 1.0-7.6, 11 cases, 12 controls) for 20 or more years of exposure and 2.0 (95% CI 0.9-4.1, 21 cases, 28 controls) for 30 or more years of time since first exposure. The increase in OR seemed to be independent from that of alcohol or viral infections. Our study showed that the role of occupational exposures in liver carcinogenesis is limited. However, prolonged exposure to organic solvents such as toluene and xylene may

  4. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This article shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change over the 2008-2018 decade. The…

  5. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This paper shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change from 2010 to 2020. It presents…

  6. Factors affecting the perception of whole-body vibration of occupational drivers: an analysis of posture and manual materials handling and musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Raffler, Nastaran; Ellegast, Rolf; Kraus, Thomas; Ochsmann, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high cost of conducting field measurements, questionnaires are usually preferred for the assessment of physical workloads and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This study compares the physical workloads of whole-body vibration (WBV) and awkward postures by direct field measurements and self-reported data of 45 occupational drivers. Manual materials handling (MMH) and MSDs were also investigated to analyse their effect on drivers' perception. Although the measured values for WBV exposure were very similarly distributed among the drivers, the subjects' perception differed significantly. Concerning posture, subjects seemed to estimate much better when the difference in exposure was significantly large. The percentage of measured awkward trunk and head inclination were significantly higher for WBV-overestimating subjects than non-overestimators; 77 and 80% vs. 36 and 33%. Health complaints in terms of thoracic spine, cervical spine and shoulder–arm were also significantly more reported by WBV-overestimating subjects (42, 67, 50% vs. 0, 25, 13%, respectively). Although more MMH was reported by WBV-overestimating subjects, there was no statistical significance in this study. PMID:26114619

  7. Studies on the progress of occupational cervicobrachial disorder by analysing the subjective symptoms of work-women in assembly lines of a cigarette factory.

    PubMed

    Maeda, K; Hirayama, H; Chang, C P; Takamatsu, M

    1979-09-01

    The Committee on Cervicobrachial Syndrome in Japan Association of Industrial Health (JAIH) made a report on the questionnaires for checking for the complaints of patients suffering from Occupational Cervicobrachial Disorder (OCD). In order to reveal how the complaints develop in the progress of OCD, we analysed the complaints of 117 workwomen in assembly lines of a cigarette factory by using the questionnaires. And the followings were made clear: 1) At the mild stage of OCD, stiffness or dullness at the neck and shoulders, and eyestrain become remarkable. 2) At the moderate stage, pain at the neck, shoulders, arms and hands, dullness at extremities, general fatigue, pain or heavy feeling in the head, increased irritability etc. become remarkable in addition to the mild stage complaints. 3) At the severe stage, pain and dullness at the back, numbness at arms and hands, hand coldness, sleep disturbance etc. become remarkable in addition to the moderate stage complaints. 4) Various sufferings in daily life such as "I want to lie down at rest time," "I lack patience to go on reading long," "It is hard for me to go on writing long," and "Fixed sitting soon tires me" become more and more frequent as the stage advances. We consider it is important in the diagnosis of OCD to pay attention to the general symptoms such as general fatigue, pain or heavy feeling in the head, increased irritability and sleep disturbance, together with complaints at the neck, shoulders, arms and hands.

  8. Occupational upper extremity disorders in the federal workforce. Prevalence, health care expenditures, and patterns of work disability.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, M; Miller, V L; Burrell, L M; Berger, R

    1998-06-01

    Upper extremity disorders (UEDs) account for a significant number of work-related illnesses in the US workforce. Little information exists on the distribution of UEDs, their associated health care and indemnity costs, or patterns of work disability. The study presented is an analysis of upper extremity claims within the federal workforce. In this study, the universe consisted of all claims accepted by the US Department of Labor, Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP), from October 1, 1993, through September 30, 1994. A total of 185,927 claims of notices of injury were processed during the study period, and of these, 8,147 or 4.4% had an UED diagnosis coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). 5,844 claims involved a single UED diagnosis and were the only claims field by these employees between October 1, 1990, and September 30, 1994. These single claims with single diagnoses comprised the sample for further analysis. Mononeuritis and enthesopathies of the upper limb were the most common diagnoses, accounting for 43% and 31% of the claims, respectively. Women had a higher proportion of carpal tunnel syndrome, "unspecified" mononeuritis, and "unspecified" enthesopathies. The majority of claimants for both the mononeuritis- and enthesopathy-related diagnoses were between 31 and 50 years of age, received only health care benefits, and did not incur wage loss. Health care costs for mononeuritis and enthesopathy claims were $12,228,755 (M = $2,849). Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and enthesopathy of the elbow were the most costly diagnoses, accounting for 57% and 16% of the total, respectively. Surgical services represented the highest expenditures in CTS claims. Physical therapy accounted for the majority of health care costs for enthesopathy cases. The mean number of workdays lost for CTS and enthesopathy claims were 84 and 79, and the average indemnity costs were $4,941 and $4,477, respectively. These

  9. Quality of Life in Swallowing Disorders after Nonsurgical Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marta Halina; Dedivitis, Rogerio A.; Queija, Débora Santos; Nascimento, Paulo César

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy can result in severe swallowing disorders with potential risk for aspiration and can negatively impact the patient's quality of life (QOL). Objective To assess swallowing-related QOL in patients who underwent radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Methods We interviewed 110 patients (85 men and 25 women) who had undergone exclusive radiotherapy (25.5%) or concomitant chemoradiotherapy (74.5%) from 6 to 12 months before the study. The Quality of Life in Swallowing Disorders (SWAL-QOL) questionnaire was employed to evaluate dysphagia-related QOL. Results The QOL was reduced in all domains for all patients. The scores were worse among men. There was a relationship between oral cavity as the primary cancer site and the fatigue domain and also between advanced cancer stage and the impact of food selection, communication, and social function domains. Chemoradiotherapy association, the presence of nasogastric tube and tracheotomy, and the persistence of alcoholism and smoking had also a negative effect on the QOL. Conclusions According to the SWAL-QOL questionnaire, the dysphagia-related impact on QOL was observed 6 to 12 months after the treatment ended. PMID:25992151

  10. Comparison of occupational exposure methods relevant to musculoskeletal disorders: Worker-workstation interaction in an office environment.

    PubMed

    Van Eerd, Dwayne; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Cole, Donald C; Wells, Richard; Mazumder, Anjali

    2012-04-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders have been associated with office work yet exposure quantification is challenging and not measured consistently. Our objective was to examine associations within and across exposure measurements guided by a conceptual model of three measurement locations: external to the body, at the interface, and internal to the body. Forty-one office workers (71% female), mean age 41 years (SD=9.6), mean height 168cm (SD=10.3), and mean weight 74kg (SD=19), were recruited from a large urban newspaper. Four methods of quantifying mechanical exposure were used linked to locations: equipment dimensions (external), relative fit and postures (interface), and EMG (internal). We explored: (1) a within-location analysis of relationships among methods; and (2) a cross-location analysis of relationships among methods. Exposure method comparisons showed mostly weak correlations among equipment variables, moderate correlations among posture variables, and strong or moderate correlations among EMG variables. For the majority of pair-wise comparisons between exposure measures across locations, the correlations were weak or moderate. Comparisons of relative fit revealed some differences in dimensions, postures, and EMG measures. Few strong associations between various exposure measures were found, although worker-reported relative fit holds promise. Future work might link exposure methods (specific measures) with locations for particular purposes.

  11. The occupational health and safety of flight attendants.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Robin F; Powell, David M C

    2012-05-01

    In order to perform safety-critical roles in emergency situations, flight attendants should meet minimum health standards and not be impaired by factors such as fatigue. In addition, the unique occupational and environmental characteristics of flight attendant employment may have consequential occupational health and safety implications, including radiation exposure, cancer, mental ill-health, musculoskeletal injury, reproductive disorders, and symptoms from cabin air contamination. The respective roles of governments and employers in managing these are controversial. A structured literature review was undertaken to identify key themes for promoting a future agenda for flight attendant health and safety. Recommendations include breast cancer health promotion, implementation of Fatigue Risk Management Systems, standardization of data collection on radiation exposure and health outcomes, and more coordinated approaches to occupational health and safety risk management. Research is ongoing into cabin air contamination incidents, cancer, and fatigue as health and safety concerns. Concerns are raised that statutory medical certification for flight attendants will not benefit either flight safety or occupational health.

  12. The occupational health and safety of flight attendants.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Robin F; Powell, David M C

    2012-05-01

    In order to perform safety-critical roles in emergency situations, flight attendants should meet minimum health standards and not be impaired by factors such as fatigue. In addition, the unique occupational and environmental characteristics of flight attendant employment may have consequential occupational health and safety implications, including radiation exposure, cancer, mental ill-health, musculoskeletal injury, reproductive disorders, and symptoms from cabin air contamination. The respective roles of governments and employers in managing these are controversial. A structured literature review was undertaken to identify key themes for promoting a future agenda for flight attendant health and safety. Recommendations include breast cancer health promotion, implementation of Fatigue Risk Management Systems, standardization of data collection on radiation exposure and health outcomes, and more coordinated approaches to occupational health and safety risk management. Research is ongoing into cabin air contamination incidents, cancer, and fatigue as health and safety concerns. Concerns are raised that statutory medical certification for flight attendants will not benefit either flight safety or occupational health. PMID:22606869

  13. Glutathione S-transferases M1-1 and T1-1 as risk modifiers for renal cell cancer associated with occupational exposure to chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Buzio, L; De Palma, G; Mozzoni, P; Tondel, M; Buzio, C; Franchini, I; Axelson, O; Mutti, A

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the possible interaction between occupational risk factors and genotype for glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 (GSTM1 and GSTT1) in renal cell cancer (RCC). Methods: One hundred patients with RCC and 200 outpatient controls were enrolled at Parma University Hospital. The polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1-1 (GSTM1) and T1-1 (GSTT1) were investigated by PCR; occupational history was collected by a structured questionnaire. Results: Subjects with GSTM1 present genotype showed higher risks for RCC, compared to GSTM1 null subjects, if exposed to metals (OR 2.73; 95% CI 0.91 to 8.22 v 1.14; 95% CI 0.46 to 2.82) or pesticides (OR 3.46; 95% CI 1.12 to 10.74 v 1.59; 95% CI 0.48 to 5.34). The GSTT1 present genotype also enhanced the risk (about twofold) of RCC among subjects exposed to solvents and pesticides, compared with those GSTT1 null. Conclusions: Results support the hypothesis that GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms can interact with several occupational exposures to significantly modify the risk of RCC among exposed subjects. PMID:14504370

  14. Occupancy of serotonin and norepinephrine transporter by milnacipran in patients with major depressive disorder: a positron emission tomography study with [(11)C]DASB and (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2).

    PubMed

    Nogami, Tsuyoshi; Takano, Harumasa; Arakawa, Ryosuke; Ichimiya, Tetsuya; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Kodaka, Fumitoshi; Sasaki, Takeshi; Takahata, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masayuki; Nagashima, Tomohisa; Mori, Takaaki; Shimada, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Hajime; Sekine, Mizuho; Tateno, Amane; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Okubo, Yoshiro; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2013-06-01

    Antidepressants used for treatment of depression exert their efficacy by blocking reuptake at serotonin transporters (5-HTT) and/or norepinephrine transporters (NET). Recent studies suggest that serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors that block both 5-HTT and NET have better tolerability than tricyclic antidepressants and may have higher efficacy compared to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies have reported >80% 5-HTT occupancy with clinical doses of antidepressants, but there has been no report of NET occupancy in patients treated with antidepressants. In the present study, we investigated both 5-HTT and NET occupancies by PET using radioligands [(11)C]DASB and (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2), in six patients, each with major depressive disorder (MDD), using various doses of milnacipran. Our data show that mean 5-HTT occupancy in the thalamus was 33.0% at 50 mg, 38.6% at 100 mg, 60.0% at 150 mg and 61.5% at 200 mg. Mean NET occupancy in the thalamus was 25.3% at 25 mg, 40.0% at 100 mg, 47.3% at 125 mg and 49.9% at 200 mg. Estimated ED(50) was 122.5 mg with the dose for 5-HTT and 149.9 mg for NET. Both 5-HTT and NET occupancies were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Both 5-HTT and NET occupancies were about 40% by milnacipran at 100 mg, the dose most commonly administered to MDD patients. PMID:23067569

  15. Crystalline silica and lung cancer: a critical review of the occupational epidemiology literature of exposure-response studies testing this hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Gamble, John F

    2011-05-01

    IARC (2009; Metals, Particles and Fibres. IARC Monographs on the Evaluaton of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Volume 100C. Lyon, France: IARC) concluded that crystalline silica in occupational settings is a lung carcinogen. This conclusion is based primarily on studies with exposure-response (E-R) analyses and a pooled analysis of 10 major studies with about 1000 lung cancer cases. The purpose of this review is to critically assess this cancer classification based on E-R analyses in 18 studies from eight countries with about 2000 lung cancer cases and the same database used by IARC (2009) . The most appropriate exposure-response analysis is selected from latest study with least effect from bias, confounding, and presented graphically to assist individual assessment of the weight of evidence. Strength of association is consistently weak in the majority of studies. At the highest exposure level the mean relative risk (RR) is 1.5; four studies have strong associations (RRs > 2), three have moderate strong associations (RRs 1.5-2.0), six have weak-negligible associations (RRs 1-1.5), and five have no associations (RRs ≤1.0). Biological gradients were an inconsistent finding. Three studies had clear positive E-R trends; 3 had suggestive trends; and 12 had no E-R trends, 9 of which were flat or negative. There was a negative ER slope using RRs at the highest exposure of each study. Consistent findings of weak associations and lack of E-R trends does not support a causal association. Weight of evidence from occupational epidemiology does not support a causal association of lung cancer and silica exposure, which is contrary to the IARC conclusion using essentially the same data.

  16. Relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disease: relevance of autoimmune thyroid disorders in breast malignancy.

    PubMed

    Giani, C; Fierabracci, P; Bonacci, R; Gigliotti, A; Campani, D; De Negri, F; Cecchetti, D; Martino, E; Pinchera, A

    1996-03-01

    The relationship between thyroid dysfunction and breast cancer (BC) is debated. To clarify this controversial issue, a prospective study on thyroid function in BC was performed. The prevalence of thyroid disease was examined in 102 consecutive BC patients with ductal infiltrating carcinoma after surgery and before starting any chemohormonal or x-ray therapy and in 100 age-matched control healthy women living in the same borderline iodine-sufficient geographic area. All subjects were submitted to clinical ultrasound thyroid evaluation and serum free T4, free T3, TSH, thyroperoxidase antibody, and thyroglobulin antibody determination. Fine needle aspiration was performed in all thyroid nodules. Estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR, respectively) were assayed in 92 and 55 BC specimens, respectively. The overall prevalence of thyroid disease was 47 in 102 (46%) in BC patients and 14 in 100 (14%) in controls (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of nontoxic goiter was 27.4% in BC patients and 11% in controls (P = 0.003). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found in 13.7% of BC patients and in only 2% of the controls (P < 0.005). Other thyroid disorders found in the BC group included 2 cases of Graves' disease, 2 of thyroid carcinoma, and 1 of subacute thyroiditis, whereas in the control group only 1 case of Graves' disease and none of the other disorders were found. Mean free T3, free T4, and TSH concentrations showed no difference between BC patients and controls. The prevalence of thyroperoxidase antibody was higher in BC patients than in controls (23.5% vs. 8%; P < 0.005), whereas the prevalence of thyroglobulin antibody was not different. In BC patients the presence of thyroid antibodies was more frequently associated with clinically detectable autoimmune thyroiditis (14 of 26, 51.8%; P = 0.03) and was more common in the younger group. The positivity of ER was found in 51 of 92 (55.43%) and that of PR was found in 26 of 55 (47.27%) BC specimens. No relationship was found

  17. The evaluation of the dust-related occupational respiratory disorders of dental laboratory technicians working in Denizli Province

    PubMed Central

    Yurdasal, Belkıs; Bozkurt, Nurgül; Bozkurt, Ali İhsan; Yilmaz, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dental laboratory technicians (DLTs) get exposed to fibrinogen dusts that are very risky dusts in terms of health. In this study, respiration complaints, pneumoconiosis frequencies and working conditions of the dental technicians in Denizli were investigated. METHODS: All of the registered DLTs working in Denizli were included in the study. A 30-item questionnaire was used to gather data about the participants and their working environments. Then, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were carried out and standard chest X-rays were taken in order to detect how much the respiratory systems of the workers were affected. Standard chest X-rays were evaluated according to International Labour Organizations classification. Depending on the screening results, technicians who were found to have had pathologies and suspected cases were examined. “High-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT)” was taken from those who were found to have pathology in their chest X-rays and they were evaluated according to the classification of Hering et al. RESULTS: There are a total of 166 DLTs working in Denizli Province participated in the study. One hundred and forty-three (86.1%) of the participants were male, and 23 of them were female. The mean age of the participants is 33.5 ± 8.1. Average working time of the workers is 16 years. Total exposure time was calculated 36,177 h. Approximately, 56% of workers were smokers. When the working conditions were considered, it was found that 98.8% of laboratories had a ventilation system. Technicians’ use of personal protective equipment is low. Participants’ often or continuous use of masks, gloves, goggles, and vacuum device was found 69%, 36%, 47%, and 63% respectively while working. About 21.2% of the technicians have respiratory symptoms while 15.2% of them have eye complaints. At the analysis of PFT results, 27.7% restrictive type pulmonary disorder was determined. At the analysis of chest X-rays; 1/0 profusion sub

  18. The Association between Treatment for Metabolic Disorders and Breast Cancer Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Goldvaser, Hadar; Rizel, Shulamith; Hendler, Daniel; Neiman, Victoria; Shepshelovich, Daniel; Shochat, Tzippy; Sulkes, Aaron; Brenner, Baruch; Yerushalmi, Rinat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the associations between metformin, insulin, statins, and levothyroxine and breast cancer characteristics and outcome. Methods. Retrospective chart review of patients treated in our institute for early estrogen receptor (ER) positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer, whose tumors were sent to Oncotype DX (ODX) analysis. Patients were grouped according to medications usage during the time of breast cancer diagnosis. Each group was compared to the rest of the study population. Results. The study cohort included 671 patients. Sixty (9.1%) patients were treated with metformin, 9 (1.4%) with insulin, 208 (31.7%) with statins, and 62 (9.4%) with levothyroxine. Patients treated with metformin had more intense ER stain (p = 0.032) and a lower ODX recurrence score (RS) (p = 0.035). Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was also associated with lower ODX RS (p = 0.014). Insulin usage was associated with a higher rate of angiolymphatic invasion (p = 0.041), but lower Ki67% (p = 0.017). Levothyroxine usage was associated with different histological subtype distribution (p = 0.02). Extended levothyroxine usage was associated with lower ODX RS (p = 0.005). Statin usage had no impact on tumor characteristics. Outcome was comparable in the studied subgroups. Conclusions. Common medications for metabolic disorders might be associated with breast cancer characteristics. PMID:27648070

  19. The Association between Treatment for Metabolic Disorders and Breast Cancer Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Rizel, Shulamith; Hendler, Daniel; Neiman, Victoria; Shepshelovich, Daniel; Shochat, Tzippy; Sulkes, Aaron; Brenner, Baruch; Yerushalmi, Rinat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the associations between metformin, insulin, statins, and levothyroxine and breast cancer characteristics and outcome. Methods. Retrospective chart review of patients treated in our institute for early estrogen receptor (ER) positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer, whose tumors were sent to Oncotype DX (ODX) analysis. Patients were grouped according to medications usage during the time of breast cancer diagnosis. Each group was compared to the rest of the study population. Results. The study cohort included 671 patients. Sixty (9.1%) patients were treated with metformin, 9 (1.4%) with insulin, 208 (31.7%) with statins, and 62 (9.4%) with levothyroxine. Patients treated with metformin had more intense ER stain (p = 0.032) and a lower ODX recurrence score (RS) (p = 0.035). Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was also associated with lower ODX RS (p = 0.014). Insulin usage was associated with a higher rate of angiolymphatic invasion (p = 0.041), but lower Ki67% (p = 0.017). Levothyroxine usage was associated with different histological subtype distribution (p = 0.02). Extended levothyroxine usage was associated with lower ODX RS (p = 0.005). Statin usage had no impact on tumor characteristics. Outcome was comparable in the studied subgroups. Conclusions. Common medications for metabolic disorders might be associated with breast cancer characteristics.

  20. The Association between Treatment for Metabolic Disorders and Breast Cancer Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Rizel, Shulamith; Hendler, Daniel; Neiman, Victoria; Shepshelovich, Daniel; Shochat, Tzippy; Sulkes, Aaron; Brenner, Baruch; Yerushalmi, Rinat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the associations between metformin, insulin, statins, and levothyroxine and breast cancer characteristics and outcome. Methods. Retrospective chart review of patients treated in our institute for early estrogen receptor (ER) positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer, whose tumors were sent to Oncotype DX (ODX) analysis. Patients were grouped according to medications usage during the time of breast cancer diagnosis. Each group was compared to the rest of the study population. Results. The study cohort included 671 patients. Sixty (9.1%) patients were treated with metformin, 9 (1.4%) with insulin, 208 (31.7%) with statins, and 62 (9.4%) with levothyroxine. Patients treated with metformin had more intense ER stain (p = 0.032) and a lower ODX recurrence score (RS) (p = 0.035). Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was also associated with lower ODX RS (p = 0.014). Insulin usage was associated with a higher rate of angiolymphatic invasion (p = 0.041), but lower Ki67% (p = 0.017). Levothyroxine usage was associated with different histological subtype distribution (p = 0.02). Extended levothyroxine usage was associated with lower ODX RS (p = 0.005). Statin usage had no impact on tumor characteristics. Outcome was comparable in the studied subgroups. Conclusions. Common medications for metabolic disorders might be associated with breast cancer characteristics. PMID:27648070

  1. Occupational Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country’s ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives – notably work by Biko and Fanon – and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term ‘consciousness’ in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation. PMID:26549984

  2. Occupational Sleep Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Philip; Drake, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms significantly impact almost all aspects of human behavior and are therefore relevant to occupational sleep medicine, which is focused predominantly around workplace productivity, safety, and health. In this article, 5 main factors that influence occupational functioning are reviewed: (1) sleep deprivation, (2) disordered sleep, (3) circadian rhythms, (4) common medical illnesses that affect sleep and sleepiness, and (5) medications that affect sleep and sleepiness. Consequences of disturbed sleep and sleepiness are also reviewed, including cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor functioning and drowsy driving. PMID:26972034

  3. Primary prevention of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Eylenbosch, W.J. ); Depoorter, A.M. ); Van Larebeke, N. )

    1988-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings: Cancer registration in Europe; Coordination and role in cancer control, Chemoprevention of cancer, Smokeless tobacco and cancer, Occupational risks from radiation, Stochholm cancer prevention program.

  4. Psychological Disorders and Psychosocial Resources of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Bladder and Kidney Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi-Long; Liu, Li; Li, Meng-Yao; Shi, Meng; Wang, Lie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Psychological disorders have been proven to be associated with poor physiological, psychological and immune outcomes in cancer patients. However, despite of many challenges of the changed self-image/body image and the altered sexual/urinary function, relatively little is known about psychological disorders of patients with newly diagnosed bladder and kidney cancer. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the associated psychosocial factors among bladder/kidney cancer patients. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients with bladder/kidney cancer in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 489 early-stage cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinical variables, depression, anxiety, PTSD, perceived social support and positive psychological variables (hope, optimism and resilience) anonymously during October 2013 and August 2014. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between psychosocial resources and psychological disorders, while controlling for possible covariates. Results The prevalence of depression, anxiety and PTSD was 77.5%, 69.3% and 25.2%, respectively, while 24.9% of patients had psychological co-morbidity. Psychosocial resources together explained more than one-third of the variance on psychological disorders. Under standardized estimate (β) sequence, patient’s perception of social support from family was significantly associated with depression, anxiety and PTSD (p < 0.01). Optimism and resilience showed integrated and independent effects on psychological disorders, and hope represented the significant association with PTSD only (p < 0.01). Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological disorders in newly diagnosed patients with early-stage bladder/kidney cancer should receive more attention in Chinese

  5. Cancer incidence among women and girls environmentally and occupationally exposed to blue asbestos at Wittenoom, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Reid, Alison; Heyworth, Jane; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Musk, Bill

    2008-05-15

    The impact of crocidolite exposure on the health of former Wittenoom miners and millers (largely male) has been well documented. Less is known about the health outcomes of the 2,968 women and girls who lived (N = 2,552) and worked (N = 416) in the blue asbestos milling and mining town of Wittenoom between 1943 and 1992. Quantitative exposure measurements were derived from dust studies undertaken over the lifetime of the mine and mill and the township. Incident cancers were obtained from the Western Australian (WA) Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Clearing House. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRS) compared Wittenoom females with the WA female population. Exposure-response relationships were examined using a matched case-control study design. There were (47) mesothelioma and (55) lung cancer cases among the 437 cancers in the Wittenoom females over the period 1960-2005. When compared to the WA female population, Wittenoom women and girls had higher rates of mesothelioma and possibly lung cancer. Mesothelioma incidence rates are increasing with the incidence rate of 193 per 100,000 in the period 2000-2005 being more than double that for the period 1995-1999 at 84 per 100,000. A significant exposure-response relationship was present for mesothelioma, but not for lung cancer. Forty years after the asbestos mine and mill at Wittenoom were closed, there is a high toll from cancer among the former female residents of the town and company workers.

  6. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce more of them in response to Allergic disorders Skin conditions Parasitic and fungal infections Autoimmune diseases Some cancers Bone marrow disorders In some conditions, the eosinophils can move outside ...

  7. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... parasites , particularly ones that invade tissue, cause eosinophilia. Cancers that cause eosinophilia include Hodgkin lymphoma , leukemia , and myeloproliferative disorders . If the number of eosinophils is only ...

  8. How Does an Occupational Neurologist Assess Welders and Steelworkers for a Manganese-Induced Movement Disorder? An International Team's Experiences in Guanxi, China, Part I

    PubMed Central

    Rutchik, Jonathan S.; Zheng, Wei; Jiang, Yueming; Mo, Xuean

    2016-01-01

    The Occupational Medicine Forum is prepared by the ACOEM Occupational and Environmental Medical Practice Committee and does not necessarily represent an official ACOEM position. The Forum is intended for health professionals and is not intended to provide medical or legal advice, including illness prevention, diagnosis or treatment, or regulatory compliance. Such advice should be obtained directly from a physician and/or attorney. PMID:23135302

  9. Assessment of coagulation disorders and cancer procoagulant activity in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Chojnowski, K; Treliński, J; Wawrzyniak, E; Sobolewska, M; Mielicki, W

    2002-01-01

    Hemostatic disorders mainly due to thrombocytopenia represent an important clinical problem in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Much less is known about the possible coagulation abnormalities. Thirty patients with MDS were studied. Activity of cancer procoagulant (CP), concentrations of activation markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis such as thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2) and D-dimers (DD) as well as standard coagulation tests were determined. Coagulation abnormalities concerned mainly patients with RAEB and RAEB-t. In this group the mean values of TATand F1+2 concentrations were significantly higher than in control indicating chronic coagulation activation similar to that observed in acute leukemias. CP activity in MDS patients did not differ from the control group.

  10. Occupational Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Dean

    1982-01-01

    Bronchospasm is a common cause of morbidity in the workplace. More than 100 agents are now recognized as occupational causes of asthma and numerous agents can cause exacerbations of preexisting asthma. Because of the large number of potential causative agents and the complexity of modern industrial processes, knowledge of the characteristic clinical features of occupational asthma is the key to recognizing this disease. Early diagnosis of occupational asthma is important in preventing long-term morbidity. Present evidence that prolonged exposure to some work-encountered agents can cause asthma that persists for years after the end of exposure suggests that avoidance is the only acceptable countermeasure against this disease. PMID:7164429

  11. Occupational Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Leslie C

    2016-05-01

    Occupational rhinitis (OR) involves nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing resulting from workplace exposures. OR can have a significant negative effect on quality of life and productivity. OR can be divided into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based on the underlying pathogenesis. Certain occupational exposures place employees at greater risk for developing disease. Primary treatment is avoidance of implicated exposures. Antihistamines, saline rinses, and nasal steroids may be useful. OR can coexist with occupational asthma, and rhinitis symptoms have been reported to precede those of the lower respiratory tract. OR is has both medical and socioeconomic implications. PMID:27083106

  12. Post-traumatic disorder symptoms and blunted diurnal cortisol production in partners of prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kamala S; Bower, Julienne E; Williamson, Timothy J; Hoyt, Michael A; Wellisch, David; Stanton, Annette L; Irwin, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer diagnosed in men, and research suggests that coping with this illness can cause significant distress in patients as well as their partners. This study examined the relationship of caregiving for a partner with PC with diurnal cortisol output in women between the ages of 42 and 75 years old. Participants were women whose partners had PC (n = 19) and women who were in relationships with men with no diagnosed medical illness (n = 26). Women provided saliva samples (4 times per day over 3 days) in their natural environment. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders was also conducted to assess for the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Partners of men with PC had lower daily cortisol output across the three days than controls, F(1,444.08) = 20.72, p<.001). They were also more likely to report PTSD symptoms with 68.4% of PC partners fulfilling criteria for sub-threshold PTSD as compared to 23.1% of controls (χ(2) = 11.30, p = .01). Mixed model analyses revealed that the presence of sub-threshold PTSD symptoms significantly predicted cortisol production, F(1,419.64) = 5.10, p<.01). Regardless of caregiver status, women who reported at least sub-threshold PTSD symptoms had lower cortisol production than those with no PTSD symptoms. Major depression did not explain differences in cortisol production between partners of PC patients and controls. Although these findings are preliminary, they highlight the importance of developing interventions aimed at reducing risk of psychopathology in partners of men with PC.

  13. Sleep Disordered Breathing Risk in Childhood Cancer Survivors: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruble, Kathy; George, Anna; Gallicchio, Lisa; Gamaldo, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is emerging as a significant health condition for children. The purpose of this study is to evaluate SDB symptoms in childhood cancer survivors and identify associations with quality of life (QOL) and psychological symptoms. Procedure A sample of 62 survivors aged 8–18 years were recruited during routine survivorship visits. All subjects and their parents completed questionnaires to evaluate sleep, QOL and psychological symptoms; scales included were: Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, Sleep Disordered Breathing Subscale (PSQ–SDBS), Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Continuous data were used for all scales and a threshold score of >0.33 on the PSA-SDBS was used to identify risk of SDB. The relationships between measures of sleep and independent variables were examined using Pearson correlations and multiple linear regression models for significant associations. Results Of the 62 subjects enrolled, underlying diagnoses included 29 leukemias, 30 solid tumors and 3 non-malignant diseases. Nineteen percent of subjects were identified as having SDB risk on the PSQ–SDBS. The lowest mean PedsQL subscale score for parent and child ratings were school QOL; Parent mean 73(±SD 19) and Child mean 71(±SD 20). The severity of SDB per the PSQ was significantly associated with reduced total and school QOL which remained significant after adjusting for stress. Conclusions Symptoms suggestive of SDB are common in childhood cancer survivors with negative implications for overall quality of life and school performance. PMID:25597930

  14. MicroRNAs as biomarkers for CNS cancer and other disorders.

    PubMed

    De Smaele, Enrico; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Gulino, Alberto

    2010-06-18

    The use of miRNAs as biomarkers has gained growing interest in the last few years. Their role in regulating a great variety of targets and, as a consequence, multiple pathways, makes their use in diagnostics a powerful tool to be exploited for early detection of disease, risk assessment and prognosis and for the design of innovative therapeutic strategies. While still not fully validated, profiling of blood cells, exosomes or body fluid miRNAs would represent a tremendous and promising advance in non-invasive diagnostics of CNS disorders. A major challenge is represented by technological aspects of miRNA detection and discovery aiming to genome-wide high throughput, sensitive and accurate analysis. Although there is much to be learned in the field, this review will highlight the potential role of miRNA as a new class of biomarkers in several CNS disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Huntington and Parkinson diseases, schizophrenia and autism as well as different types of cancer (e.g. gliomas and medulloblastomas).

  15. The Fraction of Cancer Attributable to Ways of Life, Infections, Occupation, and Environmental Agents in Brazil in 2020.

    PubMed

    Azevedo E Silva, Gulnar; de Moura, Lenildo; Curado, Maria Paula; Gomes, Fabio da Silva; Otero, Ubirani; Rezende, Leandro Fórnias Machado de; Daumas, Regina Paiva; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Meira, Karina Cardoso; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves; Moreira, Ronaldo Ismério; Koifman, Rosalina; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mello, Marcia Sarpa de Campos; Guedes, Thiago Wagnos Guimarães; Boffetta, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Many human cancers develop as a result of exposure to risk factors related to the environment and ways of life. The aim of this study was to estimate attributable fractions of 25 types of cancers resulting from exposure to modifiable risk factors in Brazil. The prevalence of exposure to selected risk factors among adults was obtained from population-based surveys conducted from 2000 to 2008. Risk estimates were based on data drawn from meta-analyses or large, high quality studies. Population-attributable fractions (PAF) for a combination of risk factors, as well as the number of preventable deaths and cancer cases, were calculated for 2020. The known preventable risk factors studied will account for 34% of cancer cases among men and 35% among women in 2020, and for 46% and 39% deaths, respectively. The highest attributable fractions were estimated for tobacco smoking, infections, low consumption of fruits and vegetables, excess weight, reproductive factors, and physical inactivity. This is the first study to systematically estimate the fraction of cancer attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors in Brazil. Strategies for primary prevention of tobacco smoking and control of infection and the promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity should be the main priorities in policies for cancer prevention in the country. PMID:26863517

  16. The Fraction of Cancer Attributable to Ways of Life, Infections, Occupation, and Environmental Agents in Brazil in 2020.

    PubMed

    Azevedo E Silva, Gulnar; de Moura, Lenildo; Curado, Maria Paula; Gomes, Fabio da Silva; Otero, Ubirani; Rezende, Leandro Fórnias Machado de; Daumas, Regina Paiva; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Meira, Karina Cardoso; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves; Moreira, Ronaldo Ismério; Koifman, Rosalina; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mello, Marcia Sarpa de Campos; Guedes, Thiago Wagnos Guimarães; Boffetta, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Many human cancers develop as a result of exposure to risk factors related to the environment and ways of life. The aim of this study was to estimate attributable fractions of 25 types of cancers resulting from exposure to modifiable risk factors in Brazil. The prevalence of exposure to selected risk factors among adults was obtained from population-based surveys conducted from 2000 to 2008. Risk estimates were based on data drawn from meta-analyses or large, high quality studies. Population-attributable fractions (PAF) for a combination of risk factors, as well as the number of preventable deaths and cancer cases, were calculated for 2020. The known preventable risk factors studied will account for 34% of cancer cases among men and 35% among women in 2020, and for 46% and 39% deaths, respectively. The highest attributable fractions were estimated for tobacco smoking, infections, low consumption of fruits and vegetables, excess weight, reproductive factors, and physical inactivity. This is the first study to systematically estimate the fraction of cancer attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors in Brazil. Strategies for primary prevention of tobacco smoking and control of infection and the promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity should be the main priorities in policies for cancer prevention in the country.

  17. The Fraction of Cancer Attributable to Ways of Life, Infections, Occupation, and Environmental Agents in Brazil in 2020

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo e Silva, Gulnar; de Moura, Lenildo; Curado, Maria Paula; Gomes, Fabio da Silva; Otero, Ubirani; de Rezende, Leandro Fórnias Machado; Daumas, Regina Paiva; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Meira, Karina Cardoso; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves; Moreira, Ronaldo Ismério; Koifman, Rosalina; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mello, Marcia Sarpa de Campos; Guedes, Thiago Wagnos Guimarães; Boffetta, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Many human cancers develop as a result of exposure to risk factors related to the environment and ways of life. The aim of this study was to estimate attributable fractions of 25 types of cancers resulting from exposure to modifiable risk factors in Brazil. The prevalence of exposure to selected risk factors among adults was obtained from population-based surveys conducted from 2000 to 2008. Risk estimates were based on data drawn from meta-analyses or large, high quality studies. Population-attributable fractions (PAF) for a combination of risk factors, as well as the number of preventable deaths and cancer cases, were calculated for 2020. The known preventable risk factors studied will account for 34% of cancer cases among men and 35% among women in 2020, and for 46% and 39% deaths, respectively. The highest attributable fractions were estimated for tobacco smoking, infections, low consumption of fruits and vegetables, excess weight, reproductive factors, and physical inactivity. This is the first study to systematically estimate the fraction of cancer attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors in Brazil. Strategies for primary prevention of tobacco smoking and control of infection and the promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity should be the main priorities in policies for cancer prevention in the country. PMID:26863517

  18. High levels of concomitant behavioral health disorders among patients presenting for HIV non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis at a Boston community health center between 1997 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sachin; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    A paucity of information regarding mental health exists for patients presenting for HIV non occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP). We reviewed electronic medical records of 894 adult nPEP patients seen at a large Boston community health center between 1997 and 2013. Of 821 patients with consensual sexual exposures, 88.3% were men who have sex with men, and 40.0% had a mental health diagnosis. Diagnoses included: depression (24.4%), anxiety (21.9%), attention deficit disorder (7.8%), post-traumatic stress disorder (3.3%), and psychotic disorders (3.3%). Of 129 patients with substance use disorders, alcohol dependence (65.9%) and crystal methamphetamine (43.4%) predominated. Unprotected receptive anal intercourse was associated with psychotic disorders (aOR=4.86;95%CI:1.76–13.5) and substance use disorders (aOR=1.89;95%CI:1.28–2.80). Substance use at the time of exposure was associated with: depression (aOR=1.95;95%CI:1.36–2.80), anxiety (aOR=2.22;95%CI:1.51–3.25), attention deficit disorder (aOR=1.96;95%CI:1.18–3.27), and substance use disorder (aOR=4.78;95%CI:3.30–6.93). Mental illness should be screened for and addressed at nPEP visits to optimize HIV risk-reduction. PMID:25689892

  19. Cancer and neurodegenerative disorders: pathogenic convergence through microRNA regulation.

    PubMed

    Du, Liqin; Pertsemlidis, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    Although cancer and neurodegenerative disease are two distinct pathological disorders, emerging evidence indicates that these two types of disease share common mechanisms of genetic and molecular abnormalities. Recent studies show that individual microRNAs (miRNAs) could be involved in the pathology of both diseases, indicating that the mechanisms of these two seemingly dichotomous diseases converge in the dysregulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Given the increasing evidence showing that miRNA-based therapeutic strategies that modulate the activity of one or more miRNAs are potentially effective for a wide range of pathological conditions, the involvement of miRNAs in the common pathways of leading both diseases suggests a bright future for developing common therapeutic approaches for both diseases. Moreover, the miRNAs that are dysregulated in both diseases may hold promise as uniquely informative diagnostic markers. Here, we review recent studies on the miRNAs that have been implicated in both cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Occupational Health

    MedlinePlus

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  1. A survey of occupational cancer in the rubber and cablemaking industries: analysis of deaths occurring in 1972-74.

    PubMed

    Fox, A J; Collier, P F

    1976-11-01

    The records of 40 867 men employed for at least one year in the rubber and cablemaking industries have now been observed for eight years. This analysis compares the mortality pattern for 1972-74 with that previously reported for 1968-71. It indicates a significant excess of deaths due to cancer of the bladder throughout the industry including men who had not been exposed to acknowledged bladder carcinogens. This excess is in deaths occurring in 1973 and 1974 in the 45-64 and 65 years plus age groups. The two sectors of the industry where this excess is significant are footwear and footwear supplies except adhesives, and the tyre sector. The excess of all cancers taken together previously noted throughout the study population for 1968-71 is confirmed for 1972-74 as is the excess for lung cancers. The greater excess in the tyre sector is also confirmed, particularly in those men in the 55-64 year age group and those who entered the industry between 1950 and 1960. While men employed in 1967 on moulding, press, autoclave, and pan curing, and workers in finished goods, stores, packaging, and despatch continue to have more lung cancer deaths than expected for 1972-74, the excess is no longer statistically significant. An excess of cancer of the stomach which was overlooked in 1968-71 is not confirmed in 1972-74 but is nevertheless high when the total period of study 1968-74 is considered. The limitations of the study are discussed with particular reference to extrapolating the results to the whole industry. We conclude that there is a higher rate of lung cancer in the tyre sector of the industry and that immediate investigations are required to test the hypothesis concerning the recent excess of bladder cancers. Attention should now be paid to the control of exposures to all potential hazards in the industry. PMID:999799

  2. [Occupational asthma].

    PubMed

    Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Cambray-Gutiérrez, Julio César; Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha

    2015-01-01

    The occupational asthma is the most common form of lung disease caused by factors that are attributed to a specific working environment in industrialized countries. It causes variable limitation of airflow and/or hyper-responsiveness of the airway due to contact with specific agents present in an atmosphere of work and not to stimuli found out of this place. It is recognized more and more frequently, and many agents are capable of causing occupational asthma by different pathophysiological mechanisms. More than 400 agents causing occupational asthma are known and every year new triggers are detected. Numerous factors contribute to the pathogenesis of occupational asthma induced chemically, including immunological, non-immunological mechanisms of epithelial damage, airway remodeling, oxidative stress, neurogenic inflammation as well as genetic factors. The most important risk factors for occupational asthma include: atopy, smoking and genetic factors. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history, skin tests, immunological tests and functional studies. The fundamental treatment is removing the worker from exposure as soon as possible. The advance in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of occupational asthma will importantly influence in the prevention and the management of this disease.

  3. Occupational health in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Koh, D; Jeyaratnam, J

    1998-07-01

    Singapore, a newly industrializing country in Southeast Asia, has a resident population of 3 million and a work force of 1.75 million. Most workers are employed in the manufacturing, services, and commerce sectors. Agricultural and mining activities are negligible. In 1996 the infant mortality rate was 3.8 per 1,000 live births and the life expectancy at birth was 77 years. In 1996 the total industrial accident rate was 2.7 per million man-hours worked and the severity rate was 353 industrial man-days lost per million man-hours worked. The shipbuilding and construction industries had the most frequent and most severe accidents. In the same year, 1,521 cases of occupational disease were notified to, and confirmed by, the Ministry of Labor. The majority of cases involved noise-induced hearing loss. There is substantial underreporting of cases. New cases that are expected to appear will be work-related illnesses such as musculoskeletal or psychosocial disorders. The principal occupational health legislation in Singapore is the Factories Act. Although it selectively targets workers at highest risk of developing occupational illness, its main limitation is the exclusion of nonfactory workers, who comprise 63% of the working population. Labor regulations are enforced by the Ministry of Labor. Workmen's compensation paid in 1995 amounted to S $46.6 million (U.S. $1=S $1.75). Education and training in occupational health is provided by employer federations, employee unions, and various government agencies. Occupational health is taught to medical students during their undergraduate training. Postgraduate-diploma and Masters programs in occupational medicine are also available. About 600 doctors in Singapore have some form of postgraduate training in occupational health. Health care for workers is offered either through the private sector or through government clinics and hospitals. Although Singapore has made great strides in protecting and promoting the health of its

  4. New developments in occupational dermatology.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, Thomas L

    2016-09-01

    Occupational skin diseases according to BK No. 5101 - "severe or recurrent skin diseases which have forced the person to discontinue all occupational activities that caused or could cause the development, worsening, or recurrence of the disease" - is the most commonly reported notifiable occupational diseases in Germany. Following the optimization of measures of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, today most individuals affected are able to continue their profession. With the revision of the German ordinance on occupational diseases (BKV) in January 2015, skin cancer caused by UV irradiation was added to the list of occupational diseases. The new occupational disease (BK) 5103 is defined as "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratoses of the skin caused by natural UV irradiation". In this context, "multiple" signifies the occurrence of either more than five individual actinic keratosis lesions over the course of 12 months or the presence of field cancerization of > 4 cm(2) . In the following review, important aspects of this new occupational disease will be highlighted and discussed. PMID:27607027

  5. Lung cancer and occupational exposures other than cotton dust and endotoxin among women textile workers in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Checkoway, H; Ray, R M; Lundin, J I; Astrakianakis, G; Seixas, N S; Camp, J E; Wernli, K J; Fitzgibbons, E D; Li, W; Feng, Z; Gao, D L; Thomas, D B

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Numerous epidemiological studies of lung cancer among textile workers worldwide consistently indicate reduced risks related to cotton dust exposure, presumably due to endotoxin contamination. Our objective was to investigate associations with other exposures potentially related to lung cancer, including wool and synthetic fibre dusts, formaldehyde, silica, dyes and metals, that have only been studied to a limited extent in the textile industry. Methods We conducted a cas–ecohort study nested within a cohort of 267 400 women textile workers in Shanghai, China. We compared work assignments and exposure histories of 628 incident lung cancer cases, diagnosed during 1989–1998, with those of a reference subcohort of 3188 workers. We reconstructed exposures with a job–exposure matrix developed specifically for textile factories. Cox proportional hazards modelling was applied to estimate age/smoking-adjusted relative risks (hazard ratios) and risk gradients associated with job assignments and specific agents other than cotton dust and endotoxin. Results No associations were observed for lung cancer with wool, silk or synthetic fibre dusts, or with other agents. However, increased risks, although statistically imprecise, were noted for ≥10 years’ exposures to silica (adjusted HR 3.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 13) and ≥10 years’ exposures to formaldehyde (adjusted HR 2.1, 95% CI 0.4 to 11). Conclusions Exposures to silica and formaldehyde, although not widespread among the cohort, may have increased lung cancer risk. Silica is an established human lung carcinogen, whereas there is only weak prior evidence supporting an association with formaldehyde. Both exposures warrant consideration as potential lung carcinogens in textile manufacturing. PMID:21131604

  6. [Occupational epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, W; Behrens, T; Mester, B; Schmeisser, N

    2008-03-01

    The aim of occupational epidemiology is to describe workplace-related diseases and to identify their underlying causes. Its primary goal is to protect workers from hazardous effects of the working process by applying work-related primary and secondary prevention measures. To assess health risks different study designs and a wide array of complex study instruments and methods are frequently employed that cannot be replaced by toxicological investigations. This paper primarily addresses health risks by agent exposures. In this context a central task of occupational epidemiology is careful assessment of exposure. Different data sources, such as work site measurements, register data, archive material, experts' opinion, and the workers' personal estimates of exposure may be used during this process. In addition, biological markers can complement exposure assessment. Since thorough occupational epidemiologic studies allow assessment of disease risks under realistic exposure conditions, their results should be more frequently used to derive workplace-related threshold limit values. PMID:18311483

  7. [Occupational eczema].

    PubMed

    Lachapelle, J M

    1998-05-01

    Cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis are less frequent nowadays than in the past: for instance the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis to cement chromates is decreasing steadily among building workers. On the other hand, new haptens do occur in our environment, due to the diversification of industrial techniques; e.g. methylchloro- and methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) present as a preservative in paints or varnishes, acrylates and methacrylates, or, at the hospital, glutaraldehyde, propacetamol or various antibiotics. A new entity has been clinically characterized: protein contact dermatitis. The prevention of occupational allergic contact dermatitis is multidisciplinary. It includes all aspects of prevention: primary, secondary and tertiary. PMID:11767354

  8. Accounting for Outcome Misclassification in Estimates of the Effect of Occupational Asbestos Exposure on Lung Cancer Death

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jessie K.; Cole, Stephen R.; Chu, Haitao; Olshan, Andrew F.; Richardson, David B.

    2014-01-01

    In studies of the health effects of asbestos, lung cancer death is subject to misclassification. We used modified maximum likelihood to explore the effects of outcome misclassification on the rate ratio of lung cancer death per 100 fiber-years per milliliter of cumulative asbestos exposure in a cohort study of textile workers in Charleston, South Carolina, followed from 1940 to 2001. The standard covariate-adjusted estimate of the rate ratio was 1.94 (95% confidence interval: 1.55, 2.44), and modified maximum likelihood produced similar results when we assumed that the specificity of outcome classification was 0.98. With sensitivity assumed to be 0.80 and specificity assumed to be 0.95, estimated rate ratios were further from the null and less precise (rate ratio = 2.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.59, 2.98). In the present context, standard estimates for the effect of asbestos on lung cancer death were similar to estimates accounting for the limited misclassification. However, sensitivity analysis using modified maximum likelihood was needed to verify the robustness of standard estimates, and this approach will provide unbiased estimates in settings with more misclassification. PMID:24352593

  9. Accounting for outcome misclassification in estimates of the effect of occupational asbestos exposure on lung cancer death.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessie K; Cole, Stephen R; Chu, Haitao; Olshan, Andrew F; Richardson, David B

    2014-03-01

    In studies of the health effects of asbestos, lung cancer death is subject to misclassification. We used modified maximum likelihood to explore the effects of outcome misclassification on the rate ratio of lung cancer death per 100 fiber-years per milliliter of cumulative asbestos exposure in a cohort study of textile workers in Charleston, South Carolina, followed from 1940 to 2001. The standard covariate-adjusted estimate of the rate ratio was 1.94 (95% confidence interval: 1.55, 2.44), and modified maximum likelihood produced similar results when we assumed that the specificity of outcome classification was 0.98. With sensitivity assumed to be 0.80 and specificity assumed to be 0.95, estimated rate ratios were further from the null and less precise (rate ratio = 2.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.59, 2.98). In the present context, standard estimates for the effect of asbestos on lung cancer death were similar to estimates accounting for the limited misclassification. However, sensitivity analysis using modified maximum likelihood was needed to verify the robustness of standard estimates, and this approach will provide unbiased estimates in settings with more misclassification.

  10. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  11. Measurements of pilots' occupational solar UV exposure.

    PubMed

    Chorley, Adrian; Higlett, Michael; Baczynska, Katarzyna; Hunter, Robert; Khazova, Marina

    2014-01-01

    It is known that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) increases by 10-12% every 1000 m altitude; UVR at the 10 000 m of typical cruise altitude for commercial aircraft may be 2-3 times higher than at ground level. Information on the levels of solar UV exposures is essential for the assessment of the occupational risk of pilots developing sun-related eye disorders and skin cancers. The aim of the study was to investigate how UV hazard exposures can be measured during flights so that the occupational dose can be ascertained and compared with international guidance. This article describes the development of instrumentation for automated time-stamped spectral measurements which were collected using bespoke automation software. The software enables the advanced acquisition techniques of automated dark signal capture and multiband integration control optimizing the dynamic performance of the spectrometer over the full spectral range. The equipment was successfully tested in a number of aircraft and helicopter flights during 2012-2013 and illustrated in this article on an example of a Gatwick-Alicante flight. PMID:24617948

  12. Measurements of pilots' occupational solar UV exposure.

    PubMed

    Chorley, Adrian; Higlett, Michael; Baczynska, Katarzyna; Hunter, Robert; Khazova, Marina

    2014-01-01

    It is known that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) increases by 10-12% every 1000 m altitude; UVR at the 10 000 m of typical cruise altitude for commercial aircraft may be 2-3 times higher than at ground level. Information on the levels of solar UV exposures is essential for the assessment of the occupational risk of pilots developing sun-related eye disorders and skin cancers. The aim of the study was to investigate how UV hazard exposures can be measured during flights so that the occupational dose can be ascertained and compared with international guidance. This article describes the development of instrumentation for automated time-stamped spectral measurements which were collected using bespoke automation software. The software enables the advanced acquisition techniques of automated dark signal capture and multiband integration control optimizing the dynamic performance of the spectrometer over the full spectral range. The equipment was successfully tested in a number of aircraft and helicopter flights during 2012-2013 and illustrated in this article on an example of a Gatwick-Alicante flight.

  13. Occupation and multiple myeloma: an occupation and industry analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Laura S; Milliken, Kevin; Stewart, Patricia; Purdue, Mark; Severson, Richard; Seixas, Noah; Blair, Aaron; Davis, Scott; Hartge, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy with a poorly understood etiology. The purpose of our research was to examine relationships between lifetime occupations and MM in a relatively large case-control study. Methods MM cases (n=180) were identified through cancer registries in the Seattle-Puget Sound area and Detroit. Population-based controls (n=481) were identified using random digit dialing and Medicare and Medicaid Services files. In-person interviews were conducted to ascertain occupational histories. Standard occupational classification (SOC) and standard industrial classification (SIC) codes were assigned to each job held by each participant. Unconditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between MM and having ever worked in each occupation/industry and according to duration of employment in an occupation/industry. Results The risk of MM was associated with several manufacturing occupations and industries, including machine operators and tenders, not elsewhere classified (SOC 76) (OR=1.8, CI=1.0–3.3); textile, apparel, and furnishing machine operators and tenders (SOC 765) (OR=6.0, CI=1.7–21); and machinery manufacturing, except electrical (SIC 35) (OR=3.3, CI=1.7–6.7). Several service occupations and industries, such as food and beverage preparation (SOC 521) (OR=2.0, CI=1.1–3.8), were also associated with MM. One occupation that has been associated with MM in several previous studies, painters, paperhangers, and plasterers (SOC 644), was associated with a non–significantly elevated risk (OR=3.6, CI=0.7–19). Conclusions We found associations between the risk of MM and employment in several manufacturing and service-related occupations and industries. PMID:20623662

  14. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Grzybowski, S.

    1976-01-01

    Occupational asthma is probably much more common than is generally realized. Though many causes have been described, undoubtedly many more are yet to be recognized. One of the diagnostic difficulties lies in the fact that in most forms of this disease a late asthmatic reaction occurs in the evening rather than at work. The pathogenetic mechanisms differ in various forms of occupational asthma. In some, an immunologic mechanism is likely; in others, a "pharmacologic" action of the offending agent is implicated. Asthma due to inhalation of dusts of western red cedar, isocyanates, detergent enzymes and textiles is considered in detail. Periodic examination of workers at risk is of value for early diagnosis and prevention of irrversible airway obstruction. PMID:766943

  15. Occupational Stress: Preventing Suffering, Enhancing Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Quick, James Campbell; Henderson, Demetria F

    2016-01-01

    Occupational stress is a known health risk for a range of psychological, behavioral, and medical disorders and diseases. Organizations and individuals can mitigate these disorders through preventive stress management and enhanced wellbeing. This article addresses, first, the known health risk evidence related to occupational stress; second, the use of preventive stress management in organizations as the framework for intervention; and third, the emerging domain of enhancing wellbeing, which strengthens the individual. Premature death and disability along with chronic suffering from occupational stress are not inevitable, despite being known outcome risks. PMID:27136575

  16. Occupational Stress: Preventing Suffering, Enhancing Wellbeing †

    PubMed Central

    Quick, James Campbell; Henderson, Demetria F.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational stress is a known health risk for a range of psychological, behavioral, and medical disorders and diseases. Organizations and individuals can mitigate these disorders through preventive stress management and enhanced wellbeing. This article addresses, first, the known health risk evidence related to occupational stress; second, the use of preventive stress management in organizations as the framework for intervention; and third, the emerging domain of enhancing wellbeing, which strengthens the individual. Premature death and disability along with chronic suffering from occupational stress are not inevitable, despite being known outcome risks. PMID:27136575

  17. Intrinsically disordered human C/EBP homologous protein regulates biological activity of colon cancer cells during calcium stress

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vinay K.; Pacheco, Ivan; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Smith, Steven P.; MacLeod, R John; Jia, Zongchao

    2009-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins are emerging as substantial functional constituents of mammalian proteomes. Although the abundance of these proteins has been established by bioinformatics approaches, the vast majority have not been characterized structurally and functionally. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) is a proto-oncogene, traditionally shown as a dominant-negative inhibitor of C/EBPs and a transcriptional activator of Activating Protein-1. We report here the in vitro characterization of CHOP, where our computational analyses and experimental evidences show for the first time that CHOP is an intrinsically disordered protein. Intrinsic fluorescence, NMR spectroscopy, and analytical size exclusion chromatography studies indicate that CHOP contains extensive disordered regions and self-associate in solution. Interestingly, the disordered N-terminal region plays a key role in the oligomerization of CHOP and is vital for its biological activity. We report the novel mechanistic role of CHOP in the inhibition of Wnt/TCF signaling and stimulation of c-Jun and sucrase-isomaltase reporter activity in intestinal colon cancer cells. These findings are discussed in the context of oligomerization of intrinsically disordered proteins as one of the mechanisms through which they exert their biological function. PMID:18534616

  18. Occupational Sex Roles and Occupational Prestige.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simerly, D. Emily; Ruback, R. Barry

    Past studies on the sex-typing of occupations have used a single bipolar scale, ranging from masculinity to femininity. An empirical examination of both occupational sex roles and occupational prestige was conducted using two unipolar scales to assess masculinity and femininity. College students (N=183) rated 94 occupations, which were then…

  19. Do shorter delays to care and mental health system renewal translate into better occupational outcome after mental disorder diagnosis in a cohort of Canadian military personnel who returned from an Afghanistan deployment?

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, David; Zamorski, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mental disorders in military personnel result in high rates of attrition. Military organisations have strengthened their mental health systems and attempted to overcome barriers to care in order to see better outcomes. This study investigated the roles of mental health services renewal and delay to care in Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel diagnosed with mental disorders. Design Administrative data were used to identify a retrospective cohort of 30 513 CAF personnel who deployed in support of the mission in Afghanistan. Study participants included 508 individuals with a mental disorder diagnosis identified from CAF medical records of a weighted, stratified random sample of 2014 individuals selected from the study cohort. Weighted Cox proportional hazards regression assessed the association of diagnosis era and delay to care with the outcome, after controlling for a broad range of potential confounders (eg, disorder severity, comorbidity). Taylor series linearisation methods and sample design weights were applied in generating descriptive and regression analysis statistics. Primary outcome The outcome was release from military service for medical reasons, assessed using administrative data for the 508 individuals with a mental disorder diagnosis. Results 17.5% (95% CI 16.0% to 19.0%) of the cohort had a mental disorder diagnosis after an Afghanistan-related deployment, of which 21.3% (95% CI 17.2% to 25.5%) had a medical release over a median follow-up of 3.5 years. Medical release risk was elevated for individuals diagnosed before 30 April 2008 relative to those with recent diagnoses (adjusted HR (aHR)=1.77 (95% CI 1.01 to 3.11)) and for individuals with a long delay to care (>21 months after return) relative to those with intermediate delays (8–21 months, aHR 2.47=(95% CI 1.28 to 4.76)). Conclusions Mental health services renewal in the CAF was associated with a better occupational outcome for those diagnosed with mental disorders. Longer

  20. Inherited Disorders as a Risk Factor and Predictor of Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Pediatric Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullrich, Nicole J.

    2008-01-01

    Each year in the United States, an average of one to two children per 10,000 develop cancer. The etiology of most childhood cancer remains largely unknown but is likely attributable to random or induced genetic aberrations in somatic tissue. However, a subset of children develops cancer in the setting of an underlying inheritable condition…

  1. Work, obesity, and occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Paul A; Wagner, Gregory R; Ostry, Aleck; Blanciforti, Laura A; Cutlip, Robert G; Krajnak, Kristine M; Luster, Michael; Munson, Albert E; O'Callaghan, James P; Parks, Christine G; Simeonova, Petia P; Miller, Diane B

    2007-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity and overweight may be related, in part, to adverse work conditions. In particular, the risk of obesity may increase in high-demand, low-control work environments, and for those who work long hours. In addition, obesity may modify the risk for vibration-induced injury and certain occupational musculoskeletal disorders. We hypothesized that obesity may also be a co-risk factor for the development of occupational asthma and cardiovascular disease that and it may modify the worker's response to occupational stress, immune response to chemical exposures, and risk of disease from occupational neurotoxins. We developed 5 conceptual models of the interrelationship of work, obesity, and occupational safety and health and highlighted the ethical, legal, and social issues related to fuller consideration of obesity's role in occupational health and safety.

  2. [Carcinoid tumours of the lung and definition of the medico-legal term "lung cancer" used in the list of occupational disease in Germany--results of the German Mesothelioma Register].

    PubMed

    Neumann, V; Fischer, M; Tannapfel, A

    2008-09-01

    Carcinoid tumours are considered to be malignant epithelial tumours according to the recent WHO classification. This study is based on the examinations of tissue from 108 patients with carcinoid tumours. Our data agree with those of other studies: carcinoid tumours developed mainly in the right lung (40 %) and the lower lobe (30 %), mean age was 56 years, typical carcinoid tumours (74 %) predominated, comparatively high proportion of females (32 %), the mean latency period after asbestos exposure - assuming asbestos as one causal factor - was 35 years. A higher incidence of carcinoid tumours (1.3 %) in the collective of the mesothelioma register compared to the incidence in the collective of all lung carcinomas (1 - 2 %) was not observed. The increased pulmonary asbestos burden analysed in 26 % of patients is explained by the exposure-dependent selection of patients in the register. So far, no association between smoking habits or exposure to other, i. e., occupational pollutions and the development of carcinoid tumours could be established. In the list of occupational diseases (No. 4104) the term "lung cancer" is used without further specification. Thus the following question remains open for discussion: does the term "lung cancer" include carcinoid tumours such as malignant epithelial lung tumours, or is it restricted to the common subtypes such as small cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma with regard to occupational disease and compensation?

  3. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in Treating Patients With Hematologic Cancer or Bone Marrow Disorder

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-01-25

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Diseases; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition

  4. Donor Peripheral Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Advanced Hematologic Cancer or Other Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-16

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Graft Versus Host Disease; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Diseases; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition

  5. Voice Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the vocal cords. Other causes of voice disorders include infections, upward movement of stomach acids into ... throat, growths due to a virus, cancer, and diseases that paralyze the vocal cords. Signs that your ...

  6. Peritoneal Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the peritoneum are not common. They include Peritonitis - an inflammation of the peritoneum Cancer Complications from ... peritoneal fluid to diagnose the problem. Treatment of peritoneal disorders depends on the cause.

  7. Pharmacological targets in the ubiquitin system offer new ways of treating cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Edelmann, Mariola J.; Nicholson, Benjamin; Kessler, Benedikt M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in the development and discovery of pharmacological interventions within the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) have uncovered an enormous potential for possible novel treatments of neurodegenerative disease, cancer, immunological disorder and microbial infection. Interference with proteasome activity, although initially considered unlikely to be exploitable clinically, has already proved to be very effective against haematological malignancies, and more specific derivatives that target subsets of proteasomes are emerging. Recent small-molecule screens have revealed inhibitors against ubiquitin-conjugating and -deconjugating enzymes, many of which have been evaluated for their potential use as therapeutics, either as single agents or in synergy with other drugs. Here, we discuss recent advances in the characterisation of novel UPS modulators (in particular, inhibitors of ubiquitin-conjugating and -deconjugating enzymes) and how they pave the way towards new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of proteotoxic disease, cancer and microbial infection. PMID:22088887

  8. Intrinsically disordered proteins and prostate cancer: pouring new wine in an old bottle

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    An inconvenient truth in urology is that despite decades of intense research, prostate cancer (PCa) has remained one of the most prevalent cancers and leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men, particularly in the industrialized world.1 It is rather sobering to acknowledge that even with early diagnosis and treatment, the incidence and death due to the disease are almost paradoxically projected to increase in the coming decades.2 PMID:27427556

  9. Construct Validity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist in Cancer Survivors: Analyses Based on Two Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuHamel, Katherine N.; Ostrof, Jamie; Ashman, Teresa; Winkel, Gary; Mundy, Elizabeth A.; Keane, Terence M.; Morasco, Benjamin J.; Vickberg, Suzanne M. J.; Hurley, Karen; Chhabra, Rosy; Scigliano, Eileen; Papadopoulos, Esperanza; Moskowitz, Craig; Redd, William

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critically important for the identification and treatment of this disorder. The PTSD Checklist (PCL; F. W. Weathers & J. Ford, 1996) is a self-report measure that is increasingly used. In this study, the authors investigated the factorial validity of the PCL with data from 236 cancer…

  10. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M

    1995-01-01

    Many toxic compounds found in air emissions may induce bronchoconstriction. In the workplace, workers are exposed to these compounds, often in much higher concentrations. Some of these compounds act as sensitizers. Of these, some compounds induce asthma by producing specific IgE antibodies to the compound or its protein conjugate, while others induce asthma through yet unidentified immunologic mechanisms. Some compounds, when inhaled in high concentrations, act as irritants and produce bronchoconstriction probably by inducing acute airway inflammation. The latter condition is called Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS) or irritant-induced asthma. Occupational asthma is an excellent model to study the pathogenesis and the natural history of adult onset asthma because the responsible agent can be identified, complete avoidance is possible, and exposure can be measured or estimated. PMID:8549481

  11. Cancer Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Testing a Biobehavioral/Cognitive Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Brittany M.; Yang, Hae-Chung; Strunk, Daniel R.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this Phase II trial, we evaluated a novel psychological treatment for depressed patients coping with the stresses of cancer. Effectiveness of a combined biobehavioral intervention (BBI) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was studied. Method: Participants were 36 cancer survivors (mean age = 49 years; 88% Caucasian; 92% female)…

  12. [Manicurists and pedicurists - occupation group at high risk of work-related dermatoses].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Chomiczewska-Skóra, Dorota; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Krecisz, Beata

    2013-01-01

    In recent years occupational skin and respiratory diseases have been more and more frequently diagnosed in small production and service enterprises. The awareness of occupational exposure and its possible health effects among their workers and employers is not sufficient. Beauty salons, in addition to hairdressers and beauticians, frequently employ manicurists and pedicurists. The workers often happen to perform various activities interchangeably. the health status of beauty salons workers has rarely been assessed. The most numerous reports concern hairdressers. In this occupational group, the occurrence of skin lesions induced by wet work and frequent allergy to metals, hair dyes and bleaches and perm solutions has been emphasized, while information about health hazards for being a manicurist or pedicurist in beauty salons is seldom reported. The aim of this paper is to present professional activities (manicure and pedicure, methods of nail stylization), occupational exposure and literature data on work-related adverse health effects in manicurists and pedicurists. Wet work and exposure to solvents, fragrances, resins, metals, gum, detergents may cause skin disorders (contact dermatitis, urticaria, angioedema, photodermatoses), conjunctivitis, anaphylaxis, respiratory tract diseases, including asthma. The discussed occupations are also associated with the increased incidence of bacterial (particularly purulent), viral and fungal infections and cancer. PMID:24502122

  13. Image processing occupancy sensor

    DOEpatents

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2016-09-27

    A system and method of detecting occupants in a building automation system environment using image based occupancy detection and position determinations. In one example, the system includes an image processing occupancy sensor that detects the number and position of occupants within a space that has controllable building elements such as lighting and ventilation diffusers. Based on the position and location of the occupants, the system can finely control the elements to optimize conditions for the occupants, optimize energy usage, among other advantages.

  14. Hereditary colorectal cancer: MYH-associated polyposis and other newly identified disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindor, Noralane M

    2009-01-01

    Historically, discussions of familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer have dominated lectures and writings on hereditary predisposition to colorectal cancer. In the last decade, the subject has grown well beyond the two entities. In this paper, five topics relevant to genetic risk assessment for colorectal cancer are reviewed. These include the autosomal recessive MYH-associated polyposis, hyperplastic polyposis and serrated pathway syndrome, the association of autosomal dominant juvenile polyposis with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, familial colorectal cancer type X, and the syndrome of biallelic DNA mismatch repair gene mutations. Knowledge of these entities may assist clinicians to recognize and manage cases that do not fit into the more common syndromes of colorectal cancer predisposition.

  15. Occupational therapy in geriatric mental health.

    PubMed

    Trace, S; Howell, T

    1991-09-01

    Elderly persons with psychiatric disorders often experience a variety of functional deficits that affect their independence, safety, and activity level. The occupational therapist's role in addressing these needs is discussed, as are the possibilities for improvement of the elderly person's autonomy, safety, and integrity. Barriers to optimal service provision in the health care and social service systems as well as in occupational therapy are addressed.

  16. [Occupational risk and its prophylaxis for female workers engaged in radio-electronic instrument industry].

    PubMed

    Frolova, N M

    2003-01-01

    Hygienic evaluation of work conditions and health state of women engaged into radioelectronic instrument-making industry helped to define occupational hazards determining occupational risk that includes criteria for reproductive disorders.

  17. Sphingosines Derived from Marine Sponge as Potential Multi-Target Drug Related to Disorders in Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Biegelmeyer, Renata; Schröder, Rafael; Rambo, Douglas F.; Dresch, Roger R.; Carraro, João L. F.; Mothes, Beatriz; Moreira, José Cláudio F.; da Frota Junior, Mário L. C.; Henriques, Amélia T.

    2015-01-01

    Haliclona tubifera, marine sponge species abundant in Brazilian coastline, presents only a few papers published in the literature. Recently, we have reported the isolation of two modified C18 sphingoid bases: (2R,3R,6R,7Z)-2-aminooctadec-7-ene-1,3,6-triol and and (2R,3R,6R)-2-aminooctadec-1,3,6-triol. In order to continue our research, in this work aimed at the biological investigation of fractions that led to the isolation of these compounds. We evaluated the cytotoxic effect of marine sponge H. tubifera fractions in glioma (U87) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) human cell lines. In addition, considering the link between cancer, imbalance of reactive oxygen species and coagulation disorders, we also investigated the in vitro effects on blood coagulation and their redox properties. We showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction, rich in sphingoid bases, had important cytotoxic effects in both cancer cell lines with an IC50 < 15 μg/mL and also can inhibit the production of peroxyl radicals. Interestingly, this fraction increased the recalcification time of human blood, showing anticoagulant properties. The present study indicates the sphingosines fraction as a promising source of chemical prototypes, especially multifunctional drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:26308014

  18. Sphingosines Derived from Marine Sponge as Potential Multi-Target Drug Related to Disorders in Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Biegelmeyer, Renata; Schröder, Rafael; Rambo, Douglas F; Dresch, Roger R; Carraro, João L F; Mothes, Beatriz; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Junior, Mário L C da Frota; Henriques, Amélia T

    2015-08-25

    Haliclona tubifera, marine sponge species abundant in Brazilian coastline, presents only a few papers published in the literature. Recently, we have reported the isolation of two modified C18 sphingoid bases: (2R,3R,6R,7Z)-2-aminooctadec-7-ene-1,3, 6-triol and and (2R,3R,6R)-2-aminooctadec-1,3,6-triol. In order to continue our research, in this work aimed at the biological investigation of fractions that led to the isolation of these compounds. We evaluated the cytotoxic effect of marine sponge H. tubifera fractions in glioma (U87) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) human cell lines. In addition, considering the link between cancer, imbalance of reactive oxygen species and coagulation disorders, we also investigated the in vitro effects on blood coagulation and their redox properties. We showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction, rich in sphingoid bases, had important cytotoxic effects in both cancer cell lines with an IC50 < 15 μg/mL and also can inhibit the production of peroxyl radicals. Interestingly, this fraction increased the recalcification time of human blood, showing anticoagulant properties. The present study indicates the sphingosines fraction as a promising source of chemical prototypes, especially multifunctional drugs in cancer therapy.

  19. Health Occupations Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.

    A survey was conducted to determine the need for health occupations personnel in the Moraine Valley Community College district, specifically to: (1) describe present employment for selected health occupations; (2) project health occupation employment to 1974; (3) identify the supply of applicants for the selected occupations; and (4) identify…

  20. Occupational Therapy Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of occupational therapy assistant, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of occupational therapy assistant. The…

  1. Occupant Protection Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

  2. Aromatase inhibitors associated musculoskeletal disorders and bone fractures in postmenopausal breast cancer patients: a result from Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu; Wang, Jue; Xue, Dan-Dan; He, Wei

    2014-09-01

    As the prognosis of early breast cancer patients improves, the long-term safety of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) is increasingly important. In the present study, we retrospectively investigated the incidences of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and bone fractures in a cohort of Chinese postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. Data of postmenopausal patients with breast cancer were collected. Among which, 70 patients received AIs therapy (median follow-up of 32.5 months), 52 patients received tamoxifen (TAM), and 89 patients received no endocrine therapy (NE). Baseline characteristics, incidence of MSDs and bone fractures were analyzed and compared. When compared with NE group (40.4 %, 36/89), more patients in AIs group developed MSDs (72.9 %, 51/70, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.30, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.59-6.88, P = 0.001). But no difference was found between TAM group (36.5 %, 19/52, AOR = 0.70, 95 % CI = 0.32-1.52, P = 0.372) and NE group. About 39.7 months after initial AIs therapy, nine patients in AI group developed bone fractures in different sites, and the bone fracture rate was significantly increased (12.9 %, 9/70, adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 20.08, 95 % CI = 1.72-234.08, P = 0.017) in comparison with NE group (1.1 %, 1/89). Moreover, the bone fracture rate of TAM group was not different from NE group (1.9 %, 1/52, AHR = 2.64, 95 % CI = 0.14-48.73, P = 0.513). AIs therapy may induce increased rates of MSDs and bone fractures in Chinese population of postmenopausal breast cancer patients, whereas TAM therapy did not help reduce the incidences of MSDs and bone fractures.

  3. On the etiology of contact/occupational vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Boissy, Raymond E; Manga, Prashiela

    2004-06-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentary disorder of the skin that results from the selective destruction of melanocytes, generally during the second decade of life and affecting approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Loss of cutaneous pigment appears to render the skin susceptible to premature aging and cancer. In addition this disease can be socially devastating for afflicted individuals. The etiology of vitiligo is poorly understood. The present dogma suggests that genetic factors render the melanocyte fragile thus predisposing individuals to developing vitiligo. When subjected to instigating factors, these susceptible, fragile melanocytes undergo apoptosis. Autoimmune factors then perpetuate the removal of the melanocyte component from the skin. In the majority of cases the instigating factors are not known (idiopathic vitiligo), however a small sub-set of individuals develop contact/occupational vitiligo following exposure to particular chemicals. Many of these chemicals have been implicated in both contact/occupational vitiligo and chemical leukoderma. Both conditions present with well-defined, depigmented skin lesions that develop following exposure. Only in the case of vitiligo does the depigmentation spread beyond the areas of contact, probably via an immune-mediated mechanism. The largest class of chemicals known to trigger contact/occupational vitiligo is the phenolic/catecholic derivatives. Many have been demonstrated to be preferentially cytotoxic to melanocytes, with high-dose exposure resulting in the initiation of apoptosis. Phenolic/catecholic derivatives are structurally similar to the melanin precursor tyrosine, and therefore tyrosinase was originally implicated as a mediator of cytotoxicity. However, our data suggests that tyrosinase-related protein-1, rather than tyrosinase, facilitates toxicity, possibly by catalytic conversion of the compounds, which results in the generation of radical oxygen species. The ensuing oxidative stress then

  4. Occupational therapy practice: focusing on occupational performance.

    PubMed

    Baum, C M; Law, M

    1997-04-01

    Changes in the health system require occupational therapy practitioners to focus their concerns on the long-term health needs of people and to help them develop healthy behaviors not only to improve their health, but also to minimize the health care costs associated with dysfunction. Occupational therapy practitioners must initiate efforts in the community to integrate a range of services that promote, protect, and improve the health of the public. This article shares the experiences of Canadian occupational therapy practitioners, who were challenged by their government nearly 15 years ago to establish a system that demonstrates effectiveness by improving the health of occupational therapy clients. By focusing on occupational performance, occupational therapy practitioners assist clients in becoming actively engaged in their life activities. This requires client-centered and family-centered practice and services that span from the agency or institution to the community. Occupational therapy practitioners must work collaboratively with persons in the client's environment (e.g., family members, teachers, independent living specialists, employers, neighbors, friends) to assist the client in obtaining skills and to make modifications to remove barriers that create a social disadvantage. A focus on occupational performance requires occupational therapy personnel to reframe how we think about occupational therapy to a sociomedical context and to take an active role in building healthy communities. PMID:9085726

  5. Prostate-associated gene 4 (PAGE4), an intrinsically disordered cancer/testis antigen, is a novel therapeutic target for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Prakash; Dunker, A Keith; Weninger, Keith; Orban, John

    2016-01-01

    Prostate-associated gene 4 (PAGE4) is a remarkably prostate-specific Cancer/Testis Antigen that is highly upregulated in the human fetal prostate and its diseased states but not in the adult normal gland. PAGE4 is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that functions as a stress-response protein to suppress reactive oxygen species as well as prevent DNA damage. In addition, PAGE4 is also a transcriptional regulator that potentiates transactivation by the oncogene c-Jun. c-Jun forms the AP-1 complex by heterodimerizing with members of the Fos family and plays an important role in the development and pathology of the prostate gland, underscoring the importance of the PAGE4/c-Jun interaction. HIPK1, also a component of the stress-response pathway, phosphorylates PAGE4 at T51 which is critical for its transcriptional activity. Phosphorylation induces conformational and dynamic switching in the PAGE4 ensemble leading to a new cellular function. Finally, bioinformatics evidence suggests that the PAGE4 mRNA could be alternatively spliced resulting in four potential isoforms of the polypeptide alluding to the possibility of a range of conformational ensembles with latent functions. Considered together, the data suggest that PAGE4 may represent the first molecular link between stress and prostate cancer (PCa). Thus, pharmacologically targeting PAGE4 may be a novel opportunity for treating and managing patients with PCa, especially patients with low-risk disease. PMID:27270343

  6. A comprehensive review of occupational and general population cancer risk: 1,3-Butadiene exposure-response modeling for all leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, myeloid neoplasm and lymphoid neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sielken, Robert L; Valdez-Flores, Ciriaco

    2015-11-01

    Excess cancer risks associated with 1,3-butadiene (BD) inhalation exposures are calculated using an extensive data set developed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) from an epidemiology study of North American workers in the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) industry. While the UAB study followed SBR workers, risk calculations can be adapted to estimate both occupational and general population risks. The data from the UAB SBR study offer an opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the association between cumulative exposure to BD and different types of cancer, accounting for the number of tasks involving high-intensity exposures to BD as well as confounding associated with the exposures to the multiple other chemicals in the SBR industry. Quantitative associations of BD exposure and cancer, specifically leukemia, can be further characterized by leukemia type, including potential associations with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and the groups of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms. Collectively, these multiple evaluations lead to a comprehensive analysis that makes use of all of the available information and is consistent with the risk assessment goals of the USEPA and other regulatory agencies, and in line with the recommendations of the USEPA Science Advisory Board. While a range of cancer risk values can result from these multiple factors, a preferred case for occupational and general population risk is highlighted. Cox proportional hazards models are used to fit exposure-response models to the most recent UAB data. The slope of the model with cumulative BD ppm-years as the predictor variable is not statistically significantly greater than zero for CML, AML, or, when any one of eight exposure covariates is added to the model, for all leukemias combined. The slope for CLL is statistically significantly different from zero. The slope for myeloid neoplasms is not statistically

  7. Silica, silicosis, and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, D.F.; Winn, D.M.; Shy, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on occupational exposure. Topics include: measurement of silica dust, mortality in granite workers, effects of quartz in coal mine dust, pneumoconiosis, and lung cancer.

  8. 38 CFR 4.130 - Schedule of ratings-mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Disorders: Total occupational and social impairment, due to such symptoms as: gross impairment in thought... of close relatives, own occupation, or own name 100 Occupational and social impairment, with... function independently, appropriately and effectively; impaired impulse control (such as...

  9. 38 CFR 4.130 - Schedule of ratings-mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Disorders: Total occupational and social impairment, due to such symptoms as: gross impairment in thought... of close relatives, own occupation, or own name 100 Occupational and social impairment, with... function independently, appropriately and effectively; impaired impulse control (such as...

  10. 38 CFR 4.130 - Schedule of ratings-mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Disorders: Total occupational and social impairment, due to such symptoms as: gross impairment in thought... of close relatives, own occupation, or own name 100 Occupational and social impairment, with... function independently, appropriately and effectively; impaired impulse control (such as...

  11. Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chi-Hung; Huang, Chu-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization. PMID:23251841

  12. Occupational and environmental lung disease: occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Stenton, S C

    2010-01-01

    Occupational exposures cause 10-15% of new-onset asthma in adults, and that represents a considerable health and economic burden. Exposure to many causative agents is now well controlled but workplace practices are constantly evolving and new hazards being introduced. Overall, there is no good evidence that the incidence of occupational asthma is decreasing. Evidence-based guidelines such as those published by the British Occupational Health research Foundation and Standards of Care documents should help raise awareness of the problem and improve management. Key targets include the control of occupational exposures, a high index of suspicion in any adult with new onset asthma, and early detailed investigation.

  13. Scripted Sexual Health Informational Intervention in Improving Sexual Function in Patients With Gynecologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-10

    Anxiety Disorder; Cervical Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Female Reproductive Cancer; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Sexual Dysfunction; Uterine Sarcoma; Vaginal Cancer; Vulvar Cancer

  14. Physician-Initiated Stop-Smoking Program for Patients Receiving Treatment for Early-Stage Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-06

    Bladder Cancer; Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Lung Cancer; Lymphoma; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Tobacco Use Disorder; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  15. Does Occupational Exposure to Solvents and Pesticides in Association with Glutathione S-Transferase A1, M1, P1, and T1 Polymorphisms Increase the Risk of Bladder Cancer? The Belgrade Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Savic-Radojevic, Ana R.; Bulat, Petar V.; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija S.; Dragicevic, Dejan P.; Djukic, Tatjana I.; Simic, Tatjana P.; Pekmezovic, Tatjana D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated the role of the glutathione S-transferase A1, M1, P1 and T1 gene polymorphisms and potential effect modification by occupational exposure to different chemicals in Serbian bladder cancer male patients. Patients and Methods A hospital-based case-control study of bladder cancer in men comprised 143 histologically confirmed cases and 114 age-matched male controls. Deletion polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 was identified by polymerase chain reaction method. Single nucleotide polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase A1 and P1 was identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism method. As a measure of effect size, odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was calculated. Results The glutathione S-transferase A1, T1 and P1 genotypes did not contribute independently toward the risk of bladder cancer, while the glutathione S-transferase M1-null genotype was overrepresented among cases (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.1–4.2, p = 0.032). The most pronounced effect regarding occupational exposure to solvents and glutathione S-transferase genotype on bladder cancer risk was observed for the low activity glutathione S-transferase A1 genotype (OR = 9.2, 95% CI = 2.4–34.7, p = 0.001). The glutathione S-transferase M1-null genotype also enhanced the risk of bladder cancer among subjects exposed to solvents (OR = 6,5, 95% CI = 2.1–19.7, p = 0.001). The risk of bladder cancer development was 5.3–fold elevated among glutathione S-transferase T1-active patients exposed to solvents in comparison with glutathione S-transferase T1-active unexposed patients (95% CI = 1.9–15.1, p = 0.002). Moreover, men with glutathione S-transferase T1-active genotype exposed to pesticides exhibited 4.5 times higher risk in comparison with unexposed glutathione S-transferase T1-active subjects (95% CI = 0.9–22.5, p = 0.067). Conclusion Null or low-activity genotypes of the

  16. Minimizing Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic Agents.

    PubMed

    Polovich, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The inherent toxicity of antineoplastic drugs used for the treatment of cancer makes them harmful to healthy cells as well as to cancer cells. Nurses who prepare and/or administer the agents potentially are exposed to the drugs and their negative effects. Knowledge about these drugs and the precautions aimed at reducing exposure are essential aspects of infusion nursing practice. This article briefly reviews the mechanisms of action of common antineoplastic drugs, the adverse outcomes associated with exposure, the potential for occupational exposure from preparation and administration, and recommended strategies for minimizing occupational exposure. PMID:27598070

  17. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and phobias Bipolar disorder Depression Mood disorders Personality disorders Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia ...

  18. [Occupational risk management: prognosis, causation and bioinformational technologies].

    PubMed

    Denisov, E I; Prokopenko, L V; Stepanov, I V

    2012-01-01

    Methodology of occupational risk management is outlined based on workers' health disorders forecast and causation (work-relatedness assessment). It originates from Labour Code of Russian Federation prescriptions and includes principles, methods and criteria of risk management and risk communication. The methodology is realized by means of bioinformational technologies as expert and analytical system in the form of interactive Web-based directory "occupational risk assessment" for practical use for occupational risk prevention.

  19. Occupational lifestyle diseases: An emerging issue.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh; Majumdar, P K

    2009-12-01

    populations might partly determine their rates of cancer, and the basis for this hypothesis was strengthened by results of studies showing that people who migrate from one country to another generally acquire the cancer rates of the new host country, suggesting that environmental [or lifestyle factors] rather than genetic factors are the key determinants of the international variation in cancer rates. Some of the common diseases encountered because of occupational lifestyle are Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis, cancer, chronic liver disease/cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, nephritis/CRF, and stroke. Occupational lifestyle diseases include those caused by the factors present in the vicinity like heat, sound, dust, fumes, smoke, cold, and other pollutants. These factors are responsible for allergy, respiratory and hearing problems, and heat or cold shock. So, A healthy lifestyle must be adopted to combat these diseases with a proper balanced diet, physical activity and by giving due respect to biological clock. Kids spending too much time slouched in front of the TV or PCs, should be encourage to find a physical sport or activity they enjoy. Fun exercises should be encouraged into family outings. A pizza-and-video evening should be replaced for a hike and picnic. Kids who do participate in sport, especially at a high competitive level, can find the pressure to succeed very stressful. To decrease the ailments caused by occupational postures, one should avoid long sitting hours and should take frequent breaks for stretching or for other works involving physical movements.

  20. Routine Hemostasis and Hemogram Parameters: Valuable Assessments for Coagulation Disorder and Chemotherapy in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ying-Wei; Feng, Tong-Bao; Zhou, Xian-Ju; Hu, Xue-Li; Ding, Jie; Zhu, Wen-Yu; Qian, Dan-Ping; Sun, Yi-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The clotting system abnormalities are the common complication in cancer patients. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the coagulation state, clinical features, and treatment in cancer patients by routine tests. Methods: A total of 2328 patients with different types of cancer were classified as the positive group (n = 1419, including 53 patients with thrombosis) and the negative group (n = 909) based on D-dimer (DD) value. Of the 2328 cases, 354 were admitted for chemotherapy. Hemostasis test and complete blood count (CBC) were performed during treatment or following-up. Results: This study showed that the hypercoagulable state was affected not only by clinical staging (P < 0.0001) but also by metastasis site (P < 0.0001 for bone vs. lung). Compared to negative DD group, the higher fibrinogen level, the extended activated partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time interacted markedly with disease clinical stage (P < 0.05) in the positive group. Between positive DD groups with and without thrombus, the significantly statistic difference in white blood cell (WBC) and DD (P < 0.05) rather than in red blood cell (RBC) and platelet count was observed. However, the higher DD level was not correlated with WBC, RBC, and platelet count in the positive DD group. Furthermore, the hypercoagulable plasma profile in cancer patients was moderated 2–3 weeks after chemotherapy (P < 0.05 for first six cycles). Conclusions: The routine hemostatic parameters and CBC are valuable to assessment for thrombosis and chemotherapy even for disease prognosis. PMID:27453223

  1. Misfolding, Aggregation, and Disordered Segments in c-Abl and p53 in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Guilherme A. P.; Rangel, Luciana P.; Costa, Danielly C.; Silva, Jerson L.

    2015-01-01

    The current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to cancer is not sufficient to explain the loss or gain of function in proteins related to tumorigenic processes. Among them, more than 100 oncogenes, 20–30 tumor-suppressor genes, and hundreds of genes participating in DNA repair and replication have been found to play a role in the origins of cancer over the last 25 years. The phosphorylation of serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues is a critical step in cellular growth and development and is achieved through the tight regulation of protein kinases. Phosphorylation plays a major role in eukaryotic signaling as kinase domains are found in 2% of our genes. The deregulation of kinase control mechanisms has disastrous consequences, often leading to gains of function, cell transformation, and cancer. The c-Abl kinase protein is one of the most studied targets in the fight against cancer and is a hotspot for drug development because it participates in several solid tumors and is the hallmark of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Tumor suppressors have the opposite effects. Their fundamental role in the maintenance of genomic integrity has awarded them a role as the guardians of DNA. Among the tumor suppressors, p53 is the most studied. The p53 protein has been shown to be a transcription factor that recognizes and binds to specific DNA response elements and activates gene transcription. Stress triggered by ionizing radiation or other mutagenic events leads to p53 phosphorylation and cell-cycle arrest, senescence, or programed cell death. The p53 gene is the most frequently mutated gene in cancer. Mutations in the DNA-binding domain are classified as class I or class II depending on whether substitutions occur in the DNA contact sites or in the protein core, respectively. Tumor-associated p53 mutations often lead to the loss of protein function, but recent investigations have also indicated gain-of-function mutations. The prion-like aggregation of mutant p

  2. Occupational stress and social support in naval personnel

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, A.A.; Chikkanna, C.B.; Rote, M.S.; Singh, R.J.; Bhanot, G.; Pillai, Anil; Pisharody, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Data show that naval personnel have a high incidence of stress related disorders. A high prevalence of occupational stress was seen in a previous survey carried out on Indian Naval personnel. However, the role of social support in reducing occupational stress was not studied. To study occupational stress in Indian Naval personnel and to study the effect of social support on occupational stress. Methods 5077 naval personnel were surveyed using study questionnaires which included Occupational Stress Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 item version as a measure of psychological health. The data was statistically analysed using chi square test and other non-parametric tests. Results High occupational stress was seen in personnel serving afloat (66.47%) as compared to those serving ashore (51.55%) and on submarines (53.72%). Among personnel serving afloat, occupational stress was highest among Junior Sailors as compared to Senior Sailors and Officers. Occupational stress was linked to poor psychological health as measured by the GHQ and younger age. Perceived social support was effective in reducing occupational stress in Officers and Senior Sailors but not in Junior Sailors where paradoxically it seemed to lead to greater occupational stress. Conclusions High occupational stress was seen in more than half the service personnel studied. Occupational stress is mitigated by social support in Officers and Senior Sailors but not in Junior Sailors. PMID:24532905

  3. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Occupational Therapy Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in occupational therapy. Agency partners involved in this project include: the Illinois State board of Education, Illinois Community College…

  4. [Descriptive epidemiologic study of 514 cases of bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Calatayud Sarthou, A; Cortes Vizcaino, C; Talamante Serrula, S; Corella Piquer, D

    1994-01-01

    A descriptive epidemiological study was conducted on the characteristics and risk factors of 514 cases of bladder cancer. The results show a higher prevalence in males aged 70 or older. A higher incidence was found in those with a lower occupational level. There is a relationship with smoking and a Quetelet obesity score higher than normal. Anatomo-pathologically, the transitional cell type was the most common. A history of hematuria and obstructive disorders, basically arising from the prostate, were frequently found.

  5. [Hand and occupational diseases].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Choudat, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Hand is frequently the site of work accidents or occupational diseases. The musculoskeletal upper limb is the first recognized occupational disease and carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common of them. The most common location of occupational dermatoses is the hand. Their causes are often multifactorial, involving chemical irritants, physical, allergens and endogenous factors (mainly atopic dermatitis). Occupational exposure to microtrauma and iterative use of vibrating tools may also be the cause of hypothenar hammer syndrome and acrosyndromes. The frequent chronicity and functional impairment induced by these attacks can cause lasting disabilities, an inability to source workstation. Occupational physician is a focal point for helping to maintain the position and the prevention of socioprofessional disinsertion. Many pathologies of the hand related to professional activity may benefit from a statement in occupational disease and thus allow the patient to obtain compensation and employment protection. Prevention of occupational hand diseases should be made by all health actors, especially in occupations and industries at risk.

  6. Cancer epidemiology of woodworking.

    PubMed

    Mohtashamipur, E; Norpoth, K; Lühmann, F

    1989-01-01

    The literature published between 1965 and 1989 on the cancer epidemiology of woodworking in furniture industries and carpentry shops in 17 countries is reviewed. Included are some unpublished data obtained through personal communication with epidemiologists or collected from doctoral dissertations. Of 5,785 cases with sino-nasal cancers, about 23% were found to be woodworkers. Dusty jobs, especially wood processing using high-speed machines, are mainly associated with the enhanced incidence of nasal adenocarcinomas. The latency periods of the latter tumors ranged from 7 to 69 years in five European countries. A variety of neoplasias of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts as well as the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems, including Hodgkin's disease are reported to be significantly associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. These data suggest that the exposure to some types of wood dust might cause a systemic rather than local neoplastic disorder.

  7. Occupational safety and health objectives of Healthy People 2010: a systematic approach for occupational health nurses--Part II.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Kimberly; Parks, Carol; Chikotas, Noreen E

    2007-03-01

    Occupational safety and health objectives 20.6 through 20.11 focus on reducing work-related assaults, lead exposure, skin diseases and disorders, needlestick injuries, and work-related, noise-induced hearing loss and promoting worksite stress reduction programs. Using the intervention strategies provided, occupational health nurses can play a key role in reducing workplace-related injury, disease, disability, and death. variety of resources pertaining to occupational health and safety from the federal, national, health care, nursing, and environmental realms can assist occupational health nurses in developing and implementing programs appropriate for their workplaces. Through the Healthy People 2010 occupational health and safety objectives, occupational health nurses have the opportunity to develop and implement workplace policies and programs promoting not only a safe and healthy work environment but also improved health and disease prevention. Occupational health nurses can implement strategies to increase quality and years of life and eliminate health disparities in the American work force.

  8. Ubiquitylation in immune disorders and cancer: from molecular mechanisms to therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Fulda, Simone; Rajalingam, Krishnaraj; Dikic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Conjugation of ubiquitin to proteins (ubiquitylation) has emerged to be one of the most crucial post-translational modifications controlling virtually all cellular processes. What was once regarded as a mere signal for protein degradation has turned out to be a major regulator of molecular signalling networks. Deregulation of ubiquitin signalling is closely associated with various human pathologies. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of ubiquitin signalling in immune deficiencies and cancer as well as the available therapeutic strategies targeting the ubiquitin system in combating these pathogenic conditions. PMID:22730341

  9. Health Occupations Cluster Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Intended to assist the vocational teacher in designing and implementing a cluster program in health occupations, this guide suggests ideas for teaching the specific knowledge and skills that qualify students for entry-level employment in the health occupations field. The knowledge and skills are applicable to 12 occupations: dental assistant;…

  10. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  11. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  12. Occupational toxicology of nickel and nickel compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinshun; Shi, Xianglin; Castranova, Vincent; Ding, Min

    2009-01-01

    Nickel and nickel compounds are widely used in industry. The high consumption of nickel products inevitably leads to occupational and environmental pollution. In occupational settings, exposure to nickel and nickel compounds occurs primarily during nickel refining, electroplating, and welding. The most common airborne exposures to nickel in the workplace are to insoluble nickel species, such as metallic nickel, nickel sulfide, and nickel oxides from dusts and fumes. The chemical and physical properties of nickel and nickel compounds strongly influence their bioavailability and toxicity. The lung and the skin are the principal target organs upon occupational exposure. inhalation exposure is a primary route for nickel-induced toxicity in the workplace. The most important adverse health effects due to occupational exposure to nickel and its compounds are skin allergies, lung fibrosis, and lung cancer. The exact mechanisms of nickel-induced carcinogenesis are not clear. This review summarizes the current knowledge on occupational toxicology of nickel and its compounds. The subtopics include: chemical and physical properties, uses, occupational exposures, occupational exposure limits, toxicokinetics, biological monitoring, acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, carcinogenicity, molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and gaps in knowledge. PMID:19888907

  13. Depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder and health-related quality of life and its association with social support in ambulatory prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mehnert, A; Lehmann, C; Graefen, M; Huland, H; Koch, U

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to identify anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in prostate cancer patients and to investigate the association with social support and health-related quality of life. A total of 511 men who had undergone prostatectomy were surveyed during ambulatory follow-up care for an average of 27 months after surgery using standardised self-report measures (e.g. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist--Civilian Version, Illness-Specific Social Support Scale, Short-Form Health Survey). Seventy-six per cent of patients evaluated their disease as 'not' or a 'little threatening'. The cancer diagnosis and uncertainty were most frequently reported as 'distressing', while medical treatment and doctor-patient interaction were most frequently evaluated as 'most helpful'. The number of patients reporting increased levels of psychological distress was 16%, with 6% demonstrating signs of having severe mental health problems'. No higher levels of anxiety and depression were observed in cancer patients compared with age-adjusted normative comparison groups. Lack of positive support, detrimental interactions and perceived threat of cancer were found to be predictors of psychological co-morbidity (P < 0.001). Lack of positive support, detrimental interactions, threat of cancer, disease stage and age significantly predicted mental health (P < 0.001), whereas the impact of social support on physical health was rather weak. Findings emphasise the need for routine psychosocial screening.

  14. Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated with Haemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Christina; Albanese, Assunta

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of haemopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) taking place worldwide has offered a cure to many high risk childhood malignancies with an otherwise very poor prognosis. However, HSCT is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and premature death, and patients who have survived the acute complications continue to face lifelong health sequelae as a result of the treatment. Endocrine dysfunction is well described in childhood HSCT survivors treated for malignancies. The endocrine system is highly susceptible to damage from the conditioning therapy, such as, alkylating agents and total body irradiation, which is given prior stem cell infusion. Although not immediately life-threatening, the impact of these abnormalities on the long term health and quality of life in these patients may be considerable. The prevalence, risk factors, clinical approaches to investigations and treatments, as well as the implications of ongoing surveillance of endocrine disorders in childhood HSCT survivors, are discussed in this review. PMID:27417467

  15. Gross cerebellar paraneoplastic neurological disorder in a patient with an occult breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Chandra K; Achar, K N

    2013-01-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological disorders are relatively rare conditions posing both diagnostic as well as therapeutic challenges. A previously fit 66-year-old woman presented with subtle cerebellar symptoms which progressed rapidly over the course of days. Chest x-ray and routine blood tests were unremarkable. CT of the head with contrast showed no abnormality. Lumbar puncture showed no evidence of infection or oligoclonal bands. She was transferred to a neurological centre from a remote and rural setting. Subsequent MRI was reported to be normal as well. Tumour markers were negative but the paraneoplastic anti-Yo antibody was positive. A whole body CT scan revealed a spiculated left breast lesion which turned out to be malignant on fine needle aspiration. She underwent left mastectomy, had plasmapharesis and received high-dose intravenous Ig for her paraneoplastic neurological symptoms. She remained neurologically stable and underwent rehabilitation in her local hospital before getting discharged home. PMID:23595173

  16. The occupational health status of hired farm workers.

    PubMed

    Villarejo, D; Baron, S L

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. hired farm work force presently is two-thirds foreign-born: mostly young Mexican men with low educational attainment who neither read nor write English. Sixty percent earn so little that they and their families live in poverty. Four of ten migrate to find work, 33% are not authorized to work in the U.S., and 25% work for a labor market intermediary, usually a labor contractor. Few hired farm workers have health insurance of any kind and, despite low incomes, relatively few seek or receive government benefits. Government regulation of the workplace exempts agricultural employers from numerous provisions that apply to other industries; for example, agriculture is exempt from portions of the Fair Labor Standards Act, allowing children as young as age 12 to work in the fields, and employers with 10 or fewer employees are exempt from OSHA regulation. Only 12 states require farm employers to carry workers' compensation insurance. While hired farm workers face significant safety and health risks, there are major gaps in existing research covering this occupational group. An ad hoc task force convened by NIOSH developed a prioritized agenda for occupational safety research in this population: musculoskeletal disorders, pesticide-related conditions, traumatic injuries, respiratory conditions, dermatitis, infectious diseases, cancer, eye conditions, and mental health.

  17. Efficacy of light based detection systems for early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Reddy-Kantharaj, Yashoda-Bhoomi; Rakesh, Nagaraju; Janardhan-Reddy, Sujatha; Sahu, Shashikant

    2016-01-01

    tool in early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD. Key words:Oral cancer, early diagnosis, potentially malignant disorders, chemiluminescence, tissue autofluorescence, VELscope, ViziLite plus. PMID:26946209

  18. The effectiveness of hypnosis in reducing pain and suffering among women with metastatic breast cancer and among women with temporomandibular disorder.

    PubMed

    Nash, Michael R; Tasso, Anthony

    2010-10-01

    The authors describe two studies of special interest to clinicians and clinical researchers. Both are randomized controlled studies, exclusively focused on female patients. The first study tests whether a year-long weekly group intervention including hypnosis can reduce cancer pain among women with metastatic breast cancer. Findings suggest the intervention slowed the increase in reported pain over a 12-month period relative to controls. The second study examines the effect of hypnosis in women suffering from temporomandibular disorder (TMD), with a special focus on function as well as pain. Hypnosis reduced TMD pain as measured by a numerical-rating scale. PMID:20799126

  19. Coaching as a Family-Centred, Occupational Therapy Intervention for Autism: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Desley

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapy interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require a sound evidence-base. In the context of emerging evidence on coaching interventions in paediatric occupational therapy practice, a review of the occupational therapy literature was conducted to investigate the use of coaching interventions for children and adolescents…

  20. Paternal aging and increased risk of congenital disease, psychiatric disorders, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Conti, Simon L; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted). Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence also suggests increased risk of specific pediatric and adult disease states ranging from cancer to behavioral traits. While disease states associated with advancing paternal age have been well described, consensus recommendations for neonatal screening have not been as widely implemented as have been with advanced maternal age. PMID:26975491