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Sample records for disorders systematic review

  1. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; David, Anthony S

    2014-06-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback constituted the most investigated modality (31.7%). Anxiety disorders were the most commonly treated (68.3%). Multi-modal biofeedback appeared most effective in significantly ameliorating symptoms, suggesting that targeting more than one physiological modality for bio-regulation increases therapeutic efficacy. Overall, 80.9% of articles reported some level of clinical amelioration related to biofeedback exposure, 65.0% to a statistically significant (p < .05) level of symptom reduction based on reported standardized clinical parameters. Although the heterogeneity of the included studies warrants caution before explicit efficacy statements can be made. Further development of standardized controlled methodological protocols tailored for specific disorders and guidelines to generate comprehensive reports may contribute towards establishing the value of biofeedback interventions within mainstream psychiatry.

  2. Activation in Bipolar Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jan; Murray, Greg; Henry, Chantal; Morken, Gunnar; Scott, Elizabeth; Angst, Jules; Merikangas, Kathleen R; Hickie, Ian B

    2017-02-01

    Increased activity and energy alongside mood change are identified in the DSM-5 as cardinal symptoms of mania and hypomania. A wide range of existing research suggests that this revision may be valid, but systematic integration of the evidence has not been reported. The term activation is understood as emerging from underlying physiological change and having objective (observable motor activity) and related subjective (energy) levels. To systematically review studies of the clinical phenomenon of activation in bipolar disorder, to determine whether activation is statistically abnormal in bipolar disorder and demonstrably distinct from mood, and to identify any significant between- and within-individual differences in the dynamics of activation. This systematic review of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PubMed databases from January 1, 1970, until September 30, 2016, identified 56 of a possible 3284 citations for (1) data-driven analyses of the dimensions and factor structure of mania and bipolar depression and (2) longitudinal studies reporting real-time objective monitoring or momentary assessment of daytime activity in individuals with bipolar disorder compared with other clinical or healthy control samples. Hand search of reference lists, specialty journals, websites, published conference proceedings, and dissertation abstracts and contact with other researchers ensured inclusion of gray literature and additional analyses as well as raw data if appropriate. Quality assessment was perfomed using the National Institutes of Health quality assessment tool. A total of 56 studies met eligibility criteria for inclusion in the review including 29 analyses of the factor structure of bipolar disorder, 3 of activity data from experimental sampling or ecological momentary assessment, and 20 actigraphy and 4 laboratory-based studies. Synthesizing findings across the studies revealed that the most robust finding was that mean levels of activity are lower during euthymia

  3. Olfactory and gustatory functions in bipolar disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kazour, Francois; Richa, Sami; Desmidt, Thomas; Lemaire, Mathieu; Atanasova, Boriana; El Hage, Wissam

    2017-05-12

    Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions have been described in different psychiatric disorders. Several studies have found gustatory and olfactory function change in bipolar disorders with various results. The aim of this study is to have a systematic review of studies evaluating gustatory and olfactory function in bipolar disorders. After a systematic search, 15 studies on olfaction and 5 studies on taste were included in this review. The UPSIT (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test) and Sniffin' Sticks were the most widely used tests to evaluate smell. Some studies on olfaction described dysfunctions in smell identification as potential markers for bipolar disorders. Moreover, olfactory acuity was associated with psychosocial and cognitive performances. For taste, only few studies used standardized tests to evaluate gustation. These studies showed that patients with Bipolar disorders had more gustatory dysfunction compared to controls, and to non-bipolar depressed patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Systematic Review of Personality Disorders and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Whalen, Diana J.; Layden, Brianne K.; Chapman, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    Personality disorders have been associated with a wide swath of adverse health outcomes and correspondingly high costs to healthcare systems. To date, however, there has not been a systematic review of the literature on health conditions among individuals with personality disorders. The primary aim of this article is to review research documenting the associations between personality disorders and health conditions. A systematic review of the literature revealed 78 unique empirical English-language peer-reviewed articles examining the association of personality disorders and health outcomes over the past 15 years. Specifically, we reviewed research examining the association of personality disorders with sleep disturbance, obesity, pain conditions, and other chronic health conditions. In addition, we evaluated research on candidate mechanisms underlying health problems in personality disorders and potential treatments for such disorders. Results underscore numerous deleterious health outcomes associated with PD features and PD diagnoses, and suggest potential biological and behavioural factors that may account for these relations. Guidelines for future research in this area are discussed. PMID:26456998

  5. A Systematic Review of Action Imitation in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Justin H. G.; Whiten, Andrew; Singh, Tulika

    2004-01-01

    Imitative deficits have been associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) for many years, most recently through more robust methodologies. A fresh, systematic review of the significance, characteristics, and underlying mechanism of the association is therefore warranted. From 121 candidates, we focused on 21 well-controlled studies involving…

  6. A Systematic Review of Action Imitation in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Justin H. G.; Whiten, Andrew; Singh, Tulika

    2004-01-01

    Imitative deficits have been associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) for many years, most recently through more robust methodologies. A fresh, systematic review of the significance, characteristics, and underlying mechanism of the association is therefore warranted. From 121 candidates, we focused on 21 well-controlled studies involving…

  7. Exercise for anxiety disorders: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gunadasa, Shalmini; Hosker, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Anxiety disorders are commonly treated with antidepressants and psychological treatments. Some patients may prefer alternative approaches such as exercise. To investigate the treatment effects of exercise compared with other treatments for anxiety disorders. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of exercise interventions for anxiety disorders were identified by searching six online databases (July 2011). A number of journals were also hand searched. Eight RCTs were included. For panic disorder: exercise appears to reduce anxiety symptoms but it is less effective than antidepressant medication (1 RCT); exercise combined with antidepressant medication improves the Clinical Global Impression outcomes (1 RCT, p<0.05); exercise combined with occupational therapy and lifestyle changes reduces Beck Anxiety Inventory outcomes (1 RCT, p=0.0002). For social phobias, added benefits of exercise when combined with group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) were shown (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between aerobic and anaerobic exercise groups (1 RCT, p>0.1) with both seeming to reduce anxiety symptoms (1 RCT, p<0.001). It remains unclear as to which type of exercise; moderate to hard or very light to light, is more effective in anxiety reduction (2 RCTs). Exercise seems to be effective as an adjunctive treatment for anxiety disorders but it is less effective compared with antidepressant treatment. Both aerobic and non-aerobic exercise seems to reduce anxiety symptoms. Social phobics may benefit from exercise when combined with group CBT. Further well-conducted RCTs are needed.

  8. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging underpinnings of schizoaffective disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Madre, M; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Ortiz-Gil, J; Murru, A; Torrent, C; Bramon, E; Perez, V; Orth, M; Brambilla, P; Vieta, E; Amann, B L

    2016-07-01

    The neurobiological basis and nosological status of schizoaffective disorder remains elusive and controversial. This study provides a systematic review of neurocognitive and neuroimaging findings in the disorder. A comprehensive literature search was conducted via PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Knowledge (from 1949 to 31st March 2015) using the keyword 'schizoaffective disorder' and any of the following terms: 'neuropsychology', 'cognition', 'structural neuroimaging', 'functional neuroimaging', 'multimodal', 'DTI' and 'VBM'. Only studies that explicitly examined a well defined sample, or subsample, of patients with schizoaffective disorder were included. Twenty-two of 43 neuropsychological and 19 of 51 neuroimaging articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. We found a general trend towards schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder being related to worse cognitive performance than bipolar disorder. Grey matter volume loss in schizoaffective disorder is also more comparable to schizophrenia than to bipolar disorder which seems consistent across further neuroimaging techniques. Neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities in schizoaffective disorder resemble more schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. This is suggestive for schizoaffective disorder being a subtype of schizophrenia or being part of the continuum spectrum model of psychosis, with schizoaffective disorder being more skewed towards schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicide: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Balazs, Judit; Kereszteny, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate suicidality and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this paper aims to systematically review the literature as an extension of previous reviews. METHODS We searched five databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Psychinfo, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) with two categories of search terms: (1) suicide; suicidal; suicide behavior; suicide attempt; suicidal thought; and (2) ADHD. RESULTS The search resulted 26 articles. There is a positive association between ADHD and suicidality in both sexes and in all age groups. Comorbid disorders mediate between suicidality and ADHD. CONCLUSION Recognizing ADHD, comorbid conditions and suicidality is important in prevention. PMID:28401048

  10. Gabapentin Therapy in Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Rachel K.; Butler, Paul M.; Perloff, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Gabapentin is commonly used off-label in the treatment of psychiatric disorders with success, failure, and controversy. A systematic review of the literature was performed to elucidate the evidence for clinical benefit of gabapentin in psychiatric disorders. Data sources: Bibliographic reference searches for gabapentin use in psychiatric disorders were performed in PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE search engines with no language restrictions from January 1, 1983, to October 1, 2014, excluding nonhuman studies. For psychiatric references, the keywords bipolar, depression, anxiety, mood, posttraumatic stress disorder (posttraumatic stress disorder and PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (obsessive-compulsive disorder and OCD), alcohol (abuse, dependence, withdraw), drug (abuse, dependence, withdraw), opioid (abuse, dependence, withdraw), cocaine (abuse, dependence, withdraw), and amphetamine (abuse, dependence, withdraw) were crossed with gabapentin OR neurontin. Study selection and data extraction: The resulting 988 abstracts were read by 2 reviewers; references were excluded if gabapentin was not a study compound or psychiatric symptoms were not studied. The resulting references were subsequently read, reviewed, and analyzed; 219 pertinent to gabapentin use in psychiatric disorders were retained. Only 34 clinical trials investigating psychiatric disorders contained quality of evidence level II-2 or higher. Results: Gabapentin may have benefit for some anxiety disorders, although there are no studies for generalized anxiety disorder. Gabapentin has less likely benefit adjunctively for bipolar disorder. Gabapentin has clearer efficacy for alcohol craving and withdrawal symptoms and may have a role in adjunctive treatment of opioid dependence. There is no clear evidence for gabapentin therapy in depression, PTSD prevention, OCD, or other types of substance abuse. Limitations of available data include variation in dosing between studies, gabapentin as monotherapy or

  11. Parental bonding and eating disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tetley, Amanda; Moghaddam, Nima G; Dawson, David L; Rennoldson, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This article systematically reviewed studies of parental bonding in people with eating disorders. MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched to identify studies that compared parental bonding in people diagnosed with an eating disorder relative to non-clinical controls. Twenty-four studies were identified. Women with eating disorders typically reported lower parental care and higher parental protection compared to non-clinical, but not psychiatric, controls. Interestingly, a modest number of studies found that these relationships were mediated by avoidant problem solving style and several schemas from the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ; Schmidt, Joiner, Young, & Telch, 1995). While there are methodological limitations associated with the reviewed studies, they do offer some support for the proposal that difficulties in parent-child relationships predispose women to eating disorders and other psychiatric diagnoses. © 2013.

  12. Mood and anxiety disorders in widowhood: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Onrust, S A; Cuijpers, P

    2006-07-01

    The association between widowhood and mental health problems, such as depressive symptomatology and anxiety, has been examined extensively. Few studies, however, have explored the prevalence and incidence of mood and anxiety disorders based on diagnostic criteria after the loss of the partner. We conducted a systematic review, and searched major bibliographical databases for studies examining mood and anxiety disorders in widowhood. We included all studies examining the prevalence or incidence of mood and anxiety disorders in the widowed, according to diagnostic criteria as assessed with a structured diagnostic interview. Eleven studies were identified, exploring the prevalence and incidence of mood and anxiety disorders in 3,481 widowed individuals and 4,685 non-widowed controls. As expected, the prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders were considerably elevated in widowed individuals, especially in the first year after the loss of a spouse. During the first year of bereavement, almost 22% of the widowed were diagnosed as having MDD; almost 12% met diagnostic criteria for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder; and there were higher risks of Panic Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. The incidence rate of MDD and several anxiety disorders ranged from 0.08-0.50. The relative risk of developing a mood or anxiety disorder ranged from 3.49-9.76, in the widowed, compared to control subjects.

  13. Caffeine challenge test and panic disorder: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Vilarim, Marina Machado; Rocha Araujo, Daniele Marano; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2011-08-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine the results of studies that have investigated the induction of panic attacks and/or the anxiogenic effect of the caffeine challenge test in patients with panic disorder. The literature search was performed in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The words used for the search were caffeine, caffeine challenge test, panic disorder, panic attacks and anxiety disorder. In total, we selected eight randomized, double-blind studies where caffeine was administered orally, and none of them controlled for confounding factors in the analysis. The percentage of loss during follow-up ranged between 14.3% and 73.1%. The eight studies all showed a positive association between caffeine and anxiogenic effects and/or panic disorder.

  14. Motivation to change in the eating disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Loa; Lübeck, Marlene; Jones, Allan

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to review the eating disorder literature in order to examine the effect of pretreatment autonomous/level of motivation to change on treatment outcome as measured by change in eating disorder pathology. Relevant databases were systematically searched for studies in which motivation to change prior to treatment was examined in relation to treatment outcome. Pretreatment autonomous/level of motivation were associated with change in restrictive eating behaviors, bingeing behaviors, and cognitive/affective measures of eating disorder pathology. There was mixed support for the effect of motivation to change on global measures of eating disorder symptoms and virtually no support for the effect of motivation to change on purging behavior. The level of pretreatment motivation the person exhibits prior to commencement of treatment appears to be helpful in predicting treatment outcome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Eating Disorders, Physical Fitness and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Soave, Fabio; Calugi, Simona; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of eating disorders on

  16. Eating disorders, physical fitness and sport performance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Soave, Fabio; Calugi, Simona; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2013-12-16

    Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of eating disorders on sport performance.

  17. A systematic review of treatment intensity in speech disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaipa, Ramesh; Peterson, Abigail Marie

    2016-12-01

    Treatment intensity (sometimes referred to as "practice amount") has been well-investigated in learning non-speech tasks, but its role in treating speech disorders has not been largely analysed. This study reviewed the literature regarding treatment intensity in speech disorders. A systematic search was conducted in four databases using appropriate search terms. Seven articles from a total of 580 met the inclusion criteria. The speech disorders investigated included speech sound disorders, dysarthria, acquired apraxia of speech and childhood apraxia of speech. All seven studies were evaluated for their methodological quality, research phase and evidence level. Evidence level of reviewed studies ranged from moderate to strong. With regard to the research phase, only one study was considered to be phase III research, which corresponds to the controlled trial phase. The remaining studies were considered to be phase II research, which corresponds to the phase where magnitude of therapeutic effect is assessed. Results suggested that higher treatment intensity was favourable over lower treatment intensity of specific treatment technique(s) for treating childhood apraxia of speech and speech sound (phonological) disorders. Future research should incorporate randomised-controlled designs to establish optimal treatment intensity that is specific to each of the speech disorders.

  18. Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Neria, Y.; Nandi, A.; Galea, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disasters are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of mental and physical health consequences. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is probably the most commonly studied post-disaster psychiatric disorder. This review aimed to systematically assess the evidence about PTSD following exposure to disasters. Method A systematic search was performed. Eligible studies for this review included reports based on the DSM criteria of PTSD symptoms. The time-frame for inclusion of reports in this review is from 1980 (when PTSD was first introduced in DSM-III) and February 2007 when the literature search for this examination was terminated. Results We identified 284 reports of PTSD following disasters published in peer-reviewed journals since 1980. We categorized them according to the following classification: (1) human-made disasters (n=90), (2) technological disasters (n=65), and (3) natural disasters (n=116). Since some studies reported on findings from mixed samples (e.g. survivors of flooding and chemical contamination) we grouped these studies together (n=13). Conclusions The body of research conducted after disasters in the past three decades suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons exposed to disasters is substantial. Post-disaster PTSD is associated with a range of correlates including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, social support factors and personality traits. Relatively few studies have employed longitudinal assessments enabling documentation of the course of PTSD. Methodological limitations and future directions for research in this field are discussed. PMID:17803838

  19. Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Neria, Y; Nandi, A; Galea, S

    2008-04-01

    Disasters are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of mental and physical health consequences. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is probably the most commonly studied post-disaster psychiatric disorder. This review aimed to systematically assess the evidence about PTSD following exposure to disasters. MethodA systematic search was performed. Eligible studies for this review included reports based on the DSM criteria of PTSD symptoms. The time-frame for inclusion of reports in this review is from 1980 (when PTSD was first introduced in DSM-III) and February 2007 when the literature search for this examination was terminated. We identified 284 reports of PTSD following disasters published in peer-reviewed journals since 1980. We categorized them according to the following classification: (1) human-made disasters (n=90), (2) technological disasters (n=65), and (3) natural disasters (n=116). Since some studies reported on findings from mixed samples (e.g. survivors of flooding and chemical contamination) we grouped these studies together (n=13). The body of research conducted after disasters in the past three decades suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons exposed to disasters is substantial. Post-disaster PTSD is associated with a range of correlates including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, social support factors and personality traits. Relatively few studies have employed longitudinal assessments enabling documentation of the course of PTSD. Methodological limitations and future directions for research in this field are discussed.

  20. Economic Evaluations of Opioid Use Disorder Interventions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sean M.; Polsky, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background The economic costs associated with opioid misuse are immense. Effective interventions for opioid use disorders are available; however, given the scarce resources faced by substance-use treatment providers and payers of all kinds, evidence of effectiveness is not always sufficient to encourage the adoption of a given therapy, nor should it be. Economic evaluations can provide evidence that will help stakeholders efficiently allocate their resources. Objective The purpose of this study was to review the literature on economic evaluations of opioid use disorder interventions. Methods We performed a systematic review of the major electronic databases from inception until present (August 2015). A sensitive approach was used to ensure a comprehensive list of relevant articles. Given the quality of existing reviews, we narrowed our search to studies published since 2007. The Drummond checklist was used to evaluate and categorize economic-evaluation studies according to their quality. Results A total of 98 articles were identified as potentially relevant to the current study. Of these 98 articles, half (n=49) were included in this study. Six of the included articles were review in nature. The remaining 43 articles performed an economic evaluation of an intervention for opioid use disorders. In general, the evidence on methadone-maintenance therapy (MMT) supports previous findings that MMT is an economically advantageous opioid-use-disorder therapy. The economic literature comparing MMT to other opioid-use-disorder pharmacotherapies is limited, as is the literature on other forms of therapy. Conclusions With the possible exception of MMT, additional high-quality economic evaluations are needed in order to assess the relative value of existing opioid-use-disorder interventions. PMID:27002518

  1. Spindle Oscillations in Sleep Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Oren M.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of sleep microarchitecture and neural oscillations is an increasingly popular technique for quantifying EEG sleep activity. Many studies have examined sleep spindle oscillations in sleep-disordered adults; however reviews of this literature are scarce. As such, our overarching aim was to critically review experimental studies examining sleep spindle activity between adults with and without different sleep disorders. Articles were obtained using a systematic methodology with a priori criteria. Thirty-seven studies meeting final inclusion criteria were reviewed, with studies grouped across three categories: insomnia, hypersomnias, and sleep-related movement disorders (including parasomnias). Studies of patients with insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing were more abundant relative to other diagnoses. All studies were cross-sectional. Studies were largely inconsistent regarding spindle activity differences between clinical and nonclinical groups, with some reporting greater or less activity, while many others reported no group differences. Stark inconsistencies in sample characteristics (e.g., age range and diagnostic criteria) and methods of analysis (e.g., spindle bandwidth selection, visual detection versus digital filtering, absolute versus relative spectral power, and NREM2 versus NREM3) suggest a need for greater use of event-based detection methods and increased research standardization. Hypotheses regarding the clinical and empirical implications of these findings, and suggestions for potential future studies, are also discussed. PMID:27034850

  2. Spindle Oscillations in Sleep Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Oren M; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of sleep microarchitecture and neural oscillations is an increasingly popular technique for quantifying EEG sleep activity. Many studies have examined sleep spindle oscillations in sleep-disordered adults; however reviews of this literature are scarce. As such, our overarching aim was to critically review experimental studies examining sleep spindle activity between adults with and without different sleep disorders. Articles were obtained using a systematic methodology with a priori criteria. Thirty-seven studies meeting final inclusion criteria were reviewed, with studies grouped across three categories: insomnia, hypersomnias, and sleep-related movement disorders (including parasomnias). Studies of patients with insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing were more abundant relative to other diagnoses. All studies were cross-sectional. Studies were largely inconsistent regarding spindle activity differences between clinical and nonclinical groups, with some reporting greater or less activity, while many others reported no group differences. Stark inconsistencies in sample characteristics (e.g., age range and diagnostic criteria) and methods of analysis (e.g., spindle bandwidth selection, visual detection versus digital filtering, absolute versus relative spectral power, and NREM2 versus NREM3) suggest a need for greater use of event-based detection methods and increased research standardization. Hypotheses regarding the clinical and empirical implications of these findings, and suggestions for potential future studies, are also discussed.

  3. Cortical thickness in bipolar disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hanford, Lindsay C; Nazarov, Anthony; Hall, Geoffrey B; Sassi, Roberto B

    2016-02-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating illness, the psychopathology of which is associated with aberrant structural and functional differences in the brain. Despite the many advances in psychiatric research, our understanding of the complex neurobiological underpinnings of BD remains incomplete. The aim of this review was to critically examine all available published magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research reporting cortical thickness in BD with respect to a healthy population and/or other psychiatric samples. The systematic search encompassed all relevant studies published until November 2014. Relevant papers were identified through an online search of select databases (MEDLINE and EMBASE) using key terms bipolar disorder or mania, and cortical thickness. Two independent raters determined the eligibility of papers and performed separate data extraction to ensure quality and accuracy of reporting. A total of 17 papers met the criteria and were included in this review. Compared to a healthy population, the majority of studies reported decreased cortical thickness in the left anterior cingulate/paracingulate and the left superior temporal gyrus, as well as several prefrontal regions bilaterally in patients with BD. Studies also show consistency of cortical thinning in individuals with BD and schizophrenia in frontal and temporal regions, suggesting some common neuropathology. This systematic review further supports a link between specific structural brain abnormalities and BD. Future studies should investigate cortical thickness with respect to at-risk populations to determine whether these neuropathologies develop before or after the onset of BD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Influence of orthodontic treatment on temporomandibular disorders. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cañigral, Aránzazu; López-Caballo, José L.; Brizuela, Aritza; Moreno-Hay, Isabel; del Río-Highsmith, Jaime; Vega, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this literature systematic review was to evaluate the possible association between malocclusions, orthodontic treatment and development of temporomandibular disorders. Material and Methods: A search was carried out on PubMed-Medline database from January 2000 to August 2013 using the keywords “orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders”, “orthodontics and facial pain” and “malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders”. Human studies included in the study were those assessing signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in relation to orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods A search was carried out on PubMed-Medline database from January 2000 to August 2013 using the keywords “orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders”, “orthodontics and facial pain” and “malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders”. Human studies included in the study were those assessing signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in relation to orthodontic treatment. Results The search strategy resulted in 61 articles. After selection according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria 9 articles qualified for the final analysis. The articles which linked orthodontics and development of temporomandibular disorders showed very discrepant results. Some indicated that orthodontic treatment could improve signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, but none of them obtained statistically significant differences. Conclusions According to the authors examined, there is no evidence for a cause-effect relationship between orthodontic treatment and temporomandibular disorders, or that such treatment might improve or prevent them. More longitudinal studies are needed to verify any possible interrelationship. Key words:Malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders, orthodontics and facial pain, orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular dysfunction. PMID:26155354

  5. Rapid cycling in bipolar disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, André F; Dimellis, Dimos; Gonda, Xenia; Vieta, Eduard; Mclntyre, Roger S; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N

    2014-06-01

    THE long-term course of bipolar disorder is typified by recurring mood episodes of opposite polarity as well as mixed states. Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder refers to the presence of at least 4 mood episodes in the previous 12 months that meet the criteria for manic, hypomanic, or major depressive episode. The purpose of this study was to synthesize data regarding prevalence, clinical correlates, and familial/genetic aspects related to rapid cycling in bipolar disorder. we searched the MEDLINE database through September 7, 2013 for articles regarding rapid cycling in bipolar disorder. Searches were performed using the keywords rapid cycling or rapid-cycling. The search strategy was augmented through the inspection of reference lists of relevant review articles. Eligible articles included original studies in English on rapid-cycling bipolar patients according to the criteria defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. This study followed the recommendations of the Preferred Items for Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. The initial search returned 2,715 articles; 2,594 were excluded for several reasons (not aligned with objectives, pertaining to bipolar disorder but not focusing on rapid cycling, case reports, and case series). The final review included 119 articles. Two investigators (K.N.F. and D.D.) independently reviewed articles for eligibility. Final decisions regarding eligibility were made by consensus following the full-text review. The literature suggests that rapid cycling affects a significant proportion of bipolar patients and is related to a longer course of illness, an earlier age at onset, and more illegal drug and alcohol abuse and increased suicidality. Year prevalence of rapid cycling among all bipolar patients ranges between 5%-33.3%, while lifetime prevalence ranges between 25.8%-43%.The etiology remains unclear, although a causal or triggering role for the use of antidepressants and

  6. Psychotherapy for compulsive buying disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lourenço Leite, Priscilla; Pereira, Valeska Martinho; Nardi, Antônio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2014-11-30

    Based on a literature review, the purpose is to identify the main therapeutic approaches for the compulsive buying disorder, a present time disorder characterized by excessive and uncontrollable concerns or behaviors related to buying or expenses, which may lead to adverse consequences. The systematic review was carried out by searching the electronic scientific bases Medline/Pubmed, ISI, PsycInfo. The search was comprised of full-text articles, written in Portuguese and English, with no time limit or restrictions on the type of study and sample. A total of 1659 references were found and, by the end, 23 articles were selected for this review. From the articles found, it was determined that, although there are case studies and clinical trials underlining the effectiveness of the treatment for compulsive buying, only those studies with a focus on the cognitive-behavioral therapy approach make evident the successful response to the treatment. The publication of new studies on the etiology and epidemiology of the disorder is necessary, in order to establish new forms of treatment and to verify the effectiveness and response of the Brazilian population to the existing protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mindfulness Meditation for Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zgierska, Aleksandra; Rabago, David; Chawla, Neharika; Kushner, Kenneth; Koehler, Robert; Marlatt, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Relapse is common in substance use disorders (SUDs), even among treated individuals. The goal of this article was to systematically review the existing evidence on mindfulness meditation-based interventions (MM) for SUDs. The comprehensive search for and review of literature found over 2,000 abstracts and resulted in 25 eligible manuscripts (22 published, 3 unpublished: 8 RCTs, 7 controlled non-randomized, 6 non-controlled prospective, 2 qualitative studies, 1 case report). When appropriate, methodological quality, absolute risk reduction, number needed to treat, and effect size (ES) were assessed. Overall, although preliminary evidence suggests MM efficacy and safety, conclusive data for MM as a treatment of SUDs are lacking. Significant methodological limitations exist in most studies. Further, it is unclear which persons with SUDs might benefit most from MM. Future trials must be of sufficient sample size to answer a specific clinical question and should target both assessment of effect size and mechanisms of action. PMID:19904664

  8. Disorders Induced by Direct Occupational Exposure to Noise: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Domingo-Pueyo, Andrea; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2016-01-01

    Background: To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information), Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals) was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: “Noise, Occupational,” “Occupational Exposure,” and “Occupational Disease.” The following limits were considered: “Humans,” “Adult (more than 18 years),” and “Comparative Studies.” Results: A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. Conclusions: It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders. PMID:27762251

  9. Disorders induced by direct occupational exposure to noise: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Pueyo, Andrea; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2016-01-01

    To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information), Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals) was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: "Noise, Occupational," "Occupational Exposure," and "Occupational Disease." The following limits were considered: "Humans," "Adult (more than 18 years)," and "Comparative Studies." A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders.

  10. Thyroid autoimmunity in bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barbuti, Margherita; Carvalho, André F; Köhler, Cristiano A; Murru, Andrea; Verdolini, Norma; Guiso, Giovanni; Samalin, Ludovic; Maes, Michael; Stubbs, Brendon; Perugi, Giulio; Vieta, Eduard; Pacchiarotti, Isabella

    2017-10-15

    Accumulating evidence points to the pathophysiological relevance between immune dysfunction and mood disorders. High rates of thyroid dysfunction have been found in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), compared to the general population. A systematic review of the relationship between BD and thyroid autoimmunity was performed. Pubmed, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases were searched up till January 28th, 2017. This review has been conducted according to the PRISMA statements. Observational studies clearly reporting data among BD patients and the frequency of autoimmune thyroid pathologies were included. 11 original studies met inclusion criteria out of 340 titles first returned from the global search. There is evidence of increased prevalence of circulating thyroid autoantibodies in depressed and mixed BD patients, while there is no evidence showing a positive relationship between BD and specific autoimmune thyroid diseases. There is a controversy about the influence of lithium exposure on circulating thyroid autoantibodies, even if most of studies seem not to support this association. A study conducted on bipolar twins suggests that autoimmune thyroiditis is related to the genetic vulnerability to develop BD rather than to the disease process itself. Females are more likely to develop thyroid autoimmunity. The samples, study design and outcomes were heterogeneous. Thyroid autoimmunity has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for bipolar disorder with no clear association with lithium exposure and it might serve as an endophenotype for BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacotherapy for social anxiety disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ipser, Jonathan C; Kariuki, Catherine M; Stein, Dan J

    2008-02-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent, disabling disorder. We aimed to assess the effects of pharmacotherapy for SAD and to determine whether particular classes of medication are more effective and/or better tolerated than others. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of all published and unpublished placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCTs) undertaken between 1966 and 2007. A rigorous search, which included searching the Cochrane CCDANTR, MEDLINE and PsycINFO electronic databases, yielded a total of 51 RCTs (9914 participants) considered eligible for inclusion in the review. On average, over half of trial participants responded to medication, as assessed with the improvement item of the Clinical Global Impressions scale (55.2%), with approximately four participants having to be treated for an average of 12 weeks before an additional person responded to medication, relative to placebo (number needed to benefit = 4.19). There was substantial variation across medication classes in the number of dropouts due to adverse events, with an average number needed to harm of 14.4. Maintenance and relapse prevention studies confirm the value of longer-term medication in treatment responders. Medication was also effective in reducing SAD symptoms, comorbid depressive symptoms and associated disability. However, evidence for the efficacy of beta-blockers in treating performance anxiety was lacking. Taken together, trials of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors provide the largest evidence base for agents that are both effective and well tolerated. This review is an updated version of a Cochrane Review in The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2004. Cochrane Reviews are regularly updated as new evidence emerges and in response to feedback, and The Cochrane Library should be consulted for the most recent version of the review.

  12. Local Oestrogen for Pelvic Floor Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Weber, M. A.; Kleijn, M. H.; Langendam, M.; Limpens, J.; Heineman, M. J.; Roovers, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The decline in available oestrogen after menopause is a possible etiological factor in pelvic floor disorders like vaginal atrophy (VA), urinary incontinence (UI), overactive bladder (OAB) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This systematic review will examine the evidence for local oestrogen therapy in the treatment of these pelvic floor disorders. Evidence Acquisition We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the non-MEDLINE subset of PubMed from inception to May 2014. We searched for local oestrogens and VA (I), UI/OAB (II) and POP (III). Part I was combined with broad methodological filters for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and secondary evidence. For part I and II two reviewers independently selected RCTs evaluating the effect of topical oestrogens on symptoms and signs of VA and UI/OAB. In part III all studies of topical oestrogen therapy in the treatment of POP were selected. Data extraction and the assessment of risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Evidence Synthesis The included studies varied in ways of topical application, types of oestrogen, dosage and treatment durations. Objective and subjective outcomes were assessed by a variety of measures. Overall, subjective and urodynamic outcomes, vaginal maturation and vaginal pH changed in favor of vaginal oestrogens compared to placebo. No obvious differences between different application methods were revealed. Low doses already seemed to have a beneficial effect. Studies evaluating the effect of topical oestrogen in women with POP are scarce and mainly assessed symptoms and signs associated with VA instead of POP symptoms. Conclusion Topical oestrogen administration is effective for the treatment of VA and seems to decrease complaints of OAB and UI. The potential for local oestrogens in the prevention as well as treatment of POP needs further research. PMID:26383760

  13. Treatment of Female Sexual Pain Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Al-Abbadey, Miznah; Liossi, Christina; Curran, Natasha; Schoth, Daniel E; Graham, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual pain disorders affect women's sexual and reproductive health and are poorly understood. Although many treatments have been evaluated, there is no one "gold standard" treatment. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate what treatments for female sexual pain have been evaluated in clinical studies and their effectiveness. The search strategy resulted in 65 papers included in this review. The articles were divided into the following categories: medical treatments; surgical treatments; physical therapies; psychological therapies; comparative treatment studies; and miscellaneous and combined treatments. Topical and systemic medical treatments have generally been found to lead to improvements in, but not complete relief of, pain, and side effects are quite common. Surgical procedures have demonstrated very high success rates, although there has been variability in complete relief of pain after surgery, which suggests less invasive treatments should be considered first. Physical therapies and psychological therapies have been shown to be promising treatments, supporting a biopsychosocial approach to sexual pain disorders. Although most of the interventions described have been reported as effective, many women still experience pain. A multidisciplinary team with active patient involvement may be needed to optimize treatment outcome.

  14. Neuropsychological impairments in panic disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Kate; Newman, Emily F

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature investigating the neuropsychological profile of panic disorder (PD), some of which suggests potential cognitive dysfunction. This paper systematically reviews the existing literature on neuropsychological performance in PD. PsycINFO, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycARTICLES databases were searched to identify articles reporting on neuropsychological function in PD published in English during the time period 1980 to March 2012. 14 studies were identified. There was limited support for impairment in short term memory among individuals with PD, although this was not found across all studies. Overall, the reviewed studies did not support the presence of impairment in other areas of cognitive functioning, including executive function, long term memory, visuospatial or perceptual abilities and working memory. Studies with samples of fewer than 15 participants per group were excluded from this review. A limited amount of research has been published on this topic and small sample sizes (under 25 per group) have been used by many studies. Therefore, the current review is based on a small number of studies with limited power. There is limited evidence of specific neuropsychological impairments in participants with PD. Impairments in short term memory warrant further investigation to establish their relevance to clinical practice. Larger sample sizes and appropriate statistical adjustment for multiple comparisons in future studies is highly recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of obstructive salivary disorders by sialendoscopy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Atienza, G; López-Cedrún, J L

    2015-07-01

    Our aim was to assess the effectiveness and safety of sialendoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic technique in the management of obstructive salivary disorders. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, The Cochrane Library, and the National Health Service Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (up to April 2014). References from the studies included and from review articles were scanned. A study was eligible for inclusion if it was a fully published peer-reviewed report with original data, if participants included adult patients with obstructive disease of the major salivary glands, if the outcome variables gave information about the success rates of the procedure in terms of freedom from symptoms and absence of residual obstruction, and if the paper was published in English, French, Italian, Portuguese, or Spanish. The data were extracted and summarised in tables of evidence. We report weighted pooled proportions, 95% CI, and test results for heterogeneity. The weighted pooled proportion of success rates of the obstruction's resolution was 76% (95% CI 71 to 82) for 40 studies involving 2654 patients undergoing sialendoscopy alone, and 91% (95% CI 88 to 94) for the 23 studies and 1480 procedures made with sialendoscopy and a combined surgical approach. In general, few complications were reported and the rate of sialadenectomy was low (4.6%). This systematic review suggests that sialendoscopy is effective and safe for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with obstructive salivary gland disease.

  16. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized databases in May 2014 augmented by hand searches of reference lists. We included original articles in which MDD participants (or their healthy first-degree relatives) and a healthy control group were compared on standard measures of emotional processing or reward/ punishment processing as well as systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A total of 116 articles met the inclusion criteria of which 97 were original studies. Negative biases in perception, attention and memory for emotional information, and aberrant reward/punishment processing occur in MDD. Imbalanced responses to negative stimuli in a fronto-limbic network with hyper-activity in limbic and ventral prefrontal regions paired with hypo-activity of dorsal prefrontal regions subserve these abnormalities. A cross-talk of 'hot' and 'cold' cognition disturbances in MDD occurs. Disturbances in 'hot cognition' may also contribute to the perpetuation of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission and to subtle 'hot' cognition deficits in healthy relatives of patients with MDD. Taken together, these findings suggest that abnormalities in 'hot' cognition may constitute a candidate neurocognitive endophenotype for depression.

  17. Gene Mutations Associated with Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sangani, Dhruvee; Suzuki, Akiko; VonVille, Helena; Hixson, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a bilateral synovial joint between the mandible and the temporal bone of the skull. TMJ disorders (TMDs) are a set of complicated and poorly understood clinical conditions, in which TMDs are associated with a number of symptoms including pain and limited jaw movement. The increasing scientific evidence suggests that genetic factors play a significant role in the pathology of TMDs. However, the underlying mechanism of TMDs remains largely unknown. Objective The study aimed to determine the associated genes to TMDs in humans and animals. Methods The literature search was conducted through databases including Medline (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), and PubMed (NLM) by using scientific terms for TMDs and genetics in March 2015. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of highly relevant articles and Scopus (Elsevier). Results Our systematic analyses identified 31 articles through literature searches. A total of 112 genes were identified to be significantly and specifically associated with TMDs. Conclusion Our systematic review provides a list of accurate genes associated with TMDs and suggests a genetic contribution to the pathology of TMDs. PMID:27695703

  18. Emotional language processing in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lartseva, Alina; Dijkstra, Ton; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2015-01-01

    In his first description of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Kanner emphasized emotional impairments by characterizing children with ASD as indifferent to other people, self-absorbed, emotionally cold, distanced, and retracted. Thereafter, emotional impairments became regarded as part of the social impairments of ASD, and research mostly focused on understanding how individuals with ASD recognize visual expressions of emotions from faces and body postures. However, it still remains unclear how emotions are processed outside of the visual domain. This systematic review aims to fill this gap by focusing on impairments of emotional language processing in ASD. We systematically searched PubMed for papers published between 1990 and 2013 using standardized search terms. Studies show that people with ASD are able to correctly classify emotional language stimuli as emotionally positive or negative. However, processing of emotional language stimuli in ASD is associated with atypical patterns of attention and memory performance, as well as abnormal physiological and neural activity. Particularly, younger children with ASD have difficulties in acquiring and developing emotional concepts, and avoid using these in discourse. These emotional language impairments were not consistently associated with age, IQ, or level of development of language skills. We discuss how emotional language impairments fit with existing cognitive theories of ASD, such as central coherence, executive dysfunction, and weak Theory of Mind. We conclude that emotional impairments in ASD may be broader than just a mere consequence of social impairments, and should receive more attention in future research. PMID:25610383

  19. Gene Mutations Associated with Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sangani, Dhruvee; Suzuki, Akiko; VonVille, Helena; Hixson, James E; Iwata, Junichi

    2015-06-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a bilateral synovial joint between the mandible and the temporal bone of the skull. TMJ disorders (TMDs) are a set of complicated and poorly understood clinical conditions, in which TMDs are associated with a number of symptoms including pain and limited jaw movement. The increasing scientific evidence suggests that genetic factors play a significant role in the pathology of TMDs. However, the underlying mechanism of TMDs remains largely unknown. The study aimed to determine the associated genes to TMDs in humans and animals. The literature search was conducted through databases including Medline (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), and PubMed (NLM) by using scientific terms for TMDs and genetics in March 2015. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of highly relevant articles and Scopus (Elsevier). Our systematic analyses identified 31 articles through literature searches. A total of 112 genes were identified to be significantly and specifically associated with TMDs. Our systematic review provides a list of accurate genes associated with TMDs and suggests a genetic contribution to the pathology of TMDs.

  20. St. John's Wort for Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Maher, Alicia Ruelaz; Hempel, Susanne; Apaydin, Eric; Shanman, Roberta M; Booth, Marika; Miles, Jeremy N V; Sorbero, Melony E

    2016-05-09

    RAND researchers conducted a systematic review that synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials of St. John's wort (SJW)-used adjunctively or as monotherapy-to provide estimates of its efficacy and safety in treating adults with major depressive disorder. Outcomes of interest included changes in depressive symptomatology, quality of life, and adverse effects. Efficacy meta-analyses used the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random-effects models. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. In total, 35 studies met inclusion criteria. There is moderate evidence, due to unexplained heterogeneity between studies, that depression improvement based on the number of treatment responders and depression scale scores favors SJW over placebo, and results are comparable to antidepressants. The existing evidence is based on studies testing SJW as monotherapy; there is a lack of evidence for SJW given as adjunct therapy to standard antidepressant therapy. We found no systematic difference between SJW extracts, but head-to-head trials are missing; LI 160 (0.3% hypericin, 1-4% hyperforin) was the extract with the greatest number of studies. Only two trials assessed quality of life. SJW adverse events reported in included trials were comparable to placebo, and were fewer compared with antidepressant medication; however, adverse event assessments were limited, and thus we have limited confidence in this conclusion.

  1. [Child maltreatment in binge eating disorder: a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Röhr, Susanne; Dölemeyer, Ruth; Klinitzke, Grit; Steinig, Jana; Wagner, Birgit; Kersting, Annette

    2015-04-01

    This review is to provide a first overview about prevalences and associations of forms of child maltreatment in binge eating disorder (BED). Systematic literature search in PubMed and Web of Science in December 2013. Terms considered were "binge eating disorder" AND "child* maltreatment", "child* abuse", "child* sexual abuse", "child* emotional abuse", "child* physical abuse", "child* emotional neglect" as well as "child* physical neglect". Inclusion criteria were studies published between 1990 and 2013, publications in English or German, adult patients, studies that considered patients with full DSM criteria for BED, and studies that reported prevalences of forms of child maltreatment. Eight studies out of 366 met criteria. Child maltreatment rates in BED were more than two times higher than in representative samples, but they were similar to psychiatric comparisons. Up to 83 % of patients with BED reported at least one form of child maltreatment. There were associations to psychiatric comorbidity, but not to gender, obesity and specific features of the eating behaviour. Child maltreatment is very prevalent among BED. Its contribution to the development and the maintenance of BED is not understood yet. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Cognitive Impairment in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vöhringer, Paul A.; Barroilhet, Sergio A.; Amerio, Andrea; Reale, Maria Laura; Alvear, Katherine; Vergne, Derick; Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Previous comparisons of cognitive decline among patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) have found somehow quite similar profiles of deficits, but results have varied between studies. Therefore an extensive and thoughtful systematic review of the matter is warranted. Methods: Studies were found through systematic search (PubMed) following PRISMA guidelines. To be included, studies must have assessed the following cognitive functions: executive functions, memory, IQ, attention-concentration, and perceptuomotor function. In order to make comparison between the two entities, studies should include BD patients with operationally defined euthymia, schizophrenic patients in remission, and third group of healthy control patients. Comparisons were made after controlling for years of schooling and residual affective symptoms. Results: We found that overall both SZ and BD patients present deficits on all neurocognitive measures compared to healthy controls. In particular, SZ patients show more severe and pervasive cognitive deficits while BD patients present a milder and more confined impairment. In addition, evidence from the literature suggests that SZ and BD patients share a similar cognitive impairment profile with different degrees of deficits. Therefore, the difference between the two groups seems to be more quantitative (degree of deficit) rather than qualitative (profile), supporting a dimensional approach to the two clinical entities. Limitations of the present review includes the impossibility to control for effects of medication, varying time required for assessment across studies, illness diagnosis reliability, and course severity. Conclusion: Patients with BD might exhibit a cognitive impairment that could be similar to SZ in terms of their profile, although patients with SZ may have more severe and widespread impairments. PMID:23964248

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Organ Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Davydow, Dimitry S.; Lease, Erika D.; Reyes, Jorge D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarize and critically review the existing literature on the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following organ transplantation, risk factors for post-transplantation PTSD and the relationship of post-transplant PTSD to other clinical outcomes including health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and mortality. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review using PubMed, CINAHL Plus, the Cochrane Library, PsycInfo and a search of the online contents of 18 journals. Results Twenty-three studies were included. Post-transplant, the point prevalence of clinician-ascertained PTSD ranged from 1% to 16% (n = 738), the point prevalence of questionnaire-assessed substantial PTSD symptoms ranged from 0% to 46% (n = 1,024), and the cumulative incidence of clinician-ascertained transplant-specific PTSD ranged from 10% to 17% (n = 482). Consistent predictors of post-transplant PTSD included history of psychiatric illness prior to transplantation and poor social support post-transplantation. Post-transplant PTSD was consistently associated with worse mental HRQOL and potentially associated with worse physical HRQOL. Conclusions PTSD may impact a substantial proportion of organ transplant recipients. Future studies should focus on transplant-specific PTSD, and clarify potential risk factors for, and adverse outcomes related to, post-transplant PTSD. PMID:26073159

  4. Cellular models to study bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Biju; Jose, Sam P; Squassina, Alessio; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Purushottam, Meera; Mukherjee, Odity; Vladimirov, Vladimir; Patrinos, George P; Del Zompo, Maria; Jain, Sanjeev

    2015-09-15

    There is an emerging interest in the use of cellular models to study psychiatric disorders. We have systematically reviewed the application of cellular models to understand the biological basis of bipolar disorder (BD). Published scientific literature in MEDLINE, PsychINFO and SCOPUS databases were identified with the following search strategy: [(Lymphoblastoid OR Lymphoblast OR Fibroblast OR Pluripotent OR Olfactory epithelium OR Olfactory mucosa) AND (Bipolar disorder OR Lithium OR Valproate OR Mania)]. Studies were included if they had used cell cultures derived from BD patients. There were 65 articles on lymphoblastoid cell lines, 14 articles on fibroblasts, 4 articles on olfactory neuronal epithelium (ONE) and 2 articles on neurons reprogrammed from induced pluripotent stem cell lines (IPSC). Several parameters have been studied, and the most replicated findings are abnormalities in calcium signaling, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, mitochondrial oxidative pathway, membrane ion channels, circadian system and apoptosis related genes. These, although present in basal state, seem to be accentuated in the presence of cellular stressors (e.g. oxidative stress--rotenone; ER stress--thapsigargin), and are often reversed with in-vitro lithium. Cellular modeling has proven useful in BD, and potential pathways, especially in cellular resilience related mechanisms have been identified. These findings show consistency with other study designs (genome-wide association, brain-imaging, and post-mortem brain expression). ONE cells and IPSC reprogrammed neurons represent the next generation of cell models in BD. Future studies should focus on family-based study designs and combine cell models with deep sequencing and genetic manipulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical management of perinatal anxiety disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, C; Ossola, P; Amerio, A; Daniel, B D; Tonna, M; De Panfilis, C

    2016-01-15

    In the last few decades, there has been a growing interest in anxiety disorders (AnxD) in the perinatal period. Although AnxD are diagnosed in 4-39% of pregnant women and in up to 16% of women after delivery, evidence on their clinical management is limited. A systematic review was conducted on pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of AnxD in the perinatal period. Relevant papers published from January 1st 2015 were identified searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library. 18 articles met inclusion criteria. Selected studies supported the use of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD) and specific phobia both in pregnancy and postpartum. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) led to significant OCD and PD improvement both in pregnancy and postpartum with no side effects for the babies. In the largest clinical sample to date, 65% of postpartum patients who entered the open-label trial of fluvoxamine (up to 300mg/day) experienced a 30% or greater decrease in the total score of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). During pregnancy, SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) led to remission of panic symptoms and healthy outcomes for the babies. Study design, mostly case reports, and enrolment of subjects mainly from outpatient specialty units might have limited community-wide generalisability. Keeping in mind the scantiness and heterogeneity of the available literature, the best interpretation of the available evidence appears to be that CBT should be the first treatment offered to pregnant and breastfeeding women with AnxD. However SSRIs can represent a first line treatment strategy, and not exclusively in cases where AnxD is refractory to CBT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers - a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hairdressers often come into contact with various chemical substances which can be found in hair care products for washing, dyeing, bleaching, styling, spraying and perming. This exposure can impair health and may be present as skin and respiratory diseases. Effects on reproduction have long been discussed in the literature. Method A systematic review has been prepared in which publications from 1990 to 2010 were considered in order to specifically investigate the effects on fertility and pregnancy. The results of the studies were summarised separately in accordance with the type of study and the examined events. Results A total of 2 reviews and 26 original studies on fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers were found in the relevant databases, as well as through hand searches of reference lists. Nineteen different outcomes concerning fertility and pregnancy are analysed in the 26 original studies. Most studies looked into malformation (n = 7), particularly orofacial cleft. Two of them found statistically significant increased risks compared to five that did not. Small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW) and spontaneous abortions were frequently investigated but found different results. Taken together the studies are inconsistent, so that no clear statements on an association between the exposure as a hairdresser and the effect on reproduction are possible. The different authors describe increased risks of infertility, congenital malformations, SGA, LBW, cancer in childhood, as well as effects from single substances. Conclusion On the basis of the identified epidemiological studies, fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers cannot be excluded. Although the evidence for these risks is low, further studies on reproductive risks in hairdressers should be performed as there is a high public health interest. PMID:20723211

  7. Fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peters, Claudia; Harling, Melanie; Dulon, Madeleine; Schablon, Anja; Torres Costa, José; Nienhaus, Albert

    2010-08-19

    Hairdressers often come into contact with various chemical substances which can be found in hair care products for washing, dyeing, bleaching, styling, spraying and perming. This exposure can impair health and may be present as skin and respiratory diseases. Effects on reproduction have long been discussed in the literature. A systematic review has been prepared in which publications from 1990 to 2010 were considered in order to specifically investigate the effects on fertility and pregnancy. The results of the studies were summarised separately in accordance with the type of study and the examined events. A total of 2 reviews and 26 original studies on fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers were found in the relevant databases, as well as through hand searches of reference lists. Nineteen different outcomes concerning fertility and pregnancy are analysed in the 26 original studies. Most studies looked into malformation (n = 7), particularly orofacial cleft. Two of them found statistically significant increased risks compared to five that did not. Small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW) and spontaneous abortions were frequently investigated but found different results. Taken together the studies are inconsistent, so that no clear statements on an association between the exposure as a hairdresser and the effect on reproduction are possible. The different authors describe increased risks of infertility, congenital malformations, SGA, LBW, cancer in childhood, as well as effects from single substances. On the basis of the identified epidemiological studies, fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers cannot be excluded. Although the evidence for these risks is low, further studies on reproductive risks in hairdressers should be performed as there is a high public health interest.

  8. Autism Spectrum disorders (ASD) in South Asia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Didar; Ahmed, Helal Uddin; Jalal Uddin, M M; Chowdhury, Waziul Alam; Iqbal, Mohd S; Kabir, Razin Iqbal; Chowdhury, Imran Ahmed; Aftab, Afzal; Datta, Pran Gopal; Rabbani, Golam; Hossain, Saima Wazed; Sarker, Malabika

    2017-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders. The prevalence of ASD in many South Asian countries is still unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review available epidemiological studies of ASD in this region to identify gaps in our current knowledge. We searched, collected and evaluated articles published between January 1962 and July 2016 which reported the prevalence of ASD in eight South Asian countries. The search was conducted in line with the PRISMA guidelines. We identified six articles from Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka which met our predefined inclusion criteria. The reported prevalence of ASD in South Asia ranged from 0.09% in India to 1.07% in Sri Lanka that indicates up to one in 93 children have ASD in this region. Alarmingly high prevalence (3%) was reported in Dhaka city. Study sample sizes ranged from 374 in Sri Lanka to 18,480 in India. The age range varied between 1 and 30 years. No studies were found which reported the prevalence of ASD in Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives and Afghanistan. This review identifies methodological differences in case definition, screening instruments and diagnostic criteria among reported three countries which make it very difficult to compare the studies. Our study is an attempt at understanding the scale of the problem and scarcity of information regarding ASD in the South Asia. This study will contribute to the evidence base needed to design further research and make policy decisions on addressing this issue in this region. Knowing the prevalence of ASD in South Asia is vital to ensure the effective allocation of resources and services.

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and eating disorders across the lifespan: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Levin, Rivka L; Rawana, Jennine S

    2016-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders are common and concerning mental health disorders. There is both empirical and theoretical support for an association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. This systematic review aims to summarize the extant literature on the comorbidity of ADHD and eating disorders across the lifespan, including the influences of sex, age, eating disorder diagnosis, and potential mediators. A total of 37 peer-reviewed studies on diagnosed ADHD and eating disturbances were identified through key research databases. Twenty-six studies supported a strong empirical association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. The systematic review findings suggest that children with ADHD are at risk for disordered eating, while adolescents, emerging adults, and adults are at risk for both eating disorders and disordered eating. Methodological considerations, future research, and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronotype and circadian rhythm in bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Melo, Matias C A; Abreu, Rafael L C; Linhares Neto, Vicente B; de Bruin, Pedro F C; de Bruin, Veralice M S

    2016-07-01

    Despite a complex relationship between mood, sleep and rhythm, the impact of circadian disruptions on bipolar disorder (BD) has not been clarified. The purpose of this systematic review was to define current evidence regarding chronotype and circadian rhythm patterns in BD patients. 42 studies were included, involving 3432 BD patients. Disruption of the biological rhythm was identified, even in drug-naïve BD patients and independently of mood status. Daily profiles of melatonin levels and cortisol indicated a delayed phase. Depression was more frequently associated with circadian alterations than euthymia. Few studies evaluated mania, demonstrating irregular rhythms. Evening type was more common in BD adults. Studies about the influence of chronotype on depressive symptoms showed conflicting results. Only one investigation observed the influences of chronotype in mania, revealing no significant association. Effects of psychoeducation and lithium on rhythm in BD patients were poorly studied, demonstrating no improvement of rhythm parameters. Studies about genetics are incipient. In conclusion, disruption in circadian rhythm and eveningness are common in BD. Prospective research evaluating the impact of circadian disruption on mood symptoms, metabolism, seasonality, the influence of age and the effects of mood stabilizers are needed.

  11. A Systematic Review on the Pharmacological Treatment of Delusional Disorder.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Negro, José Eduardo; Cervilla, Jorge A

    2016-12-01

    Pharmacological treatment is the criterion standard in delusional disorder (DD). No second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) is specifically authorized for the treatment of DD. To evaluate the evidence available on pharmacological treatments in adults with DD and to compare first-generation antipsychotics (FGA) versus SGA. A systematic review on pharmacological treatment of DD following the PRISMA methodology was conducted. We selected the best evidence available and analyzed it critically assessing both, biases and quality, to finally perform a narrative and quantitative synthesis. The evidence available was mainly limited to observational studies and case series. There were no randomized clinical trials. Three hundred eighty-five DD cases were included (177 of which were on SGAs). Overall, antipsychotics achieved a good response in 33.6%% of the patients. As a group, FGAs showed significant superiority compared to SGAs (good response rates were 39% vs 28%, respectively). We did not find superiority of any specific antipsychotic over another. There is no strong evidence to make definite recommendations, although antipsychotics in general seem to be an effective treatment for DD with a slight superiority in favor of FGAs as compared with SGAs. Existent data are, albeit, scarce and specific clinical trials on DD, are strongly recommended.

  12. Omentum for Mammary Disorders: A 30-Year Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Claro, Francisco; Sarian, Luís Otávio Zanatta; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-08-01

    Although the safety of applying omentum to the female breast for total breast reconstruction is controversial, it has recently been used to treat certain mammary disorders as well. A systematic review was therefore conducted to analyze and establish the suitability and safety of applying omentum to the breast. Covereing the interval from January 1984 to December 2013, we performed searches in MEDLINE, Embase, SciELO, and Google-Scholar for original articles describing the applicability of greater omentum to the breast and its clinical complications. Sixty observational articles with 985 women were chosen. The main clinical indications were total breast reconstruction after mastectomy due to breast cancer (45 studies), radiation damage (23 studies), and congenital Poland syndrome (4 studies). Altogether, 273 complications were identified among the 985 women treated. The most frequent was flap necrosis (26.74 %). The most serious was injury to the digestive system (1.10 %). There was a 35.48 % incidence of local breast cancer recurrence in eight observational studies on oncological risk. Seven of the eight included only women with advanced cancer. One of these studies reported the incidence and relapse time predominantly according to the primary tumor size. Although the oncological risk remains unclear, there was a high volume of complications that affected the digestive system. These findings suggest that omentum has well established applicability, but only for total breast reconstruction of huge defects, where muscular/myocutaneous or perforator flaps may be unsuitable.

  13. Social capital and common mental disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ehsan, Annahita M; De Silva, Mary J

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to systematically review all published quantitative studies examining the direct association between social capital and common mental disorders (CMD). Social capital has potential value for the promotion and prevention of CMD. The association between different types of social capital (individual cognitive and structural, and ecological cognitive and structural) and CMD must be explored to obtain conclusive evidence regarding the association, and to ascertain a direction of causality. 10 electronic databases were searched to find studies examining the association between social capital and CMD published before July 2014. The effect estimates and sample sizes for each type of social capital were separately analysed for cross-sectional and cohort studies. From 1857 studies retrieved, 39 were selected for inclusion: 31 cross-sectional and 8 cohort studies. 39 effect estimates were found for individual level cognitive, 31 for individual level structural, 9 for ecological level cognitive and 11 for ecological level structural social capital. This review provides evidence that individual cognitive social capital is protective against developing CMD. Ecological cognitive social capital is also associated with reduced risk of CMD, though the included studies were cross-sectional. For structural social capital there was overall no association at either the individual or ecological levels. Two cross-sectional studies found that in low-income settings, a mother's participation in civic activities is associated with an increased risk of CMD. There is now sufficient evidence to design and evaluate individual and ecological cognitive social capital interventions to promote mental well-being and prevent CMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among farmers: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Aoife; Blake, Catherine; Fullen, Brona M; Meredith, David; Phelan, James; McNamara, John; Cunningham, Caitriona

    2012-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among farmers and to establish the most common regional MSDs reported. Comprehensive electronic searches of Pubmed, Web of Science, CINAHL, SCOPUS, EMBASE, Agris Database, and Cochrane Library were carried out using keywords for MSDs and farmers. Pooled estimates of prevalence with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for overall MSD prevalence and the most common regional MSDs reported. Twenty-four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were incorporated into this review. From these studies, life-time prevalence of any form of MSD among farmers was 90.6% while 1-year MSD prevalence was 76.9% (95% CI 69.8-82.7). The majority of studies focused on spinal MSDs with low back pain (LBP) the most frequently investigated. Life-time LBP prevalence was 75% (95% CI 67-81.5) while 1-year LBP prevalence was 47.8% (95% CI 40.2-55.5). The next most common regional MSDs reported were upper (range 3.6-71.4%) and lower extremities (range 10.4-41%). The systematic review identified the prevalence of MSDs by body region in farmers and established that LBP was the most common MSD, followed by upper and then lower extremity MSDs. Reported trends suggest that the prevalence of MSDs in farmers is greater than in non-farmer populations. Case-definition uniformity among MSD researchers is warranted. More studies are needed regarding upper and lower extremity MSDs, gender, workplace, and task context of MSDs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A systematic review of musculoskeletal disorders among school teachers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) represent one of the most common and most expensive occupational health problems in both developed and developing countries. School teachers represent an occupational group among which there appears to be a high prevalence of MSD. Given that causes of MSD have been described as multi-factorial and prevalence rates vary between body sites and location of study, the objective of this systematic review was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for MSD among teaching staff. Methods The study involved an extensive search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases in 2011. All studies which reported on the prevalence and/or risk factors for MSD in the teaching profession were initially selected for inclusion. Reference lists of articles identified in the original search were then examined for additional publications. Of the 80 articles initially located, a final group of 33 met the inclusion criteria and were examined in detail. Results This review suggests that the prevalence of self-reported MSD among school teachers ranges between 39% and 95%. The most prevalent body sites appear to be the back, neck and upper limbs. Nursery school teachers appear to be more likely to report suffering from low back pain. Factors such as gender, age, length of employment and awkward posture have been associated with higher MSD prevalence rates. Conclusion Overall, this study suggests that school teachers are at a high risk of MSD. Further research, preferably longitudinal, is required to more thoroughly investigate the issue of MSD among teachers, with a greater emphasis on the possible wider use of ergonomic principles. This would represent a major step forward in the prevention of MSD among teachers, especially if easy to implement control measures could be recommended. PMID:22087739

  16. Systematic review of sleep disorders in cancer patients: can the prevalence of sleep disorders be ascertained?

    PubMed

    Otte, Julie L; Carpenter, Janet S; Manchanda, Shalini; Rand, Kevin L; Skaar, Todd C; Weaver, Michael; Chernyak, Yelena; Zhong, Xin; Igega, Christele; Landis, Carol

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep is vital to all human functioning and poor sleep is a known problem in cancer, it is unclear whether the overall prevalence of the various types of sleep disorders in cancer is known. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate if the prevalence of sleep disorders could be ascertained from the current body of literature regarding sleep in cancer. This was a critical and systematic review of peer-reviewed, English-language, original articles published from 1980 through 15 October 2013, identified using electronic search engines, a set of key words, and prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information from 254 full-text, English-language articles was abstracted onto a paper checklist by one reviewer, with a second reviewer randomly verifying 50% (k = 99%). All abstracted data were entered into an electronic database, verified for accuracy, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequencies in SPSS (v.20) (North Castle, NY). Studies of sleep and cancer focus on specific types of symptoms of poor sleep, and there are no published prevalence studies that focus on underlying sleep disorders. Challenging the current paradigm of the way sleep is studied in cancer could produce better clinical screening tools for use in oncology clinics leading to better triaging of patients with sleep complaints to sleep specialists, and overall improvement in sleep quality. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Systematic review of sleep disorders in cancer patients: can the prevalence of sleep disorders be ascertained?

    PubMed Central

    Otte, Julie L; Carpenter, Janet S; Manchanda, Shalini; Rand, Kevin L; Skaar, Todd C; Weaver, Michael; Chernyak, Yelena; Zhong, Xin; Igega, Christele; Landis, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Although sleep is vital to all human functioning and poor sleep is a known problem in cancer, it is unclear whether the overall prevalence of the various types of sleep disorders in cancer is known. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate if the prevalence of sleep disorders could be ascertained from the current body of literature regarding sleep in cancer. This was a critical and systematic review of peer-reviewed, English-language, original articles published from 1980 through 15 October 2013, identified using electronic search engines, a set of key words, and prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information from 254 full-text, English-language articles was abstracted onto a paper checklist by one reviewer, with a second reviewer randomly verifying 50% (k = 99%). All abstracted data were entered into an electronic database, verified for accuracy, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequencies in SPSS (v.20) (North Castle, NY). Studies of sleep and cancer focus on specific types of symptoms of poor sleep, and there are no published prevalence studies that focus on underlying sleep disorders. Challenging the current paradigm of the way sleep is studied in cancer could produce better clinical screening tools for use in oncology clinics leading to better triaging of patients with sleep complaints to sleep specialists, and overall improvement in sleep quality. PMID:25449319

  18. Activities and Participation in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, L. C.; Cardoso, A. A.; Missiuna, C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review all literature published in peer reviewed journals from January 1995 to July 2008 in order to summarize and describe the activity limitations and participation restrictions of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Methods: Multiple databases were systematically searched for articles related to…

  19. Activities and Participation in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, L. C.; Cardoso, A. A.; Missiuna, C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review all literature published in peer reviewed journals from January 1995 to July 2008 in order to summarize and describe the activity limitations and participation restrictions of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Methods: Multiple databases were systematically searched for articles related to…

  20. Chelation Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tonya N.; O'Reilly, Mark; Kang, Soyeon; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Copeland, Daelynn; Attai, Shanna; Mulloy, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Chelation treatment is used to eliminate specific metals from the body, such as mercury. It has been hypothesized that mercury poisoning may be a factor in autism and data suggest that perhaps 7% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received chelation treatment. It would therefore seem timely to review studies investigating the…

  1. Characteristics of Auditory Processing Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Ellen; Visser-Bochane, Margot I.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Dijk, Pim; van der Schans, Cees P.; Luinge, Margreet R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review article is to describe characteristics of auditory processing disorders (APD) by evaluating the literature in which children with suspected or diagnosed APD were compared with typically developing children and to determine whether APD must be regarded as a deficit specific to the auditory modality or as a…

  2. Characteristics of Auditory Processing Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Ellen; Visser-Bochane, Margot I.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Dijk, Pim; van der Schans, Cees P.; Luinge, Margreet R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review article is to describe characteristics of auditory processing disorders (APD) by evaluating the literature in which children with suspected or diagnosed APD were compared with typically developing children and to determine whether APD must be regarded as a deficit specific to the auditory modality or as a…

  3. Chelation Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tonya N.; O'Reilly, Mark; Kang, Soyeon; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Copeland, Daelynn; Attai, Shanna; Mulloy, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Chelation treatment is used to eliminate specific metals from the body, such as mercury. It has been hypothesized that mercury poisoning may be a factor in autism and data suggest that perhaps 7% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received chelation treatment. It would therefore seem timely to review studies investigating the…

  4. Abreaction for conversion disorder: systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Poole, Norman A; Wuerz, Axel; Agrawal, Niruj

    2010-08-01

    The value of drug interviews in the treatment of conversion disorder is at present unknown. To review all the available papers published in English that report on the use of drug interviews for treating conversion/dissociative disorder. Databases (including EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO) were searched from 1920 to 2009. Selected publications had to report on the use of drug interviews in people diagnosed with a conversion/dissociative disorder. Qualitative and quantitative data were extracted. Predictors of a positive response were ascertained using meta-analytic techniques. Fifty-five papers meeting inclusion criteria were identified. No studies compared the intervention with a suitable control group. However, two studies reported high response rates when drug interview was used in individuals with treatment-resistant conversion disorder. In the meta-analysis, the use of suggestion and occurrence of emotional catharsis during the interview were positively associated with recovery. Combining two medications and comorbid psychiatric disorder were negatively associated with recovery. The evidence for effectiveness of drug interviews is of poor quality but it may be of benefit in the treatment of acute and treatment-resistant conversion disorder. A proactive approach during the interview, making suggestions the individual will respond, could influence outcome. Comorbid psychiatric disorder should be treated conventionally. Experimental studies to determine efficacy are required.

  5. Environmental toxicants and autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, D A; Genuis, S J; Frye, R E

    2014-01-01

    Although the involvement of genetic abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is well-accepted, recent studies point to an equal contribution by environmental factors, particularly environmental toxicants. However, these toxicant-related studies in ASD have not been systematically reviewed to date. Therefore, we compiled publications investigating potential associations between environmental toxicants and ASD and arranged these publications into the following three categories: (a) studies examining estimated toxicant exposures in the environment during the preconceptional, gestational and early childhood periods; (b) studies investigating biomarkers of toxicants; and (c) studies examining potential genetic susceptibilities to toxicants. A literature search of nine electronic scientific databases through November 2013 was performed. In the first category examining ASD risk and estimated toxicant exposures in the environment, the majority of studies (34/37; 92%) reported an association. Most of these studies were retrospective case–control, ecological or prospective cohort studies, although a few had weaker study designs (for example, case reports or series). Toxicants implicated in ASD included pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, toxic waste sites, air pollutants and heavy metals, with the strongest evidence found for air pollutants and pesticides. Gestational exposure to methylmercury (through fish exposure, one study) and childhood exposure to pollutants in water supplies (two studies) were not found to be associated with ASD risk. In the second category of studies investigating biomarkers of toxicants and ASD, a large number was dedicated to examining heavy metals. Such studies demonstrated mixed findings, with only 19 of 40 (47%) case–control studies reporting higher concentrations of heavy metals in blood, urine, hair, brain or teeth of children with ASD compared with controls. Other biomarker studies reported that

  6. Environmental toxicants and autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, D A; Genuis, S J; Frye, R E

    2014-02-11

    Although the involvement of genetic abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is well-accepted, recent studies point to an equal contribution by environmental factors, particularly environmental toxicants. However, these toxicant-related studies in ASD have not been systematically reviewed to date. Therefore, we compiled publications investigating potential associations between environmental toxicants and ASD and arranged these publications into the following three categories: (a) studies examining estimated toxicant exposures in the environment during the preconceptional, gestational and early childhood periods; (b) studies investigating biomarkers of toxicants; and (c) studies examining potential genetic susceptibilities to toxicants. A literature search of nine electronic scientific databases through November 2013 was performed. In the first category examining ASD risk and estimated toxicant exposures in the environment, the majority of studies (34/37; 92%) reported an association. Most of these studies were retrospective case-control, ecological or prospective cohort studies, although a few had weaker study designs (for example, case reports or series). Toxicants implicated in ASD included pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, toxic waste sites, air pollutants and heavy metals, with the strongest evidence found for air pollutants and pesticides. Gestational exposure to methylmercury (through fish exposure, one study) and childhood exposure to pollutants in water supplies (two studies) were not found to be associated with ASD risk. In the second category of studies investigating biomarkers of toxicants and ASD, a large number was dedicated to examining heavy metals. Such studies demonstrated mixed findings, with only 19 of 40 (47%) case-control studies reporting higher concentrations of heavy metals in blood, urine, hair, brain or teeth of children with ASD compared with controls. Other biomarker studies reported that solvent

  7. The Effect of Yoga on Menstrual Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Oates, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    To summarize and evaluate evidence for the effect of yoga on menstrual disorders. PubMed, CINAHL/MEDLINE, Web of Science, AMED, and Scopus were searched for English-language literature relevant to the review question. All primary research studies were included. Fifteen studies described in 18 papers were included in the review. A range of yoga interventions were used. Some studies used a combination of Asana, Pranayama, and other yogic relaxation or meditation techniques. All included studies reported some change in their outcome measures, suggesting reduced symptoms of menstrual distress following a yoga intervention; however, the heterogeneity and intensity of the interventions and outcome measures meant that findings have limited generalizability and applicability in practice settings. Further research on the relationship between yoga practice and menstrual disorders is warranted, but there must be both consistency in the methods, measures, and quality of studies and a shift toward research on yoga practices that are replicable outside of the clinical trial setting.

  8. Systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Milner, Kerry A

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews are a type of literature review in which authors systematically search for, critically appraise, and synthesize evidence from several studies on the same topic (Grant & Booth, 2009). The precise and systematic method differentiates systematic reviews from traditional reviews (Khan, Kunz, Kleijnen, & Antes, 2003). In all types of systematic reviews, a quality assessment is done of the individual studies that meet inclusion criteria. These individual assessments are synthesized, and aggregated results are reported. Systematic reviews are considered the highest level of evidence in evidence-based health care because the reviewers strive to use transparent, rigorous methods that minimize bias.

  9. A systematic review of reviews on the prevalence of anxiety disorders in adult populations.

    PubMed

    Remes, Olivia; Brayne, Carol; van der Linde, Rianne; Lafortune, Louise

    2016-07-01

    A fragmented research field exists on the prevalence of anxiety disorders. Here, we present the results of a systematic review of reviews on this topic. We included the highest quality studies to inform practice and policy on this issue. Using PRISMA methodology, extensive electronic and manual citation searches were performed to identify relevant reviews. Screening, data extraction, and quality assessment were undertaken by two reviewers. Inclusion criteria consisted of systematic reviews or meta-analyses on the prevalence of anxiety disorders that fulfilled at least half of the AMSTAR quality criteria. We identified a total of 48 reviews and described the prevalence of anxiety across population subgroups and settings, as reported by these studies. Despite the high heterogeneity of prevalence estimates across primary studies, there was emerging and compelling evidence of substantial prevalence of anxiety disorders generally (3.8-25%), and particularly in women (5.2-8.7%); young adults (2.5-9.1%); people with chronic diseases (1.4-70%); and individuals from Euro/Anglo cultures (3.8-10.4%) versus individuals from Indo/Asian (2.8%), African (4.4%), Central/Eastern European (3.2%), North African/Middle Eastern (4.9%), and Ibero/Latin cultures (6.2%). The prevalence of anxiety disorders is high in population subgroups across the globe. Recent research has expanded its focus to Asian countries, an increasingly greater number of physical and psychiatric conditions, and traumatic events associated with anxiety. Further research on illness trajectories and anxiety levels pre- and post-treatment is needed. Few studies have been conducted in developing and under-developed parts of the world and have little representation in the global literature.

  10. Plant Derived Phytocompound, Embelin in CNS Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kundap, Uday P; Bhuvanendran, Saatheeyavaane; Kumari, Yatinesh; Othman, Iekhsan; Shaikh, Mohd Farooq

    2017-01-01

    A Central nervous system (CNS) disease is the one which affects either the spinal cord or brain and causing neurological or psychiatric complications. During the nineteenth century, modern medicines have occupied the therapy for many ailments and are widely used these days. Herbal medicines have often maintained popularity for historical and cultural reasons and also considered safer as they originate from natural sources. Embelin is a plant-based benzoquinone which is the major active constituent of the fruits of Embelia ribes Burm. It is an Indo-Malaysian species, extensively used in various traditional medicine systems for treating various diseases. Several natural products including quinone derivatives, which are considered to possess better safety and efficacy profile, are known for their CNS related activity. The bright orange hydroxybenzoquinone embelin-rich fruits of E. ribes have become popular in ethnomedicine. The present systematic review summarizes the effects of embelin on central nervous system and related diseases. A PRISMA model for systematic review was utilized for search. Various electronic databases such as Pubmed, Springer, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched between January 2000 and February 2016. Based on the search criteria for the literature, 13 qualified articles were selected and discussed in this review. The results of the report showed that there is a lack of translational research and not a single study was found in human. This report gives embelin a further way to be explored in clinical trials for its safety and efficacy.

  11. Plant Derived Phytocompound, Embelin in CNS Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kundap, Uday P.; Bhuvanendran, Saatheeyavaane; Kumari, Yatinesh; Othman, Iekhsan; Shaikh, Mohd. Farooq

    2017-01-01

    A Central nervous system (CNS) disease is the one which affects either the spinal cord or brain and causing neurological or psychiatric complications. During the nineteenth century, modern medicines have occupied the therapy for many ailments and are widely used these days. Herbal medicines have often maintained popularity for historical and cultural reasons and also considered safer as they originate from natural sources. Embelin is a plant-based benzoquinone which is the major active constituent of the fruits of Embelia ribes Burm. It is an Indo-Malaysian species, extensively used in various traditional medicine systems for treating various diseases. Several natural products including quinone derivatives, which are considered to possess better safety and efficacy profile, are known for their CNS related activity. The bright orange hydroxybenzoquinone embelin-rich fruits of E. ribes have become popular in ethnomedicine. The present systematic review summarizes the effects of embelin on central nervous system and related diseases. A PRISMA model for systematic review was utilized for search. Various electronic databases such as Pubmed, Springer, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched between January 2000 and February 2016. Based on the search criteria for the literature, 13 qualified articles were selected and discussed in this review. The results of the report showed that there is a lack of translational research and not a single study was found in human. This report gives embelin a further way to be explored in clinical trials for its safety and efficacy. PMID:28289385

  12. [Neuropsychology of eating disorders: a systematic review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Monica; Mattos, Paulo; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Veiga, Heloisa; Rizo, Luciana; Appolinario, José C

    2004-06-01

    The pathophysiology of eating disorders is still unknown, with many factors possibly involved. The existence of a central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction is being investigated with particular interest. One of the most employed strategies to reach this goal is the evaluation of cognitive functioning of patients with eating disorders with neuropsychological tests. To evaluate the current knowledge about the neuropsychology of ED. We performed a review of several data bases (including MedLINE, PsychoINFO, LILACS and Cochrane Data Bank), using terms related to main theme of interest. The review comprised articles published up to January, 2004. Anorexia Nervosa (AN) was the most studied ED from the neuropsychological point-of-view, with studies tending to elicit attentive, visuo-spatial, and visuo-constructive deficits among such patients. On the other side, patients with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) exhibited deficits in the selective aspects of attention and in executive functions. As yet, there is no study covering the neuropsychological aspects of binge-eating disorder. After successful treatment, individuals show improvement of some cognitive deficits, while other seem to persist. The ED are possibly associated with a certain degree of neuropsychological dysfunction, even though there is no consensus with regard to which function is particularly impaired. The fact that some cognitive dysfunction tend to disappear after treatment argues in favor of the hypothesis that these are functional deficits. Other deficits, however, tend to persist, suggesting that they may precede the development of eating disorders or even contribute to their development or to a worse prognosis. The study of the neuropsychological aspects of ED may help tailoring more selective therapeutic approaches to patients suffering from these disorders.

  13. Diagnostic validity of comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Amerio, A; Odone, A; Liapis, C C; Ghaemi, S N

    2014-05-01

    At least 50% of bipolar disorder (BD) patients have an additional diagnosis, one of the most difficult to manage being obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Defining the nosology of BD-OCD comorbidity has important clinical implications, given that treatments for OCD can worsen BD outcomes. A systematic review was conducted on: i) BD-OCD comorbidity lifetime prevalence and ii) on standard diagnostic validators: phenomenology, course of illness, heredity, biological markers, and treatment response. Relevant papers published through March 30th 2013 were identified searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library. Sixty-four articles met inclusion criteria. Lifetime comorbidity prevalence was 11-21% in BD patients and 6-10% in OCD patients. Compared to non-comorbid subjects, BD-OCD has a more episodic course of OC symptoms (up to 75% vs. 3%), typically with worsening during depression (78%) and improvement during mania/hypomania (64%), as well as a higher total mean number of depressive episodes (8.9±4.2 vs. 4.1±2.7) and perhaps more antidepressant-induced mania/hypomania (39% vs. 9%). In this first systematic review of BD-OCD comorbidity, it appears that OC symptoms are usually secondary to BD, rather than representing a separate disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, however, last years the practice of physical exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, has been investigated as a new non-pharmacological therapy for anxiety disorders. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat anxiety, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. The sample analyzed, 66.8% was composed of women and 80% with severity of symptoms anxiety as moderate to severe. The data analyzed in this review allows us to claim that alternative therapies like exercise are effective in controlling and reducing symptoms, as 91% of anxiety disorders surveys have shown effective results in treating. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressant symptoms and cognitive function in anxiety, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild.

  15. Voice Disorders in Teachers and Their Associations with Work-Related Factors: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutiva, Lady Catherine Cantor; Vogel, Ineke; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a quantitative assessment of the occurrence of voice disorders among teachers and to identify associated work-related and individual factors in the teaching profession. Method: A systematic review was conducted using three computerized databases on the occurrence of voice disorders among teachers and their associations with…

  16. Voice Disorders in Teachers and Their Associations with Work-Related Factors: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutiva, Lady Catherine Cantor; Vogel, Ineke; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a quantitative assessment of the occurrence of voice disorders among teachers and to identify associated work-related and individual factors in the teaching profession. Method: A systematic review was conducted using three computerized databases on the occurrence of voice disorders among teachers and their associations with…

  17. [A Systematic Review of Personality Disorders and Addiction: Epidemiology, Course and Treatment].

    PubMed

    Euler, S; Sollberger, D; Bader, K; Lang, U E; Walter, M

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides a systematic overview of the comorbidity of personality and addictive disorders including behavioural addictions. Systematic review. Personality disorders and substance-related addictions show high comorbidity rates. This is equally true of behavioural addictions. Most empirical research is on comorbidity with borderline personality disorder. For treatment of individuals with dual diagnoses, three psychotherapies have been demonstrated to be effective. Pharmacotherapeutic approaches have hardly been investigated. METHODologically integrative treatment represents therapy of choice for patients with dual diagnoses. Comorbidity of personality disorders and behavioural addictions needs further investigation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Conversion disorder: A systematic review of current terminology.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juen Mei; Kanaan, Richard Antony Alexander

    It has been argued that the label given to unexplained neurological symptoms is an important contributor to their often poor acceptance, and there has been recent debate on proposals to change the name from conversion disorder. There have been multiple studies of layperson and clinician preference and this article aimed to review these. Multiple databases were searched using terms including "conversion disorder" and "terminology", and relative preferences for the terms extracted. Seven articles were found which looked at clinician or layperson preferences for terminology for unexplained neurological symptoms. Most neurologists favoured terms such as "functional" and "psychogenic", while laypeople were comfortable with "functional" but viewed "psychogenic" as more offensive; "non-epileptic/organic" was relatively popular with both groups. "Functional" is a term that is relatively popular with both clinicians and the public. It also meets more of the other criteria proposed for an acceptable label than other popular terms - however the views of neither psychiatrists nor actual patients with the disorder were considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acupressure for treating neurological disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Sook; Lee, Myeong Soo; Min, Kyungyoon; Lew, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Beom-Joon

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this review is to assess the clinical evidence for or against acupressure as a treatment for neurological disorders. We searched the literature from 12 databases from their inception to July 2010. We included any type of controlled clinical trial (CCT) in which patients with neurological disorders were treated with acupressure. The methodological quality of all clinical trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias analysis. In total, two randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and four CCTs were included. Four studies (one RCT and three CCTs) compared the effects of acupressure with routine care or no treatment in patients with stroke and showed significant effects of acupressure on improving patient function and symptoms. One RCT, which compared acupressure with sham acupressure and no treatment in patients with headache, also showed that acupressure significantly reduced headache severity and pain. However, all trials were open to methodological limitations and a high risk of bias. In conclusion, current evidence showing that acupressure is an effective treatment for improving function and symptoms in patients with stroke is limited. However, the evidence is insufficient to draw conclusions concerning the effects of acupressure on other neurological disorders. More rigorous studies are warranted.

  20. A systematic review of yoga for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Holger; Anheyer, Dennis; Lauche, Romy; Dobos, Gustav

    2017-04-15

    The purpose of this review was to investigate the efficacy and safety of yoga interventions in treating patients with major depressive disorder. MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library were screened through December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing yoga to inactive or active comparators in patients with major depressive disorder were eligible. Primary outcomes included remission rates and severity of depression. Anxiety and adverse events were secondary outcomes. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool. Seven RCTs with 240 participants were included. Risk of bias was unclear for most RCTs. Compared to aerobic exercise, no short- or medium-term group differences in depression severity was found. Higher short-term depression severity was found for yoga compared to electro-convulsive therapy; remission rates did not differ between groups. No short-term group differences occurred when yoga was compared to antidepressant medication. Conflicting evidence was found when yoga was compared to attention-control interventions, or when yoga as an add-on to antidepressant medication was compared to medication alone. Only two RCTs assessed adverse events and reported that no treatment-related adverse events were reported. Few RCTs with low sample size. This review found some evidence for positive effects beyond placebo and comparable effects compared to evidence-based interventions. However, methodological problems and the unclear risk-benefit ratio preclude definitive recommendations for or against yoga as an adjunct treatment for major depressive disorder. Larger and adequately powered RCTs using non-inferiority designs are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Peer-Mediated Pivotal Response Treatment for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Ainsley M.; Corkum, Penny; Meko, Katelyn; Smith, Isabel M.

    2015-01-01

    This review examined the effectiveness of peer-mediated pivotal response treatment (PM-PRT) to increase social-communication skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A systematic review was conducted of all published studies examining PM-PRT in school-aged children with ASD, based on an established rubric. Five PM-PRT studies…

  2. Animal-Assisted Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of animals in therapeutic activities, known as animal-assisted intervention (AAI), has been suggested as a treatment practice for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper presents a systematic review of the empirical research on AAI for ASD. Fourteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion. The…

  3. Animal-Assisted Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of animals in therapeutic activities, known as animal-assisted intervention (AAI), has been suggested as a treatment practice for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper presents a systematic review of the empirical research on AAI for ASD. Fourteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion. The…

  4. Peer-Mediated Pivotal Response Treatment for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Ainsley M.; Corkum, Penny; Meko, Katelyn; Smith, Isabel M.

    2015-01-01

    This review examined the effectiveness of peer-mediated pivotal response treatment (PM-PRT) to increase social-communication skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A systematic review was conducted of all published studies examining PM-PRT in school-aged children with ASD, based on an established rubric. Five PM-PRT studies…

  5. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) spend the majority of their lives as adults, and psychosocial interventions show promise for improving outcomes in this population. This research conducted a systematic review of all peer-review studies evaluating psychosocial interventions for adults with ASD. A total of 1,217 studies were…

  6. Screening for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lydia A.; Lee, Li-Ching

    2017-01-01

    This review contributes to the growing body of global autism spectrum disorder literature by examining the use of screening instruments in low- and middle-income countries with respect to study design and methodology, instrument adaptation and performance, and collaboration with community stakeholders in research. A systematic review was conducted…

  7. Interactive Computer Play in Rehabilitation of Children with Sensorimotor Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlund, Marlene; McDonough, Suzanne; Hager-Ross, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine systematically the evidence for the application of interactive computer play in the rehabilitation of children with sensorimotor disorders. A literature search of 11 electronic databases was conducted to identify articles published between January 1995 and May 2008. The review was restricted to reports of…

  8. Withdrawal symptoms in internet gaming disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kaptsis, Dean; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is currently positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The aim of this review was to examine the state of current knowledge of gaming withdrawal symptomatology, given the importance of withdrawal in positioning the disorder as a behavioral addiction. A total of 34 studies, including 10 qualitative studies, 17 research reports on psychometric instruments, and 7 treatment studies, were evaluated. The results indicated that the available evidence on Internet gaming withdrawal is very underdeveloped. Internet gaming withdrawal is most consistently referred to as 'irritability' and 'restlessness' following cessation of the activity. There exists a concerning paucity of qualitative studies that provide detailed clinical descriptions of symptoms arising from cessation of internet gaming. This has arguably compromised efforts to quantify withdrawal symptoms in empirical studies of gaming populations. Treatment studies have not reported on the natural course of withdrawal and/or withdrawal symptom trajectory following intervention. It is concluded that many more qualitative clinical studies are needed, and should be prioritised, to develop our understanding of gaming withdrawal. This should improve clinical descriptions of problematic internet gaming and in turn improve the quantification of IGD withdrawal and thus treatments for harmful internet gaming.

  9. Virtual reality exposure therapy in anxiety disorders: a systematic review of process-and-outcome studies.

    PubMed

    Meyerbröker, Katharina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2010-10-01

    In recent years, virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has become an interesting alternative for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Research has focused on the efficacy of VRET in treating anxiety disorders: phobias, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. In this systematic review, strict methodological criteria are used to give an overview of the controlled trials regarding the efficacy of VRET in patients with anxiety disorders. Furthermore, research into process variables such as the therapeutic alliance and cognitions and enhancement of therapy effects through cognitive enhancers is discussed. The implications for implementation into clinical practice are considered.

  10. Examining personalized feedback interventions for gambling disorders: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Marchica, Loredana; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Personalized feedback interventions (PFI) have shown success as a low-cost, scalable intervention for reducing problematic and excessive consumption of alcohol. Recently, researchers have begun to apply PFI as an intervention method for problematic gambling behaviors. A systematic review of the literature on PFI as an intervention/prevention method for gambling behaviors was performed. Methods Studies were included if they met the following criteria: the design included both a PFI group and a comparison group, and the interventions focused on gambling prevention and/or reduction. Six relevant studies were found meeting all criteria. Results Results revealed that PFI treatment groups showed decreases in a variety of gambling behaviors as compared to control groups, and perceived norms on gambling behaviors significantly decreased after interventions as compared to control groups. Conclusions Overall, the research suggests that while PFI applied to gambling is still in its infancy, problematic gamblers appear to benefit from programs incorporating PFIs. Further, PFI may also be used as a promising source of preventative measures for individuals displaying at-risk gambling behaviors. While, evidence is still limited, and additional research needs to be conducted with PFI for gambling problems, the preliminary positive results along with the structure of PFI as a scalable and relatively inexpensive intervention method provides promising support for future studies. PMID:28092190

  11. Postural disorders in mouth breathing children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Patricia Dayrell; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; Mendes, Polyana Leite; Zabjek, Karl; Becker, Helena Gonçalves; Mathur, Sunita

    2017-07-05

    Mouth breathing syndrome can cause sleep disturbances that compromise the performance of children in school. It might also cause postural abnormalities involving the head and cervical spine; however, the association between postural abnormalities and mouth breathing in children is unclear. To assess the methodological quality of studies and determine if there is an association between mouth breathing and postural disorders in children. Databases comprised MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, LILACS, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Registrar of Controlled Trials. Searches were until March 2016 and included studies that evaluated postural disorders in children diagnosed with mouth breathing. The Downs and Black checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the evidences. Ten studies were included totaling 417 children from 5 to 14 years. Two studies used the New York State Postural Rating Scale, seven used photography and one used motion capture to measure posture. The methods used to analyze the data included the Postural Analysis Software (SAPO), Fisiometer, ALCimagem and routines in MATLAB program. Quality assessment resulted in low scores (<14) for all the studies. The main areas of weakness were a clear description of the participants, of the methods used to access posture, of the principal confounders and lack of power analysis. External and internal validity were also threatened by the lack of a representative sample and blinding of the participants and assessors, respectively. The review provides low evidence that mouth-breathing pattern in children between the ages 5-14 years is associated with postural deviations. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in eating disorders: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Marcelle Barrueco; Melnik, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eating disorders are psychiatric conditions originated from and perpetuated by individual, family and sociocultural factors. The psychosocial approach to treatment and prevention of relapse is crucial. To present an overview of the scientific evidence on effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in treatment of eating disorders. All systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Cochrane Library on the topic were included. Afterwards, as from the least recent date of these reviews (2001), an additional search was conducted at PubMed with sensitive search strategy and with the same keywords used. A total of 101 primary studies and 30 systematic reviews (5 Cochrane systematic reviews), meta-analysis, guidelines or narrative reviews of literature were included. The main outcomes were: symptomatic remission, body image, cognitive distortion, psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial functioning and patient satisfaction. The cognitive behavioral approach was the most effective treatment, especially for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and the night eating syndrome. For anorexia nervosa, the family approach showed greater effectiveness. Other effective approaches were interpersonal psychotherapy, dialectic behavioral therapy, support therapy and self-help manuals. Moreover, there was an increasing number of preventive and promotional approaches that addressed individual, family and social risk factors, being promising for the development of positive self-image and self-efficacy. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of multidisciplinary approaches on all eating disorders, as well as the cost-effectiveness of some effective modalities, such as the cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:27462898

  13. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    PubMed

    Maher, Gillian M; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; Kenny, Louise C; Kearney, Patricia M; Dinan, Ted G; Khashan, Ali S

    2017-10-05

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs), that is chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia (de novo or superimposed on chronic hypertension) and white coat hypertension, affect approximately 5%-15% of pregnancies. HDP exposure has been linked to an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other neurodevelopmental disorders in children. However, findings are inconsistent, and a clear consensus on the impact of HDPs on the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders is needed. Therefore, we aim to synthesise the published literature on the relationship between HDPs and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in the form of a systematic review and meta-analysis. We will include cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies in which diagnosis of an HDP was reported, and neurodevelopmental disorders were the outcome of interest based on a preprepared protocol. A systematic search of PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO and Web of Science will be conducted in accordance with a detailed search strategy. Two authors will independently review the titles and abstracts of all studies, perform data extraction using a standardised data collection form and assess study quality using a bias classification tool. Meta-analyses will be performed to calculate overall pooled estimates using the generic inverse variance method. This systematic review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses. This proposed systematic review and meta-analysis is based on published data, therefore, does not require ethics approval. Findings will be presented at scientific conferences and disseminated through publication in a peer-reviewed journal. CRD42017068258. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in trans people: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Haycraft, Emma; Murjan, Sarah; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction plays a prominent role in gender dysphoria. In some individuals body dissatisfaction appears to manifest disordered eating in order to suppress bodily features of natal gender and accentuate features of gender identity. To date, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in trans individuals. Such a review may highlight important implications for clinicians working with trans people. Therefore, the aim was to critically and systematically review the available literature examining body dissatisfaction or disordered eating in a trans population, and also the literature pertaining to how body dissatisfaction and disordered eating are related in trans people. This review found three studies that explored disordered eating in trans people, five studies that explored body image and disordered eating in trans people, and 18 studies that explored body image in trans people. The findings from this review suggest that body dissatisfaction is core to the distress trans people experience and that this dissatisfaction may also put some individuals at risk of developing disordered eating. Additionally, the findings appear to suggest that gender dysphoria treatment is successful at increasing body satisfaction and improving body image. The clinical implications are discussed.

  15. What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about interventions for autism spectrum disorders?

    PubMed

    Lyra, Larissa; Rizzo, Luiz Eduardo; Sunahara, Camila Sá; Pachito, Daniela Vianna; Latorraca, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz; Martimbianco, Ana Luiza Cabrera; Riera, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder and pervasive developmental disorder. The manifestations of ASDs can have an important impact on learning and social functioning that may persist during adulthood. The aim here was to summarize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on interventions for ASDs. Review of systematic reviews, conducted within the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. We included and summarized the results from Cochrane systematic reviews on interventions for ASDs. Seventeen reviews were included. These found weak evidence of benefits from acupuncture, gluten and casein-free diets, early intensive behavioral interventions, music therapy, parent-mediated early interventions, social skill groups, Theory of Mind cognitive model, aripiprazole, risperidone, tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI); this last only for adults. No benefits were found for sound therapies, chelating agents, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, omega-3, secretin, vitamin B6/magnesium and SSRI for children. Acupuncture, gluten and casein-free diets, early intensive behavioral interventions, music therapy, parent-mediated early interventions, social skill groups and the Theory of Mind cognitive model seem to have benefits for patients with autism spectrum disorders (very low to low-quality evidence). Aripiprazole, risperidone, tricyclic antidepressants and SSRI (this last only for adults) also showed some benefits, although associated with higher risk of adverse events. Experimental studies to confirm a link between probable therapies and the disease, and then high-quality long-term clinical trials, are needed.

  16. Epidemiology and burden of bipolar disorder in Africa: a systematic review of data from Africa.

    PubMed

    Esan, Oluyomi; Esan, Arinola

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder impacts negatively on the patient, the family, as well as the society. It taxes the health care services due to a combination of the illness with associated medical and psychiatric comorbidities. In Africa, unfortunately, knowledge of the epidemiology and burden of bipolar disorder is based mainly on studies from the USA and Europe. In this systematic review of literature from Africa, we highlight the epidemiology and burden of bipolar disorder. A systematic review of publications from Africa relating to the epidemiology and burden of bipolar disorder was conducted. Data from community surveys conducted in Nigeria and Ethiopia indicated a lifetime prevalence estimate of 0.1 % to 1.83 for bipolar disorder. Missed diagnosis rate of bipolar disorder was up to 36.2 %. In one study, 8.1 % of the males and 5.4 % of the females reported a previous suicide attempt. A study showed that up to 60 % of patients with bipolar disorder had at least one comorbidity. There were no reports on all-cause mortality and cost of illness. Bipolar disorder is a major mental health problem in Africa. Scientific findings on bipolar disorder from Africa are consistent with the existing literature from other parts of the world. There still exists a dearth of high quality studies addressing the epidemiological, clinical, social, and economic burden of the disorder.

  17. Systematic review of efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapies in childhood and adolescent depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Richard; Whittaker, Jane; Shoebridge, Philip; Campbell, Fiona

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether cognitive behaviour therapy is an effective treatment for childhood and adolescent depressive disorder. Design: Systematic review of six randomised trials comparing the efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy with inactive interventions in subjects aged 8 to 19 years with depressive disorder. Main outcome measure: Remission from depressive disorder. Results: The rate of remission from depressive disorder was higher in the therapy group (129/208; 62%) than in the comparison group (61/168; 36%). The pooled odds ratio was 3.2 (95% confidence interval 1.9 to 5.2), suggesting a significant benefit of active treatment. Most studies, however, were based on relatively mild cases of depression and were of only moderate quality. Conclusions: Cognitive behaviour therapy may be of benefit for depressive disorder of moderate severity in children and adolescents. It cannot, however, yet be recommended for severe depression. Definitive large trials will be required to determine whether the results of this systematic review are reliable. Key messages Depressive disorders are a common problem in child psychiatric clinics, but a recent systematic review found that tricyclic medication was of unproved benefit This systematic review identified six randomised trials of a psychological treatment—cognitive behaviour therapy—in subjects aged 8 to 19 years with depressive disorder The results seemed to show that cognitive behaviour therapy is an effective treatment for depressive disorder of moderate severity Because of the small number of trials available for this quantitative analysis definitive large trials will be required to determine whether the present results are reliable PMID:9596592

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…

  19. Child-Parent Interventions for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Maynard, Brandy R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the effects of direct child-parent interventions to the effects of child-focused interventions on anxiety outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Systematic review methods and meta-analytic techniques were employed. Eight randomized controlled trials examining effects of family cognitive behavior…

  20. Scales for the Identification of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Abigail; Deb, Shoumitro; Unwin, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is prevalent in the adult population. The associated co-morbidities and impairments can be relieved with treatment. Therefore, several rating scales have been developed to identify adults with ADHD who may benefit from treatment. No systematic review has yet sought to evaluate these scales in more…

  1. Psychiatric Disorder or Impairing Psychology in Children Who Have Been Excluded from School: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whear, Rebecca; Marlow, Ruth; Boddy, Kate; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Parker, Claire; Ford, Tamsin; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken

    2014-01-01

    When children with special educational needs are excluded from school, it should raise the concern that these children are not receiving adequate help and support. This systematic review aims to identify the prevalence of psychiatric disorder or impairing psychopathology among children who are excluded from school compared to children who are not…

  2. A Systematic Review of the Diagnostic Stability of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfenden, Sue; Sarkozy, Vanessa; Ridley, Greta; Williams, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    There is debate in the current literature regarding the permanence of an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis. We undertook a systematic review of the diagnostic stability of ASD to summarise current evidence. A comprehensive search strategy was used to identify studies. Participants were children with ASD. Risk of bias was assessed by…

  3. Physical Exercise and Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Regester, April; Ence, Whitney; Smith, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Studies involving physical exercise and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were reviewed. Systematic search procedures identified 18 studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) type of exercise, (c) procedures used to increase exercise, (d) outcomes,…

  4. Is Neonatal Jaundice Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Sanjiv B.; Smith, Tristram; Wang, Hongyue

    2011-01-01

    Using guidelines of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Group, we systematically reviewed the literature on neonatal jaundice (unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in term and preterm infants. Thirteen studies were included in a meta-analysis. Most used retrospective matched case-control…

  5. Psychiatric Disorder or Impairing Psychology in Children Who Have Been Excluded from School: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whear, Rebecca; Marlow, Ruth; Boddy, Kate; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Parker, Claire; Ford, Tamsin; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken

    2014-01-01

    When children with special educational needs are excluded from school, it should raise the concern that these children are not receiving adequate help and support. This systematic review aims to identify the prevalence of psychiatric disorder or impairing psychopathology among children who are excluded from school compared to children who are not…

  6. Is Neonatal Jaundice Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Sanjiv B.; Smith, Tristram; Wang, Hongyue

    2011-01-01

    Using guidelines of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Group, we systematically reviewed the literature on neonatal jaundice (unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in term and preterm infants. Thirteen studies were included in a meta-analysis. Most used retrospective matched case-control…

  7. A Systematic Review of the Diagnostic Stability of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfenden, Sue; Sarkozy, Vanessa; Ridley, Greta; Williams, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    There is debate in the current literature regarding the permanence of an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis. We undertook a systematic review of the diagnostic stability of ASD to summarise current evidence. A comprehensive search strategy was used to identify studies. Participants were children with ASD. Risk of bias was assessed by…

  8. Scales for the Identification of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Abigail; Deb, Shoumitro; Unwin, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is prevalent in the adult population. The associated co-morbidities and impairments can be relieved with treatment. Therefore, several rating scales have been developed to identify adults with ADHD who may benefit from treatment. No systematic review has yet sought to evaluate these scales in more…

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…

  10. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Pharmacological Treatments for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadstock, Marita; Doughty, Carolyn; Eggleston, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The variable expression of autism over the lifespan is likely to lead to different symptoms and support requirements, and to distinct responses to pharmacotherapy treatment, in older patients compared to children. This systematic review considers the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment in managing autism spectrum disorder in adolescents and…

  11. Child-Parent Interventions for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Maynard, Brandy R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the effects of direct child-parent interventions to the effects of child-focused interventions on anxiety outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Systematic review methods and meta-analytic techniques were employed. Eight randomized controlled trials examining effects of family cognitive behavior…

  12. Physical Exercise and Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Regester, April; Ence, Whitney; Smith, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Studies involving physical exercise and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were reviewed. Systematic search procedures identified 18 studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) type of exercise, (c) procedures used to increase exercise, (d) outcomes,…

  13. Panic disorder and incident coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    PubMed

    Tully, Phillip J; Wittert, Gary A; Turnbull, Deborah A; Beltrame, John F; Horowitz, John D; Cosh, Suzanne; Baumeister, Harald

    2015-03-25

    The clinical presentation of panic disorder and panic attack overlaps many symptoms typically experienced in coronary heart disease (CHD). Etiological links between panic disorder and CHD are controversial and remain largely tenuous. This systematic review aims to pool together data regarding panic disorder with respect to incident CHD or myocardial infarction. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and SCOPUS) will be searched using a search strategy exploding the topics for CHD and panic disorder. Authors and reference lists of included studies will also be contacted to identify additional published and unpublished studies. Eligibility criteria are as follows: persons without CHD who meet criteria for panic disorder, panic attack, anxiety neurosis or elevated panic disorder symptoms; Comparison: persons without CHD who do not meet criteria for panic disorder, panic attack, anxiety neurosis or elevated panic disorder symptoms; verified fatal and non-fatal CHD at follow-up; including coronary revascularization procedure, coronary artery disease, and myocardial infarction. Studies adopting self-report CHD will be ineligible. Screening will be undertaken by two independent reviewers with disagreements resolved through discussion. Data extraction will include original data specified as hazard ratios, risk ratios, and original cell data if available. Risk of bias assessment will be undertaken by two independent reviewers. Meta-analytic methods will be used to synthesize the data collected relating to the CHD outcomes with Cochrane Review Manager 5.3. This systematic review aims to clarify whether panic disorder is associated with elevated risk for subsequent CHD. An evaluation of the etiological links between panic disorder with incident CHD might inform evidence-based clinical practice and policy concerning triaging chest pain patients, diagnostic assessment, and psychiatric intervention with panic disorder patients. PROSPERO CRD42014014891 .

  14. Sensory Integration Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Healy, Olive; Rispoli, Mandy; Lydon, Helena; Streusand, William; Davis, Tonya; Kang, Soyeon; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Giesbers, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    Intervention studies involving the use of sensory integration therapy (SIT) were systematically identified and analyzed. Twenty-five studies were described in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) assessments used to identify sensory deficits or behavioral functions, (c) dependent variables, (d) intervention procedures, (e) intervention…

  15. Sensory Integration Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Healy, Olive; Rispoli, Mandy; Lydon, Helena; Streusand, William; Davis, Tonya; Kang, Soyeon; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Giesbers, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    Intervention studies involving the use of sensory integration therapy (SIT) were systematically identified and analyzed. Twenty-five studies were described in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) assessments used to identify sensory deficits or behavioral functions, (c) dependent variables, (d) intervention procedures, (e) intervention…

  16. Prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Many clinicians and researchers have speculated that child sexual abuse and conduct disorder co-occur frequently, yet no systematic reviews of literature have specifically addressed both these conditions. To estimate the prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder, the pertinent literature was systematically reviewed. Ten databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Twenty-three studies meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to insure objectivity and not to invalidate results and including 7,256 participants with either conduct disorder or child sexual abuse were examined. The prevalence of child sexual abuse among participants with conduct disorder was 27 %; however, such figure might be underestimated due to selection, sampling, and recall biases; poor assessment methods; and narrow definitions of abuse in included studies. Participants with conduct disorder, compared with healthy individuals, reported higher rates of child sexual abuse. However, compared with other psychiatric populations, they reported similar or lower rates. There was also some evidence suggesting that children with conduct disorder might be more likely to report child physical abuse. Female participants with conduct disorder, compared with males, were significantly more likely to report child sexual abuse. Youths with conduct disorder are at risk of being (or having been) sexually abused, although such risk seems to be neither more specific to nor stronger for these individuals, compared with people with other psychiatric disorders.

  17. Association between bipolar spectrum disorder and bone health: a meta-analysis and systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Stuart, Amanda L; Pasco, Julie A; Berk, Michael; Hodge, Jason M; Williams, Lana J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Bipolar spectrum disorder is a chronic, episodic illness, associated with significant personal, social and economic burden. It is estimated to affect ∼2.4% of the population worldwide and is commonly associated with psychological and/or physiological comorbidities. Osteoporosis is one such comorbidity, a disease of bone that is asymptomatic until a fracture occurs. This systematic review attempts to capture, collate, assess and discuss the literature investigating the association between bipolar spectrum disorder and bone health. Methods and analysis We aim to identify articles that investigate the association between bipolar spectrum disorder and bone health in adults by systematically searching the MEDLINE, PubMed, OVID and CINAHL databases. Two independent reviewers will determine eligibility of studies according to predetermined criteria, and methodological quality will be assessed using a previously published scoring system. A meta-analysis will be conducted, and statistical methods will be used to identify and control for heterogeneity, if possible. If numerical syntheses are prevented due to statistical heterogeneity, a best evidence synthesis will be conducted to assess the level of evidence for associations between bipolar spectrum disorder and bone health. Ethics and dissemination Ethical permission will not be required for this systematic review since only published data will be used. This protocol will be registered with PROSPERO. Findings of the review will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, and will be presented to clinical and population health audiences at national and international conferences. PMID:28246138

  18. Meditation for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    22 Figure 3.5. Meditation Effects on Quality of Life: Total Quality of Life, Mental Health...and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria) or a clinically meaningful score on an established PTSD symptom assessment scale (e.g., the...compared meditation as adjunctive care with an active comparator of present-centered group therapy. TAU was the continuation of standard mental

  19. Equine-related treatments for mental disorders lack empirical support: a systematic review of empirical investigations.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Michael D; Anestis, Joye C; Zawilinski, Laci L; Hopkins, Tiffany A; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2014-12-01

    Equine-related treatments (ERT) for mental disorders are becoming increasingly popular for a variety of diagnoses; however, they have been subjected only to limited systematic investigation. To examine the quality of and results from peer-reviewed research on ERT for mental disorders and related outcomes. Peer-reviewed studies (k = 14) examining treatments for mental disorders or closely related outcomes were identified from databases and article reference sections. All studies were compromised by a substantial number of threats to validity, calling into question the meaning and clinical significance of their findings. Additionally, studies failed to provide consistent evidence that ERT is superior to the mere passage of time in the treatment of any mental disorder. The current evidence base does not justify the marketing and utilization of ERT for mental disorders. Such services should not be offered to the public unless and until well-designed studies provide evidence that justify different conclusions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mapping vulnerability to bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Howes, Oliver; Bechdolf, Andreas; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Although early interventions in individuals with bipolar disorder may reduce the associated personal and economic burden, the neurobiologic markers of enhanced risk are unknown. Methods Neuroimaging studies involving individuals at enhanced genetic risk for bipolar disorder (HR) were included in a systematic review. We then performed a region of interest (ROI) analysis and a whole-brain meta-analysis combined with a formal effect-sizes meta-analysis in a subset of studies. Results There were 37 studies included in our systematic review. The overall sample for the systematic review included 1258 controls and 996 HR individuals. No significant differences were detected between HR individuals and controls in the selected ROIs: striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, pituitary and frontal lobe. The HR group showed increased grey matter volume compared with patients with established bipolar disorder. The HR individuals showed increased neural response in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus and left insula compared with controls, independent from the functional magnetic resonance imaging task used. There were no publication biases. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of these results. Limitations As the included studies were cross-sectional, it remains to be determined whether the observed neurofunctional and structural alterations represent risk factors that can be clinically used in preventive interventions for prodromal bipolar disorder. Conclusion Accumulating structural and functional imaging evidence supports the existence of neurobiologic trait abnormalities in individuals at genetic risk for bipolar disorder at various scales of investigation. PMID:22297067

  1. Gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) due to respiratory-chain defects or nonrespiratory chain defects are usually multisystem conditions [mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome (MIMODS)] affecting the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system, eyes, ears, endocrine organs, heart, kidneys, bone marrow, lungs, arteries, and also the intestinal tract. Frequent gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of MIDs include poor appetite, gastroesophageal sphincter dysfunction, constipation, dysphagia, vomiting, gastroparesis, GI pseudo-obstruction, diarrhea, or pancreatitis and hepatopathy. Rare GI manifestations of MIDs include dry mouth, paradontosis, tracheoesophageal fistula, stenosis of the duodeno-jejunal junction, atresia or imperforate anus, liver cysts, pancreas lipomatosis, pancreatic cysts, congenital stenosis or obstruction of the GI tract, recurrent bowel perforations with intra-abdominal abscesses, postprandial abdominal pain, diverticulosis, or pneumatosis coli. Diagnosing GI involvement in MIDs is not at variance from diagnosing GI disorders due to other causes. Treatment of mitochondrial GI disease includes noninvasive or invasive measures. Therapy is usually symptomatic. Only for myo-neuro-gastro-intestinal encephalopathy is a causal therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation available. It is concluded that GI manifestations of MIDs are more widespread than so far anticipated and that they must be recognized as early as possible to initiate appropriate diagnostic work-up and avoid any mitochondrion-toxic treatment.

  2. Gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) due to respiratory-chain defects or nonrespiratory chain defects are usually multisystem conditions [mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome (MIMODS)] affecting the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system, eyes, ears, endocrine organs, heart, kidneys, bone marrow, lungs, arteries, and also the intestinal tract. Frequent gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of MIDs include poor appetite, gastroesophageal sphincter dysfunction, constipation, dysphagia, vomiting, gastroparesis, GI pseudo-obstruction, diarrhea, or pancreatitis and hepatopathy. Rare GI manifestations of MIDs include dry mouth, paradontosis, tracheoesophageal fistula, stenosis of the duodeno-jejunal junction, atresia or imperforate anus, liver cysts, pancreas lipomatosis, pancreatic cysts, congenital stenosis or obstruction of the GI tract, recurrent bowel perforations with intra-abdominal abscesses, postprandial abdominal pain, diverticulosis, or pneumatosis coli. Diagnosing GI involvement in MIDs is not at variance from diagnosing GI disorders due to other causes. Treatment of mitochondrial GI disease includes noninvasive or invasive measures. Therapy is usually symptomatic. Only for myo-neuro-gastro-intestinal encephalopathy is a causal therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation available. It is concluded that GI manifestations of MIDs are more widespread than so far anticipated and that they must be recognized as early as possible to initiate appropriate diagnostic work-up and avoid any mitochondrion-toxic treatment. PMID:28286566

  3. Employment programmes and interventions targeting adults with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Darren; Uljarević, Mirko; Cameron, Lauren; Halder, Santoshi; Richdale, Amanda; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2016-08-18

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder face significant challenges entering the workforce; yet research in this area is limited and the issues are poorly understood. In this systematic review, empirical peer-reviewed studies on employment programmes, interventions and employment-related outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorder over 18 years with and without intellectual disability were identified and evaluated. The review was prefaced by a summary of previous systematic reviews in the area. Web of Science, Medline, PsychINFO, ERIC and Scopus databases were systematically searched through to October 2015. From 32,829 records identified in the initial search, 10 review and 50 empirical articles, comprising N = 58,134 individuals with autism spectrum disorder, were included in the review. Selected articles were organised into the following themes: employment experiences, employment as a primary outcome, development of workplace skills, non-employment-related outcomes, assessment instruments, employer-focused and economic impact. Empirical studies were limited by poor participant characterisation, small sample size and/or a lack of randomisation and use of appropriate controls. Poor conceptualisation and measurement of outcomes significantly limited study quality and interpretation. Future research will require a multidisciplinary and multifaceted approach to explore employment outcomes on the individual, the family system, co-workers and the employer, along with the impact of individual differences on outcome.

  4. Volumetric structural magnetic resonance imaging findings in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Fatima; Ras, Johan; Seedat, Soraya

    2012-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) studies of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are limited. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have been best studied in this regard. We systematically reviewed structural neuroimaging findings in pediatric PTSD and OCD. The literature was reviewed for all sMRI studies examining volumetric parameters using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and PsychInfo databases, with no limit on the time frame of publication. Nine studies in pediatric PTSD and six in OCD were suitable for inclusion. Volumetric findings were inconsistent in both disorders. In PTSD, findings suggest increased as well as decreased volumes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and corpus callosum; whilst in OCD studies indicate volumetric increase of the putamen, with inconsistent findings for the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and frontal regions. Methodological differences may account for some of this inconsistency and additional volume-based studies in pediatric anxiety disorders using more uniform approaches are needed.

  5. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Dell'Aglio, José Caetano; Basso, Lissia Ana; Argimon, Irani Iracema de Lima; Arteche, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.

  6. Beyond Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) and Delirium: A Systematic Review of UTIs and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jung Hee Jennifer; Miller, Brian J

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections. Although comorbid UTI in geriatric patients with delirium or dementia is well known, the prevalence and scope of the association with other neuropsychiatric disorders is unclear. We performed a systematic review of the association between UTIs and delirium, dementia, psychotic disorders, and mood disorders in hospitalized patients. We identified studies by searching PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Knowledge, and the reference lists of identified studies and review papers. Seventeen publications met the inclusion criteria. The primary findings were: (1) 88% of publications reported a positive association between UTIs and neuropsychiatric disorders; (2) 47% reported that the clinical course of a neuropsychiatric disorder may be precipitated or exacerbated by a UTI; (3) the mean weighted prevalence of UTIs in subjects was 19.4% for delirium, 11.2% for dementia, 21.7% for nonaffective psychotic disorders, and 17.8% for mood disorders. Our findings, which must be interpreted carefully given the heterogeneity among the studies, suggest that UTIs are highly comorbid in hospitalized patients and may precipitate or exacerbate some neuropsychiatric disorders. The association extends beyond geriatric patients with delirium, affects males and females, and includes adults with psychotic and mood disorders. These findings underscore the important interface between physical and mental health. Potential underlying mechanisms are also reviewed, including complex interactions between the immune system and the brain.

  7. Managing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults using illicit psychostimulants: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jon; Lloyd-Jones, Martyn; Arunogiri, Shalini; Ogden, Edward; Bonomo, Yvonne

    2017-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and stimulant use disorder commonly co-exist, and appropriate treatments have not been well established. To provide guidance for treatment of co-existing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and stimulant use disorder. A systematic review of published English articles using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane, utilising consistent search terms. Randomised controlled trials, comparing any treatment arm with a control group, for participants meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or equivalent criteria for both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and stimulant use disorder. Eight trials were identified for inclusion in this review. Four of eight studies showed improvement in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder outcome measures compared with placebo. Two of six studies that reported substance use outcomes showed improvement in treatment arms compared with placebo. Studies to show effect tended to be those with the highest treatment dosage. Evidence for the efficacy of treatment of patients with comorbid stimulant use disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is limited. Promising outcomes need replication in further studies utilising higher treatment dosage.

  8. The effectiveness of interventions for reducing stigma related to substance use disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, James D; Milne, Teresa; Fang, Mei Lan; Amari, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study provides a systematic review of existing research that has empirically evaluated interventions designed to reduce stigma related to substance use disorders. Methods A comprehensive review of electronic databases was conducted to identify evaluations of substance use disorder related stigma interventions. Studies that met inclusion criteria were synthesized and assessed using systematic review methods. Results Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the studies was moderately strong. Interventions of three studies (23%) focused on people with substance use disorders (self-stigma), three studies (23%) targeted the general public (social stigma) and seven studies (54%) focused on medical students and other professional groups (structural stigma). Nine interventions (69%) used approaches that included education and/or direct contact with people who have substance use disorders. All but one study indicated their interventions produced positive effects on at least one stigma outcome measure. None of the interventions have been evaluated across different settings or populations. Conclusions A range of interventions demonstrate promise for achieving meaningful improvements in stigma related to substance use disorders. The limited evidence indicates that self-stigma can be reduced through therapeutic interventions such as group-based acceptance and commitment therapy. Effective strategies for addressing social stigma include motivational interviewing and communicating positive stories of people with substance use disorders. For changing stigma at a structural level, contact-based training and education programs targeting medical students and professionals (e.g. police, counsellors) are effective. PMID:21815959

  9. Needle Acupuncture for Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Mental Health Services Administration, 2011). SUDs can lead to significant medical , social, and economic consequences, such as increasing risk of...found in major medical databases such as PubMed (Cogo et al., 2011). Third, some meta-analyses in this review pool results from only two RCTs or... marijuana OR marihuana OR cocaine OR heroin OR methamphetamin* OR street drug* OR substance abus* OR substance misus* OR drug abus* OR addict* OR drinking

  10. Speech-language pathology findings in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Machado-Nascimento, Nárli; Melo E Kümmer, Arthur; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the scientific production on the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Speech-language Pathology and to methodologically analyze the observational studies on the theme. Systematic review of the literature conducted at the databases Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System online (MEDLINE, USA), Literature of Latin America and the Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Brazil) and Spanish Bibliographic Index of Health Sciences (IBECS, Spain) using the descriptors: "Language", "Language Development", "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder", "ADHD" and "Auditory Perception". Articles published between 2008 and 2013. Inclusion criteria: full articles published in national and international journals from 2008 to 2013. Exclusion criteria: articles not focused on the speech-language pathology alterations present in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The articles were read in full and the data were extracted for characterization of methodology and content. The 23 articles found were separated according to two themes: Speech-language Pathology and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The study of the scientific production revealed that the alterations most commonly discussed were reading disorders and that there are few reports on the relationship between auditory processing and these disorders, as well as on the role of the speech-language pathologist in the evaluation and treatment of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

  11. A Systematic Review of the Behavioural Outcomes Following Exercise Interventions for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Emily; Crozier, Michael; Lloyd, Meghann

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to systematically search and critically analyse the literature pertaining to behavioural outcomes of exercise interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder aged ?16 years. This systematic review employed a comprehensive peer-reviewed search strategy, two-stage screening process and rigorous critical…

  12. A Systematic Review of the Behavioural Outcomes Following Exercise Interventions for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Emily; Crozier, Michael; Lloyd, Meghann

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to systematically search and critically analyse the literature pertaining to behavioural outcomes of exercise interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder aged ?16 years. This systematic review employed a comprehensive peer-reviewed search strategy, two-stage screening process and rigorous critical…

  13. Conceptualization and Assessment of Hypersexual Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Montgomery-Graham, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Despite the rejection of hypersexual disorder (HD) as a new diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), clinical and research interest in HD continues. To systematically review the existing scientific literature on the conceptualization and assessment of HD and out-of-control sexual behavior. Studies were identified from PsychInfo, PubMed, JSTOR, Google Scholar, and Scholar's Portal using an exhaustive list of key terms. Of 299 total articles identified and screened, 252 were excluded, and 47 are included in this review. To review two categories of articles: HD conceptualization and HD psychometric assessment. First, results of the review of theoretical conceptualizations of HD reflected a large proportion of the peer-reviewed literature devoted to discussing conceptualizations of HD without reaching consensus. Second, results of the review of HD psychometric assessments were analyzed using Hunsley and Mash's (2008) criteria to evaluate psychometric adequacy of evidence-based assessment measurements. The six most researched measurements of HD were evaluated, including the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory, the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, the Sexual Compulsivity Scale, the Sexual Addiction Screening Test, the Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised, and the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory. Psychometric properties of the scales are reviewed, evaluated, and discussed. The Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory, the measurement proposed for the clinical screening of HD by the DSM-5 workgroup, currently has the strongest psychometric support. Future research and clinical directions are discussed in light of findings after the literature review and synthesis. Montgomery-Graham S. Conceptualization and Assessment of Hypersexual Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Sex Med Rev 2017;5:146-162. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Telepsychology for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bolton, A J; Dorstyn, D S

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of psychological services provided remotely, telepsychology, for the management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was evaluated. Eleven studies (n = 472 participants) were identified from electronic database searches. Study quality was assessed, with studies characterised by small and underpowered samples. Effect sizes and associated confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to determine the direction and magnitude of treatment change. Short-term treatment gains were reported for internet and video-based interventions. This included significant medium to large improvements (d range = 0.66-3.22) in cognitive and behavioural symptoms of depression, generalised anxiety and posttraumatic stress. However, the equivalence of telepsychology and face-to-face psychotherapy could not be determined, with few comparative studies available. Both treatment gains and deterioration were noted 1 to 6 months following treatment cessation, although this was based on limited follow-up data. Further larger scale and longitudinal research will help to ascertain the minimum requirements for the management and treatment of PTSD in a technology-supported environment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Systematic review of factors associated with depression and anxiety disorders among older adults with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sagna, Atami; Gallo, Joseph J; Pontone, Gregory M

    2014-07-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders have a substantial impact on the quality of life, the functioning and mortality of older adults with Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the factors associated with the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among individuals with PD aged 60 years and older. Following a literature search in PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE, 5 articles met the inclusion criteria (adults aged 60 years and older, individuals with PD, and with depression and anxiety disorders, and English-language peer reviewed articles) and were included in this review. These studies were conducted in the U.S (n = 3), in Italy (n = 1) and the U.K (n = 1). Findings indicated that autonomic symptoms, motor fluctuations, severity and frequency of symptoms, staging of the disease, and PD onset and duration were associated with the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among older adults suffering from PD. Despite the limited number of studies included in the review, depression and anxiety disorders are often unrecognized and untreated and the comorbidity greatly exacerbates PD symptoms. The identification of factors associated with the development of depression and anxiety disorders could help in designing preventive interventions that would decrease the risk and burden of depression and anxiety disorders among older adults with PD.

  16. The impact of machine learning techniques in the study of bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Librenza-Garcia, Diego; Kotzian, Bruno Jaskulski; Yang, Jessica; Mwangi, Benson; Cao, Bo; Pereira Lima, Luiza Nunes; Bermudez, Mariane Bagatin; Boeira, Manuela Vianna; Kapczinski, Flávio; Passos, Ives Cavalcante

    2017-07-18

    Machine learning techniques provide new methods to predict diagnosis and clinical outcomes at an individual level. We aim to review the existing literature on the use of machine learning techniques in the assessment of subjects with bipolar disorder. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science for articles published in any language up to January 2017. We found 757 abstracts and included 51 studies in our review. Most of the included studies used multiple levels of biological data to distinguish the diagnosis of bipolar disorder from other psychiatric disorders or healthy controls. We also found studies that assessed the prediction of clinical outcomes and studies using unsupervised machine learning to build more consistent clinical phenotypes of bipolar disorder. We concluded that given the clinical heterogeneity of samples of patients with BD, machine learning techniques may provide clinicians and researchers with important insights in fields such as diagnosis, personalized treatment and prognosis orientation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening for autism spectrum disorder in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lydia A; Lee, Li-Ching

    2017-01-01

    This review contributes to the growing body of global autism spectrum disorder literature by examining the use of screening instruments in low- and middle-income countries with respect to study design and methodology, instrument adaptation and performance, and collaboration with community stakeholders in research. A systematic review was conducted to understand the use of autism spectrum disorder screening instruments in low- and middle-income countries from studies published between 1992 and 2015. This review found that 18 different autism spectrum disorder screeners have been used in low- and middle-income settings with wide ranges of sensitivities and specificities. The significant variation in study design, screening methodology, and population characteristics limits the ability of this review to make robust recommendations about optimal screening tool selection. Clinical-based screening for autism spectrum disorder was the most widely reported method. However, community-based screening was shown to be an effective method for identifying autism spectrum disorder in communities with limited clinical resources. Only a few studies included in this review reported cultural adaptation of screening tools and collaboration with local stakeholders. Establishing guidelines for the reporting of cultural adaptation and community collaboration procedures as well as screening instrument psychometrics and screening methodology will enable the field to develop best practices for autism spectrum disorder screening in low-resource settings.

  18. A systematic review of sleep disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Nina Teixeira; Urbano, Jessica Julioti; Nacif, Sergio Roberto; Silva, Anderson Soares; Peixoto, Roger Andre Oliveira; Urbano, Giovanni Julioti; Oliveira, Ezequiel Fernandes; Santos, Israel Reis; Oliveira, Claudia Santos; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on sleep disorders in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis (HD). [Subjects and Methods] Two independent reviewers performed a computer-assisted search of the MEDLINE, SciELO, LILACS, and BIREME Virtual Health Library medical databases from their inception to November 2015. [Results] One thousand one hundred twenty-six articles were found that met the inclusion criteria. Articles were excluded if they were not in English, the patients did not undergo HD, or the studies were not cross-sectional or clinical trials. After reading the full text, a further 300 studies were excluded because they did not use polysomnography. The remaining 18 studies with ESRD patients undergoing HD comprised 8 clinical trials and 10 cross-sectional studies. This systematic review followed the criteria outlined by the PRISMA declaration. [Conclusion] In this systematic review, a high prevalence of sleep disorders was observed in ESRD, including sleep-disordered breathing. This knowledge may enable health professionals to devise new strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of these patients, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality and improve their quality of life. PMID:27512289

  19. A systematic review on the prevalence of conduct disorder in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Salmanian, Maryam; Asadian-Koohestani, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza

    2017-07-05

    Several epidemiological studies have been done on conduct disorder in the Middle East, but no systematic review has been conducted on this topic. Thus, we aimed at investigating the prevalence of conduct disorder in the Middle East in this systematic review of the literature. We searched all the cross-sectional studies in the scientific databases of PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, Islamic World Science Citation Center, and Grey Literature including conference proceedings, and hand searching of key journals from 1995 to the end of 2014. Included studies described the prevalence of conduct disorder prior to age of 18, with any type of random or non-random sampling for at least one gender in the general or school-based populations who resided in Middle Eastern countries. Two reviewers assessed the quality of the included studies independently and extracted the relevant data. Twenty-four studies were included in this review. Sample sizes varied from 136 to 9636 with the age range of 6-18 years. These studies were conducted in Iran, Turkey, Israel, Cyprus, Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Afghanistan, Yemen, and Palestine. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used in most of the included studies. The prevalence of conduct disorder was reported from 2.4% by diagnostic criteria taken from DSM-IV-TR in Iraq to 32.9% by SDQ in Iran; the prevalence rates ranged from 1 to 29.9% for females and from 3.3 to 34.6% for males. However, the prevalence of conduct disorder was reported 0.34% by the diagnostic instrument of Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime in Iranian children and adolescents. The prevalence of conduct disorder in this study was higher than the worldwide prevalence, thus, it seems essential to design preventive and treatment programs for children and adolescents with conduct disorder.

  20. Contribution of brain imaging to the understanding of gait disorders in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Annweiler, Cédric; Beauchet, Olivier; Celle, Sébastien; Roche, Frédéric; Annweiler, Thierry; Allali, Gilles; Bartha, Robert; Montero-Odasso, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    Although gait disorders are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD), determining which brain structures and related lesions are specifically involved is a goal yet to be reached. Our objective was to systematically review all published data that examined associations between gait disorders and brain imaging in AD. Of 486 selected studies, 4 observational studies met the selection criteria. The number of participants ranged from 2 to 61 community dwellers (29%-100% female) with prodromal or dementia-stage AD. Quantitative gait disorders (ie, slower gait velocity explained by shorter stride length) were associated with white matter lesions, mainly in the medial frontal lobes and basal ganglia. The nigrostriatal dopamine system was unaffected. Qualitative gait disorders (ie, higher stride length variability) correlated with lower hippocampal volume and function. Gait disorders in AD could be explained by a high burden of age-related subcortical hyperintensities on the frontal-subcortical circuits (nonspecific) together with hippocampal atrophy and hypometabolism (specific).

  1. A systematic review and meta-synthesis of the effects and experience of mentoring in eating disorders and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Sarah; Ramjan, Lucie; Hay, Phillipa

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we aimed to explore the benefits, effects and experiences of mentoring on those with an eating disorder or disordered eating. After a systematic search of the literature, four papers were included in the review. A qualitative analysis of the papers identified three key themes. The themes were (1) diverse benefits (mentees), (2) finding comfort in belonging (mentees), and (3) affirmation of the transformation they have made (mentors). The experience of mentoring was shown to have value for both mentors and mentees. Mentorship should be further utilized in the areas of eating disorders and disordered eating, as it shows promising reciprocal benefits for both mentor and mentee. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Religiosity, spirituality in relation to disordered eating and body image concerns: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Akrawi, Daniel; Bartrop, Roger; Potter, Ursula; Touyz, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review aims to critically examine the existing literature that has reported on the links between aspects of religiosity, spirituality and disordered eating, psychopathology and body image concerns. A systematic search of online databases (PsycINFO, Medline, Embase and Web of Science) was conducted in December 2014. A search protocol was designed to identify relevant articles that quantitatively explored the relationship between various aspects of religiosity and/or spirituality and disordered eating, psychopathology and/or body image concerns in non-clinical samples of women and men. Twenty-two studies were identified to have matched the inclusion criteria. Overall, the main findings to emerge were that strong and internalised religious beliefs coupled with having a secure and satisfying relationship with God were associated with lower levels of disordered eating, psychopathology and body image concern. Conversely, a superficial faith coupled with a doubtful and anxious relationship with God were associated with greater levels of disordered eating, psychopathology and body image concern. While the studies reviewed have a number of evident limitations in design and methodology, there is sufficient evidence to make this avenue of enquiry worth pursuing. It is hoped that the direction provided by this review will lead to further investigation into the protective benefits of religiosity and spirituality in the development of a clinical eating disorder. Thus a stronger evidence base can then be utilised in developing community awareness and programs which reduce the risk.

  3. Effectiveness of metacognitive interventions for mental disorders in adults: a systematic review protocol (METACOG).

    PubMed

    Kühne, Franziska; Meister, Ramona; Jansen, Alessa; Härter, Martin; Moritz, Steffen; Kriston, Levente

    2017-06-22

    Whereas the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy has been demonstrated for a variety of mental disorders, there is still need for improvement, especially regarding less prevalent or more severe disorders. Recently, metacognitive interventions have been developed and are now available for a variety of diagnoses. Still, a systematic review investigating the effectiveness of different metacognitive interventions for various mental disorders is missing. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cross-over and cluster RCTs and non-randomised controlled trials on metacognitive interventions (ie, metacognitive therapy, metacognitive training, others) in adults with any mental disorder will be included. As comparators, another psychological or pharmacological treatment, a combined psychological and pharmacological treatment, treatment as usual or no active treatment are eligible. Outcomes refer to efficacy and acceptability of metacognitive interventions. In light of the popularity of metacognitive interventions, the systematic review will provide researchers, clinicians and patients with substantial information on the intervention's effectiveness across different mental disorders. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated through a patient workshop. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Intolerance of Uncertainty in Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Melanie; Robinson, Lauren; Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Wuensch, Kelsey; Hildebrandt, Tom; Micali, Nadia

    2017-09-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty is an empirically supported transdiagnostic construct that may have relevance in understanding eating disorders. We conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review of intolerance of uncertainty in eating disorders using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We calculated random-effects standardised mean differences (SMD) for studies utilising the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) and summarised additional studies descriptively. Women with eating disorders have significantly higher IUS scores compared with healthy controls (SMD = 1.90; 95% C.I. 1.24 to 2.56; p < 0.001). Post hoc meta-analysis revealed significant differences when comparing women with anorexia nervosa with controls (SMD = 2.16; 95% C.I. 1.14 to 3.18; p < 0.001) and women with bulimia nervosa with controls (SMD = 2.03; 95% C.I. 1.30 to 2.75; p < 0.001). Our synthesis of findings suggests that intolerance of uncertainty may represent a vulnerability and maintenance factor for eating disorders and potential target of cognitive, behavioural, interoceptive and affective symptoms. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Neuropsychological investigations in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review of methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Mittelman, Andrew; Tankersley, Amelia P; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Schweiger, Avraham

    2015-07-30

    The inconsistent nature of the neuropsychology literature pertaining to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has long been recognized. However, individual studies, systematic reviews, and recent meta-analytic reviews were unsuccessful in establishing a consensus regarding a disorder-specific neuropsychological profile. In an attempt to identify methodological factors that may contribute to the inconsistency that is characteristic of this body of research, a systematic review of methodological factors in studies comparing OCD patients and non-psychiatric controls on neuropsychological tests was conducted. This review covered 115 studies that included nearly 3500 patients. Results revealed a range of methodological weaknesses. Some of these weaknesses have been previously noted in the broader neuropsychological literature, while some are more specific to psychiatric disorders, and to OCD. These methodological shortcomings have the potential to hinder the identification of a specific neuropsychological profile associated with OCD as well as to obscure the association between neurocognitive dysfunctions and contemporary neurobiological models. Rectifying these weaknesses may facilitate replicability, and promote our ability to extract cogent, meaningful, and more unified inferences regarding the neuropsychology of OCD. To that end, we present a set of methodological recommendations to facilitate future neuropsychology research in psychiatric disorders in general, and in OCD in particular.

  6. Propranolol for the treatment of anxiety disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Steenen, Serge A; van Wijk, Arjen J; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; van Westrhenen, Roos; de Lange, Jan; de Jongh, Ad

    2016-02-01

    The effects of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders have not been systematically evaluated previously. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, addressing the efficacy of oral propranolol versus placebo or other medication as a treatment for alleviating either state or trait anxiety in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies concerned panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (four studies, total n = 130), specific phobia (two studies, total n = 37), social phobia (one study, n = 16), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (one study, n = 19). Three out of four panic disorder trials qualified for pooled analyses. These meta-analyses found no statistically significant differences between the efficacy of propranolol and benzodiazepines regarding the short-term treatment of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Also, no evidence was found for effects of propranolol on PTSD symptom severity through inhibition of memory reconsolidation. In conclusion, the quality of evidence for the efficacy of propranolol at present is insufficient to support the routine use of propranolol in the treatment of any of the anxiety disorders.

  7. Propranolol for the treatment of anxiety disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Steenen, Serge A; van Wijk, Arjen J; van der Heijden, Geert JMG; van Westrhenen, Roos; de Lange, Jan; de Jongh, Ad

    2016-01-01

    The effects of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders have not been systematically evaluated previously. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, addressing the efficacy of oral propranolol versus placebo or other medication as a treatment for alleviating either state or trait anxiety in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies concerned panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (four studies, total n = 130), specific phobia (two studies, total n = 37), social phobia (one study, n = 16), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (one study, n = 19). Three out of four panic disorder trials qualified for pooled analyses. These meta-analyses found no statistically significant differences between the efficacy of propranolol and benzodiazepines regarding the short-term treatment of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Also, no evidence was found for effects of propranolol on PTSD symptom severity through inhibition of memory reconsolidation. In conclusion, the quality of evidence for the efficacy of propranolol at present is insufficient to support the routine use of propranolol in the treatment of any of the anxiety disorders. PMID:26487439

  8. The Epidemiology and Associated Phenomenology of Formal Thought Disorder: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Eric; Creed, Lisa; MacMahon, Donagh; Brennan, Daria; Clarke, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background: Authors of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) have recommended to “integrate dimensions into clinical practice.” The epidemiology and associated phenomenology of formal thought disorder (FTD) have been described but not reviewed. We aimed to carry out a systematic review of FTD to this end. Methods: A systematic review of FTD literature, from 1978 to 2013, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: A total of 881 abstracts were reviewed and 120 articles met inclusion criteria; articles describing FTD factor structure (n = 15), prevalence and longitudinal course (n = 41), role in diagnosis (n = 22), associated clinical variables (n = 56), and influence on outcome (n = 35) were included. Prevalence estimates for FTD in psychosis range from 5% to 91%. Dividing FTD into domains, by factor analysis, can accurately identify 91% of psychotic diagnoses. FTD is associated with increased clinical severity. Poorer outcomes are predicted by negative thought disorder, more so than the typical construct of “disorganized speech.” Conclusion: FTD is a common symptom of psychosis and may be considered a marker of illness severity. Detailed dimensional assessment of FTD can clarify diagnosis and may help predict prognosis. PMID:25180313

  9. Prevalence of Conduct Disorder in the Middle East: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocol.

    PubMed

    Salmanian, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Keshtkar, Aabbas Ali; Asadian-Koohestani, Fatemeh; Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Sepasi, Neda

    2015-09-01

    The global burden of conduct disorder is a major public health concern. Although there are different reports on the prevalence of conduct disorder in different Middle Eastern countries, to date, no research has reviewed them. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the literature and present the prevalence of conduct disorder among children and adolescents in Middle Eastern countries. Those cross-sectional studies with any type of random or non-random sampling, which described the prevalence of conduct disorder prior to age of 18, for at least one gender in the general or school-based populations who resided in Middle Eastern countries were included in this review. The scientific databases of PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC), and Grey Literature including conference proceedings, and hand searching of key journals were searched from 1995 to the end of 2014. Two reviewers assessed the quality of the included studies independently and extracted the relevant data. This review provided a picture of different frequencies of conduct disorder in Middle Eastern countries and analyzed the sources of heterogeneity. PROSPERO CRD42014014996.

  10. Cortisol stress reactivity across psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zorn, Jelle V; Schür, Remmelt R; Boks, Marco P; Kahn, René S; Joëls, Marian; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2017-03-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its end product cortisol are essential for an adequate response to stress. Considering the role of stress as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, it is not surprising that cortisol stress reactivity has frequently been investigated in patients versus healthy individuals. However, the large heterogeneity in measures of the cortisol stress response has hampered a systematic evaluation of the evidence. We here report of a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress across psychiatric disorders. Original data from authors were obtained to construct standardized cortisol outcomes (the areas under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) and ground (AUCg)) and to examine the influence of sex and symptomatic state on cortisol stress reactivity. Fourteen studies on major depressive disorder (MDD) (n=1129), 9 on anxiety disorders (n=732, including social anxiety disorder (SAD), posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder and mixed samples of anxiety disorders) and 4 on schizophrenia (n=180) were included that used the Trier Social Stress Test or an equivalent psychosocial stress task. Sex-dependent changes in stress reactivity were apparent in MDD and anxiety disorders. Specifically, women with current MDD or an anxiety disorder exhibited a blunted cortisol stress response, whereas men with current MDD or SAD showed an increased cortisol response to psychosocial stress. In individuals with remitted MDD, altered cortisol stress reactivity was less pronounced in women and absent in men. For schizophrenia, cortisol stress reactivity was blunted in both men and women, but the number of studies was limited and showed evidence for publication bias. These findings illustrate that sharing individual data to disentangle the effects of sex, symptom levels and other factors is essential for further understanding of the alterations in cortisol stress reactivity across psychiatric

  11. Psychiatric Disorders and Quality of Life in Patients With Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Filho, Gastão; Pereira, Valeska; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the literature with regard to psychiatric disorders and quality of life in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Data Sources: Research was conducted in 3 databases (ISI Web of Science, PubMed, and PsycINFO) using the terms implantable, cardioverter, defibrillator, quality of life, psych*, anxiety, and depression. Study Selection: The search yielded 1,399 references. Non-English and repeated references were excluded. After abstract analysis, 42 references were recovered for full-text reading, and 25 articles were selected for this review. Data Extraction: Research took place in April 2012, and no time restriction was placed on any of the database searches. Review or theoretical articles were excluded, and only clinical trials and epidemiologic studies were selected for this review. Results: A systematic review of the literature revealed mostly observational prospective cohort studies followed by cross-sectional observational studies and randomized clinical trials. Few studies included in the review were observational retrospective cohort or case-control studies. There are prominent signs and symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Disorders include phobic anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, somatoform disorder, agoraphobia, and depression. Quality of life in the physical, social, and psychological domains is affected and is related to the intensity and the frequency of the device’s electrical discharge. Conclusions: Work regarding psychiatric comorbidity in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator has shown that anxiety and depression are common. The patients and their families should be informed by their doctors that the presence of the device minimizes risk of sudden death and allows them to have a normal life. PMID:23930235

  12. Online and mobile technologies for self-management in bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gliddon, Emma; Barnes, Steven J; Murray, Greg; Michalak, Erin E

    2017-09-01

    Internet (eHealth) and smartphone-based (mHealth) approaches to self-management for bipolar disorder are increasingly common. Evidence-based self-management strategies are available for bipolar disorder and provide a useful framework for reviewing existing eHealth/mHealth programs to determine whether these strategies are supported by current technologies. This review assesses which self-management strategies are most supported by technology. Based on 3 previous studies, 7 categories of self-management strategies related to bipolar disorder were identified, followed by a systematic literature review to identify existing eHealth and mHealth programs for this disorder. Searches were conducted by using PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for relevant peer-reviewed articles published January 2005 to May 2015. eHealth and mHealth programs were summarized and reviewed to identify which of the 7 self-management strategy categories were supported by eHealth or mHealth programs. From 1,654 publications, 15 papers were identified for inclusion. From these, 9 eHealth programs and 2 mHealth programs were identified. The most commonly supported self-management strategy categories were "ongoing monitoring," "maintaining hope," "education," and "planning for and taking action"; the least commonly supported categories were "relaxation" and "maintaining a healthy lifestyle." eHealth programs appear to provide more comprehensive coverage of self-management strategies compared with mHealth programs. Both eHealth and mHealth programs present a wide range of self-management strategies for bipolar disorder, although individuals seeking comprehensive interventions might be best served by eHealth programs, while those seeking more condensed and direct interventions might prefer mHealth programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Epidemiology of major depressive disorder in South Africa (1997–2015): a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nglazi, Mweete D; Joubert, Jané D; Stein, Dan J; Lund, Crick; Wiysonge, Charles S; Vos, Theo; Pillay-van Wyk, Victoria; Roomaney, Rifqah A; Muhwava, Lorrein S; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disease and disability globally and in South Africa. Epidemiological data for MDD are essential to estimate the overall disease burden in a country. The objective of the systematic review is to examine the evidence base for prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, severity, case fatality and excess mortality of MDD in South Africa from 1997 to 2015. Methods and analysis We will perform electronic searches in PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus and other bibliographical databases. Articles published between January 1997 and December 2015 will be eligible for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes will be prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, severity, case fatality and excess mortality of MDD. The secondary outcomes will be risk factors and selected populations for MDD. If appropriate, a meta-analysis will be performed. If a meta-analysis is not possible, the review findings will be presented narratively and in tables. Subgroup analyses will be conducted with subgroups defined by population group, rural/urban settings and study designs, if sufficient data are available. Ethics and dissemination The systematic review will use published data that are not linked to individuals. The review findings may have implications for future research prioritisation and disease modelling of MDD to estimate its morbidity burden in South Africa, and will be disseminated electronically and in print through peer-reviewed publications. Trial Registration number: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42015024885. PMID:27377639

  14. Chest pain, panic disorder and coronary artery disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Gastão L F; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Santulli, Gaetano; Silva, Adriana C; Machado, Sergio; Valenca, Alexandre M; Nardi, Antonio E

    2014-01-01

    Chest pain may be due benign diseases but often suggests an association with coronary artery disease, which justifies a quick search for medical care. However, some people have anxiety disorder with symptoms that resemble clearly an acute coronary syndrome. More specifically, during a panic attack an abrupt feeling of fear accompanied by symptoms such as breathlessness, palpitations and chest pain, makes patients believe they have a heart attack and confuse physicians about the diagnosis. The association between panic disorder and coronary artery disease has been extensively studied in recent years and, although some studies have shown anxiety disorders coexisting or increasing the risk of heart disease, one causal hypothesis is still missing. The aim of this systematic review is to present the various ways in which the scientific community has been investigating the relation between chest pain, panic disorder and coronary artery disease.

  15. Psychotropic Medications in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Synthesis for Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew; Beaulieu, Amy A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review, rating and synthesis of the empirical evidence for the use of psychotropic medications in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty-three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion and were coded and analyzed using a systematic evaluative…

  16. Psychotropic Medications in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Synthesis for Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew; Beaulieu, Amy A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review, rating and synthesis of the empirical evidence for the use of psychotropic medications in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty-three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion and were coded and analyzed using a systematic evaluative…

  17. Behavioural Intervention Practices for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behaviour in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Stephanie Y.; Smith, Veronica; Jelen, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the quality of conduct of experimental studies contributing to our empirical understanding of function-based behavioural interventions for stereotypic and repetitive behaviours (SRBs) in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Method: Systematic review methodology was used to…

  18. Bipolar disorder and violent crime: new evidence from population-based longitudinal studies and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Seena; Lichtenstein, Paul; Grann, Martin; Goodwin, Guy M; Långström, Niklas

    2010-09-01

    Although bipolar disorder is associated with various adverse health outcomes, the relationship with violent crime is uncertain. To determine the risk of violent crime in bipolar disorder and to contextualize the findings with a systematic review. Longitudinal investigations using general population and unaffected sibling control individuals. Population-based registers of hospital discharge diagnoses, sociodemographic information, and violent crime in Sweden from January 1, 1973, through December 31, 2004. Individuals with 2 or more discharge diagnoses of bipolar disorder (n = 3743), general population controls (n = 37 429), and unaffected full siblings of individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 4059). Violent crime (actions resulting in convictions for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, illegal threats, or intimidation). During follow-up, 314 individuals with bipolar disorder (8.4%) committed violent crime compared with 1312 general population controls (3.5%) (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-2.6). The risk was mostly confined to patients with substance abuse comorbidity (adjusted odds ratio, 6.4; 95% confidence interval, 5.1-8.1). The risk increase was minimal in patients without substance abuse comorbidity (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.5), which was further attenuated when unaffected full siblings of individuals with bipolar disorder were used as controls (1.1; 0.7-1.6). We found no differences in rates of violent crime by clinical subgroups (manic vs depressive or psychotic vs nonpsychotic). The systematic review identified 8 previous studies (n = 6383), with high heterogeneity between studies. Odds ratio for violence risk ranged from 2 to 9. Although current guidelines for the management of individuals with bipolar disorder do not recommend routine risk assessment for violence, this assertion may need review in patients with comorbid substance abuse.

  19. Eating disorders among fashion models: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zancu, Simona Alexandra; Enea, Violeta

    2016-06-02

    In the light of recent concerns regarding the eating disorders among fashion models and professional regulations of fashion model occupation, an examination of the scientific evidence on this issue is necessary. The article reviews findings on the prevalence of eating disorders and body image concerns among professional fashion models. A systematic literature search was conducted using ProQUEST, EBSCO, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and Gale Canage electronic databases. A very low number of studies conducted on fashion models and eating disorders resulted between 1980 and 2015, with seven articles included in this review. Overall, results of these studies do not indicate a higher prevalence of eating disorders among fashion models compared to non-models. Fashion models have a positive body image and generally do not report more dysfunctional eating behaviors than controls. However, fashion models are on average slightly underweight with significantly lower BMI than controls, and give higher importance to appearance and thin body shape, and thus have a higher prevalence of partial-syndrome eating disorders than controls. Despite public concerns, research on eating disorders among professional fashion models is extremely scarce and results cannot be generalized to all models. The existing research fails to clarify the matter of eating disorders among fashion models and given the small number of studies, further research is needed.

  20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disordered eating behaviour: A systematic review and a framework for future research.

    PubMed

    Kaisari, Panagiota; Dourish, Colin T; Higgs, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be associated with disordered eating behaviour, but whether there is sufficient evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and specific types of disordered eating behaviour is unclear. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether specific features associated with ADHD are differentially associated with disordered eating behaviour. A systematic review of seventy-five studies was conducted to evaluate the potential association between ADHD symptomatology and disordered eating behaviour and to provide an estimate of the strength of evidence for any association. Overall, a moderate strength of evidence exists for a positive association between ADHD and disordered eating and with specific types of disordered-eating behaviour, in particular, overeating behaviour. There is consistent evidence that impulsivity symptoms of ADHD are positively associated with overeating and bulimia nervosa and more limited evidence for an association between hyperactivity symptoms and restrictive eating in males but not females. Further research is required to assess the potential direction of the relationship between ADHD and disordered eating, the underlying mechanisms and the role of specific ADHD symptoms in the development and/or maintenance of disordered eating behaviour. We propose a framework that could be used to guide the design of future studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Cognitive and emotional functioning in binge-eating disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kittel, Rebekka; Brauhardt, Anne; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-09-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating and is associated with eating disorder and general psychopathology and overweight/obesity. Deficits in cognitive and emotional functioning for eating disorders or obesity have been reported. However, a systematic review on cognitive and emotional functioning for individuals with BED is lacking. A systematic literature search was conducted across three databases (Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO). Overall, n = 57 studies were included in the present review. Regarding cognitive functioning (CoF), individuals with BED consistently demonstrated higher information processing biases compared to obese and normal-weight controls in the context of disorder-related stimuli (i.e., food and body cues), whereas CoF in the context of neutral stimuli appeared to be less affected. Thus, results suggest disorder-related rather than general difficulties in CoF in BED. With respect to emotional functioning (EmF), individuals with BED reported difficulties similar to individuals with other eating disorders, with a tendency to show less severe difficulties in some domains. In addition, individuals with BED reported greater emotional deficits when compared to obese and normal-weight controls. Findings suggest general difficulties in EmF in BED. Thus far, however, investigations of EmF in disorder-relevant situations are lacking. Overall, the cross-sectional findings indicate BED to be associated with difficulties in CoF and EmF. Future research should determine the nature of these difficulties, in regards to general and disorder-related stimuli, and consider interactions of both domains to foster the development and improvement of appropriate interventions in BED. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Systematic Review of Sexual Dysfunction Among Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bentsen, Ida L; Giraldi, Annamaria G E; Kristensen, Ellids; Andersen, Henrik S

    2015-04-01

    The clinical observations that many Vietnam veterans complained of sexual problems after returning from active duty have led to the question of a correlation between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sexual dysfunction (SD). The purpose of this review is to systematically review the current literature regarding SD in male veterans with PTSD. A systematic literature search, primarily in PubMed, the Cochrane database, and PsycINFO, was conducted. The keywords Sexual Dysfunction, Psychological OR Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological AND Stress Disorders, and Post-Traumatic were used. All manuscripts with relevance to the aim of the review were reviewed and considered. A total of 123 results were generated from the search. There were 11 publications regarding SD in veterans with PTSD included in the review. The included studies are described in detail in the Results section. All but one study found an increased and significant prevalence of SD among male veterans with PTSD, especially erectile dysfunction and decreased sexual desire. SD increased in patients with PTSD, with a prevalence between 8.4% and 88.6%; the large prevalence range were partly the result of methodological differences. Only two studies have examined the correlation between the severity of PTSD symptoms and SD, with conflicting results. Samples were of relatively moderate size. Only a few confounding factors were accounted for in the included studies. Increasing evidence suggests a correlation between PTSD and SD, but still, relatively few studies have addressed these questions. Further investigation is needed into the correlation between PTSD and SD, preferably taking severity of PTSD symptoms into account, along with confounders such as use of psychotropic medication, somatic illness, drug and alcohol abuse, and comorbid psychiatric illness. Bentsen IL, Giraldi AGE, Kristensen E, and Andersen HS. Systematic review of sexual dysfunction among veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Sex

  3. The efficacy of motivational interviewing for disordered gambling: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yakovenko, Igor; Quigley, Leanne; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Hodgins, David C; Ronksley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Motivational interviewing is a client-centered therapeutic intervention that aims to resolve ambivalence toward change. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of motivational interviewing, compared to non-motivational interviewing controls, in the treatment of disordered gambling. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials that evaluated change in gambling behavior using motivational interviewing in adult disordered gamblers. The primary outcomes were the weighted mean difference (WMD) for change in average days gambled per month and average dollars lost per month. The search strategy yielded 447 articles, of which 20 met criteria for full text review. Overall, 8 studies (N=730) fulfilled the inclusion criteria for systematic review and 5 (N=477) were included in the meta-analysis. Motivational interviewing was associated with significant reduction in gambling frequency up to a year after treatment delivery. For gambling expenditure, motivational interviewing yielded significant reductions in dollars spent gambling compared to non-motivational controls at post-treatment only (1-3 months). Overall, the results of this review suggest that motivational interviewing is an efficacious style of therapy for disordered gambling in the short term. Whether treatment effects are maintained over time remains unclear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Domestic violence and perinatal mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Howard, Louise M; Oram, Sian; Galley, Helen; Trevillion, Kylee; Feder, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Domestic violence in the perinatal period is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, but evidence is limited on its association with perinatal mental disorders. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with antenatal and postnatal mental disorders (depression and anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], eating disorders, and psychoses). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO reference CRD42012002048). Data sources included searches of electronic databases (to 15 February 2013), hand searches, citation tracking, update of a review on victimisation and mental disorder, and expert recommendations. Included studies were peer-reviewed experimental or observational studies that reported on women aged 16 y or older, that assessed the prevalence and/or odds of having experienced domestic violence, and that assessed symptoms of perinatal mental disorder using a validated instrument. Two reviewers screened 1,125 full-text papers, extracted data, and independently appraised study quality. Odds ratios were pooled using meta-analysis. Sixty-seven papers were included. Pooled estimates from longitudinal studies suggest a 3-fold increase in the odds of high levels of depressive symptoms in the postnatal period after having experienced partner violence during pregnancy (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI 2.7-3.6). Increased odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with high levels of depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms in the antenatal and postnatal periods were consistently reported in cross-sectional studies. No studies were identified on eating disorders or puerperal psychosis. Analyses were limited because of study heterogeneity and lack of data on baseline symptoms, preventing clear findings on causal directionality. High levels of symptoms of perinatal depression, anxiety, and PTSD are significantly associated with having experienced domestic violence. High

  5. Serious mental disorder in 23000 prisoners: a systematic review of 62 surveys.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Seena; Danesh, John

    2002-02-16

    About 9 million people are imprisoned worldwide, but the number with serious mental disorders (psychosis, major depression, and antisocial personality disorder) is unknown. We did a systematic review of surveys on such disorders in general prison populations in western countries. We searched for psychiatric surveys that were based on interviews of unselected prison populations and included diagnoses of psychotic illnesses or major depression within the previous 6 months, or a history of any personality disorder. We did computer-assisted searches, scanned reference lists, searched journals, and corresponded with authors. We determined prevalence rates of serious mental disorders, sex, type of prisoner (detainee or sentenced inmate), and other characteristics. 62 surveys from 12 countries included 22790 prisoners (mean age 29 years, 18530 [81%] men, 2568 [26%] of 9776 were violent offenders). 3.7% of men (95% CI 3.3--4.1) had psychotic illnesses, 10% (9--11) major depression, and 65% (61--68) a personality disorder, including 47% (46--48) with antisocial personality disorder. 4.0% of women (3.2--5.1) had psychotic illnesses, 12% (11--14) major depression, and 42% (38--45) a personality disorder, including 21% (19--23) with antisocial personality disorder. Although there was substantial heterogeneity among studies (especially for antisocial personality disorder), only a small proportion was explained by differences in prevalence rates between detainees and sentenced inmates. Prisoners were several times more likely to have psychosis and major depression, and about ten times more likely to have antisocial personality disorder, than the general population. Worldwide, several million prisoners probably have serious mental disorders, but how well prison services are addressing these problems is not known.

  6. Clinical risk factors for bipolar disorders: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Faedda, Gianni L; Serra, Giulia; Marangoni, Ciro; Salvatore, Paola; Sani, Gabriele; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Tondo, Leonardo; Girardi, Paolo; Baldessarini, Ross J; Koukopoulos, Athanasios

    2014-10-01

    Early phases and suspected precursor states of bipolar disorder are not well characterized. We evaluate the prevalence, duration, clinical features and predictive value of non-affective psychopathology as clinical risk factors for bipolar disorder in prospective studies. We screened PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, SCOPUS, and ISI-Web of Science databases from inception up to January 31, 2014, following PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and searched: bipolar disorder AND [antecedent⁎ OR predict⁎ OR prodrom⁎ OR prospect⁎ OR risk⁎] AND [diagnosis OR development]. We included only English language reports on prospective, longitudinal studies with two structured clinical assessments (intake and follow-up); no DSM intake diagnosis of bipolar-I or -II; diagnostic outcome was bipolar-I or -II. Details of study design, risk factors, and predictive value were tabulated. We found 16 published reports meeting selection criteria, with varying study design. Despite heterogeneity in methods, findings across studies were consistent. Clinical risk factors of bipolar disorder were early-onset panic attacks and disorder, separation anxiety and generalized anxiety disorders, conduct symptoms and disorder, ADHD, impulsivity and criminal behavior. Since risk factors identified in some prospective studies are predictive of other conditions besides bipolar disorder, these preliminary findings require replication, and their sensitivity, specificity and predictive value need to be assessed. Clinical risk factors for bipolar disorder typically arise years prior to syndromal onset, include anxiety and behavioral disorders with unclear sensitivity and specificity. Prospectively identified clinical risk factors for bipolar disorder are consistent with retrospective and family-risk studies. Combining clinical risk factors with precursors and family-risk may improve early identification and timely and appropriate treatment of

  7. The association between secondhand smoke and sleep-disordered breathing in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jara, Sebastian M; Benke, James R; Lin, Sandra Y; Ishman, Stacey L

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review existing literature on the association between secondhand smoke and sleep-disordered breathing in children. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science, and Scopus. Inclusion criteria included English-language papers containing original human data, with seven or more subjects and age <18 years. Data were systematically collected on study design, patient demographics, clinical characteristics/outcomes, and level of evidence. Two investigators independently reviewed all manuscripts. The initial search yielded 72 abstracts; 18 articles were ultimately included with a total study population of 47,462 patients. Fifteen (83%) articles found a statistically significant association between secondhand smoke and sleep-disordered breathing. All were case-control studies. Quality of articles based on the Newcastle-Ottawa scale averaged 5.8/9 stars. Secondhand smoke was characterized by serum cotinine testing in only two (11%) studies. Sleep-disordered breathing was quantified by polysomnography in only four (22%) of the studies and only one (6%) classified subject using polysomnography exclusively. Habitual snoring was the most common form of sleep-disordered breathing studied in 14/18 (78%) studies, whereas obstructive sleep apnea was reported in one (6%) study and sleep-related hypoxia in another (6%) study. Although the majority of studies included in this review found a significant association between secondhand smoke and sleep-disordered breathing, all of them were evidence level 3b, for an overall grade of B (Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine). Further higher-quality studies should be performed in the future to better evaluate the relationship between second- smoke and sleep-disordered breathing in children. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Treatments for Adolescents with Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zaso, Michelle J.; Park, Aesoon; Antshel, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorder (SUD) presents frequently in adolescence, a developmental period that may promote the emergence of substance misuse among individuals with ADHD. Comorbid ADHD and SUD in adolescence results in significant and unique treatment challenges, necessitating examination into effective interventions. Method This systematic review examined existing research into the treatment of comorbid adolescent ADHD and SUD. Results Findings from a small number of pharmacological intervention studies suggest potential efficacy of extended-release stimulant and nonstimulant medications. Efficacy of psychotherapeutic interventions has not been systematically examined. Conclusions Current research on treatments for comorbid ADHD and SUD in adolescence is limited. Future placebo-controlled clinical trials using large samples are needed to examine the efficacy of psychotherapeutic interventions, the heightened risk of prescription stimulant misuse, and the long-term maintenance of treatment gains in this population. Clinical guidelines for the treatment of comorbid ADHD and SUD are discussed. PMID:25655767

  9. Interrater reliability of schizoaffective disorder compared with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression - A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Santelmann, Hanno; Franklin, Jeremy; Bußhoff, Jana; Baethge, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Schizoaffective disorder is a common diagnosis in clinical practice but its nosological status has been subject to debate ever since it was conceptualized. Although it is key that diagnostic reliability is sufficient, schizoaffective disorder has been reported to have low interrater reliability. Evidence based on systematic review and meta-analysis methods, however, is lacking. Using a highly sensitive literature search in Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo we identified studies measuring the interrater reliability of schizoaffective disorder in comparison to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar disorder. Out of 4126 records screened we included 25 studies reporting on 7912 patients diagnosed by different raters. The interrater reliability of schizoaffective disorder was moderate (meta-analytic estimate of Cohen's kappa 0.57 [95% CI: 0.41-0.73]), and substantially lower than that of its main differential diagnoses (difference in kappa between 0.22 and 0.19). Although there was considerable heterogeneity, analyses revealed that the interrater reliability of schizoaffective disorder was consistently lower in the overwhelming majority of studies. The results remained robust in subgroup and sensitivity analyses (e.g., diagnostic manual used) as well as in meta-regressions (e.g., publication year) and analyses of publication bias. Clinically, the results highlight the particular importance of diagnostic re-evaluation in patients diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder. They also quantify a widely held clinical impression of lower interrater reliability and agree with earlier meta-analysis reporting low test-retest reliability.

  10. Is physiotherapy effective in the management of child and adolescent conversion disorder? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Tara L; Southby, Alesha K; Haines, Terrence P; Hough, Janet P; Skinner, Elizabeth H

    2015-02-01

    Child and adolescent conversion disorder has the potential to impart significant burden on health-care services and affect quality of life. Clinically, physiotherapists are involved in conversion disorder management; however, no systematic reviews have examined physiotherapy effectiveness in its management. The aim of this review is to identify the efficacy of physiotherapy management of child and adolescent conversion disorder. A search of multiple databases (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsychINFO, PEDro and the Cochrane Library) was completed along with manual searching of relevant reference lists to identify articles including children 0-18 years with a diagnosis of conversion disorder who received physical management. Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts using criteria. Data were extracted regarding study characteristics, functional outcome measures, length of stay, physiotherapy service duration and resolution of conversion symptoms. Methodological quality was assessed using a tool designed for observational studies. Twelve observational studies were included. No functional outcome measures were used to assess the effectiveness of the treatment protocols in the case studies. Resolution of symptoms occurred in all but two cases, with conversion symptoms still present at 11 months and at 2 years. Length of stay varied from 3 days to 16 weeks, with similar variation evident in length of physiotherapy service provision (2.5 weeks to 16 weeks). There was limited and poor quality evidence to establish the efficacy of physiotherapy management of child and adolescent conversion disorders. More rigorous study designs with consistent use of reliable, valid and sensitive functional outcome measures are needed in this area.

  11. Transitioning from DSM-IV to DSM-5: A systematic review of eating disorder prevalence assessment.

    PubMed

    Lindvall Dahlgren, Camilla; Wisting, Line

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on assessment of eating disorder prevalence during the DSM-IV era (1994-2015). A PubMed search was conducted targeting articles on prevalence, incidence and epidemiology of eating disorders. The review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, and was limited to DSM-IV based eating disorder diagnoses published between 1994 and 2015. A total of 74 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Results yielded evidence of over 40 different assessment instruments used to assess eating disorder prevalence, with the EAT-40 being the most commonly used screening instrument, and the SCID being the most frequently used interview. The vast majority of studies employed two-stage designs, closely followed by clinical interviews. Observations of higher prevalence rates were found in studies employing self-reports compared to two-stage designs and interviews. Eating disorder prevalence rates have varied significantly during the DSM-IV era, and are dependent on assessment methods used and samples investigated. Following the transition to the DSM-5, eating disorder prevalence will change, warranting novel approaches to assessment and treatment planning. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Psychological therapy for anxiety in bipolar spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Hannah J; Cooper, Myra J; Di Simplicio, Martina; Blackwell, Simon E; Holmes, Emily A

    2015-02-01

    Comorbid anxiety is common in bipolar spectrum disorders [BPSD], and is associated with poor outcomes. Its clinical relevance is highlighted by the "anxious distress specifier" in the revised criteria for Bipolar Disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition [DSM-5]. This article reviews evidence for the effectiveness of psychological therapy for anxiety in adults with BPSD (bipolar I, II, not otherwise specified, cyclothymia, and rapid cycling disorders). A systematic search yielded 22 treatment studies that included an anxiety-related outcome measure. Cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT] for BPSD incorporating an anxiety component reduces anxiety symptoms in cyclothymia, "refractory" and rapid cycling BPSD, whereas standard bipolar treatments have only a modest effect on anxiety. Preliminary evidence is promising for CBT for post-traumatic stress disorder and generalised anxiety disorder in BPSD. Psychoeducation alone does not appear to reduce anxiety, and data for mindfulness-based cognitive therapy [MBCT] appear equivocal. CBT during euthymic phases has the greatest weight of evidence. Where reported, psychological therapy appears acceptable and safe, but more systematic collection and reporting of safety and acceptability information is needed. Development of psychological models and treatment protocols for anxiety in BPSD may help improve outcomes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A Systematic Review of Speech Assessments for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Recommendations for Best Practice.

    PubMed

    Broome, Kate; McCabe, Patricia; Docking, Kimberley; Doble, Maree

    2017-08-15

    The purpose of this systematic review was to provide a summary and evaluation of speech assessments used with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A subsequent narrative review was completed to ascertain the core components of an evidence-based pediatric speech assessment, which, together with the results of the systematic review, provide clinical and research guidelines for best practice. A systematic search of eight databases was used to find peer-reviewed research articles published between 1990 and 2014 assessing the speech of children with ASD. Eligible articles were categorized according to the assessment methods used and the speech characteristics described. The review identified 21 articles that met the inclusion criteria, search criteria, and confidence in ASD diagnosis. The speech of prelinguistic participants was assessed in seven articles. Speech assessments with verbal participants were completed in 15 articles with segmental and suprasegmental aspects of speech analyzed. Assessment methods included connected speech samples, single-word naming tasks, speech imitation tasks, and analysis of the production of words and sentences. Clinical and research guidelines for speech assessment of children with ASD are outlined. Future comparisons will be facilitated by the use of consistent reporting methods in research focusing on children with ASD.

  14. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Yalda; Stringer, Helen; Klee, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Iran. Consequently, there is no information about the prevalence of child language disorders in Iranian population. This review summarizes Iranian studies on child language development and disorder in the preschool years and aims to systematically find the most studied topics in the field of normal development, the assessment and diagnosis of language impairments as well as exploring the current gaps within the body of literature. Three main Iranian academic websites of indexed articles along with four other nonIranian databases were scrutinized for all relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria: Iranian studies within the field of Persian language development and disorders in preschool children published up to December 2013. They are classified according to the hierarchy of evidence and weighed against the criteria of critical appraisal of study types. As this is a type of nonintervention systematic review, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses is modified to be more compatible to the designs of eligible studies, including descriptive studies, test-developing and/or diagnostic studies. Several limitations made the process of searching and retrieving problematic; e.g., lack of unified keywords and incompatibility of Persian typing structure embedded in Iranian search engines. Overall, eligible studies met the criteria up to the third level of the hierarchy of evidence that shows the necessity of conducting studies with higher levels of

  15. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Yalda; Stringer, Helen; Klee, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Iran. Consequently, there is no information about the prevalence of child language disorders in Iranian population. This review summarizes Iranian studies on child language development and disorder in the preschool years and aims to systematically find the most studied topics in the field of normal development, the assessment and diagnosis of language impairments as well as exploring the current gaps within the body of literature. Three main Iranian academic websites of indexed articles along with four other nonIranian databases were scrutinized for all relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria: Iranian studies within the field of Persian language development and disorders in preschool children published up to December 2013. They are classified according to the hierarchy of evidence and weighed against the criteria of critical appraisal of study types. As this is a type of nonintervention systematic review, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses is modified to be more compatible to the designs of eligible studies, including descriptive studies, test-developing and/or diagnostic studies. Several limitations made the process of searching and retrieving problematic; e.g., lack of unified keywords and incompatibility of Persian typing structure embedded in Iranian search engines. Overall, eligible studies met the criteria up to the third level of the hierarchy of evidence that shows the necessity of conducting studies with higher levels of

  16. [Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Silva, Bianca Del Ponte da; Anselmi, Luciana; Schmidt, Vera; Santos, Iná S

    2015-04-01

    This aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review on the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. The systematic multiple-stage literature search in PubMed, LILACS, BIREME, and PsycINFO was limited to research in human subjects and published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. A total of 373 references were retrieved. Of these, only five met the study's objectives and were kept in the review. Most of the studies employed a longitudinal design, were conducted in developed countries, and were published in the last five years. Only one study found a positive association. Studies on caffeine consumption during pregnancy and ADHD are scarce, with conflicting results and several methodological difficulties such as lack of standardized outcome measures.

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine for post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wahbeh, Helané; Senders, Angela; Neuendorf, Rachel; Cayton, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To 1) characterize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) studies for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD), 2) evaluate the quality of these studies, and 3) systematically grade the scientific evidence for individual CAM modalities for PTSD. Design Systematic Review. Eight data sources were searched. Selection criteria included any study design assessing PTSD outcomes and any CAM intervention. The body of evidence for each modality was assessed with the Natural Standard evidence-based, validated grading rationale.™ Results and Conclusions Thirty-three studies (n=1329) were reviewed. Scientific evidence of benefit for PTSD was Strong for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and Good for acupuncture, hypnotherapy, meditation, and visualization. Evidence was Unclear or Conflicting for biofeedback, relaxation, Emotional Freedom and Thought Field therapies, yoga, and natural products. Considerations for clinical applications and future research recommendations are discussed. PMID:24676593

  18. Acupuncture for posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and prospective clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Dae; Heo, In; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Crawford, Cindy; Kang, Hyung-Won; Lim, Jung-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the current evidence for effectiveness of acupuncture for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the form of a systematic review, a systematic literature search was conducted in 23 electronic databases. Grey literature was also searched. The key search terms were "acupuncture" and "PTSD." No language restrictions were imposed. We included all randomized or prospective clinical trials that evaluated acupuncture and its variants against a waitlist, sham acupuncture, conventional therapy control for PTSD, or without control. Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 2 uncontrolled clinical trials (UCTs) out of 136 articles in total were systematically reviewed. One high-quality RCT reported that acupuncture was superior to waitlist control and therapeutic effects of acupuncture and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) were similar based on the effect sizes. One RCT showed no statistical difference between acupuncture and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). One RCT reported a favorable effect of acupoint stimulation plus CBT against CBT alone. A meta-analysis of acupuncture plus moxibustion versus SSRI favored acupuncture plus moxibustion in three outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that the evidence of effectiveness of acupuncture for PTSD is encouraging but not cogent. Further qualified trials are needed to confirm whether acupuncture is effective for PTSD.

  19. Systematic review with meta-analysis: diagnostic overlap of microscopic colitis and functional bowel disorders.

    PubMed

    Guagnozzi, D; Arias, Á; Lucendo, A J

    2016-04-01

    Microscopic colitis shares certain common clinical manifestations with functional bowel disorders, especially diarrhoea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional diarrhoea. However, the exact relationship between microscopic colitis and functional bowel disorders has not been systematically assessed. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the diagnostic overlap between functional bowel disorders and microscopic colitis. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and SCOPUS databases, as well as the abstract books of the major gastroenterology meetings, to investigate the prevalence of microscopic colitis among patients with functional bowel disorders (considering all subtypes of both disorders) and vice versa. Data were pooled with a random-effects model. Of 227 references identified, data were collected from 26 studies and a total of 5,099 adult patients. The pooled prevalence any type of functional bowel disorders in patients who present diagnostic criteria of microscopic colitis was 39.1% (95% CI: 22.8-56.6%; I(2) : 97%) and was higher for lymphocytic colitis than for collagenous colitis (40.7% vs. 28.4%, respectively; P = 0.58). The prevalence of microscopic colitis in functional bowel disorders patients was 7% (95% CI: 3.6-11.4%), reaching 9.8% (95% CI: 4.4-17.1%; I(2) : 95%) in patients exhibiting diarrhoea-dominant IBS, nonsignificantly higher than microscopic colitis rates among patients with constipation-dominant IBS (1.3%) or mixed-dominant IBS (1.9%). There is a significant overlap of symptoms between microscopic colitis and functional bowel disorders, especially in diarrhoeal subtypes. The high proportion of microscopic colitis among diarrhoea-dominant functional syndromes should serve as a call for more active diagnosis in selected patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Neurometabolites in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kraguljac, Nina Vanessa; Reid, Meredith; White, David; Jones, Rebecca; den Hollander, Jan; Lowman, Deborah; Lahti, Adrienne Carol

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis evaluates alterations of neurometabolites in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PubMed was searched to find controlled studies evaluating N-acetylaspartate (NAA), Choline (Cho) and Creatine (Cr) assessed with ((1))H-MRS (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder up to September 2010. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate pooled standardized mean differences. The statistic was used to quantify inconsistencies. Subgroup analyses were conducted to explore potential explanations for inconsistencies. The systematic review included 146 studies with 5643 participants. NAA levels were affected in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Decreased levels in the basal ganglia and frontal lobe were the most consistent findings in schizophrenia; decreased levels in the basal ganglia were the most consistent findings in bipolar disorder. Cho and Cr levels were not altered in either disorder. Findings for Cr were most consistent in the thalamus, frontal lobe and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and the basal ganglia and frontal lobe in bipolar disorder. Findings for Cho were most consistent in the thalamus, frontal lobe and anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia and basal ganglia in bipolar disorder. Large, carefully designed studies are needed to better estimate the extent of alterations in neurometabolites.

  1. Migraine headache and bipolar disorder comorbidity: A systematic review of the literature and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Leo, Raphael J; Singh, Joshna

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric disorders, e.g., depression, are often comorbid with, and can complicate the treatment of, patients with migraine headache. Although empirical work has increasingly focused on the association between migraine and bipolar disorder, this topic has received little attention in the pain literature. Bipolar disorder is a chronic and recurrent mood disorder characterized by cyclic occurrence of elevated (i.e., manic or hypomanic) and depressed mood states. Bipolar I disorder is diagnosed when patients present with at least one abnormally and persistently elevated manic episode; bipolar II disorder is characterized by the presence of hypomanic episodes. Bipolar disorder warrants attention as depressive phases of the disorder can prevail and are often misconstrued by the unwary clinician as unipolar depression. However, treatment for bipolar disorder is distinct from that of unipolar depression and use of antidepressants, which are often invoked in migraine prophylaxis as well as the treatment of depression, may precipitate significant mood changes among bipolar disorder patients. A systematic review of the literature addressing the co-occurrence of bipolar disorder and migraine was conducted. The treatment of dually affected patients is also discussed. In order to review the literature to date on migraine and bipolar disorder co-occurrence, a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and CINAHL for clinic-based and epidemiological studies was conducted using terms related to migraine and bipolar disorder. Studies were selected for review if they included subjects meeting validated diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder as well as migraine headache and if a quantitative description of prevalence rates of comorbid bipolar disorder and migraine were reported. Weighted means of the prevalence rates were calculated to compare with general epidemiological prevalence trends for migraine and bipolar disorder, respectively. Eleven

  2. The Impact on Staff of Working with Personality Disordered Offenders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Freestone, Mark C.; Wilson, Kim; Jones, Rose; Mikton, Chris; Milsom, Sophia; Sonigra, Ketan; Taylor, Celia; Campbell, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Background Personality disordered offenders (PDOs) are generally considered difficult to manage and to have a negative impact on staff working with them. Aims This study aimed to provide an overview of studies examining the impact on staff of working with PDOs, identify impact areas associated with working with PDOs, identify gaps in existing research,and direct future research efforts. Methods The authors conducted a systematic review of the English-language literature from 1964–2014 across 20 databases in the medical and social sciences. Results 27 papers were included in the review. Studies identified negative impacts upon staff including: negative attitudes, burnout, stress, negative counter-transferential experiences; two studies found positive impacts of job excitement and satisfaction, and the evidence related to perceived risk of violence from PDOs was equivocal. Studies demonstrated considerable heterogeneity and meta-analysis was not possible. The overall level of identified evidence was low: 23 studies (85%) were descriptive only, and only one adequately powered cohort study was found. Conclusions The review identified a significant amount of descriptive literature, but only one cohort study and no trials or previous systematic reviews of literatures. Clinicians and managers working with PDOs should be aware of the potential impacts identified, but there is an urgent need for further research focusing on the robust evaluation of interventions to minimise harm to staff working with offenders who suffer from personality disorder. PMID:26305891

  3. Suicidality in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD): A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, Ioannis; Gooding, Patricia A; Panagioti, Maria

    2016-11-01

    Although a considerable number of studies have indicated that the rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) are high, no systematic review has been undertaken to explore the strength and patterns of the relationship between suicidality and BDD. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis which aimed to examine the association between BDD and suicidality and the mechanisms underlying suicidality in BDD. Searches of five bibliographic databases including Medline, PsychINFO, Embase, Web of Science and CINAHL, were conducted from inception to June 2015. Seventeen studies were included in the review. Meta-analyses were performed using random effect models to account for the high levels of heterogeneity in the data. A positive and statistically significant association was found between BDD and suicidality (OR=3.63, 95% CI=2.62 to 4.63). Subgroup analyses showed that BDD was associated with increased odds for both, suicide attempts (OR=3.30, 95% CI=2.18 to 4.43) and suicidal ideation (OR=2.57, 95% CI=1.44 to 3.69). The evidence concerning suicide deaths in BDD was scarce. BDD-specific factors and comorbid diagnoses of Axis I disorders were likely to worsen suicidality in BDD. However, the modest number, and the low methodological quality, of the studies included in this review suggest caution the interpretation of these findings.

  4. Major depressive disorder following terrorist attacks: A systematic review of prevalence, course and correlates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Terrorist attacks are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of psychological disorders for people exposed. This review aimed to systematically assess the current evidence on major depressive disorder (MDD) after terrorist attacks. Methods A systematic review was performed. Studies included assessed the impact of human-made, intentional, terrorist attacks in direct victims and/or persons in general population and evaluated MDD based on diagnostic criteria. Results A total of 567 reports were identified, 11 of which were eligible for this review: 6 carried out with direct victims, 4 with persons in general population, and 1 with victims and general population. The reviewed literature suggests that the risk of MDD ranges between 20 and 30% in direct victims and between 4 and 10% in the general population in the first few months after terrorist attacks. Characteristics that tend to increase risk of MDD after a terrorist attack are female gender, having experienced more stressful situations before or after the attack, peritraumatic reactions during the attack, loss of psychosocial resources, and low social support. The course of MDD after terrorist attacks is less clear due to the scarcity of longitudinal studies. Conclusions Methodological limitations in the literature of this field are considered and potentially important areas for future research such as the assessment of the course of MDD, the study of correlates of MDD or the comorbidity between MDD and other mental health problems are discussed. PMID:21627850

  5. The Impact on Staff of Working with Personality Disordered Offenders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Freestone, Mark C; Wilson, Kim; Jones, Rose; Mikton, Chris; Milsom, Sophia; Sonigra, Ketan; Taylor, Celia; Campbell, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Personality disordered offenders (PDOs) are generally considered difficult to manage and to have a negative impact on staff working with them. This study aimed to provide an overview of studies examining the impact on staff of working with PDOs, identify impact areas associated with working with PDOs, identify gaps in existing research,and direct future research efforts. The authors conducted a systematic review of the English-language literature from 1964-2014 across 20 databases in the medical and social sciences. 27 papers were included in the review. Studies identified negative impacts upon staff including: negative attitudes, burnout, stress, negative counter-transferential experiences; two studies found positive impacts of job excitement and satisfaction, and the evidence related to perceived risk of violence from PDOs was equivocal. Studies demonstrated considerable heterogeneity and meta-analysis was not possible. The overall level of identified evidence was low: 23 studies (85%) were descriptive only, and only one adequately powered cohort study was found. The review identified a significant amount of descriptive literature, but only one cohort study and no trials or previous systematic reviews of literatures. Clinicians and managers working with PDOs should be aware of the potential impacts identified, but there is an urgent need for further research focusing on the robust evaluation of interventions to minimise harm to staff working with offenders who suffer from personality disorder.

  6. Maternal hypertensive pregnancy disorders and cognitive functioning of the offspring: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tuovinen, Soile; Eriksson, Johan G; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri

    2014-11-01

    Hypertensive pregnancy disorders may affect the fetal developmental milieu and thus hint at mechanisms that link prenatal conditions with later developmental outcomes of the offspring. Here, we systematically review studies that have tested whether maternal pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, and hypertensive pregnancy disorders as a single diagnostic entity are associated with cognitive functioning of the offspring. Twenty-six studies were eligible for this review. Of them, 19 provided detailed methodological information deemed necessary to be included for a more detailed review. An overall conclusion is that, in the general population, maternal hypertensive disorders may be associated with lower cognitive ability of the offspring. Studies that extend to adulthood show the most consistent pattern of findings. It is possible that the associations arise during the lifetime or that the findings reflect improvements in management of these disorders. Evidence is, however, insufficient to conclude whether these associations are dissimilar in the offspring exposed to maternal pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension, due to the varied criteria used across the different studies to distinguish between these conditions. The existing studies also vary in the definition of control groups, and very few have taken into account important confounding factors, including maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and lifestyle behaviors. Given the mixed pattern of findings and limitations related to internal and external validity, further studies are clearly warranted to clarify the associations.

  7. Work reintegration for veterans with mental disorders: a systematic literature review to inform research.

    PubMed

    Van Til, Linda; Fikretoglu, Deniz; Pranger, Tina; Patten, Scott; Wang, Jianli; Wong, May; Zamorski, Mark; Loisel, Patrick; Corbiére, Marc; Shields, Norman; Thompson, Jim; Pedlar, David

    2013-09-01

    Some veterans, and especially those with mental disorders, have difficulty reintegrating into the civilian workforce. The objectives of this study were to describe the scope of the existing literature on mental disorders and unemployment and to identify factors potentially associated with reintegration of workers with mental disorders into the workforce. The following databases were searched from their respective inception dates: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index Nursing Allied Health (CINAHL), and PsycINFO. In-scope studies had quantitative measures of employment and study populations with well-described mental disorders (eg, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance-use disorders). A systematic and comprehensive search of the relevant published literature up to July 2009 was conducted that identified a total of 5,195 articles. From that list, 81 in-scope studies were identified. An update to July 2012 identified 1,267 new articles, resulting in an additional 16 in-scope articles. Three major categories emerged from the in-scope articles: return to work, supported employment, and reintegration. The literature on return to work and supported employment is well summarized by existing reviews. The reintegration literature included 32 in-scope articles; only 10 of these were conducted in populations of veterans. Studies of reintegration to work were not similar enough to synthesize, and it was inappropriate to pool results for this category of literature. Comprehensive literature review found limited knowledge about how to integrate people with mental disorders into a new workplace after a prolonged absence (>1 year). Even more limited knowledge was found for veterans. The results informed the next steps for our research team to enhance successful reintegration of veterans with mental disorders into the civilian workplace.

  8. Work Reintegration for Veterans With Mental Disorders: A Systematic Literature Review to Inform Research

    PubMed Central

    Fikretoglu, Deniz; Pranger, Tina; Patten, Scott; Wang, JianLi; Wong, May; Zamorski, Mark; Loisel, Patrick; Corbiére, Marc; Shields, Norman; Thompson, Jim; Pedlar, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Some veterans, and especially those with mental disorders, have difficulty reintegrating into the civilian workforce. Purpose The objectives of this study were to describe the scope of the existing literature on mental disorders and unemployment and to identify factors potentially associated with reintegration of workers with mental disorders into the workforce. Data Sources The following databases were searched from their respective inception dates: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index Nursing Allied Health (CINAHL), and PsycINFO. Study Selection In-scope studies had quantitative measures of employment and study populations with well-described mental disorders (eg, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance-use disorders). Data Extraction A systematic and comprehensive search of the relevant published literature up to July 2009 was conducted that identified a total of 5,195 articles. From that list, 81 in-scope studies were identified. An update to July 2012 identified 1,267 new articles, resulting in an additional 16 in-scope articles. Data Synthesis Three major categories emerged from the in-scope articles: return to work, supported employment, and reintegration. The literature on return to work and supported employment is well summarized by existing reviews. The reintegration literature included 32 in-scope articles; only 10 of these were conducted in populations of veterans. Limitations Studies of reintegration to work were not similar enough to synthesize, and it was inappropriate to pool results for this category of literature. Conclusions Comprehensive literature review found limited knowledge about how to integrate people with mental disorders into a new workplace after a prolonged absence (>1 year). Even more limited knowledge was found for veterans. The results informed the next steps for our research team to enhance successful reintegration of veterans with mental disorders into the civilian workplace. PMID:23043148

  9. Systematic review of vestibular disorders related to human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heinze, B; Swanepoel, D W; Hofmeyr, L M

    2011-09-01

    Disorders of the auditory and vestibular system are often associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. However, the extent and nature of these vestibular manifestations are unclear. To systematically review the current peer-reviewed literature on vestibular manifestations and pathology related to human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Systematic review of peer-reviewed articles related to vestibular findings in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Several electronic databases were searched. We identified 442 records, reduced to 210 after excluding duplicates and reviews. These were reviewed for relevance to the scope of the study. We identified only 13 reports investigating vestibular functioning and pathology in individuals affected by human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This condition can affect both the peripheral and central vestibular system, irrespective of age and viral disease stage. Peripheral vestibular involvement may affect up to 50 per cent of patients, and central vestibular involvement may be even more prevalent. Post-mortem studies suggest direct involvement of the entire vestibular system, while opportunistic infections such as oto- and neurosyphilis and encephalitis cause secondary vestibular dysfunction resulting in vertigo, dizziness and imbalance. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome should routinely be monitored for vestibular involvement, to minimise functional limitations of quality of life.

  10. Tooth Erosion and Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hermont, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Patrícia A. D.; Martins, Carolina C.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Auad, Sheyla M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Eating disorders are associated with the highest rates of morbidity and mortality of any mental disorders among adolescents. The failure to recognize their early signs can compromise a patient's recovery and long-term prognosis. Tooth erosion has been reported as an oral manifestation that might help in the early detection of eating disorders. Objectives The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence regarding the following clinical question: Do eating disorders increase the risk of tooth erosion? Methods An electronic search addressing eating disorders and tooth erosion was conducted in eight databases. Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted information and assessed its quality. Data were abstracted for meta-analysis comparing tooth erosion in control patients (without eating disorders) vs. patients with eating disorders; and patients with eating disorder risk behavior vs. patients without such risk behavior. Combined odds ratios (ORs) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. Results Twenty-three papers were included in the qualitative synthesis and assessed by a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Fourteen papers were included in the meta-analysis. Patients with eating disorders had more risk of tooth erosion (OR = 12.4, 95%CI = 4.1–37.5). Patients with eating disorders who self-induced vomiting had more risk of tooth erosion than those patients who did not self-induce vomiting (OR = 19.6, 95%CI = 5.6–68.8). Patients with risk behavior of eating disorder had more risk of tooth erosion than patients without such risk behavior (Summary OR = 11.6, 95%CI = 3.2–41.7). Conclusion The scientific evidence suggests a causal relationship between tooth erosion and eating disorders and purging practices. Nevertheless, there is a lack of scientific evidence to fulfill the basic criteria of causation between the risk behavior for eating disorders and tooth

  11. Treatment of cannabis use disorders in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan; Nordentoft, Merete

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are prevalent among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), with a range of detrimental effects, e.g. reduced compliance to medication and psychosocial interventions, and increased level of psychotic-dimension symptoms. The aim of this study was to review literature on treatments of CUD in SSD-patients. PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. 41 articles were selected, 11 treating cannabis as a separate outcome. Contingency management was only effective while active. Pharmacological interventions appeared effective, but lacked randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Psychosocial interventions, e.g. motivational interviewing and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), were ineffective in most studies with cannabis as a separate outcome, but effective in studies that grouped cannabis together with other substance use disorders. Insufficient evidence exists on treating this form of dual-diagnosis patients. Studies grouping several types of substances as a single outcome may overlook differential effects. Future RCTs should investigate combinations of psychosocial, pharmacological, and contingency management.

  12. Epidemiology of eating disorders in Latin America: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kolar, David R; Rodriguez, Dania L Mejía; Chams, Moises Mebarak; Hoek, Hans W

    2016-11-01

    Eating disorders are currently not considered to be limited to Western culture. We systematically reviewed the existing literature on the prevalence of eating disorders in Latin America. Of 1583 records screened, 17 studies from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela were included in the analysis. Most studies reported point-prevalence rates and only three studies provided lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates. We found a mean point-prevalence rate of 0.1% for anorexia nervosa, 1.16% for bulimia nervosa, and 3.53% for binge-eating disorder (BED) in the general population. Heterogeneity for bulimia nervosa and BED was large. This meta-analysis indicates that the prevalence of anorexia nervosa seems to be lower, whereas the prevalence of bulimia nervosa and especially of BED seems to be higher in Latin America than in Western countries. Our findings show that eating disorders are common mental disorders in Latin America. However, some facets of Latin American culture might be protective for the development of anorexia nervosa and increase the risk for bulimia nervosa and BED. Further studies investigating the epidemiology of eating disorders and their relation to culture in Latin America are needed. SPANISH ABSTRACT.

  13. Treatment of Internet gaming disorder: An international systematic review and CONSORT evaluation.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Wu, Anise M S; Doh, Young Yim; Kuss, Daria J; Pallesen, Ståle; Mentzoni, Rune; Carragher, Natacha; Sakuma, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    Treatment services for Internet gaming disorder are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, particularly in East Asia. This international systematic review was designed to appraise the quality standards of the gaming disorder treatment literature, a task previously undertaken by King et al. (2011) prior to the inclusion of Internet gaming disorder in Section III of the DSM-5 and 'Gaming disorder' in the draft ICD-11. The reporting quality of 30 treatment studies conducted from 2007 to 2016 was assessed. Reporting quality was defined according to the 2010 Consolidating Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. The results reaffirmed previous criticisms of these trials, namely: (a) inconsistencies in the definition, diagnosis, and measurement of disordered use; (b) lack of randomization and blinding; (c) lack of controls; and (d) insufficient information on recruitment dates, sample characteristics, and effect sizes. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy has a larger evidence base than other therapies, it remains difficult to make definitive statements on its benefits. Study design quality has not improved over the last decade, indicating a need for greater consistency and standardization in this area. Continuing international efforts to understand the core psychopathology of gaming disorder are vital to developing a model of best practice in treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Primary prevention of anxiety disorders in primary care: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    García-Campayo, Javier; del Hoyo, Yolanda López; Valero, Montserrat Salas; Yus, Maria Cruz Pérez; Esteban, Eva Andrés; Guedea, Marta Puebla; Botaya, Rosa Magallón

    2015-07-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in primary care and have significant social, economic, and interpersonal costs. Primary care is an ideal setting to prevent the appearance of anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of primary prevention interventions in anxiety disorders in the adult population receiving primary health care. A literature search was carried out in four databases-PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane, and Web of Science-from January 1980 to November 2013. Clinical trials and systematic reviews published in English and non-English languages and that evaluated the efficacy and/or cost-effectiveness of interventions of primary prevention for anxiety in primary care in the general adult population were included. Risk of bias was assessed by the Cochrane Risk Bias Tool and Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire. No high-quality research was identified that studied primary prevention of anxiety disorders in the adult population in the primary care setting. The few studies that exist focus on the child-adolescent population or on other types of interventions, usually as secondary prevention. This study emphasizes the need for the development of high-quality clinical trials on the prevention of anxiety disorders in primary care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Guided Self-help for Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review and Metaregression.

    PubMed

    Traviss-Turner, Gemma D; West, Robert M; Hill, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    Evidence-based self-help is a recommended first stage of treatment for mild-moderate eating disorders. The provision of guidance enhances outcome. The literature evaluating exclusively 'guided' self-help (GSH) has not been systematically reviewed. The aim was to establish the effectiveness of GSH for reducing global eating disorder psychopathology and abstinence from binge eating, compared with controls. Results were pooled using random effects meta-analysis and heterogeneity explored using metaregression. Thirty randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. Results showed an overall effect of GSH on global eating disorder psychopathology (-0.46) and binge abstinence (-0.20). There was strong evidence for an association between diagnosis of binge eating disorder and binge abstinence. Current interventions need to be adapted to address features other than binge eating. Further research is required to help us understand the effectiveness of GSH in children and young people, invariably high dropout rates and how technology can enhance interventions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Attitudes toward antipsychotic treatment among patients with bipolar disorders and their clinicians: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sajatovic, Martha; DiBiasi, Faith; Legacy, Susan N

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Antipsychotics are recommended as first-line therapy for acute mania and maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder; however, published literature suggests their real-world use remains limited. Understanding attitudes toward these medications may help identify barriers and inform personalized therapy. This literature review evaluated patient and clinician attitudes toward the use of antipsychotics for treating bipolar disorder. Materials and methods A systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and BIOSIS Previews identified English language articles published between January 1, 2000, and June 15, 2016, that reported attitudinal data from patients, health care professionals, or caregivers; treatment decision-making; or patient characteristics that predicted antipsychotic use for bipolar disorder. Results were analyzed descriptively. Results Of the 209 references identified, 11 met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. These articles provided attitudinal information from 1,418 patients with bipolar disorder and 1,282 treating clinicians. Patients’ attitudes toward antipsychotics were generally positive. Longer duration of clinical stability was associated with positive attitudes. Implementation of psychoeducational and adherence enhancement strategies could improve patient attitudes. Limited data suggest clinicians’ perceptions of antipsychotic efficacy and tolerability may have the greatest impact on their prescribing patterns. Because the current real-world evidence base is inadequate, clinician attitudes may reflect a relative lack of experience using antipsychotics in patients with bipolar disorder. Conclusion Although data are very limited, perceived tolerability and efficacy concerns shape both patient and clinician attitudes toward use of antipsychotic drugs in bipolar disorder. Additional studies are warranted.

  17. Psychedelics in the treatment of unipolar mood disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rucker, James Jh; Jelen, Luke A; Flynn, Sarah; Frowde, Kyle D; Young, Allan H

    2016-12-01

    Unipolar mood disorders, including major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), confer high rates of disability and mortality and a very high socioeconomic burden. Current treatment is suboptimal in most cases and there is little of note in the pharmaceutical development pipeline. The psychedelic drugs, including lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin, were used extensively in the treatment of mood disorders, and other psychiatric conditions, before their prohibition in the late 1960s. They are relatively safe when used in medically controlled environments, with no reported risk of dependence. Here, we present a systematic review of published clinical treatment studies using psychedelics in patients with broadly defined UMD, and consider their place in psychiatry. Whilst all of the included studies have methodological shortcomings, of 423 individuals in 19 studies, 335 (79.2%) showed clinician-judged improvement after treatment with psychedelics. A recently completed pilot study in the UK favours the use of psilocybin with psychological support in treatment resistant depressive disorder. The evidence overall strongly suggests that psychedelics should be re-examined in modern clinical trials for their use in unipolar mood disorders and other non-psychotic mental health conditions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Volumetric Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Pediatric Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Fatima; Ras, Johan; Seedat, Soraya

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) studies of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are limited. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have been best studied in this regard. We systematically reviewed structural neuroimaging findings in pediatric PTSD and OCD. Methods: The literature was reviewed for all sMRI studies examining volumetric parameters using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and PsychInfo databases, with no limit on the time frame of publication. Nine studies in pediatric PTSD and six in OCD were suitable for inclusion. Results: Volumetric findings were inconsistent in both disorders. In PTSD, findings suggest increased as well as decreased volumes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and corpus callosum; whilst in OCD studies indicate volumetric increase of the putamen, with inconsistent findings for the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and frontal regions. Conclusions: Methodological differences may account for some of this inconsistency and additional volume-based studies in pediatric anxiety disorders using more uniform approaches are needed. PMID:23272001

  19. Probiotics for childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Korterink, Judith J; Ockeloen, Lize; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M; Hilbink, Mirrian; Deckers-Kocken, Judith M

    2014-04-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to investigate the quantity and quality of the current evidence regarding the effect of different probiotic strains in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) in children and adolescents. Probiotics are more effective than placebo in the treatment of patients with abdominal pain-related FGID, especially with respect to patients with irritable bowel syndrome. To date, however, probiotics have not proved effective for children with functional constipation. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The value of 'positive' clinical signs for weakness, sensory and gait disorders in conversion disorder: a systematic and narrative review.

    PubMed

    Daum, Corinna; Hubschmid, Monica; Aybek, Selma

    2014-02-01

    Experts in the field of conversion disorder have suggested for the upcoming DSM-V edition to put less weight on the associated psychological factors and to emphasise the role of clinical findings. Indeed, a critical step in reaching a diagnosis of conversion disorder is careful bedside neurological examination, aimed at excluding organic signs and identifying 'positive' signs suggestive of a functional disorder. These positive signs are well known to all trained neurologists but their validity is still not established. The aim of this study is to provide current evidence regarding their sensitivity and specificity. We conducted a systematic search on motor, sensory and gait functional signs in Embase, Medline, PsycINfo from 1965 to June 2012. Studies in English, German or French reporting objective data on more than 10 participants in a controlled design were included in a systematic review. Other relevant signs are discussed in a narrative review. Eleven controlled studies (out of 147 eligible articles) describing 14 signs (7 motor, 5 sensory, 2 gait) reported low sensitivity of 8-100% but high specificity of 92-100%. Studies were evidence class III, only two had a blinded design and none reported on inter-rater reliability of the signs. Clinical signs for functional neurological symptoms are numerous but only 14 have been validated; overall they have low sensitivity but high specificity and their use should thus be recommended, especially with the introduction of the new DSM-V criteria.

  1. Interventions to improve management of anxiety disorders in general practice: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Heideman, Jantien; van Rijswijk, Eric; van Lin, Nieke; de Loos, Sandra; Laurant, Miranda; Wensing, Michel; van de Lisdonk, Eloy; Grol, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are common in general practice and are associated with several problems regarding recognition and management. Aim To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving recognition, diagnosis, and management of patients with anxiety disorders. Design of study Systematic review. Method MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Clinical Trials' Register were searched up until 2003. Randomised controlled trials, controlled before/after trials, and interrupted time series for professional, organisational, financial, and regulatory interventions were eligible. Primary effect measures consisted of anxiety outcomes, diagnosis, prescription, and referral. Two reviewers independently made eligibility judgments: eight out of 563 articles were found to be eligible. Two reviewers participated independently in the quality assessment and data extraction process using a standardised form based on the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care checklist. Relative risks or standardised mean differences were calculated when possible. Results Four professional interventions and three organisational interventions were examined. In general, the professional interventions seemed to increase recognition, referral, and prescription as well as improving anxiety outcomes. Two out of three organisational interventions showed a positive effect on anxiety outcomes. The one study that took prescription into account showed no effect. Conclusions The quality of care for patients with anxiety can be improved. A combination of professional and organisational interventions in which an external expert is introduced seems to be most promising. Additional research is nevertheless necessary to determine the exact effects of such interventions using patient effect measures, economic evaluations, and feasibility studies. PMID:16282004

  2. Experiences of Domestic Violence and Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trevillion, Kylee; Oram, Siân; Feder, Gene; Howard, Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the extent to which being a victim of domestic violence is associated with different mental disorders in men and women. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of being a victim of domestic violence by diagnostic category and sex. Methods Study design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources: Eighteen biomedical and social sciences databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO); journal hand searches; scrutiny of references and citation tracking of included articles; expert recommendations, and an update of a systematic review on victimisation and mental disorder. Inclusion criteria: observational and intervention studies reporting prevalence or odds of being a victim of domestic violence in men and women (aged ≥16 years), using validated diagnostic measures of mental disorder. Procedure: Data were extracted and study quality independently appraised by two reviewers. Analysis: Random effects meta-analyses were used to pool estimates of prevalence and odds. Results Forty-one studies were included. There is a higher risk of experiencing adult lifetime partner violence among women with depressive disorders (OR 2.77 (95% CI 1.96–3.92), anxiety disorders (OR 4.08 (95% CI 2.39–6.97), and PTSD (OR 7.34 95% CI 4.50–11.98), compared to women without mental disorders. Insufficient data were available to calculate pooled odds for other mental disorders, family violence (i.e. violence perpetrated by a non-partner), or violence experienced by men. Individual studies reported increased odds for women and men for all diagnostic categories, including psychoses, with a higher prevalence reported for women. Few longitudinal studies were found so the direction of causality could not be investigated. Conclusions There is a high prevalence and increased likelihood of being a victim of domestic violence in men and women across all diagnostic categories, compared to people without disorders. Longitudinal studies are needed to

  3. Prognostic Models in Adults Undergoing Physical Therapy for Rotator Cuff Disorders: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Braun, Cordula; Hanchard, Nigel C; Batterham, Alan M; Handoll, Helen H; Betthäuser, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Rotator cuff-related disorders represent the largest subgroup of shoulder complaints. Despite the availability of various conservative and surgical treatment options, the precise indications for these options remain unclear. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the available research on prognostic models for predicting outcomes in adults undergoing physical therapy for painful rotator cuff disorders. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and PEDro databases and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) up to October 2015 were searched. The review included primary studies exploring prognostic models in adults undergoing physical therapy, with or without other conservative measures, for painful rotator cuff disorders. Primary outcomes were pain, disability, and adverse events. Inclusion was limited to prospective investigations of prognostic factors elicited at the baseline assessment. Study selection was independently performed by 2 reviewers. A pilot-tested form was used to extract data on key aspects of study design, characteristics, analyses, and results. Risk of bias and applicability were independently assessed by 2 reviewers using the Prediction Study Risk of Bias Assessment tool (PROBAST). Five studies were included in the review. These studies were extremely heterogeneous in many aspects of design, conduct, and analysis. The findings were analyzed narratively. All included studies were rated as at high risk of bias, and none of the resulting prognostic models was found to be usable in clinical practice. There are no prognostic models ready to inform clinical practice in the context of the review question, highlighting the need for further research on prognostic models for predicting outcomes in adults who undergo physical therapy for painful rotator cuff disorders. The design and conduct of future studies should be receptive to developing methods. © 2016 American Physical Therapy

  4. Systematic Review of Cognitive Function in Euthymic Bipolar Disorder and Pre-Surgical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bostock, Emmanuelle C S; Kirkby, Kenneth C; Garry, Michael I; Taylor, Bruce V M

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) overlap in domains including epidemiology, treatment response, shared neurotransmitter involvement and temporal lobe pathology. Comparison of cognitive function in both disorders may indicate temporal lobe mediated processes relevant to BD. This systematic review examines neuropsychological test profiles in euthymic bipolar disorder type I (BD-I) and pre-surgical TLE and compares experimental designs used. A search of PubMed, PsychINFO, and Scopus using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted. Inclusion criteria were comparison group or pre- to post-surgical patients; reported neuropsychological tests; participants aged 18-60 years. Fifty six studies met criteria: 27 BD-I; 29 TLE. Deficits in BD-I compared to healthy controls (HC) were in executive function, attention span and verbal memory. Deficits in TLE compared to HC were in executive function and memory. In the pre- to post-surgical comparisons, verbal memory in left temporal lobe (LTL) and, less consistently, visuospatial memory in right temporal lobe (RTL) epilepsy declined following surgery. BD-I studies used comprehensive test batteries in well-defined euthymic patients compared to matched HC groups. TLE studies used convenience samples pre- to post-surgery, comparing LTL and RTL subgroups, few included comparisons to HC (5 studies). TLE studies typically examined a narrow range of known temporal lobe-mediated neuropsychological functions, particularly verbal and visuospatial memory. Both disorders exhibit deficits in executive function and verbal memory suggestive of both frontal and temporal lobe involvement. However, deficits in TLE are measured pre- to post-surgery and not controlled at baseline pre-surgery. Further research involving a head-to-head comparison of the two disorders on a broad range of neuropsychological tests is needed to clarify the nature and extent of cognitive deficits and

  5. Neighbourhood level social deprivation and the risk of psychotic disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Brian; Roche, Eric; Lane, Abbie

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of psychotic disorders varies according to the geographical area, and it has been investigated whether neighbourhood level factors may be associated with this variation. The aim of this systematic review is to collate and appraise the literature on the association between social deprivation and the incidence or risk for psychotic disorders. A systematic review was conducted, and studies were included if they were in English, provided a measure of social deprivation for more than one geographically defined area and examined either the correlation, rate ratio or risk of psychotic disorder. A defined search strategy was undertaken with Medline, CINAHL Plus and PsychInfo databases. A total of 409 studies were identified in the search, of which 28 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, four examined the association between social deprivation at the time of birth, three examined the putative prodrome of psychosis or those at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, and 23 examined the time at presentation with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) (one study examined two time points and one study included both UHR and FEP). Three of the studies that examined the level of social deprivation at birth found an association with a higher risk for psychotic disorders and increased social deprivation. Seventeen of the 23 studies found that there was a higher risk or rate of psychotic disorders in more deprived neighbourhoods at the time of presentation; however, adjusting for individual factors tended to weaken this association. Limited research has been conducted in the putative prodromal stage and has resulted in conflicting findings. Research conducted to date has not definitively identified whether the association is a result of social causation or social drift; however, the findings do have significant implications for service provision, such as the location and access of services.

  6. Working hours and the onset of depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Imamura, Kotaro; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-12-01

    : This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine whether working beyond the standard working hours was associated with a greater risk of depressive disorder among workers included in published prospective studies. This manuscript was prepared according to the PRISMA guideline checklist. A database search was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed), PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES using a relevant set of keywords. The eligibility criteria were as follows: (1) participants were adult workers; (2) exposure was defined as overtime work; (3) outcome were depressive disorders clinically diagnosed or assessed by a structured interview and (4) the study design was prospective or cohort. 7 studies were identified in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Overtime work was associated with a small, non-significant, elevated risk of depressive disorder (pooled relative risk=1.075; 95% CI 0.834 to 1.387; p=0.575) in a random effects model. The association tended to be greater for women. The risk of working 50 or more hours per week was slightly but not significantly increased (pooled relative risk=1.241; 95% CI 0.880 to 1.750; p=0.218). The effect of overtime work on depressive disorder remains inconclusive and may be small if not negligible. Sex differences and the effect of longer working hours on depressive disorder should be addressed in the future. Prospero CRD42015020003; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome and mental disorders: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Blay, Sergio Luís; Aguiar, João Vicente Augusto; Passos, Ives Cavalcante

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between depression, anxiety, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still unclear. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders among women with PCOS compared to women without it. Methods PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to November 27, 2015. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were original reports in which the rates of mood (bipolar disorder, dysthymia, or major depressive disorder), obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorders, trauma- and stressor-related disorders, anxiety disorders or psychotic disorders, somatic symptom and related disorders, or eating disorders had been investigated among women with an established diagnosis of PCOS and compared with women without PCOS. Psychiatric diagnosis should have been established by means of a structured diagnostic interview or through a validated screening tool. Data were extracted and pooled using random effects models. Results Six studies were included in the meta-analysis; of these, five reported the rates of anxiety and six provided data on the rates of depression. The rate of subjects with anxiety symptoms was higher in patients with PCOS compared to women without PCOS (odds ratio (OR) =2.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 6.02; Log OR =1.013; P=0.011). The rate of subjects with depressive symptoms was higher in patients with PCOS compared to women without PCOS (OR =3.51; 95% CI 1.97 to 6.24; Log OR =1.255; P<0.001). Conclusion Anxiety and depression symptoms are more prevalent in patients with PCOS. PMID:27877043

  8. Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Mina; Wheeler, Jeremy; Danesh, John

    About 13 million people are classified as refugees worldwide, and many more former refugees have been granted citizenship in their new countries. However, the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, or psychotic illnesses in these individuals is not known. We did a systematic review of surveys about these disorders in general refugee populations in western countries. We searched for psychiatric surveys that were based on interviews of unselected refugee populations and that included current diagnoses of post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, psychotic illnesses, or generalised anxiety disorder. We did computer-assisted searches, scanned reference lists, searched journals, and corresponded with authors to determine prevalence rates of these mental disorders and to explore potential sources of heterogeneity, such as diagnostic criteria, sampling methods, and other characteristics. 20 eligible surveys provided results for 6743 adult refugees from seven countries, with substantial variation in assessment and sampling methods. In the larger studies, 9% (99% CI 8-10%) were diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder and 5% (4-6%) with major depression, with evidence of much psychiatric comorbidity. Five surveys of 260 refugee children from three countries yielded a prevalence of 11% (7-17%) for post-traumatic stress disorder. Larger and more rigorous surveys reported lower prevalence rates than did studies with less optimum designs, but heterogeneity persisted even in findings from the larger studies. Refugees resettled in western countries could be about ten times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder than age-matched general populations in those countries. Worldwide, tens of thousands of refugees and former refugees resettled in western countries probably have post-traumatic stress disorder.

  9. Polycystic ovary syndrome and mental disorders: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Blay, Sergio Luís; Aguiar, João Vicente Augusto; Passos, Ives Cavalcante

    2016-01-01

    The association between depression, anxiety, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still unclear. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders among women with PCOS compared to women without it. PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to November 27, 2015. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were original reports in which the rates of mood (bipolar disorder, dysthymia, or major depressive disorder), obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, trauma- and stressor-related disorders, anxiety disorders or psychotic disorders, somatic symptom and related disorders, or eating disorders had been investigated among women with an established diagnosis of PCOS and compared with women without PCOS. Psychiatric diagnosis should have been established by means of a structured diagnostic interview or through a validated screening tool. Data were extracted and pooled using random effects models. Six studies were included in the meta-analysis; of these, five reported the rates of anxiety and six provided data on the rates of depression. The rate of subjects with anxiety symptoms was higher in patients with PCOS compared to women without PCOS (odds ratio (OR) =2.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 6.02; Log OR =1.013; P=0.011). The rate of subjects with depressive symptoms was higher in patients with PCOS compared to women without PCOS (OR =3.51; 95% CI 1.97 to 6.24; Log OR =1.255; P<0.001). Anxiety and depression symptoms are more prevalent in patients with PCOS.

  10. Epidemiology of major depressive disorder in South Africa (1997-2015): a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Nglazi, Mweete D; Joubert, Jané D; Stein, Dan J; Lund, Crick; Wiysonge, Charles S; Vos, Theo; Pillay-van Wyk, Victoria; Roomaney, Rifqah A; Muhwava, Lorrein S; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2016-07-04

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disease and disability globally and in South Africa. Epidemiological data for MDD are essential to estimate the overall disease burden in a country. The objective of the systematic review is to examine the evidence base for prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, severity, case fatality and excess mortality of MDD in South Africa from 1997 to 2015. We will perform electronic searches in PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus and other bibliographical databases. Articles published between January 1997 and December 2015 will be eligible for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes will be prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, severity, case fatality and excess mortality of MDD. The secondary outcomes will be risk factors and selected populations for MDD. If appropriate, a meta-analysis will be performed. If a meta-analysis is not possible, the review findings will be presented narratively and in tables. Subgroup analyses will be conducted with subgroups defined by population group, rural/urban settings and study designs, if sufficient data are available. The systematic review will use published data that are not linked to individuals. The review findings may have implications for future research prioritisation and disease modelling of MDD to estimate its morbidity burden in South Africa, and will be disseminated electronically and in print through peer-reviewed publications. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42015024885. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Psychoeducation for relapse prevention in bipolar disorder: a systematic review of efficacy in randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Bond, Kirsten; Anderson, Ian M

    2015-06-01

    Previous reviews have concluded that interventions including psychoeducation are effective in preventing relapse in bipolar disorder, but the efficacy of psychoeducation itself has not been systematically reviewed. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of psychoeducation for bipolar disorder in preventing relapse and other outcomes, and to identify factors that relate to clinical outcomes. We employed the systematic review of randomized controlled trials of psychoeducation in participants with bipolar disorder not in an acute illness episode, compared with treatment-as-usual, and placebo or active interventions. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) for non-relapse into any episode, mania/hypomania, and depression were calculated using an intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis, assigning dropouts to relapse, with a sensitivity analysis in which dropouts were assigned to non-relapse (optimistic ITT). Sixteen studies were included, eight of which provided data on relapse. Although heterogeneity in the data warrants caution, psychoeducation appeared to be effective in preventing any relapse [n = 7; OR: 1.98-2.75; number needed to treat (NNT): 5-7, depending on the method of analysis] and manic/hypomanic relapse (n = 8; OR: 1.68-2.52; NNT: 6-8), but not depressive relapse. Group, but not individually, delivered interventions were effective against both poles of relapse; the duration of follow-up and hours of therapy explained some of the heterogeneity. Psychoeducation improved medication adherence and short-term knowledge about medication. No consistent effects on mood symptoms, quality of life, or functioning were found. Group psychoeducation appears to be effective in preventing relapse in bipolar disorder, with less evidence for individually delivered interventions. Better understanding of mediating mechanisms is needed to optimize efficacy and personalize treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A systematic review of interventions for co-occurring substance use and borderline personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nicole K; Cameron, Jacqui; Jenner, Linda

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review on effective treatment options for co-occurring substance use and borderline personality disorders to examine effective treatments for this group. A systematic review using a narrative analysis approach was undertaken as there were too few studies within each intervention type to undertake a meta-analysis. The inclusion criteria comprised of English language studies (between 1999 and 2014) and a sample of >70% borderline personality disorder, with measurable outcomes for substance use and borderline personality disorder. All abstracts were screened (n = 376) resulting in 49 studies assessed for eligibility, with 10 studies, examining three different treatment types, included in the final review. There were four studies that examined dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT), three studies that examined dynamic deconstructive psychotherapy (DDP) and three studies that examined dual-focused schema therapy (DFST). Both DBT and DDP demonstrated reductions in substance use, suicidal/self-harm behaviours and improved treatment retention. DBT also improved global and social functioning. DFST reduced substance use and both DFST and DPP improved treatment utilisation, but no other significant positive changes were noted. Overall, there were a small number of studies with small sample sizes, so further research is required. However, in the absence of a strong evidence base, there is a critical need to respond to this group with co-occurring borderline personality disorder and substance use. Both DBT and DPP showed some benefit in reducing symptoms, with DBT the preferred option given its superior evidence base with women in particular. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. Managing childhood and adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with exercise: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ng, Qin Xiang; Ho, Collin Yih Xian; Chan, Hwei Wuen; Yong, Bob Zheng Jie; Yeo, Wee-Song

    2017-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting some 8-10% of children worldwide. Increasing research has shed light on the life course of the disorder, suggesting that majority of children with ADHD will continue to have persistent symptoms into adulthood. The mainstay of ADHD management has been pharmacologic and behavioural/psychological interventions, with little attention paid to exercise as a potential management strategy. A systematic review, examining both the short-term and long-term effects of exercise on children with ADHD, is timely and necessary to guide further research in this area. Using the keywords [exercise OR physical OR activity OR sport] AND [attention deficit hyperactivity disorder OR ADHD OR ADDH], a preliminary search on the PubMed and Ovid database yielded 613 papers published in English between 1-Jan-1980 and 1-July-2016. Full articles were also reviewed for references of interest. A total of 30 studies were included in this systematic review. Both short-term and long-term studies support the clinical benefits of physical activity for individuals with ADHD. Cognitive, behavioural and physical symptoms of ADHD were alleviated in most instances, and the largest intervention effects were reported for mixed exercise programs. No adverse effects arising from physical exercise were reported in any of the studies, suggesting that exercise is a well-tolerated intervention. Physical activity, in particular moderate-to-intense aerobic exercise, is a beneficial and well-tolerated intervention for children and adolescents with ADHD. Future research should include more adequately-powered trials and investigate the ideal exercise prescription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Co-occurring Substance Use Disorder – A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Arnevik, Espen Ajo; Helverschou, Sissel Berge

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Patients with co-occurring autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and substance use disorder (SUD) require special attention from clinical services. Screening for this co-occurrence is not generally an integral part of routine clinical assessments, and failure to identify and understand this group of patients may contribute to a worsening of their symptoms and/or an increase in drug abuse. Thus, there is a need to review the evidence base on patients with co-occurring ASD and SUD in order to enhance clinical practice and future research. METHODS We reviewed all identified papers on patients with co-occurring ASD and SUD. The focus of the review was on epidemiology, patient characteristics, function of drug use, and the effect of current interventions. RESULTS A total of 18 papers were included in the analysis. Eleven papers were based on epidemiological studies, although only one study reported the prevalence of ASD in an SUD population. Two papers explored the role of personality, three papers studied subgroups of individuals serving prison for violent or sexual crimes, and one paper explored the function of drugs in the ASD patient group. There were no studies testing specific treatment interventions. CONCLUSIONS In most of the treatment settings studied, there were relatively few patients with co-occurring ASD and SUD, but due to differences in study samples it was difficult to establish a general prevalence rate. The one consistent finding was the lack of focused treatment studies. There is clearly a need for research on interventions that take account of the special needs of this patient group. PMID:27559296

  15. Animal-assisted intervention for autism spectrum disorder: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    O'Haire, Marguerite E

    2013-07-01

    The inclusion of animals in therapeutic activities, known as animal-assisted intervention (AAI), has been suggested as a treatment practice for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper presents a systematic review of the empirical research on AAI for ASD. Fourteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. Reported outcomes included improvements for multiple areas of functioning known to be impaired in ASD, namely increased social interaction and communication as well as decreased problem behaviors, autistic severity, and stress. Yet despite unanimously positive outcomes, most studies were limited by many methodological weaknesses. This review demonstrates that there is preliminary "proof of concept" of AAI for ASD and highlights the need for further, more rigorous research.

  16. Childhood maltreatment and its link to borderline personality disorder features in children: A systematic review approach.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Jeyda; Cosgrave, Nicola; Woolgar, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Borderline personality disorder has repeatedly been associated with a history of maltreatment in childhood; however, research on maltreatment and its link to borderline features in children is limited. The aim of this review is to synthesise the existing data on the association between maltreatment and borderline features in childhood. In total, 10 studies were included in this systematic review. Studies indicated that children with borderline features were more likely to have a history of maltreatment, and that children who had been maltreated were more likely to present with borderline features. Other risk factors such as cognitive and executive functioning deficits, parental dysfunction and genetic vulnerability were also identified across studies. This review adds to the literature by highlighting maltreatment as a risk factor for borderline features in childhood. Longitudinal research is required to establish the link between childhood borderline features and adult borderline features. Implications for early identification, prevention and intervention services are discussed.

  17. The effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions in older adults with depressive disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Apóstolo, João; Bobrowicz-Campos, Elzbieta; Rodrigues, Manuel; Castro, Inês; Cardoso, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    It is widely acknowledged that mental health disorders are common in older adults and that depression is one of the most serious threats to the mental health of older adults. Although best practice guidelines point out that moderate to severe depression should be approached with pharmacotherapy together with complementary therapies, the use of antidepressant drugs in older adults has various disadvantages, such as long response time, side effects, potential risk of dependency and tolerance, poor compliance rates and high probability of drug interactions. In addition, qualitative studies of depressed people with a chronic illness have indicated that both patients and healthcare professionals prefer a psychosocial treatment for depression over a pharmacological one. This review aimed to identify and synthesize the best available evidence related to the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for older adults with depressive disorders. Systematic review of studies with any experimental design considering non-pharmacological interventions for older adults with depressive disorders. An initial search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken, followed by a second search for published and unpublished studies, from January 2000 to March 2012, of major healthcare-related electronic databases. Studies in English, Spanish and Portuguese were included in the review. This review considered studies that included adult patients, aged over 65 years with any type of depressive disorder, regardless of comorbidities and any previous treatments, but excluded those with manic or psychotic episodes/symptoms. All studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for methodological quality by two independent reviewers using a standardized critical appraisal checklist for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled studies from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data extraction was also conducted by two independent reviewers based on the Joanna Briggs Institute data extraction form for

  18. Validity and reliability of Internet-based physiotherapy assessment for musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mani, Suresh; Sharma, Shobha; Omar, Baharudin; Paungmali, Aatit; Joseph, Leonard

    2017-04-01

    Purpose The purpose of this review is to systematically explore and summarise the validity and reliability of telerehabilitation (TR)-based physiotherapy assessment for musculoskeletal disorders. Method A comprehensive systematic literature review was conducted using a number of electronic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and CINAHL, published between January 2000 and May 2015. The studies examined the validity, inter- and intra-rater reliabilities of TR-based physiotherapy assessment for musculoskeletal conditions were included. Two independent reviewers used the Quality Appraisal Tool for studies of diagnostic Reliability (QAREL) and the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool to assess the methodological quality of reliability and validity studies respectively. Results A total of 898 hits were achieved, of which 11 articles based on inclusion criteria were reviewed. Nine studies explored the concurrent validity, inter- and intra-rater reliabilities, while two studies examined only the concurrent validity. Reviewed studies were moderate to good in methodological quality. The physiotherapy assessments such as pain, swelling, range of motion, muscle strength, balance, gait and functional assessment demonstrated good concurrent validity. However, the reported concurrent validity of lumbar spine posture, special orthopaedic tests, neurodynamic tests and scar assessments ranged from low to moderate. Conclusion TR-based physiotherapy assessment was technically feasible with overall good concurrent validity and excellent reliability, except for lumbar spine posture, orthopaedic special tests, neurodynamic testa and scar assessment.

  19. Measurement of disordered eating in bariatric surgery candidates: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Parker, Katrina; Brennan, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of disordered eating are common among patients seeking bariatric surgery, and assessment of eating pathology is typical in pre-surgical evaluations. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the definitions, diagnostic criteria and measures used to assess disordered eating in adults seeking bariatric surgery. The review identified 147 articles featuring 34 questionnaires and 45 interviews used in pre-surgical assessments. The Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns Revised and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM were the most frequently used questionnaire and interview respectively. Variations to pre-surgical diagnostic criteria included changes to the frequency and duration criteria for binge eating, and inconsistent use of disordered eating definitions (e.g., grazing). Results demonstrate a paucity of measures designed specifically for an obese sample, and only 24% of questionnaires and 4% of interviews used had any reported psychometric evaluation in bariatric surgery candidates. The psychometric data available suggest that interview assessments are critical for accurately identifying binge episodes and other diagnostic information, while self-report questionnaires may be valuable for providing additional information of clinical utility (e.g., severity of eating, shape and weight-related concerns). Findings highlight the need for consensus on disordered eating diagnostic criteria and psychometric evaluation of measures to determine whether existing measures provide a valid assessment of disordered eating in this population. Consistent diagnosis and the use of validated measures will facilitate accurate identification of disordered eating in the pre-surgical population to enable assessment of suitability for surgery and appropriate targeting of treatment for disordered eating to optimise treatment success.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of scapular physical examination tests for shoulder disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alexis A; Wassinger, Craig A; Frank, Mason; Michener, Lori A; Hegedus, Eric J

    2013-09-01

    To systematically review and critique the evidence regarding the diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests for the scapula in patients with shoulder disorders. A systematic, computerised literature search of PubMED, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library databases (from database inception through January 2012) using keywords related to diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests of the scapula. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool was used to critique the quality of each paper. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria; three were considered to be of high quality. Of the three high-quality studies, two were in reference to a 'diagnosis' of shoulder pain. Only one high-quality article referenced specific shoulder pathology of acromioclavicular dislocation with reported sensitivity of 71% and 41% for the scapular dyskinesis and SICK scapula test, respectively. Overall, no physical examination test of the scapula was found to be useful in differentially diagnosing pathologies of the shoulder.

  1. The role of media literacy in body dissatisfaction and disordered eating: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H

    2016-12-01

    This study comprised a systematic review of literature examining empirical relationships between levels of media literacy and body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. The review aimed to integrate research on this topic. Electronic databases were searched for key concepts: media literacy, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating. Media literacy measures were coded for consistency with media literacy constructs. Sixteen eligible studies were identified. Cross-sectional outcomes depended upon the media literacy construct assessed. Some relationships between high scores on measures consistent with media literacy constructs and low scores on body dissatisfaction and related attitudes were found. Media literacy-based interventions revealed improvements in media literacy constructs realism scepticism, influence of media, and awareness of media motives for profit, and improvements in body-related variables, but not disordered eating. Further research examining relationships between theoretically driven media literacy constructs and body and eating concerns is needed. Recommendations are made for evaluating media literacy-based eating disorder prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Herbal Medicines for Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Anheyer, Dennis; Frawley, Jane; Koch, Anna Katharina; Lauche, Romy; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav; Cramer, Holger

    2017-06-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders are common childhood complaints. Particular types of complementary and alternative medicine, such as herbal medicine, are commonly used among children. Research information on efficacy, safety, or dosage forms is still lacking. To systematically summarize effectiveness and safety of different herbal treatment options for gastrointestinal disorders in children. Medline/PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library were searched through July 15, 2016. Randomized controlled trials comparing herbal therapy with no treatment, placebo, or any pharmaceutical medication in children and adolescents (aged 0-18 years) with gastrointestinal disorders were eligible. Two authors extracted data on study design, patients, interventions, control interventions, results, adverse events, and risk of bias. Fourteen trials with 1927 participants suffering from different acute and functional gastrointestinal disorders were included in this review. Promising evidence for effectiveness was found for Potentilla erecta, carob bean juice, and an herbal compound preparation including Matricaria chamomilla in treating diarrhea. Moreover, evidence was found for peppermint oil in decreasing duration, frequency, and severity of pain in children suffering from undifferentiated functional abdominal pain. Furthermore, evidence for effectiveness was found for different fennel preparations (eg, oil, tea, herbal compound) in treating children with infantile colic. No serious adverse events were reported. Few studies on specific indications, single herbs, or herbal preparations could be identified. Because of the limited number of studies, results have to be interpreted carefully. To underpin evidence outlined in this review, more rigorous clinical trials are needed. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Group social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (hf-ASD) - a clinical population who can present with more subtle core deficits, but comparable levels of impairment and secondary difficulties. A systematic review was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Five studies met the pre-specified review inclusion criteria: two quasi-experimental comparative trials and three single-arm interventions. There was a degree of variation in the structure, duration and content of the social skills interventions delivered, as well as several methodological limitations associated with included studies. Nevertheless, narrative analysis tentatively indicates that group social skills interventions may be effective for enhancing social knowledge and understanding, improving social functioning, reducing loneliness and potentially alleviating co-morbid psychiatric symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Examining the association between posttraumatic stress disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Andrea E; Faraone, Stephen V; Bogucki, Olivia E; Pope, Amanda L; Uchida, Mai; Milad, Mohammed R; Spencer, Thomas J; Woodworth, K Yvonne; Biederman, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We reviewed literature through PubMed and PsycINFO without a specified date range, utilizing the search (posttraumatic stress disorder OR PTSD) AND (ADHD OR attention deficit hyperactivity disorder OR ADD OR attention deficit disorder OR hyperkinetic syndrome OR minimal brain dysfunction). References from relevant articles were reviewed. We identified 402 articles; 28 met criteria. We included original human research in English that operationalized diagnoses of ADHD and PTSD, evaluated the relationship between the disorders, and included controls. We excluded articles that failed to differentiate ADHD or PTSD from nonspecific or subsyndromal deficits or failed to compare their relationship. We extracted sample size, age, diagnostic methods, design, referral status, control type, and number of subjects with and without ADHD and PTSD alone and combined. We computed meta-analyses for 22 studies examining ADHD in PTSD and PTSD in ADHD using a random effects model and meta-analytic regression. We assessed for heterogeneity and publication bias and adjusted for intrastudy clustering. The relative risk (RR) for PTSD in ADHD was 2.9 (P < .0005); in samples using healthy controls, the RR was 3.7 (P = .001); and in samples using traumatized controls, the RR was 1.6 (P = .003). The RR for ADHD in PTSD was 1.7 (P < .0005); in samples using traumatized controls, the RR was 2.1 (P < .0005). The association was not significant in samples using psychiatric controls. Results indicate a bidirectional association between ADHD and PTSD, suggesting clinical implications and highlighting the need for neurobiological research that examines the mechanisms underlying this connection. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  5. Benefits and Harms of Plant-Based Cannabis for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Maya E; Nugent, Shannon M; Morasco, Benjamin J; Freeman, Michele; Low, Allison; Kondo, Karli; Zakher, Bernadette; Elven, Camille; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Paynter, Robin; Kansagara, Devan

    2017-09-05

    Cannabis is available from medical dispensaries for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in many states of the union, yet its efficacy in treating PTSD symptoms remains uncertain. To identify ongoing studies and review existing evidence regarding the benefits and harms of plant-based cannabis preparations in treating PTSD in adults. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and other sources from database inception to March 2017. English-language systematic reviews, trials, and observational studies with a control group that reported PTSD symptoms and adverse effects of plant-based cannabis use in adults with PTSD. Study data extracted by 1 investigator was checked by a second reviewer; 2 reviewers independently assessed study quality, and the investigator group graded the overall strength of evidence by using standard criteria. Two systematic reviews, 3 observational studies, and no randomized trials were found. The systematic reviews reported insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about benefits and harms. The observational studies found that compared with nonuse, cannabis did not reduce PTSD symptoms. Studies had medium and high risk of bias, and overall evidence was judged insufficient. Two randomized trials and 6 other studies examining outcomes of cannabis use in patients with PTSD are ongoing and are expected to be completed within 3 years. Very scant evidence with medium to high risk of bias. Evidence is insufficient to draw conclusions about the benefits and harms of plant-based cannabis preparations in patients with PTSD, but several ongoing studies may soon provide important results. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Office of Research and Development, Quality Enhancement Research Initiative. (PROSPERO: CRD42016033623).

  6. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Höfer, Juliana; Hoffmann, Falk; Bachmann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Despite limited evidence, complementary and alternative medicine treatments are popular in autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this review was to summarize the available evidence on complementary and alternative medicine use frequency in autism spectrum disorder. A systematic search of three electronic databases was performed. All research…

  7. Familial Risk Factors for the Development of Somatoform Symptoms and Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Ilva Elena; Petermann, Franz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether familial risk factors for the development of somatoform symptoms and somatoform disorders in children and adolescents can be deduced from studies which investigated the intergenerational transmission of functional abdominal pain and somatoform disorders. A systematic review of articles published in…

  8. The downward spiral of mental disorders and educational attainment: a systematic review on early school leaving.

    PubMed

    Esch, Pascale; Bocquet, Valéry; Pull, Charles; Couffignal, Sophie; Lehnert, Torsten; Graas, Marc; Fond-Harmant, Laurence; Ansseau, Marc

    2014-08-27

    Most psychiatric disorders present symptom patterns that cause severe impairment on the emotional, cognitive and social level. Thus, adolescents who suffer from a mental disorder risk finding themselves in a downward spiral caused by the reciprocal association of psychological symptoms and negative school experiences that may culminate in early school leaving. In addition to previous collective work that mainly focused on school refusing behaviour among children and was presented as an expert's opinion, the following systematic review fills the knowledge gap by providing a structured overview of the bidirectional association between mental health and secondary school dropout based on a sound methodology and with a particular focus on mediating factors. Four electronic databases were searched from January 1990 until June 2014. Selected references were assessed for study details, main results, mediating factors and methodological limitations. Standardized risk of bias assessment was conducted. Mood and anxiety disorders seemed to have a less consequential direct effect on early school leaving than substance use and disruptive behaviour disorders. The association between externalizing disorders and educational attainment was even stronger when the disorder occurred early in life. On the other hand, internalizing disorders were reported to develop as a consequence of school dropout. Only few studies had addressed gender differences, with discrepant results. Socio-economic background, academic achievement and family support were identified as significant mediating factors of the association between mental disorders and subsequent educational attainment. Findings suggested a strong association between mental health and education, in both directions. However, most studies focused on mediating factors that could not be targeted by intervention programs.

  9. Psychological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Estrada, Raquel; Bosch-Munso, Rosa; Nogueira-Morais, Mariana; Casas-Brugue, Miquel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood onset. The disorder persists into adulthood in most cases, significantly affecting patient function. Although the firstline choice of treatment for ADHD is pharmacological, drug treatments are not always sufficient. All the published studies on the psychological treatment of ADHD were systematically reviewed for the present article. The MEDLINE and PsychINFO electronic databases were searched using the terms psychological treatment OR psychotherapy OR psychosocial treatment AND ADHD. Patient age was restricted to adults (all adult:19+ years). Eighteen published studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Fifteen efficacy studies of psychological treatment were selected (cognitive behavioral therapy, metacognitive therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, coaching, cognitive remediation) and three previous reviews. The results indicate that cognitive behavioral therapy is the most effective psychological treatment for ADHD symptoms in adults and the comorbid symptoms of anxiety and depression, which have an important functional impact on the daily life of patients. However, more research is needed to know the differential effects of each psychological approach in relation to improved ADHD symptoms in adults. Finally, future directions for the psychosocial treatment of ADHD problems of adults are suggested.

  10. A systematic review of the neural bases of psychotherapy for anxiety and related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Samantha J.; Stein, Dan J.

    2015-01-01

    Brain imaging studies over two decades have delineated the neural circuitry of anxiety and related disorders, particularly regions involved in fear processing and in obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The neural circuitry of fear processing involves the amygdala, anterior cingulate, and insular cortex, while cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry plays a key role in obsessive-compulsive disorder. More recently, neuroimaging studies have examined how psychotherapy for anxiety and related disorders impacts on these neural circuits. Here we conduct a systematic review of the findings of such work, which yielded 19 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies examining the neural bases of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in 509 patients with anxiety and related disorders. We conclude that, although each of these related disorders is mediated by somewhat different neural circuitry, CBT may act in a similar way to increase prefrontal control of subcortical structures. These findings are consistent with an emphasis in cognitive-affective neuroscience on the potential therapeutic value of enhancing emotional regulation in various psychiatric conditions. PMID:26487807

  11. Mental disorders of pregnant and postpartum women after earthquakes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian-Hua; Chiang, Chung-Lim Vico; Jiang, Xiao-Lian; Luo, Bi-Ru; Liu, Xing-Hui; Pang, Mei-Che

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this review was to systematically search and critique relevant literature on the potential psychological impact of earthquakes on peripartum women to synthesize existing knowledge for further action. A search through 5 databases was conducted for relevant publications in English, and the results were screened through a set of inclusion and exclusion processes. Eight articles were included. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder were the most often reported mental disorders. Some factors (eg, family relationships and social support) were associated with mental disorders suffered by peripartum women after earthquakes. An assessment of the quality of the studies showed that most did not have high levels of evidence because of their cross-sectional design and limitations. Among the factors that influenced the mental health of pregnant and postpartum women after earthquakes, family function appears to be one of the most important and deserves further exploration. Other mental health conditions such as minor psychiatric disorders should also be studied for their relationship with disasters and pregnancy. Well-designed studies are needed to enable a better understanding of the relationship between earthquakes and the mental disorders of peripartum women so that the most appropriate interventions can be proposed.

  12. A systematic review of the neural bases of psychotherapy for anxiety and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Samantha J; Stein, Dan J

    2015-09-01

    Brain imaging studies over two decades have delineated the neural circuitry of anxiety and related disorders, particularly regions involved in fear processing and in obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The neural circuitry of fear processing involves the amygdala, anterior cingulate, and insular cortex, while cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry plays a key role in obsessive-compulsive disorder. More recently, neuroimaging studies have examined how psychotherapy for anxiety and related disorders impacts on these neural circuits. Here we conduct a systematic review of the findings of such work, which yielded 19 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies examining the neural bases of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in 509 patients with anxiety and related disorders. We conclude that, although each of these related disorders is mediated by somewhat different neural circuitry, CBT may act in a similar way to increase prefrontal control of subcortical structures. These findings are consistent with an emphasis in cognitive-affective neuroscience on the potential therapeutic value of enhancing emotional regulation in various psychiatric conditions.

  13. N-Acetyl Cysteine in the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Georgina; Dean, Olivia; Camfield, David; Blair-West, Scott; Ng, Chee; Berk, Michael; Sarris, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obsessive compulsive and related disorders are a collection of debilitating psychiatric disorders in which the role of glutamate dysfunction in the underpinning neurobiology is becoming well established. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a glutamate modulator with promising therapeutic effect. This paper presents a systematic review of clinical trials and case reports exploring the use of NAC for these disorders. A further objective was to detail the methodology of current clinical trials being conducted in the area. Methods PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library Database were searched for human clinical trials or case reports investigating NAC in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) or obsessive compulsive related disorders. Researchers with known involvement in NAC studies were contacted for any unpublished data. Results Four clinical trials and five case reports/series were identified. Study durations were commonly 12-weeks, using 2,400–3,000 mg/day of NAC. Overall, NAC demonstrates activity in reducing the severity of symptoms, with a good tolerability profile and minimal adverse effects. Currently there are three ongoing randomized controlled trials using NAC for OCD (two adults and one pediatric), and one for excoriation. Conclusion Encouraging results have been demonstrated from the few pilot studies that have been conducted. These results are detailed, in addition to a discussion of future potential research. PMID:25912534

  14. Birth weight and childhood wheezing disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mebrahtu, Teumzghi F; Feltbower, Richard G; Greenwood, Darren C; Parslow, Roger C

    2015-05-01

    Previous observational studies have claimed that birth weight and childhood wheezing disorders are associated although the results remained inconsistent. One systematic review and two systematic reviews that included meta-analyses reported inconsistent results. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate this. An online search of published papers linking childhood asthma and wheezing disorders with birth weight up to February 2014 was carried out using EMBASE and Medline medical research databases. Summary ORs were estimated using random-effects models. Subgroup meta-analyses were performed to assess the robustness of risk associations and between-study heterogeneity. A total of 37 studies comprising 1,71, 737 participants were included in our meta-analysis. The unadjusted summary ORs for risk of childhood wheezing disorders associated with low birth weight (<2.5 kg) were 1.60 (95% CI 1.39 to 1.85, p<0.001) and 1.37 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.79, p=0.02) when compared with ≥2.5 and 2.5-4.0 kg birthweight groups, respectively. The overall summary OR for high birth weight (>4 kg) as compared to the 2.5-4.0 kg birthweight group was 1.02 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.04, p=0.13). There was substantial heterogeneity in the unadjusted low birth weight risk estimates which was not accounted for by predefined study characteristics. There was no significant heterogeneity in the high birth weight risk estimates. There was some evidence of funnel plot asymmetry and small study effects in the low birth weight (2.5 vs ≥2.5 kg and <2.5 vs 2.5-4 kg) OR estimates. Our results suggest that low birth (<2.5 kg) is an independent risk factor for wheezing disorders during childhood and adolescence although there was substantial heterogeneity among the risk estimates. However, we found no significant association of high birth weight with wheezing disorders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  15. Mood and anxiety disorders as early manifestations of medical illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cosci, Fiammetta; Fava, Giovanni A; Sonino, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Affective disturbances involving alterations of mood, anxiety and irritability may be early symptoms of medical illnesses. The aim of this paper was to provide a systematic review of the literature with qualitative data synthesis. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Science were systematically searched from inception to February 2014. Search terms were 'prodrome/early symptom', combined using the Boolean 'AND' operator with 'anxiety/depression/mania/hypomania/irritability/irritable mood/hostility', combined with the Boolean 'AND' operator with 'medical illness/medical disorder'. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A total of 21 studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Depression was found to be the most common affective prodrome of medical disorders and was consistently reported in Cushing's syndrome, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic and lung cancer, myocardial infarction, Wilson's disease, and AIDS. Mania, anxiety and irritability were less frequent. Physicians may not pursue medical workup of cases that appear to be psychiatric in nature. They should be alerted that disturbances in mood, anxiety and irritability may antedate the appearance of a medical disorder.

  16. Lifestyle interventions targeting dietary habits and exercise in bipolar disorder: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    BAUER, ISABELLE E.; GÁLVEZ, JUAN F.; HAMILTON, JANE E.; BALANZÁ-MARTÍNEZ, VICENT; ZUNTA-SOARES, GIOVANA; SOARES, JAIR C.; MEYER, THOMAS D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mental illness associated with a high risk of medical comorbidities, long-term disability and premature death. This systematic review examined the current literature on therapeutic interventions targeting nutrition and physical activity in BD and collecting health-related measures such as mood and course of illness. Methods Scopus (all databases), Pubmed and Ovid Medline were systematically searched with no language or year restrictions, up to June 2015, for studies focusing on lifestyle interventions in BD. Search terms were related to bipolar disorder, nutrition, physical activity, wellbeing, psychosocial interventions and course of illness. We hand searched content pages of Bipolar Disorders and Journal of Affective Disorders and checked references of relevant reviews and dissertations to identify additional papers. Results After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria to identified hits, this literature search retrieved six papers. Overall findings point towards a beneficial role of lifestyle interventions on mood, weight, blood pressure, lipid profile, physical activity and overall wellbeing. Methodological limitations include small sample size, gender ratio imbalance, inconsistencies in terms of laboratory measures, and lack of randomized control trials and absence of follow-up and longitudinal studies to determine the benefits of these factors on clinical and functional outcomes over time Conclusions Lifestyle interventions in BD targeting nutrition, exercise, wellbeing alongside beliefs, coping strategies and attitudes towards health show promise in reducing the risk of comorbid ailments in BD. There is still a strong need for studies a) developing interventions which are informed by the patient’s input and b) examining the effectiveness of such interventions targeting general wellness using well-controlled trials. PMID:26724541

  17. Suicidality in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, Ioannis; Gooding, Patricia; Tarrier, Nichoas; Panagioti, Maria

    2015-07-01

    Although a growing number of studies have examined the frequency of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), there is controversy about the frequency and burden of suicidality in OCD. This is the first systematic review aimed at examining the association between suicidality and OCD and at providing evidence about psychological mechanisms that may underlie suicidality in those with OCD. Five electronic bibliographic databases were searched up to April 2014: Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science and CINAHL. Meta-analysis using random effects models was conducted. Forty-eight studies were included in the systematic review. The pooled effect size across 30 independent comparisons revealed a moderate to high, significant association between suicidality and OCD (Hedges' g=0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.49-0.82) which persisted across different types of suicidality including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Comorbid Axis I disorders, increased severity of comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms, increased severity of obsessions, feelings of hopelessness and past history of suicide attempts were associated with worsening levels of suicidality in OCD. There was no indication for publication bias but the methodological quality of the studies was low. The theoretical, research and clinical implications of these findings are emphasized.

  18. Domestic Violence and Perinatal Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Louise M.; Oram, Sian; Galley, Helen; Trevillion, Kylee; Feder, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Background Domestic violence in the perinatal period is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, but evidence is limited on its association with perinatal mental disorders. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with antenatal and postnatal mental disorders (depression and anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], eating disorders, and psychoses). Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO reference CRD42012002048). Data sources included searches of electronic databases (to 15 February 2013), hand searches, citation tracking, update of a review on victimisation and mental disorder, and expert recommendations. Included studies were peer-reviewed experimental or observational studies that reported on women aged 16 y or older, that assessed the prevalence and/or odds of having experienced domestic violence, and that assessed symptoms of perinatal mental disorder using a validated instrument. Two reviewers screened 1,125 full-text papers, extracted data, and independently appraised study quality. Odds ratios were pooled using meta-analysis. Sixty-seven papers were included. Pooled estimates from longitudinal studies suggest a 3-fold increase in the odds of high levels of depressive symptoms in the postnatal period after having experienced partner violence during pregnancy (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI 2.7–3.6). Increased odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with high levels of depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms in the antenatal and postnatal periods were consistently reported in cross-sectional studies. No studies were identified on eating disorders or puerperal psychosis. Analyses were limited because of study heterogeneity and lack of data on baseline symptoms, preventing clear findings on causal directionality. Conclusions High levels of symptoms of perinatal depression, anxiety, and PTSD are significantly associated with

  19. Neurobiological effects of exercise on major depressive disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Felipe Barreto; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz; Stubbs, Brendon; Gosmann, Natan Pereira; Silva, Cristiano Tschiedel Belem da; Fleck, Marcelo Pio de Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Exercise displays promise as an efficacious treatment for people with depression. However, no systematic review has evaluated the neurobiological effects of exercise among people with major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this article was to systematically review the acute and chronic biological responses to exercise in people with MDD. Two authors conducted searches using Medline (PubMed), EMBASE and PsycINFO. From the searches, twenty studies were included within the review, representing 1353 people with MDD. The results demonstrate that a single bout of exercise increases atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), copepetin and growth hormone among people with MDD. Exercise also potentially promotes long-term adaptations of copeptin, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and total mean frequency (TMF). However, there is limited evidence that exercise promotes adaptations on neurogenesis, inflammation biomarkers and brain structure. Associations between depressive symptoms improvement and hippocampus volume and IL-1β were found. Nevertheless, the paucity of studies and limitations presented within, precludes a more definitive conclusion of the underlying neurobiological explanation for the antidepressant effect of exercise in people with MDD. Further trials should utilize appropriate assessments of neurobiological markers in order to build upon the results of our review and further clarify the potential mechanisms associated with the antidepressant effects of exercise.

  20. Temporomandibular disorders and oral health-related quality of life. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Lars; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2010-03-01

    Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is considered an important aspect of different oral conditions. It has also gained increased attention in temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) in recent years. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature on OHRQoL and TMDs. A systematic search of the dental literature was performed using the Medline and Cochrane Library databases, supplemented by a hand search. Various combinations of search terms related to OHRQoL and TMDs were used. Among numerous titles found in Medline, abstracts and eventually full papers of potential interest were reviewed. Twelve papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Most studies used the Oral Health Impact Profile, an instrument with good psychometric properties, for evaluation. All articles described a substantial impact on OHRQoL in TMD patients. Only a small proportion of all patients, a few percent, reported no impact at all. The difference between men and women was small and not significant. The impact appeared to be more pronounced in patients with more signs and symptoms. The perceived impact of pain on OHRQoL seems to be substantial. Two studies found that the impact increased with age among TMD patients. The reviewed studies convincingly demonstrated that OHRQoL was negatively affected among TMD patients.

  1. Botulinum toxin therapy for temporomandibular joint disorders: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-W; Chiu, Y-W; Chen, C-Y; Chuang, S-K

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to undertake a systematic review to assess the efficacy of botulinum toxin therapy (BTX) for temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs). A comprehensive search of major databases through PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL was conducted to locate all relevant articles published from inception to October 2014. Eligible studies were selected based on inclusion criteria and included English language, peer-reviewed publications of randomized controlled trials comparing BTX versus any alternative intervention or placebo. Quality assessment and data extraction were done according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool and recommendations. The entire systematic search and selection process was done independently by two reviewers. Five relevant study trials were identified, involving 117 participants. Two trials revealed a significant between-group difference in myofascial pain reduction, another trial that compared BTX with fascial manipulation showed equal efficacy of pain relief on TMDs, while the remaining two trials showed no significant difference between the BTX and placebo groups. Because of considerable variations in study methods and evaluation of results, a meta-analysis could not be performed. Based on this review, no consensus could be reached on the therapeutic benefits of BTX on TMDs. A more rigorous design of trials should be carried out in future studies.

  2. Bipolar disorder in adults with Asperger׳s Syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vannucchi, Giulia; Masi, Gabriele; Toni, Cristina; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Erfurth, Andreas; Perugi, Giulio

    2014-10-01

    Asperger׳s Syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder included in the Autism Spectrum (ASD). The current literature shows growing evidence of a high rate of comorbidity between AS and other psychiatric disorders, particularly Bipolar Disorder (BD). We reviewed available epidemiological and clinical data on BD-AS comorbidity and its diagnostic and therapeutic implications A systematic review of the literature was conducted through PubMed, Scopus and Psych-Info using combinations of the following search terms: Asperger׳s Syndrome, Bipolar Disorder, depression, mood disorder, psychiatric comorbidity, treatment, mood stabilizers, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. BD prevalence in adults with AS ranges from 6% to 21.4% of the cases. Relatives of patients with AS showed a doubled risk of being affected by BD and a BD prevalence near to 10%. When comorbid with AS, BD assumes peculiar features which might shape its under-recognition or misdiagnosis (especially schizophrenia when psychotic symptoms are prominent). Although controlled data on pharmacological treatments in BD-AS comorbidity are substantially lacking, information is derived by open observations, case series and chart reviews. Mood stabilizers should be considered the first choice, and antipsychotics, especially second generation drugs (SGA) with 5-HT2a antagonism, have been shown useful in controlling psychotic and behavioral symptoms and improving social withdrawal. Some evidence of efficacy for the treatment of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and depression is reported for SSRI antidepressants. The use of these drugs should be carefully monitored, because activation with hypomanic or manic switches is reported up to 54% of the treated subjects. BD in AS patients is frequent, usually it onsets during adolescence and is often characterized by atypical presentation, making its correct identification particularly difficult. A correct diagnosis of BD in AS individuals has relevant

  3. Mobile Phone Interventions for Sleep Disorders and Sleep Quality: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jong Cheol; Kim, Julia; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana

    2017-09-07

    Although mobile health technologies have been developed for interventions to improve sleep disorders and sleep quality, evidence of their effectiveness remains limited. A systematic literature review was performed to determine the effectiveness of mobile technology interventions for improving sleep disorders and sleep quality. Four electronic databases (EBSCOhost, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science) were searched for articles on mobile technology and sleep interventions published between January 1983 and December 2016. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they met the following criteria: (1) written in English, (2) adequate details on study design, (3) focus on sleep intervention research, (4) sleep index measurement outcome provided, and (5) publication in peer-reviewed journals. An initial sample of 2679 English-language papers were retrieved from five electronic databases. After screening and review, 16 eligible studies were evaluated to examine the impact of mobile phone interventions on sleep disorders and sleep quality. These included one case study, three pre-post studies, and 12 randomized controlled trials. The studies were categorized as (1) conventional mobile phone support and (2) utilizing mobile phone apps. Based on the results of sleep outcome measurements, 88% (14/16) studies showed that mobile phone interventions have the capability to attenuate sleep disorders and to enhance sleep quality, regardless of intervention type. In addition, mobile phone intervention methods (either alternatively or as an auxiliary) provide better sleep solutions in comparison with other recognized treatments (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia). We found evidence to support the use of mobile phone interventions to address sleep disorders and to improve sleep quality. Our findings suggest that mobile phone technologies can be effective for future sleep intervention research.

  4. Manipulative therapy for shoulder pain and disorders: expansion of a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brantingham, James W; Cassa, Tammy Kay; Bonnefin, Debra; Jensen, Muffit; Globe, Gary; Hicks, Marian; Korporaal, Charmaine

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review on manual and manipulative therapy (MMT) for common shoulder pain and disorders. A search of the literature was conducted using the Cumulative Index of Nursing Allied Health Literature; PubMed; Manual, Alternative, and Natural Therapy Index System; Physiotherapy Evidence Database; and Index to Chiropractic Literature dating from January 1983 to July 7, 2010. Search limits included the English language and human studies along with MeSH terms such as manipulation, chiropractic, osteopathic, orthopedic, musculoskeletal, physical therapies, shoulder, etc. Inclusion criteria required a shoulder peripheral diagnosis and MMT with/without multimodal therapy. Exclusion criteria included pain referred from spinal sites without a peripheral shoulder diagnosis. Articles were assessed primarily using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale in conjunction with modified guidelines and systems. After synthesis and considered judgment scoring were complete, with subsequent participant review and agreement, evidence grades of A, B, C, and I were applied. A total of 211 citations were retrieved, and 35 articles were deemed useful. There is fair evidence (B) for the treatment of a variety of common rotator cuff disorders, shoulder disorders, adhesive capsulitis, and soft tissue disorders using MMT to the shoulder, shoulder girdle, and/or the full kinetic chain (FKC) combined with or without exercise and/or multimodal therapy. There is limited (C) and insufficient (I) evidence for MMT treatment of minor neurogenic shoulder pain and shoulder osteoarthritis, respectively. This study found a level of B or fair evidence for MMT of the shoulder, shoulder girdle, and/or the FKC combined with multimodal or exercise therapy for rotator cuff injuries/disorders, disease, or dysfunction. There is a fair or B level of evidence for MMT of the shoulder/shoulder girdle and FKC combined with a multimodal treatment approach for shoulder

  5. Perceived barriers and facilitators towards help-seeking for eating disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Kathina; Farrer, Louise; Fassnacht, Daniel B; Gulliver, Amelia; Bauer, Stephanie; Griffiths, Kathleen M

    2017-01-01

    To systematically review the literature on perceived barriers and facilitators of help-seeking for eating disorders. Three databases (PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane) were searched using keywords and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Retrieved abstracts (N = 3493) were double screened and relevant papers (n = 13) were double coded. Qualitative and quantitative studies were included if they reported perceived barriers and facilitators towards seeking help for eating disorders. Barriers and facilitators were extracted from the included papers and coded under themes. The most prominent barriers and facilitators were determined by the number of studies reporting each theme. Eight qualitative, three quantitative, and two mixed-methods studies met the inclusion criteria for the current review. The most prominent perceived barriers to help-seeking were stigma and shame, denial of and failure to perceive the severity of the illness, practical barriers (e.g., cost of treatment), low motivation to change, negative attitudes towards seeking help, lack of encouragement from others to seek help and lack of knowledge about help resources. Facilitators of help-seeking were reported in six studies, with the most prominent themes identified as the presence of other mental health problems or emotional distress, and concerns about health. Programs targeting prevention and early intervention for eating disorders should focus on reducing stigma and shame, educating individuals about the severity of eating disorders, and increasing knowledge around help-seeking pathways for eating disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:9-21). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The natural course of anxiety disorders in the elderly: a systematic review of longitudinal trials.

    PubMed

    Sami, Musa Basseer; Nilforooshan, Ramin

    2015-07-01

    The anxiety disorders are a prevalent mental health problem in older age with a considerable impact on quality of life. Until recently there have been few longitudinal studies on anxiety in this age group, consequently most of the evidence to date has been cross-sectional in nature. We undertook a literature search of Medline, PsycINFO, the Cochrane trials database and the TRIP medical database to identify longitudinal studies which would help elucidate natural history and prognosis of anxiety disorders in the elderly. We identified 12 papers of 10 longitudinal studies in our Review. This represented 34,691 older age participants with 5,199 with anxiety disorders including anxious depression and 3,532 individuals with depression without anxiety. Relapse rates of anxiety disorders are high over 6 year follow-up with considerable migration to mixed anxiety-depression and pure depressive mood episodes. Mixed anxiety-depression appears to be a poorer prognostic state than pure anxiety or pure depression with higher relapse rates across studies. In community settings treatment rates are low with 7-44% of the anxious elderly treated on antidepressant medications. To our knowledge this is the first Systematic Review of longitudinal trials of anxiety disorders in older people. Major longitudinal studies of the anxious elderly are establishing the high risk of relapse and persistence alongside the progression to depression and anxiety depression states. There remains considerable under-treatment in community studies. Specialist assessment and treatment and major public health awareness of the challenges of anxiety disorders in the elderly are required.

  7. Effectiveness of work skills programmes for offenders with mental disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Emily C; Völlm, Birgit; Khalifa, Najat

    2017-02-01

    Academic literature and government initiatives have emphasised the importance of work as a means of improving health and reducing reoffending among offenders with mental disorders. Whilst a number of work skills programmes have shown promise for offenders more generally, evaluation of evidence for their effectiveness for those with a mental disorder is lacking, particularly in relation to improving employment outcomes. To assess the evidence on the effectiveness of work skills programmes for mentally disordered offenders. A systematic review of the literature was conducted by searching the following databases: PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Library (Trials Register), Embase and Medline, using search terms which included Work Skills Programme*, Offend* and Mental*. Any empirical comparison study of work skills programmes was included in this review. The primary outcome was employment. Secondary outcomes included employment outcomes, reoffending, education, mental state, substance misuse, global functioning, quality of life, acceptability, leaving the study early and cost effectiveness or other economic outcomes. Six articles met the inclusion criteria. Collectively they provided limited evidence that work skills programmes increase the likelihood of people with mental disorder who are offenders obtaining employment in the short term, but there are insufficient studies to determine the long-term impact of work skills programmes. There is modest evidence to support inclusion of specific work skills programmes in the treatment of offenders with mental disorder. Future studies should be of theoretically driven programmes, such as Individual Placement Support (IPS), and use a standard set of relevant outcome measures and long enough follow-up for testing the effectiveness of any programme on engagement in competitive, paid employment as, even if skilled, offenders with mental disorder must constitute a hard to place group. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright

  8. Prevalence of Voice Disorders in Singers: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pestana, Pedro Melo; Vaz-Freitas, Susana; Manso, Maria Conceição

    2017-03-22

    The study aimed to review the prevalence of self-reported voice disorders in singers. The study is a systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic review of five major scientific databases was conducted. An extensive search strategy was used considering the rules of each database. Original articles were included only if they had data related to self-perception of dysphonia in the past. Furthermore, heterogeneity and its relative significance were assessed. There were 2371 articles identified; duplicates were deleted, screenings were conducted, and inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The final analysis was conducted on 11 studies. The most implemented instruments for the study were customized questionnaires. The findings about singing styles, voice use, and age were found to be different among subjects. The overall prevalence of self-reported dysphonia in singers was 46.09% (95% confidence interval: 38.16-54.12). The heterogeneity was considerable among the studied samples (I(2) = 90.59%). Four groups were then established-students, teachers, classical, and nonclassical-and compared regarding overall prevalence (21.76% in students, and significantly higher and nondifferent in the other three groups, 55.15%, 40.53%, and 46.96%, respectively) and heterogeneity (low only for the students' studies). Although with low homogeneity, singers present a high prevalence of self-perceived dysphonia over their careers. Singing students were the group with a lower prevalence. On the other hand, traditional and popular music singers, as well as singing teachers, revealed significantly higher prevalence of self-perceived dysphonia. Overall, singers are likely to report voice disorders, no matter their singing style or skills. This highlights the need of a preventive approach to address voice disorders in traditional and untrained singers. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A systematic review of economic evaluations of treatments for borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Brettschneider, Christian; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; König, Hans-Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The borderline personality disorder is a common mental disorder. It is frequently associated with various mental co-morbidities and a fundamental loss of functioning. The borderline personality disorder causes high costs to society. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic literature review of existing economic evaluations of treatments for borderline personality disorder. We performed a systematic literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and NHSEED for partial and full economic evaluations regarding borderline personality disorder. Reported cost data were inflated to the year 2012 and converted into US-$ using purchasing power parities to allow for comparability. Quality assessment of the studies was performed by means of the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria checklist, a checklist developed by a Delphi method in cooperation with 23 international experts. We identified 6 partial and 9 full economic evaluations. The methodical quality was moderate (fulfilled quality criteria: 79.2% [SD: 15.4%] in partial economic evaluations, 77.3% [SD: 8.5%] in full economic evaluations). Most evaluations analysed psychotherapeutic interventions. Although ambiguous, most evidence exists on dialectical-behavioural therapy. Cognitive behavioural therapy and schema-focused therapy are cost-saving. Evidence on other interventions is scarce. The economic evidence is not sufficient to draw robust conclusions for all treatments. It is possible that some treatments are cost-effective. Most evidence exists on dialectical-behavioural therapy. Yet, it is ambiguous. Further research concerning the cost-effectiveness of treatments is necessary as well as the identification of relevant cost categories and the validation of effect measures.

  10. Steroid injections for shoulder disorders: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijden, G J; van der Windt, D A; Kleijnen, J; Koes, B W; Bouter, L M

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with shoulder disorders are believed to benefit considerably from steroid injections. However, the controversy about their efficacy persists. AIM: The study was designed to assess the efficacy of steroid injections for shoulder disorders. METHOD: A systematic computerized literature search in Medline (Index Medicus 1/1966-10/1995) and Embase (Excerpta Medica 1/1984-10/1995) was conducted, supplemented with citation tracking of all relevant publications. Studies published before November 1995 were selected if steroid injections were randomly allocated to patients with shoulder disorders and when clinically relevant outcome measures were reported. Because the validity of study outcomes depends heavily on the strength of methodological quality, the methods were assessed systematically by two 'blinded' independent reviewers. This resulted in a method score (maximum 100 points) that was based on four categories: study population, interventions, measurement of effect, and data presentation and analysis. Confidence intervals for the differences between groups in success rates were calculated in order to summarize the efficacy of steroid injections. RESULTS: Only three out of the 16 studies scored more than 50 points, indicating a generally poor quality of methods. Most studies reported small sample sizes. The flaws most often found were incomparability of co-interventions and poor blinding of therapist. The methods assessment was frequently hampered by incomplete information about randomization, prognostic comparability, compliance, outcome measures included, blinding of patients and blinding of outcome measurement. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence in favour of the efficacy of steroid injections for shoulder disorders is scarce. The methods of most studies appear to be of poor quality. The few studies that appear to be credible do not provide conclusive evidence about which patients at what time in the course of shoulder disorders benefit most from steroid

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants in pediatric anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Strawn, Jeffrey R; Welge, Jeffrey A; Wehry, Anna M; Keeshin, Brooks; Rynn, Moira A

    2015-03-01

    Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that antidepressants are efficacious in the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. However, there are no recent, systematic analyses of the efficacy, safety, or tolerability of these medications in pediatric anxiety disorders. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective, randomized, parallel-group, controlled trials of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) in pediatric patients with non-obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) anxiety disorders was undertaken using a search of PubMed/Medline (1966-2014). The meta-analysis utilized random-effects models to evaluate change in the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale or similar anxiety scale, suicidality, and adverse events. Additionally, pharmacologic variables were explored with regard to effect size, although no correction for multiple comparisons was made with regard to these relationships. Nine trials involving 1,673 patients and six medications were included. All SSRI/SSNRIs evaluated demonstrated efficacy, and the meta-analytic estimate of effect was of moderate magnitude (Cohen's d = 0.62, confidence interval [CI]: 0.34-0.89, P = .009) and there was evidence of modest heterogeneity (I(2) = 0.29, P = .103). Activation trended toward being more likely with antidepressant treatment (OR: 1.86, CI: 0.98-3.53, P = .054), but no increased risk was observed for nausea/abdominal symptoms (P = .262), discontinuation as a result of an adverse event (P = .132), or suicidality (OR: 1.3, CI: 0.53-3.2, P = .514). Finally, the effect size correlated with the serotonergic specificity of the agent (R = .79, P = .021). Data for nine SSRI/SSNRIs suggest superiority of antidepressants relative to placebo for the treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders with a moderate effect size. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluations of Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brettschneider, Christian; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; König, Hans-Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The borderline personality disorder is a common mental disorder. It is frequently associated with various mental co-morbidities and a fundamental loss of functioning. The borderline personality disorder causes high costs to society. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic literature review of existing economic evaluations of treatments for borderline personality disorder. Materials and Methods We performed a systematic literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and NHSEED for partial and full economic evaluations regarding borderline personality disorder. Reported cost data were inflated to the year 2012 and converted into US-$ using purchasing power parities to allow for comparability. Quality assessment of the studies was performed by means of the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria checklist, a checklist developed by a Delphi method in cooperation with 23 international experts. Results We identified 6 partial and 9 full economic evaluations. The methodical quality was moderate (fulfilled quality criteria: 79.2% [SD: 15.4%] in partial economic evaluations, 77.3% [SD: 8.5%] in full economic evaluations). Most evaluations analysed psychotherapeutic interventions. Although ambiguous, most evidence exists on dialectical-behavioural therapy. Cognitive behavioural therapy and schema-focused therapy are cost-saving. Evidence on other interventions is scarce. Conclusion The economic evidence is not sufficient to draw robust conclusions for all treatments. It is possible that some treatments are cost-effective. Most evidence exists on dialectical-behavioural therapy. Yet, it is ambiguous. Further research concerning the cost-effectiveness of treatments is necessary as well as the identification of relevant cost categories and the validation of effect measures. PMID:25265185

  13. Olanzapine in Chinese patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hai Bo Haber; Liu, Li; Zhang, Hena; Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the burden of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the Chinese population, country-specific data to guide practitioners regarding antipsychotic therapy are lacking. The primary aim of this systematic review was to examine evidence of the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of olanzapine in Chinese populations. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese core journals using search terms related to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, specified countries (People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, Taiwan), and olanzapine treatment. Following initial screening, inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to the search results to identify relevant studies from which data were extracted. Results A total of 489 publications were retrieved and 61 studies were identified for inclusion. Most studies were related to schizophrenia (n=54), with six studies related to bipolar disorder and one study related to both conditions. The quality of study methods and reporting in international journals was noticeably better than in Chinese language journals. Most studies included relatively small patient populations and were of short duration. The efficacy of olanzapine in Chinese populations was confirmed by multiple comparative and noncomparative studies that found statistically significant reductions in symptom measures in studies conducted for ≥6 weeks (schizophrenia) or ≥3 weeks (bipolar disorder). Findings related to effectiveness (treatment discontinuation, quality of life, and neurocognitive improvements) were generally consistent with those observed in non-Chinese populations. No new safety signals specific for Chinese populations were raised for olanzapine. Conclusion Chinese and non-Chinese populations with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder treated with olanzapine display broadly similar responses. Differences between these populations, especially in relation to the relative efficacy of

  14. Long-Term Pharmacological Treatments of Anxiety Disorders: An Updated Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Perna, Giampaolo; Alciati, Alessandra; Riva, Alice; Micieli, Wilma; Caldirola, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Many aspects of long-term pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders (AnxDs) are still debated. We undertook an updated systematic review of long-term pharmacological studies on panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Relevant studies dating from January 1, 2012 to August 31, 2015 were identified using the PubMed database and a review of bibliographies. Of 372 records identified in the search, five studies on PD and 15 on GAD were included in the review. No studies on SAD were found. Our review confirms the usefulness of long-term pharmacological treatments for PD and GAD and suggests that they can provide further improvement over that obtained during short-term therapy. Paroxetine, escitalopram, and clonazepam can be effective for long-term treatment of PD. However, further studies are needed to draw conclusions about the long-term benzodiazepine use in PD, particularly for the possible cognitive side-effects over time. Pregabalin and quetiapine can be effective for long-term treatment of GAD, while preliminary suggestions emerged for agomelatine and vortioxetine. We did not find any evidence for determining the optimal length and/or dosage of medications to minimize the relapse risk. Few investigations have attempted to identify potential predictors of long-term treatment response. Personalized treatments for AnxDs can be implemented using predictive tools to explore those factors affecting treatment response/tolerability heterogeneity, including neurobiological functions/clinical profiles, comorbidity, biomarkers, and genetic features, and to tailor medications according to each patient's unique features.

  15. The Impact of Mobile Apps on Alcohol Use Disorder: A Systematic Review Protocol.

    PubMed

    Sawares, Antoine Sa; Shen, Nelson; Xue, Yunlin; Abi-Jaoude, Alexxa; Wiljer, David

    2017-04-04

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is among the most prevalent mental disorders worldwide and is associated with a diverse range of physical and psychological comorbidities. Despite various types of treatment, there are many barriers to accessing treatment (ie, stigma, cost, accessibility of service, etc). Mobile apps have the potential to overcome these barriers and provide support to those who need it. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of mobile apps in reducing alcohol consumption for individuals with AUD and understand the psychological outcomes of using the apps (ie, client empowerment, self-efficacy, etc). The search strategy was applied to 7 health sciences and interdisciplinary databases. Two reviewers will independently assess all titles and abstracts for relevance and then full texts of relevant articles for eligibility. To be included, the article must be a quantitative evaluation of clinical outcomes using the intervention and the intervention must be a consumer-facing app focused on supporting individuals with AUD. Two reviewers will independently extract data from all eligible articles using a standardized extraction worksheet and will independently assess the study quality. A meta-analysis will be conducted if appropriate. Depending on outcomes reported, pooled risk ratios or standardized mean differences will be calculated and reported in the review. The search strategy yielded 699 unique citations. Of those, 63 (9.0%, 63/699) articles were assessed as relevant for full-text review. The full-text reviews are currently underway and the final review is projected to be completed in the summer of 2017. There is potential for mobile apps to support individuals with AUD to reduce their alcohol consumption. This review will be the first to assess the effectiveness of AUD mobile apps and client experiences using the apps.

  16. Work-related risk factors for specific shoulder disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, Henk F; Foresti, Chiara; Daams, Joost G; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Kuijer, P Paul F M

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine which work-related risk factors are associated with specific soft tissue shoulder disorders. We searched the electronic databases of Medline and Embase for articles published between 2009 and 24 March 2016 and included the references of a systematic review performed for the period before 2009. Primary cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were included when outcome data were described in terms of clinically assessed soft tissue shoulder disorders and at least two levels of work-related exposure were mentioned (exposed vs less or non-exposed). Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed study quality. For longitudinal studies, we performed meta-analyses and used GRADE (Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) to assess the evidence for the associations between risk factors and the onset of shoulder disorders. Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. In total, 16 300 patients with specific soft tissue shoulder disorders from a population of 2 413 722 workers from Denmark, Finland, France, Germany and Poland were included in the meta-analysis of one case-control and six prospective cohort studies. This meta-analysis revealed moderate evidence for associations between shoulder disorders and arm-hand elevation (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.47) and shoulder load (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.90 to 2.10) and low to very low evidence for hand force exertion (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.87), hand-arm vibration (OR=1.3, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.77), psychosocial job demands (OR=1.1, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.25) and working together with temporary workers (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.2). Low-quality evidence for no associations was found for arm repetition, social support, decision latitude, job control and job security. Moderate evidence was found that arm-hand elevation and shoulder load double the risk of specific shoulder disorders. Low to very

  17. Same or Different: The Overlap Between Children With Auditory Processing Disorders and Children With Other Developmental Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Ellen; van Dijk, Pim; Hanekamp, Sandra; Visser-Bochane, Margot I; Steenbergen, Bert; van der Schans, Cees P; Luinge, Margreet R

    2017-08-31

    Children diagnosed with auditory processing disorders (APD) experience difficulties in auditory functioning and with memory, attention, language, and reading tasks. However, it is not clear whether the behavioral characteristics of these children are distinctive from the behavioral characteristics of children diagnosed with a different developmental disorder, such as specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disorder (LD), or autism spectrum disorder. This study describes the performance of children diagnosed with APD, SLI, dyslexia, ADHD, and LD to different outcome measurements. The aim of this study was to determine (1) which characteristics of APD overlap with the characteristics of children with SLI, dyslexia, ADHD, LD, or autism spectrum disorder; and (2) if there are characteristics that distinguish children diagnosed with APD from children diagnosed with other developmental disorders. A systematic review. Six electronic databases (Pubmed, CINAHL, Eric, PsychINFO, Communication & Mass Media Complete, and EMBASE) were searched to find peer-reviewed studies from 1954 to May 2015. The authors included studies reporting behaviors and performance of children with (suspected) APD and children diagnosed with a different developmental disorder (SLI, Dyslexia, ADHD, and LD). Two researchers identified and screened the studies independently. Methodological quality of the included studies was assessed with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's levels-of-evidence scheme. In total, 13 studies of which the methodological quality was moderate were included in this systematic review. In five studies, the performance of children diagnosed with APD was compared with the performance of children diagnosed with SLI: in two with children diagnosed with dyslexia, one with children diagnosed with ADHD, and in another one with children diagnosed with LD. Ten of the studies included children who met the

  18. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy; Sørensen, Mette; Figueras, Francesc; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Dadvand, Payam

    2014-09-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders can lead to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, but the cause of these conditions is not well understood. We have systematically reviewed and performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between exposure to ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December 2009 and December 2013. Combined risk estimates were calculated using random-effect models for each exposure that had been examined in ≥4 studies. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated. A total of 17 articles evaluating the impact of nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOX), particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), proximity to major roads, and traffic density met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that air pollution increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. There was significant heterogeneity in meta-analysis, which included 16 studies reporting on gestational hypertension and preeclampsia as separate or combined outcomes; there was less heterogeneity in findings of the 10 studies reporting solely on preeclampsia. Meta-analyses showed increased risks of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy for all pollutants except CO. Random-effect meta-analysis combined odds ratio associated with a 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.96) for combined pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and 1.31 (95%confidence interval, 1.14-1.50) for preeclampsia [corrected]. Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution increases the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders.

  19. The Association Between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Williams, Rebecca; Russell, Ginny

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review examines associations between parental socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by parental income, education, occupation and marital status. Results were mixed by measure of SES with no one aspect being differentially related to ADHD. 42 studies were included in the review, of which 35 found a significant univariate association between socioeconomic disadvantage and ADHD. Meta-analyses of dimensions of SES and their association with ADHD indicate that children in families of low SES are on average 1.85-2.21 more likely to have ADHD than their peers in high SES families. In spite of substantial between-study heterogeneity, there is evidence for an association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risk of ADHD measured in different ways. This is likely mediated by factors linked to low SES such as parental mental health and maternal smoking during pregnancy.

  20. Effectiveness of Occupational Therapy Interventions for Lower-Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Julie; Bradshaw, Michelle

    Lower-extremity (LE) musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can have a major impact on the ability to carry out daily activities. The effectiveness of interventions must be examined to enable occupational therapy practitioners to deliver the most appropriate services. This systematic review examined the literature published between 1995 and July 2014 that investigated the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for LE MSDs. Forty-three articles met the criteria and were reviewed. Occupational therapy interventions varied on the basis of population subgroup: hip fracture, LE joint replacement, LE amputation or limb loss, and nonsurgical osteoarthritis and pain. The results indicate an overall strong role for occupational therapy in treating clients with LE MSDs. Activity pacing is an effective intervention for nonsurgical LE MSDs, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation is effective for LE joint replacement and amputation. Further research on specific occupational therapy interventions in this important area is needed. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  1. Randomised controlled trials of psychological & pharmacological treatments for body dysmorphic disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Phillipou, Andrea; Rossell, Susan L; Wilding, Helen E; Castle, David J

    2016-11-30

    Treatment for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) often involves a combination of psychological and pharmacological interventions. However, only a small number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been undertaken examining the efficacy of different therapeutic interventions. The aim of this study was to systematically review the RCTs involving psychological and pharmacological interventions for the treatment of BDD. The literature was searched to June 2015, and studies were included if they were written in English, empirical research papers published in peer-review journals, specifically assessed BDD patients, and involved a RCT assessing BDD symptoms pre- and post-intervention. Nine studies were identified: six involving psychological and three involving pharmacological interventions. Cognitive behaviour therapy, metacognitive therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were identified as treatments with potential benefit. The small number of RCTs and the heterogeneity of findings emphasises the need for more high quality RCTs assessing both psychological and pharmacological interventions for BDD.

  2. A systematic review of pragmatic language interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Lauren; Cordier, Reinie; Munro, Natalie; Joosten, Annette; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for evidence based interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to limit the life-long, psychosocial impact of pragmatic language impairments. This systematic review identified 22 studies reporting on 20 pragmatic language interventions for children with ASD aged 0-18 years. The characteristics of each study, components of the interventions, and the methodological quality of each study were reviewed. Meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness of 15 interventions. Results revealed some promising approaches, indicating that active inclusion of the child and parent in the intervention was a significant mediator of intervention effect. Participant age, therapy setting or modality were not significant mediators between the interventions and measures of pragmatic language. The long-term effects of these interventions and the generalisation of learning to new contexts is largely unknown. Implications for clinical practice and directions for future research are discussed.

  3. A systematic review of pragmatic language interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cordier, Reinie; Munro, Natalie; Joosten, Annette; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for evidence based interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to limit the life-long, psychosocial impact of pragmatic language impairments. This systematic review identified 22 studies reporting on 20 pragmatic language interventions for children with ASD aged 0–18 years. The characteristics of each study, components of the interventions, and the methodological quality of each study were reviewed. Meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness of 15 interventions. Results revealed some promising approaches, indicating that active inclusion of the child and parent in the intervention was a significant mediator of intervention effect. Participant age, therapy setting or modality were not significant mediators between the interventions and measures of pragmatic language. The long-term effects of these interventions and the generalisation of learning to new contexts is largely unknown. Implications for clinical practice and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:28426832

  4. Pharmacological Modulation of GABA Function in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review of Human Studies.

    PubMed

    Brondino, Natascia; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Panisi, Cristina; Damiani, Stefano; Barale, Francesco; Politi, Pierluigi

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are an emerging health problem worldwide, but little is known about their pathogenesis. It has been hypothesized that autism may result from an imbalance between excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic pathways. Commonly used medications such as valproate, acamprosate, and arbaclofen may act on the GABAergic system and be a potential treatment for people with ASD. The present systematic review aimed at evaluating the state-of-the-art of clinical trials of GABA modulators in autism. To date there is insufficient evidence to suggest the use of these drugs in autistic subjects, even if data are promising. Of note, short-term use of all the reviewed medications appears to be safe. Future well designed trials are needed to elucidate these preliminary findings.

  5. The effectiveness of nonpharmacological interventions in older adults with depressive disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Apóstolo, João; Queirós, Paulo; Rodrigues, Manuel; Castro, Inês; Cardoso, Daniela

    2015-07-17

    It is widely acknowledged that mental disorders are common in old age and that depression is one of the most serious threats to the mental health of older adults. The lives of older adults are adversely affected both by major depression and subsyndromal depression. Depression should be approached with both pharmacotherapy and complementary therapies. The disadvantages posed by psychopharmacotherapy may be more prominent among older adults and there is a greater probability of drug interference. Different nonpharmacological interventions have been reported to reduce depressive symptoms in older adults with no adverse side effects. This review aimed to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of nonpharmacological interventions for older adults with depressive disorders. This review considered studies that included older adults: adult patients, aged over 65 years with any type of depressive disorder, regardless of comorbidities and any previous treatments, but excluded those with manic or psychotic episodes/symptoms. Patients receiving pharmacological treatment for depression or other illnesses were included. TYPES OF INTERVENTION(S)/PHENOMENA OF INTEREST: This review considered studies that used nonpharmacological interventions for older adults with depressive disorders. TYPES OF STUDIES: This review considered any experimental study design, including randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, or other quasi-experimental studies, including before and after studies. TYPES OF OUTCOMES: This review considered studies that included the following outcome measures: depressive symptomatology. The secondary outcomes were the level of autonomy in activities of daily living, cognitive function, health-related quality of life and wellbeing. An initial search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken, followed by a second search for published and unpublished studies from January 2000 to March 2012 of major healthcare

  6. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and their correlates in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel A; Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J; Barnett, Lisa M; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A; Papadopoulos, Nicole V; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna; Hinkley, Trina

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children's physical activity (34-166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126-558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428-750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors.

  7. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and their correlates in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Barnett, Lisa M.; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A.; Papadopoulos, Nicole V.; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children’s physical activity (34–166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126–558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428–750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors. PMID

  8. Computer work and musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and upper extremity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Waersted, Morten; Hanvold, Therese N; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2010-04-29

    This review examines the evidence for an association between computer work and neck and upper extremity disorders (except carpal tunnel syndrome). A systematic critical review of studies of computer work and musculoskeletal disorders verified by a physical examination was performed. A total of 22 studies (26 articles) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results show limited evidence for a causal relationship between computer work per se, computer mouse and keyboard time related to a diagnosis of wrist tendonitis, and for an association between computer mouse time and forearm disorders. Limited evidence was also found for a causal relationship between computer work per se and computer mouse time related to tension neck syndrome, but the evidence for keyboard time was insufficient. Insufficient evidence was found for an association between other musculoskeletal diagnoses of the neck and upper extremities, including shoulder tendonitis and epicondylitis, and any aspect of computer work. There is limited epidemiological evidence for an association between aspects of computer work and some of the clinical diagnoses studied. None of the evidence was considered as moderate or strong and there is a need for more and better documentation.

  9. Computer work and musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and upper extremity: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This review examines the evidence for an association between computer work and neck and upper extremity disorders (except carpal tunnel syndrome). Methods A systematic critical review of studies of computer work and musculoskeletal disorders verified by a physical examination was performed. Results A total of 22 studies (26 articles) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results show limited evidence for a causal relationship between computer work per se, computer mouse and keyboard time related to a diagnosis of wrist tendonitis, and for an association between computer mouse time and forearm disorders. Limited evidence was also found for a causal relationship between computer work per se and computer mouse time related to tension neck syndrome, but the evidence for keyboard time was insufficient. Insufficient evidence was found for an association between other musculoskeletal diagnoses of the neck and upper extremities, including shoulder tendonitis and epicondylitis, and any aspect of computer work. Conclusions There is limited epidemiological evidence for an association between aspects of computer work and some of the clinical diagnoses studied. None of the evidence was considered as moderate or strong and there is a need for more and better documentation. PMID:20429925

  10. Systematic review of mental health disorders and intimate partner violence victimisation among military populations.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Katherine; Kwan, Jamie; Howard, Louise; Fear, Nicola; MacManus, Deirdre

    2017-07-26

    There is growing awareness of the problem of intimate partner violence (IPV) among military populations. IPV victimisation has been shown to be associated with mental disorder. A better understanding of the link between IPV and mental disorder is needed to inform service development to meet the needs of military families. We aimed to systematically review the literature on the association between IPV victimisation and mental health disorders among military personnel. Searches of four electronic databases (Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) were supplemented by reference list screening. Heterogeneity among studies precluded a meta-analysis. Thirteen studies were included. There was stronger evidence for an association between IPV and depression/alcohol problems than between IPV and PTSD. An association between IPV and mental health problems was more frequently found among veterans compared to active duty personnel. However, the link between IPV and alcohol misuse was more consistently found among active duty samples. Finally, among active duty personnel psychological IPV was more consistently associated with depression/alcohol problems than physical/sexual IPV. The review highlighted the lack of research on male IPV victimisation in the military. There is evidence that the burden of mental health need may be significant among military personnel who are victims of IPV. The influence of attitudes towards gender in the military on research in this area is discussed. Further research is needed to inform development of services and policy to reduce IPV victimisation and the mental health consequences among military personnel.

  11. Text messaging interventions for individuals with mental health disorders including substance use: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tyler; Simpson, Scot; Hughes, Christine

    2016-09-30

    We completed a systematic review of the literature to characterize the impact of text messaging interventions on medication adherence or mental health related outcomes in people with mental health disorders including substance use. Four electronic databases were searched from January 1999 to October 2015. Seven studies met our inclusion criteria: three studies evaluated text messaging in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder diagnosis, two studies evaluated text messaging in patients with chronic alcohol dependence, and two studies reviewed text messaging in patients with mood disorders. Six studies were randomized controlled trials and one was a prospective pilot study with pre-post intervention design. Text messaging frequency ranged from once weekly to twelve per day. The effect of text messaging on medication adherence was measured in five studies; one study reporting significant improvements in the text messaging intervention group. The effect of text messaging on mental health related outcomes was measured in all seven studies, with five studies showing significant improvements in a variety of psychiatric and social functioning assessments. Collectively, these studies suggest text messaging is a promising tool to support management of patients with mental illness. Further research examining theory-based text messaging interventions in larger samples of patients is required.

  12. The prevalence and burden of subthreshold generalized anxiety disorder: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To review the prevalence and impact of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) below the diagnostic threshold and explore its treatment needs in times of scarce healthcare resources. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted until January 2013 using PUBMED/MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, EMBASE and reference lists to identify epidemiological studies of subthreshold GAD, i.e. GAD symptoms that do not reach the current thresholds of DSM-III-R, DSM-IV or ICD-10. Quality of all included studies was assessed and median prevalences of subthreshold GAD were calculated for different subpopulations. Results Inclusion criteria led to 15 high-quality and 3 low-quality epidemiological studies with a total of 48,214 participants being reviewed. Whilst GAD proved to be a common mental health disorder, the prevalence for subthreshold GAD was twice that for the full syndrome. Subthreshold GAD is typically persistent, causing considerably more suffering and impairment in psychosocial and work functioning, benzodiazepine and primary health care use, than in non-anxious individuals. Subthreshold GAD can also increase the risk of onset and worsen the course of a range of comorbid mental health, pain and somatic disorders; further increasing costs. Results are robust against bias due to low study quality. Conclusions Subthreshold GAD is a common, recurrent and impairing disease with verifiable morbidity that claims significant healthcare resources. As such, it should receive additional research and clinical attention. PMID:24886240

  13. Systematic review: cardiovascular safety profile of 5-HT4 agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tack, J; Camilleri, M; Chang, L; Chey, W D; Galligan, J J; Lacy, B E; Müller-Lissner, S; Quigley, E M M; Schuurkes, J; Maeyer, J H; Stanghellini, V

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The nonselective 5-HT4 receptor agonists, cisapride and tegaserod have been associated with cardiovascular adverse events (AEs). Aim To perform a systematic review of the safety profile, particularly cardiovascular, of 5-HT4 agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders, and a nonsystematic summary of their pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Methods Articles reporting data on cisapride, clebopride, prucalopride, mosapride, renzapride, tegaserod, TD-5108 (velusetrag) and ATI-7505 (naronapride) were identified through a systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Toxfile. Abstracts from UEGW 2006–2008 and DDW 2008–2010 were searched for these drug names, and pharmaceutical companies approached to provide unpublished data. Results Retrieved articles on pharmacokinetics, human pharmacodynamics and clinical data with these 5-HT4 agonists, are reviewed and summarised nonsystematically. Articles relating to cardiac safety and tolerability of these agents, including any relevant case reports, are reported systematically. Two nonselective 5-HT4 agonists had reports of cardiovascular AEs: cisapride (QT prolongation) and tegaserod (ischaemia). Interactions with, respectively, the hERG cardiac potassium channel and 5-HT1 receptor subtypes have been suggested to account for these effects. No cardiovascular safety concerns were reported for the newer, selective 5-HT4 agonists prucalopride, velusetrag, naronapride, or for nonselective 5-HT4 agonists with no hERG or 5-HT1 affinity (renzapride, clebopride, mosapride). Conclusions 5-HT4 agonists for GI disorders differ in chemical structure and selectivity for 5-HT4 receptors. Selectivity for 5-HT4 over non-5-HT4 receptors may influence the agent's safety and overall risk–benefit profile. Based on available evidence, highly selective 5-HT4 agonists may offer improved safety to treat patients with impaired GI motility. PMID:22356640

  14. Actigraphic features of bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    De Crescenzo, Franco; Economou, Alexis; Sharpley, Ann L; Gormez, Aynur; Quested, Digby J

    2017-06-01

    Sleep disruptions represent a core feature of bipolar disorders and have been widely studied through the use of actigraphy, which is an objective measure of motor activity and sleep. Finding objective outcomes, which reliably measure sleep in bipolar disorders, is essential in developing better therapies and improving follow-up monitoring strategies. Our aim is to understand the role of actigraphy as an objective measure of sleep in bipolar disorder. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis on studies using actigraphy to detect changes in activity and sleep patterns in bipolar patients versus healthy controls. The primary outcome measures were the analyses of 'activity mean' and 'sleep duration'. As secondary outcomes we analysed 'sleep onset latency', 'sleep efficiency', and 'time awake after sleep onset'. Thirteen studies comprising 821 subjects met quality criteria for inclusion. The results show a decrease in activity mean and an altered pattern of sleep in bipolar patients. Further analyses suggest that the results might be generalized to a bipolar condition which underlies manic and depressed episodes as well as euthymic phases. This study highlights the role of actigraphy as an important objective tool for the ambulatory monitoring of sleep and activity in bipolar disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Lu, Yubo; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-02-01

    Text mining and other literature-based investigations can assist in identifying natural products for experimental and clinical research. This article details a method for systematically analyzing data derived from the classical Chinese medical literature. We present the results of electronic searches of Zhong Hua Yi Dian ("Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine"), a CD of 1000 premodern (before 1950) medical books, for single herbs, and other natural products used for dementia, memory disorders, and memory improvement. This review explores how the terminology for these disorders has changed over time and which herbs have been used more or less frequently, and compares the results from the premodern literature with the herbs indexed for memory disorders in a modern pharmacopoeia. The searches located 731 citations deriving from 127 different books written between ca. 188 ad and ca. 1920. Of the 110 different natural products identified, those most frequently cited for forgetfulness were yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), fu shen (Poria cocos), and chang pu (Acorus spp.), all of which have been cited repeatedly over the past 1800 years and appear among the 31 herbs indexed in a modern pharmacopoeia. By providing a complete, hierarchically organized list of herbs for a specific disorder, this approach can assist researchers in selecting herbs for research. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder: a systematic review of treatment options.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Christine; Roos, Annerine; Stein, Dan J

    2017-01-01

    Although pathological skin-picking has been documented in the medical literature since the 19th century, it has only recently been included as a distinct entity in psychiatric classification systems. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition and the proposed International Classification of Diseases, Eleventh Revision, excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (ED), also known as neurotic excoriation, psychogenic excoriation, or dermatillomania), is described as recurrent picking of skin, leading to skin lesions and significant distress or functional impairment. ED is listed as one of the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, given its overlap with conditions such as trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder). Arguably, its inclusion and delineation in the diagnostic nomenclature will lead to increased awareness of the condition, more research, and ultimately in treatment advances. This systematic review aims to provide readers with an up-to-date view of current treatment options for ED. A MEDLINE search of the ED treatment literature was conducted to collate relevant articles published between 1996 and 2017. The findings indicate that a number of randomized controlled trails on ED have now been published, and that current management options include behavioral therapy (habit reversal or acceptance-enhanced behavior therapy), and medication (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or N-acetyl cysteine).

  17. Effectiveness of Manual Therapy and Therapeutic Exercise for Temporomandibular Disorders: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Pitance, Laurent; Singh, Vandana; Neto, Francisco; Thie, Norman; Michelotti, Ambra

    2016-01-01

    Manual therapy (MT) and exercise have been extensively used to treat people with musculoskeletal conditions such as temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The evidence regarding their effectiveness provided by early systematic reviews is outdated. The aim of this study was to summarize evidence from and evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of MT and therapeutic exercise interventions compared with other active interventions or standard care for treatment of TMD. Electronic data searches of 6 databases were performed, in addition to a manual search. Randomized controlled trials involving adults with TMD that compared any type of MT intervention (eg, mobilization, manipulation) or exercise therapy with a placebo intervention, controlled comparison intervention, or standard care were included. The main outcomes of this systematic review were pain, range of motion, and oral function. Forty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Data were extracted in duplicate on specific study characteristics. The overall evidence for this systematic review was considered low. The trials included in this review had unclear or high risk of bias. Thus, the evidence was generally downgraded based on assessments of risk of bias. Most of the effect sizes were low to moderate, with no clear indication of superiority of exercises versus other conservative treatments for TMD. However, MT alone or in combination with exercises at the jaw or cervical level showed promising effects. Quality of the evidence and heterogeneity of the studies were limitations of the study. No high-quality evidence was found, indicating that there is great uncertainty about the effectiveness of exercise and MT for treatment of TMD. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  18. Effectiveness of Manual Therapy and Therapeutic Exercise for Temporomandibular Disorders: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pitance, Laurent; Singh, Vandana; Neto, Francisco; Thie, Norman; Michelotti, Ambra

    2016-01-01

    Background Manual therapy (MT) and exercise have been extensively used to treat people with musculoskeletal conditions such as temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The evidence regarding their effectiveness provided by early systematic reviews is outdated. Purpose The aim of this study was to summarize evidence from and evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of MT and therapeutic exercise interventions compared with other active interventions or standard care for treatment of TMD. Data Sources Electronic data searches of 6 databases were performed, in addition to a manual search. Study Selection Randomized controlled trials involving adults with TMD that compared any type of MT intervention (eg, mobilization, manipulation) or exercise therapy with a placebo intervention, controlled comparison intervention, or standard care were included. The main outcomes of this systematic review were pain, range of motion, and oral function. Forty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Data Extraction Data were extracted in duplicate on specific study characteristics. Data Synthesis The overall evidence for this systematic review was considered low. The trials included in this review had unclear or high risk of bias. Thus, the evidence was generally downgraded based on assessments of risk of bias. Most of the effect sizes were low to moderate, with no clear indication of superiority of exercises versus other conservative treatments for TMD. However, MT alone or in combination with exercises at the jaw or cervical level showed promising effects. Limitations Quality of the evidence and heterogeneity of the studies were limitations of the study. Conclusions No high-quality evidence was found, indicating that there is great uncertainty about the effectiveness of exercise and MT for treatment of TMD. PMID:26294683

  19. Use of the Self-Monitoring Strategy among Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsalamah, Areej

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a systematic review of self-monitoring studies published between 2000 and 2016 in order to investigate the effectiveness of implementing a self-monitoring strategy to improve the outcomes of students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A total of nine articles and dissertations were located and reviewed. The…

  20. Use of Computer-Based Interventions to Teach Communication Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramdoss, Sathiyaprakash; Lang, Russell; Mulloy, Austin; Franco, Jessica; O'Reilly, Mark; Didden, Robert; Lancioni, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a systematic analysis of studies involving the use of computer-based interventions (CBI) to teach communication skills to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This review evaluates intervention outcomes, appraises the certainty of evidence, and describes software and system requirements for each…

  1. Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Role of Family in Postsecondary Settings: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas, Bryan K.; Ramisch, Julie L.; McGowan, Beth

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a systematic review of the literature pertaining to students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the potential role of family members in higher education settings. The research questions guiding the review included: (a) What is the identified role(s) of family members of postsecondary students with ASD in postsecondary…

  2. Use of Computer-Based Interventions to Teach Communication Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramdoss, Sathiyaprakash; Lang, Russell; Mulloy, Austin; Franco, Jessica; O'Reilly, Mark; Didden, Robert; Lancioni, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a systematic analysis of studies involving the use of computer-based interventions (CBI) to teach communication skills to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This review evaluates intervention outcomes, appraises the certainty of evidence, and describes software and system requirements for each…

  3. Use of Computer-Based Interventions to Improve Literacy Skills in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramdoss, Sathiyaprakash; Mulloy, Austin; Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; El Zein, Farah

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a systematic analysis of studies investigating computer-based interventions (CBI) to improve literacy skills (e.g., reading, writing, and vocabulary) in students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This review synthesizes intervention outcomes, appraises the certainty of evidence, and describes software…

  4. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in temporomandibular disorders: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Deepankar; Muthusekhar, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Methods: Medline search was done from 1997 to 2011 using search terms appropriate to establishing a relation between LLLT and TMD. Only randomized controlled trials were included in this study. Outcome variables related to pain, muscle tenderness, mandibular movements, and Electromyographic (EMG) activity were considered. Of the 242 articles examined, 13 were finally included in the critical analysis conducted as a part of the present systematic review. Results: Of the 242 titles reviewed, only 13 articles were considered eligible. 7 articles showed significant improvement in the study group, whereas 5 showed no significant improvement between the study and control groups. The primary outcome of most of the studies was pain. Other variables considered were muscle tenderness, mandibular movements; EMG activity was considered. Conclusion: Our results have shown that LLLT seems to be effective in reducing pain in TMD's. It may be a treatment option for patients with an interest in a noninvasive, complementary therapy. PMID:28163481

  5. mHealth based interventions for the assessment and treatment of psychotic disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gire, Nadeem; Farooq, Saeed; Naeem, Farooq; Duxbury, Joy; McKeown, Mick; Kundi, Pardeep Singh; Chaudhry, Imran Bashir

    2017-01-01

    The relative burden of mental health disorders is increasing globally, in terms of prevalence and disability. There is limited data available to guide treatment choices for clinicians in low resourced settings, with mHealth technologies being a potentially beneficial avenue to bridging the large mental health treatment gap globally. The aim of the review was to search the literature systematically for studies of mHealth interventions for psychosis globally, and to examine whether mHealth for psychosis has been investigated. A systematic literature search was completed in Embase, Medline, PsychINFO and Evidence Based Medicine Reviews databases from inception to May 2016. Only studies with a randomised controlled trial design that investigated an mHealth intervention for psychosis were included. A total of 5690 records were identified with 7 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority of included studies, were conducted across Europe and the United Sates with one being conducted in China. The 7 included studies examined different parameters, such as Experiential Sampling Methodology (ESM), medication adherence, cognitive impairment, social functioning and suicidal ideation in veterans with schizophrenia. Considering the increasing access to mobile devices globally, mHealth may potentially increase access to appropriate mental health care. The results of this review show promise in bridging the global mental health treatment gap, by enabling individuals to receive treatment via their mobile phones, particularly for those individuals who live in remote or rural areas, areas of high deprivation and for those from low resourced settings. PMID:28894743

  6. Hyperprolactinemia and medications for bipolar disorder: systematic review of a neglected issue in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Murru, Andrea; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Bonnin, C Mar; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Colom, Francesc; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-08-01

    Drug-induced changes in serum prolactin (sPrl) levels constitute a relevant issue due to the potentially severe consequences on physical health of psychiatric patients such as sexual dysfunctions, osteoporosis and Prl-sensitive tumors. Several drugs have been associated to sPrl changes. Only antipsychotics have been extensively studied as sPrl-elevating agents in schizophrenia, but the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) treatments affect sPrl levels is much less known. The objective of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence of the effects of drugs used in BD on Prl. This review followed the PRISMA statement. The MEDLINE/PubMed/Index Medicus, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for articles in English appearing from any time to May 30, 2014. Twenty-six studies were included. These suggest that treatments for BD are less likely to be associated with Prl elevations, with valproate, quetiapine, lurasidone, mirtazapine, and bupropion reported not to change PRL levels significantly and lithium and aripiprazole to lower them in some studies. Taking into account the effects of the different classes of drugs on Prl may improve the care of BD patients requiring long-term pharmacotherapy. Based on the results of this review, lithium and valproate appear to be safer due to their low potential to elevate sPrL; among antipsychotics, quetiapine, lurasidone and aripiprazole appear to be similarly safe.

  7. Incidence rates of sickness absence related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, growing attention has been given to the mental health of workers. One way to examine the mental health of workers is to look at the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence. There is a scarcity of literature in which the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence among different countries have been considered together. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to address the question: Are there similarities and differences in the incidence rates of mental disorder-related sickness absence among and within OECD identified Social Democratic, Liberal and Latin American country categories? In this paper, we seek to identify differences and similarities in the literature rather than to explain them. With this review, we lay the groundwork for and point to areas for future research as well as to raise questions regarding reasons for the differences and similarities. Methods A systematic literature search of the following databases were performed: Medline Current, Medline In-process, PsycINFO, Econlit and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002–2013. The systematic literature search focused on working adults between 18–65 years old who had not retired and who had mental and/or substance abuse disorders. Intervention studies were excluded. The search focused on medically certified sickness absences. Results A total of 3,818 unique citations were identified. Of these, 10 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria; six were from Social Democratic countries. Their quality ranged from good to excellent. There was variation in the incidence rates reported by the studies from the Social Democratic, Liberal and Latin American countries in this review. Conclusions The results of this systematic review suggest that this is an emerging area of inquiry that needs to continue to grow. Priority areas to support growth include cross jurisdictional collaboration and development of a typology

  8. Economics of collaborative care for management of depressive disorders: a community guide systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Verughese; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Thota, Anilkrishna B; Byard, Guthrie J; Chapman, Daniel P

    2012-05-01

    Major depressive disorders are frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated. Collaborative Care models developed from the Chronic Care Model during the past 20 years have improved the quality of depression management in the community, raising intervention cost incrementally above usual care. This paper assesses the economic efficiency of collaborative care for management of depressive disorders by comparing its economic costs and economic benefits to usual care, as informed by a systematic review of the literature. The economic review of collaborative care for management of depressive disorders was conducted in tandem with a review of effectiveness, under the guidance of the Community Preventive Services Task Force, a nonfederal, independent group of public health leaders and experts. Economic review methods developed by the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used by two economists to screen, abstract, adjust, and summarize the economic evidence of collaborative care from societal and other perspectives. An earlier economic review that included eight RCTs was included as part of the evidence. The present economic review expanded the evidence with results from studies published from 1980 to 2009 and included both RCTs and other study designs. In addition to the eight RCTs included in the earlier review, 22 more studies of collaborative care that provided estimates for economic outcomes were identified, 20 of which were evaluations of actual interventions and two of which were based on models. Of seven studies that measured only economic benefits of collaborative care in terms of averted healthcare or productivity loss, four found positive economic benefits due to intervention and three found minimal or no incremental benefit. Of five studies that measured both benefits and costs, three found lower collaborative care cost because of reduced healthcare utilization or enhanced productivity, and one found the same for a subpopulation of the intervention group

  9. Methodological quality of systematic reviews referenced in clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of opioid use disorder.

    PubMed

    Ross, Andrew; Rankin, Justin; Beaman, Jason; Murray, Kelly; Sinnett, Philip; Riddle, Ross; Haskins, Jordan; Vassar, Matt

    2017-01-01

    With efforts to combat opioid use disorder, there is an increased interest in clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for opioid use disorder treatments. No literature exists examining the quality of systematic reviews used in opioid use disorder CPGs. This study aims to describe the methodological quality and reporting clarity of systematic reviews (SRs) used to create CPGs for opioid use disorder. From June to July 2016 guideline clearinghouses and medical literature databases were searched for relevant CPGs used in the treatment of opioid use disorder. Included CPGs must have been recognized by a national organization. SRs from the reference section of each CPG was scored by using AMSTAR (a measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews) tool and PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) checklist. Seventeen CPGs from 2006-2016 were included in the review. From these, 57 unique SRs were extracted. SRS comprised 0.28% to 17.92% of all references found in the CPGs. All SRs obtained moderate or high methodological quality score on the AMSTAR tool. All reviews met at least 70% of PRISMA criteria. In PRISMA, underperforming areas included accurate title labeling, protocol registration, and risk of bias. Underperforming areas in AMSTAR included conflicts of interest, funding, and publication bias. A positive correlation was found between AMSTAR and PRISMA scores (r = .79). Although the SRs in the CPGs were of good quality, there are still areas for improvement. Systematic reviewers should consult PRISMA and AMSTAR when conducting and reporting reviews. It is important for CPG developers to consider methodological quality as a factor when developing CPG recommendations, recognizing that the quality of systematic reviews underpinning guidelines does not necessarily correspond to the quality of the guideline itself.

  10. Methodological quality of systematic reviews referenced in clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of opioid use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Justin; Beaman, Jason; Murray, Kelly; Sinnett, Philip; Riddle, Ross; Haskins, Jordan; Vassar, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Introduction With efforts to combat opioid use disorder, there is an increased interest in clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for opioid use disorder treatments. No literature exists examining the quality of systematic reviews used in opioid use disorder CPGs. This study aims to describe the methodological quality and reporting clarity of systematic reviews (SRs) used to create CPGs for opioid use disorder. Methods From June to July 2016 guideline clearinghouses and medical literature databases were searched for relevant CPGs used in the treatment of opioid use disorder. Included CPGs must have been recognized by a national organization. SRs from the reference section of each CPG was scored by using AMSTAR (a measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews) tool and PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) checklist. Results Seventeen CPGs from 2006–2016 were included in the review. From these, 57 unique SRs were extracted. SRS comprised 0.28% to 17.92% of all references found in the CPGs. All SRs obtained moderate or high methodological quality score on the AMSTAR tool. All reviews met at least 70% of PRISMA criteria. In PRISMA, underperforming areas included accurate title labeling, protocol registration, and risk of bias. Underperforming areas in AMSTAR included conflicts of interest, funding, and publication bias. A positive correlation was found between AMSTAR and PRISMA scores (r = .79). Conclusion Although the SRs in the CPGs were of good quality, there are still areas for improvement. Systematic reviewers should consult PRISMA and AMSTAR when conducting and reporting reviews. It is important for CPG developers to consider methodological quality as a factor when developing CPG recommendations, recognizing that the quality of systematic reviews underpinning guidelines does not necessarily correspond to the quality of the guideline itself. PMID:28771633

  11. A systematic review of mental disorders and perpetration of domestic violence among military populations.

    PubMed

    Trevillion, Kylee; Williamson, Emma; Thandi, Gursimran; Borschmann, Rohan; Oram, Sian; Howard, Louise M

    2015-09-01

    Military populations may experience more severe forms of domestic violence than the general population. Although mental disorders are associated with domestic violence perpetration among the general population, it is not clear whether this is the case for military populations. This review aimed to establish the prevalence and odds of domestic violence perpetration among male and female military personnel with mental disorders. Systematic review: searches of eleven electronic databases were supplemented by hand searches, reference screening, citation tracking and expert recommendations. Ten studies were included; nine reporting on partner violence and one on violence against an adult family member. Median prevalence estimates were calculated for partner violence perpetration among male military personnel with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); estimates on other disorders were not possible due to lack of data. 27.5 % of men with PTSD reported past year physical violence perpetration against a partner and 91.0 % reported past year psychological violence perpetration against a partner. Due to limited data, no median estimates could be calculated for female military personnel. Data from individual papers indicate increased odds of past year partner violence perpetration among male and female military personnel with depression; inconsistent findings were reported for risk of partner violence perpetration among male and female military personnel with PTSD. There is some evidence that mental disorders among military personnel are associated with past year domestic violence perpetration, though current data cannot confirm direction of causality. Research is needed to inform the development of interventions targeted to reduce domestic violence perpetration among military personnel.

  12. Prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Vivian S; Decarvalho, Vivielle B F; Machado, Luciana A C; Dias, João Marcos D

    2012-05-29

    Population ageing is a worldwide phenomenon that has recently challenged public healthcare systems. The knowledge of the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elders is still limited, particularly in the developing world. This systematic review aimed to investigate the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians. A comprehensive literature search was performed in five electronic databases (from inception to January 2012) and completed by additional searches in reference lists. Two review authors independently selected the eligible studies and extracted data on participants' characteristics and rates of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. One review author extracted methodological quality data. We performed a critical synthesis of the results, which were grouped into the diagnoses "chronic musculoskeletal pain" or "specific musculoskeletal diagnoses". Twenty five studies reporting on a total of 116,091 elderly Brazilians were included. Eight studies (32%) were of high methodological quality. There was a large variation in the measure of prevalence used by individual studies and in their definition of chronic pain. Prevalence estimates reached 86% for chronic musculoskeletal pain in any location. Studies investigating multiple pain sites found the lower limb and the spine to be the most prevalent complaints (50% each). Arthritis and rheumatism (including osteoarthritis) were the most prevalent specific musculoskeletal diagnoses (9% to 40%), followed by herniated disc (6% to 27%). Despite the growth of the elderly population worldwide, high-quality research on the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly is still scarce. Future healthcare research focusing on this age group should be a priority in developing countries since their public healthcare systems are not yet fully prepared to accommodate the needs of an aging population.

  13. Prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Population ageing is a worldwide phenomenon that has recently challenged public healthcare systems. The knowledge of the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elders is still limited, particularly in the developing world. This systematic review aimed to investigate the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed in five electronic databases (from inception to January 2012) and completed by additional searches in reference lists. Two review authors independently selected the eligible studies and extracted data on participants’ characteristics and rates of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. One review author extracted methodological quality data. We performed a critical synthesis of the results, which were grouped into the diagnoses “chronic musculoskeletal pain” or “specific musculoskeletal diagnoses”. Results Twenty five studies reporting on a total of 116,091 elderly Brazilians were included. Eight studies (32%) were of high methodological quality. There was a large variation in the measure of prevalence used by individual studies and in their definition of chronic pain. Prevalence estimates reached 86% for chronic musculoskeletal pain in any location. Studies investigating multiple pain sites found the lower limb and the spine to be the most prevalent complaints (50% each). Arthritis and rheumatism (including osteoarthritis) were the most prevalent specific musculoskeletal diagnoses (9% to 40%), followed by herniated disc (6% to 27%). Conclusions Despite the growth of the elderly population worldwide, high-quality research on the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly is still scarce. Future healthcare research focusing on this age group should be a priority in developing countries since their public healthcare systems are not yet fully prepared to accommodate the needs of an aging population. PMID:22642899

  14. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with adult sleep disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Gelaye, Bizu; Jackson, Chandra L; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-03-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) represent substantial threats to public health and affect about 58% of youth in the US. In addition to their acute effects such as injury and physical trauma, ACEs are associated with an increased risk of several negative health outcomes throughout the life course. Emerging evidence suggests that sleep disorders may be one such outcome, but existing studies have not been systematically reviewed and summarized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence concerning the relationship between ACEs and sleep disorders and disturbances, with a focus on adult women. Original publications were identified through searches of the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science using the keywords "childhood," "adversity," "abuse," and "sleep" as well as searches of the reference lists of eligible studies. Studies evaluating ACEs that occurred before 18 years of age and sleep outcomes that were assessed at 18 years or older were adjudicated and included. A total of 30 publications were identified. Of the 30 studies, 28 were retrospective analyses and there was vast heterogeneity in the types of ACEs and sleep outcomes measured. The majority of retrospective studies (N = 25 of 28) documented statistically significant associations between sleep disorders including sleep apnea, narcolepsy, nightmare distress, sleep paralysis, and psychiatric sleep disorders with a history of childhood adversity. In many studies, the strengths of associations increased with the number and severity of adverse experiences. These associations were corroborated by the two prospective studies published to date. Notably, investigators have documented statistically significant associations between family conflict at 7-15 years of age and insomnia at 18 years of age (odds ratio, OR = 1.4; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.2-1.7) and between childhood sexual abuse and sleep disturbances 10 years later in adult women (β = 0.24, p

  15. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with adult sleep disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Gelaye, Bizu; Jackson, Chandra L.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) represent substantial threats to public health and affect about 58% of youth in the US. In addition to their acute effects such as injury and physical trauma, ACEs are associated with an increased risk of several negative health outcomes throughout the life course. Emerging evidence suggests sleep disorders may be one such outcome, but existing studies have not been systematically reviewed and summarized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence concerning the relationship between ACEs and sleep disorders and disturbances, with a focus on adult women. Original publications were identified through searches of the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science using key words “childhood,” “adversity,” “abuse,” and “sleep” as well as searches of the reference lists of eligible studies. Studies evaluating ACEs that occurred before 18 years of age and sleep outcomes that were assessed at 18 years or older were adjudicated and included. A total of 30 publications were identified. Of the 30 studies, 28 were retrospective analyses and there was vast heterogeneity in types of ACEs and sleep outcomes measured. The majority of retrospective studies (N=25 of 28) documented statistically significant associations between sleep disorders including sleep apnea, narcolepsy, nightmare distress, sleep paralysis, and psychiatric sleep disorders with a history of childhood adversity. In many studies, the strengths of associations increased with the number and severity of adverse experiences. These associations were corroborated by the two prospective studies published to date. Notably, investigators have documented statistically significant associations between family conflict at 7-15 years of age and insomnia at 18 years of age (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2-1.7) and between childhood sexual abuse and sleep disturbances 10 years later in adult women (β = 0.24, p < 0.05). There is a growing scientific body of

  16. Shared clinical associations between obesity and impulsivity in rapid cycling bipolar disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Galvez, Juan F; Bauer, Isabelle E; Sanches, Marsal; Wu, Hanjing E; Hamilton, Jane E; Mwangi, Benson; Kapczinski, Flavio P; Zunta-Soares, Giovana; Soares, Jair C

    2014-10-01

    Obesity seems to show a two-way relationship with bipolar disorder (BD), representing not only a possible vulnerability factor but also a consequence of chronic mood dysregulation associated with an overall poor prognosis. Increased impulsivity has been described across all stages and phases of BD as being also associated with a worse prognosis. Although obesity and impulsivity are common features among rapid cycling bipolar disorder (RC-BD) patients, there is a lack of understanding about the clinical implications of these conditions combined in BD. To explore and integrate available evidence on shared clinical associations between obesity and impulsivity in RC-BD a systematic search of the literature in the electronic database of the National Library of Medicine (PubMed) has been conducted. One hundred and fourteen articles were included in our systematic review. Among RC-BD patients, substance abuse disorders (SUDs), anxiety disorders (ADs), predominantly depressive polarity, chronic exposure to antidepressants, psychotic symptoms, suicidality, and comorbid medical conditions are strongly associated with both obesity and impulsivity. Heterogeneity of published data, inconsistent measurements of both obesity and impulsivity in RC-BD and an absence of control for RC-BD in epidemiological surveys. Consequently, their combined impact on the severity of RC-BD is yet to be recognized and remains to be poorly understood. In RC-BD patients the co-occurrence of obesity and impulsivity is associated with an unfavorable course of illness, specific shared clinical correlates, negative psychosocial impact, and overall worse prognosis. There is a need to examine obesity and impulsivity as modulating factors and markers of severity in RC-BD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Treating Tobacco Use Disorder in Pregnant Women in Medication-Assisted Treatment for an Opioid Use Disorder: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Akerman, Sarah C.; Brunette, Mary F.; Green, Alan I.; Goodman, Daisy J.; Blunt, Heather B.; Heil, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is associated with adverse effects on pregnancy and fetal development, yet 85-90% of pregnant women in medication-assisted treatment for an opioid use disorder smoke cigarettes. This review summarizes existing knowledge about smoking cessation treatments for pregnant women on buprenorphine or methadone, the two forms of medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder indicated for prenatal use. We performed a systematic review of the literature using indexed terms and key words to capture the concepts of smoking, pregnancy, and opioid substitution and found that only three studies met search criteria. Contingency management, an incentive based treatment, was the most promising intervention: 31% of participants achieved abstinence within the 12-week study period, compared to 0% in a non-contingent behavior incentive group and a group receiving usual care. Two studies of brief behavioral interventions resulted in reductions in smoking but not cessation. Given the growing numbers of pregnant women in medication-assisted treatment for an opioid use disorder and the negative consequences of smoking on pregnancy, further research is needed to develop and test effective cessation strategies for this group. PMID:25592332

  18. Treating tobacco use disorder in pregnant women in medication-assisted treatment for an opioid use disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Akerman, Sarah C; Brunette, Mary F; Green, Alan I; Goodman, Daisy J; Blunt, Heather B; Heil, Sarah H

    2015-05-01

    Smoking is associated with adverse effects on pregnancy and fetal development, yet 88-95% of pregnant women in medication-assisted treatment for an opioid use disorder smoke cigarettes. This review summarizes existing knowledge about smoking cessation treatments for pregnant women on buprenorphine or methadone, the two forms of medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder indicated for prenatal use. We performed a systematic review of the literature using indexed terms and key words to capture the concepts of smoking, pregnancy, and opioid substitution and found that only three studies met search criteria. Contingency management, an incentive based treatment, was the most promising intervention: 31% of participants achieved abstinence within the 12-week study period, compared to 0% in a non-contingent behavior incentive group and a group receiving usual care. Two studies of brief behavioral interventions resulted in reductions in smoking but not cessation. Given the growing number of pregnant women in medication-assisted treatment for an opioid use disorder and the negative consequences of smoking on pregnancy, further research is needed to develop and test effective cessation strategies for this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.

  20. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  1. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Sanderson, Jean; Johnson, Laura; Warnakula, Samantha; Wood, Angela; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors. Study selection Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross sectional studies carried out in human adults, in which the association between chocolate consumption and the risk of outcomes related to cardiometabolic disorders were reported. Data extraction Data were extracted by two independent investigators, and a consensus was reached with the involvement of a third. The primary outcome was cardiometabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. A meta-analysis assessed the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders by comparing the highest and lowest level of chocolate consumption. Results From 4576 references seven studies met the inclusion criteria (including 114 009 participants). None of the studies was a randomised trial, six were cohort studies, and one a cross sectional study. Large variation was observed between these seven studies for measurement of chocolate consumption, methods, and outcomes evaluated. Five of the seven studies reported a beneficial association between higher levels of chocolate consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The highest levels of chocolate consumption were associated with a 37% reduction in cardiovascular disease (relative risk 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.90)) and a 29% reduction in stroke compared with the lowest levels. Conclusions Based on observational evidence, levels of chocolate consumption seem to be associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Further experimental

  2. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Sanderson, Jean; Johnson, Laura; Warnakula, Samantha; Wood, Angela; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Franco, Oscar H

    2011-08-26

    To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors. Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross sectional studies carried out in human adults, in which the association between chocolate consumption and the risk of outcomes related to cardiometabolic disorders were reported. Data were extracted by two independent investigators, and a consensus was reached with the involvement of a third. The primary outcome was cardiometabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. A meta-analysis assessed the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders by comparing the highest and lowest level of chocolate consumption. From 4576 references seven studies met the inclusion criteria (including 114,009 participants). None of the studies was a randomised trial, six were cohort studies, and one a cross sectional study. Large variation was observed between these seven studies for measurement of chocolate consumption, methods, and outcomes evaluated. Five of the seven studies reported a beneficial association between higher levels of chocolate consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The highest levels of chocolate consumption were associated with a 37% reduction in cardiovascular disease (relative risk 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.90)) and a 29% reduction in stroke compared with the lowest levels. Based on observational evidence, levels of chocolate consumption seem to be associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Further experimental studies are required to confirm a potentially beneficial effect of chocolate consumption.

  3. Genetic association studies of methamphetamine use disorders: A systematic review and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bousman, Chad A; Glatt, Stephen J; Everall, Ian P; Tsuang, Ming T

    2009-12-05

    Efforts to understand the biological processes that increase susceptibility to methamphetamine (METH) use disorders (i.e., abuse, dependence, and psychosis) have uncovered several putative genotypic variants. However, to date a synthesis of this information has not been conducted. Thus, systematic searches of the current literature were undertaken for genetic-association studies of METH use disorders. Each gene's chromosomal location, function, and examined polymorphic markers were extracted. Frequencies, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for risk alleles, as well as sample size and power, were calculated. We uncovered 38 studies examining 39 genes, of which 18 were found to have a significant genotypic, allelic, and/or haplotypic association with METH use disorders. Three genes (COMT, DRD4, and GABRA1) were associated with METH abuse, nine (ARRB2, BDNF, CYP2D6, GLYT1, GSTM1, GSTP1, PDYN, PICK1, and SLC22A3) with METH dependence, two (AKT1 and GABRG2) with METH abuse/dependence, and four (DTNBP1, OPRM1, SNCA, and SOD2) with METH psychosis. Limitations related to phenotypic classification, statistical power, and potential publication bias in the current literature were noted. Similar to other behavioral, psychiatric, and substance use disorders, the genetic epidemiology of METH use disorders is complex and likely polygenic. National and international collaborative efforts are needed to increase the availability of large population-based samples and improve upon the power to detect genetic associations of small magnitude. Further, replication of the findings reviewed here along with further development of more rigorous methodologies and reporting protocols will aid in delineating the complex genetic epidemiology of METH use disorders. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Use of dialectical behavior therapy in inpatient treatment of borderline personality disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Jill Myerow; Woodward, Eva N; Susmaras, Teresa; Pantalone, David W

    2012-09-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an empirically supported treatment for outpatients with borderline personality disorder. However, the utility of DBT strategies for inpatients with the disorder is unclear. This review summarizes and synthesizes findings from trials of DBT in inpatient settings. Multiple research databases were searched for articles published through June 2011 that reported on any implementation of DBT in an inpatient setting to address symptoms related to borderline personality disorder, including suicidal and self-injurious behavior. Eleven studies that reported pre- and posttreatment symptoms related to borderline personality disorder were evaluated. Studies indicated that many variations of standard DBT have been used in inpatient settings, including approaches that do not include phone consultation, that include group therapy only, and that vary in treatment duration (from two weeks to three months). Most studies reported reductions in suicidal ideation, self-injurious behaviors, and symptoms of depression and anxiety, whereas results for reducing anger and violent behaviors were mixed. Follow-up data indicated that symptom reduction was often maintained between one and 21 months posttreatment. On the basis of the evidence, the authors identify essential components of an inpatient DBT package and discuss its potential function as an "intensive orientation" to outpatient DBT services. There is considerable variation in the configuration and duration of DBT implementation for inpatients with borderline personality disorder. However, findings suggest that DBT may be effective in reducing symptoms related to borderline personality disorder in inpatient settings. Future research should standardize and systematically test inpatient DBT. (Psychiatric Services 63:881-888, 2012; doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201100311).

  5. Effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in eating disorders: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcelle Barrueco; Melnik, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Eating disorders are psychiatric conditions originated from and perpetuated by individual, family and sociocultural factors. The psychosocial approach to treatment and prevention of relapse is crucial. To present an overview of the scientific evidence on effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in treatment of eating disorders. All systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Cochrane Library on the topic were included. Afterwards, as from the least recent date of these reviews (2001), an additional search was conducted at PubMed with sensitive search strategy and with the same keywords used. A total of 101 primary studies and 30 systematic reviews (5 Cochrane systematic reviews), meta-analysis, guidelines or narrative reviews of literature were included. The main outcomes were: symptomatic remission, body image, cognitive distortion, psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial functioning and patient satisfaction. The cognitive behavioral approach was the most effective treatment, especially for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and the night eating syndrome. For anorexia nervosa, the family approach showed greater effectiveness. Other effective approaches were interpersonal psychotherapy, dialectic behavioral therapy, support therapy and self-help manuals. Moreover, there was an increasing number of preventive and promotional approaches that addressed individual, family and social risk factors, being promising for the development of positive self-image and self-efficacy. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of multidisciplinary approaches on all eating disorders, as well as the cost-effectiveness of some effective modalities, such as the cognitive behavioral therapy. RESUMO Transtornos alimentares são doenças psiquiátricas originadas de e perpetuadas por fatores individuais, familiares e socioculturais. A abordagem psicossocial é essencial para o tratamento e a prevenção de recaídas. Apresentar uma vis

  6. Effects of exercise on pain of musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Elisângela Valevein; Gomes, Anna Raquel Silveira; Tanhoffer, Aldre Izabel Pchevozniki; Leite, Neiva

    2014-01-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders are a major concern for public health and pain is the most important symptom. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of workplace exercises to control musculoskeletal pain and its frequency, intensity, duration and type of exercises used. The search was conducted systematically in Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Bireme, Web of Knowledge and Pedro databases. The keywords "workplace", "exercise" and "musculoskeletal disorders" were used combined. Randomized control trials which performed worksite exercises were selected and the studies were assessed by their methodological soundness. Ten articles were selected which investigated the resistance training, cardio respiratory exercises, Pilates, stretching, postural orientation and exercises for relaxation. Workplace resistance training performed at 70-85% RM, three times a week for 20 minutes promotes reduction of the pain in shoulders, wrists, cervical, dorsal and lumbar spine. However, there is no consensus regarding the total duration of the intervention for the decrease of musculoskeletal pain in these regions. Level of Evidence I, Therapeutic Studies Investigating the Results of Treatment, Systematic Review of RCTs (Randomized and Controlled Clinical Studies). PMID:25538482

  7. Efficacy and Tolerability of Antidepressants in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Wehry, Anna M.; Keeshin, Brooks R.; Rynn, Moira A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomized, controlled trials have demonstrated that antidepressants are efficacious in the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. However, there are no recent, systematic analyses of the efficacy, safety or tolerability of these medications in pediatric anxiety disorders. With this in mind, we sought to systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled-trials of antidepressants in these conditions. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective, randomized, parallel-group, controlled trials of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) in pediatric patients with non-OCD anxiety disorders was undertaken using a search of PubMed/Medline (1966–2014). The meta-analysis utilized random-effects models to evaluate change in the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale or similar anxiety scale, suicidality and adverse events. Additionally, a series of pharmacologic variables (e.g., serotonin binding) were explored with regard to effect size. Results Data were included from 9 trials involving 1,673 patients and 6 medications, including 5 SSRIs and 3 SSNRI trials. All SSRI/SSNRIs evaluated demonstrated significant efficacy, and the meta-analytic summary estimate was of moderate magnitude (Cohen's d=0.64, confidence interval [CI]: 0.34–0.96, p=0.0017) and there was evidence of modest heterogenity (I2=0.26, p=0.107). Activation trended towards being more likely with antidepressant treatment (OR: 1.86, CI: 0.98–3.53, p=.054), but no increased risk was observed for nausea/abdominal symptoms (p=0.262) or discontinuation as a result of an adverse event (p=0.132). Treatment-emergent suicidality did not differ between antidepressant-treated youth and those who received placebo (OR: 1.3, CI: 0.53–3.2, p=0.514). Conclusions Data for 9 SSRI/SSNRIs suggest superiority to placebo for the treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders with a moderate effect size

  8. Diagnostic and treatment implications of psychosis secondary to treatable metabolic disorders in adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is important for psychiatrists to be aware of certain inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) as these rare disorders can present as psychosis, and because definitive treatments may be available for treating the underlying metabolic cause. A systematic review was conducted to examine IEMs that often present with schizophrenia-like symptoms. Data sources Published literature on MEDLINE was assessed regarding diseases of homocysteine metabolism (DHM; cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency [CbS-D] and homocysteinemia due to methyltetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency [MTHFR-D]), urea cycle disorders (UCD), acute porphyria (POR), Wilson disease (WD), cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis (CTX) and Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C). Study selection Case reports, case series or reviews with original data regarding psychiatric manifestations and cognitive impairment published between January 1967 and June 2012 were included based on a standardized four-step selection process. Data extraction All selected articles were evaluated for descriptions of psychiatric signs (type, severity, natural history and treatment) in addition to key disease features. Results A total of 611 records were identified. Information from CbS-D (n = 2), MTHFR-D (n = 3), UCD (n = 8), POR (n = 12), WD (n = 11), CTX (n = 14) and NP-C publications (n = 9) were evaluated. Six non-systematic literature review publications were also included. In general, published reports did not provide explicit descriptions of psychiatric symptoms. The literature search findings are presented with a didactic perspective, showing key features for each disease and psychiatric signs that should trigger psychiatrists to suspect that psychotic symptoms may be secondary to an IEM. Conclusion IEMs with a psychiatric presentation and a lack of, or sub-clinical, neurological signs are rare, but should be considered in patients with atypical psychiatric symptoms. PMID:24775716

  9. Association between estrogen levels and temporomandibular disorders: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Marcin; Szalewski, Leszek; Bakalczuk, Magdalena; Bakalczuk, Szymon; Szkutnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate whether the hypothesis that estrogen levels are associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in humans can be confirmed or contradicted by available literature. Material and methods A systematic review based on the content of PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases was performed. Studies were identified using a combination of key words ‘temporomandibular disorder’ and ‘estrogen’. Nine studies were included into our review. Results The relationship between estrogen levels and TMD was found in seven out of nine reviewed papers. Results from two papers suggest that a high estrogen level is associated with an increased prevalence of TMD. Five additional papers found a relationship between a low estrogen level and an increase in TMD pain. In considering the value of evidence and inconsistencies of results in the reviewed publications, we state that there is weak evidence to support the hypothesis that estrogen levels are associated with TMD. Conclusions Results of reviewed studies were divergent and sometimes contradictory. One possible explanation is that estrogen influences TMD pain processing differently than temporomandibular joints (TMJ) structures, as shown in many animal studies. Estrogen may influence TMD pain processing differently than TMJ structures. We suggest consideration of the dual action of estrogen when planning future studies on its association with TMD. PMID:26848299

  10. Self-management in temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review of behavioural components.

    PubMed

    Story, W P; Durham, J; Al-Baghdadi, M; Steele, J; Araujo-Soares, V

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this qualitative systematic review was to identify the behaviour change techniques most frequently employed in published temporomandibular disorder (TMD) self-management (SM) programmes. The reviewers matched the components of SM programmes into the relevant behaviour change technique domains according to the definitions of the behaviour change taxonomy (version 1). Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials assessing an SM programme for TMD. Manual searches were also conducted for potentially important journals. Eligibility criteria for the review included: the type of study, the participants, the intervention utilised and the comparators/control. Fifteen randomised controlled trials with 554 patients were included in this review. The review concludes a minority of the available behaviour change techniques are currently employed in SM programmes. Other behaviour change techniques should be examined to see whether there is a theoretical underpinning that might support their inclusion in self-management programmes in TMD. Further trials are required to conclude that SM programmes are more effective than no treatment at all and or placebo. With more structured SM programmes, greater therapeutic benefits might be achieved, and certainly if SM programmes published in the literature define their components through use of the behaviour change taxonomy, it would be easier for clinicians to replicate efficacious programmes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Anxiety, Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Refugees - A Systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Lindert, Jutta; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Wehrwein, Annette; Brähler, Elmar; Schäfer, Ingo

    2017-05-03

    Anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder are the main psychopathological symptoms shown by refugees. We conducted a systematic review. First, we identified key-words for a systematic search in PUBMED. We included original articles since 2009 with 1) a non-clinical sample of refugees, 2) refugees living at maximum 5 years in the host country, 4) with the outcomes anxiety, depression, and PTSD and 5) a sample with >100 participants. Then we read titles, abstracts and fulltexts. We identified 1 877 studies. Based on this screening procedure, we included in our review 15 studies. 52% of the refugees are from Africa (Somalia, Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra-Leon and Togo), 33% from Asia (Syria, Bhutan, Vietnam, Cambodia, Iraq) and 16% are from more than one continent. In those studies n=6 769 refugees participated in the studies. The number of participants varied from n=117 to n=1,422 (Median: n=366 refugees). Prevalence rates for PTBS varied from 5-71% (mean prevalence rate: 32%) rates for depression varied from 11-54% (mean prevalence rate: 35%). Sensitivity analyses suggest that refugees, which come from countries with intense human rights violations according to the Political Terror Scale, have an increased rate of psychopathological symptoms. Heterogeneity of prevalence rate is related both 1) to methodological and 2) to difference in the refugee populations according to the human rights violations in the countries of origin of refugees. It is necessary to include further databases in a systematic review. There is an urgent need for representative studies on refugees needs for psychosocial and medical care, especially for those refugees coming from countries with intense human rights violations. Psychosocial and medical services for these refugees are urgently needed to enhance and enable a perspective in the host country Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Interventions Relevant for Young Offenders with Mood Disorders, Anxiety Disorders, or Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Ellen; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Sargeant, Sally; Vostanis, Panos; Hawton, Keith; Stocker, Olivia; Sithole, Jabulani

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mood and anxiety disorders, and problems with self-harm are significant and serious issues that are common in young people in the Criminal Justice System. Aims: To examine whether interventions relevant to young offenders with mood or anxiety disorders, or problems with self-harm are effective. Method: Systematic review and…

  13. Posttraumatic Stress and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Termination of Pregnancy and Reproductive Loss: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Daugirdaitė, Viltė; van den Akker, Olga; Purewal, Satvinder

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aims of this systematic review were to integrate the research on posttraumatic stress (PTS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after termination of pregnancy (TOP), miscarriage, perinatal death, stillbirth, neonatal death, and failed in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Methods. Electronic databases (AMED, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, PubMEd, ScienceDirect) were searched for articles using PRISMA guidelines. Results. Data from 48 studies were included. Quality of the research was generally good. PTS/PTSD has been investigated in TOP and miscarriage more than perinatal loss, stillbirth, and neonatal death. In all reproductive losses and TOPs, the prevalence of PTS was greater than PTSD, both decreased over time, and longer gestational age is associated with higher levels of PTS/PTSD. Women have generally reported more PTS or PTSD than men. Sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., younger age, lower education, and history of previous traumas or mental health problems) and psychsocial factors influence PTS and PTSD after TOP and reproductive loss. Conclusions. This systematic review is the first to investigate PTS/PTSD after reproductive loss. Patients with advanced pregnancies, a history of previous traumas, mental health problems, and adverse psychosocial profiles should be considered as high risk for developing PTS or PTSD following reproductive loss. PMID:25734016

  14. A Systematic Review of Research on Autism Spectrum Disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ssewanyana, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    The burden of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is not well known. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to identify published work from SSA. We have systematically searched four databases, namely, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Child Development & Adolescent Studies, through EBSCO and identified studies from across SSA. Based on predefined inclusion criteria, 47 studies were included in this review. Most of the identified studies (74%) were conducted in only 2 African countries, that is, South Africa and Nigeria. Additionally, most of these studies (83%) were carried out in the last decade. These studies had four major themes: development of measurement tools of ASD in Africa, examining the prevalence of ASD, identifying risk factors and risk markers, and examining psychosocial issues. We identified only a single population level study aimed at documenting the prevalence of ASD and could not identify a single case-control study aimed at examining a comprehensive set of potential risk factors. All intervention studies were based on very small sample sizes. Put together, our findings suggest that current evidence base is too scanty to provide the required information to plan adequately for effective intervention strategies for children with ASD in Africa. PMID:27872512

  15. Manual function outcome measures in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD): Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bieber, Eleonora; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Cioni, Giovanni; Feys, Hilde; Guzzetta, Andrea; Klingels, Katrijn

    2016-08-01

    This study systematically reviewed the clinical and psychometric properties of manual function outcome measures for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) aged 3-18 years. Three electronic databases were searched to identify manual function tools at the ICF-CY body function, activity and participation level used in children with DCD. Study selection and data extraction was conducted by two blind assessors according to the CanChild Outcome Measures Rating Form. Nineteen clinical tests (seven fine hand use tools and 12 handwriting measures), three naturalistic observations and six questionnaires were identified. The fine-motor subdomain of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 and the Functional Strength Measurement, with adequate reliability and validity properties, might be useful for manual function capacity assessment. The Systematic Detection of Writing Problems (SOS) and the Detailed Assessment of Speed of Handwriting (DASH) could be adopted for handwriting assessment, respectively from 6 and 9 years old. Naturalistic observations and questionnaires, whose psychometric properties have been investigated into limited extent, offer an assessment of the daily performances. This review shows that a combination of different tools is needed for a comprehensive assessment of manual function in children with DCD including the three levels of the ICF-CY. Further investigation of psychometric properties of those tools in children with DCD is warranted. Tests validated in other populations should be explored for their applicability for assessing manual function in children with DCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and risk of injuries: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Shahrokh; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Nazari, Soulmaz; Ranjbar, Fatemeh; Abdi, Salman

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Background: This study systematically reviewed the literature in order to determine the effect of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on injuries and assessed the magnitude of the potential association. Methods: A systematic review of the studies examining the association of ADHD and injuries was carried out across multiple databases. Odds ratios and standardized mean differences were pooled. Results: A total of 35 studies were selected for quantitative analysis. The association of ADHD and injuries was confirmed over the meta-analysis of eligible studies. The odds ratio pooled over all comparative studies was 1.96(95% CI: 1.6-2.4) using random effects model. Pooled odds ratio of 2.1 and 2.17 were calculated respectively when cohort and case-control studies or just cohort studies were included. The pooled odds ratio reduced to 1.8(CI:1.45-2.3) when studies on specific injuries were removed. For studies comparing scores of rating scales, the pooled standardized mean difference was 0.61(95% CI: 0.03-1.2). Conclusions: Those with ADHD are nearly two times more likely to be injured. PMID:28554188

  17. Is there relationship between temporomandibular disorders and head and cervical posture? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C P; Croci, C S; Caria, P H F

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to find sufficient evidence to deny or accept the association between the head and cervical posture and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), and thus assist health professionals in the evaluation and treatment of patients with TMDs. A search was conducted through all publications written in English about this topic using the databases from Medline, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, PubMed and Lilacs. The abstracts that fulfilled the initial guideline were retrieved and evaluated to ensure they met the inclusion criteria. To assess the methodological quality of the studies, we developed a questionnaire considering the following criteria: participant's eligibility, control group, diagnosis of TMDs, posture diagnosis and randomisation. Twenty-two studies were selected as potential studies based on their abstracts. Only seventeen studies actually fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The search provided information about the methodological quality of the studies, in which several methodological defects were found. The evidence presented in this systematic review shows that the relation between TMDs and the head and neck posture is still controversial and unclear. The insufficient number of articles considered of excellent methodological quality is a factor that hinders the acceptance or denial of this association. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Herbal medicines for treating tic disorders: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It was reported that 64% of tic disorder patients used complementary and alternative medicine. This review aims to evaluate the efficacy of herbal medicines in treating tic disorders. Methods We searched eight databases including MEDLINE and CINAHL from their respective inceptions up to September 2013. The search terms were related to the concept of “herbal medicine” AND “tic disorder OR Tourette’s syndrome”. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any type of herbal medicines. We assessed the methodological quality of the trials according to the Cochrane risk of bias criteria. Results Sixty one studies were identified, and four RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Two types of herbal medicines, Qufeng Zhidong Recipe (QZR) decoction and Ningdong (ND) granules, were used in the included RCTs. All four RCTs had a high risk of bias. Two RCTs tested the effects of QZR on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) score and response rate compared with conventional medicine. The meta-analysis showed significant effects of QZR on the YGTSS score with high statistical heterogeneity (n = 142; weighted mean difference: −18.34; 95% confidence interval (CI): −23.07 to −13.60; I2 = 97%) and the response rate (n = 142; risk ratio: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.39 to 2.06; I2 = 0%). One RCT compared ND granules with placebo and showed significant effects on the YGTSS score and response rate. The other RCT show significant effects of ND granules plus conventional medicine on the response rate compared with conventional medicine only. Conclusion This systematic review provided first piece of limited meta-analytic evidence for the effectiveness of herbal medicines in improving the symptoms of tic disorders. PMID:24507013

  19. Herbal medicines for treating tic disorders: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Hee; Son, Chang-Gue; Ku, Bon-Cho; Lee, Hye Won; Lim, Hyun Sook; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2014-02-07

    It was reported that 64% of tic disorder patients used complementary and alternative medicine. This review aims to evaluate the efficacy of herbal medicines in treating tic disorders. We searched eight databases including MEDLINE and CINAHL from their respective inceptions up to September 2013. The search terms were related to the concept of "herbal medicine" AND "tic disorder OR Tourette's syndrome". We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any type of herbal medicines. We assessed the methodological quality of the trials according to the Cochrane risk of bias criteria. Sixty one studies were identified, and four RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Two types of herbal medicines, Qufeng Zhidong Recipe (QZR) decoction and Ningdong (ND) granules, were used in the included RCTs. All four RCTs had a high risk of bias. Two RCTs tested the effects of QZR on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) score and response rate compared with conventional medicine. The meta-analysis showed significant effects of QZR on the YGTSS score with high statistical heterogeneity (n = 142; weighted mean difference: -18.34; 95% confidence interval (CI): -23.07 to -13.60; I2 = 97%) and the response rate (n = 142; risk ratio: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.39 to 2.06; I2 = 0%). One RCT compared ND granules with placebo and showed significant effects on the YGTSS score and response rate. The other RCT show significant effects of ND granules plus conventional medicine on the response rate compared with conventional medicine only. This systematic review provided first piece of limited meta-analytic evidence for the effectiveness of herbal medicines in improving the symptoms of tic disorders.

  20. Hepcidin: A Promising Therapeutic Target for Iron Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Sun, Bingbing; Yin, Huijun; Liu, Sijin

    2016-04-01

    Iron is required for most forms of organisms, and it is the most essential element for the functions of many iron-containing proteins involved in oxygen transport, cellular respiration, DNA replication, and so on. Disorders of iron metabolism are associated with diverse diseases, including anemias (e.g., iron-deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic diseases) and iron overload diseases, such as hereditary hemochromatosis and β-thalassemia. Hepcidin (encoded by Hamp gene) is a peptide hormone synthesized by hepatocytes, and it plays an important role in regulating the systematic iron homeostasis. As the systemic iron regulator, hepcidin, not only controls dietary iron absorption and iron egress out of iron storage cells, but also induces iron redistribution in various organs. Deregulated hepcidin is often seen in a variety of iron-related diseases including anemias and iron overload disorders. In the case of iron overload disorders (e.g., hereditary hemochromatosis and β-thalassemia), hepatic hepcidin concentration is significantly reduced.Since hepcidin deregulation is responsible for iron disorder-associated diseases, the purpose of this review is to summarize the recent findings on therapeutics targeting hepcidin.Continuous efforts have been made to search for hepcidin mimics and chemical compounds that could be used to increase hepcidin level. Here, a literature search was conducted in PubMed, and research papers relevant to hepcidin regulation or hepcidin-centered therapeutic work were reviewed. On the basis of literature search, we recapitulated recent findings on therapeutic studies targeting hepcidin, including agonists and antagonists to modulate hepcidin expression or its downstream signaling. We also discussed the molecular mechanisms by which hepcidin level and iron metabolism are modulated.Elevating hepcidin concentration is an optimal strategy to ameliorate iron overload diseases, and also to relieve β-thalassemia phenotypes by improving ineffective

  1. Perception of odors and tastes in autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review of assessments.

    PubMed

    Boudjarane, Mohamed A; Grandgeorge, Marine; Marianowski, Rémi; Misery, Laurent; Lemonnier, Éric

    2017-06-01

    Olfaction and gustation are major sensory functions implied in processing environmental stimuli. Some evidences suggest that loss of olfactory function is an early biomarker for neurodegenerative disorders and atypical processing of odor and taste stimuli is present in several neurodevelopmental disorders, notably in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). In this paper, we conducted a systematic review investigating the assessments of olfaction and gustation with psychophysics methods in individuals with ASD. Pubmed, PMC and Sciencedirect were scrutinized for relevant literature published from 1970 to 2015. In this review, fourteen papers met our inclusion criteria. They were analyzed critically in order to evaluate the occurrence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in ASD, as well as to report the methods used to assess olfaction and gustation in such conditions. Regarding to these two senses, the overall number of studies is low. Most of studies show significant difference regarding to odor or taste identification but not for detection threshold. Overall, odor rating through pleasantness, intensity and familiarity do not differ significantly between control and individuals with ASD. The current evidences can suggest the presence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in ASD. Therefore, our analysis show a heterogeneity of findings. This is due to several methodological limitations such as the tools used or population studied. Understanding these disorders could help to shed light on other atypical behavior in this population such as feeding or social behavior. Autism Res 2017, 0: 000-000. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1045-1057. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Self-help interventions for depressive disorders and depressive symptoms: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Amy J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2008-01-01

    Background Research suggests that depressive disorders exist on a continuum, with subthreshold symptoms causing considerable population burden and increasing individual risk of developing major depressive disorder. An alternative strategy to professional treatment of subthreshold depression is population promotion of effective self-help interventions that can be easily applied by an individual without professional guidance. The evidence for self-help interventions for depressive symptoms is reviewed in the present work, with the aim of identifying promising interventions that could inform future health promotion campaigns or stimulate further research. Methods A literature search for randomised controlled trials investigating self-help interventions for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Reference lists and citations of included studies were also checked. Studies were grouped into those involving participants with depressive disorders or a high level of depressive symptoms, or non-clinically depressed participants not selected for depression. A number of exclusion criteria were applied, including trials with small sample sizes and where the intervention was adjunctive to antidepressants or psychotherapy. Results The majority of interventions searched had no relevant evidence to review. Of the 38 interventions reviewed, the ones with the best evidence of efficacy in depressive disorders were S-adenosylmethionine, St John's wort, bibliotherapy, computerised interventions, distraction, relaxation training, exercise, pleasant activities, sleep deprivation, and light therapy. A number of other interventions showed promise but had received less research attention. Research in non-clinical samples indicated immediate beneficial effects on depressed mood for distraction, exercise, humour, music, negative air ionisation, and singing; while potential for helpful longer-term effects

  3. Changes in the self during cognitive behavioural therapy for social anxiety disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Bree; Peters, Lorna

    2017-03-01

    A consistent feature across cognitive-behavioural models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is the central role of the self in the emergence and maintenance of the disorder. The strong emphasis placed on the self in these models and related empirical research has also been reflected in evidence-based treatments for the disorder. This systematic review provides an overview of the empirical literature investigating the role of self-related constructs (e.g., self-beliefs, self-images, self-focused attention) proposed in cognitive models of SAD, before examining how these constructs are modified during and following CBT for SAD. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Guided by Stopa's (2009a, b) model of self, most studies examined change in self-related content, followed by change in self-related processing. No study examined change in self-structure. Pre- to post-treatment reductions were observed in self-related thoughts and beliefs, self-esteem, self-schema, self-focused attention, and self-evaluation. Change in self-related constructs predicted and/or mediated social anxiety reduction, however relatively few studies examined this. Papers were limited by small sample sizes, failure to control for depression symptoms, lack of waitlist, and some measurement concerns. Future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurobiological markers predicting treatment response in anxiety disorders: A systematic review and implications for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Lueken, Ulrike; Zierhut, Kathrin C; Hahn, Tim; Straube, Benjamin; Kircher, Tilo; Reif, Andreas; Richter, Jan; Hamm, Alfons; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Domschke, Katharina

    2016-07-01

    Anxiety disorders constitute the largest group of mental disorders with a high individual and societal burden. Neurobiological markers of treatment response bear potential to improve response rates by informing stratified medicine approaches. A systematic review was performed on the current evidence of the predictive value of genetic, neuroimaging and other physiological markers for treatment response (pharmacological and/or psychotherapeutic treatment) in anxiety disorders. Studies published until March 2015 were selected through search in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Embase, and CENTRAL. Sixty studies were included, among them 27 on genetic, 17 on neuroimaging and 16 on other markers. Preliminary evidence was found for the functional 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 genotypes, anterior cingulate cortex function and cardiovascular flexibility to modulate treatment outcome. Studies varied considerably in methodological quality. Application of more stringent study methodology, predictions on the individual patient level and cross-validation in independent samples are recommended to set the next stage of biomarker research and to avoid flawed conclusions in the emerging field of "Mental Health Predictomics". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetics of borderline personality disorder: systematic review and proposal of an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Amad, Ali; Ramoz, Nicolas; Thomas, Pierre; Jardri, Renaud; Gorwood, Philip

    2014-03-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is one of the most common mental disorders and is characterized by a pervasive pattern of emotional lability, impulsivity, interpersonal difficulties, identity disturbances, and disturbed cognition. Here, we performed a systematic review of the literature concerning the genetics of BPD, including familial and twin studies, association studies, and gene-environment interaction studies. Moreover, meta-analyses were performed when at least two case-control studies testing the same polymorphism were available. For each gene variant, a pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated using fixed or random effects models. Familial and twin studies largely support the potential role of a genetic vulnerability at the root of BPD, with an estimated heritability of approximately 40%. Moreover, there is evidence for both gene-environment interactions and correlations. However, association studies for BPD are sparse, making it difficult to draw clear conclusions. According to our meta-analysis, no significant associations were found for the serotonin transporter gene, the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene, or the serotonin 1B receptor gene. We hypothesize that such a discrepancy (negative association studies but high heritability of the disorder) could be understandable through a paradigm shift, in which "plasticity" genes (rather than "vulnerability" genes) would be involved. Such a framework postulates a balance between positive and negative events, which interact with plasticity genes in the genesis of BPD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predominant polarity as a course specifier for bipolar disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, André F; McIntyre, Roger S; Dimelis, Dimos; Gonda, Xenia; Berk, Michael; Nunes-Neto, Paulo R; Cha, Danielle S; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Angst, Jules; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N

    2014-07-01

    Predominant polarity (PP) is a proposed course specifier for bipolar disorder, which was not incorporated in the DSM-5 as a descriptor for the nosology of bipolar disorder (BD). Here we perform a systematic review of original studies about PP. A computerized search of MEDLINE/Pubmed, EMBASE and Web of Science databases from inception to October 6th, 2013 was performed with keywords, including 'bipolar disorder', 'polarity' and 'predominant polarity'. A total of 19 studies met inclusion criteria. A unifying definition and conceptualization for PP is lacking. A PP is found in approximately half of BD patients. Most studies that included type I BD patients found the manic PP to be more prevalent, while studies that included type II BD participants found a higher prevalence of depressive PP. The depressive PP has been consistently associated with a depressive onset of illness, a delayed diagnosis of BD, type II BD and higher rates of suicidal acts. The manic PP is associated with a younger onset of illness, a first episode manic/psychotic and a higher rate of substance abuse. Evidence suggests that PP may influence responses to acute treatment for bipolar depression. Furthermore, evidences indicate that PP should be considered for the selection of maintenance treatments for BD. There are few prospective studies on PP. There were disparate definitions for PP across studies. The concept of PP provides relevant information for clinicians. Future studies should investigate the genetic and biological underpinnings of PP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rigour of development of clinical practice guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Arianna; Girlanda, Francesca; Barbui, Corrado

    2015-03-15

    There is an increasing concern about the quality of clinical practice guidelines. Because no information is available on the rigour of development of clinical practice guidelines for bipolar disorder, we carried out a systematic review of those focusing on its pharmacological treatment. We searched the National Guideline Clearinghouse, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and CINHAL for guidelines published from 2003 to 2014. The quality of each guideline was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II). Fourteen guidelines were appraised. The overall quality of included guidelines varied considerably, both within and across AGREE II domains. Overall, six guidelines were rated as "recommended", two "recommended with modifications", and six were not recommended according to AGREE II ratings. The mean score for rigour of development was 46.8% of the maximum possible score, with no guidelines scoring the maximum score in this domain. Guidelines with lower editorial independence scores also had lower rigour of development scores, whereas those with higher-quality domain scores scored high in both domains. As current appraisal focused on guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder, it will be important to critically assess the rigour of development of other guidelines for bipolar and other psychiatric disorders. Health care providers, policy makers, physicians and patients alike need to be aware of the variability in guideline quality and identify the high-quality guidelines that meet their needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Acupuncture to Treat Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, A. G.; Pires, G. N.; Andersen, M. L.; Tufik, S.; Hachul, H.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disorders are commonly observed among postmenopausal women, with negative effects on their quality of life. The search for complementary therapies for sleep disorders during postmenopausal period is of high importance, and acupuncture stands out as an appropriate possibility. The present review intended to systematically evaluate the available literature, compiling studies that have employed acupuncture as treatment to sleep disorders in postmenopausal women. A bibliographic search was performed in PubMed/Medline and Scopus. Articles which had acupuncture as intervention, sleep related measurements as outcomes, and postmenopausal women as target population were included and evaluated according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool and to the STRICTA guidelines. Out of 89 search results, 12 articles composed our final sample. A high heterogeneity was observed among these articles, which prevented us from performing a meta-analysis. Selected articles did not present high risk of bias and had a satisfactory compliance rate with STRICTA guidelines. In general, these studies presented improvements in sleep-related variables. Despite the overall positive effects, acupuncture still cannot be stated as a reliable treatment for sleep-related complaints, not due to inefficacy, but rather limited evidence. Nevertheless, results are promising and new comprehensive and controlled studies in the field are encouraged. PMID:26366181

  9. Job rotation designed to prevent musculoskeletal disorders and control risk in manufacturing industries: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Comper, Maria Luiza Caires; Sparer, Emily H; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2017-01-01

    To better understand job rotation in the manufacturing industry, we completed a systematic review asking the following questions: 1) How do job-rotation programs impact work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and related risk control for these MSDs, as well as psychosocial factors? and 2) How best should the job rotation programs be designed? We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Business Source Premier, ISI Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, PsyINFO, Scopus, and SciELO databases for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Eligible studies were examined by two independent reviewers for relevance (population of manufacturing workers, outcomes of musculoskeletal disorders, physical factors, psychosocial factors, and strategies used in job-rotation implantation) and methodological quality rating. From 10,809 potential articles, 71 were read for full text analysis. Of the 14 studies included for data extraction, two were non-randomized control trial studies, one was a case-control study, and 11 were cross-sectional comparisons. Only one, with a case-control design, was scored with good methodological quality. Currently, weak evidence exists supporting job rotation as a strategy for the prevention and control of musculoskeletal disorders. Job rotation did not appear to reduce the exposure of physical risk factors; yet, there are positive correlations between job rotation and higher job satisfaction. Worker training has been described as a crucial component of a successful job-rotation program. The studies reported a range of parameters used to implement and measure job-rotation programs. More rigorous studies are needed to better understand the full impact of job rotation on production and health. CRD42014013319. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quality of life as an outcome of opioid use disorder treatment: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bray, Jeremy W; Aden, Brandon; Eggman, Ashley A; Hellerstein, Leah; Wittenberg, Eve; Nosyk, Bohdan; Stribling, Judy C; Schackman, Bruce R

    2017-05-01

    The recent opioid epidemic has prompted renewed interest in opioid use disorder treatment, but there is little evidence regarding health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) outcomes in treatment programs. Measuring HRQoL represents an opportunity to consider outcomes of opioid use disorder treatment that are more patient-centered and more relevant to overall health than abstinence alone. We conducted a systematic literature review to explore the extent to which the collection of HRQoL by opioid treatment programs is documented in the treatment program literature. We searched PubMed, Embase PsycINFO and Web of Science for papers published between 1965 and 2015 that reported HRQoL outcome measures from substance abuse treatment programs. Of the 3014 unduplicated articles initially identified for screening, 99 articles met criteria for further review. Of those articles, 7 were unavailable in English; therefore 92 articles were reviewed. Of these articles, 44 included any quality-of-life measure, 17 of which included validated HRQoL measures, and 10 supported derivation of quality-adjusted life year utility weights. The most frequently used validated measure was the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Non-U.S. and more recent studies were more likely to include a measure of HRQoL. HRQoL measures are rarely used as outcomes in opioid treatment programs. The field should incorporate HRQoL measures as standard practice, especially measures that can be used to derive utility weights, such as the SF-12 or EQ-5D. These instruments provide policy makers with evidence on the impact of programs on patients' lives and with data to quantify the value of investing in opioid use disorder treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Internet-based interventions for eating disorders in adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This systematic review evaluates the efficacy of internet-based interventions for the treatment of different eating disorders in adults. Method A search for peer reviewed journal articles detailing Randomised Control Trials (RCT) and Controlled Trials (CT) addressing participants with eating disorders aged at least 16 was completed in the electronic databases Web of Science, PsycInfo and PubMed. The quality of the included articles was assessed, results were reviewed and effect sizes and corresponding confidence intervals were calculated. Results Eight studies, including a total of N = 609 participants, fulfilled the selection criteria and were included. The majority of treatments applied in these studies were based on CBT principles. Six studies described guided self-help interventions that showed significant symptom reduction in terms of primary and secondary outcomes regarding eating behaviour and abstinence rates. These studies produced significant medium to high effect sizes both within and between the groups after utilisation of guided self-help programs or a self-help book backed up with supportive e-mails. The two remaining studies utilised a specific writing task or e-mail therapy that did not follow a structured treatment program. Here, no significant effects could be found. Treatment dropout rates ranged from 9% to 47.2%. Furthermore, reductions in other symptoms, for example depression and anxiety, and an increase in quality of life were found by four studies. Conclusions Overall, the results support the value of internet-based interventions that use guided self-help to tackle eating disorders, but further research is needed due to the heterogeneity of the studies. PMID:23919625

  12. Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders in musicians: a systematic review of incidence and prevalence.

    PubMed

    Zaza, C

    1998-04-21

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders cause pain, disability and loss of employment for many workers, including musicians. Although performing arts medicine is a growing field, the health problems of musicians remain under-recognized and under-researched. Therefore, the author undertook a systematic review of published information on the incidence and prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) in classical musicians. Seven databases were searched for the period 1980 to 1996. The main textbook and performing arts medicine journals were searched manually, as were reference lists of all relevant papers. The author also contacted individuals familiar with the literature of performing arts medicine. Studies were included for review if they reported PRMD incidence or prevalence in classical musicians. Of the 24 studies identified, 18 cross-sectional surveys and cohort studies were reviewed. The author subjectively assessed the studies using criteria modified from an existing evaluation scale and used 4 criteria for data combination. On the basis of prevalence values from the eligible studies, chi 2 tests for heterogeneity were performed. Only one study estimated PRMD incidence. Ten of the 17 prevalence studies were ineligible for data combination, because of low response rates and other methodological problems. In the 7 eligible studies, PRMD point prevalence ranged from 39% to 87% in adult musicians and from 34% to 62% in secondary school music students. The best estimates of PRMD prevalence were derived from the 3 studies that excluded mild complaints; these studies indicated that PRMD prevalence was 39% and 47% in adults and 17% in secondary school music students respectively. Statistical combination of data across studies within each demographic category was not possible. Available data indicate that the prevalence of PRMD in adult classical musicians is comparable to the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders reported for other

  13. Deep brain stimulation and treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Bourgon, Javier; Martino, Juan; Sierra Peña, María; Infante Ceberio, Jon; Martínez Martínez, M Ángeles; Ocón, Roberto; Menchón, José Manuel; Crespo Facorro, Benedicto; Vázquez-Barquero, Alfonso

    2017-07-01

    At least 10% of patients with Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD) are refractory to psychopharmacological treatment. The emergence of new technologies for the modulation of altered neuronal activity in Neurosurgery, deep brain stimulation (DBS), has enabled its use in severe and refractory OCD cases. The objective of this article is to review the current scientific evidence on the effectiveness and applicability of this technique to refractory OCD. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify the main characteristics of deep brain stimulation, its use and applicability as treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Therefore, we reviewed PubMed/Medline, Embase and PsycINFO databases, combining the key-words 'Deep brain stimulation', 'DBS' and 'Obsessive-compulsive disorder' 'OCS'. The articles were selected by two of the authors independently, based on the abstracts, and if they described any of the main characteristics of the therapy referring to OCD: applicability; mechanism of action; brain therapeutic targets; efficacy; side-effects; co-therapies. All the information was subsequently extracted and analysed. The critical analysis of the evidence shows that the use of DBS in treatment-resistant OCD is providing satisfactory results regarding efficacy, with assumable side-effects. However, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of any single brain target over another. Patient selection has to be done following analyses of risks/benefits, being advisable to individualize the decision of continuing with concomitant psychopharmacological and psychological treatments. The use of DBS is still considered to be in the field of research, although it is increasingly used in refractory-OCD, producing in the majority of studies significant improvements in symptomatology, and in functionality and quality of life. It is essential to implement random and controlled studies regarding its long-term efficacy, cost-risk analyses and cost/benefit. Copyright

  14. Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders in musicians: a systematic review of incidence and prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Zaza, C

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders cause pain, disability and loss of employment for many workers, including musicians. Although performing arts medicine is a growing field, the health problems of musicians remain under-recognized and under-researched. Therefore, the author undertook a systematic review of published information on the incidence and prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) in classical musicians. METHODS: Seven databases were searched for the period 1980 to 1996. The main textbook and performing arts medicine journals were searched manually, as were reference lists of all relevant papers. The author also contacted individuals familiar with the literature of performing arts medicine. Studies were included for review if they reported PRMD incidence or prevalence in classical musicians. Of the 24 studies identified, 18 cross-sectional surveys and cohort studies were reviewed. The author subjectively assessed the studies using criteria modified from an existing evaluation scale and used 4 criteria for data combination. On the basis of prevalence values from the eligible studies, chi 2 tests for heterogeneity were performed. RESULTS: Only one study estimated PRMD incidence. Ten of the 17 prevalence studies were ineligible for data combination, because of low response rates and other methodological problems. In the 7 eligible studies, PRMD point prevalence ranged from 39% to 87% in adult musicians and from 34% to 62% in secondary school music students. The best estimates of PRMD prevalence were derived from the 3 studies that excluded mild complaints; these studies indicated that PRMD prevalence was 39% and 47% in adults and 17% in secondary school music students respectively. Statistical combination of data across studies within each demographic category was not possible. INTERPRETATION: Available data indicate that the prevalence of PRMD in adult classical musicians is comparable to the prevalence of work

  15. A systematic review of sensory processing interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Case-Smith, Jane; Weaver, Lindy L; Fristad, Mary A

    2015-02-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit co-occurring sensory processing problems and receive interventions that target self-regulation. In current practice, sensory interventions apply different theoretic constructs, focus on different goals, use a variety of sensory modalities, and involve markedly disparate procedures. Previous reviews examined the effects of sensory interventions without acknowledging these inconsistencies. This systematic review examined the research evidence (2000-2012) of two forms of sensory interventions, sensory integration therapy and sensory-based intervention, for children with autism spectrum disorders and concurrent sensory processing problems. A total of 19 studies were reviewed: 5 examined the effects of sensory integration therapy and 14 sensory-based intervention. The studies defined sensory integration therapies as clinic-based interventions that use sensory-rich, child-directed activities to improve a child's adaptive responses to sensory experiences. Two randomized controlled trials found positive effects for sensory integration therapy on child performance using Goal Attainment Scaling (effect sizes ranging from .72 to 1.62); other studies (Levels III-IV) found positive effects on reducing behaviors linked to sensory problems. Sensory-based interventions are characterized as classroom-based interventions that use single-sensory strategies, for example, weighted vests or therapy balls, to influence a child's state of arousal. Few positive effects were found in sensory-based intervention studies. Studies of sensory-based interventions suggest that they may not be effective; however, they did not follow recommended protocols or target sensory processing problems. Although small randomized controlled trials resulted in positive effects for sensory integration therapies, additional rigorous trials using manualized protocols for sensory integration therapy are needed to evaluate effects for children with autism

  16. A systematic review of interventions on body image and disordered eating outcomes among women in midlife.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Smith, Helena; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Rumsey, Nichola; Harcourt, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating are widely recognized as issues that warrant attention among women in midlife, particularly the development and delivery of effective interventions. This article systematically reviews existing research on interventions among midlife women on body image and disordered eating outcomes, in order to inform intervention delivery and provide strategic directions for future research. Fourteen electronic databases were searched for articles published between 1992 and 2015 that evaluated interventions with nonclinical samples of women (M age 35-55 years) in controlled trials with at least one body image measure. Data were extracted and evaluated, and the methodological quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. From 7,475 records identified, nine articles evaluating 11 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Seven interventions significantly improved body image at post-test (d's = 0.19-2.22), with significant improvements on disordered eating achieved by two of these interventions (d's = 0.90-1.72). Sustained improvements were achieved by three interventions that employed a multisession, therapeutically based, group intervention format; two with sustained body image and disordered eating improvements, and one with sustained body image improvements only (d's = 0.55-1.21; 2 weeks to 6 months). Methodological quality varied between studies. To date, three interventions have demonstrated sustained improvements and are indicated for practitioners aiming to improve body image and disordered eating among women in midlife. Replication and more rigorous randomised controlled trials are required to enhance the methodological quality of intervention studies in this field. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Systematic review of tools to measure outcomes for young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    McConachie, Helen; Parr, Jeremy R; Glod, Magdalena; Hanratty, Jennifer; Livingstone, Nuala; Oono, Inalegwu P; Robalino, Shannon; Baird, Gillian; Beresford, Bryony; Charman, Tony; Garland, Deborah; Green, Jonathan; Gringras, Paul; Jones, Glenys; Law, James; Le Couteur, Ann S; Macdonald, Geraldine; McColl, Elaine M; Morris, Christopher; Rodgers, Jacqueline; Simonoff, Emily; Terwee, Caroline B; Williams, Katrina

    2015-06-01

    The needs of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are complex and this is reflected in the number and diversity of outcomes assessed and measurement tools used to collect evidence about children's progress. Relevant outcomes include improvement in core ASD impairments, such as communication, social awareness, sensory sensitivities and repetitiveness; skills such as social functioning and play; participation outcomes such as social inclusion; and parent and family impact. To examine the measurement properties of tools used to measure progress and outcomes in children with ASD up to the age of 6 years. To identify outcome areas regarded as important by people with ASD and parents. The MeASURe (Measurement in Autism Spectrum disorder Under Review) research collaboration included ASD experts and review methodologists. We undertook systematic review of tools used in ASD early intervention and observational studies from 1992 to 2013; systematic review, using the COSMIN checklist (Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments) of papers addressing the measurement properties of identified tools in children with ASD; and synthesis of evidence and gaps. The review design and process was informed throughout by consultation with stakeholders including parents, young people with ASD, clinicians and researchers. The conceptual framework developed for the review was drawn from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, including the domains 'Impairments', 'Activity Level Indicators', 'Participation', and 'Family Measures'. In review 1, 10,154 papers were sifted - 3091 by full text - and data extracted from 184; in total, 131 tools were identified, excluding observational coding, study-specific measures and those not in English. In review 2, 2665 papers were sifted and data concerning measurement properties of 57 (43%) tools were extracted from 128 papers. Evidence for the measurement properties of the reviewed

  18. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Terrorist Attacks.

    PubMed

    Paz García-Vera, María; Sanz, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Sara

    2016-08-01

    This article was aimed at systematically reviewing the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of terrorist attacks. Electronic and hand searches of the literature identified 35 studies addressing PTSD prevalence based on validated diagnostic interviews. Overall, in the year after terrorist attacks, 33% to 39% of direct victims developed PTSD, whereas the percentage of indirect victims with PTSD was lower (4% in the affected community, 5%-6% among emergency, rescue, and recovery workers, and 17%-29% among relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims), but nonetheless above the prevalence in the general population. With the passing of time, a significant reduction of PTSD can be expected in the affected community and in the emergency and rescue personnel, but not in the injured victims, in the relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims, and in nontraditional, more vulnerable disaster workers. The implications of these results for the psychological treatment of terrorism victims are discussed.

  19. Major depressive disorder in Africa and the Middle East: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Travers, Karin U; Pokora, Tiffany D; Cadarette, Sarah M; Mould, Joaquin F

    2013-10-01

    With major depressive disorder (MDD) associated with significant clinical, economic and health-related quality of life impact, we sought to systematically review and synthesize information relevant to the burden of MDD in Africa and the Middle East, from which published evidence is slim. Our literature search identified 54 publications assessing epidemiological (43), humanistic (5), clinical/treatment (7) or economic outcomes (2). General population MDD prevalence and that among chronic disease populations were similar in Africa and the Middle East. No MDD-related economic literature specific to Africa or the Middle East was identified. Five studies of humanistic outcomes were identified; four African studies documented significant reduction of health-related quality of life related to MDD. The frequency of certain risk factors for MDD, such as disease, trauma and associated stress, as well as patterns of MDD treatment, suggest the potential for a higher burden of disease in Africa and the Middle East than in western countries.

  20. Systematic review of the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Broadstock, Marita; Doughty, Carolyn; Eggleston, Matt

    2007-07-01

    The variable expression of autism over the lifespan is likely to lead to different symptoms and support requirements, and to distinct responses to pharmacotherapy treatment, in older patients compared to children. This systematic review considers the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment in managing autism spectrum disorder in adolescents and adults. Following a comprehensive search of literature published in English from 1980, methodological criteria were applied to identify studies designed to reliably assess treatment effectiveness. Only five double-blind, randomized controlled trials were eligible for appraisal. All had small sample sizes (mean = 30) and brief treatment duration of no more than 12 weeks. The paucity of trials and their methodological limitations means that there is only preliminary evidence about the short-term effectiveness of a few drug treatments for this age group. There was also a lack of reliable data reported on drug safety profiles. Methodological challenges and directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L

    2009-08-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all inclusion criteria. One small randomized controlled trial (n = 13) noted non-significant improvements in hyperactivity and stereotypy. The remaining five studies were small (n = 30, 22, 19, 9, and 1) with four reporting improvements in a wide range of outcomes including language and learning skills, parental observations of general health and behavior, a clinician-administered symptom scale, and clinical observations of anxiety. Due to the limitations of evidence from uncontrolled studies and the presence of only one small randomized controlled trial, there is currently insufficient scientific evidence to determine if omega-3 fatty acids are safe or effective for ASD.

  2. Advanced practice physiotherapy in patients with musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Desmeules, François; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; MacDermid, Joy C; Champagne, François; Hinse, Odette; Woodhouse, Linda June

    2012-06-21

    The convergence of rising health care costs and physician shortages have made health care transformation a priority in many countries resulting in the emergence of new models of care that often involve the extension of the scope of practice for allied health professionals. Physiotherapists in advanced practice/extended scope roles have emerged as key providers in such new models, especially in settings providing services to patients with musculoskeletal disorders. However, evidence of the systematic evaluation of advance physiotherapy practice (APP) models of care is scarce. A systematic review was done to update the evaluation of physiotherapists in APP roles in the management of patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Structured literature search was conducted in 3 databases (Medline, Cinahl and Embase) for articles published between 1980 and 2011. Included studies needed to present original quantitative data that addressed the impact or the effect of APP care. A total of 16 studies met all inclusion criteria and were included. Pairs of raters used four structured quality appraisal methodological tools depending on design of studies to analyse included studies. Included studies varied in designs and objectives and could be categorized in four areas: diagnostic agreement or accuracy compared to medical providers, treatment effectiveness, economic efficiency or patient satisfaction. There was a wide range in the quality of studies (from 25% to 93%), with only 43% of papers reaching or exceeding a score of 70% on the methodological quality rating scales. Their findings are however consistent and suggest that APP care may be as (or more) beneficial than usual care by physicians for patients with musculoskeletal disorders, in terms of diagnostic accuracy, treatment effectiveness, use of healthcare resources, economic costs and patient satisfaction. The emerging evidence suggests that physiotherapists in APP roles provide equal or better usual care in comparison to

  3. A systematic review on physical therapy interventions for patients with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Vanderlinden, Johan; De Hert, Marc; Adámkova, Milena; Skjaerven, Liv Helvik; Catalán-Matamoros, Daniel; Lundvik-Gyllensten, Amanda; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia; Ijntema, Rutger; Probst, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Since a distorted body experience and a sedentary lifestyle are central in the course of binge eating disorder (BED), physical therapy might be an interesting add-on treatment. The aim of this study was to systematically review randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating physical therapy on binge eating and physical and mental health in BED patients. EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Physiotherapy Evidence Database and Cochrane Library were searched from their inception until 15 August 2012 for relevant RCTs comparing physical therapy with a placebo condition, control intervention or standard care. Three RCTs involving 211 female community patients (age range: 25-63 years) met all selection criteria. Review data demonstrate that aerobic and yoga exercises reduce the number of binges and the body mass index (BMI) of BED patients. Aerobic exercise also reduces depressive symptoms. Only combining cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with aerobic exercise and not CBT alone reduces BMI. Combining aerobic exercise with CBT is more effective in reducing depressive symptoms than CBT alone. The limited number of available studies and the heterogeneity of the interventions limit overall conclusions and highlight the need for further research. Because of severe co-morbid psychiatric and physical conditions, binge eating disorder is one of the most difficult psychiatric conditions to treat. Both yoga and aerobic exercise have shown promise in reducing binge eating pathology and weight. Combining aerobic exercise with cognitive behavioural therapy seems more effective in reducing depressive symptoms than cognitive behavioural therapy alone.

  4. Cognitive functioning and deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) in major psychiatric disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kedzior, Karina Karolina; Gierke, Lioba; Gellersen, Helena Marie; Berlim, Marcelo T

    2016-04-01

    Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation method mostly utilised in the treatment of major depression. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the literature on the cognitive effects of DTMS applied with the H-coil system in major psychiatric disorders. Following a literature search in PsycInfo and PubMed (any time to December 2015), 13 out of 32 studies on DTMS and cognitive functioning were included in the current review. Three studies included 38 healthy participants, eight studies included 158 unipolar or bipolar depression patients and two studies included 45 schizophrenia patients. Low-frequency DTMS (1-3 sessions) had little effect on cognitive functioning in healthy participants. The most consistent cognitive and clinical improvements were reported in the short-term (after 20 daily sessions of high-frequency DTMS with H1-coil) in studies with major depression patients. There was also a trend towards a short-term cognitive and clinical improvement in studies with schizophrenia patients. High-frequency DTMS might improve cognitive functioning and alleviate clinical symptoms in the short-term, particularly in major depression. However, this conclusion is based on data from mostly uncontrolled, open-label studies with patients receiving concurrent antidepressants or antipsychotics. Randomised, sham-controlled trials are needed to investigate the magnitude of the cognitive outcomes of DTMS in the short-term and beyond the daily stimulation phase in major psychiatric disorders.

  5. Reasons and subjective effects of cannabis use among people with psychotic disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gómez Pérez, Laura; Santacana, Anna Mané; Bergé Baquero, Daniel; Pérez-Solá, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is a frequent problem among people with psychotic disorders that has been related to a worse prognosis. Understanding the reasons of cannabis use may help to develop comprehensive treatments and, as a result, improve the psychosis course. A systematic review of studies published in English and Spanish language from 1990 until March 2012 describing reasons for and subjective effects of cannabis use in patients with psychosis were reviewed. However, only those studies in which cannabis use was one of the three main substances studied were included. Initially, 73 studies, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria, were identified. Most of the studies include heterogeneous patients, at different illness stages, and a few studies included a non-psychotic comparison group. The most common reasons for cannabis use were those related with social activities, mood disturbance, relaxation and getting high. The most common reasons for cannabis use in patients with psychosis were related with social activities, mood disturbances, relaxation and getting high. However, a more homogeneous methodology need to be established, including different illness stages, to facilitate the interventions to reduce cannabis use in all phases of psychotic disorders development.

  6. Counselling and self-management therapies for temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, R F C P; Ferreira, M Â F; Barbosa, G A S; Calderon, P S

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate the effectiveness of counselling and other self-management-based therapies on muscle and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain relief and increasing the functional abilities of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A systematic literature review was conducted by three independent reviewers and included articles published up to 2012. PubMed and Cochrane Library electronic databases were used in addition to hand-searching to assess clinical outcomes for counselling and self-management approaches for TMD treatment. The review yielded 581 records that were narrowed down to 7. All included studies were classified as blind-randomized controlled clinical trials. The selected articles analysed revealed that counselling was able to improve tenderness upon masticatory muscle palpation and maximum mouth opening with and without pain in patients with TMD, with similar results to those of interocclusal appliances approaches. Thus, counselling- and self-management-based therapies could be considered a conservative low-cost and beneficial treatment alternative for treating TMD to potentially improve psychological domains and remove harmful behaviours for the control of the signs and symptoms of TMD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prevalence and risk of experiences of intimate partner violence among people with eating disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bundock, Louise; Howard, Louise M; Trevillion, Kylee; Malcolm, Estelle; Feder, Gene; Oram, Siân

    2013-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk of lifetime and past year intimate partner violence (IPV) among males and females with eating disorders. Systematic review. We searched 15 electronic databases, supplemented by hand searching, citation tracking, updating a review on victimisation and mental disorder and expert recommendations. Eight papers were included, involving 6775 females and 4857 males. Individual studies reported that eating disorders are associated with a high prevalence and increased odds of lifetime IPV among both males and females. Evidence is lacking on eating disorder and past year IPV, on whether associations between eating disorder and IPV vary by type of IPV, and temporality. More research is needed to investigate the strength and nature of the association between eating disorders and IPV, including with regards to the direction of causality between eating disorders and IPV, and whether associations are mediated by childhood abuse. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Centric relation-intercuspal position discrepancy and its relationship with temporomandibular disorders. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Silva, Antonio; Tobar-Reyes, Julio; Vivanco-Coke, Sheilah; Pastén-Castro, Eduardo; Palomino-Montenegro, Hernán

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between centric relation-intercuspal position discrepancy (CR-ICP discrepancy) and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), by systematically reviewing the literature. A systematic research was performed between 1960 and 2016 based on electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Scopus, EBSCOhost, BIREME, Lilacs and Scielo, including all languages. Analytical observational clinical studies were identified. Two independent authors selected the articles. PICO format was used to analyze the studies. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to verify the quality of the evidence. Four hundred and sixty-seven potentially eligible articles were identified. Twenty studies were analyzed, being grouped according to intervention in studies in orthodontic patients (n = 3) and studies in subjects without intervention (n = 17). Quality of evidence was low, with an average score of 3.36 according to Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. In most studies, the presence of CR-ICP discrepancy is associated with the presence of muscle (pain) and joint disorders (noise, disc displacement, pain, crepitus, osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis). However, the lack of consistency of the results reported reduces the validity of the studies making it impossible to draw any definite conclusions. Because of the heterogeneity of the design and methodology and the low quality of the articles reviewed, it is not possible to establish an association between CR-ICP discrepancy and TMD. The consequence of CR-ICP discrepancy on the presence of TMD requires further research, well-defined and validated diagnostic criteria and rigorous scientific methodologies. Longitudinal studies are needed to identify CR-ICP discrepancy as a possible risk factor for the presence of TMD.

  9. A Systematic Review of Naltrexone for Attenuating Alcohol Consumption in Women with Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Canidate, Shantrel S; Carnaby, Giselle D; Cook, Christa L; Cook, Robert L

    2017-03-01

    Several clinical trials have evaluated naltrexone as a treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but few have focused on women. The aim of this review was to systematically review and summarize the evidence regarding the impact of naltrexone compared to placebo for attenuating alcohol consumption in women with an AUD. A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Alcohol Studies Database to identify relevant peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between January 1990 and August 2016. Seven published trials have evaluated the impact of naltrexone on drinking outcomes in women distinct from men; 903 alcohol-dependent or heavy drinking women were randomized to receive once daily oral or depot (injectable) naltrexone or placebo with/without behavioral intervention. Two studies examining the quantity of drinks per day observed trends toward reduction in drinking quantity among women who received naltrexone versus placebo. The 4 studies examining the frequency of drinking had mixed results, with 1 study showing a trend that favored naltrexone, 2 showing a trend that favored placebo, and 1 that showed no difference. Two of the 3 studies examining time to relapse observed trends that tended to favor naltrexone for time to any drinking and time to heavy drinking among women who received naltrexone versus placebo. While the growing body of evidence suggests a variety of approaches to treat AUD, the impact of naltrexone to combat AUD in women is understudied. Taken together, the results suggest that naltrexone may lead to modest reductions in quantity of drinking and time to relapse, but not on the frequency of drinking in women. Future research should incorporate sophisticated study designs that examine gender differences and treatment effectiveness among those diagnosed with an AUD and present data separately for men and women. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. [Risk Factors for Disability Pensioning Caused by Mental Disorders - A Systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Roski, C; Romppel, M; Grande, G

    2017-06-01

    Background: Meanwhile, mental disorders are the main reason for receiving a disability pension. The present study aimed at providing an overview of the German literature on characteristics and factors related to ERMD and pointing out the current state in this field of research. Revealing parameters that are accompanied by an ERMD is a precondition to prospectively prevent this trend. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted from 2001 through to 2014. All results regarding German statutory pension insurants pensioned due to mental disorders after 2001 were included. Studies were considered if they reported 2 or more relevant results. Research design was not limited, except for excluding anonymous questionnaires. Results: 20 studies were found meeting eligibility criteria. All included studies were based on secondary analyses of data derived from the German statutory pension insurance. By means of gender-specific regression analyses the level of qualification and the geographical region were unveiled to be significant predictors of the ERMD. Basically, most reported results were descriptive or explorative. Besides various single results and evidence for interactions, frequently reported results are that: (i) female insurants get pensioned more frequently due to mental disorders than male insurants, (ii) affective disorders are the most frequent diagnoses, (iii) insurants with mental disorders are younger than insurants with somatic disorders when they get pensioned and (iv) insurants with schizophrenic disorders are younger than insurants with other mental disorders when they get pensioned. The utilisation of rehabilitative services before getting pensioned is limited at 50%. Conclusion: This work demonstrates a lack of empirical evidence of how (and what) disability risks are associated with ERMD in Germany. Furthermore, our results illustrate that a major part of the insurants do not attend rehabilitative services before their retirement, even though

  11. Systematic review of appropriate cognitive assessment instruments used in clinical trials of schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Bakkour, Nadia; Samp, Jennifer; Akhras, Kasem; El Hammi, Emna; Soussi, Imen; Zahra, Fatma; Duru, Gérard; Kooli, Amna; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-05-30

    Cognitive dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a symptom in mental conditions including schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD), and bipolar disorder (BPD). Despite the many available cognitive assessment instruments, consensus is lacking on their appropriate use in clinical trials. We conducted a systematic literature review in Embase, PubMed/Medline and PsychINFO to identify appropriate cognitive function instruments for use in clinical trials of schizophrenia, MDD, and BPD. Instruments were identified from the articles. Instruments and articles were excluded if they did not address schizophrenia, MDD, or BPD. Instrument appropriateness was further assessed by the criteria of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative: test-retest reliability, utility, relationship to functional status, potential changeability to pharmacological agents, and tolerability and practicality for clinical trials. The database search yielded 173 articles describing 150 instruments used to assess cognitive function. Seventeen additional instruments were identified through Google and clinicaltrials.gov. Among all these, only 30 (18%) were deemed appropriate for use in the diseases of interest. Of these, 27 were studied in schizophrenia, one in MDD and two in BPD. These findings suggest the need for careful selection of appropriate cognitive assessment instruments, as not all may be valid in these disorders.

  12. Neuroimaging in social anxiety disorder: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Freitas-Ferrari, Maria Cecilia; Hallak, Jaime E C; Trzesniak, Clarissa; Filho, Alaor Santos; Machado-de-Sousa, João Paulo; Chagas, Marcos Hortes N; Nardi, Antonio E; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2010-05-30

    Brain imaging techniques allow the in vivo evaluation of the human brain, leading to a better understanding of its anatomical, functional and metabolic substrate. The aim of this current report is to present a systematic and critical review of neuroimaging findings in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). A literature review was performed in the PubMed Medline, Scielo and Web of Science databases using the following keywords: 'MRI', 'functional', 'tomography', 'PET', 'SPECT', 'spectroscopy', 'relaxometry', 'tractography' and 'voxel' crossed one by one with the terms 'social anxiety' and 'social phobic', with no limit of time. We selected 196 articles and 48 of them were included in our review. Most of the included studies have explored the neural response to facial expressions of emotion, symptoms provocation paradigms, and disorder-related abnormalities in dopamine or serotonin neurotransmission. The most coherent finding among the brain imaging techniques reflects increased activity in limbic and paralimbic regions in SAD. The predominance of evidence implicating the amygdala strengthens the notion that it plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of SAD. The observation of alterations in pre-frontal regions and the reduced activity observed in striatal and parietal areas show that much remains to be investigated within the complexity of SAD. Interesting, follow-up designed studies observed a decrease in perfusion in these same areas after either by pharmacological or psychological treatment. The medial prefrontal cortex provided additional support for a corticolimbic model of SAD pathophysiology, being a promising area to investigation. Furthermore, the dopaminergic and GABAergic hypotheses seem directed related to its physiopathology. The present review indicates that neuroimaging has contributed to a better understanding of the neurobiology of SAD. Although there were several methodological differences among the studies, the global results have often been

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and suicide risk in mood disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Longo, Lucia; Dominici, Giovanni; Serafini, Gianluca; Lamis, Dorian A; Sarris, Jerome; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2017-03-06

    Deficiency of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and an alteration between the ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs may contribute to the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder and unipolar depression. Recent epidemiological studies have also demonstrated an association between the depletion of PUFAs and suicide. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between PUFAs and suicide; assess whether the depletion of PUFAs may be considered a risk factor for suicidal behavior; in addition to detailing the potential use of PUFAs in clinical practice. We performed a systematic review on PUFAs and suicide in mood disorders, searching MedLine, Excerpta Medica, PsycLit, PsycInfo, and Index Medicus for relevant epidemiological, post-mortem, and clinical studies from January 1997 to September 2016. A total of 20 articles from peer-reviewed journals were identified and selected for this review. The reviewed studies suggest that subjects with psychiatric conditions have a depletion of omega-3 PUFAs compared to control groups. This fatty acid depletion has also been found to contribute to suicidal thoughts and behavior in some cases. However, large epidemiological studies have generally not supported this finding, as the depletion of omega-3 PUFAs was not statistically different between controls and patients diagnosed with a mental illness and/or who engaged in suicidal behavior. Increasing PUFA intake may be relevant in the treatment of depression, however in respect to the prevention of suicide, the data is currently not supportive of this approach. Changes in levels of PUFAs may however be a risk factor to evaluate when assessing for suicide risk. Clinical studies should be conducted to prospectively assess whether prescriptive long-term use of PUFAs in PUFA-deficient people with depression, may have a preventative role in attenuating suicide.

  14. Is there cardiac risk in panic disorder? An updated systematic review.

    PubMed

    Caldirola, Daniela; Schruers, Koen R; Nardi, Antonio E; De Berardis, Domenico; Fornaro, Michele; Perna, Giampaolo

    2016-04-01

    The recognized relationship between panic disorder (PD) and cardiac disorders (CDs) is not unequivocal. We reviewed the association between PD and coronary artery disease (CAD), arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies, and sudden cardiac death. We undertook an updated systematic review, according to PRISMA guidelines. Relevant studies dating from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2014, were identified using the PubMed database and a review of bibliographies. The psychiatric and cardiac diagnostic methodology used in each study was then to very selective inclusion criteria. Of 3044 studies, 14 on CAD, 2 on cardiomyopathies, and 1 on arrhythmias were included. Overall, the studies supported a panic-CAD association. Furthermore, in some of the studies finding no association between current full-blown PD and CAD, a broader susceptibility to panic, manifesting as past PD, current agoraphobia, or subthreshold panic symptoms, appeared to be relevant to the development of CAD. Preliminary data indicated associations between panic, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathies. The studies were largely cross-sectional and conducted in cardiological settings. Only a few included blind settings. The clinical conditions of patients with CDs and the qualifications of raters of psychiatric diagnoses were highly heterogeneous. CDs other than CAD had been insufficiently investigated. Our review supported a relationship between PD and CDs. Given the available findings and the involvement of the cardiorespiratory system in the pathophysiology of PD, an in-depth investigation into the panic-CDs association is highly recommended. This should contribute to improved treatment and prevention of cardiac events and/or mortality, linked to PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Researching Mental Health Disorders in the Era of Social Media: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Curcin, Vasa

    2017-01-01

    Background Mental illness is quickly becoming one of the most prevalent public health problems worldwide. Social network platforms, where users can express their emotions, feelings, and thoughts, are a valuable source of data for researching mental health, and techniques based on machine learning are increasingly used for this purpose. Objective The objective of this review was to explore the scope and limits of cutting-edge techniques that researchers are using for predictive analytics in mental health and to review associated issues, such as ethical concerns, in this area of research. Methods We performed a systematic literature review in March 2017, using keywords to search articles on data mining of social network data in the context of common mental health disorders, published between 2010 and March 8, 2017 in medical and computer science journals. Results The initial search returned a total of 5386 articles. Following a careful analysis of the titles, abstracts, and main texts, we selected 48 articles for review. We coded the articles according to key characteristics, techniques used for data collection, data preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, model construction, and model verification. The most common analytical method was text analysis, with several studies using different flavors of image analysis and social interaction graph analysis. Conclusions Despite an increasing number of studies investigating mental health issues using social network data, some common problems persist. Assembling large, high-quality datasets of social media users with mental disorder is problematic, not only due to biases associated with the collection methods, but also with regard to managing consent and selecting appropriate analytics techniques. PMID:28663166

  16. Researching Mental Health Disorders in the Era of Social Media: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wongkoblap, Akkapon; Vadillo, Miguel A; Curcin, Vasa

    2017-06-29

    Mental illness is quickly becoming one of the most prevalent public health problems worldwide. Social network platforms, where users can express their emotions, feelings, and thoughts, are a valuable source of data for researching mental health, and techniques based on machine learning are increasingly used for this purpose. The objective of this review was to explore the scope and limits of cutting-edge techniques that researchers are using for predictive analytics in mental health and to review associated issues, such as ethical concerns, in this area of research. We performed a systematic literature review in March 2017, using keywords to search articles on data mining of social network data in the context of common mental health disorders, published between 2010 and March 8, 2017 in medical and computer science journals. The initial search returned a total of 5386 articles. Following a careful analysis of the titles, abstracts, and main texts, we selected 48 articles for review. We coded the articles according to key characteristics, techniques used for data collection, data preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, model construction, and model verification. The most common analytical method was text analysis, with several studies using different flavors of image analysis and social interaction graph analysis. Despite an increasing number of studies investigating mental health issues using social network data, some common problems persist. Assembling large, high-quality datasets of social media users with mental disorder is problematic, not only due to biases associated with the collection methods, but also with regard to managing consent and selecting appropriate analytics techniques.

  17. Preterm Birth and Childhood Wheezing Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Been, Jasper V.; Lugtenberg, Marlies J.; Smets, Eline; van Schayck, Constant P.; Kramer, Boris W.; Mommers, Monique; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence implicates early life factors in the aetiology of non-communicable diseases, including asthma/wheezing disorders. We undertook a systematic review investigating risks of asthma/wheezing disorders in children born preterm, including the increasing numbers who, as a result of advances in neonatal care, now survive very preterm birth. Methods and Findings Two reviewers independently searched seven online databases for contemporaneous (1 January 1995–23 September 2013) epidemiological studies investigating the association between preterm birth and asthma/wheezing disorders. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation searches, and contacting international experts. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Effective Public Health Practice Project instrument. We pooled unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis, investigated “dose–response” associations, and undertook subgroup, sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses to assess the robustness of associations. We identified 42 eligible studies from six continents. Twelve were excluded for population overlap, leaving 30 unique studies involving 1,543,639 children. Preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of wheezing disorders in unadjusted (13.7% versus 8.3%; odds ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% CI 1.57–1.87; 26 studies including 1,500,916 children) and adjusted analyses (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29–1.65; 17 studies including 874,710 children). The risk was particularly high among children born very preterm (<32 wk gestation; unadjusted: OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.61–3.44; adjusted: OR 2.81, 95% CI 2.55–3.12). Findings were most pronounced for studies with low risk of bias and were consistent across sensitivity analyses. The estimated population-attributable risk of preterm birth for childhood wheezing disorders was ≥3.1%. Key limitations related to the paucity of data from low- and middle-income countries, and risk of residual

  18. The use of medications approved for Alzheimer's disease in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Daniel A; Frye, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 1 in 68 children in the United States. Even though it is a common disorder, only two medications (risperidone and aripiprazole) are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat symptoms associated with ASD. However, these medications are approved to treat irritability, which is not a core symptom of ASD. A number of novel medications, which have not been approved by the FDA to treat ASD have been used off-label in some studies to treat ASD symptoms, including medications approved for Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, some of these studies are high-quality, double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. This article systematically reviews studies published through April, 2014, which examined the use of Alzheimer's medications in ASD, including donepezil (seven studies, two were DBPC, five out of seven reported improvements), galantamine (four studies, two were DBPC, all reported improvements), rivastigmine (one study reporting improvements), tacrine (one study reporting improvements), and memantine (nine studies, one was DBPC, eight reported improvements). An evidence-based scale was used to rank each medication. Collectively, these studies reported improvements in expressive language and communication, receptive language, social interaction, irritability, hyperactivity, attention, eye contact, emotional lability, repetitive or self-stimulatory behaviors, motor planning, disruptive behaviors, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lethargy, overall ASD behaviors, and increased REM sleep. Reported side effects are reviewed and include irritability, gastrointestinal problems, verbal or behavioral regression, headaches, irritability, rash, tremor, sedation, vomiting, and speech problems. Both galantamine and memantine had sufficient evidence ranking for improving both core and associated symptoms of ASD. Given the lack of medications approved to treat ASD, further studies on

  19. Yoga on Our Minds: A Systematic Review of Yoga for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, Meera; Telles, Shirley; Doraiswamy, P. Murali

    2012-01-01

    Background: The demand for clinically efficacious, safe, patient acceptable, and cost-effective forms of treatment for mental illness is growing. Several studies have demonstrated benefit from yoga in specific psychiatric symptoms and a general sense of well-being. Objective: To systematically examine the evidence for efficacy of yoga in the treatment of selected major psychiatric disorders. Methods: Electronic searches of The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the standard bibliographic databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO, were performed through April 2011 and an updated in June 2011 using the keywords yoga AND psychiatry OR depression OR anxiety OR schizophrenia OR cognition OR memory OR attention AND randomized controlled trial (RCT). Studies with yoga as the independent variable and one of the above mentioned terms as the dependent variable were included and exclusion criteria were applied. Results: The search yielded a total of 124 trials, of which 16 met rigorous criteria for the final review. Grade B evidence supporting a potential acute benefit for yoga exists in depression (four RCTs), as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia (three RCTs), in children with ADHD (two RCTs), and Grade C evidence in sleep complaints (three RCTs). RCTs in cognitive disorders and eating disorders yielded conflicting results. No studies looked at primary prevention, relapse prevention, or comparative effectiveness versus pharmacotherapy. Conclusion: There is emerging evidence from randomized trials to support popular beliefs about yoga for depression, sleep disorders, and as an augmentation therapy. Limitations of literature include inability to do double-blind studies, multiplicity of comparisons within small studies, and lack of replication. Biomarker and neuroimaging studies, those comparing yoga with standard pharmaco- and psychotherapies, and studies of long-term efficacy are needed to fully translate the promise of yoga for enhancing mental

  20. Indicators of patients with major depressive disorder in need of highly specialized care: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Krugten, Frédérique C W; Kaddouri, Meriam; Goorden, Maartje; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Bockting, Claudi L H; Peeters, Frenk P M L; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2017-01-01

    Early identification of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) that cannot be managed by secondary mental health services and who require highly specialized mental healthcare could enhance need-based patient stratification. This, in turn, may reduce the number of treatment steps needed to achieve and sustain an adequate treatment response. The development of a valid tool to identify patients with MDD in need of highly specialized care is hampered by the lack of a comprehensive understanding of indicators that distinguish patients with and without a need for highly specialized MDD care. The aim of this study, therefore, was to systematically review studies on indicators of patients with MDD likely in need of highly specialized care. A structured literature search was performed on the PubMed and PsycINFO databases following PRISMA guidelines. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and determined the quality of the identified studies. Three reviewers independently executed data extraction by using a pre-piloted, standardized extraction form. The resulting indicators were grouped by topical similarity, creating a concise summary of the findings. The systematic search of all databases yielded a total of 7,360 references, of which sixteen were eligible for inclusion. The sixteen papers yielded a total of 48 unique indicators. Overall, a more pronounced depression severity, a younger age of onset, a history of prior poor treatment response, psychiatric comorbidity, somatic comorbidity, childhood trauma, psychosocial impairment, older age, and a socioeconomically disadvantaged status were found to be associated with proxies of need for highly specialized MDD care. Several indicators are associated with the need for highly specialized MDD care. These indicators provide easily measurable factors that may serve as a starting point for the development of a valid tool to identify patients with MDD in need of highly specialized care.

  1. Workplace interventions for common mental disorders: a systematic meta-review.

    PubMed

    Joyce, S; Modini, M; Christensen, H; Mykletun, A; Bryant, R; Mitchell, P B; Harvey, S B

    2016-03-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are the leading cause of sickness absence and long-term work incapacity in most developed countries. The present study aimed to carry out a systematic meta-review examining the effectiveness of workplace mental health interventions, defined as any intervention that a workplace may either initiate or facilitate that aims to prevent, treat or rehabilitate a worker with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety or both. Relevant reviews were identified via a detailed systematic search of academic and grey literature databases. All articles were subjected to a rigorous quality appraisal using the AMSTAR assessment. Of the 5179 articles identified, 140 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 20 were deemed to be of moderate or high quality. Together, these reviews analysed 481 primary research studies. Moderate evidence was identified for two primary prevention interventions; enhancing employee control and promoting physical activity. Stronger evidence was found for CBT-based stress management although less evidence was found for other secondary prevention interventions, such as counselling. Strong evidence was also found against the routine use of debriefing following trauma. Tertiary interventions with a specific focus on work, such as exposure therapy and CBT-based and problem-focused return-to-work programmes, had a strong evidence base for improving symptomology and a moderate evidence base for improving occupational outcomes. Overall, these findings demonstrate there are empirically supported interventions that workplaces can utilize to aid in the prevention of common mental illness as well as facilitating the recovery of employees diagnosed with depression and/or anxiety.

  2. Indicators of patients with major depressive disorder in need of highly specialized care: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kaddouri, Meriam; Goorden, Maartje; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Peeters, Frenk P. M. L.; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Early identification of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) that cannot be managed by secondary mental health services and who require highly specialized mental healthcare could enhance need-based patient stratification. This, in turn, may reduce the number of treatment steps needed to achieve and sustain an adequate treatment response. The development of a valid tool to identify patients with MDD in need of highly specialized care is hampered by the lack of a comprehensive understanding of indicators that distinguish patients with and without a need for highly specialized MDD care. The aim of this study, therefore, was to systematically review studies on indicators of patients with MDD likely in need of highly specialized care. Methods A structured literature search was performed on the PubMed and PsycINFO databases following PRISMA guidelines. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and determined the quality of the identified studies. Three reviewers independently executed data extraction by using a pre-piloted, standardized extraction form. The resulting indicators were grouped by topical similarity, creating a concise summary of the findings. Results The systematic search of all databases yielded a total of 7,360 references, of which sixteen were eligible for inclusion. The sixteen papers yielded a total of 48 unique indicators. Overall, a more pronounced depression severity, a younger age of onset, a history of prior poor treatment response, psychiatric comorbidity, somatic comorbidity, childhood trauma, psychosocial impairment, older age, and a socioeconomically disadvantaged status were found to be associated with proxies of need for highly specialized MDD care. Conclusions Several indicators are associated with the need for highly specialized MDD care. These indicators provide easily measurable factors that may serve as a starting point for the development of a valid tool to identify patients with MDD in need of highly

  3. Poverty and common mental disorders in low and middle income countries: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lund, Crick; Breen, Alison; Flisher, Alan J; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Corrigall, Joanne; Joska, John A; Swartz, Leslie; Patel, Vikram

    2010-08-01

    In spite of high levels of poverty in low and middle income countries (LMIC), and the high burden posed by common mental disorders (CMD), it is only in the last two decades that research has emerged that empirically addresses the relationship between poverty and CMD in these countries. We conducted a systematic review of the epidemiological literature in LMIC, with the aim of examining this relationship. Of 115 studies that were reviewed, most reported positive associations between a range of poverty indicators and CMD. In community-based studies, 73% and 79% of studies reported positive associations between a variety of poverty measures and CMD, 19% and 15% reported null associations and 8% and 6% reported negative associations, using bivariate and multivariate analyses respectively. However, closer examination of specific poverty dimensions revealed a complex picture, in which there was substantial variation between these dimensions. While variables such as education, food insecurity, housing, social class, socio-economic status and financial stress exhibit a relatively consistent and strong association with CMD, others such as income, employment and particularly consumption are more equivocal. There are several measurement and population factors that may explain variation in the strength of the relationship between poverty and CMD. By presenting a systematic review of the literature, this paper attempts to shift the debate from questions about whether poverty is associated with CMD in LMIC, to questions about which particular dimensions of poverty carry the strongest (or weakest) association. The relatively consistent association between CMD and a variety of poverty dimensions in LMIC serves to strengthen the case for the inclusion of mental health on the agenda of development agencies and in international targets such as the millenium development goals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mind-Body Therapy for Military Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cushing, Robin E; Braun, Kathryn L

    2017-09-07

    About a third of service members returning from post-9/11 deployment in Afghanistan and Iraq report combat-related mental health conditions, but many do not seek conventional treatment. Mind-body therapies have been offered as alternative approaches to decreasing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but no review of studies with veterans of post-9/11 operations was found. The objective of this study was to fill that gap. A systematic literature review was conducted following the preferred items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed MeSH terms were used to capture articles reporting on the military population (veteran and veterans) with PTSD who received a portable mind-body intervention (e.g., mindfulness, mind-body therapy, and yoga). PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched. Studies were included if participants were a mixed group of war veterans, as long as some post-9/11 veterans were included. In addition, participants must have had a diagnosis of PTSD or subthreshold PTSD, and the PTSD must have been attributable to combat, rather than another event, such as sexual trauma or natural disaster. Of 175 records identified, 15 met inclusion criteria. Studies reported on seated or gentle yoga that included breath work, meditation, mantra repetition, or breathing exercises. For 14 of the 15 studies, study retention was 70% or higher. Overall, studies reported significant improvements in PTSD symptoms in participants in these interventions. Although each study included post-9/11 veterans, about 85% of participants were from other conflicts, predominantly Vietnam. Although findings were positive, future studies are needed to evaluate the short- and long-term impact of mind-body therapies on larger samples of post-9/11 veterans and to address research questions related to broadening service member and veteran participation in these therapies.

  5. Measuring Habitual Physical Activity in Neuromuscular Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Moreno, Aura Cecilia; Newman, Jane; Charman, Sarah J.; Catt, Michael; Trenell, Michael I.; Gorman, Grainne S.; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2017-01-01

    Background: Free-living or habitual physical activity (HPA) refers to someone’s performance in his or her free-living environment. Neuromuscular disorders (NMD) manifest through HPA, and the observation of HPA can be used to identify clinical risks and to quantify outcomes in research. This review summarizes and analyses previous studies reporting the assessment of HPA in NMD, and may serve as the basis for evidence-based decision-making when considering assessing HPA in this population. Methods: A systematic review was performed to identify all studies related to HPA in NMD, followed by a critical appraisal of the assessment methodology and a final review of the identified HPA tools. Results: A total of 22 studies were selected, reporting on eight different direct tools (or activity monitors) and ten structured patient-reported outcomes. Overall, HPA patterns in NMD differ from healthy control populations. There was a noticeable lack of validation studies for these tools and outcome measures in NMD. Very little information regarding feasibility and barriers for the application of these tools in this population have been published. Conclusions: The variety and heterogeneity of tools and methods in the published literature makes the comparison across different studies difficult, and methodological guidelines are warranted. We propose a checklist of considerations for the assessment and reporting of HPA in NMD. PMID:28269791

  6. Parent implemented early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McConachie, Helen; Diggle, Tim

    2007-02-01

    Recent estimates concerning the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggest that at least one in 200 children is affected. This group of children and families have important service needs. The involvement of parents in implementing intervention strategies designed to help their autistic children has long been accepted as helpful. The potential benefits are increased skills and reduced stress for parents as well as children. This research review focused on interventions for children aged 1-6 years, and was carried out using systematic methodology: a comprehensive search of psychological, educational and biomedical databases, as well as bibliographies and reference lists of key articles, contact with experts in the field, and hand search of key journals. Only studies which involved a concurrent element of control were included. The review found very few studies that had adequate research design from which to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of parent-implemented early intervention. Both randomized and controlled studies tended to suggest that parent training leads to improved child communicative behaviour, increased maternal knowledge of autism, enhanced maternal communication style and parent child interaction, and reduced maternal depression. It seems that parent training can successfully contribute to intervention for young children with ASD. However, the review highlights the need for improved research in this area.

  7. Generalized Anxiety Disorder, worry and attention to threat: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Huw; Yiend, Jenny; Hirsch, Colette R

    2017-06-01

    Among anxious populations, attention has been demonstrated to be preferentially biased to threatening material compared to neutral or other valenced material. Individuals who have high levels of trait worry, such as those with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), may be biased to threat but research has produced equivocal findings. This review aimed to systematically review the extant experimental literature to establish the current evidence of attentional bias to threat among trait worriers compared to healthy controls and other clinical populations. Twenty-nine published articles were included in the final review. There was strong evidence of a bias to threat among GAD patients compared to other groups and this was found across most experimental paradigms. Few studies had investigated this bias in non-clinical trait worriers. Among GAD patients this bias to threat was most strongly evidenced when visual threat material was in a verbal-linguistic format (i.e., words) rather than when in pictorial form (i.e., images or faces). The bias was also found across several domains of negative material, supporting the general nature of worry. Further research should look to examine the specific components of the threat bias in GAD, as well as investigating the bias to threat in trait worriers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between Breast Feeding and Paediatric Sleep Disordered Breathing: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Garcia, Cecilia; Hernandez, Ivonne Angelica; Major, Paul; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Breast feeding has been suggested as a potential protective factor against childhood snoring and sleep disordered breathing (SDB). SDB can have major health consequences. The objective of this systematic review is to synthesise the available literature concerning any potential association between infant feeding methods and SDB in young children. Five electronic databases were searched. All searches were inclusive until August 5, 2016. Two authors independently reviewed potentially relevant articles for eligibility. Any prospective or retrospective study, case-control study, cohort study, clinical trial, and cross-sectional study that evaluated the association between infant feeding methods and SDB were included. Data on study design, aim of study, sample size, study population, assessment tool, infant feeding methods, and outcome measures were extracted. Nine studies fulfilled the criteria to be finally included in this review, only cohorts and cross-sectional studies were identified. While seven of the selected studies reported a statistically significant association between breast feeding and reduced risk of SDB, the remaining two studies did not report any association. The main methodological limitation was high heterogeneity in the diagnostic criteria and assessment tools to identify SDB and limited data collection on infant feeding methods. The current evidence may point to a protective association, however, as uncertainty is moderate, any suggestion that breast feeding may or may not decrease the risk of SDB is currently unwarranted. More research on the topic is required to resolve some of the contradictions between included studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Psychological treatments for concurrent posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Debora; Vedel, Ellen; Ehring, Thomas; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2012-04-01

    This article gives an overview of research into psychological treatments for concurrent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance used disorder (SUD), with a special focus on the effectiveness of treatments addressing both disorders compared to treatments addressing one of the disorders alone. In addition, a distinction is made between trauma-focused versus non-trauma-focused therapies for concurrent PTSD and SUD. The databases Embase, Psychinfo, Medline and Web of science were searched for relevant articles. In total, seventeen studies were identified evaluating ten treatments protocols (six trauma-focused and four non-trauma-focused treatment approaches). In general, the studies showed pre-post reductions for PTSD and/or SUD symptoms. Although most treatments for concurrent PTSD and SUD did not prove to be superior to regular SUD treatments, there are some promising preliminary results suggesting that some patients might benefit from trauma-focused interventions. However, the lack of methodologically sound treatment trials makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Methodological limitations are discussed, along with recommendations for future research.

  10. Efficacy of Fifteen Emerging Interventions for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Olivia; Varker, Tracey; Forbes, David; Phelps, Andrea; Dell, Lisa; DiBattista, Ashley; Ralph, Naomi; O'Donnell, Meaghan

    2016-02-01

    Although there is an abundance of novel interventions for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), often their efficacy remains unknown. This systematic review assessed the evidence for 15 new or novel interventions for the treatment of PTSD. Studies that investigated changes to PTSD symptoms following the delivery of any 1 of the 15 interventions of interest were identified through systematic literature searches. There were 19 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this study. Eligible studies were assessed against methodological quality criteria and data were extracted. The majority of the 19 studies were of poor quality, hampered by methodological limitations, such as small sample sizes and lack of control group. There were 4 interventions, however, stemming from a mind-body philosophy (acupuncture, emotional freedom technique, mantra-based meditation, and yoga) that had moderate quality evidence from mostly small- to moderate-sized randomized controlled trials. The active components, however, of these promising emerging interventions and how they related to or were distinct from established treatments remain unclear. The majority of emerging interventions for the treatment of PTSD currently have an insufficient level of evidence supporting their efficacy, despite their increasing popularity. Further well-designed controlled trials of emerging interventions for PTSD are required.

  11. Predictors of outcomes of psychological treatments for disordered gambling: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Merkouris, S S; Thomas, S A; Browning, C J; Dowling, N A

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review aimed to synthesise the evidence relating to pre-treatment predictors of gambling outcomes following psychological treatment for disordered gambling across multiple time-points (i.e., post-treatment, short-term, medium-term, and long-term). A systematic search from 1990 to 2016 identified 50 articles, from which 11 socio-demographic, 16 gambling-related, 21 psychological/psychosocial, 12 treatment, and no therapist-related variables, were identified. Male gender and low depression levels were the most consistent predictors of successful treatment outcomes across multiple time-points. Likely predictors of successful treatment outcomes also included older age, lower gambling symptom severity, lower levels of gambling behaviours and alcohol use, and higher treatment session attendance. Significant associations, at a minimum of one time-point, were identified between successful treatment outcomes and being employed, ethnicity, no gambling debt, personality traits and being in the action stage of change. Mixed results were identified for treatment goal, while education, income, preferred gambling activity, problem gambling duration, anxiety, any psychiatric comorbidity, psychological distress, substance use, prior gambling treatment and medication use were not significantly associated with treatment outcomes at any time-point. Further research involving consistent treatment outcome frameworks, examination of treatment and therapist predictor variables, and evaluation of predictors across long-term follow-ups is warranted to advance this developing field of research.

  12. Sleep Characteristics in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Román, Amparo; Hita-Yáñez, Eva; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disturbances have been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but such relationship is still unclear. The results from the studies conducted do not provide enough evidence to support a sleep physiology inherent to ADHD. This study tries to determine if that sleep physiology really exists by comparing children with ADHD and control children in some sleep parameters. Methods: A search was conducted in several databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed and PsycINFO), and a manual search, to retrieve all the articles available from 1987 until March 2014. Of 8,678 non-duplicate studies retrieved, 11 studies met the inclusion and methodological quality criteria. Two meta-analyses were performed with eight of those studies, depending on data provided by them: polysomnographic or actigraphic. A fixed-effects model, and the standardized mean difference (SMD) as the index of effect size, were used in both meta-analyses. Results: Significant differences were found only in the meta-analysis with polysomnography as outcome. Children with ADHD were found to spend more time in stage 1 sleep than controls (pooled SMD = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.08–0.55, p value = 0.009). Conclusions: Although few differences in sleep between children with ADHD and controls have been found in this review, further studies are required on this matter. Those studies should consider some variables discussed in this review, in order to obtain useful and reliable conclusions for research and clinical practice. Particularly, the influence of assessment criteria and ADHD subtypes in the sleep characteristics of children with ADHD should be addressed. Citation: Díaz-Román A, Hita-Yáñez E, Buela-Casal G. Sleep characteristics in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: systematic review and meta-analyses. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(5):747–756. PMID:26951416

  13. Job Rotation Designed to Prevent Musculoskeletal Disorders and Control Risk in Manufacturing Industries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Comper, Maria Luiza Caires; Sparer, Emily H.; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2017-01-01

    To better understand job rotation in the manufacturing industry, we completed a systematic review asking the following questions: 1) How do job-rotation programs impact work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and related risk control for these MSDs, as well as psychosocial factors? and 2) How best should the job rotation programs be designed? We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Business Source Premier, ISI Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, PsyINFO, Scopus, and SciELO databases for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Eligible studies were examined by two independent reviewers for relevance (population of manufacturing workers, outcomes of musculoskeletal disease, physical factors, psychosocial factors, and strategies used in job-rotation implantation) and methodological quality rating. From 10,809 potential articles, 71 were read for full text analysis. Of the 14 studies included for data extraction, two were non-randomized control trial studies, one was a case-control study, and 11 were cross-sectional comparisons. Only one, with a case-control design, was scored with good methodological quality. Currently, weak evidence exists supporting job rotation as a strategy for the prevention and control of musculoskeletal disorders. Job rotation did not appear to reduce the exposure of physical risk factors; yet, there are positive correlations between job rotation and higher job satisfaction. Worker training has been described as a crucial component of a successful job-rotation program. The studies reported a range of parameters used to implement and measure job-rotation programs. More rigorous studies are needed to better understand the full impact of job rotation on production and health. PMID:27633235

  14. Cytokine profile in the synovial fluid of patients with temporomandibular joint disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Vohra, Fahim; Ghanem, Alexis; Malmstrom, Hans; Romanos, Georgios E; Javed, Fawad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the cytokine profiles in the synovial fluid (SF) of patients with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJD). Databases were searched from 1965 till September 2015 using different combinations of the following key words: "Temporomandibular joint"; "Cytokine"; "disorder"; and "synovial fluid" and "inflammation". Titles and abstracts of studies identified using the above-described protocol were screened and checked for agreement. Full-texts of articles judged by title and abstract to be relevant were read and independently evaluated. Hand-searching of the reference lists of potentially relevant original and review articles was also performed. The pattern of the present systematic review was customized to mainly summarize the relevant data. Fifteen studies were included. In 12 studies, cytokine profile of patients with TMJD was assessed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; and in 2 studies, histological analysis was performed to assess the cytokine profile of patients with TMJD. Patients with TMJD presented raised levels of interleukin (IL)-6 in 8 studies, IL-1beta (1β) in 5 studies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in 5 studies. Two studies showed no significant difference in TNF-α levels in patients with and without TMJD; and IL-1β levels were comparable in patients with and without TMJD in 2 studies. Raised levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, and IFN-γ in the SF have been associated with inflammation in patients with TMJD. Cytokines IL-10, osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor/osteoprotegerin (OCIF/OPG), and VEGF found in the SF of TMJs could have an anti-inflammatory effect.

  15. Validated Screening Tools for Common Mental Disorders in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Grace; De Silva, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A wide range of screening tools are available to detect common mental disorders (CMDs), but few have been specifically developed for populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Cross-cultural application of a screening tool requires that its validity be assessed against a gold standard diagnostic interview. Validation studies of brief CMD screening tools have been conducted in several LMIC, but until now there has been no review of screening tools for all CMDs across all LMIC populations. Methods A systematic review with broad inclusion criteria was conducted, producing a comprehensive summary of brief CMD screening tools validated for use in LMIC populations. For each validation, the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was calculated as an easily comparable measure of screening tool validity. Average DOR results weighted by sample size were calculated for each screening tool, enabling us to make broad recommendations about best performing screening tools. Results 153 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Because many studies validated two or more screening tools, this corresponded to 273 separate validations against gold standard diagnostic criteria. We found that the validity of every screening tool tested in multiple settings and populations varied between studies, highlighting the importance of local validation. Many of the best performing tools were purposely developed for a specific population; however, as these tools have only been validated in one study, it is not possible to draw broader conclusions about their applicability in other contexts. Conclusions Of the tools that have been validated in multiple settings, the authors broadly recommend using the SRQ-20 to screen for general CMDs, the GHQ-12 for CMDs in populations with physical illness, the HADS-D for depressive disorders, the PHQ-9 for depressive disorders in populations with good literacy levels, the EPDS for perinatal depressive disorders, and the HADS-A for anxiety disorders

  16. The quality of life of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Danckaerts, Marina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Döpfner, Manfred; Hollis, Chris; Santosh, Paramala; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Taylor, Eric; Zuddas, Alessandro; Coghill, David

    2010-02-01

    Quality of life (QoL) describes an individual's subjective perception of their position in life as evidenced by their physical, psychological, and social functioning. QoL has become an increasingly important measure of outcome in child mental health clinical work and research. Here we provide a systematic review of QoL studies in children and young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and address three main questions. (1) What is the impact of ADHD on QoL? (2) What are the relationships between ADHD symptoms, functional impairment and the mediators and moderators of QoL in ADHD? (3) Does the treatment of ADHD impact on QoL? Databases were systematically searched to identify research studies describing QoL in ADHD. Thirty six relevant articles were identified. Robust negative effects on QoL are reported by the parents of children with ADHD across a broad range of psycho-social, achievement and self evaluation domains. Children with ADHD rate their own QoL less negatively than their parents and do not always seeing themselves as functioning less well than healthy controls. ADHD has a comparable overall impact on QoL compared to other mental health conditions and severe physical disorders. Increased symptom level and impairment predicts poorer QoL. The presence of comorbid conditions or psychosocial stressors helps explain these effects. There is emerging evidence that QoL improves with effective treatment. In conclusion, ADHD seriously compromises QoL especially when seen from a parents' perspective. QoL outcomes should be included as a matter of course in future treatment studies.

  17. The Effects of DSM-5 Criteria on Number of Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Isaac C.; Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has raised concerns about the number of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) according to DSM-IV-TR who may no longer qualify for diagnoses under the new DSM-5 criteria, published in May 2013. The current study systematically reviews 25 articles evaluating samples according to both DSM-IV-TR and…

  18. Feasibility and Effectiveness of Very Early Intervention for Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Jessica; Steiner, Amanda Mossman; Gengoux, Grace; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2015-01-01

    Early detection methods for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in infancy are rapidly advancing, yet the development of interventions for infants under two years with or at-risk for ASD remains limited. In order to guide research and practice, this paper systematically reviewed studies investigating interventions for infants under 24 months with or…

  19. A Systematic Review of Training Programs for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Single Subject Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Stephanie Y.; Smith, Veronica; Mirenda, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine research utilizing single subject research designs (SSRD) to explore the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase parents' ability to support communication and social development in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Method: Included studies were systematically…

  20. A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research: The Influence of School Context on Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwernan-Jones, Ruth; Moore, Darren A.; Cooper, Paul; Russell, Abigail Emma; Richardson, Michelle; Rogers, Morwenna; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken; Ford, Tamsin J.; Garside, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research explored contextual factors relevant to non-pharmacological interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in schools. We conducted meta-ethnography to synthesise 34 studies, using theories of stigma to further develop the synthesis. Studies suggested that the…

  1. Feasibility and Effectiveness of Very Early Intervention for Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Jessica; Steiner, Amanda Mossman; Gengoux, Grace; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2015-01-01

    Early detection methods for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in infancy are rapidly advancing, yet the development of interventions for infants under two years with or at-risk for ASD remains limited. In order to guide research and practice, this paper systematically reviewed studies investigating interventions for infants under 24 months with or…

  2. Threat Reappraisal as a Mediator of Symptom Change in Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Jasper A. J.; Julian, Kristin; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying mediators of therapeutic change is important to the development of interventions and augmentation strategies. Threat reappraisal is considered a key mediator underlying the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The present study systematically reviewed the evidence for the threat reappraisal…

  3. Effects of Activity Schedules on Challenging Behavior Exhibited in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lequia, Jenna; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy J.

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed studies implementing activity schedules to decrease challenging behavior of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 18 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of the effectiveness of activity schedules to…

  4. Threat Reappraisal as a Mediator of Symptom Change in Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Jasper A. J.; Julian, Kristin; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying mediators of therapeutic change is important to the development of interventions and augmentation strategies. Threat reappraisal is considered a key mediator underlying the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The present study systematically reviewed the evidence for the threat reappraisal…

  5. A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research: The Influence of School Context on Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwernan-Jones, Ruth; Moore, Darren A.; Cooper, Paul; Russell, Abigail Emma; Richardson, Michelle; Rogers, Morwenna; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken; Ford, Tamsin J.; Garside, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research explored contextual factors relevant to non-pharmacological interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in schools. We conducted meta-ethnography to synthesise 34 studies, using theories of stigma to further develop the synthesis. Studies suggested that the…

  6. The Effects of DSM-5 Criteria on Number of Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Isaac C.; Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has raised concerns about the number of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) according to DSM-IV-TR who may no longer qualify for diagnoses under the new DSM-5 criteria, published in May 2013. The current study systematically reviews 25 articles evaluating samples according to both DSM-IV-TR and…

  7. Effects of Activity Schedules on Challenging Behavior Exhibited in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lequia, Jenna; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy J.

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed studies implementing activity schedules to decrease challenging behavior of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 18 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of the effectiveness of activity schedules to…

  8. Prevalence of mental disorders and torture among Tibetan refugees: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Edward J; Singh, Sonal; Holtz, Timothy H; Chase, Robert M; Dolma, Sonam; Santa-Barbara, Joanna; Orbinski, James J

    2005-01-01

    Background Many Tibetan refugees flee Tibet in order to escape physical and mental hardships, and to access the freedoms to practice their culture and religion. We aimed to determine the prevalence of mental illnesses within the refugee population and determine the prevalence of previous torture reported within this population. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of 10 electronic databases from inception to May 2005. In addition, we searched the internet, contacted all authors of located studies, and contacted the Tibetan Government-in-exile, to locate unpublished studies. We included any study reporting on prevalence of mental illness within the Tibetan refugee populations. We determined study quality according to validation, translation, and interview administration. We calculated proportions with exact confidence intervals. Results Five studies that met our inclusion criteria (total n = 410). All studies were conducted in North India and 4 were specifically in adult populations. Four studies provided details on the prevalence of torture and previous imprisonment within the populations. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder ranged from 11–23%, anxiety ranged from 25–77%, and major depression ranged from 11.5–57%. Conclusion Our review indicates that the prevalence of serious mental health disorders within this population is elevated. The reported incidence of torture and imprisonment is a possible contributor to the illnesses. Non-government organizations and international communities should be aware of the human rights abuses being levied upon this vulnerable population and the mental health outcomes that may be associated with it. PMID:16280079

  9. Epidemiological and clinical variables related with the predominant polarity on bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, Jesús; Álvarez-Fernández, Marisol; Aguado-Bailón, Lidia; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2017-08-14

    Current classification of bipolar disorder (BD) in type i or type ii, however useful, may be insufficient to provide relevant clinical information in some patients. As a result, complementary classifications are being proposed, like the predominant polarity (PP) based, which is defined as a clear tendency in the patient to present relapses in the manic or depressive poles. We carried out a search in PubMed and Web of Science databases, following the Preferred Items for Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses -PRISMA- guidelines, to identify studies about BD reporting PP. The search is updated to June 2016. Initial search revealed 907 articles, of which 16 met inclusion criteria. Manic PP was found to be associated with manic onset, drug consumption prior to onset and a better response to atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. Depressive PP showed an association with depressive onset, more relapses, prolonged acute episodes, a greater suicide risk and a later diagnosis of BD. Depressive PP was also associated with anxiety disorders, mixed symptoms, melancholic symptoms and a wider use of quetiapine and lamotrigine. Few prospective studies. Variability in some results. PP may be useful as a supplement to current BD classifications. We have found consistent data on a great number of studies, but there is also contradictory information regarding PP. Further studies are needed, ideally of a prospective design and with a unified methodology. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrating Children with Psychiatric Disorders in the Classroom: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cossu, Giulia; Cantone, Elisa; Pintus, Mirra; Cadoni, Michela; Pisano, Anna; Otten, Roy; Kuijpers, Rowella; Pintus, Elisa; Sancassiani, Federica; Moro, Maria Francesca; Holzinger, Anita; Mereu, Alessandra; Preti, Antonio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Background: The school setting may be the optimal context for early screening of and intervention on child mental health problems, because of its large reach and intertwinement with various participants (child, teacher, parent, other community services). But this setting also exposes children to the risk of stigma, peer rejection and social exclusion. This systematic literature review investigates the efficacy of mental health interventions addressed to children and adolescents in school settings, and it evaluates which programs explicitly take into account social inclusion indicators. Method: Only randomized controlled trials conducted on clinical populations of students and carried out in school settings were selected: 27 studies overall. Most studies applied group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Results: Findings were suggestive of the effectiveness of school-based intervention programs in reducing symptoms of most mental disorders. Some evidence was found about the idea that effective studies on clinical populations may promote the social inclusion of children with an ongoing mental disorder and avoid the risk of being highly stigmatized.Conclusion: School programs are still needed that implement standardized models with verifiable and evidence-based practices involving the whole school community. PMID:25834627

  11. Integrating children with psychiatric disorders in the classroom: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Giulia; Cantone, Elisa; Pintus, Mirra; Cadoni, Michela; Pisano, Anna; Otten, Roy; Kuijpers, Rowella; Pintus, Elisa; Sancassiani, Federica; Moro, Maria Francesca; Holzinger, Anita; Mereu, Alessandra; Preti, Antonio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The school setting may be the optimal context for early screening of and intervention on child mental health problems, because of its large reach and intertwinement with various participants (child, teacher, parent, other community services). But this setting also exposes children to the risk of stigma, peer rejection and social exclusion. This systematic literature review investigates the efficacy of mental health interventions addressed to children and adolescents in school settings, and it evaluates which programs explicitly take into account social inclusion indicators. Only randomized controlled trials conducted on clinical populations of students and carried out in school settings were selected: 27 studies overall. Most studies applied group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Findings were suggestive of the effectiveness of school-based intervention programs in reducing symptoms of most mental disorders. Some evidence was found about the idea that effective studies on clinical populations may promote the social inclusion of children with an ongoing mental disorder and avoid the risk of being highly stigmatized. School programs are still needed that implement standardized models with verifiable and evidence-based practices involving the whole school community.

  12. Benefits of music therapy on behaviour disorders in subjects diagnosed with dementia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Romero, M; Jiménez-Palomares, M; Rodríguez-Mansilla, J; Flores-Nieto, A; Garrido-Ardila, E M; González López-Arza, M V

    2017-05-01

    Dementia is characterised by cognitive deterioration and the manifestation of psychological and behavioural symptoms, especially changes in perception, thought content, mood, and conduct. In addition to drug therapy, non-pharmacological treatments are used to manage these symptoms, and one of these latter treatments is music therapy. Since this novel technique in non-verbal, it can be used to treat patients with dementia at any stage, even when cognitive deterioration is very severe. Patients' responses to music are conserved even in the most advanced stages of the disease DEVELOPMENT: A literature research was carried out using the following databases: Academic Search Complete, PubMed, Science Direct y Dialnet. The period of publication was 2003 to 2013 and the search keywords were 'Music Therapy, Dementia, Behaviour, Behaviour Disorders y Behavioural Disturbances'. Out of the 2188 studies that were identified, 11 studies met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Music therapy is beneficial and improves behavior disorders, anxiety and agitation in subjects diagnosed with dementia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacological management of persistent hostility and aggression in persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Victoroff, Jeff; Coburn, Kerry; Reeve, Alya; Sampson, Shirlene; Shillcutt, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of aggressive behaviors is higher among persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) than among persons without such disorders. This phenomenon represents a risk to the well-being of patients, their families, and society. The authors undertook a systematic review of the English language literature to determine the efficacy of neuropharmacological agents for the management of hostility and aggression among persons with SSDs. The search combined findings from the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases. Ninety-two full text articles were identified that reported relevant findings. The American Academy of Neurology criteria were used to determine levels of evidence. Paliperidone-extended release is probably effective for the management of hostility among inpatients with SSDs who have not been preselected for aggression (Level B). Clozapine is possibly more effective than haloperidol for the management of overt aggression and possibly more effective than chlorpromazine for the management of hostility among inpatients with SSDs who have not been preselected for aggression (Level C). Clozapine is also possibly more effective than olanzapine or haloperidol for reducing aggression among selected physically assaultive inpatients (Level C). Adjunctive propranolol, valproic acid, and famotidine are possibly effective for reducing some aspects of hostility or aggression among inpatients with SSDs (Level C). Paliperidone-extended release currently appears to be the agent for the management of hostility among inpatients with SSDs for which there is the strongest evidence of efficacy.

  14. Prevalence of mental disorders and torture among Tibetan refugees: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mills, Edward J; Singh, Sonal; Holtz, Timothy H; Chase, Robert M; Dolma, Sonam; Santa-Barbara, Joanna; Orbinski, James J

    2005-11-09

    Many Tibetan refugees flee Tibet in order to escape physical and mental hardships, and to access the freedoms to practice their culture and religion. We aimed to determine the prevalence of mental illnesses within the refugee population and determine the prevalence of previous torture reported within this population. We performed a systematic literature search of 10 electronic databases from inception to May 2005. In addition, we searched the internet, contacted all authors of located studies, and contacted the Tibetan Government-in-exile, to locate unpublished studies. We included any study reporting on prevalence of mental illness within the Tibetan refugee populations. We determined study quality according to validation, translation, and interview administration. We calculated proportions with exact confidence intervals. Five studies that met our inclusion criteria (total n = 410). All studies were conducted in North India and 4 were specifically in adult populations. Four studies provided details on the prevalence of torture and previous imprisonment within the populations. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder ranged from 11-23%, anxiety ranged from 25-77%, and major depression ranged from 11.5-57%. Our review indicates that the prevalence of serious mental health disorders within this population is elevated. The reported incidence of torture and imprisonment is a possible contributor to the illnesses. Non-government organizations and international communities should be aware of the human rights abuses being levied upon this vulnerable population and the mental health outcomes that may be associated with it.

  15. Personality disorders, violence, and antisocial behavior: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongqin; Geddes, John R; Fazel, Seena

    2012-10-01

    The risk of antisocial outcomes in individuals with personality disorder (PD) remains uncertain. The authors synthesize the current evidence on the risks of antisocial behavior, violence, and repeat offending in PD, and they explore sources of heterogeneity in risk estimates through a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of observational studies comparing antisocial outcomes in personality disordered individuals with controls groups. Fourteen studies examined risk of antisocial and violent behavior in 10,007 individuals with PD, compared with over 12 million general population controls. There was a substantially increased risk of violent outcomes in studies with all PDs (random-effects pooled odds ratio [OR] = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.6 to 3.5). Meta-regression revealed that antisocial PD and gender were associated with higher risks (p = .01 and .07, respectively). The odds of all antisocial outcomes were also elevated. Twenty-five studies reported the risk of repeat offending in PD compared with other offenders. The risk of a repeat offense was also increased (fixed-effects pooled OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.2 to 2.7) in offenders with PD. The authors conclude that although PD is associated with antisocial outcomes and repeat offending, the risk appears to differ by PD category, gender, and whether individuals are offenders or not.

  16. Post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide risk: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Krysinska, Karolina; Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    There is a gap in the literature regarding suicide risk among traumatized individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and this article aims to systematically review literature on the relationship between PTSD and suicidal behavior and ideation. A meta-analysis of 50 articles that examined the association between PTSD and past and current suicidal ideation and behavior was conducted. There was no evidence for an increased risk of completed suicide in individuals with PTSD. PTSD was associated with an increased incidence of prior attempted suicide and prior and current suicidal ideation. Controlling for other psychiatric disorders (including depression) weakened, but did not eliminate, this association. The evidence indicates that there is an association between PTSD and suicidality with several factors, such as concurrent depression and the pre-trauma psychiatric condition, possibly mediating this relationship. There are significant clinical implications of the reported relationship for suicide risk assessment and therapy, and further studies might help to understand the mediating pathways between PTSD and increased suicide risk.

  17. Risk of depressive disorder following disasters and military deployment: systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonde, J P; Utzon-Frank, N; Bertelsen, M; Borritz, M; Eller, N H; Nordentoft, M; Olesen, K; Rod, N H; Rugulies, R

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies describe the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters, but less is known about the risk of major depression. To review the risk of depressive disorder in people surviving disasters and in soldiers returning from military deployment. A systematic literature search combined with reference screening identified 23 controlled epidemiological studies. We used random effects models to compute pooled odds ratios (ORs). The average OR was significantly elevated following all types of exposures: natural disaster OR = 2.28 (95% CI 1.30-3.98), technological disaster OR = 1.44 (95% CI 1.21-1.70), terrorist acts OR = 1.80 (95% CI 1.38-2.34) and military combat OR = 1.60 (95% CI 1.09-2.35). In a subset of ten high-quality studies OR was 1.41 (95% CI 1.06-1.87). Disasters and combat experience substantially increase the risk of depression. Whether psychological trauma per se or bereavement is on the causal path is unresolved. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  18. Childhood maltreatment and unfavourable clinical outcomes in bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Danese, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Bipolar disorder affects up to one in 25 individuals and identification of early risk indicators of negative outcomes could facilitate early detection of patients with greatest clinical needs and risk. We aimed to investigate the association between childhood maltreatment and key negative outcomes in patients with bipolar disorder. For this systematic review and meta-analysis we searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase to identify articles published before Jan 1, 2015, examining the association of maltreatment (physical, sexual, or emotional abuse, neglect, or family conflict) before age 18 years with clinical features and course of illness in bipolar disorder. Data were extracted from published reports and any missing information was requested from investigators. We did 12 independent random-effects meta-analyses to quantify the associations between childhood maltreatment and course of illness or clinical features. We initially identified 527 records and after unsuitable studies were removed, our search yielded 148 publications of which 30 were used in the meta-analysis. Patients with bipolar disorder and history of childhood maltreatment had greater mania severity (six studies, 780 participants; odds ratio [OR] 2·02, 95% CI 1·21-3·39, p=0·008), greater depression severity (eight studies, 1007 participants; 1·57, 1·25-1·99, p=0·0001), greater psychosis severity (seven studies, 1494 participants; 1·49, 1·10-2·04, p=0·011), higher risk of comorbidity with post-traumatic stress disorder (eight studies, 2494 participants; 3·60, 2·45-5·30, p<0·0001), anxiety disorders (seven studies, 5091 participants; 1·90, 1·39-2·61, p<0·0001), substance misuse disorders (11 studies, 5469 participants; 1·84, 1·41-2·39, p<0·0001), alcohol misuse disorder (eight studies, 5040 participants; 1·44, 1·13-1·83, p=0·003), earlier age of bipolar disorder onset (14 studies, 5733 participants; 1·85, 1·43-2·40, p<0·0001), higher risk of rapid cycling (eight studies

  19. Deep brain stimulation for disorders of consciousness: Systematic review of cases and ethics.

    PubMed

    Vanhoecke, Jonathan; Hariz, Marwan

    2017-08-24

    A treatment for patients suffering from prolonged severely altered consciousness is not available. The success of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in diseases such as Parkinson's, dystonia and essential tremor provided a renewed impetus for its application in Disorders of Consciousness (DoC). To evaluate the rationale for DBS in patients with DoC, through systematic review of literature containing clinical data and ethical considerations. Articles from PubMed, Embase, Medline and Web of Science were systematically reviewed. The outcomes of 78 individual patients reported in 19 articles from 1968 onwards were pooled and elements of ethical discussions were compared. There is no clear clinical evidence that DBS is a treatment for DoC that can restore both consciousness and the ability to communicate. In patients who benefitted, the outcome of DBS is often confounded by the time frame of spontaneous recovery from DoC. Difficult ethical considerations remain, such as the risk of increasing self-awareness of own limitations, without improving overall wellbeing, and the issues of proxy consent. DBS is far from being evident as a possible future therapeutic avenue for patients with DoC. Double-blind studies are lacking, and many clinical and ethical issues have to be addressed. In the rare cases when DBS for patients with DoC is considered, this needs to be evaluated meticulously on a case by case basis, with comprehensive overall outcome measures including psychological and quality-of-life assessments, and with the guidance of an ethical and interdisciplinary panel, especially in relation to proxy consent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmacologic treatment in pediatric functional abdominal pain disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Korterink, Judith J; Rutten, Juliette M T M; Venmans, Leonie; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M

    2015-02-01

    To systematically review literature assessing efficacy and safety of pharmacologic treatments in children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs). MEDLINE and Cochrane Database were searched for systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials investigating efficacy and safety of pharmacologic agents in children aged 4-18 years with AP-FGIDs. Quality of evidence was assessed using Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. We included 6 studies with 275 children (aged 4.5-18 years) evaluating antispasmodic, antidepressant, antireflux, antihistaminic, and laxative agents. Overall quality of evidence was very low. Compared with placebo, some evidence was found for peppermint oil in improving symptoms (OR 3.3 (95% CI 0.9-12.0) and for cyproheptadine in reducing pain frequency (relative risk [RR] 2.43, 95% CI 1.17-5.04) and pain intensity (RR 3.03, 95% CI 1.29-7.11). Compared with placebo, amitriptyline showed 15% improvement in overall quality of life score (P = .007) and famotidine only provides benefit in global symptom improvement (OR 11.0; 95% CI 1.6-75.5; P = .02). Polyethylene glycol with tegaserod significantly decreased pain intensity compared with polyethylene glycol only (RR 3.60, 95% CI 1.54-8.40). No serious adverse effects were reported. No studies were found concerning antidiarrheal agents, antibiotics, pain medication, anti-emetics, or antimigraine agents. Because of the lack of high-quality, placebo-controlled trials of pharmacologic treatment for pediatric AP-FGIDs, there is no evidence to support routine use of any pharmacologic therapy. Peppermint oil, cyproheptadine, and famotidine might be potential interventions, but well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A systematic review of treatments for Impulse Control Disorders and related behaviours in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tanwani, Puja; Fernie, Bruce A; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2015-02-28

    Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) are a set of behaviours characterised by impulsivity despite known harm. Related to ICDs is the dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), which is characterised by an addiction-like consumption of dopaminergic medication and punding. These behaviours all have an increased prevalence in Parkinson׳s disease (PD). The aim of this review is to identify treatments available for patients suffering from ICDs, DDS and punding in PD. Searches of The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Embase, Medline and PsychInfo were conducted, using the entire timescale available. Seven out of the 688 papers retrieved met the inclusion criteria and were considered in this systematic review. One class I study, one class II study, and five class IV studies were identified. All studies demonstrated a positive effect on ICDs in PD. Research in this field is still in its early stages. At present, there is insufficient evidence to recommend any treatment over another. There is a need for more methodologically robust research, using larger, more generalisable samples, randomisation and meaningful follow-up periods. In addition, the use of a validated outcome measures should be implemented in future research efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Static body postural misalignment in individuals with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Thaís C; Turci, Aline M; Pinheiro, Carina F; Sousa, Letícia M; Grossi, Débora B

    2014-01-01

    The association between body postural changes and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) has been widely discussed in the literature, however, there is little evidence to support this association. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between static body postural misalignment and TMD. A search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane, and Scopus databases including studies published in English between 1950 and March 2012. Cross-sectional, cohort, case control, and survey studies that assessed body posture in TMD patients were selected. Two reviewers performed each step independently. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. Twenty studies were analyzed for their methodological quality. Only one study was classified as a moderate quality study and two were classified as strong quality studies. Among all studies considered, only 12 included craniocervical postural assessment, 2 included assessment of craniocervical and shoulder postures,, and 6 included global assessment of body posture. There is strong evidence of craniocervical postural changes in myogenous TMD, moderate evidence of cervical postural misalignment in arthrogenous TMD, and no evidence of absence of craniocervical postural misalignment in mixed TMD patients or of global body postural misalignment in patients with TMD. It is important to note the poor methodological quality of the studies, particularly those regarding global body postural misalignment in TMD patients.

  3. Static body postural misalignment in individuals with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Thaís C; Turci, Aline M; Pinheiro, Carina F; Sousa, Letícia M; Grossi, Débora B

    2014-10-31

    The association between body postural changes and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) has been widely discussed in the literature, however, there is little evidence to support this association. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between static body postural misalignment and TMD. A search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane, and Scopus databases including studies published in English between 1950 and March 2012. Cross-sectional, cohort, case control, and survey studies that assessed body posture in TMD patients were selected. Two reviewers performed each step independently. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. Twenty studies were analyzed for their methodological quality. Only one study was classified as a moderate quality study and two were classified as strong quality studies. Among all studies considered, only 12 included craniocervical postural assessment, 2 included assessment of craniocervical and shoulder postures,, and 6 included global assessment of body posture. There is strong evidence of craniocervical postural changes in myogenous TMD, moderate evidence of cervical postural misalignment in arthrogenous TMD, and no evidence of absence of craniocervical postural misalignment in mixed TMD patients or of global body postural misalignment in patients with TMD. It is important to note the poor methodological quality of the studies, particularly those regarding global body postural misalignment in TMD patients.

  4. Static body postural misalignment in individuals with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Thaís C.; Turci, Aline M.; Pinheiro, Carina F.; Sousa, Letícia M.; Grossi, Débora B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between body postural changes and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) has been widely discussed in the literature, however, there is little evidence to support this association. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between static body postural misalignment and TMD. METHOD: A search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane, and Scopus databases including studies published in English between 1950 and March 2012. Cross-sectional, cohort, case control, and survey studies that assessed body posture in TMD patients were selected. Two reviewers performed each step independently. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. RESULTS: Twenty studies were analyzed for their methodological quality. Only one study was classified as a moderate quality study and two were classified as strong quality studies. Among all studies considered, only 12 included craniocervical postural assessment, 2 included assessment of craniocervical and shoulder postures,, and 6 included global assessment of body posture. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence of craniocervical postural changes in myogenous TMD, moderate evidence of cervical postural misalignment in arthrogenous TMD, and no evidence of absence of craniocervical postural misalignment in mixed TMD patients or of global body postural misalignment in patients with TMD. It is important to note the poor methodological quality of the studies, particularly those regarding global body postural misalignment in TMD patients. PMID:25590441

  5. A systematic review of the neurobiological underpinnings of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Winsper, Catherine; Marwaha, Steven; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Eyden, Julie; Singh, Swaran P

    2016-12-01

    Contemporary theories for the aetiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) take a lifespan approach asserting that inborn biological predisposition is potentiated across development by environmental risk factors. In this review, we present and critically evaluate evidence on the neurobiology of BPD in childhood and adolescence, compare this evidence to the adult literature, and contextualise within a neurodevelopmental framework. A systematic review was conducted to identify studies examining the neurobiological (i.e. genetic, structural neuroimaging, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological) correlates of BPD symptoms in children and adolescents aged 19 years or under. We identified, quality assessed, and narratively summarised 34 studies published between 1980 and June 2016. Similar to findings in adult populations, twin studies indicated moderate to high levels of heritability of BPD, and there was some evidence for gene-environment interactions. Also consistent with adult reports is that some adolescents with BPD demonstrated structural (grey and white matter) alterations in frontolimbic regions and neuropsychological abnormalities (i.e. reduced executive function and disturbances in social cognition). These findings suggest that neurobiological abnormalities observed in adult BPD may not solely be the consequence of chronic morbidity or prolonged medication use. They also provide tentative support for neurodevelopmental theories of BPD by demonstrating that neurobiological markers may be observed from childhood onwards and interact with environmental factors to increase risk of BPD in young populations. Prospective studies with a range of repeated measures are now required to elucidate the temporal unfurling of neurobiological features and further delineate the complex pathways to BPD.

  6. Does cochlear implantation improve speech recognition in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Humphriss, Rachel; Hall, Amanda; Maddocks, Jennefer; Macleod, John; Sawaya, Kathleen; Midgley, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    Cochlear implantation (CI) is a standard treatment for severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, consensus has yet to be reached on its effectiveness for hearing loss caused by auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). This review aims to summarize and synthesize current evidence of the effectiveness of CI in improving speech recognition in children with ANSD. Systematic review. A total of 27 studies from an initial selection of 237. All selected studies were observational in design, including case studies, cohort studies, and comparisons between children with ANSD and SNHL. Most children with ANSD achieved open-set speech recognition with their CI. Speech recognition ability was found to be equivalent in CI users (who previously performed poorly with hearing aids) and hearing-aid users. Outcomes following CI generally appeared similar in children with ANSD and SNHL. Assessment of study quality, however, suggested substantial methodological concerns, particularly in relation to issues of bias and confounding, limiting the robustness of any conclusions around effectiveness. Currently available evidence is compatible with favourable outcomes from CI in children with ANSD. However, this evidence is weak. Stronger evidence is needed to support cost-effective clinical policy and practice in this area.

  7. Examining the Interaction of Force and Repetition on Musculoskeletal Disorder Risk: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Sean; Heberger, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our aims were (a) to perform a systematic literature review of epidemiological studies that examined the interaction of force and repetition with respect to musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk, (b) to assess the relationship of force and repetition in fatigue failure studies of musculoskeletal tissues, and (c) to synthesize these findings. Background Many epidemiological studies have examined the effects of force and repetition on MSD risk; however, relatively few have examined the interaction between these risk factors. Method In a literature search, we identified 12 studies that allowed evaluation of a force−repetition interaction with respect to MSD risk. Identified studies were subjected to a methodological quality assessment and critical review. We evaluated laboratory studies of fatigue failure to examine tissue failure responses to force and repetition. Results Of the 12 epidemiological studies that tested a Force × Repetition interaction, 10 reported evidence of interaction. Based on these results, the suggestion is made that force and repetition may be interdependent in terms of their influence on MSD risk. Fatigue failure studies of musculoskeletal tissues show a pattern of failure that mirrors the MSD risk observed in epidemiological studies. Conclusions Evidence suggests that there may be interdependence between force and repetition with respect to MSD risk. Repetition seems to result in modest increases in risk for low−force tasks but rapid increases in risk for high−force tasks. This interaction may be representative of a fatigue failure process in affected tissues. PMID:23516797

  8. A systematic review of peer-mediated interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ya-Chih; Locke, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Background Peer mediated intervention (PMI) is a promising practice used to increase social skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). PMIs engage typically developing peers as social models to improve social initiations, responses, and interactions. Method The current study is a systematic review examining PMIs for children and adolescents with ASD conducted using group designs. Five studies met the pre-specified review inclusion criteria: four randomized controlled trials and one pre- and post-test design. Results Four of the studies were conducted in school settings, whereas one study was conducted in a camp setting. The studies all reported that participants improved in social skills (e.g., social initiations, social responses, social communication) post intervention. Additionally, sustainment, generalization, and fidelity of implementation were examined. Conclusion PMI is a promising approach to address social skills in children with ASD, and this approach can be conducted in meaningful real-word contexts, such as schools. Limitations of the studies as well as future directions are discussed. PMID:27807466

  9. Disentangling Working Memory Functioning in Mood States of Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Soraggi-Frez, Carolina; Santos, Flávia H.; Albuquerque, Pedro B.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) deficits are often reported in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). However, it is not clear about the nature of these WM deficits (update or serial order processes) and their association with each BD states (euthymic, mania, and depressive). This review investigated the association between BD patient's states and the functioning of WM components. For this purpose, we carried out a systematic review fulfilling a search in the databases Medline, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science using specific terms in the abstracts of the articles that generated 212 outcomes in the restricted period from 2005 to 2016. Twenty-three papers were selected, completely read, and analyzed using PICOS strategy. The mood episodes predicted deficits in different components of WM in BD patients (the phonological loop or visuospatial sketchpad) and were associated with different WM processes (updating and serial recall). Lower cognitive scores persist even in remission of symptoms. This result suggests that WM deficit apparently is stage-independent in BD patients. Furthermore, findings suggest that the neutral point on Hedonic Detector component of WM could be maladjusted by BD. PMID:28491042

  10. Reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of knee disorders: Evidence from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Décary, Simon; Ouellet, Philippe; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2016-12-01

    Clinicians often rely on physical examination tests to guide them in the diagnostic process of knee disorders. However, reliability of these tests is often overlooked and may influence the consistency of results and overall diagnostic validity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically review evidence on the reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of knee disorders. A structured literature search was conducted in databases up to January 2016. Included studies needed to report reliability measures of at least one physical test for any knee disorder. Methodological quality was evaluated using the QAREL checklist. A qualitative synthesis of the evidence was performed. Thirty-three studies were included with a mean QAREL score of 5.5 ± 0.5. Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Thessaly test for meniscal injuries reached moderate inter-rater reliability (k = 0.54). Based on moderate to excellent quality evidence, the Lachman for anterior cruciate ligament injuries reached moderate to excellent inter-rater reliability (k = 0.42 to 0.81). Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Tibiofemoral Crepitus, Joint Line and Patellofemoral Pain/Tenderness, Bony Enlargement and Joint Pain on Movement tests for knee osteoarthritis reached fair to excellent inter-rater reliability (k = 0.29 to 0.93). Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Lateral Glide, Lateral Tilt, Lateral Pull and Quality of Movement tests for patellofemoral pain reached moderate to good inter-rater reliability (k = 0.49 to 0.73). Many physical tests appear to reach good inter-rater reliability, but this is based on low-quality and conflicting evidence. High-quality research is required to evaluate the reliability of knee physical examination tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sexuality in eating disorders patients: etiological factors, sexual dysfunction and identity issues. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lelli, Lorenzo; Ricca, Valdo; Maggi, Mario

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community appears to be less interested in sexuality of eating disorders (EDs) as compared to other psychiatric or medical comorbidities. However, a clear association between sexual problems and ED psychopathology was reported from different perspectives. The overarching goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the general approach of the scientific literature toward the topic of sexuality and EDs. In particular, four different categories of research have been individuated, encompassing the role of puberty, and sexual abuse in the pathogenesis of the disorders, sexual dysfunctions, and the association between sexual orientation and EDs psychopathology. Timing of puberty with its hormonal consequences and the changes in the way persons perceive their own body represent a crucial period of life for the onset of the disorder. Sexual abuse, and especially childhood sexual abuse are well-recognized risk factors for the development of ED, determining a worse long-term outcome. Recent research overcome the approach that considers sexual activity of EDs patients, in terms of hypersexuality and dangerous sexual behaviors, considering the sexuality of EDs persons in terms of sexual desire, satisfaction, orgasm and pain. Results from this line of research are promising, and describe a clear relationship between sexual dysfunction and the core psychopathological features of EDs, such as body image disturbances. Finally, the analysis of the literature showed an association between sexual orientation and gender dysphoria with EDs psychopathology and pathological eating behaviors, confirming the validity of research developing new models of maintaining factors of EDs related to the topic of self-identity.

  12. Hippocampal structure and function in individuals with bipolar disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Otten, Mara; Meeter, Martijn

    2015-03-15

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a psychiatric disorder accompanied by deficits in declarative memory. Given the importance of the hippocampus in declarative memory, it is not surprising that BD patients have been reported to show hippocampal abnormalities. Review evidence about structural and functional hippocampal abnormalities in BD. Systematic review of studies comparing BD patients and healthy controls with respect to hippocampal structure or function. Twenty-five studies were included, together involving 1043 patients, 21 of which compared patients to controls. Decrease in hippocampal volume was found in four of 18 studies using adult samples, and two of three samples using adolescents. Four studies revealed localized hippocampal deficits. Meta-analysis revealed a significant but small effect with lower hippocampal volumes when comparing all BD patients with controls. Lithium treatment was associated with larger hippocampal volumes across studies. The three functional studies yielded contradictory evidence. Studies were only cross-sectional in nature and all used MRI or fMRI to investigate hippocampal volume or function. Heterogeneous patients groups and different methodologies for hippocampal segmentation, may have contributed to difficulties when comparing the different studies. There seems to be a small reduction in hippocampal volume in BD, which perhaps is more pronounced in early-onset BD and is counteracted by a neuroprotective effect of lithium treatment. However, how these structural abnormalities relate to functional deficits is largely unclear. Given the few functional neuroimaging studies and given the lack of congruence in these results, further investigation of especially hippocampal function in BD is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A systematic review of the comorbidity between Temporomandibular Disorders and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Robinson, L J; Durham, J; Newton, J L

    2016-04-01

    The most common cause of chronic oro-facial pain is a group of disorders collectively termed temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Chronic painful TMD is thought to be a 'central sensitivity syndrome' related to hypersensitivity of the nervous system, but the cause is unknown. A similar understanding is proposed for other unexplained conditions, including chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Exploring the comorbidity of the two conditions is a valuable first step in identifying potential common aetiological mechanisms or treatment targets. Systematic literature review. Studies were included if they recruited community or control samples and identified how many reported having both TMD and CFS, or if they recruited a sample of patients with either TMD or CFS and measured the presence of the other condition. Six papers met inclusion criteria. In studies of patients with CFS (n = 3), 21-32% reported having TMD. In a sample of people with CFS and fibromyalgia, 50% reported having TMD. Studies in people with TMD (n = 3) reported 0-43% having CFS. Studies in samples recruited from oro-facial pain clinics (n = 2) reported a lower comorbidity with CFS (0-10%) than a study that recruited individuals from a TMD self-help organisation (43%). The review highlights the limited standard of evidence addressing the comorbidity between oro-facial pain and CFS. There is a valuable signal that the potential overlap in these two conditions could be high; however, studies employing more rigorous methodology including standardised clinical assessments rather than self-report of prior diagnosis are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Homeopathy for anxiety and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of the research.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, K; Kirkwood, G; Rampes, H; Fisher, P; Richardson, J

    2006-07-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the clinical research evidence on homeopathy in the treatment of anxiety and anxiety disorders. A comprehensive search of major biomedical databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClNAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library; and of specialist complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) databases: AMED, CISCOM and Hom-Inform was conducted. Efforts were made to identify unpublished and ongoing research using relevant sources and experts in the field. Relevant research was categorised by study type and appraised according to study design. Clinical commentaries were obtained for studies reporting clinical outcomes. Eight randomised controlled studies were identified. The types of anxiety and anxiety disorders studied were test anxiety, generalised anxiety disorder and anxiety related to medical or physical conditions such as cancer or surgical procedures. Single case reports/studies were the most frequently encountered study type but other study types including uncontrolled trials/case series and surveys were also found. No relevant qualitative research was identified. A comprehensive search demonstrates that the evidence on the benefit of homeopathy in anxiety and anxiety disorders is limited. A number of studies of homeopathy in such conditions were located but the randomised controlled trials report contradictory results, are underpowered or provide insufficient details of methodology. Several uncontrolled and observational studies reported positive results including high levels of patient satisfaction but because of the lack of a control group, it is difficult to assess the extent to which any response is due to homeopathy. Adverse effects reported appear limited to 'remedy reactions' and included temporary worsening of symptoms and reappearance of old symptoms. On the basis of this review it is not possible to draw firm conclusions on the efficacy or effectiveness of homeopathy for anxiety. However, surveys suggest that homeopathy is quite frequently

  15. A systematic review of the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Bick, Debra

    2012-11-10

    The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries as a consequence, in part, of increased obstetric intervention and increasingly complex medical needs of women who become pregnant. Access to emergency obstetric care means that for the majority of women in these countries, an experience of severe maternal morbidity is unlikely to result in loss of life. However, little is known about the subsequent impact on postnatal psychological health resulting in an evidence gap to support provision of appropriate care for these women. There has recently been increasing recognition that childbirth can be a cause of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The combination of experiencing a life-threatening complication and its management may culminate in psychological trauma. This systematic review examined the association between women's experience of severe maternal morbidity during labour, at the time of giving birth or within the first week following birth, and PTSD and its symptoms. Relevant literature was identified through multiple databases, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Cochrane library and the British Library, using predetermined search strategies. The search terms included "post-traumatic stress disorder", "PTSD", "stress disorders, post-traumatic", "maternal morbidity", "pregnancy complications" "puerperal disorders", "obstetric labo(u)r complication", "postpartum h(a)emorrhage", "eclampsia". Studies identified were categorised according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was assessed using the relevant CASP appraisal tools. Eleven primary studies met review criteria. Evidence of a relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD/PTSD symptoms was inconsistent and findings varied between studies. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that severe pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for PTSD and its symptoms, an association possibly

  16. Prevalence and correlates of cognitive impairment in euthymic adults with bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Breda; Ward, Joey; Graham, Nicholas A; Deary, Ian J; Pell, Jill P; Smith, Daniel J; Evans, Jonathan J

    2016-11-15

    Previous reviews have identified medium-large group differences in cognitive performance in adults with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy peers, but the proportion with clinically relevant cognitive impairment has not yet been established. This review aimed to quantify the prevalence of cognitive impairment in euthymic adults with BD, and to describe sociodemographic, clinical and other factors that are significantly associated with cognitive impairment. Systematic literature review. The population was euthymic community-dwelling adults with BD, aged 18-70 years, and recruited consecutively or randomly. The outcome was cognitive impairment, relative to healthy population norms. Electronic databases and reference lists of relevant articles were searched, and authors were contacted. Original cross-sectional studies published in peer-reviewed English-language journals from January 1994 to February 2015 were included. Methodological bias and reporting bias were assessed using standard tools. A narrative synthesis is presented together with tables and forest plots. Thirty articles were included, of which 15 contributed prevalence data. At the 5th percentile impairment threshold, prevalence ranges were: executive function 5.3-57.7%; attention/working memory 9.6-51.9%; speed/reaction time 23.3-44.2%; verbal memory 8.2-42.1%; visual memory 11.5-32.9%. More severe or longstanding illness and antipsychotic medication were associated with greater cognitive impairment. The synthesis was limited by heterogeneity in cognitive measures and impairment thresholds, precluding meta-analysis. Cognitive impairment affects a substantial proportion of euthymic adults with BD. Future research with more consistent measurement and reporting will facilitate an improved understanding of cognitive impairment burden in BD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-traumatic stress disorder in older adults: a systematic review of the psychotherapy treatment literature.

    PubMed

    Dinnen, Stephanie; Simiola, Vanessa; Cook, Joan M

    2015-01-01

    Older adults represent the fastest growing segment of the US and industrialized populations. However, older adults have generally not been included in randomized clinical trials of psychotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This review examined reports of psychological treatment for trauma-related problems, primarily PTSD, in studies with samples of at least 50% adults aged 55 and older using standardized measures. A systematic review of the literature was conducted on psychotherapy for PTSD with older adults using PubMed, Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, PILOTS, and Google Scholar. A total of 42 studies were retrieved for full review; 22 were excluded because they did not provide at least one outcome measure or results were not reported by age in the case of mixed-age samples. Of the 20 studies that met review criteria, there were: 13 case studies or series, three uncontrolled pilot studies, two randomized clinical trials, one non-randomized concurrent control study and one post hoc effectiveness study. Significant methodological limitations in the current older adult PTSD treatment outcome literature were found reducing its internal validity and generalizability, including non-randomized research designs, lack of comparison conditions and small sample sizes. Select evidence-based interventions validated in younger and middle-aged populations appear acceptable and efficacious with older adults. There are few treatment studies on subsets of the older adult population including cultural and ethnic minorities, women, the oldest old (over 85), and those who are cognitively impaired. Implications for clinical practice and future research directions are discussed.

  18. Advanced practice physiotherapy in patients with musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The convergence of rising health care costs and physician shortages have made health care transformation a priority in many countries resulting in the emergence of new models of care that often involve the extension of the scope of practice for allied health professionals. Physiotherapists in advanced practice/extended scope roles have emerged as key providers in such new models, especially in settings providing services to patients with musculoskeletal disorders. However, evidence of the systematic evaluation of advance physiotherapy practice (APP) models of care is scarce. A systematic review was done to update the evaluation of physiotherapists in APP roles in the management of patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Methods Structured literature search was conducted in 3 databases (Medline, Cinahl and Embase) for articles published between 1980 and 2011. Included studies needed to present original quantitative data that addressed the impact or the effect of APP care. A total of 16 studies met all inclusion criteria and were included. Pairs of raters used four structured quality appraisal methodological tools depending on design of studies to analyse included studies. Results Included studies varied in designs and objectives and could be categorized in four areas: diagnostic agreement or accuracy compared to medical providers, treatment effectiveness, economic efficiency or patient satisfaction. There was a wide range in the quality of studies (from 25% to 93%), with only 43% of papers reaching or exceeding a score of 70% on the methodological quality rating scales. Their findings are however consistent and suggest that APP care may be as (or more) beneficial than usual care by physicians for patients with musculoskeletal disorders, in terms of diagnostic accuracy, treatment effectiveness, use of healthcare resources, economic costs and patient satisfaction. Conclusions The emerging evidence suggests that physiotherapists in APP roles provide equal

  19. Allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Celine; Koyama, Momoko; Ota, Erika; Swa, Toshiyuki; Mlunde, Linda B; Amiya, Rachel M; Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto-Hanada, Kiwako; Mori, Rintaro

    2017-03-31

    Reports of frequent manifestation of allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been the subject of mounting clinical interest. However, evidence supporting the association between ADHD and allergies is inconsistent and has yet to be systematically reviewed. The objective of this study was to compile and assess available studies on the association between ADHD and allergic diseases in children. A comprehensive search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and CINAHL databases was completed in 23 November 2015. The inclusion criteria for studies were that the research assessed allergic diseases in children, 18 years of age and younger, with a diagnosis of ADHD and that a distinct comparison group was incorporated. Any comparative studies, encompassing both randomized controlled trials and observational studies, were considered for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed the quality of the selected studies by the use of validated assessment tools, performed data extraction and conducted meta-analysis according to Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Five eligible studies were included in this systematic review. Of these studies, three were case-control and two were cross sectional studies. A majority of information from the five studies was classified as having low or unclear risk of bias. The meta-analysis showed an association between children with ADHD and asthma compared with the control groups (OR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.57 - 2.07; five studies, low quality of evidence), but did not indicate an association between food allergy and ADHD (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.88 - 1.47; three studies very low quality of evidence). The odds of experiencing allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and allergic conjunctivitis were slightly higher in children with ADHD compared with control groups, though a substantial statistical heterogeneity was notable in the overall effect estimates. The findings from this review and meta

  20. A systematic review of the prevalence of comorbid mental health disorders in people presenting for substance use treatment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Rosemary E F; Marel, Christina; Mills, Katherine L

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of comorbid mental health conditions in people accessing treatment for substance use in Australia. A systematic review identified studies meeting the following eligibility criteria: reporting original data published in English; sample presenting for substance use treatment in Australia; assessing the prevalence of mental health and substance use conditions and reporting the percentage of participants with co-occurring mental health and substance use conditions. A narrative analysis was conducted because of the heterogeneity of methods used to assess key outcome variables and small number of studies assessing particular mental health outcomes. The abstracts of 1173 records were screened, and 59 full articles were assessed for eligibility. Eighteen studies were included in the review. Prevalence estimates of current mental disorders in substance use treatment clients varied (47 to 100%). Mood and anxiety disorders were particularly prevalent, with the prevalence of current depression ranging from 27 to 85% and current generalised anxiety disorder ranging from 1 to 75%. The high prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in substance use treatment settings indicates a need for clinicians to screen and assess for these disorders as part of routine clinical care, and be familiar with evidence-based management and treatment strategies. Although further studies are required to determine the prevalence of the full range of mental health disorders in this population, these findings emphasise the high prevalence of comorbid mental disorders are among individuals accessing substance use treatment in Australia. [Kingston REF, Marel C, Mills KL. A systematic review of the prevalence of comorbid mental health disorders in people presenting for substance use treatment in Australia. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:527-539]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. Bipolar I and II Disorders; A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Differences in Comorbid Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Amerio, Andrea; Stubbs, Brendon; Odone, Anna; Tonna, Matteo; Marchesi, Carlo; Nassir Ghaemi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Context More than half of the bipolar disorder (BD) cases have an additional diagnosis; one of the most difficult to manage is obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although some authors recently investigated the co-occurrence of anxiety and BD, the topic remains insufficiently studied. The current study aimed to investigate differences in comorbid OCD between BD-I and BD-II. Evidence Acquisition A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on the prevalence and predictors of comorbid BD-I/BD-II and OCD. Relevant papers published until June 30, 2015 were identified searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library. Results Fourteen articles met the inclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of BD-I in OCD was 3.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.4 to 6.4, I2 = 83%, Q = 56) while that of BD-II in OCD was 13.5% (95% CI, 9.3 to 19.3, I2 = 89%, Q = 91). The pooled prevalence of OCD in BD-I was 21.7 (95% CI, 4.8 to 60.3, I2 = 84%, Q = 95). With regard to OCD-BD predictors, mean age and rate of males did not predict the prevalence of BD-I (β = 0.0731, 95% CI, -0.1097 to 0.256, z = 0.78; β = 0.035, 95% CI, -0.2356 to 0.1656, z = 0.34) and BD-II (β = 0.0577, 95% CI, -0.1942 to 0.0788, z = 0.83; β = -0.0317, 95% CI, -0.1483 to 0.085, z = 0.53) in OCD. The mean age explained some of the observed heterogeneity (R2 = 0.13; R2 = 0.08). Conclusions This first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence and predictors of comorbid BD-I/BD-II and OCD suggests that BD-OCD comorbidity is a common condition in psychiatry. However, the available evidence does not allow to assess whether BD-I or BD-II are more common in patients with OCD. PMID:27826323

  2. Epidemiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders in infants and toddlers: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Maia, Ana Paula; Matijasevich, Alicia; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) prevalence in infants and toddlers. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus were searched for original articles from inception to February 2016. The literature search was made in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). For inclusion, each study had to report epidemiological data of FGID on children up to 4 years old and contain standardized outcome Rome II or III criteria. The overall quality of included epidemiological studies was evaluated in accordance to Loney’s proposal for prevalence studies of health literature. Two reviewers assessed each study for inclusion and extracted data. Discrepancies were reconciled through discussion. RESULTS: It was identified a total of 101 articles through the databases and two through the manual search. A total of 28 articles fulfilled the eligibility criteria. After reading the full articles, 13 of them were included in the present review. Twelve studies were written in English and one in Chinese, and published between 2004 and 2015. Eight articles (61.5%) were performed in Europe, three (23.1%) in America and two (15.4%) in Asia. Sample size varied between 45 and 9660 subjects. Cross-sectional frequency was reported in majority of studies (k = 9) and four studies prospectively followed the subjects. 27.1% to 38% of participants have met any of Rome’s criteria for gastrointestinal syndromes, of those 20.8% presented two or more FGID. Infant regurgitation and functional constipation were the most common FGID, ranging from less than 1% to 25.9% and less than 1% to 31%, respectively. Most included studies were of moderate to poor data quality with respect to absence of confidential interval for prevalence rate and inadequate sampling methods. CONCLUSION: The scarcity and heterogeneity of FGID data call for the necessity of well-designed epidemiological research in different levels of pediatric practice and

  3. A Systematic Review of Vocational Interventions for Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McPheeters, Melissa L.; Sathe, Nila A.; Dove, Dwayne; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Warren, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are approaching adolescence and young adulthood; interventions to assist these individuals with vocational skills are not well understood. This study systematically reviewed evidence regarding vocational interventions for individuals with ASD between the ages of 13 and 30 years. METHODS: The Medline, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases (1980–December 2011) and reference lists of included articles were searched. Two reviewers independently assessed each study against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently extracted data regarding participant and intervention characteristics, assessment techniques, and outcomes, and assigned overall quality and strength of evidence ratings based on predetermined criteria. RESULTS: Five studies were identified; all were of poor quality and all focused on on-the-job supports as the employment/vocational intervention. Short-term studies reported that supported employment was associated with improvements in quality of life (1 study), ASD symptoms (1 study), and cognitive functioning (1 study). Three studies reported that interventions increased rates of employment for young adults with ASD. CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have been conducted to assess vocational interventions for adolescents and young adults with ASD. As such, there is very little evidence available for specific vocational treatment approaches as individuals transition to adulthood. All studies of vocational approaches were of poor quality, which may reflect the recent emergence of this area of research. Individual studies suggest that vocational programs may increase employment success for some; however, our ability to understand the overall benefit of supported employment programs is limited given the existing research. PMID:22926170

  4. Research Into Childhood Obstructive Sleep-Disordered Breathing: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Venekamp, Roderick P; Chandrasekharan, Deepak; Abel, Francois; Blackshaw, Helen; Kreis, Irene A; Evans, Hannah E R; Schilder, Anne G M

    2017-07-01

    Despite recent clinical guideline development, the best pathway of care for children with symptoms of obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (oSDB) is still debated. This systematic review aims to map the research in childhood oSDB that has been conducted so far to suppo