Science.gov

Sample records for disparities interest group

  1. Reducing Health Disparity in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Report from Health Issues Special Interest Research Group of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheepers, M.; Kerr, M.; O'Hara, D.; Bainbridge, D.; Cooper, S.-A.; Davis, R.; Fujiura, G.; Heller, T.; Holland, A.; Krahn, G.; Lennox, N.; Meaney, J.; Wehmeyer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Disparities in the health status and care experienced by people with intellectual disabilities are increasingly being recognized. This special report presents the results of an international expert consensus workshop held under the auspices of the Health Issues Special Interest Research Group of the International Association for the Scientific…

  2. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  3. External Interest Group Impingements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Richard M.

    The history of the interrelation among state approval, accreditation, and institutional eligibility is considered. It is suggested that faculty and college administrators can be either an internal or external group in relationship to the planning process. The federal government, or the state government, passes legislation that may have both…

  4. Cosmic Dawn Science Interest Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Cosmic Origins Program Analysis Group

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic Dawn was identified as one of the three science objectives for this decade in the _New Worlds, New Horizons_ Decadal report, and it will likely continue to be a research focus well into the next decade. Cosmic Dawn refers to the interval during which the Universe transitioned from a nearly completely neutral state back to a nearly fully ionized state and includes the time during which the first stars formed and the first galaxies assembled.The Cosmic Dawn Science Interest Group (SIG) was formed recently under the auspices of the Cosmic Origins Program Analysis Group (COPAG). The Cosmic Dawn SIG focusses on the science cases, observations, and technology development needed to address the "great mystery" of Cosmic Origins. The reach of this SIG is broad, involving the nature of the first stars and the detectability of gamma-ray bursts at high redshifts, the extent to which the first galaxies and first supermassive black holes grew together, and the technology required to pursue these questions.For further information, consult the Cosmic Dawn SIG Web site http://cd-sig.jpl.nasa.gov/ and join the mailing list (by contacting the author).Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  5. Virology Interest Group | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Virology Interest Group comprises researchers at NIH and in the local area who are interested in virology. The group organizes activities designed to promote interactions and exchange of information.

  6. When does power disparity help or hurt group performance?

    PubMed

    Tarakci, Murat; Greer, Lindred L; Groenen, Patrick J F

    2016-03-01

    Power differences are ubiquitous in social settings. However, the question of whether groups with higher or lower power disparity achieve better performance has thus far received conflicting answers. To address this issue, we identify 3 underlying assumptions in the literature that may have led to these divergent findings, including a myopic focus on static hierarchies, an assumption that those at the top of hierarchies are competent at group tasks, and an assumption that equality is not possible. We employ a multimethod set of studies to examine these assumptions and to understand when power disparity will help or harm group performance. First, our agent-based simulation analyses show that by unpacking these common implicit assumptions in power research, we can explain earlier disparate findings--power disparity benefits group performance when it is dynamically aligned with the power holder's task competence, and harms group performance when held constant and/or is not aligned with task competence. Second, our empirical findings in both a field study of fraud investigation groups and a multiround laboratory study corroborate the simulation results. We thereby contribute to research on power by highlighting a dynamic understanding of power in groups and explaining how current implicit assumptions may lead to opposing findings.

  7. Group interest versus self-interest in smallpox vaccination policy.

    PubMed

    Bauch, Chris T; Galvani, Alison P; Earn, David J D

    2003-09-02

    The recent threat of bioterrorism has fueled debate on smallpox vaccination policy for the United States. Certain policy proposals call for voluntary mass vaccination; however, if individuals decide whether to vaccinate according to self-interest, the level of herd immunity achieved may differ from what is best for the population as a whole. We present a synthesis of game theory and epidemic modeling that formalizes this conflict between self-interest and group interest and shows that voluntary vaccination is unlikely to reach the group-optimal level. This shortfall results in a substantial increase in expected mortality after an attack.

  8. Do wealth disparities contribute to health disparities within racial/ethnic groups?

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Craig Evan; Cubbin, Catherine; Sania, Ayesha; Hayward, Mark; Vallone, Donna; Flaherty, Brian; Braveman, Paula A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Though wide disparities in wealth have been documented across racial/ethnic groups, it is largely unknown whether differences in wealth are associated with health disparities within racial/ethnic groups. Methods Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances (2004, ages 25–64) and the Health and Retirement Survey (2004, ages 50+), containing a wide range of assets and debts variables, was used to calculate net worth (a standard measure of wealth). Among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white populations, we tested whether wealth was associated with self-reported poor/fair health status after accounting for income and education. Results Except among the younger Hispanic population, net worth was significantly associated with poor/fair health status within each racial/ethnic group in both datasets. Adding net worth attenuated the association between education and poor/fair health (in all racial/ethnic groups) and between income and poor/fair health (except among older Hispanics). Conclusions The results add to literature indicating the importance of including measures of wealth in health research for what they may reveal about disparities not only between but also within different racial/ethnic groups. PMID:23427209

  9. Marketing Environment Group Project Stimulates Student Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastas, George, III

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Marketing Environment Group Project to be used by a marketing instructor. Indicates that through this teaching method, students have an increased interest in marketing and a greater understanding of how an organization's marketing strategy must adapt to its changing environment. (JOW)

  10. The Effects of Gender Variety and Power Disparity on Group Cognitive Complexity in Collaborative Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curseu, Petru Lucian; Sari, Kimzana

    2015-01-01

    This study sets up to test the extent to which gender variety moderates the impact of power disparity on group cognitive complexity (GCC) and satisfaction with the group in a collaborative learning setting. Using insights from gender differences in perceptions, orientations and conflict handling behavior in negotiation, as well as gender…

  11. The mountains hold things in: the use of community research review work groups to address cancer disparities in Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Sadie P; Dorgan, Kelly A; Phillips, Amber N; Behringer, Bruce

    2007-11-01

    To review regional findings about cancer disparities with grass roots community leaders in Appalachia and to identify perspectives about what makes the cancer experience unique in Appalachia. A community-based participatory approach that includes focus-group methodology. Work groups gathered in well-known community locations in northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. 22 lay adult community members (12 in Tennessee and 10 in Virginia), all of whom had a personal and community interest in cancer and were reputed as informal community leaders. Work groups engaged in a series of five sequential sessions designed to (a) review regional data about cancer disparities and identify perspectives about what makes the cancer experience unique in Appalachia, (b) promote dialogue between the work group members and healthcare providers to identify methods for improved collaboration, and (c) integrate the work group with regional efforts of the states' comprehensive cancer control plans. Four major themes emerged from the focus group sessions with each work group: cancer storytelling, cancer collectivism, healthcare challenges, and cancer expectations. The community research review work groups proved to be a successful method to disseminate information about regional cancer disparities. Study findings provide a unique foundation so that healthcare providers and researchers can begin to address cancer disparities in the Appalachian region. Nurses are in key positions to partner with trusted community leaders to address disparities across the cancer continuum in Appalachia.

  12. Perceptual grouping via binocular disparity: The impact of stereoscopic good continuation.

    PubMed

    Deas, Lesley M; Wilcox, Laurie M

    2015-08-01

    Stereoscopic contextual effects are widely reported but are generally discussed in terms of 2-D Gestalt grouping principles, e.g., good continuation or closure. We propose that there are disparity-based grouping operations that are separable from 2-D grouping and instead depend on the distribution of binocular disparity information. Two experiments assess the impact of perceptual grouping via good disparity continuation. First, perceived depth magnitude is reduced for a multidot contour with a smooth disparity gradient compared to the end points in isolation. This reduction is eliminated when disparity jitter is introduced to the intermediate dots. Second, observers showed more efficient visual search for the continuous contour versus the discontinuous version. Therefore, when there is spatial support for interpretation of a slanted object, quantitative depth is reduced, but is rapidly detected in visual search. These results reflect the operation of disparity-based grouping, extending the 2-D principle of good continuation into the third dimension.

  13. Mapping Career Groups on Basic Interest Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mau, Wei-Cheng; And Others

    A mapping procedure is presented for studying the construct validity of interest inventories that assess the six interest types defined by J. L. Holland. The 1989 revision of the American College Testing Program Interest Inventory (UNIACT) was used to assess the interests of 1,078 12th-grade students (497 males and 581 females) and 725 adults aged…

  14. Community-Guided Focus Group Analysis to Examine Cancer Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Schaal, Jennifer C.; Lightfoot, Alexandra F.; Black, Kristin Z.; Stein, Kathryn; White, Stephanie Baker; Cothern, Carol; Gilbert, Keon; Hardy, Christina Yongue; Jeon, Janet Y.; Mann, Lilli; Mouw, Mary Sherwyn; Robertson, Lyn; Waters, Emily M.; Yonas, Michael A.; Eng, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Background Accountability for Cancer Care through Undoing Racism and Equity (ACCURE) is a systems-change intervention addressing disparities in treatment initiation and completion and outcomes for early stage Black and White breast and lung cancer patients. Using a community-based participatory research approach, ACCURE is guided by a diverse partnership involving academic researchers, a non-profit community-based organization, its affiliated broader-based community coalition, and providers and staff from two cancer centers. Objectives This paper describes the collaborative process our partnership used to conduct focus groups and to code and analyze the data to inform two components of the ACCURE intervention: 1) a “power analysis” of the cancer care system, and 2) the development of the intervention’s training component, Healthcare Equity Education and Trainings, for cancer center providers and staff. Methods Utilizing active involvement of community and academic partners at every stage in the process, we engaged Black and White breast and lung cancer survivors at two partner cancer centers in eight focus group discussions organized by race and cancer type. Participants were asked to describe “pressure point encounters” or critical incidents during their journey through the cancer system that facilitated or hindered their willingness to continue treatment. Community and academic members collaborated to plan and develop materials, conduct focus groups, and code and analyze data. Conclusions A collaborative qualitative data analysis process strengthened the capacity of our community-medical-academic partnership, enriched our research moving forward, and enhanced the transparency and accountability of our research approach. PMID:27018365

  15. Extension of the Peters–Belson method to estimate health disparities among multiple groups using logistic regression with survey data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y.; Graubard, B. I.; Huang, P.; Gastwirth, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the extent of a disparity, if any, between groups of people, for example, race or gender, is of interest in many fields, including public health for medical treatment and prevention of disease. An observed difference in the mean outcome between an advantaged group (AG) and disadvantaged group (DG) can be due to differences in the distribution of relevant covariates. The Peters–Belson (PB) method fits a regression model with covariates to the AG to predict, for each DG member, their outcome measure as if they had been from the AG. The difference between the mean predicted and the mean observed outcomes of DG members is the (unexplained) disparity of interest. We focus on applying the PB method to estimate the disparity based on binary/multinomial/proportional odds logistic regression models using data collected from complex surveys with more than one DG. Estimators of the unexplained disparity, an analytic variance–covariance estimator that is based on the Taylor linearization variance–covariance estimation method, as well as a Wald test for testing a joint null hypothesis of zero for unexplained disparities between two or more minority groups and a majority group, are provided. Simulation studies with data selected from simple random sampling and cluster sampling, as well as the analyses of disparity in body mass index in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004, are conducted. Empirical results indicate that the Taylor linearization variance–covariance estimation is accurate and that the proposed Wald test maintains the nominal level. PMID:25382235

  16. Enhancing Understanding and Interest through Group Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Group discussion allows students to learn how to "talk to someone." Through group discussion, students can acquire or refine a broad range of attributes, from basic oratory skills to a more sophisticated development of communicative competence to embracing and valuing dialogic interchange and reflexivity. In this article, the author explains how…

  17. Enhancing Understanding and Interest through Group Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Group discussion allows students to learn how to "talk to someone." Through group discussion, students can acquire or refine a broad range of attributes, from basic oratory skills to a more sophisticated development of communicative competence to embracing and valuing dialogic interchange and reflexivity. In this article, the author explains how…

  18. Modeling epilepsy disparities among ethnic groups in Philadelphia, PA

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David C.; Waller, Lance A.; Elliott, John O.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defined epilepsy as an emerging public health issue in a recent report and emphasized the importance of epilepsy studies in minorities and people of low socioeconomic status. Previous research has suggested that the incidence rate for epilepsy is positively associated with various measures of social and economic disadvantage. In response, we utilize hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze health disparities in epilepsy and seizure risks among multiple ethnicities in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The goals of the analysis are to highlight any overall significant disparities in epilepsy risks between the populations of Caucasians, African Americans, and Hispanics in the study area during the years 2002–2004 and to visualize the spatial pattern of epilepsy risks by ethnicity to indicate where certain ethnic populations were most adversely affected by epilepsy within the study area. Results of the Bayesian model indicate that Hispanics have the highest epilepsy risk overall, followed by African Americans, and then Caucasians. There are significant increases in relative risk for both African Americans and Hispanics when compared with Caucasians, as indicated by the posterior mean estimates of 2.09 with a 95 per cent credible interval of (1.67, 2.62) for African Americans and 2.97 with a 95 per cent credible interval of (2.37, 3.71) for Hispanics. Results also demonstrate that using a Bayesian analysis in combination with geographic information system (GIS) technology can reveal spatial patterns in patient data and highlight areas of disparity in epilepsy risk among subgroups of the population. PMID:18381676

  19. Factors influencing interest in recreational sports participation and its rural-urban disparity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiehfeng; Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lin, Ching-Feng; Huang, Chun-Ching; Chang, Yao-Tsung; Chen, Ruey-Yu; Lyu, Shu-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Recreational sports are important leisure activities. However, most studies investigating barrier factors and motivation for participation in recreational sports have been limited to specific areas (e.g., a city or school) or demographic groups (e.g., adolescents). Therefore, this study set out to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the behavioral and socioeconomic factors influencing interest in recreational sports participation in Taiwan, as well as to evaluate the effect of any urban-rural divide. Methods This study analyzed data collected by the “Taiwan Social Change Survey” (program five, wave 3) “Leisure Life” questionnaire. We used hierarchical linear modeling to assess respondent interest in recreational sports participation and evaluated the influence of behavioral factors, socioeconomic factors, and residence location (urban/rural). Results Of the 2,146 participants in this study, 50.3% were male, and the average age was 43.9 years. Location of residence (urban/rural) accounted for 35.3% of the variation in interest in recreational sports participation, while the remaining 64.7% came from the individual level. Participants who lived in rural settings were less interested in recreational sports than their urban counterparts. Gender, educational attainment, participation frequency, health-motivated interest, and appearance-motivated interest were also associated with interest in recreational sports participation. Conclusions Different communication strategies may be needed to effectively reach different demographic groups. We suggest that future public health campaigns aiming to increase recreational sports participation include tailored interventions and messages to effectively encourage leisure physical activities among all, regardless of demographic boundaries. PMID:28542455

  20. Factors influencing interest in recreational sports participation and its rural-urban disparity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiehfeng; Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lin, Ching-Feng; Huang, Chun-Ching; Chang, Yao-Tsung; Chen, Ruey-Yu; Lyu, Shu-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Recreational sports are important leisure activities. However, most studies investigating barrier factors and motivation for participation in recreational sports have been limited to specific areas (e.g., a city or school) or demographic groups (e.g., adolescents). Therefore, this study set out to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the behavioral and socioeconomic factors influencing interest in recreational sports participation in Taiwan, as well as to evaluate the effect of any urban-rural divide. This study analyzed data collected by the "Taiwan Social Change Survey" (program five, wave 3) "Leisure Life" questionnaire. We used hierarchical linear modeling to assess respondent interest in recreational sports participation and evaluated the influence of behavioral factors, socioeconomic factors, and residence location (urban/rural). Of the 2,146 participants in this study, 50.3% were male, and the average age was 43.9 years. Location of residence (urban/rural) accounted for 35.3% of the variation in interest in recreational sports participation, while the remaining 64.7% came from the individual level. Participants who lived in rural settings were less interested in recreational sports than their urban counterparts. Gender, educational attainment, participation frequency, health-motivated interest, and appearance-motivated interest were also associated with interest in recreational sports participation. Different communication strategies may be needed to effectively reach different demographic groups. We suggest that future public health campaigns aiming to increase recreational sports participation include tailored interventions and messages to effectively encourage leisure physical activities among all, regardless of demographic boundaries.

  1. Organizational and Operational Features of State Rural Education Interest Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert; Haughey, Charles F.

    In many states, rural school districts or interested individuals have formed statewide interest groups to influence policy decisions related to rural education. Potential state rural education interest groups were identified through contacts with national and regional education associations and regional educational laboratories. Of 19 identified…

  2. Quantifying and Interpreting Group Differences in Interest Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Fouad, Nadya A.; Rounds, James; Hubert, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Research on group differences in interests has often focused on structural hypotheses and mean-score differences in Holland's (1997) theory, with comparatively little research on basic interest measures. Group differences in interest profiles were examined using statistical methods for matching individuals with occupations, the C-index, Q…

  3. Quantifying and Interpreting Group Differences in Interest Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Fouad, Nadya A.; Rounds, James; Hubert, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Research on group differences in interests has often focused on structural hypotheses and mean-score differences in Holland's (1997) theory, with comparatively little research on basic interest measures. Group differences in interest profiles were examined using statistical methods for matching individuals with occupations, the C-index, Q…

  4. Health Benefits Mandates and Their Potential Impacts on Racial/Ethnic Group Disparities in Insurance Markets.

    PubMed

    Charles, Shana Alex; Ponce, Ninez; Ritley, Dominique; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kempster, Jennifer; Lewis, John; Melnikow, Joy

    2017-08-01

    Addressing racial/ethnic group disparities in health insurance benefits through legislative mandates requires attention to the different proportions of racial/ethnic groups among insurance markets. This necessary baseline data, however, has proven difficult to measure. We applied racial/ethnic data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to the 2012 California Health Benefits Review Program Cost and Coverage Model to determine the racial/ethnic composition of ten health insurance market segments. We found disproportional representation of racial/ethnic groups by segment, thus affecting the health insurance impacts of benefit mandates. California's Medicaid program is disproportionately Latino (60 % in Medi-Cal, compared to 39 % for the entire population), and the individual insurance market is disproportionately non-Latino white. Gender differences also exist. Mandates could unintentionally increase insurance coverage racial/ethnic disparities. Policymakers should consider the distribution of existing racial/ethnic disparities as criteria for legislative action on benefit mandates across health insurance markets.

  5. Interest group opinions about fuel reduction in southern Appalachia

    Treesearch

    Carin E. Vadala; Robert D. Bixler; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2013-01-01

    Opinions of interested publics and interest groups (n = 640) about fuel reduction (FR) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains were investigated through social survey using both pictorial and written questions. The study identified three discrete groups based on knowledge of forest history in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, attitudes toward social and ecological...

  6. State Political Process Change and Educational Interest Group Political Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Robert E.

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of changes in New York State political and legislative processes on the political behavior and strategies of education interest groups in seeking State policy change for education. Historical methods were utilized in examining the problem. As interest groups seek their objectives, they…

  7. Extremely unbalanced: interest divergence and power disparities between clients and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    McCubbin, M; Cohen, D

    1996-01-01

    We have tried to show, first, that there exists a wide divergence between the interests of psychiatry and clients: none of the three major models underpinning society's trust in psychiatrists justify confidence that the interests of psychiatry and its clients converge enough to warrant psychiatrists' speaking and acting for clients in the development of the mental health system and its policies. Second, the distribution of power between psychiatrists and clients is highly unequal: the voices of clients have been co-opted or submerged by those of other groups, particularly organized psychiatry and family-dominated advocacy organizations. Our argument is not based on any particular conception of what the "needs" of clients are--we have not claimed to know what they are, nor, indeed, that they are determinable. However, our point is that the mental health system remains with no good theory to support a proposition that needs will be met, leaving no basis upon which to evaluate the system's success. Therefore, insofar as the "purpose" of this system is to meet client needs, we consider the system to be irrational. The numbers of clients and their presumed intensity of interest in mental health policy should have guaranteed them a place of importance in the political processes shaping the mental health system. There are several structural reasons why this has not been the case: client passivity due to the medical model therapeutic context; hesitancy to engage in public action due to the enduring stigma of mental illness; incapacities caused by psychological distress as well as by iatrogenic dysfunction; organizational weakness due to the free-rider problem of voluntary client groups compared with the ability of psychiatry to encourage contributions to its lobbying efforts; marked client disadvantages in obtaining external funding. If we judge one of the positive features of a liberal democracy to be its stability (in that individuals and groups do not need to resort to

  8. Disparity in disaster preparedness between racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Bethel, Jeffrey W; Burke, Sloane C; Britt, Amber F

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association between race/ethnicity (including language subgroups among Hispanics) and disaster preparedness among Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey respondents. Methods BRFSS data were obtained for eight states which implemented the optional general preparedness module from 2006 through 2010. Three dependent variables were analyzed including presence of four preparedness items (i.e., food, water, flashlight, and radio), emergency evacuation plan, and 3-d supply of medication. Primary independent variable included race/ethnicity accounting for language of survey. Data were analyzed in 2011 and accounted for BRFSS sampling design. Results Black (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.56, 0.79), English-speaking Hispanic (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.69) and Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.29) were less likely than non-Hispanic white respondents to live in a household in which all members requiring medication had a 3-d supply. Results varied regarding presence of four preparedness items and an emergency evacuation plan. Conclusions Racial/ethnic minority groups were less likely to have medication supplies but only Spanish-speaking Hispanics were less likely to have an emergency evacuation plan than white respondents. Public health officials can use these findings to support targeting racial/ethnic minorities to increase the presence of preparedness items important to mitigate the effects of disasters, with particular emphasis on medication supplies and Spanish-speaking Hispanics.

  9. Disparity in disaster preparedness between racial/ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Bethel, Jeffrey W; Burke, Sloane C; Britt, Amber F

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association between race/ethnicity (including language subgroups among Hispanics) and disaster preparedness among Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey respondents. Methods BRFSS data were obtained for eight states which implemented the optional general preparedness module from 2006 through 2010. Three dependent variables were analyzed including presence of four preparedness items (i.e., food, water, flashlight, and radio), emergency evacuation plan, and 3-d supply of medication. Primary independent variable included race/ethnicity accounting for language of survey. Data were analyzed in 2011 and accounted for BRFSS sampling design. Results Black (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.56, 0.79), English-speaking Hispanic (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.69) and Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.29) were less likely than non-Hispanic white respondents to live in a household in which all members requiring medication had a 3-d supply. Results varied regarding presence of four preparedness items and an emergency evacuation plan. Conclusions Racial/ethnic minority groups were less likely to have medication supplies but only Spanish-speaking Hispanics were less likely to have an emergency evacuation plan than white respondents. Public health officials can use these findings to support targeting racial/ethnic minorities to increase the presence of preparedness items important to mitigate the effects of disasters, with particular emphasis on medication supplies and Spanish-speaking Hispanics. PMID:28228993

  10. Introducing a psychosomatic medicine interest group for psychiatry residents.

    PubMed

    Puri, Neil V; Azzam, Pierre; Gopalan, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Having gained subspecialty certification in 2003, the field of psychosomatic medicine (PM) addresses the mental health needs of individuals who suffer from general medical conditions. The rising prevalence of chronic illness, along with trends in medical delivery toward more collaborative models of care, underscores the value of recruitment to PM specialty programs. To foster interest and education in PM, we have developed and implemented a Psychosomatic Medicine Interest Group for trainees within a psychiatry residency program. Participants have found the Psychosomatic Medicine Interest Group to be an enjoyable experience that has improved their clinical practice and interest in PM. The Psychosomatic Medicine Interest Group has also been a successful vehicle to enhance clinical knowledge and mentoring opportunities during training, while bolstering residents' desire to pursue a career in PM. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure of Vocational Interests for Diverse Groups on the 2005 Strong Interest Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantamneni, Neeta; Fouad, Nadya

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the structure of vocational interests in a diverse sample of individuals who completed the 2005 revision of the Strong Interest Inventory. We examined the fit of three racial/ethnic groups (African American, Caucasian, and Latino/a), both genders, and three levels of professional status (GRS participant, student,…

  12. Structure of Vocational Interests for Diverse Groups on the 2005 Strong Interest Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantamneni, Neeta; Fouad, Nadya

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the structure of vocational interests in a diverse sample of individuals who completed the 2005 revision of the Strong Interest Inventory. We examined the fit of three racial/ethnic groups (African American, Caucasian, and Latino/a), both genders, and three levels of professional status (GRS participant, student,…

  13. Cancer Disparities

    Cancer.gov

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  14. Interest groups and the bureaucracy: the politics of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Chubb, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Chubb offers new perspectives on government policies that affect energy supply and demand. He uses organizational theory to determine policy outcomes and to uncover relationships between interest groups and federal energy agencies. This approach helps to explain recent bureaucratic reorganizations in federal energy agencies. Chubb carefully assesses the political difficulties of implementing a national energy plan. His views are relevant for both current and long-term bureaucratic strategies and interest-group initiatives in major energy areas, especially nuclear and oil.

  15. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence: do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    PubMed

    van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted (n = 7,601,785) between 1997 and 2007. Cox Proportional Hazard Models were used to estimate sex disparities in AMI incidence within the Dutch majority population and within ethnic minority groups, stratified by age (30-54, 55-64, ≥65 years). AMI incidence was higher in men than in women in all groups under study. Compared with the majority population (hazard ratio (HR): 2.23; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.21-2.25), sex disparities were similar among minorities originating from the immediate surrounding countries (Belgium, Germany), whereas they were greater in most other minority groups. Most pronounced results were found among minorities from Morocco (HR: 3.48; 95% CI: 2.48-4.88), South Asia (HR: 3.92; 95% CI: 2.45-6.26) and Turkey (HR: 3.98; 95% CI: 3.51-4.51). Sex disparity differences were predominantly evident in those below 55 years of age, and were mainly provoked by a higher AMI incidence in ethnic minority men compared with men belonging to the Dutch majority population. Sex disparities in AMI incidence clearly varied between ethnic minorities and the Dutch majority population. Health prevention strategies may first target at a reduction of AMI incidence in young ethnic minority men, especially those originating from Turkey and South Asia. Furthermore, an increase in AMI incidence in their female counterparts should be prevented. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Smokers With Behavioral Health Comorbidity Should Be Designated a Tobacco Use Disparity Group

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Marc L.; Griffiths, Kim Gesell; Cooperman, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Smokers with co-occurring mental illness or substance use disorders are not designated a disparity group or priority population by most national public health and tobacco control groups. These smokers fulfill the criteria commonly used to identify groups that merit special attention: targeted marketing by the tobacco industry, high smoking prevalence rates, heavy economic and health burdens from tobacco, limited access to treatment, and longer durations of smoking with less cessation. A national effort to increase surveillance, research, and treatment is needed. Designating smokers with behavioral health comorbidity a priority group will bring much-needed attention and resources. The disparity in smoking rates among persons with behavioral health issues relative to the general population will worsen over time if their needs remain unaddressed. PMID:23865661

  17. Smokers with behavioral health comorbidity should be designated a tobacco use disparity group.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jill M; Steinberg, Marc L; Griffiths, Kim Gesell; Cooperman, Nina

    2013-09-01

    Smokers with co-occurring mental illness or substance use disorders are not designated a disparity group or priority population by most national public health and tobacco control groups. These smokers fulfill the criteria commonly used to identify groups that merit special attention: targeted marketing by the tobacco industry, high smoking prevalence rates, heavy economic and health burdens from tobacco, limited access to treatment, and longer durations of smoking with less cessation. A national effort to increase surveillance, research, and treatment is needed. Designating smokers with behavioral health comorbidity a priority group will bring much-needed attention and resources. The disparity in smoking rates among persons with behavioral health issues relative to the general population will worsen over time if their needs remain unaddressed.

  18. Brokering health policy: coalitions, parties, and interest group influence.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Michael T

    2006-10-01

    Assuming a position as broker between disconnected interests is one way for an interest group to influence the making of federal health policy. This study demonstrates how groups use their connections with political parties and lobbying coalitions to augment their brokerage positions and enhance their influence over policy making. Evidence is drawn from statistical analysis of 263 interviews with health policy elites and a qualitative case study of the debate over the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003. The results explain, in part, how interest groups play their brokerage roles as dispersed actors in a decentralized system, rather than as central mediators that intervene in a wide range of policy disputes.

  19. Living-related liver transplantation in Diego blood group disparity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Futagawa, Y; Wakiyama, S; Matsumoto, M; Shiba, H; Gocho, T; Ishida, Y; Yanaga, K

    2013-03-01

    To date, only limited cases of Diego blood group disparity in liver transplantation have been reported, and no cases with a long-term clinical course have been documented. Herein, we report a case of Diego blood group disparity in liver transplantation with details of long-term follow-up. The recipient was a 47-year-old woman with primary biliary cirrhosis; her 18-year-old daughter was the donor. Both recipient and donor were of blood type O according to the ABO blood group system. Preoperative serological tests showed the presence of antibodies against the Di(a) antigen only in the recipient, and not in the donor. Thus, the Diego phenotype was Di(a+) in the donor and Di(a-) in the recipient. Living-related liver transplantation was performed in July 2009. Immediate graft function was obtained, and no signs of humoral or cellular rejection were observed during the postoperative period. Further, anti-Di(a) antibodies were not detected throughout the postoperative course. The patient is alive and shows no signs of humoral rejection 34 months after liver transplantation. Liver transplantation has been performed successfully in cases of Diego blood group disparity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Military Medicine Interest Groups in U.S. Medical Schools.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Timothy M; Coker, Timothy J; Chen, Steve I; Carlson, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    Medical student interest groups are organizations that help expose students to different medical specialties and fields of medicine while in medical school. Military medicine interest groups (MMIGs) are a particular type of interest group that spreads information about military medicine, fosters mentorship, and camaraderie between students and military faculty, and increases the opportunities for leadership while in medical school. Surveys were sent to all U.S. medical schools to determine how many schools had an MMIG. If a medical school had a group, a second survey was sent to the student leader to determine more information about how their group operated (such as type of participants, funding sources, activities, faculty involvement, military health care provider involvement, etc.). Fifty-six percent of U.S. medical schools who responded were found to have an MMIG and most participants were students in the Health Professions Scholarship Program. Information about military medicine was found to be the biggest impact of having a group at a medical school and student leaders expressed they wished to have more military health care provider involvement. The results of this study could help start MMIGs at other medical schools, as well as give ideas to current MMIGs on how other groups operate.

  1. An interest-group theory of population growth.

    PubMed

    Kimenyi, M S; Shughart, W F; Tollison, R D

    1988-10-01

    Conventional economic analyses of fertility overlook the impact of competition among various interest groups (racial, tribal, religious) in the political market for transfers of wealth. For example, a tribe or group may be motivated to increase its size in order to gain control of the society's instruments of wealth transfer. The model developed in this paper assumes that it is the size of an interest group that determines the extent of its influence on the legislature or a military government and that competition for transfers will be greatest in highly heterogeneous societies. Thus, it is hypothesized that, the more heterogeneous a given population, the higher will be that country's fertility rate. Variables included in the regression equations were: a heterogeneity index, per capita income, per capita expenditures on education as a percentage of per capita income, the female literacy rate, and the regression error term. The regression analyses of data from 130 countries for 1980 strongly suggested that the heterogeneity of a country's population is reflected in a higher birth or fertility rate. The income and literacy variables had a significant negative effect on the birth rate, while the educational expenditure variable had a negative but nonsignificant effect. These findings are consistent with Becker's economic analyses of fertility, but demonstrate the predictive value of the heterogeneity index. Since the characteristics that define heterogeneity--race, color, and tribal group--are generally fixed, the optimal strategy for interest groups to increase their relative wealth is to maximize group reproduction.

  2. Freshman Interest Groups: Designing a Model for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    2008-01-01

    Freshman Interest Groups (FIGS) have become a popular model for academic and student affairs colleagues who are concerned that first-year students learn to reflect on life experiences and daily events as part of the learning process. A well-designed FIG model meets the academic, social and career concerns for first-year students by providing an…

  3. Designing Freshman Interest Groups That Address Millennial Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    2011-01-01

    Residential Freshman Interest Groups (FIGS) have recently become a popular instructional and social model for academic and student affairs colleagues who are concerned that millennial students learn to reflect on life experiences and daily events as part of the learning process. An introductory FIG program recognizes that millennial students are…

  4. Interest Groups and the Future of Educational Policy. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul E.; Rabe, Barry G.

    Interest groups have historically contributed more to the maintenance of existing national educational policies and programs than to the creation or shaping of new ones. The uncertain political acceptance of the recently increased federal role in education complicates attempts to predict the degree of change in policy development to expect during…

  5. Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group: 2004 Industry Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosewich, Tania; Essenmacher, Victoria L.; Lynch, Christina Olenik; Williams, Jennifer E.; Doino-Ingersoll, Jo Ann

    2006-01-01

    The American Evaluation Association's (AEA) Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group (IC TIG) has a membership of over eight hundred individuals who generally work as sole proprietors, in partnerships, or in small consulting firms. Well over a decade ago, the IC TIG conducted a survey of its membership (Bonnet, 1992). To gather current data…

  6. Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group: 2004 Industry Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosewich, Tania; Essenmacher, Victoria L.; Lynch, Christina Olenik; Williams, Jennifer E.; Doino-Ingersoll, Jo Ann

    2006-01-01

    The American Evaluation Association's (AEA) Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group (IC TIG) has a membership of over eight hundred individuals who generally work as sole proprietors, in partnerships, or in small consulting firms. Well over a decade ago, the IC TIG conducted a survey of its membership (Bonnet, 1992). To gather current data…

  7. Gender Disparity in Living-Donor Kidney Transplant Among Minority Ethnic Groups.

    PubMed

    Peracha, Javeria; Hayer, Manvir Kaur; Sharif, Adnan

    2016-04-01

    We have limited data on gender disparities between living kidney transplant donors and recipients across ethnic groups. This was a retrospective cohort study of all living-donor kidney transplants performed at a single center in an ethnically diverse region of England. Data were extracted from the United Kingdom National Transplant Database and University Hospitals Birmingham electronic medical records. We analyzed 713 living-donor kidney transplant procedures that were performed from 1987 to 2014. Gender disparities were observed, with women more likely to be living donors (54.7%) and less likely to be recipients (39.4%). Most male recipients received kidneys from female donors versus male donors (70.2% vs 29.8%), whereas the proportion of men receiving kidneys from women (50.9%) and from men (49.1%) were similar (P < .001). Black, Asian, and donors from other minority groups comprised 18.7% of the donor cohort. South Asian partner-to-partner transplants (n = 22) were predominantly men receiving transplants from women (90.9%) versus women receiving transplants from men (9.1%; P = .003). Male patients more commonly donated their kidney to children than to women (10.2% vs 6.4%; P = .046). South Asian donations to children were similar between males and females; however, boys exclusively received kidneys from male donors (8/8) versus from female donors (8/12). Gender disparity exists in living-donor kidney transplant, with disparities more pronounced in some ethnic groups and among particular relationships. This finding requires targeted counseling and research to understand whether the cause is medical or sociocultural obstacles.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii infection among three Orang Asli ethnic groups in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shahrul Anuar, Tengku; M Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Osman, Emelia; Mohd Yasin, Azlin; Nordin, Anisah; Nor Azreen, Siti; Md Salleh, Fatmah; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi) in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia. Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150) of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139) of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211) of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi. Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific prevention

  9. Grappling with groups: protecting collective interests in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Richard R; Foster, Morris W

    2007-01-01

    Strategies for protecting historically disadvantaged groups have been extensively debated in the context of genetic variation research, making this a useful starting point in examining the protection of social groups from harm resulting from biomedical research. We analyze research practices developed in response to concerns about the involvement of indigenous communities in studies of genetic variation and consider their potential application in other contexts. We highlight several conceptual ambiguities and practical challenges associated with the protection of group interests and argue that protectionist strategies developed in the context of genetic research will not be easily adapted to other types of research in which social groups are placed at risk. We suggest that it is this set of conceptual and practical issues that philosophers, ethicists, and others should focus on in their efforts to protect identifiable social groups from harm resulting from biomedical research.

  10. Evolutionary psychiatry: a new College special interest group

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Riadh; St John-Smith, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary science remains an overlooked area in psychiatry and medicine. The newly established Royal College of Psychiatrists' Evolutionary Psychiatry Special Interest Group aims to reverse this trend by raising the profile of evolutionary thinking among College members and others further afield. Here we provide a brief outline of the importance of the evolutionary approach to both the theory and practice of psychiatry and for future research. PMID:27752339

  11. Virology Interest Group Seminar | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Virology Interest Group Seminar.  September 7th, Building 50, Room 2328 from 3:00 until 4:00.   We will have two presenters. Dr. Vladimir Majerciak: The full transcription map of mouse papillomavirus type 1 (MmuPV1), Tumor Virus RNA Biology Section, RNA Biology Laboratory, NCI Dr. Zhi-Ming Zheng: Viral DNA replication regulates HPV18 transcription and gene expression, Tumor Virus RNA Biology Section, RNA Biology Laboratory, NCI    

  12. Chiropractors & Osteopaths Musculo-Skeletal Interest Group (COMSIG)

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Bruce F.

    1992-01-01

    The Chiropractors & Osteopaths Musculo-Skeletal Interest Group evolved from regular clinical meetings at Ringwood Clinic, a multi-disciplinary clinic in Melbourne In 1987 the Directors of the clinic Bruce F. Walker D.C. and Alison Hogg MB.BS. (Hons), FRACGP. Decided to invite a range of guest speakers (on musculo-skeletal topics) to give an address every 6 weeks Local practitioners of all persuasions were invited to attend these meetings. Although all groups were represented, by far the greatest interest shown by the chiropractors and osteopaths In 1989 Peter D. Werth B.App.Sc.(Chiro) joined the team and together with the writer formulated a plan to broaden the list of invited guests to all registered chiropractors and osteopaths in Melbourne Naturally, this required a larger venue and organisation. After several successful meetings attracting groups of 60 to 70 practitioners we formalised the COMSIG organisation and gained the invaluable assistance of David de l Harpe B.Sc., B.App.Sc.(Chiro), MB.,BS., Shane Carter B.App.Sc.(Chiro) and Simon Clement D.O. on our committee. More recently Shane Carter left for overseas and was ably replaced by Miriam Bourke B.App.Sc.(Chiro) This year COMSIG incorporated under the name of the long established Chiropractic & Osteopathic College of Australasia So, what is COMSIG and what are it’s objectives? COMSIG is a special interest group of the Chiropractic & Osteopathic College of Australasia. More specifically, it is an affiliation of Chiropractors and Osteopaths with interests pertaining to the musculo-skeletal system The objectives for which COMSIG was established are: to promote knowledge of disorders of the musculo-skeletal system.to provide a forum for the interchange of ideas related to such disorders.to educate chiropractors, osteopaths and other health professionals about the diagnosis and management of such disorders.to encourage the diagnosis and management of musculo-skeletal disorders in a scientific and ethical

  13. Disparities in Completion of Substance Abuse Treatment between and within Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Erick G; Marsh, Jeanne C; Duan, Lei; Oh, Christine; Perron, Brian; Lee, Benedict

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate disparities in substance abuse treatment completion between and within racial and ethnic groups in publicly funded treatment in Los Angeles County, California. Data Source The Los Angeles County Participant Reporting System with multicross-sectional annual data (2006–2009) for adult participants (n = 16,637) who received treatment from publicly funded programs (n = 276) for the first time. Study Design Retrospective analyses of county discharge and admission data. Hierarchical linear regressions models were used to test the hypotheses. Data Collection Client data were collected during personal interviews at admission and discharge for most participants. Principal Findings African Americans and Latinos reported lower odds of completing treatment compared with Whites. Within-group analysis revealed significant heterogeneity within racial and ethnic groups, highlighting primary drug problem, days of drug use before admission, and homelessness as significant factors affecting treatment completion. Service factors, such as referral by the criminal justice system, enabled completion among Latinos and Whites only. Conclusions These findings have implications for reducing health disparities among members of racial and ethnic minorities by identifying individual and service factors associated with treatment adherence, particularly for first-time clients. PMID:23350871

  14. A focus group on cognition-enhancing medications in Alzheimer disease: disparities between professionals and consumers.

    PubMed

    Post, S G; Stuckey, J C; Whitehouse, P J; Ollerton, S; Durkin, C; Robbins, D; Fallcreek, S J

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of cognition-enhancing drugs in the treatment of Alzheimer disease raises questions about quality of lives for those with dementia and for their caregivers, and about the perceptions of health care professionals. This pilot study analyzes a limited data from a series of three focus groups on the experience of treatment. These groups engaged both Alzheimer disease-affected persons, their caregivers, and a multidisciplinary professional core. We conclude that therapeutic goals need to be better addressed with patients and families, as well as better monitored, with the possibility of withdrawing therapy as appropriate. We also detected, as hypothesized, considerable disparity between the perspectives of professionals and consumers regarding the benefits of therapy.

  15. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication.

  16. Expectations About Ethnic Peer Group Inclusivity: The Role of Shared Interests, Group Norms, and Stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Hitti, Aline; Killen, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated three factors that contribute to social exclusion: group norms, individual characteristics, and stereotypes. Non-Arab American 12- and 16-year-olds (N = 199) judged their expectations about the inclusivity of Arab American and non-Arab American peer groups toward new peers characterized by: (a) different ethnic identity but similar interests (e.g., hobbies) and (b) same ethnic identity but different interests. Participants expected that when groups had exclusive norms, Arab American peers would base inclusion decisions on ethnic identity, but that their own non-Arab group would base decisions on shared interests. Participants who reported stereotypes expected their in-group to be ethnically less inclusive. With age, ethnic-based exclusion increased. The findings are discussed in light of current research on developmental intergroup relationships. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii Infection among Three Orang Asli Ethnic Groups in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shahrul Anuar, Tengku; M. Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Osman, Emelia; Mohd Yasin, Azlin; Nordin, Anisah; Nor Azreen, Siti; Md Salleh, Fatmah; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi) in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia. Methods/Findings Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150) of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139) of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211) of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi. Conclusions Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and

  18. Alternatives for Validating Interest Inventories against Group Membership Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prediger, Dale J.

    Two approaches to interest inventory validation are considered. The choice between the two depends on the use being validated. The first approach assumes that interest inventories are to be used in predicting which occupations counselees will enter or prefer. The second assumes that interest inventories are to used in suggesting occupations for…

  19. Association between interest group participation and choice of residency.

    PubMed

    Hinchey, Sherri; LaRochelle, Jeff; Maurer, Douglas; Shimeall, William T; Durning, Steven J; DeZee, Kent J

    2011-10-01

    While medical student interest groups (IGs, also known as student clubs) are widely offered, their actual use and effectiveness to affect students' specialty choice (eg, increase selection of family medicine) are poorly understood. We performed this study to describe student participation in IGs, association with specialty selection, and perceived benefit of participation. An electronic, cross-sectional, quantitative survey of all fourth-year US medical students in 2009 with a Department of Defense service obligation was conducted. Each participant indicated which of 18 listed IGs they attended with a yes or no response. Each participant also rated the overall benefit of IGs on a 9-point scale and provided their top choice for the residency Match. The response rate was 53% (419/797). Students attended an average of 3.5 specialty IGs. For all 18 specialties queried, IG attendance was associated with selection in the Match, and 77% of students attended the IG of their selected specialty. However, IG participation was perceived as having a small effect on specialty choice, as the mean response was 3.6 (standard deviation=2.4) on a 1 to 9 scale. IG participation is common and is strongly associated with specialty choice, but the benefit appears to be small.

  20. Racial disparities in cancer survival among randomized clinical trials patients of the Southwest Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Albain, Kathy S; Unger, Joseph M; Crowley, John J; Coltman, Charles A; Hershman, Dawn L

    2009-07-15

    Racial disparities in cancer outcomes have been observed in several malignancies. However, it is unclear if survival differences persist after adjusting for clinical, demographic, and treatment variables. Our objective was to determine whether racial disparities in survival exist among patients enrolled in consecutive trials conducted by the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG). We identified 19 457 adult cancer patients (6676 with breast, 2699 with lung, 1244 with colon, 1429 with ovarian, and 1843 with prostate cancers; 1291 with lymphoma; 2067 with leukemia; and 2208 with multiple myeloma) who were treated on 35 SWOG randomized phase III clinical trials from October 1, 1974, through November 29, 2001. Patients were grouped according to studies of diseases with similar histology and stage. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between race and overall survival within each disease site grouping, controlling for available prognostic factors plus education and income, which are surrogates for socioeconomic status. Median and ten-year overall survival estimates were derived by the Kaplan-Meier method. All statistical tests were two-sided. Of 19 457 patients registered, 2308 (11.9%, range = 3.9%-21.6%) were African American. After adjustment for prognostic factors, African American race was associated with increased mortality in patients with early-stage premenopausal breast cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for death = 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10 to 1.82; P = .007), early-stage postmenopausal breast cancer (HR for death = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.73; P < .001), advanced-stage ovarian cancer (HR for death = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.18 to 2.18; P = .002), and advanced-stage prostate cancer (HR for death = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.37; P = .001). No statistically significant association between race and survival for lung cancer, colon cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, or myeloma was observed. Additional adjustments for socioeconomic status did not substantially change

  1. Auto Pollution: Research Group Charged with Conflict of Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Deborah

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the possible conflict of interest resulting from the Environmental Protection Agency's participation with the automobile and oil industries in the Coordinating Research Council - Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee, an organization which has sponsored much of the research important to federal regulation of clean air. (JR)

  2. Auto Pollution: Research Group Charged with Conflict of Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Deborah

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the possible conflict of interest resulting from the Environmental Protection Agency's participation with the automobile and oil industries in the Coordinating Research Council - Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee, an organization which has sponsored much of the research important to federal regulation of clean air. (JR)

  3. Disparity in Diabetes Risk across Native Hawaiians and Different Asian Groups: The Multiethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Jacobs, Simone; Morimoto, Yukiko; Chock, Marci; Grandinetti, Andrew; Kolonel, Laurence N.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle risk factors on ethnic disparity in diabetes incidence among 89,198 Asian, Native Hawaiian, and white participants of the Multiethnic Cohort who completed multiple questionnaires. After 12 years of follow-up, 11,218 new cases were identified through self-report and health plan linkages. BMI was lowest in Chinese/Koreans, Japanese, and Filipinos (22.4, 23.5, 23.9 kg/m2). Using Cox regression, the unadjusted hazard ratios were 1.9 (Chinese/Korean), 2.1 (Japanese, Mixed-Asian), 2.2 (Filipino), 2.5 (Native Hawaiian), and 2.6 (Part-Asian) as compared to whites. With BMI added, the risk for Japanese, Filipinos, Chinese/Koreans, and Mixed-Asians increased (8–42%) but declined in Part-Asians and Native Hawaiians (17–31%). When lifestyle and dietary factors were also included, the risk was attenuated in all groups (6–14%). Despite their lower BMI, Asian Americans have a higher diabetes risk than whites, but dietary and lifestyle factors do not account for the excess risk. PMID:25164594

  4. Disparity in diabetes risk across Native Hawaiians and different Asian groups: the multiethnic cohort.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Jacobs, Simone; Morimoto, Yukiko; Chock, Marci; Grandinetti, Andrew; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle risk factors on ethnic disparity in diabetes incidence among 89 198 Asian, Native Hawaiian, and white participants of the Multiethnic Cohort who completed multiple questionnaires. After 12 years of follow-up, 11 218 new cases were identified through self-report and health plan linkages. BMI was lowest in Chinese/Koreans, Japanese, and Filipinos (22.4, 23.5, and 23.9 kg/m(2)). Using Cox regression, the unadjusted hazard ratios were 1.9 (Chinese/Korean), 2.1 (Japanese, Mixed-Asian), 2.2 (Filipino), 2.5 (Native Hawaiian), and 2.6 (part-Asian) as compared with whites. With BMI added, the risk for Japanese, Filipinos, Chinese/Koreans, and mixed-Asians increased (8%-42%) but declined in part-Asians and Native Hawaiians (17%-31%). When lifestyle and dietary factors were also included, the risk was attenuated in all groups (6%-14%). Despite their lower BMI, Asian Americans have a higher diabetes risk than whites, but dietary and lifestyle factors do not account for the excess risk. © 2014 APJPH.

  5. The Lake Michigan Federation: Evaluation of an Environmental Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, Paul J.

    Since Earth Day 1970, the number of environmental groups has approximately doubled and the movement articulates a much broader and comprehensive philosophy than earlier conservation or preservation movements. The Lake Michigan Federation, one of the new environmental groups developed from the Open Lands Project, was publicly proclaimed in…

  6. Common interests bind AGU and geophysical groups around the globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Christine

    2012-02-01

    In continuation of our work to strengthen alliances with key organizations in the Earth and space science community, AGU president Michael McPhaden, president-elect Carol Finn, and I held a series of meetings with leaders from other science societies during the 2011 Fall Meeting. Over the course of 2 days we met with leaders from the Geophysical Society of America, European Geosciences Union, Japan Geosciences Union, Ethiopian Geophysical Union, Asia Oceania Geosciences Society, Chinese Geophysical Society, and Asociación Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial. This gave us a valued opportunity to discuss the common interests and challenges we all face and to learn from each other's experience. The meetings allowed AGU to strengthen existing cooperative agreements and reach new levels of understanding between us and other societies. Additionally, we met with representatives from the Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute to discuss their intention to establish a geophysical union modeled after AGU.

  7. [Are physicians more interested in music than other professional groups?].

    PubMed

    Aasland, O G; Kallevik, S A

    1993-12-10

    1,031 Norwegian physicians were questioned about their attendance at various musical events, and whether they played an instrument or were active in an orchestra or a choir. 36% of the physicians had been to the opera or the ballet during the last year, and 64% to at least one classical concert. 39% had been to a pop, rock or jazz concert. For the first two categories the figures are higher than in a group of Norwegian university graduates. 55% of the physicians can play an instrument, and 18% do so actively. These figures are also higher than in the university graduate group. Participation in an orchestra or choir is highest among general practitioners and public health physicians.

  8. The research data alliance photon and neutron science interest group

    DOE PAGES

    Boehnlein, Amber; Matthews, Brian; Proffen, Thomas; ...

    2015-04-01

    Scientific research data provides unique challenges that are distinct from classic “Big Data” sources. One common element in research data is that the experiment, observations, or simulation were designed, and data were specifically acquired, to shed light on an open scientific question. The data and methods are usually “owned” by the researcher(s) and the data itself might not be viewed to have long-term scientific significance after the results have been published. Often, the data volume was relatively low, with data sometimes easier to reproduce than to catalog and store. Some data and meta-data were not collected in a digital form,more » or were stored on antiquated or obsolete media. Generally speaking, policies, tools, and management of digital research data have reflected an ad hoc approach that varies domain by domain and research group by research group. This model, which treats research data as disposable, is proving to be a serious limitation as the volume and complexity of research data explodes. Changes are required at every level of scientific research: within the individual groups, and across scientific domains and interdisciplinary collaborations. Enabling researchers to learn about available tools, processes, and procedures should encourage a spirit of cooperation and collaboration, allowing researchers to come together for the common good. In conclusion, these community-oriented efforts provide the potential for targeted projects with high impact.« less

  9. The research data alliance photon and neutron science interest group

    SciTech Connect

    Boehnlein, Amber; Matthews, Brian; Proffen, Thomas; Schluenzen, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Scientific research data provides unique challenges that are distinct from classic “Big Data” sources. One common element in research data is that the experiment, observations, or simulation were designed, and data were specifically acquired, to shed light on an open scientific question. The data and methods are usually “owned” by the researcher(s) and the data itself might not be viewed to have long-term scientific significance after the results have been published. Often, the data volume was relatively low, with data sometimes easier to reproduce than to catalog and store. Some data and meta-data were not collected in a digital form, or were stored on antiquated or obsolete media. Generally speaking, policies, tools, and management of digital research data have reflected an ad hoc approach that varies domain by domain and research group by research group. This model, which treats research data as disposable, is proving to be a serious limitation as the volume and complexity of research data explodes. Changes are required at every level of scientific research: within the individual groups, and across scientific domains and interdisciplinary collaborations. Enabling researchers to learn about available tools, processes, and procedures should encourage a spirit of cooperation and collaboration, allowing researchers to come together for the common good. In conclusion, these community-oriented efforts provide the potential for targeted projects with high impact.

  10. The ontogenetic origins of skull shape disparity in the Triturus cristatus group.

    PubMed

    Cvijanović, Milena; Ivanović, Ana; Kalezić, Miloš L; Zelditch, Miriam L

    2014-09-01

    Comparative studies of ontogenies of closely related species provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for morphological diversification. Using geometric morphometrics, we investigated the ontogenetic dynamics of postlarval skull shape and disparity in three closely related crested newt species. The skull shapes of juveniles just after metamorphosis (hereafter metamorphs) and adult individuals were sampled by landmark configurations that describe the shape of the dorsal and ventral side of the newt skull, and analyzed separately. The three species differ in skull size and shape in metamorphs and adults. The ontogenies of dorsal and ventral skull differ in the orientation but not lengths of the ontogenetic trajectories. The disparity of dorsal skull shape increases over ontogeny, but that of ventral skull shape does not. Thus, modifications of ontogenetic trajectories can, but need not, increase the disparity of shape. In species with biphasic life-cycles, when ontogenetic trajectories for one stage can be decoupled from those of another, increases and decreases in disparity are feasible, but our results show that they need not occur.

  11. Enacting cultural interests: how intergroup contact reduces prejudice by sparking interest in an out-group's culture.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Tiffany N; Walton, Gregory M

    2013-10-01

    In the present research, we examined the hypothesis that cues of social connectedness to a member of another social group can spark interest in the group's culture, and that such interest, when freely enacted, contributes to reductions in intergroup prejudice. In two pilot studies and Experiment 1, we found that extant and desired cross-group friendships and cues of social connectedness to an out-group member predicted increased interest in the target group's culture. In Experiments 2 and 3, we manipulated cues of social connectedness between non-Latino American participants and a Latino American (i.e., Mexican American) peer and whether participants freely worked with this peer on a Mexican cultural task. This experience reduced the participants' implicit bias against Latinos, an effect that was mediated by increased cultural engagement, and, 6 months later in an unrelated context, improved intergroup outcomes (e.g., interest in interacting with Mexican Americans; Experiment 4). The Discussion section addresses the inter- and intragroup benefits of policies that encourage people to express and share diverse cultural interests in mainstream settings.

  12. The Persistence of American Indian Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Jones, David S.

    2006-01-01

    Disparities in health status between American Indians and other groups in the United States have persisted throughout the 500 years since Europeans arrived in the Americas. Colonists, traders, missionaries, soldiers, physicians, and government officials have struggled to explain these disparities, invoking a wide range of possible causes. American Indians joined these debates, often suggesting different explanations. Europeans and Americans also struggled to respond to the disparities, sometimes working to relieve them, sometimes taking advantage of the ill health of American Indians. Economic and political interests have always affected both explanations of health disparities and responses to them, influencing which explanations were emphasized and which interventions were pursued. Tensions also appear in ongoing debates about the contributions of genetic and socioeconomic forces to the pervasive health disparities. Understanding how these economic and political forces have operated historically can explain both the persistence of the health disparities and the controversies that surround them. PMID:17077399

  13. All STEM fields are not created equal: People and things interests explain gender disparities across STEM fields

    PubMed Central

    Su, Rong; Rounds, James

    2015-01-01

    The degree of women's underrepresentation varies by STEM fields. Women are now overrepresented in social sciences, yet only constitute a fraction of the engineering workforce. In the current study, we investigated the gender differences in interests as an explanation for the differential distribution of women across sub-disciplines of STEM as well as the overall underrepresentation of women in STEM fields. Specifically, we meta-analytically reviewed norm data on basic interests from 52 samples in 33 interest inventories published between 1964 and 2007, with a total of 209,810 male and 223,268 female respondents. We found gender differences in interests to vary largely by STEM field, with the largest gender differences in interests favoring men observed in engineering disciplines (d = 0.83–1.21), and in contrast, gender differences in interests favoring women in social sciences and medical services (d = −0.33 and −0.40, respectively). Importantly, the gender composition (percentages of women) in STEM fields reflects these gender differences in interests. The patterns of gender differences in interests and the actual gender composition in STEM fields were explained by the people-orientation and things-orientation of work environments, and were not associated with the level of quantitative ability required. These findings suggest potential interventions targeting interests in STEM education to facilitate individuals' ability and career development and strategies to reform work environments to better attract and retain women in STEM occupations. PMID:25762964

  14. All STEM fields are not created equal: People and things interests explain gender disparities across STEM fields.

    PubMed

    Su, Rong; Rounds, James

    2015-01-01

    The degree of women's underrepresentation varies by STEM fields. Women are now overrepresented in social sciences, yet only constitute a fraction of the engineering workforce. In the current study, we investigated the gender differences in interests as an explanation for the differential distribution of women across sub-disciplines of STEM as well as the overall underrepresentation of women in STEM fields. Specifically, we meta-analytically reviewed norm data on basic interests from 52 samples in 33 interest inventories published between 1964 and 2007, with a total of 209,810 male and 223,268 female respondents. We found gender differences in interests to vary largely by STEM field, with the largest gender differences in interests favoring men observed in engineering disciplines (d = 0.83-1.21), and in contrast, gender differences in interests favoring women in social sciences and medical services (d = -0.33 and -0.40, respectively). Importantly, the gender composition (percentages of women) in STEM fields reflects these gender differences in interests. The patterns of gender differences in interests and the actual gender composition in STEM fields were explained by the people-orientation and things-orientation of work environments, and were not associated with the level of quantitative ability required. These findings suggest potential interventions targeting interests in STEM education to facilitate individuals' ability and career development and strategies to reform work environments to better attract and retain women in STEM occupations.

  15. What Are Cancer Disparities?

    Cancer.gov

    This infographic shows the factors associated with cancer disparities, examples of how the cancer burden differs across certain population groups, and NCI actions to understand and reduce cancer disparities.

  16. Teamwork Satisfaction: Exploring the Multilevel Interaction of Teamwork Interest and Group Extraversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Kimberly A.; Kottke, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel modeling is used to examine the impact of teamwork interest and group extraversion on group satisfaction. Participants included 206 undergraduates in 65 groups who were surveyed at the beginning and end of a requisite term-length group project for an upper-division university course. We hypothesized that teamwork interest and both…

  17. Teamwork Satisfaction: Exploring the Multilevel Interaction of Teamwork Interest and Group Extraversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Kimberly A.; Kottke, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel modeling is used to examine the impact of teamwork interest and group extraversion on group satisfaction. Participants included 206 undergraduates in 65 groups who were surveyed at the beginning and end of a requisite term-length group project for an upper-division university course. We hypothesized that teamwork interest and both…

  18. Creating and Implementing a Faculty Interest Group for Historically Underrepresented Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follins, Lourdes D.; Paler, Lisa K.; Nanin, Jose E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the creation and implementation of a faculty interest group for historically underrepresented faculty at a large, urban community college in the Northeast. Faculty interest groups provide opportunities for faculty across disciplines to meet to explore common interests and share concerns and best practices. The faculty…

  19. Reducing Health Disparities Through a Culturally Centered Mentorship Program for Minority Faculty: The Southwest Addictions Research Group (SARG) Experience

    PubMed Central

    Viets, Vanessa Lopez; Baca, Catherine; Verney, Steven P.; Venner, Kamilla; Parker, Tassy; Wallerstein, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic minority faculty members are vastly underrepresented in academia. Yet, the presence of these individuals in academic institutions is crucial, particularly because their professional endeavors often target issues of health disparities. One promising way to attract and retain ethnic minority faculty is to provide them with formal mentorship. This report describes a culturally centered mentorship program, the Southwest Addictions Research Group (SARG, 2003–2007), at the University of New Mexico (UNM) that trained a cadre of minority researchers dedicated to reducing health disparities associated with substance abuse. Method The SARG was based at UNM’s School of Medicine’s Institute for Public Health, in partnership with the UNM’s Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions. The program consisted of regular research meetings, collaboration with the Community Advisory Board, monthly symposia with renowned professionals, pilot projects, and conference support. The authors collected data on mentee research productivity as outcomes and conducted separate mentee and mentor focus-group interviews to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the SARG program. Results The SARG yielded positive outcomes as evidenced by mentee increase in grant submissions, publications, and professional presentations. Focus-group qualitative data highlighted program and institutional barriers as well as successes that surfaced during the program. Based on this evaluation, a Culturally Centered Mentorship Model (CCMM) emerged. Conclusions The CCMM can help counter institutional challenges by valuing culture, community service, and community-based participatory research to support the recruitment and advancement of ethnic minority faculty members in academia. PMID:19638783

  20. Reducing health disparities through a culturally centered mentorship program for minority faculty: the Southwest Addictions Research Group (SARG) experience.

    PubMed

    Viets, Vanessa Lopez; Baca, Catherine; Verney, Steven P; Venner, Kamilla; Parker, Tassy; Wallerstein, Nina

    2009-08-01

    Ethnic minority faculty members are vastly underrepresented in academia. Yet, the presence of these individuals in academic institutions is crucial, particularly because their professional endeavors often target issues of health disparities. One promising way to attract and retain ethnic minority faculty is to provide them with formal mentorship. This report describes a culturally centered mentorship program, the Southwest Addictions Research Group (SARG, 2003-2007), at the University of New Mexico (UNM) that trained a cadre of minority researchers dedicated to reducing health disparities associated with substance abuse. The SARG was based at UNM's School of Medicine's Institute for Public Health, in partnership with the UNM's Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions. The program consisted of regular research meetings, collaboration with the Community Advisory Board, monthly symposia with renowned professionals, pilot projects, and conference support. The authors collected data on mentee research productivity as outcomes and conducted separate mentee and mentor focus-group interviews to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the SARG program. The SARG yielded positive outcomes as evidenced by mentee increase in grant submissions, publications, and professional presentations. Focus-group qualitative data highlighted program and institutional barriers as well as successes that surfaced during the program. Based on this evaluation, a Culturally Centered Mentorship Model (CCMM) emerged. The CCMM can help counter institutional challenges by valuing culture, community service, and community-based participatory research to support the recruitment and advancement of ethnic minority faculty members in academia.

  1. Disparities in hypertension among black Caribbean populations: a scoping review by the U.S. Caribbean Alliance for Health Disparities Research Group (USCAHDR).

    PubMed

    Bidulescu, Aurelian; Francis, Damian K; Ferguson, Trevor S; Bennett, Nadia R; Hennis, Anselm J M; Wilks, Rainford; Harris, Eon N; MacLeish, Marlene; Sullivan, Louis W

    2015-11-05

    Despite the large body of research on racial/ethnic disparities in health, there are limited data on health disparities in Caribbean-origin populations. This scoping review aimed to analyze and synthesize published and unpublished literature on the disparities in hypertension and its complications among Afro-Caribbean populations. A comprehensive protocol, including a thorough search strategy, was developed and used to identify potentially relevant studies. Identified studies were then screened for eligibility using pre-specified inclusion/exclusion criteria. An extraction form was developed to chart data and collate study characteristics including methods and main findings. Charted information was tagged by disparity indicators and thematic analysis performed. Disparity indicators evaluated include ethnicity, sex, socioeconomic status, disability, sexual orientation and geographic location. Gaps in the literature were identified and extrapolated into a gap map. A total of 455 hypertension related records, published between 1972 and 2012, were identified and screened. Twenty-one studies met inclusion criteria for detailed analysis. The majority of studies were conducted in the United Kingdom and utilized a cross-sectional study design. Overall, studies reported a higher prevalence of hypertension among Caribbean blacks compared to West African blacks and Caucasians. Hypertension and its related complications were highest in persons with low socioeconomic status. Gap analysis showed limited research data reporting hypertension incidence by sex and socioeconomic status. No literature was found on disability status or sexual orientation as it relates to hypertension. Prevalence and morbidity were the most frequently reported outcomes. The literature on hypertension health disparities in Caribbean origin populations is limited. Future research should address these knowledge gaps and develop approaches to reduce them.

  2. The Effectiveness of a School-Based Intervention for Adolescents in Reducing Disparities in the Negative Consequences of Substance Use Among Ethnic Groups.

    PubMed

    Stewart, David G; Moise-Campbell, Claudine; Chapman, Meredith K; Varma, Malini; Lehinger, Elizabeth

    2016-04-22

    Ethnic minority youth are disproportionately affected by substance use-related consequences, which may be best understood through a social ecological lens. Differences in psychosocial consequences between ethnic majority and minority groups are likely due to underlying social and environmental factors. The current longitudinal study examined the outcomes of a school-based motivational enhancement treatment intervention in reducing disparities in substance use consequences experienced by some ethnic minority groups with both between and within-subjects differences. Students were referred to the intervention through school personnel and participated in a four-session intervention targeting alcohol and drug use. Participants included 122 youth aged 13-19 years. Participants were grouped by ethnicity and likelihood of disparate negative consequences of substance use. African American/Hispanic/Multiethnic youth formed one group, and youth identifying as White or Asian formed a second group. We hypothesized that (1) there would be significant disparities in psychosocial, serious problem behavior, and school-based consequences of substance use between White/Asian students compared to African American/Hispanic/Multiethnic students at baseline; (2) physical dependence consequences would not be disparate at baseline; and (3) overall disparities would be reduced at post-treatment follow-up. Results indicated that African American/Hispanic/Multiethnic adolescents demonstrated statistically significant disparate consequences at baseline, except for physical dependency consequences. Lastly, significant reductions in disparities were evidenced between groups over time. Our findings highlight the efficacy of utilizing school-based substance use interventions in decreasing ethnic health disparities in substance use consequences.

  3. Validity of the ACT Interest Inventory for Minority Group Members. No. 72

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, R. R.

    Data from this study suggest the ACT Interest Inventory is appropriate for use with minority group members. Data from 2,280 college seniors (1,237 males and 1,043 females) representing black, native American, oriental American, Spanish-surnamed American, and white ethnic groups were analyzed to determine whether the ACT Interest Inventory could…

  4. Utility of a dermatology interest group blog: the impact of medical student interest groups and Web 2.0 tools as educational resources.

    PubMed

    Jalalat, Sheila Z; Wagner, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    The open access University of Texas Dermatology Interest Group blog was established in 2004 for the purposes of increasing communication and collaboration between medical students and dermatology faculty, residents, and alumni, as well as to promote educational opportunities and the missions for which the interest group was created. This blog is unique because of its longevity and continuous postings directed toward the educational and professional needs of medical students and residents. A blog user survey was performed to assess viewers' thoughts, purpose of viewing, demographic profile, subscriber status, usage of the blog and other Web 2.0 tools (forums, Facebook, blogs, Twitter, podcasts), and perceived usefulness. Sixty-one anonymous online surveys were completed during a 1-month period. Statistical analyses of the responses demonstrated that the utilization of web-based tools and the blog were valuable resources for students, especially for blog subscribers, those more involved in an interest group, and those reading the blog for a longer period of time. The usefulness and impact of this method of communication and dissemination of information in medical education may encourage other student groups, faculty advisors, and educators to implement similar educational tools at their institutions.

  5. Utility of a dermatology interest group blog: the impact of medical student interest groups and Web 2.0 tools as educational resources

    PubMed Central

    Jalalat, Sheila Z; Wagner, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    The open access University of Texas Dermatology Interest Group blog was established in 2004 for the purposes of increasing communication and collaboration between medical students and dermatology faculty, residents, and alumni, as well as to promote educational opportunities and the missions for which the interest group was created. This blog is unique because of its longevity and continuous postings directed toward the educational and professional needs of medical students and residents. A blog user survey was performed to assess viewers’ thoughts, purpose of viewing, demographic profile, subscriber status, usage of the blog and other Web 2.0 tools (forums, Facebook, blogs, Twitter, podcasts), and perceived usefulness. Sixty-one anonymous online surveys were completed during a 1-month period. Statistical analyses of the responses demonstrated that the utilization of web-based tools and the blog were valuable resources for students, especially for blog subscribers, those more involved in an interest group, and those reading the blog for a longer period of time. The usefulness and impact of this method of communication and dissemination of information in medical education may encourage other student groups, faculty advisors, and educators to implement similar educational tools at their institutions. PMID:25298742

  6. The Impact on Student Achievement within Small Groups Based on Learning Styles, Interest, and Student Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Katie

    2011-01-01

    This action research project will be focused on a group of third grade students. Each student will be placed into three different groups based on similar learning styles, similar interests, and student readiness. These small groups will be occurring within my third grade classroom during our bi-weekly science lesson. The purpose of this action…

  7. LBRIG Newsletter (Newsletter of the Language by Radio Interest Group). Vol. IV, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Alan, Ed.; And Others

    The Language by Radio Interest Group (LBRIG) Newsletter, volume 4, number 1, opens with an appeal to subscribers to contribute articles, reports, notes etc. The annual ACTFL workshop held on 29 Nov. 1975 is then described. It features a report by Dolores Zesiger, instructor in Spanish at Logan (Ohio) High School, on the interesting use of local…

  8. Interest in a group psychotherapy program among Philippine breast cancer patients and its associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Dianne; Takahashi, Miyako; Kai, Ichiro

    2011-09-01

    A wide variety of psychosocial interventions are available for cancer patients, among which group psychotherapy (GPT) programs have made improvements in cancer patients' quality of life, coping abilities, and emotional distress. Few research data are available describing Philippine breast cancer patients' interest in GPT. This study aimed at enumerating the factors that determine Philippine breast cancer patients' interest in a GPT program. Patients recruited from the University of Santo Tomas Hospital Benavides Cancer Institute were asked to answer a survey questionnaire about their demographic, clinical, and psychosocial status, as well as whether they would be interested in joining GPT and why. Of 135 patients approached, 123 patients completed the survey. 104 (85%) women indicated interest in GPT. Patients were mostly interested because they wanted to learn coping skills (79%) and gain knowledge or information in dealing with cancer (69%). Patients said they were 'very interested' in learning about cancer recurrence (96%) and treatments (94%). Bivariate analysis showed that compared to the uninterested group, interested patients were younger, more likely to be married, and were more likely to have used complementary therapy for breast cancer. Logistic regression showed that married women were more likely to be interested in GPT (OR 3.30, CI 1.07-10.20). There is a potentially high interest in GPT among Philippine breast cancer patients. The attributes of Philippine patients interested in GPT are similar to and yet unique, compared to other populations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. [Health councils, intergovernmental commissions, and interest groups in the Unified Health System

    PubMed

    Ribeiro

    1997-01-01

    Health councils have developed in Brazil in keeping with arrangements under the 1988 Constitution, and the logic of their political consensus has expanded among interest groups relevant to public policy. Collegiate bodies, such as intergovernmental commissions, represent an extension of that logic to executive relationships and also express political intermediation by expertise, following the tradition of the European Welfare State. The state technical bureaucracy has thus developed a remarkable role in policy-making and in State-level modeling of interest groups. This article argues that such collegiate bodies should be analyzed through State action and defines two models for health councils. One, the vocal political model, is characterized by a prevalence of outspoken denunciation and an overload of demands on the political agenda. The other, the consensus model, expresses self-limitation amongst interest groups in drafting demands. These models are not hierarchically fixed and are usually linked to the political platforms of interest groups participating in the collegiate bodies.

  10. Substance abuse and mental health disparities: comparisons across sexual identity groups in a national sample of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Tonda; Szalacha, Laura A; McNair, Ruth

    2010-08-01

    A growing body of research amply documents health disparities related to substance abuse among sexual minority women. However, relatively little research has examined risk factors or predictors of substance use in this population and even less has explored differences among sexual minority subgroups. Using data from 8850 women aged 25-30 years in the 2003 survey of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health Survey (ALSWH) we compared rates of substance use (alcohol, marijuana and other illicit drugs) and potential predictors (e.g., depression, anxiety, perceived stress, lower levels of social support) across four sexual identity groups-exclusively heterosexual, mainly heterosexual, bisexual and lesbian. Using statistical weighting of the sample and controlling for demographic characteristics we fitted logistic regression models to estimate adjusted odds ratios for substance use. Compared with exclusively heterosexual women sexual minority women reported significantly higher levels of substance use-but there was notable variation among the three sexual minority subgroups. Women who identified as mainly heterosexual were significantly more likely than exclusively heterosexual women to report at-risk drinking and those who identified as bisexual were more likely to report marijuana use. Mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were also more likely to report binge drinking. Findings implicate stress as an important predictor of substance use and emphasize the need for research that more systematically examines the relationships between minority stress and substance use in sexual minority women. Findings of variations in risk across sexual minority subgroups suggest prevention and intervention strategies aimed at reducing health disparities should be targeted toward specific sexual minority subgroups. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Toward exploration of morphological disparity of measurable traits of mammalian skull. 1. Interrelation between different forms of group variation].

    PubMed

    Pavlinov, I Ia; Nanova, O G; Spasskaia, N N

    2008-01-01

    Interrelations between some forms of group variation (FGVs) (age, sex, geographic, inter-species, differences among breeds) of 12 to 15 measurable skull traits are studied in 6 mammal species (pine marten, polar fox, Przewalskii horse, and 3 jird species) by means of dispersion analysis (model III, MANOVA). The above FGVs are considered as factors in the MANOVA, and skull traits are considered as dependent variables. To obtaine commeasurables estimates for the FGVs, each of them is assessed numerically as a portion of its dispersion in the entire morphological disparity defined for each character (or a set of characters) by MANOVA. The data obtained indicate a wide diversity of interrelations between FGVs. It is shown that statistical analysis of significance of joint effects of FGVs does not substitute the analysis of numerical interrelations of their dispersion portions. It is concluded that it is unproductive to study such interrelations as simple "statistical regularities" like the Kluge-Kerfoot phenomenon, so the character sets are not to be considered as statistical ensembles. A kind of content-wise null-model for FGVs of measurable traits is formulated according to which there is a "background" age variation while other FGVs are its derivatives. Respectively, other factors structuring the morphological disparity under investigation being absent, a positive correlation between FGVs is to be anticipated (strong succession). With the significant deviations of the postulated correlation being observed, other factors regulating respective FGVs that cannot be reduced to the age variation are to be supposed (weak succession). Possible interpretations of interrelations between age variation and some other FGVs in carnivores are considered. Craniological variation in the Przewalskii horse is just slightly effected by maintenance conditions under its domestication, a significant influence of other factors is to be supposed. Negative correlation between geographic and

  12. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  13. 28 CFR 51.32 - Establishment and maintenance of registry of interested individuals and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Establishment and maintenance of registry... AMENDED Communications From Individuals and Groups § 51.32 Establishment and maintenance of registry of interested individuals and groups. The Attorney General shall establish and maintain a Registry of...

  14. 28 CFR 51.32 - Establishment and maintenance of registry of interested individuals and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishment and maintenance of registry... AMENDED Communications From Individuals and Groups § 51.32 Establishment and maintenance of registry of interested individuals and groups. The Attorney General shall establish and maintain a Registry of...

  15. 28 CFR 51.32 - Establishment and maintenance of registry of interested individuals and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishment and maintenance of registry... AMENDED Communications From Individuals and Groups § 51.32 Establishment and maintenance of registry of interested individuals and groups. The Attorney General shall establish and maintain a Registry of...

  16. 28 CFR 51.32 - Establishment and maintenance of registry of interested individuals and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Establishment and maintenance of registry... AMENDED Communications From Individuals and Groups § 51.32 Establishment and maintenance of registry of interested individuals and groups. The Attorney General shall establish and maintain a Registry of...

  17. Cross-Group Equivalence of Interest and Motivation Items in PISA 2012 Turkey Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardic, Elif Ozlem; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine measurement invariance of the interest and motivation related items contained in the PISA 2012 student survey with regard to gender school type and statistical regions and to identify the items that show differential item functioning (DIF) across groups. Research Methods: Multiple-group confirmatory…

  18. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  19. Sexual Orientation-Based Disparities in School and Juvenile Justice Discipline: A Multiple Group Comparison of Contributing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.; Chong, Eddie S. K.

    2016-01-01

    There is little data on whether school discipline or juvenile justice sanctions are directed disproportionately toward sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; LGBQ) compared with heterosexual youth and even less on factors that may relate to such disparities. We tested for sexual orientation-based disparities in school…

  20. Sexual Orientation-Based Disparities in School and Juvenile Justice Discipline: A Multiple Group Comparison of Contributing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.; Chong, Eddie S. K.

    2016-01-01

    There is little data on whether school discipline or juvenile justice sanctions are directed disproportionately toward sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; LGBQ) compared with heterosexual youth and even less on factors that may relate to such disparities. We tested for sexual orientation-based disparities in school…

  1. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI among U.S. adolescents and young adults in three race/ethnicity groups.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Blood, Emily A; Milliren, Carly E; Calzo, Jerel P; Richmond, Tracy K; Gooding, Holly C; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a key public health issue for US youth. Previous research with primarily white samples of youth has indicated that sexual minority females have higher body mass index (BMI) and sexual minority males have lower BMI than their same-gender heterosexual counterparts, with sexual orientation differences in males increasing across adolescence. This research explored whether gender and sexual orientation differences in BMI exist in nonwhite racial/ethnic groups. Using data from Waves I-IV (1995-2009) of the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,306, ages 11-34 years), we examined associations between sexual orientation and BMI (kg/m2) over time, using longitudinal linear regression models, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among males, heterosexual individuals showed greater one-year BMI gains than gay males across all race/ethnicity groups. Among females, white and Latina bisexual individuals had higher BMI than same-race/ethnicity heterosexual individuals regardless of age; there were no sexual orientation differences in black/African Americans. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI are a public health concern across race/ethnicity groups. Interventions addressing unhealthy weight gain in youth must be relevant for all sexual orientations and race/ethnicities.

  2. Affiliation affects generosity in young children: The roles of minimal group membership and shared interests.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Erin; Schinkel, Meghan G; Moore, Chris

    2017-03-16

    Young children's willingness to share with others is selective, and is affected by their level of affiliation with the recipients of their generosity. We explored affiliation's impact on sharing behavior with two experiments comparing the effects of two distinct affiliative cues-minimal group membership and shared interests. Children (4- to 6-year-olds) completed a resource allocation task, making forced-choice decisions as to how to distribute stickers between themselves and others. In Experiment 1, the sharing partners were minimal in- and out-group members; in Experiment 2, they differed in their opinion of the participants' interests. Both experiments' manipulations affected feelings of affiliation, as indicated by children's stated friendship preferences and perceptions of similarity. More notably, both minimal group membership and interests affected sharing behavior. Children made fewer generous allocations toward out-group members than toward in-group members. Similarly, children made fewer generous allocations when recipients disliked their interests than when recipients shared those interests or when their opinions were unknown. Across experiments, the recipient manipulations' effects on generosity were similar in their pattern and magnitude despite fundamental differences between the two affiliative cues. These findings highlight the broad impact of affiliation on young children's sharing behavior.

  3. How the public perceives the visual effects of timber harvesting: an evaluation of interest group preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCool, Stephen F.; Benson, Robert E.; Ashor, Joseph L.

    1986-05-01

    A total of 25 scenes representing the five visual quality objectives in the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service visual management system were presented to 18 professional and public interest groups in western Montana. The results indicate that nearly all the groups have similar rank orderings of the scenes in terms of visual preference. However, the groups differ according to the absolute values of their ratings. Most groups were unable, in a statistical sense, to differentiate the scenic quality of areas in the preservation and retention visual quality objectives. Landscape architects tended to rate scenes in a way similar to professional forest management groups.

  4. How racial and ethnic groupings may mask disparities: the importance of separating Pacific Islanders from Asians in prenatal care data.

    PubMed

    Sarnquist, Clea C; Grieb, Erin Moix; Maldonado, Yvonne A

    2010-07-01

    To understand racial/ethnic differences in prenatal care receipt among Pacific Islanders and Asians, who are often combined into a single A/PI category. Retrospective, population-based data were collected by the Vital Statistics branch of the California Department of Health Services. Approximately 2.6 million records of all live California births with a birth certificate in 2000-2004 were included. Analysis focused on prenatal care receipt and population characteristics associated with lack of adequate prenatal care, especially among Asian and Pacific Islander groups. Pacific Islanders (n = 11,962) were the most likely, compared to any other racial/ethnic group, to have inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.9, 95% CIs 2.8-3.1), even when controlling for factors known to affect care receipt, specifically maternal age, educational attainment, parity, insurance, geographical region of residence, and maternal place of birth. In contrast, Asian women (n = 295,741) received care closer to that of the White reference group (OR = 1.5, 95% CIs 1.5-1.5). Among Pacific Islanders, Samoans (OR = 3.0, 95% CIs 2.7-3.4) were at particular risk of inadequate care compared to other PI sub-groups. Pacific Islander women received less adequate prenatal care than women of other racial/ethnic groups. The common practice of combining Asians and Pacific Islanders into a single A/PI category may mask needs in the Pacific Islander community. Therefore, in order to continue to reduce health disparities, it may be necessary to collect separate data on these two distinct populations in order to be able to appropriately direct programs and resources.

  5. Setting the Record Straight: Interest Group Influence on Climate Policy at the Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Jeffrey J.

    It is clear that interest groups are involved in the rulemaking process at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), but it has been difficult to determine whether certain groups are more influential on outcomes. This debate persists because the literature illustrates that groups can be influential at discrete stages in the process, but the field rarely analyzes the entire rulemaking process. This uncertainty has spurred controversy regarding the EPA's recent climate change regulations. Therefore, this dissertation conducted three case studies of recent climate change regulations and addresses three questions. First, what, if any, strategies did interest groups use to influence the content of these climate change rules? Second, did these strategies translate into influence? Third, what can these climate change case studies tell us about the role of interest groups in other controversial rules at the EPA, and across the bureaucracy more broadly? Ultimately, I argue that interest group influence was generally balanced across each of the three case studies. These findings then serve as the basis to develop my Regulatory Spheres of Influence Framework. The framework illustrates that given the nature of EPA rulemakings, it is very difficult for one side either business or environmental to dominate the process in highly controversial rules. It is possible that these conclusions track to other controversial rules across the bureaucracy and I note that my framework could be applied in other contexts to test this assertion.

  6. Analysis of interest group influence on federal school meals regulations 1992 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Suzanne Havala; Ricketts, Thomas C; Dodds, Janice M; Milio, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Regulatory changes proposed by the US Department of Agriculture in 1994 promised to bring progressive changes to school meals. However, lobbying by interest groups resulted in substantial changes to the final rule. This analysis retrospectively examines the federal school meals policy-making process during 1992 to 1996. Key questions address why the policy changed and what the role of interest groups was in affecting the shape, pace, and direction of the policy. The study provides suggestions for using the experiences of 1992 to 1996 to guide future advocacy efforts and for adapting the approach for application to other food and nutrition policies.

  7. Practitioner and client explanations for disparities in health care use between migrant and non-migrant groups in Sweden: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Sharareh; Karlsen, Saffron

    2013-02-01

    To investigate variations in explanations given for disparities in health care use between migrant and non-migrant groups, by clients and care providers in Sweden. Qualitative evidence collected during in-depth interviews with five 'migrant' health service clients and five physicians. The interview data generated three categories which were perceived by respondents to produce ethnic differences in health service use: "Communication issues", "Cultural differences in approaches to medical consultations" and "Effects of perceptions of inequalities in care quality and discrimination". Explanations for disparities in health care use in Sweden can be categorized into those reflecting social/structural conditions and the presence/absence of power and those using cultural/behavioural explanations. The negative perceptions of 'migrant' clients held by some Swedish physicians place the onus for addressing their poor health with the clients themselves and risks perpetuating their health disadvantage. The power disparity between doctors and 'migrant' patients encourages a sense of powerlessness and mistreatment among patients.

  8. Identifying Barriers to Healthcare to Reduce Health Disparity in Zuni Indians Using Focus Group Conducted by Community Health Workers

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vallabh O.; Ghahate, Donica M; Bobelu, Jeanette; Sandy, Phillip; Newman, Sara; Helitzer, Deborah L.; Faber, Thomas; Zager, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The Zuni Pueblo is home to an economically disadvantaged population, which faces a public health challenge from the interrelated epidemics of obesity, diabetes and kidney disease. Efforts to decrease the impact of these epidemics have been complicated by historical, economic and cultural barriers, which may limit health-care utilization. The NIH supported Zuni Health Initiative (ZHI) conducted a study to identify barriers to heath care in the Zuni Pueblo. Community health representatives (CHRs) led 14 one-hour focus group sessions at which a total of 112 people participated posed unique questions that took into account the Zuni culture to elicit information on perceived barriers to health care. Audiotapes were translated and transcribed by bilingual ZHI staff. We reduced the text to thematic categories, constructed a coding dictionary and inserted the text into NVivo 9 program. We identified nine themes emerged regarding the barriers experienced in receiving health care and adhering to medical advice. These included distance; transportation; embarrassment; relating to healthcare professionals; navigating the medical system; awareness of available resources; waiting times; adhering to medication; and incentives in health promotion. In conclusion the implementation of culturally appropriate community based health promotion programs and preventive screening techniques will improve access to health care and diminish health disparities. PMID:24528897

  9. Identifying barriers to healthcare to reduce health disparity in Zuni Indians using focus group conducted by community health workers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vallabh O; Ghahate, Donica M; Bobelu, Jeanette; Sandy, Phillip; Newman, Sara; Helitzer, Deborah L; Faber, Thomas; Zager, Philip

    2014-02-01

    The Zuni Pueblo is home to an economically disadvantaged population, which faces a public health challenge from the interrelated epidemics of obesity, diabetes and kidney disease. Efforts to decrease the impact of these epidemics have been complicated by historical, economic and cultural barriers, which may limit healthcare utilization. The NIH supported Zuni Health Initiative (ZHI) conducted a study to identify barriers to healthcare in the Zuni Pueblo. Community health representatives (CHRs) led 14 one-hour focus group sessions at which a total of 112 people participated posed unique questions that took into account the Zuni culture to elicit information on perceived barriers to healthcare. Audiotapes were translated and transcribed by bilingual ZHI staff. We reduced the text to thematic categories, constructed a coding dictionary and inserted the text into NVivo 9 program. We identified nine themes emerged regarding the barriers experienced in receiving healthcare and adhering to medical advice. These included distance; transportation; embarrassment; relating to healthcare professionals; navigating the medical system; awareness of available resources; waiting times; adhering to medication; and incentives in health promotion. In conclusion the implementation of culturally appropriate community-based health promotion programs and preventive screening techniques will improve access to healthcare and diminish health disparities. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Interest Group Roles in the development and Passage of the Mondale Lifelong Learning Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the genesis and formulation of the bill which became the Lifelong Learning Act. Examines cooperative efforts and political activities of supporters (Minnesota Learning Society, Coalition of Adult Education Organizations, and other interest groups) who helped get the bill passed. President Carter has asked Congress for $5 million to…

  11. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of the University of Hartford First-Year Interest Group Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Robert L.; Colarulli, Guy C.; Barrett, Karen A.; Stevenson, Catherine B.

    2005-01-01

    A first-year interest group (FIG) is a learning community using course clusters. An effective model of FIGs and an innovative faculty development process are briefly described. Evaluation results found that University of Hartford FIGs improved student learning, improved curricular integration, fostered student community, and promoted faculty…

  12. The Impact of First-Year Interest Groups on Retention and Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorge-Grover, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined first-year Interest Groups (FIGs) that resulted in higher graduation rates at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point. Participants in this study included eight former FIG participants from the academic years 2008-2011. This researcher created a questionnaire guided by Astin's theory of involvement, that analyzed…

  13. LBRIG Newsletter [Newsletter of the Language by Radio Interest Group]. Vol. 2, Nos. 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Alan, Ed.; And Others

    Volume 2 of the Language by Radio Interest Group (LBRIG) Newsletter consists of news items, short articles, general information, and opinions on the subject of language learning by radio. The first number in the volume contains the following feature articles: "Radio and Communicative Competence," by Kimball L. Robinson; "Shortwave Broadcast and…

  14. 10 CFR 51.122 - List of interested organizations and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false List of interested organizations and groups. 51.122 Section 51.122 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy...

  15. 10 CFR 51.122 - List of interested organizations and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false List of interested organizations and groups. 51.122 Section 51.122 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy...

  16. 10 CFR 51.122 - List of interested organizations and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false List of interested organizations and groups. 51.122 Section 51.122 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy...

  17. 10 CFR 51.122 - List of interested organizations and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false List of interested organizations and groups. 51.122 Section 51.122 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy...

  18. 10 CFR 51.122 - List of interested organizations and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false List of interested organizations and groups. 51.122 Section 51.122 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy...

  19. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of the University of Hartford First-Year Interest Group Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Robert L.; Colarulli, Guy C.; Barrett, Karen A.; Stevenson, Catherine B.

    2005-01-01

    A first-year interest group (FIG) is a learning community using course clusters. An effective model of FIGs and an innovative faculty development process are briefly described. Evaluation results found that University of Hartford FIGs improved student learning, improved curricular integration, fostered student community, and promoted faculty…

  20. The Impact of First-Year Interest Groups on Retention and Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorge-Grover, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined first-year Interest Groups (FIGs) that resulted in higher graduation rates at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point. Participants in this study included eight former FIG participants from the academic years 2008-2011. This researcher created a questionnaire guided by Astin's theory of involvement, that analyzed…

  1. 28 CFR 51.32 - Establishment and maintenance of registry of interested individuals and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment and maintenance of registry of interested individuals and groups. 51.32 Section 51.32 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965,...

  2. Training in Business and Industry. Selected Research Papers, 1995. AERA Special Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin, Ed.

    This document contains 7 of the 10 papers presented at the 1995 program of the American Educational Research Association's special interest group, Training in Business and Industry. The following papers are included: "A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Integrating Evaluation and Training" (Jo D. Gallagher); "Comparing Managers and…

  3. Conference Report: Meeting of the Peace Education Special Interest Group of AERA, San Diego, April 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The Peace Education Special Interest Group of AERA had a very successful AERA Annual Meeting in San Diego in April 2009. There were a total of seven sessions, including two paper sessions, two interactive symposia, two roundtable sessions and a business meeting. The program began with an interactive symposium by Irene Zoppi, Brecken Swartz and…

  4. Interest Groups, the Courts, and Educational Equality: A Policy Regimes Approach to "Vergara v. California"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael; Thompson, Alea R.

    2016-01-01

    In "Vergara v. California" (2014), a trial-level court ruled that California laws governing teacher tenure and dismissal were unconstitutional. This study analyzes "Vergara" in light of the shifting use of the courts to promote equal educational opportunities and the changing power bases of educational interest groups,…

  5. Interest Groups, the Courts, and Educational Equality: A Policy Regimes Approach to "Vergara v. California"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael; Thompson, Alea R.

    2016-01-01

    In "Vergara v. California" (2014), a trial-level court ruled that California laws governing teacher tenure and dismissal were unconstitutional. This study analyzes "Vergara" in light of the shifting use of the courts to promote equal educational opportunities and the changing power bases of educational interest groups,…

  6. An analysis of public-interest group positions on radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Florig, H Keith

    2006-11-01

    The history of radiation risk management is replete with contentious public debate between public interest groups and the technical community of radiation protection professionals. To promote a deeper understanding of this phenomenon, this paper describes the rationales and values underlying public-interest group positions in one radiation risk domain (low-level waste) and contrasts them with those of the technical community. Public interest group objections to recycling of radioactivity-contaminated materials and to discarding of other low-level wastes are made on fairness, risk assessment, and energy-policy grounds. Concerns about procedural fairness stem from the continuing use of top-down expert-driven, rather than deliberative, systems for low-level waste policy-making. Concerns about distributional fairness arise because the benefits and risks of alterative low-level waste policies accrue to different stakeholders. Risk assessment is faulted for failure to acknowledge hidden subjective assumptions (e.g., on screening vigilance in materials recycling, on integrity of disposal facilities in the far future). Skepticism of technological risk management arises from a history peppered with unexpected untoward events that lay outside the design bases of protection systems. Finally, public interest groups view low-level waste issues as part of a larger debate on wise and legitimate energy policy, and are reluctant to support measures that provide relief to a nuclear industry that, in their view, established itself outside the democratic process.

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Freshman Interest Groups at the University of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinto, Vincent; Goodsell, Anne

    This paper reports on two studies, one quantitative and the other qualitative, on the effectiveness and influence of Freshman Interest Groups (FIGs) at the University of Washington. A quantitative panel study compared 442 freshmen participating in 21 FIGs with 1818 non-participating freshmen. Findings indicated that the FIG program provided a…

  8. Training in Business and Industry. Selected Research Papers, 1995. AERA Special Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin, Ed.

    This document contains 7 of the 10 papers presented at the 1995 program of the American Educational Research Association's special interest group, Training in Business and Industry. The following papers are included: "A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Integrating Evaluation and Training" (Jo D. Gallagher); "Comparing Managers and…

  9. AERA Vocational Education Special Interest Group Proceedings (Chicago, Illinois, March 24-28, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Diane H., Ed.

    This proceedings consists of five research papers presented during the 1997 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). The papers were presented during the sessions of the AERA Vocational Education Special Interest Group. "Predictors of Occupational Choice among Rural Youth: Implications for Career Education and…

  10. Circular Unidimensional Scaling: A New Look at Group Differences in Interest Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Hubert, Lawrence; Rounds, James

    2003-01-01

    The fit of J. L. Holland's (1959, 1997) RIASEC model to U.S. racial-ethnic groups was assessed using circular unidimensional scaling. Samples of African American, Asian American, Caucasian American and Hispanic American high school students and employed adults who completed either the UNIACT Interest Inventory (K. B. Swaney, 1995) or the Strong…

  11. Disparities in length of life across developed countries: measuring and decomposing changes over time within and between country groups.

    PubMed

    Timonin, Sergey; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M; Jasilionis, Domantas; Grigoriev, Pavel; Jdanov, Dmitry A; Leon, David A

    2016-01-01

    Over the past half century the global tendency for improvements in longevity has been uneven across countries. This has resulted in widening of inter-country disparities in life expectancy. Moreover, the pattern of divergence appears to be driven in part by processes at the level of country groupings defined in geopolitical terms. A systematic quantitative analysis of this phenomenon has not been possible using demographic decomposition approaches as these have not been suitably adapted for this purpose. In this paper we present an elaboration of conventional decomposition techniques to provide a toolkit for analysis of the inter-country variance, and illustrate its use by analyzing trends in life expectancy in developed countries over a 40-year period. We analyze trends in the population-weighted variance of life expectancy at birth across 36 developed countries and three country groups over the period 1970-2010. We have modified existing decomposition approaches using the stepwise replacement algorithm to compute age components of changes in the total variance as well as variance between and within groups of Established Market Economies (EME), Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), and the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The method is generally applicable to the decomposition of temporal changes in any aggregate index based on a set of populations. The divergence in life expectancy between developed countries has generally increased over the study period. This tendency dominated from the beginning of 1970s to the early 2000s, and reversed only after 2005. From 1970 to 2010, the total standard deviation of life expectancy increased from 2.0 to 5.6 years among men and from 1.0 to 3.6 years among women. This was determined by the between-group effects due to polarization between the EME and the FSU. The latter contrast was largely fueled by the long-term health crisis in Russia. With respect to age, the increase in the overall divergence was attributable to between

  12. The influence and ethics of interest groups on policy incentives for clean energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, Mariana C.

    The clean energy revolution in the United States is not going to happen until diverse stakeholders in the coalition of clean energy proponents strengthen their cohesion and influence—two critical tools for interest group's to be successful in driving the formulation of public policy. Currently, clean energy technology and resource development is supported by a highly diverse coalition of interest groups such as environmental groups, health organizations, industry, and the Defense Department, whose primary goals are often unrelated. Yet their objectives are increasingly well served by pursuing clean energy development by pushing lawmakers for supportive policies. However, characteristics of this ad hoc coalition can hinder its influence and cohesion. Whereas, fossil fuel interests—exemplified by the coalition of oil proponents—are highly cohesive and influential. This thesis will analyze whether there is a correlation between public policies on clean energy, and the strength of interest group influence over those policy decisions. It will begin with an analysis of interest group theories. Next it will analyze the histories of the oil industry as the model opponent of clean energy policies, and the biofuels, wind energy, and solar energy industries as the model proponents of clean energy policies. The composition of the respective coalitions will reveal if they are diverse or similar, with broad or narrow goals, and other important characteristics. Their respective policy positions and messages will show what values are important to them, and the presidential support each coalition has been achieved, or failed to achieve, will provide further insight into their effectiveness. This thesis will then apply interest group theories to the supporter and opponent coalitions. Results obtained indicate that the coalition of oil interests is large, yet very cohesive and influential, while the coalition for clean energy is large, generally diffuse but with some important

  13. Social Work and Evaluation: Why You Might Be Interested in the American Evaluation Association Social Work Topical Interest Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Tracy C.; Kazi, Mansoor A.

    2012-01-01

    With increased pressure on programs to evaluate outcomes, the issue of evaluation in social work has never been so topical. In response to these pressures, there has been a growing interest in evidence-based practice and strategies for the evaluation of social work programs. The American Evaluation Association (AEA) is an international…

  14. Combinatorial properties of graphs and groups of physico-chemical interest.

    PubMed

    El-Basil, Sherif

    2008-11-01

    Combinatorial properties of graphs and groups of physico-chemical interest are described. A type of mathematical modeling is applied which involves "translating" algebraic expressions into graphs. The idea is applied to both graph theory and group theory. The former topic includes objects of importance in physics and chemistry such as trees, polyomino graphs, king boards, etc. Our study along these lines emphasizes nonadjacency relations, graph-generation, quasicrystals, continued fractions, fractals, and general ordering schemes of graphs. The second part of the paper considers certain colored graphs as models of several group-theoretical concepts including coset representations of groups, subduction of groups, character tables, and mark tables which are essential to the understanding of recent developments of combinatorial enumeration in chemistry.

  15. Travel Health Advisory Group: a joint travel industry and travel health Special Interest Group promoting healthy travel in Australia.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Zwar, Nicholas; Hudson, Bernie

    2012-09-01

    The Travel Health Advisory Group (THAG), established in 1997, is a joint initiative between the travel industry and travel health professionals in Australia that aims to promote healthy travel. THAG seeks to promote cooperation in improving the health of travellers between the travel industry and travel medicine professionals and to raise public awareness of the importance of travel health. From 2011, THAG has been a Special Interest Group of The Australasian College of Tropical Medicine and its membership has been active in several areas, including web-based travel health information, travel health promotion, media releases, research and education in Australia. Information is given on the objectives, membership and an overview of the various activities of the group.

  16. A critical review of labor and birth care. Obstetrical Interest Group of the North American Primary Care Research Group.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Acheson, L S; Byrd, J E; Curtis, P; Day, T W; Frank, S H; Franks, P; Graham, A V; LeFevre, M; Resnick, J

    1991-09-01

    A critical review of the literature regarding important aspects of labor and delivery was conducted by members of the Obstetrical Interest Group of the North American Primary Care Research Group using computerized searches, personal communication, and literature exchange between group members. Each written topic summary was carefully reviewed by a second group member, and a consensus was reached regarding conclusions and recommendations by the group. The topics include family involvement, comfort measures, fetal heart rate monitoring, labor augmentation, birth positions, and episiotomies. Each topic summary is preceded by conclusions and recommendations given in the order of least invasive to most invasive of the woman in labor. The strength of these conclusions and recommendations is based on the amount and type of supportive data in the literature and is indicated by one to three stars preceding that statement. One-star conclusions are not well supported in the literature but reflect a family practice style and were reached through consensus from the group. Three-star conclusions are supported by data from clinical trials.

  17. Student-Led Interest Groups: An Adjunct to Learner-Centered Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fidelindo A; Nadeau, Cheryl A

    The current emphasis to make nurses full partners in health care dialogue, education, research, practice, and policy-making has made nursing education more challenging and exciting. Competing themes in an already saturated curriculum allow little room for adding more content to formal teaching-learning activities. Well-organized student-led interest groups are an excellent avenue for conducting focused extracurricular offerings that allow students to exercise their leadership and organizational skills, advocate for academic excellence, and add specialty topics missing in the generalist curriculum. As an adjunct to the formal curriculum, professional development events organized by student-led interest groups promote student engagement, lifelong learning, and learner-centered education.

  18. White Americans' opposition to affirmative action: group interest and the harm to beneficiaries objection.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Laurie T; Garcia, Donna; Crandall, Christian S; Kordys, Justin

    2010-12-01

    We focused on a powerful objection to affirmative action - that affirmative action harms its intended beneficiaries by undermining their self-esteem. We tested whether White Americans would raise the harm to beneficiaries objection particularly when it is in their group interest. When led to believe that affirmative action harmed Whites, participants endorsed the harm to beneficiaries objection more than when led to believe that affirmative action did not harm Whites. Endorsement of a merit-based objection to affirmative action did not differ as a function of the policy's impact on Whites. White Americans used a concern for the intended beneficiaries of affirmative action in a way that seems to further the interest of their own group.

  19. The imperatives of narrative: health interest groups and morality in network news.

    PubMed

    Braun, Joshua A

    2007-08-01

    This article examines some of the story conventions of network television news to explain the ways in which healthcare interest groups develop and maintain their presence in this medium - a process that has significant implications for public understanding of healthcare issues, and therefore to bioethics. The article is divided into three sections. The first section focuses on three major normative conventions of television news: adherence to a simple narrative structure, the balance ethic, and avoidance of the "think-piece" and outlines the basic strategies available to interest groups for exploiting these normative conventions. Section two introduces three case studies of organizations and individuals who have run high-profile media campaigns. Section three explores the implications for bioethics of the observations made in this article.

  20. Managing the conflict between individual needs and group interests--ethical leadership in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Shale, Suzanne

    2008-03-01

    This paper derives from a grounded theory study of how Medical Directors working within the UK National Health Service manage the moral quandaries that they encounter as leaders of health care organizations. The reason health care organizations exist is to provide better care for individuals through providing shared resources for groups of people. This creates a paradox at the heart of health care organization, because serving the interests of groups sometimes runs counter to serving the needs of individuals. The paradox presents ethical dilemmas at every level of the organization, from the boardroom to the bedside. Medical Directors experience these organizational ethical dilemmas most acutely by virtue of their position in the organization. As doctors, their professional ethic obliges them to put the interests of individual patients first. As executive directors, their role is to help secure the delivery of services that meet the needs of the whole patient population. What should they do when the interests of groups of patients, and of individual patients, appear to conflict? The first task of an ethical healthcare organization is to secure the trust of patients, and two examples of medical ethical leadership are discussed against this background. These examples suggest that conflict between individual and population needs is integral to health care organization, so dilemmas addressed at one level of the organization inevitably re-emerge in altered form at other levels. Finally, analysis of the ethical activity that Medical Directors have described affords insight into the interpersonal components of ethical skill and knowledge.

  1. In whose interest? Relationships between health consumer groups and the pharmaceutical industry in the UK.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kathryn

    2008-09-01

    This paper explores how health consumer groups in the UK disclose and manage links with pharmaceutical companies in the context of their growing involvement in the policy process. In particular, it examines claims that industry engages with groups in an attempt to capture the groups' policy agenda, thereby increasing industry's political influence. Drawing on theories of disclosure, analysis of group and industry websites revealed a varying level of detail on the nature and extent of relationships. Only 26 per cent of consumer groups known to be in receipt of industry financial or in-kind support openly acknowledged this. Interviews undertaken with representatives from consumer groups, industry and other health-care stakeholders, highlighted a coincidence of aims between the two sectors, an acknowledgement that collaboration was inevitable, and tacit support for policy guidelines to manage conflicts of interest. The paper concludes by arguing that while claims of organisational capture are over-stated, the shallow approach to transparency adopted by the majority of companies and groups strengthens critiques of undue influence. This may ultimately reduce policy makers' willingness to see consumer groups as the legitimate voice of patients, users and carers in the policy process.

  2. Conceptual Approaches to the Study of Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and policy interest in health disparities, defined as systematic, plausibly avoidable health differences adversely affecting socially disadvantaged groups, has increased markedly over the past few decades. Like other research, research in health disparities is strongly influenced by the underlying conceptual model of the hypothetical causes of disparities. Conceptual models are important and a major source of debate because multiple types of factors and processes may be involved in generating disparities, because different disciplines emphasize different types of factors, and because the conceptual model often drives what is studied, how results are interpreted, and which interventions are identified as most promising. This article reviews common conceptual approaches to health disparities including the genetic model, the fundamental cause model, the pathways model, and the interaction model. Strengths and limitations of the approaches are highlighted. The article concludes by outlining key elements and implications of an integrative systems-based conceptual model. PMID:22224879

  3. Beyond the proteome: Mass Spectrometry Special Interest Group (MS-SIG) at ISMB/ECCB 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Soyoung; Payne, Samuel H.; Schaab, Christoph; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2014-07-02

    Mass spectrometry special interest group (MS-SIG) aims to bring together experts from the global research community to discuss highlights and challenges in the field of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics and computational biology. The rapid echnological developments in MS-based proteomics have enabled the generation of a large amount of meaningful information on hundreds to thousands of proteins simultaneously from a biological sample; however, the complexity of the MS data require sophisticated computational algorithms and software for data analysis and interpretation. This year’s MS-SIG meeting theme was ‘Beyond the Proteome’ with major focuses on improving protein identification/quantification and using proteomics data to solve interesting problems in systems biology and clinical research.

  4. Understanding Health Disparities and Inequities Faced by Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is an increasing interest in the notion of health disparities, inequities and inequalities in Canada and elsewhere. In Canada, individuals with disabilities represent one of six groups identified as particularly vulnerable to health disparities. Method: This paper combines the literature related to the concepts of inequity and…

  5. What Makes African American Health Disparities Newsworthy? An Experiment among Journalists about Story Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnant, Amanda; Oh, Hyun Jee; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    News stories reporting race-specific health information commonly emphasize disparities between racial groups. But recent research suggests this focus on disparities has unintended effects on African American audiences, generating negative emotions and less interest in preventive behaviors (Nicholson RA, Kreuter MW, Lapka C "et al." Unintended…

  6. Understanding Health Disparities and Inequities Faced by Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is an increasing interest in the notion of health disparities, inequities and inequalities in Canada and elsewhere. In Canada, individuals with disabilities represent one of six groups identified as particularly vulnerable to health disparities. Method: This paper combines the literature related to the concepts of inequity and…

  7. What Makes African American Health Disparities Newsworthy? An Experiment among Journalists about Story Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnant, Amanda; Oh, Hyun Jee; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    News stories reporting race-specific health information commonly emphasize disparities between racial groups. But recent research suggests this focus on disparities has unintended effects on African American audiences, generating negative emotions and less interest in preventive behaviors (Nicholson RA, Kreuter MW, Lapka C "et al." Unintended…

  8. Emergence of interest groups on hazardous waste siting: how do they form and survive

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.G.; Payne, B.A.

    1985-10-30

    This paper discusses the two components of the facilitative setting that are important for group formation. The first component, the ideological component, provides the basic ideas that are adopted by the emerging group. The ideological setting for group formation is produced by such things as antinuclear news coverage and concentration of news stories on hazardous waste problems, on ideas concerning the credibility of the federal government, and on the pervasivensee of ideas about general environmental problems. The organizational component of the facilitative setting provides such things as leadership ability, flexible time, resources, and experience. These are important for providing people, organization, and money to achieve group goals. By and large, the conditions conducive to group formation, growth, and survival are outside the control of decision-makers. Agencies and project sponsors are currently caught in a paradox. Actively involving the public in the decision-making process tends to contribute to the growth and survival of various interest groups. Not involving the public means damage to credibility and conflict with values concerning participatory democracy. Resolution in this area can only be achieved when a comprehensive, coordinated national approach to hazardous waste management emerges. 26 refs.

  9. Upgraded coal interest group. Quarterly report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.; Lebowitz, H.E.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of the Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) are as follows: Review and update the status of various coal upgrading technologies and developments and critically assess the results. Perform engineering screening analyses on various coal upgrading approaches. Perform commercialization analyses that will promote the availability and use of upgraded coal products by quantifying the benefits of using them. Identify market opportunities for introduction of upgraded coals. Perform critical analyses on a variety of coals and technologies in areas important to users but not readily available. Perform critical experiments which will show the differences between technologies.

  10. Interest-group representation and the HSAs: health planning and political theory.

    PubMed Central

    Vladeck, B C

    1977-01-01

    Examination of the provisions of the National Health Planning and Resources Development Act, P.L. 93-641, concerning the composition of Health Systems Agencies, which are to be the primary building-blocks of local health planning, suggests that expectations of substantial change may be unrealistic. Specifically, in its provision for representation on the HSAs, Congress appears to have been accepting an implicit theory of pluralist interest-group representation that has long been prevalent in other sectors of public life in the United States, and long subject to significant criticism. Such forms of representation tend to lead to bargaining, log-rolling, and collusive competition among narrowly-defined special interests, with the interests of the broader general public less well-served. The application of this theory to health planning in P.L. 93-641 is examined, and predictions drawn about the implications of this analysis for health planning and health policy in the United States in general. PMID:831558

  11. Global epigenetic screening technologies: a novel tool to address cancer health disparities in high-risk population groups.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Preston, Rafael

    2008-12-01

    Racial, ethnic and class disparities in cancer incidence and mortality have been well documented. Disparities in the utilization of preventive, curative and treatment services among ethnic minorities have been reported. Screening can be effective at detecting cancer at treatable stages, but a large proportion of people at risk have not been screened or are not regularly screened, as recommended by the American Cancer Society's national guidelines. Early detection technologies have the potential of both influencing mortality from cancer, as well as enhancing primary prevention through detection and removal of lesions that could potentially develop into cancer. Cancer is an epigenetic disease characterized by the breakdown of DNA methylation and histones modification patterns. Epigenetic approaches may contribute to a reduction in cancer health disparities impacting early detection and increasing cancer treatment options. Epigenetic events represent important mechanism(s) by which gene function is selectively activated or inactivated, through genetic and non-genetic manifestations. Emerging evidence indicates that various epigenetic alterations, such as global histones modifications and DNA hypomethylation, common to most types of cancer, are modified by environmental exposures throughout the life course. A simple, easily explained and easy to understand non-invasive test, such as the DNA methylation index, that may screen for several cancer sites at once, may remove some of the existing barriers to cancer screening utilization, and contribute to the reduction of cancer disparities. Epigenetic approaches may also prove to be useful in identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that contribute to the prevalence of other chronic conditions in high risk populations, such as Puerto Rican populations in the United States and Puerto Rico.

  12. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of a national program to eliminate disparities in influenza vaccination rates among elderly minority groups.

    PubMed

    Michaelidis, Constantinos I; Zimmerman, Richard K; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Smith, Kenneth J

    2011-04-27

    Influenza is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, particularly among the elderly. Yet, there remain large disparities in influenza vaccination rates across elderly Caucasian (70%), African-American (50%) and Hispanic (55%) populations, with substantial mortality consequences. In this study, we built a decision-analysis model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical national vaccination program designed to eliminate these disparities in influenza vaccination rates. Taking a societal perspective, we developed a Markov model with a one-year cycle length and lifetime time horizon. In the base case, we conservatively assumed that the cost of promoting the vaccination program was $10 per targeted elder per year and that by year 10, the vaccination rate of the elderly African-American and Hispanic populations would equal the vaccination rate of the elderly Caucasian population (70%). The cost-effectiveness of the vaccination program compared to no vaccination program was $48,617 per QALY saved. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses suggested that at willingness-to-pay thresholds of $50,000 and $100,000 per QALY saved, the likelihood of the vaccination program being cost-effective was 38% and 92%, respectively. In an analysis using conservative assumptions, we found that a hypothetical program to ameliorate disparities in influenza vaccination rates has a moderate to high likelihood of being cost-effective.

  13. Assessment of the role of a student-led surgical interest group in surgical education.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Buxey, Kenneth; Ashrafi, Akbar; Drummond, Katharine J

    2013-01-01

    We describe the development of a medical student surgical interest group, its initial evaluation, and future plans. The Surgical Students Society of Melbourne was formed in August 2008 by a group of senior medical students from the University of Melbourne. The Surgical Students Society of Melbourne seeks to provide additional surgical teaching and professional development for students interested in a career in surgery. It also aims to provide junior doctors with leadership and teaching opportunities to meet the requirements of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons for application to the Surgical Education and Training program. Its program also addresses contemporary workforce issues, such as women in surgery and rural surgery. The society runs a weekly teaching program during the semester and procedural and careers workshops throughout the year. A survey of students attending the teaching program was conducted by means of written and online questionnaires. The results suggest that the society has been successful in augmenting surgical education and providing opportunities to improve procedural skills, but also highlighted areas of the program that may be improved, including aspects of surgical professional development and role modeling. The Surgical Students Society initiative was generally very well received by students and shows great potential as a means for augmenting surgical education at the medical student level. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. One size does not fit all: an examination of low birthweight disparities among a diverse set of racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Johnelle Sparks, P

    2009-11-01

    To examine disparities in low birthweight using a diverse set of racial/ethnic categories and a nationally representative sample. This research explored the degree to which sociodemographic characteristics, health care access, maternal health status, and health behaviors influence birthweight disparities among seven racial/ethnic groups. Binary logistic regression models were estimated using a nationally representative sample of singleton, normal for gestational age births from 2001 using the ECLS-B, which has an approximate sample size of 7,800 infants. The multiple variable models examine disparities in low birthweight (LBW) for seven racial/ethnic groups, including non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, U.S.-born Mexican-origin Hispanic, foreign-born Mexican-origin Hispanic, other Hispanic, Native American, and Asian mothers. Race-stratified logistic regression models were also examined. In the full sample models, only non-Hispanic black mothers have a LBW disadvantage compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Maternal WIC usage was protective against LBW in the full models. No prenatal care and adequate plus prenatal care increase the odds of LBW. In the race-stratified models, prenatal care adequacy and high maternal health risks are the only variables that influence LBW for all racial/ethnic groups. The race-stratified models highlight the different mechanism important across the racial/ethnic groups in determining LBW. Differences in the distribution of maternal sociodemographic, health care access, health status, and behavior characteristics by race/ethnicity demonstrate that a single empirical framework may distort associations with LBW for certain racial and ethnic groups. More attention must be given to the specific mechanisms linking maternal risk factors to poor birth outcomes for specific racial/ethnic groups.

  15. Advanced Virus Detection Technologies Interest Group (AVDTIG): Efforts on High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) for Virus Detection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arifa S; Vacante, Dominick A; Cassart, Jean-Pol; Ng, Siemon H S; Lambert, Christophe; Charlebois, Robert L; King, Kathryn E

    Several nucleic-acid based technologies have recently emerged with capabilities for broad virus detection. One of these, high throughput sequencing, has the potential for novel virus detection because this method does not depend upon prior viral sequence knowledge. However, the use of high throughput sequencing for testing biologicals poses greater challenges as compared to other newly introduced tests due to its technical complexities and big data bioinformatics. Thus, the Advanced Virus Detection Technologies Users Group was formed as a joint effort by regulatory and industry scientists to facilitate discussions and provide a forum for sharing data and experiences using advanced new virus detection technologies, with a focus on high throughput sequencing technologies. The group was initiated as a task force that was coordinated by the Parenteral Drug Association and subsequently became the Advanced Virus Detection Technologies Interest Group to continue efforts for using new technologies for detection of adventitious viruses with broader participation, including international government agencies, academia, and technology service providers. © PDA, Inc. 2016.

  16. Gauging the feasibility of cost-sharing and medical student interest groups to reduce interview costs.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Bryan A; Wilson, Taylor A; Bell, Randy S; Ashley, William W; Barrow, Daniel L; Wolfe, Stacey Quintero

    2014-11-01

    Indirect costs of the interview tour can be prohibitive. The authors sought to assess the desire of interviewees to mitigate these costs through ideas such as sharing hotel rooms and transportation, willingness to stay with local students, and the preferred modality to coordinate this collaboration. A survey link was posted on the Uncle Harvey website and the Facebook profile page of fourth-year medical students from 6 different medical schools shortly after the 2014 match day. There were a total of 156 respondents to the survey. The majority of the respondents were postinterview medical students (65.4%), but preinterview medical students (28.2%) and current residents (6.4%) also responded to the survey. Most respondents were pursuing a field other than neurosurgery (75.0%) and expressed a desire to share a hotel room and/or transportation (77.4%) as well as stay in the dorm room of a medical student at the program in which they are interviewing (70.0%). Students going into neurosurgery were significantly more likely to be interested in sharing hotel/transportation (89.2% neurosurgery vs 72.8% nonneurosurgery; p = 0.040) and in staying in the dorm room of a local student when on interviews (85.0% neurosurgery vs 57.1% nonneurosurgery; p = 0.040) than those going into other specialties. Among postinterview students, communication was preferred to be by private, email identification-only chat room. Given neurosurgery resident candidates' interest in collaborating to reduce interview costs, consideration should be given to creating a system that could allow students to coordinate cost sharing between interviewees. Moreover, interviewees should be connected to local students from neurosurgery interest groups as a resource.

  17. VisEL: Visualisation of Expertise Level in a Special Interest Group Knowledge Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulhafizsyam Wan Ahmad, Wan Muhammad; Sulaiman, Shahida; Yusof, Umi Kalsom

    A variety of portals are available nowadays to support diverse purposes such as commercial, publishing, personal, affinity and corporate portals. Affinity portals promote electronic communities who share common interest such as a special interest group (SIG). Knowledge portal is an emerging trend that benefits the existing portal technology by designing such portals with proper representation of the members' shared knowledge. Besides textual representation for diverse expertise levels, graphical visualisation will be able to support the requirements in searching and representing expertise level among e-community. There is a number of existing SIG portals available. However, they do not visualise effectively and accurately the expertise level of members and make it difficult for users to search their targeted experts for instance searching the highest expertise level to have a discussion and to solve their problems related to a project. The goal of this paper is to propose a graphical visualisation of expertise level method (VisEL) using an interactive tag cloud technique that represents expertise level of each member based on their knowledge in a software engineering SIG portal.

  18. Alcohol and immunology: Summary of the 2012 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2013-12-01

    On October 27, 2012, the 17th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at the Grand Wailea Hotel in Maui, Hawaii as a satellite meeting to the 2012 Society of Leukocyte Biology conference. This year's meeting focused on the influence of alcohol on signal transduction pathways in various disease and injury models. Three plenary sessions were held where invited speakers shared their research on alcohol-mediated alterations of cell signaling components, immune cell subsets, and inflammation. These studies suggested alcohol has a negative effect on cell signaling machinery and immune cell homeostasis, resulting in disease, disease progression, and increased mortality. Researchers also identified tissue-specific alcohol-linked elevations in markers of inflammation, including cold-shock proteins and microRNAs. Additionally, one study revealed the effects of alcohol on immune cell subsets in a model of allergic asthma.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Fayetteville, Arkansas, April 26-29, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2011-01-01

    This fifth workshop is a joint workshop of the USGS Karst Interest Group and University of Arkansas HydroDays workshop, sponsored by the USGS, the Department of Geosciences at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville. Additional sponsors are: the National Cave and Karst Research Institute, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, San Antonio, Texas, and Beaver Water District, northwest Arkansas. The majority of funding for the proceedings preparation and workshop was provided by the USGS Groundwater Resources Program, National Cooperative Mapping Program, and the Regional Executives of the Northeast, Southeast, Midwest, South Central and Rocky Mountain Areas. The University of Arkansas provided the rooms and facilities for the technical and poster presentations of the workshop, vans for the field trips, and sponsored the HydroDays banquet at the Savoy Experimental Watershed on Wednesday after the technical sessions.

  20. The Collaborative Coordination of Special Interest Groups on the Telemedicine University Network (RUTE) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Lima Verde Brito, Thiago Delevidove; Baptista, Roberto Silva; de Lima Lopes, Paulo Roberto; Haddad, Ana Estela; Messina, Luiz Ary; Torres Pisa, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil the Telemedicine University Network (Rede Universitária de Telemedicina RUTE) is an initiative that among others promotes collaboration between university hospitals, universities, and health professionals through information technology infrastructure and special interest groups (SIGs) support. This paper presents results of analyses on collaboration during implementation and coordination activities of RUTE SIGs. This study is based on descriptive statistics and data visualization previously collected by RUTE national coordination relative to the status in July 2014. The analysis through collaboration graph identified the strongest collaboration RUTE units. The graph also highlights the collaborative relationship of RUTE units in form of communities, the most collaborative with each other in a communion in the same SIGs, and the less the collaborative units in the network. It should be stated that the most active units are also the oldest in the community.

  1. Alcohol and epigenetic changes: Summary of the 2011 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting

    PubMed Central

    Zahs, Anita; Curtis, Brenda J.; Waldschmidt, Thomas J.; Brown, Lou Ann S.; Gauthier, Theresa W.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Bird, Melanie D.

    2013-01-01

    On November 18, 2011, the 16th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at Loyola University Medical Center in Maywood, Illinois. The focus of this year’s meeting was alcohol’s effect on epigenetic changes and possible outcomes induced by these changes. Two sessions, which consisted of talks from invited speakers as well as presentations of selected abstracts, were held in addition to a poster session. Participants presented information on alcohol-induced alterations in histone modifications and gene expression along with immunologic responses to alcohol. Speakers shared new research specifically on histone deacetylase enzyme expression and modifications due to alcohol and the downstream effect of these modifications may have on gene expression and tissue damage. Additional studies suggested that alcohol exacerbates inflammation when combined with other insults such as infection, trauma, inhalation injury, and disease. PMID:22738858

  2. Alcohol and epigenetic changes: summary of the 2011 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    PubMed

    Zahs, Anita; Curtis, Brenda J; Waldschmidt, Thomas J; Brown, Lou Ann S; Gauthier, Theresa W; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Bird, Melanie D

    2012-12-01

    On November 18, 2011, the 16th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at Loyola University Medical Center in Maywood, Illinois. The focus of this year's meeting was alcohol's effect on epigenetic changes and possible outcomes induced by these changes. Two sessions, which consisted of talks from invited speakers as well as presentations of selected abstracts, were held in addition to a poster session. Participants presented information on alcohol-induced alterations in histone modifications and gene expression along with immunologic responses to alcohol. Speakers shared new research specifically on histone deacetylase enzyme expression and modifications due to alcohol and the downstream effect of these modifications may have on gene expression and tissue damage. Additional studies suggested that alcohol exacerbates inflammation when combined with other insults such as infection, trauma, inhalation injury, and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Institutions, interest groups, and ideology: an agenda for the sociology of health care reform.

    PubMed

    Quadagno, Jill

    2010-06-01

    A central sociological premise is that health care systems are organizations that are embedded within larger institutions, which have been shaped by historical precedents and operate within a specific cultural context. Although bound by policy legacies, embedded constituencies, and path dependent processes, health care systems are not rigid, static, and impervious to change. The success of health care reform in 2010 has shown that existing regimes do have the capacity to respond to new needs in ways that transcend their institutional and ideological limits. For the United States the question is how health care reform will reconfigure the existing network of public and private benefits and the power relationships between the numerous constituencies surrounding them. This article considers how institutions, interest groups, and ideology have affected the organization of the health care system in the United States as well as in other nations. It then discusses issues for future research in the aftermath of the 2009-10 health care reform debate.

  4. Summary of the 2014 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Adam M.; Morris, Niya L.; Cannon, Abigail R.; Shults, Jill A.; Curtis, Brenda; Casey, Carol A.; Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Persidsky, Yuri; Nixon, Kimberly; Brown, Lou Ann; Waldschmidt, Thomas; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

    2015-01-01

    On November 21, 2014 the 19th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at Loyola University Chicago Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, Illinois. The meeting focused broadly on inflammatory cell signaling responses in the context of alcohol and alcohol use disorders, and was divided into four plenary sessions focusing on the gut and liver, lung infections, general systemic effects of alcohol, and neuro-inflammation. One common theme amongst many talks was the differential roles of macrophages following both chronic and acute alcohol intoxication. Macrophages were shown to play significant roles in regulating inflammation, oxidative stress, and viral infection following alcohol exposure in the liver, lungs, adipose tissue, and brain. Other work examined the role of alcohol on disease progression in a variety of pathologies including psoriasis, advanced stage lung disease, and cancer. PMID:26520175

  5. Risk, interest groups and the definition of crisis: the case of volcanic ash.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Bridget M; Lloyd-Bostock, Sally

    2013-09-01

    This paper considers a key aspect of the 'risk society' thesis: the belief that we should be able to manage risks and control the world around us. In particular it focuses on the interface between risk and risk events as socially constructed and the insights that 'critical situations' give us into 'the routine and mundane', the otherwise taken for granted assumptions underlying risk regulation. It does this with reference to the events precipitated by the April 2010 volcanic eruption in the Eyjafjallajökull area of Iceland. The resulting cloud of volcanic ash spread across Europe and much of Europe's airspace was closed to civil aviation for six days, with far reaching consequences including huge financial losses for airlines. The social processes of defining and reacting to risk and crisis both reveal and generate dilemmas and challenges in regulation. This paper examines the role of different interest groups in defining risk expectations and thereby redefining the ash crisis as a regulatory crisis.

  6. Disparities in mammographic screening for Asian women in California: a cross-sectional analysis to identify meaningful groups for targeted intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Tan, Susanna; Keegan, Theresa HM; Clarke, Christina A

    2007-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among the rapidly growing population of Asian Americans; it is also the most common cause of cancer mortality among Filipinas. Asian women continue to have lower rates of mammographic screening than women of most other racial/ethnic groups. While prior studies have described the effects of sociodemographic and other characteristics of women on non-adherence to screening guidelines, they have not identified the distinct segments of the population who remain at highest risk of not being screened. Methods To better describe characteristics of Asian women associated with not having a mammogram in the last two years, we applied recursive partitioning to population-based data (N = 1521) from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), for seven racial/ethnic groups of interest: Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, Vietnamese, and all Asians combined. Results We identified two major subgroups of Asian women who reported not having a mammogram in the past two years and therefore, did not follow mammography screening recommendations: 1) women who have never had a pap exam to screen for cervical cancer (68% had no mammogram), and 2) women who have had a pap exam, but have no women's health issues (osteoporosis, using menopausal hormone therapies, and/or hysterectomy) nor a usual source of care (62% had no mammogram). Only 19% of Asian women who have had pap screening and have women's health issues did not have a mammogram in the past two years. In virtually all ethnic subgroups, having had pap or colorectal screening were the strongest delineators of mammography usage. Other characteristics of women least likely to have had a mammogram included: Chinese non-U.S. citizens or citizens without usual source of health care, Filipinas with no health insurance, Koreans without women's health issues and public or no health insurance, South Asians less than age 50 who were unemployed or non

  7. Suicidal behaviour in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia: Prevalence data suggest disparities increase across age groups.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Gregory; Pirkis, Jane; Arabena, Kerry; Currier, Dianne; Spittal, Matthew J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-04-01

    We compare the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia, and examine the extent to which any disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males varies across age groups. We used data from the baseline wave of The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men), a large-scale cohort study of Australian males aged 10-55 years residing in urban and regional areas. Indigenous identification was determined through participants self-reporting as Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander or both. The survey collected data on suicidal thoughts in the preceding 2 weeks and lifetime suicide attempts. A total of 432 participants (2.7%) identified as Indigenous and 15,425 as non-Indigenous (97.3%). Indigenous males were twice as likely as non-Indigenous males to report recent suicidal thoughts (17.6% vs 9.4%; odds ratio = 2.1, p < 0.001) and more than three times as likely to report a suicide attempt in their lifetime (17.0% vs 5.1%; odds ratio = 3.6; p < 0.001). The prevalence of recent suicidal thoughts did not differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in younger age groups, but a significant gap emerged among men aged 30-39 years and was largest among men aged 40-55 years. Similarly, the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts did not differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in the 14- to 17-years age group, but a disparity emerged in the 18- to 24-years age group and was even larger among males aged 25 years and older. Our paper presents unique data on suicidal thoughts and attempts among a broad age range of Indigenous and non-Indigenous males. The disparity in the prevalence of suicidal thoughts increased across age groups, which is in contrast to the large disparity between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous suicide rates in younger age groups.

  8. Potential strategies to eliminate built environment disparities for disadvantaged and vulnerable communities.

    PubMed

    Hutch, Daniel J; Bouye, Karen E; Skillen, Elizabeth; Lee, Charles; Whitehead, Latoria; Rashid, Jamila R

    2011-04-01

    In 2006, the Federal Collaboration on Health Disparities Research (FCHDR) identified the built environment as a priority for eliminating health disparities, and charged the Built Environment Workgroup with identifying ways to eliminate health disparities and improve health outcomes. Despite extensive research and the development of a new conceptual health factors framework, gaps in knowledge exist in areas such as disproportionate environmental and community hazards, individual and cumulative risks, and other factors. The FCHDR provides the structure and opportunity to mobilize and partner with built environment stakeholders, federal partners, and interest groups to develop tools, practices, and policies for translating and disseminating the best available science to reduce health disparities.

  9. Potential Strategies to Eliminate Built Environment Disparities for Disadvantaged and Vulnerable Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bouye, Karen E.; Skillen, Elizabeth; Lee, Charles; Whitehead, LaToria; Rashid, Jamila R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the Federal Collaboration on Health Disparities Research (FCHDR) identified the built environment as a priority for eliminating health disparities, and charged the Built Environment Workgroup with identifying ways to eliminate health disparities and improve health outcomes. Despite extensive research and the development of a new conceptual health factors framework, gaps in knowledge exist in areas such as disproportionate environmental and community hazards, individual and cumulative risks, and other factors. The FCHDR provides the structure and opportunity to mobilize and partner with built environment stakeholders, federal partners, and interest groups to develop tools, practices, and policies for translating and disseminating the best available science to reduce health disparities. PMID:21389288

  10. Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretonnière, Pierre-Antoine; Benincasa, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality" More than ever in the history of Earth sciences, scientists are confronted with the problem of dealing with huge amounts of data that grow continuously at a rate that becomes a challenge to process and analyse them using conventional methods. Data come from many different and widely distributed sources, ranging from satellite platforms and in-situ sensors to model simulations, and with different degrees of openness. How can Earth scientists deal with this diversity and big volume and extract useful information to understand and predict the relevant processes? The Research Data Alliance (RDA, https://rd-alliance.org/), an organization that promotes and develops new data policies, data standards and focuses on the development of new technical solutions applicable in many distinct areas of sciences, recently entered in its third phase. In this framework, an Interest Group (IG) comprised of community experts that are committed to directly or indirectly enable and facilitate data sharing, exchange, or interoperability in the fields of weather, climate and air quality has been created recently. Its aim is to explore and discuss the challenges for the use and efficient analysis of large and diverse datasets of relevance for these fields taking advantage of the knowledge generated and exchanged in RDA. At the same time, this IG intends to be a meeting point between members of the aforementioned communities to share experiences and propose new solutions to overcome the forthcoming challenges. Based on the collaboration between several research meteorological and European climate institutes, but also taking into account the input from the private (from the renewable energies, satellites and agriculture sectors for example) and public sectors, this IG will suggest practical and applicable solutions for Big Data issues, both at technological and policy level, encountered by these communities. We

  11. The efficiency of fMRI region of interest analysis methods for detecting group differences.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Joanna L; Hubbard, Nicholas A; Brigante, Ryan M; Turner, Monroe; Sandoval, Traci I; Hillis, G Andrew J; Weaver, Travis; Rypma, Bart

    2014-04-15

    Using a standard space brain template is an efficient way of determining region-of-interest (ROI) boundaries for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analyses. However, ROIs based on landmarks on subject-specific (i.e., native space) brain surfaces are anatomically accurate and probably best reflect the regional blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response for the individual. Unfortunately, accurate native space ROIs are often time-intensive to delineate even when using automated methods. We compared analyses of group differences when using standard versus native space ROIs using both volume and surface-based analyses. Collegiate and military-veteran participants completed a button press task and a digit-symbol verification task during fMRI acquisition. Data were analyzed within ROIs representing left and right motor and prefrontal cortices, in native and standard space. Volume and surface-based analysis results were also compared using both functional (i.e., percent signal change) and structural (i.e., voxel or node count) approaches. Results suggest that transformation into standard space can affect the outcome of structural and functional analyses (inflating/minimizing differences, based on cortical geography), and these transformations can affect conclusions regarding group differences with volumetric data. Caution is advised when applying standard space ROIs to volumetric fMRI data. However, volumetric analyses show group differences and are appropriate in circumstances when time is limited. Surface-based analyses using functional ROIs generated the greatest group differences and were less susceptible to differences between native and standard space. We conclude that surface-based analyses are preferable with adequate time and computing resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Asthma disparities and within-group differences in a national, probability sample of same-sex partnered adults.

    PubMed

    Blosnich, John R; Lee, Joseph G L; Bossarte, Robert; Silenzio, Vincent M B

    2013-09-01

    We examined the prevalence and correlates of self-reported lifetime diagnosis of asthma and current asthma among same-sex and opposite-sex partnered adults. Data were from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, in which same-sex partnership was a response option to a family planning item in the core questionnaire. Self-reported lifetime diagnosis of asthma and current asthma were examined in logistic regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics and asthma-related confounding factors and stratified by both gender and same-sex partnership status. Significantly higher proportions of same-sex partnered male and female respondents reported lifetime and current asthma compared with their opposite-sex partnered peers. In adjusted analyses, same-sex partnership status remained significantly associated with asthma outcomes among men and women, with odds ratios ranging from 1.57 to 2.34. Results corroborated past studies that indicated asthma disproportionately affects sexual minority populations. The addition of sexual minority status questions to federal survey projects is key to further exploring health disparities in this population. Future studies are needed to investigate the etiology of this disparity.

  13. Upgraded Coal Interest Group. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.; Lebowitz, H.E.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents information from the coal interest group. Topics of discussion at the meeting included the current political views concerning the Department of Energy and programs contained therein. The group met on January 10 and 11, in Nashville, TN. The status of various coal upgrading technologies was also reviewed. Four new technology opportunities were given reviews, Coal/Waste pellets, Custom Coals advanced technology, CSRC sulfur removing bacteria and a Mag-Mill which is a magnetic separation done within the pulverizer. Coal Waste pellets is a technology for making pellets of coal and fiber waste from recycling plants. The incentives are low cost and low sulfur and nitrogen. Lebowitz made a field trip to the pilot unit in Canton Ohio. The Mag Mill takes advantage of the natural concentration of pyrite in the pulverizer recycle stream (due to its hardness). Special magnets are installed in the mill to remove pyrite from this stream. Custom Coals reported on an advanced two step process for removal of organic sulfur from coal. Consolidated Sulfur Reduction Co. reported on a two step microbial desulfurization process.

  14. U.S. Senate voting on health and safety regulation: the effects of ideology and interest-group orientations.

    PubMed

    Jones, W; Keiser, R

    1986-01-01

    Ideological and interest-group influences attempt to influence policy formulation during the legislative process. In health and safety policy-making these interest-group influences, which are some of the best organized groups, are related to ideological and interest-group orientations of the legislators themselves. The authors analyzed Senate health care voting in the 95th U.S. Congress. General ideology, structured along the left-right dimension was important, but it was not the overriding factor. The senators voted as supporters or opponents of environmentalism as much or even more than as adherents of either liberal or conservative beliefs.

  15. Mortality disparities among groups participating in an East Africa surveying expedition: the Herbert Henry Austin expedition of 1900-1901.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Austin C

    2013-10-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a number of European expeditions traveled to the region of Lake Rudolf, now largely in northern Kenya. Although diverse in intent, many of these were undertaken in the interests of furthering colonial territorial claims. In 1900-1901, Major Herbert Henry Austin led a British expedition down to the lake from Khartoum in the north. Of the 62 African, Arab, and European members of this expedition, only 18 (29 %) arrived at its final destination at Lake Baringo in Kenya. Because of a confluence of adverse climatic, social, and political conditions, the expedition ran short of food supplies when it arrived at the northern end of the lake in April 1901. For the next 4 months, the members of the expedition struggled down the west side of the lake and beyond. The greatest mortality (91 %) occurred among the 32 African transport drivers who were the most marginally nourished at the outset of the trip. The lowest mortality among the Africans on the expedition (15 %) occurred among the members of the Tenth Sudanese Rifles Battalion, who had an excellent nutritional status at the start of the expedition. Major Austin himself suffered from severe scurvy with retinal hemorrhages which left him partially blind in his right eye. An analysis of the mortality rates among the groups that participated in this expedition was undertaken. This revealed that poor nutritional status at the start of the trip was predictive of death from starvation.

  16. Upgraded coal interest group. First quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.; Lebowitz, H.E.

    1994-12-31

    The interest group got under way effective January 1, 1994, with nine utility members, EPRI, Bechtel, and the Illinois Clean Coal Institute. DOE participation was effective October 1, 1994. The first meeting was held on April 22, 1994 in Springfield, Illinois and the second meeting was held on August 10--11, 1994 at Johnstown, Pennsylvania. Technical reviews were prepared in several areas, including the following: status of low rank coal upgrading, advanced physical coal cleaning, organic sulfur removal from coal, handling of fine coal, combustion of coal water slurries. It was concluded that, for bituminous coals, processing of fines from coal cleaning plants or impoundments was going to be less costly than processing of coal, since the fines were intrinsically worth less and advanced upgrading technologies require fine coal. Penelec reported on benefits of NOX reductions when burning slurry fuels. Project work was authorized in the following areas: Availability of fines (CQ, Inc.), Engineering evaluations (Bechtel), and Evaluation of slurry formulation and combustion demonstrations (EER/MATS). The first project was completed.

  17. Desensitization in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions -- an EAACI position paper of the Drug Allergy Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Scherer, K; Brockow, K; Aberer, W; Gooi, J H C; Demoly, P; Romano, A; Schnyder, B; Whitaker, P; Cernadas, J S R; Bircher, A J

    2013-07-01

    Drug hypersensitivity may deprive patients of drug therapy, and occasionally no effective alternative treatment is available. Successful desensitization has been well documented in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions. In certain situations, such as sulfonamide hypersensitivity in HIV-positive patients or hypersensitivity to antibiotics in patients with cystic fibrosis, published success rates reach 80%, and this procedure appears helpful for the patient management. A state of clinical tolerance may be achieved by the administration of increasing doses of the previously offending drug. However, in most cases, a pre-existent sensitization has not been proven by positive skin tests. Successful re-administration may have occurred in nonsensitized patients. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of desensitization is needed. Currently, desensitization in delayed hypersensitivity reactions is restricted to mild, uncomplicated exanthems and fixed drug eruptions. The published success rates vary depending on clinical manifestations, drugs, and applied protocols. Slower protocols tend to be more effective than rush protocols; however, underreporting of unsuccessful procedures is very probable. The decision to desensitize a patient must always be made on an individual basis, balancing risks and benefits. This paper reviews the literature and presents the expert experience of the Drug Hypersensitivity Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

  18. The Pacific Northwest's Climate Impacts Group: Climate Science in the Public Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantua, N.; Snover, A.

    2006-12-01

    Since its inception in 1995, the University of Washington's Climate Impacts Group (CIG) (funded under NOAA's Regional Integrated Science and Assessments (RISA) Program) has become the leader in exploring the impacts of climate variability and climate change on natural and human systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW), specifically climate impacts on water, forest, fish and coastal resource systems. The CIG's research provides PNW planners, decision makers, resource managers, local media, and the general public with valuable knowledge of ways in which the region's key natural resources are vulnerable to changes in climate, and how this vulnerability can be reduced. The CIG engages in climate science in the public interest, conducting original research on the causes and consequences of climate variability and change for the PNW and developing forecasts and decision support tools to support the use of this information in federal, state, local, tribal, and private sector resource management decisions. The CIG's focus on the intersection of climate science and public policy has placed the CIG nationally at the forefront of regional climate impacts assessment and integrated analysis.

  19. Federalism and aging policy in the 1980s: implications for changing interest group roles in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Liebig, P S

    1992-01-01

    Shifts in the American political landscape during the 1980s had impacts on aging policy and on the behavior of aging interest groups through that decade. But perhaps even more important are the likely effects of those changes on aging policy and on the roles of age-related groups in the 1990s--and probably beyond. First, some of the major policy trends of the 1980s are sketched out, especially the renewed emphasis on federalism. Then, an assessment of their effects on aging policy and aging interest groups is provided. Next, a rationale for focusing on state-level policy and a discussion of current aging interest-group mobilization at the state level are presented. Last, the prospects for aging interest-group influence in the 1990s--a period in which the prior decade's emphasis on dual federalism is likely to continue--is addressed.

  20. Increasing medical student exposure to musculoskeletal medicine: the initial impact of the Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine Interest Group

    PubMed Central

    Mickelson, Dayne T; Louie, Philip K; Gundle, Kenneth R; Farnand, Alex W; Hanel, Douglas P

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the impact of the Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine Interest Group (OSSMIG) on medical student interest and confidence in core musculoskeletal (MSK) concepts through supplemental education and experiences at a single tertiary, academic institution. Methods Medical student OSSMIG members at various levels of training were anonymously surveyed at the beginning and end of the 2014–2015 academic year. Results Eighteen (N=18) medical student interest group members completed the survey. Significant improvement in their level of training was observed with regard to respondents’ self-assessed competence and confidence in MSK medicine (p<0.05). Additionally, respondents’ attitudes toward exposure and support from the interest group were significantly higher than those provided by the institution (p<0.05). Members believed OSSMIG increased interest in MSK medicine, improved confidence in their ability to perform orthopedics-related physical exams, strengthened mentorship with residents and attendings, and developed a connection with the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and its residents (median “Strongly Agree”, interquartile range one and two scale items). Conclusion Since its inception 8 years ago, OSSMIG has been well received and has positively impacted University of Washington School of Medicine students through various interventions. Surgical interest groups should target both the students interested in primary care and surgery. Medical schools can provide additional exposure to MSK medicine by leveraging interest groups that provide early clinical experiences and supplementary instruction. PMID:28814909

  1. The Formation of a Socioeconomic Health Disparity: The Case of Cocaine Use during the 1980s and 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miech, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Despite the substantial and prolonged sociological interest in health disparities, much remains unknown about the processes that initiate them. To investigate this topic, we focus on the case study of cocaine use, for which a socioeconomic disparity emerged across all age groups in a short period of time around 1990. We examine whether the…

  2. The Formation of a Socioeconomic Health Disparity: The Case of Cocaine Use during the 1980s and 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miech, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Despite the substantial and prolonged sociological interest in health disparities, much remains unknown about the processes that initiate them. To investigate this topic, we focus on the case study of cocaine use, for which a socioeconomic disparity emerged across all age groups in a short period of time around 1990. We examine whether the…

  3. 40 CFR 35.4220 - How does my group ensure a prospective contractor does not have a conflict of interest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does my group ensure a prospective... group ensure a prospective contractor does not have a conflict of interest? Your group must require any prospective contractor on any contract to provide, with its bid or proposal: (a) Information on its financial...

  4. Health Disparities: Bridging the Gap. From Cells to Selves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This document details the strategic plan of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to address disparities in health and developmental outcomes among Americans, particularly between and among racial and ethnic groups. Following a description of the plan's development, scientific areas of interest, and important themes, the…

  5. Recent trends in survival of adult patients with acute leukemia: overall improvements, but persistent and partly increasing disparity in survival of patients from minority groups.

    PubMed

    Pulte, Dianne; Redaniel, Maria Theresa; Jansen, Lina; Brenner, Hermann; Jeffreys, Mona

    2013-02-01

    The survival of younger patients with acute leukemia has improved in the early 21(st) century, but it is unknown whether people of all ethnic and racial backgrounds have benefited equally. Using cancer registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program, we assessed trends in 5-year relative survival for patients aged 15 years or more with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloblastic leukemia divided by racial and ethnic group, including non-Hispanic whites, African-Americans, Hispanics, and Asian-Pacific Islanders in the 1990s and the early 21(st) century. Modeled period analysis was used to obtain the most up-to-date estimates of survival. Overall, the 5-year survival increased from 31.6% in 1997-2002 to 39.0% in 2003-2008 for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and from 15.5% in 1991-1996 to 22.5% in 2003-2008 for those with acute myeloblastic leukemia. Nevertheless, among patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, age-adjusted 5-year relative survival rates remained lower for African-Americans and Hispanics than for non-Hispanic whites. Among patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia, the increase in survival was greatest (from 32.6% in 1991-1996 to 47.1% in 2003-2008) for younger patients (15-54 years), and was more pronounced for non-Hispanic whites (+16.4% units) than for other patients (+10.8% units). Increases in survival are observed in all ethnic or racial groups. Nevertheless, among patients with acute leukemias, disparities in survival persist between non-Hispanic white people and people of other ethnic or racial groups. Disparities are increasing in younger patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. Improvements in access to treatment, especially for minority patients, may improve outcomes.

  6. 26 CFR 1.861-11T - Special rules for allocating and apportioning interest expense of an affiliated group of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... relative amounts of investments of the bank holding company in the nonfinancial group and financial group... connected income and a percentage of its interest expense equal to the percentage of its assets that... category. (iv) Step 4: Recharacterization. Because any differences determined under step 3...

  7. Learning in Action: Academic Communities and First-Year Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumley, Kristie; Demarest, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Carroll Community College connects students to their peers and to educators who share similar academic, personal, and career interests. Students get involved in hands-on experiences inside and outside of the classroom. The results include higher retention, reduced student anonymity, and an institutional commitment to student success.

  8. The essential tension between leadership and power: when leaders sacrifice group goals for the sake of self-interest.

    PubMed

    Maner, Jon K; Mead, Nicole L

    2010-09-01

    Throughout human history, leaders have been responsible for helping groups attain important goals. Ideally, leaders use their power to steer groups toward desired outcomes. However, leaders can also use their power in the service of self-interest rather than effective leadership. Five experiments identified factors within both the person and the social context that determine whether leaders wield their power to promote group goals versus self-interest. In most cases, leaders behaved in a manner consistent with group goals. However, when their power was tenuous due to instability within the hierarchy, leaders high (but not low) in dominance motivation prioritized their own power over group goals: They withheld valuable information from the group, excluded a highly skilled group member, and prevented a proficient group member from having any influence over a group task. These self-interested actions were eliminated when the group was competing against a rival outgroup. Findings provide important insight into factors that influence the way leaders navigate the essential tension between leadership and power.

  9. Identification of Patient Subgroups with Markedly Disparate Rates of MYCN Amplification in Neuroblastoma: A Report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Project

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Daria; Vo, Kieuhoa T.; London, Wendy B.; Fischer, Matthias; Ambros, Peter F.; Nakagawara, Akira; Brodeur, Garrett M.; Matthay, Katherine K.; DuBois, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose MYCN gene amplification (MNA) is a hallmark of aggressive neuroblastoma. We sought to determine the univariate and multivariate predictors of tumor MNA. Patients and Methods Data from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) were analyzed from the subset of 7,102 patients with known MYCN status. We used chi-squared testing and logistic regression to identify univariate and multivariate predictors of MYCN status. Recursive partitioning was used to identify groups of patients with maximal difference in rates of MNA. Results All clinical [age >18 months; high ferritin; high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); INSS stage 4; adrenal site] and pathology/biology [DNA index ≤1; high MKI, undifferentiated/poorly differentiated grade; unfavorable histology by International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC); segmental chromosomal aberrations (SCA)] features were significantly associated with MNA. LDH (OR=8.4; p<0.001) and chromosomal 1p LOH (OR 19.8; p<0.001) respectively were the clinical and biologic variables most strongly associated with MYCN-Amp. In logistic regression, all variables except chromosome 17q aberration and pooled SCAs were independently predictive of MNA. Recursive partitioning identified subgroups with disparate rates of MNA, including subgroups with 85.7% MNA [patients with high LDH who had poorly differentiated adrenal tumors with chromosome 1p deletion] and 0.6% MNA [localized tumors with hyperdiploidy, low MKI, and lacking chromosome 1p aberration]. Conclusion MNA is strongly associated with other clinical and biologic variables in neuroblastoma. Recursive partitioning identifies subgroups of neuroblastoma patients with highly disparate rates of MNA. These findings can be used to inform investigations of molecular mechanisms of MNA. PMID:26709890

  10. MP's attack on special-interest groups draws angry response from antismoking doctors

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Charlotte

    1995-01-01

    Member of Parliament John Bryden has introduced a private member's bill that would force 175 000 nonprofit groups to disclose the salaries of their executives. He took particular aim at antismoking groups, a move that has angered many physicians. In April they responded with a strongly worded advertisement in an Ottawa newspaper that attacked Bryden's bill. However, Bryden insists that he is simply seeking greater public accountability from nonprofit groups.

  11. Wealth Inequality: Ethnic Disparities in Israeli Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semyonov, Moshe; Lewin-Epstein, Noah

    2011-01-01

    This research examines wealth distribution across ethnic groups in Israel and evaluates the role of labor market rewards and intergenerational transfers in producing ethnic disparities. Israel SHARE data from 2005-2006 are used in the analyses. The findings reveal considerable ethnic disparities in wealth. Wealth disparities are most pronounced…

  12. Wealth Inequality: Ethnic Disparities in Israeli Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semyonov, Moshe; Lewin-Epstein, Noah

    2011-01-01

    This research examines wealth distribution across ethnic groups in Israel and evaluates the role of labor market rewards and intergenerational transfers in producing ethnic disparities. Israel SHARE data from 2005-2006 are used in the analyses. The findings reveal considerable ethnic disparities in wealth. Wealth disparities are most pronounced…

  13. One Nation...Indivisible? Ethnic Interest Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    group’s efforts is the decision-maker possessing the power to influence events. Jürgen Habermas described the differences in public and quasi-public...Huntington, "The Erosion of American National Interests," Foreign Affairs, 76, no. 5 (September/October 1997): 40. 4 Jürgen Habermas , "On the...Concept of Public Opinion," in The Habermas Reader, ed. William Outhwaite (Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1996), 37. 26 Chapter 6 Conclusion Will a

  14. [Self-help groups conflicts of interest through sponsoring by the pharmaceutical industry].

    PubMed

    Klemperer, D

    2009-01-01

    Some patient and self-help groups accept financial support from the pharmaceutical industry and medical device manufacturers. For the industry, this constitutes an increasingly important product marketing component. The acceptance of material or other support triggers psychological mechanisms which endanger objective judgement without the persons involved realizing it. Thus, patient groups may evaluate drugs or devices in a positively distorted way.

  15. Family Forest Landowners' Interest in Forest Carbon Offset Programs: Focus Group Findings from the Lake States, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kristell A.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Kilgore, Mike A.; Davenport, Mae A.

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, focus groups were organized with individuals owning 20+ acres in the Lake States region of the United States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) to discuss various issues related to forest carbon offsetting. Focus group participants consisted of landowners who had responded to an earlier mail-back survey (2010) on forest carbon offsets. Two focus groups were held per state with an average of eight participants each (49 total). While landowner participant types varied, overall convergence was reached on several key issues. In general, discussion results found that the current payment amounts offered for carbon credits are not likely, on their own, to encourage participation in carbon markets. Landowners are most interested in other benefits they can attain through carbon management (e.g., improved stand species mix, wildlife, and trails). Interestingly, landowner perceptions about the condition of their own forest land were most indicative of prospective interest in carbon management. Landowners who felt that their forest was currently in poor condition, or did not meet their forest ownership objectives, were most interested in participating. While the initial survey sought landowner opinions about carbon markets, a majority of focus group participants expressed interest in general carbon management as a means to achieve reduced property taxes.

  16. Levels, Trends and Disparities in Public-Health-Related Indicators among Reproductive-Age Women in Bangladesh by Urban-Rural and Richest-Poorest Groups, 1993-2011

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain; Zanuzdana, Arina; Kraemer, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Background And Objectives Although Bangladesh has already achieved noticeable progress in the field of development and health, disparities in public health indicators for several markers are still reported. To assess public health development in Bangladesh during the last two decades, firstly, we analysed levels, trends and disparities in public-health-related indicators by rural versus urban as well as by the richest versus poorest group of women who have ever been married. Secondly, using the most recent data set we performed multiple analyses to check whether urban-rural and richest-poorest disparities were still significant. Methods The analysis was based on six nationally representative data sets from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS) conducted in 1993-94 (n=9,640), 1996-1997 (n=9,127), 1999-2000 (n=10,544), 2004 (n=11,440), 2007 (n=10,996) and 2011 (n=17,749). The outcome variables were six selected public-health-related indicators. We performed various types of analyses, including multiple logistic regressions. Results The trend of all indicators except being overweight (1993-2011) displayed gradual improvements for both markers. However, the urban and richest groups revealed a better situation than their counterparts in both simple and multiple analyses. Disparities between richest-poorest groups were more pronounced than urban-rural disparities. For instance, the prevalence of delivery at any healthcare facility in 2011 was 20.4% in rural areas and 46.5% in urban areas, whereas it was 9.1% in the poorest group and 57.6% in the richest group. Conclusion The public health sector in Bangladesh has achieved some successes over the last two decades. However, urban-rural and richest-poorest disparities are still considerable and therefore more public health strategies and efforts are clearly needed for the rural and poorest groups of women in order to reduce these gaps further. PMID:24086485

  17. What makes African American health disparities newsworthy? An experiment among journalists about story framing

    PubMed Central

    Hinnant, Amanda; Oh, Hyun Jee; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    News stories reporting race-specific health information commonly emphasize disparities between racial groups. But recent research suggests this focus on disparities has unintended effects on African American audiences, generating negative emotions and less interest in preventive behaviors (Nicholson RA, Kreuter MW, Lapka C et al. Unintended effects of emphasizing disparities in cancer communication to African-Americans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17: 2946–52). They found that black adults are more interested in cancer screening after reading about the progress African Americans have made in fighting cancer than after reading stories emphasizing disparities between blacks and whites. This study builds on past findings by (i) examining how health journalists judge the newsworthiness of stories that report race-specific health information by emphasizing disparities versus progress and (ii) determining whether these judgments can be changed by informing journalists of audience reactions to disparity versus progress framing. In a double-blind-randomized experiment, 175 health journalists read either a disparity- or progress-framed story on colon cancer, preceded by either an inoculation about audience effects of such framing or an unrelated (i.e. control) information stimuli. Journalists rated the disparity-frame story more favorably than the progress-frame story in every category of news values. However, the inoculation significantly increased positive reactions to the progress-frame story. Informing journalists of audience reactions to race-specific health information could influence how health news stories are framed. PMID:21911844

  18. Disparities in type 2 diabetes prevalence among ethnic minority groups resident in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Karlijn A C; Freitas-Da-Silva, Deivisson; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Beune, Erik J A J; Modesti, Pietro A; Stronks, Karien; Zafarmand, Mohammad H; Agyemang, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Many ethnic minorities in Europe have a higher type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence than their host European populations. The risk size differs between ethnic groups, but the extent of the differences in the various ethnic minority groups has not yet been systematically quantified. We conducted a meta-analysis of published data on T2D in various ethnic minority populations resident in Europe compared to their host European populations. We systematically searched MEDLINE (using PUBMED) and EMBASE for papers on T2D prevalence in ethnic minorities in Europe published between 1994 and 2014. The ethnic minority groups were classified into five population groups by geographical origin: South Asian (SA), Sub-Saharan African (SSA), Middle Eastern and North African (MENA), South and Central American (SCA), and Western Pacific (WP). Pooled odds ratios with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using Review Manager 5.3. Twenty articles were included in the analysis. Compared with the host populations, SA origin populations had the highest odds for T2D (3.7, 95 % CI 2.7-5.1), followed by MENA (2.7, 95 % CI 1.8-3.9), SSA (2.6, 95 % CI 2.0-3.5), WP (2.3, 95 % CI 1.2-4.1), and lastly SCA (1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.6). Odds ratios were in all ethnic minority populations higher for women than for men except for SCA. Among SA subgroups, compared with Europeans, Bangladeshi had the highest odds ratio of 6.2 (95 % CI 3.9-9.8), followed by Pakistani (5.4, 95 % CI 3.2-9.3) and Indians (4.1, 95 % CI 3.0-5.7). The risk of T2D among ethnic minority groups living in Europe compared to Europeans varies by geographical origin of the group: three to five times higher among SA, two to four times higher among MENA, and two to three times higher among SSA origin. Future research and policy initiatives on T2D among ethnic minority groups should take the interethnic differences into account.

  19. Explaining disparities in colorectal cancer screening among five Asian ethnic groups: a population-based study in California.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Annette E; Crespi, Catherine M; Antonio, Cynthia M; Lu, Peiyun

    2010-05-19

    Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) indicate that levels and temporal trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening prevalence vary among Asian American groups; however, the reasons for these differences have not been fully investigated. Using CHIS 2001, 2003 and 2005 data, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses progressively controlling for demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care in an attempt to identify factors explaining differences in screening prevalence and trends among Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese Americans (N = 4,188). After controlling for differences in gender and age, all Asian subgroups had significantly lower odds of having ever received screening in 2001 than the reference group of Japanese Americans. In addition, Korean Americans were the only subgroup that had a statistically significant decline in screening prevalence from 2001 to 2005 compared to the trend among Japanese Americans. After controlling for differences in education, marital status, employment status and federal poverty level, Korean Americans were the only group that had significantly lower screening prevalence than Japanese Americans in 2001, and their trend to 2005 remained significantly depressed. After controlling for differences in English proficiency and access to care, screening prevalences in 2001 were no longer significantly different among the Asian subgroups, but the trend among Korean Americans from 2001 to 2005 remained significantly depressed. Korean and Vietnamese Americans were less likely than other groups to report a recent doctor recommendation for screening and more likely to cite a lack of health problems as a reason for not obtaining screening. Differences in CRC screening trends among Asian ethnic groups are not entirely explained by differences in demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care. A better understanding of mutable factors such as rates of doctor

  20. Vocational Education Delivery Systems and Specialization: Impact on Groups of Special Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; And Others

    A study examined the relative effectiveness of three alternative delivery systems for secondary vocational education--vocational high schools, comprehensive high schools, and area vocational centers. It also ascertained how well secondary vocational education is serving women, minority groups, handicapped individuals, economically disadvantaged…

  1. Innovative Learning Strategies 1987-1988. Eighth Yearbook of the College Reading Improvement Special Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betenbough, T. J., Ed.; Biggs, Shirley A., Ed.

    This eighth yearbook of innovative learning strategies presents the following articles, grouped in three major sections. The first section, Program Models, contains: (1) "Welcome Back: Meeting the Needs of Nontraditional Students" (Kathy Carpenter); (2) "A Model Coordinated Curriculum for the First-Term Community College Learning Disabled Student"…

  2. Innovative Learning Strategies 1987-1988. Eighth Yearbook of the College Reading Improvement Special Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betenbough, T. J., Ed.; Biggs, Shirley A., Ed.

    This eighth yearbook of innovative learning strategies presents the following articles, grouped in three major sections. The first section, Program Models, contains: (1) "Welcome Back: Meeting the Needs of Nontraditional Students" (Kathy Carpenter); (2) "A Model Coordinated Curriculum for the First-Term Community College Learning Disabled Student"…

  3. Socioeconomic Disparity in Later-Year Group Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms: Role of Health and Social Engagement Change.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunjoo; Park, Sojung; Kwon, Eunsun; Cho, Joonyoung

    2017-06-01

    This study explored heterogeneous change patterns of South Korean older adults' depressive symptoms by poverty status, focusing on health status and social engagement changes. We used data from four waves (2006-2012) of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA). Our sample contained 2461 poor and 1668 non-poor individuals. All were 65 years old or older at baseline. We used latent class growth analysis to identify trajectory groups' depressive symptoms. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine how a range of changes in health conditions and social engagement was associated with trajectories among poor and non-poor participants. Among the poor, five heterogeneous trajectories with clear patterns were identified: high-to-moderate, stable-high, slightly-increasing, steeply-increasing, and stable-low. Among non-poor, high-to-moderate, steeply-increasing, and stable-low groups were found. A decrease in health conditions was the most vulnerable subgroup's (steeply-increasing) primary risk factor. Poor older adults who reduced participation in, or decreased contact with, social networks were likely to belong to the steeply-increasing group. Our study provides impetus for organizational and/or environmental support systems to facilitate social engagement among poor older adults. Future research should examine whether the significance of social engagement among poor elders applies in less-developed and developed countries.

  4. The Role of Student Surgical Interest Groups and Surgical Olympiads in Anatomical and Surgical Undergraduate Training in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dydykin, Sergey; Kapitonova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Traditional department-based surgical interest groups in Russian medical schools are useful tools for student-based selection of specialty training. They also form a nucleus for initiating research activities among undergraduate students. In Russia, the Departments of Topographical Anatomy and Operative Surgery play an important role in initiating…

  5. LBRIG Newsletter: The Trimestrial Publication of the Language by Radio Interest Group, Vol. V, No.1, September, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Alan, Ed.; And Others

    This issue of the Language by Radio Interest Group newsletter contains: an article by Paul A. Gaeng on his experience as a radio listener, an article by Richard E. Wood on "Radio Peking," and a partial reprint of frequency listings from the January 1976 number. Gaeng reports that, when he was a student in Geneva, he developed skills as a…

  6. The Efforts of Educational Interest Groups To Defeat Merit Pay for Teachers in Pennsylvania: 1983-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Alice Marie

    Efforts of educational interest groups to defeat merit pay for Pennsylvania teachers during 1983-1986 are explored in this case study. Political systems theory and allocative theory provide the conceptual framework. Deutsch's (1973) outline of variables that affect the course of conflict was used to organize indepth personal interviews and a…

  7. The Role of Communication and Symbolism in Interest Group Competition: The Case of the Siskiyou National Forest, 1983-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Proposes that communication and the effective use of symbols are crucial and often overlooked aspects of the political competition between interest groups. Analyzes a highly polarized conflict over an old-growth forest in Oregon's Siskiyou National Forest to illustrate the significant role that symbolism and communication play in the nature and…

  8. The Role of Student Surgical Interest Groups and Surgical Olympiads in Anatomical and Surgical Undergraduate Training in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dydykin, Sergey; Kapitonova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Traditional department-based surgical interest groups in Russian medical schools are useful tools for student-based selection of specialty training. They also form a nucleus for initiating research activities among undergraduate students. In Russia, the Departments of Topographical Anatomy and Operative Surgery play an important role in initiating…

  9. The Creation and Development of an Interest Group: Life at the Intersection of Big Business and Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipple, John W.; Miskel, Cecil G.; Matheney, Timothy M.; Kearney, C. Philip

    1997-01-01

    Since business leaders have become increasingly involved in setting education reform agendas, understanding their motives would be helpful. Using five interest-group theories and longitudinal data, this article examines the formation, agenda setting, and maintenance of an organization of business leaders. Moderate support was found for each…

  10. Perceptions of the Educational Policy-Making Process in New York State: Educational Interest Group Leaders and State Legislators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstein, Mike M.; Jennings, Robert E.

    This study compares the perceptions of the educational policymaking process held by education interest group staffs with those of State legislators. Structured interviews were held with executive officers in six major education organizations, and 207 legislators were surveyed by personal interviews during the 1969 legislative session. Categories…

  11. Selected Publications on Teenagers and Alcohol. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information Grouped Interest Guide No. 8-5. Cumulative Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This Grouped Interest Guide is published by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Its purpose is to provide the reader with a regularly published set of bibliographic references for recent, topical literature in designated areas. Topics included in this guide are Youth, Children of Alcoholic Parents, and Social Forces. A wide…

  12. The Efforts of Educational Interest Groups To Defeat Merit Pay for Teachers in Pennsylvania: 1983-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Alice Marie

    Efforts of educational interest groups to defeat merit pay for Pennsylvania teachers during 1983-1986 are explored in this case study. Political systems theory and allocative theory provide the conceptual framework. Deutsch's (1973) outline of variables that affect the course of conflict was used to organize indepth personal interviews and a…

  13. LBRIG Newsletter: The Trimestrial Publication of the Language by Radio Interest Group, Vol. V, No.1, September, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Alan, Ed.; And Others

    This issue of the Language by Radio Interest Group newsletter contains: an article by Paul A. Gaeng on his experience as a radio listener, an article by Richard E. Wood on "Radio Peking," and a partial reprint of frequency listings from the January 1976 number. Gaeng reports that, when he was a student in Geneva, he developed skills as a…

  14. World disparities in risk definition and management of retinoblastoma: a report from the International Retinoblastoma Staging Working Group.

    PubMed

    Chantada, Guillermo L; Doz, François; Orjuela, Manuela; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Sitorus, Rita S; Kepak, Tomas; Furmanchuk, Anna; Castellanos, Mauricio; Sharma, Tarun; Chevez-Barrios, Patricia; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos

    2008-03-01

    Following from the publication of the International Retinoblastoma Staging System, an open internet discussion group was created at the www.cure4kids.org resource. The results of a survey distributed among participants are discussed. Although most patients with retinoblastoma were treated under prospective protocols, there was a wide variation in the definition of risk criteria and in the criteria for giving adjuvant chemotherapy following enucleation. Definition of high-risk histological features and the criteria for use of adjuvant therapy will be standardized in future studies. Internet meetings are a valuable mechanism for enabling participation from under-resourced countries in the development of cooperative studies.

  15. Interests, relationships, identities: three central issues for individuals and groups in negotiating their social environment.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Herbert C

    2006-01-01

    This chapter begins with a summary of a model, developed half a century ago, that distinguishes three qualitatively different processes of social influence: compliance, identification, and internalization. The model, originally geared to and experimentally tested in the context of persuasive communication, was subsequently applied to influence in the context of long-term relationships, including psychotherapy, international exchanges, and the socialization of national/ethnic identity. It has been extended to analysis of the relationship of individuals to social systems. Individuals' rule, role, and value orientations to a system--conceptually linked to compliance, identification, and internalization--predict different reactions to their own violations of societal standards, different patterns of personal involvement in the political system, and differences in attitude toward authorities and readiness to obey. In a further extension of the model, three approaches to peacemaking in international or intergroup conflicts are identified--conflict settlement, conflict resolution, and reconciliation--which, respectively, focus on the accommodation of interests, relationships, and identities, and are conducive to changes at the level of compliance, identification, and internalization.

  16. Addressing Behavioral Health Disparities for Somali Immigrants Through Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Led by Community Health Workers.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Rebekah; Ahmed, Nimo; Noor, Sahra; Sharif, Hiba; Raymond, Nancy; Williams, Chris

    2017-02-01

    To test the feasibility and acceptability of implementing an evidence-based, peer-delivered mental health intervention for Somali women in Minnesota, and to assess the impact of the intervention on the mental health of those who received the training. In a feasibility study, 11 Somali female community health workers were trained to deliver an 8-session cognitive behavioral therapy intervention. Each of the trainers recruited 5 participants through community outreach, resulting in 55 participants in the intervention. Self-assessed measures of mood were collected from study participants throughout the intervention, and focus groups were conducted. The 55 Somali women who participated recorded significant improvements in mood, with self-reported decreases in anxiety and increases in happiness. Focus group data showed the intervention was well received, particularly because it was delivered by a fellow community member. Participants reported gaining skills in problem solving, stress reduction, and anger management. Participants also felt that the intervention helped to address some of the stigma around mental health in their community. Delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy by a community health workers offered an acceptable way to build positive mental health in the Somali community.

  17. Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR) Special Interest Group at OMERACT 11: outcomes of importance for patients with PMR.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Sarah L; Arat, Seher; da Silva, Jose; Duarte, Catia; Halliday, Sue; Hughes, Rod; Morris, Marianne; Pease, Colin T; Sherman, Jeffrey W; Simon, Lee S; Walsh, Maggie; Westhovens, René; Zakout, Samy; Kirwan, John R

    2014-04-01

    We worked toward developing a core outcome set for clinical research studies in polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) by conducting (1) patient consultations using modified nominal group technique; (2) a systematic literature review of outcome measures in PMR; (3) a pilot observational study of patients presenting with untreated PMR, and further discussion with patient research partners; and (4) a qualitative focus group study of patients with PMR on the meaning of stiffness, using thematic analysis. (1) Consultations included 104 patients at 4 centers. Symptoms of PMR included pain, stiffness, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. Function, anxiety, and depression were also often mentioned. Participants expressed concerns about diagnostic delay, adverse effects of glucocorticoids, and fear of relapse. (2) In the systematic review, outcome measures previously used for PMR include pain visual analog scores (VAS), morning stiffness, blood markers, function, and quality of life; standardized effect sizes posttreatment were large. (3) Findings from the observational study indicated that asking about symptom severity at 7 AM, or "on waking," appeared more relevant to disease activity than asking about symptom severity "now" (which depended on the time of assessment). (4) Preliminary results were presented from the focus group qualitative study, encompassing broad themes of stiffness, pain, and the effect of PMR on patients' lives. It was concluded that further validation work is required before a core outcome set in PMR can be recommended. Nevertheless, the large standardized effect sizes suggest that pain VAS is likely to be satisfactory as a primary outcome measure for assessing response to initial therapy of PMR. Dissection of between-patient heterogeneity in the subsequent treatment course may require attention to comorbidity as a potential confounding factor.

  18. Gender and age disparities in adult undernutrition in northern Uganda: high-risk groups not targeted by food aid programmes.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Stine; Kaducu, Felix Ocaka; Smedemark, Siri Aas; Ovuga, Emilio; Sodemann, Morten

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of adult malnutrition and associated risk factors in a post-conflict area of northern Uganda. A cross-sectional community survey was performed from September 2011 to June 2013. All registered residents in Gulu Health and Demographic Surveillance System aged 15 years and older were considered eligible. Trained field assistants collected anthropometric measurements (weight and height) and administered questionnaires with information on sociodemographic characteristics, food security, smoking and alcohol. Nutritional status was classified by body mass index. In total, 2062 men and 2924 women participated and were included in the analyses. The prevalence of underweight was 22.3% for men and 16.0% for women, whereas the prevalence of overweight was 1.5% for men and 7.6% for women. In men, underweight was associated with younger (15-19 years) and older age (>55 years) (P < 0.001), being divorced/separated [odds ratio (OR) = 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-2.99] and smoking (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.67-2.73). For women, underweight was associated with older age (P < 0.001) and hungry-gap rainy season (May-July) (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04-1.69). Widowed or divorced/separated women were not more likely to be underweight. No association was found between education, alcohol consumption or food security score and underweight. Our findings are not in line with the conventional target groups in nutritional programmes and highlight the importance of continuous health and nutritional assessments of all population groups that reflect local social determinants and family structures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The role of student surgical interest groups and surgical Olympiads in anatomical and surgical undergraduate training in Russia.

    PubMed

    Dydykin, Sergey; Kapitonova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Traditional department-based surgical interest groups in Russian medical schools are useful tools for student-based selection of specialty training. They also form a nucleus for initiating research activities among undergraduate students. In Russia, the Departments of Topographical Anatomy and Operative Surgery play an important role in initiating student-led research and providing learners with advanced, practical surgical skills. In tandem with department-led activities, student surgical interest groups prepare learners through surgical competitions, known as "Surgical Olympiads," which have been conducted in many Russian centers on a regular basis since 1988. Surgical Olympiads stimulate student interest in the development of surgical skills before graduation and encourage students to choose surgery as their postgraduate specialty. Many of the participants in these surgical Olympiads have become highly qualified specialists in general surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, urology, gynecology, and emergency medicine. The present article emphasizes the role of student interest groups and surgical Olympiads in clinical anatomical and surgical undergraduate training in Russia. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Bowling Green, Kentucky, May 27-29, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2008-01-01

    States are developed in carbonate rocks and karst areas. These aquifers and the springs that discharge from them, serve as major water-supply sources and as unique biological habitats. Commonly, there is competition for the water resources of karst aquifers, and urban development in karst areas can impact the ecosystem and water quality of these aquifers. The concept for developing a Karst Interest Group evolved from the November 1999 National Ground-Water Meeting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Water Resources Division. As a result, the Karst Interest Group was formed in 2000. The Karst Interest Group is a loose-knit grass-roots organization of USGS employees devoted to fostering better communication among scientists working on, or interested in, karst hydrology studies. The mission of the Karst Interest Group is to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration and technology transfer among USGS scientists working in karst areas. Additionally, the Karst Interest Group encourages cooperative studies between the different disciplines of the USGS and other Department of Interior agencies and university researchers or research institutes. The first Karst Interest Group workshop was held in St. Petersburg, Florida, February 13-16, 2001, in the vicinity of karst features of the Floridan aquifer system. The proceedings of that first meeting, Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4011 are available online at: http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/karst/ The second Karst Interest Group workshop was held August 20-22, 2002, in Shepherdstown, West Virginia, in close proximity to the carbonate aquifers of the northern Shenandoah Valley. The proceedings of the second workshop were published in Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4174, which is available online at the previously mentioned website. The third workshop of the Karst Interest Group was held September, 12-15, 2005, in Rapid City, South Dakota, which is in close proximity to karst features

  1. Testing for Additivity at Select Mixture Groups of Interest Based on Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, LeAnna M.; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard; Carter, Jr., Walter H.; Pounds, Joel G.; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2006-12-01

    Several assumptions, defined and undefined, are used in the toxicity assessment of chemical mixtures. In scientific practice mixture components in the low-dose region, particularly subthreshold doses, are often assumed to behave additively (i.e., zero interaction) based on heuristic arguments. This assumption has important implications in the practice of risk assessment, but has not been experimentally tested. We have developed methodology to test for additivity in the sense of Berenbaum (Advances in Cancer Research, 1981), based on the statistical equivalence testing literature where the null hypothesis of interaction is rejected for the alternative hypothesis of additivity when data support the claim. The implication of this approach is that conclusions of additivity are made with a false positive rate controlled by the experimenter. The claim of additivity is based on prespecified additivity margins, which are chosen using expert biological judgment such that small deviations from additivity, which are not considered to be biologically important, are not statistically significant. This approach is in contrast to the usual hypothesis-testing framework that assumes additivity in the null hypothesis and rejects when there is significant evidence of interaction. In this scenario, failure to reject may be due to lack of statistical power making the claim of additivity problematic. The proposed method is illustrated in a mixture of five organophosphorus pesticides that were experimentally evaluated alone and at relevant mixing ratios. Motor activity was assessed in adult male rats following acute exposure. Four low-dose mixture groups were evaluated. Evidence of additivity is found in three of the four low-dose mixture groups.The proposed method tests for additivity of the whole mixture and does not take into account subset interactions (e.g., synergistic, antagonistic) that may have occurred and cancelled each other out.

  2. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Andrea S; Chapman, Simon

    2012-08-31

    Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in the news media, with various groups seeking to influence the discussion. This paper examines news coverage of recommendations to restrict alcohol advertising to see how supporters and opponents frame the debate, with a view to providing some suggestions for policy advocates to advance the discussion. We used content and framing analyses to examine 329 Australian newspaper items mentioning alcohol advertising restrictions over 24 months. All items were coded for mentions of specific types of advertising and types of advertising restrictions, the presence of news frames that opposed or endorsed advertising restrictions, statements made within each frame and the news-actors who appeared. Restrictions were the main focus in only 36% of 329 items. Alcohol advertising was conceived of as television (47%) and sport-related (56%). Restrictions were mentioned in non-specific terms (45%), or specified as restrictions on timing and placement (49%), or content (22%). Public health professionals (47%) appeared more frequently than drinks industry representatives (18%). Five supportive news frames suggested the policy is a sensible public health response, essential to protect children, needed to combat the drinks industry, required to stop pervasive branding, or as only an issue in sport. Four unsupportive frames positioned restrictions as unnecessary for a responsible industry, an attack on legitimate commercial activities, ineffective and 'nannyist', or inessential to government policy. Support varied among

  3. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in the news media, with various groups seeking to influence the discussion. This paper examines news coverage of recommendations to restrict alcohol advertising to see how supporters and opponents frame the debate, with a view to providing some suggestions for policy advocates to advance the discussion. Methods We used content and framing analyses to examine 329 Australian newspaper items mentioning alcohol advertising restrictions over 24 months. All items were coded for mentions of specific types of advertising and types of advertising restrictions, the presence of news frames that opposed or endorsed advertising restrictions, statements made within each frame and the news-actors who appeared. Results Restrictions were the main focus in only 36% of 329 items. Alcohol advertising was conceived of as television (47%) and sport-related (56%). Restrictions were mentioned in non-specific terms (45%), or specified as restrictions on timing and placement (49%), or content (22%). Public health professionals (47%) appeared more frequently than drinks industry representatives (18%). Five supportive news frames suggested the policy is a sensible public health response, essential to protect children, needed to combat the drinks industry, required to stop pervasive branding, or as only an issue in sport. Four unsupportive frames positioned restrictions as unnecessary for a responsible industry, an attack on legitimate commercial activities, ineffective and ‘nannyist’, or inessential to government

  4. Socioeconomic disparities in tobacco-related health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups in the United States: National Health Interview Survey 2010.

    PubMed

    Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Cubbin, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    Existing research documents strong inverse socioeconomic gradients in current smoking and lung cancer morbidity and mortality; these gradients appear stronger among non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks compared with Hispanics. We sought to examine a broader range of outcomes across the tobacco use continuum, examining socioeconomic gradients separately among the 3 largest racial/ethnic groups in the United States. We used data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (n = 17,284) Cancer Control Supplement to calculate prevalences and means for outcomes across the tobacco use continuum by educational attainment and income separately among non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic/Latino, and non-Hispanic White adults. Findings demonstrate that current smoking, age at initiation, cigarettes per day, years quit, and secondhand smoke all exhibit strong inverse educational gradients and moderately strong inverse income gradients, especially among Whites and Blacks. Hispanics/Latinos generally have more favorable outcomes along the tobacco use continuum and less evident socioeconomic gradients. Educational attainment is strongly associated with indicators across the tobacco use continuum among non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks. More research is needed to determine whether policies and programs to increase educational attainment may also reduce tobacco-related health disparities.

  5. Disparities in health, poverty, incarceration, and social justice among racial groups in the United States: a critical review of evidence of close links with neoliberalism.

    PubMed

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Agbanu, Samuel Kwami; Miller, Reuben Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Problems of poverty, poor health, and incarceration are unevenly distributed among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. We argue that this is due, in part, to the ascendance of United States-style neoliberalism, a prevailing political and economic doctrine that shapes social policy, including public health and anti-poverty intervention strategies. Public health research most often associates inequalities in health outcomes, poverty, and incarceration with individual and cultural risk factors. Contextual links to structural inequality and the neoliberal doctrine animating state-sanctioned interventions are given less attention. The interrelationships among these are not clear in the extant literature. Less is known about public health and incarceration. Thus, the authors describe the linkages between neoliberalism, public health, and criminal justice outcomes. We suggest that neoliberalism exacerbates racial disparities in health, poverty, and incarceration in the United States. We conclude by calling for a new direction in public health research that advances a pro-poor public health agenda to improve the general well-being of disadvantaged groups.

  6. A qualitative study of physicians' engagement in reducing healthcare disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbilt, Susanne K.; Wynia, Matthew K.; Gadon, Margaret; Alexander, G. Caleb

    2007-01-01

    Despite calls for physician engagement to reduce disparities, little is known about what drives physicians to become engaged or what engaged physicians are doing. We conducted in-depth interviews with a group of highly engaged physicians and used qualitative methods to identify how these physicians became interested in alleviating healthcare disparities and what strategies they use to improve care for their minority patients. We found that most participants have experienced being a minority, though only half were racial minorities, and many related extensive childhood experiences with minorities. Participants identified several key barriers to quality care for minorities, including language barriers, resource limitations, lack of patient education and low patient empowerment. When asked how physicians can reduce health disparities, most subjects emphasized interpersonal respect, though some promising non-interpersonal approaches to reducing disparities were also identified. These interviews document the lived experiences of a group of physicians who are highly engaged in reducing disparities and suggest that connecting with experiences as a minority and other early life experiences can prompt later professional engagement in this important issue. PMID:18229768

  7. 26 CFR 1.861-11T - Special rules for allocating and apportioning interest expense of an affiliated group of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... corporations Y and Z. Z owns 100 percent of the stock Z1, which is also a domestic corporation. X, Y, Z, and Z1... X's or Z1's direct assets is exclusively general limitation income. X and Z1 are not financial... affiliated group apart from X and Z1 for purposes of section 864(e). The combined interest expense of Y and Z...

  8. 26 CFR 1.861-11T - Special rules for allocating and apportioning interest expense of an affiliated group of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... corporations Y and Z. Z owns 100 percent of the stock Z1, which is also a domestic corporation. X, Y, Z, and Z1... X's or Z1's direct assets is exclusively general limitation income. X and Z1 are not financial... affiliated group apart from X and Z1 for purposes of section 864(e). The combined interest expense of Y and Z...

  9. 26 CFR 1.861-11T - Special rules for allocating and apportioning interest expense of an affiliated group of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... corporations Y and Z. Z owns 100 percent of the stock Z1, which is also a domestic corporation. X, Y, Z, and Z1... X's or Z1's direct assets is exclusively general limitation income. X and Z1 are not financial... affiliated group apart from X and Z1 for purposes of section 864(e). The combined interest expense of Y and Z...

  10. 26 CFR 1.861-11T - Special rules for allocating and apportioning interest expense of an affiliated group of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... corporations Y and Z. Z owns 100 percent of the stock Z1, which is also a domestic corporation. X, Y, Z, and Z1... X's or Z1's direct assets is exclusively general limitation income. X and Z1 are not financial... affiliated group apart from X and Z1 for purposes of section 864(e). The combined interest expense of Y and Z...

  11. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group thymic initiative: a state-of-the-art study of thymic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Detterbeck, Frank; Korst, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Thymic malignancies are relatively rare tumors. A general lack of knowledge, misconceptions about benignancy, confusion about the definition of terms, and variability in reporting of outcomes have further hampered progress in these diseases. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group has emerged to counter these challenges and has brought together a worldwide multidisciplinary community determined to improve outcomes for these patients. Although the organization is young (initiated in 2010), major early accomplishments have created a foundation and infrastructure for scientific research. These include consensus definitions of terms, an unprecedented global database, development of practical clinical resources and, together with the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, development of proposals for the first formal stage classification of these malignant tumors. Many articles have been published or are under way, and a second phase of projects building on the early success is proceeding. The greatest accomplishment of the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group lies in the establishment of an open culture of collaboration and the engagement of a broad group of individuals united by a common mission. It is a testament to what can be achieved, despite ongoing and inherent challenges, by determination and a collective effort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reducing Disparities by way of a Cancer Disparities Research Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Lee S.; Akintobi, Tabia H.; Gordon, Tandeca King; Zellner, Tiffany; Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Background For minority populations, there is a continuing disparity in the burden of death and illness from cancer. Research to address this disparity should be conducted by investigators who can best understand and address the needs of culturally diverse communities. However, minorities are under-represented in health-related research. The goal of this project was to develop and evaluate an approach to motivating and preparing master’s degree students for careers dedicated to cancer disparities research. Method A Cancer Disparities Research Training Program (CDRTP) was initiated in 2010. The program consists of coursework, practicum experiences, and research opportunities. Assessment of the curriculum is based on monitoring achievement of evaluation indicators and included a mixed-method approach with included both quantitative and qualitative approach. Results In its first three years, the program graduated 20 trainees, all of whom were minorities (18 African Americans and two Asians). When asked about career goals, two-thirds of the trainees indicated interest in pursuing careers in research in cancer prevention and control. The trainees expressed high satisfaction with the courses, instructor, materials, and curriculum. Although trainees had suggestions about course details, evaluations overall were positive. Across focus groups, three recurrent themes emerged regarding activities to enhance the trainee experience: having a wider variety of topics, more guest speakers, and field trips. Conclusion The CDRTP was intended to recruit students – primarily African Americans – into research on prevention and control of cancer disparities. Although final evaluation of the program’s overall outcome will not be available for several years, this preliminary evaluation indicates early program success. PMID:27722034

  13. Infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity for depth perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruhara, Aki; Kaneko, Hirohiko; Kanazawa, So; Otsuka, Yumiko; Shirai, Nobu; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2013-05-01

    Both horizontal and vertical binocular disparities produce depth perception in adults. In developmental studies, infants aged around 4 to 6 months were shown to perceive depth from horizontal disparity. However, infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity has not been shown clearly. To examine the sensitivity in infants, this study measured preferential looking behavior of infants aged 20 to 27 weeks. Results showed a significant preference for the stimulus with vertical disparity, providing the first evidence of infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity. The infants in the same age group did not show preference for stimulus with horizontal disparity when the stimulus were comparable to the stimulus with vertical disparity, while their sensitivity to horizontal disparity was confirmed with the stimuli used in a previous study. Our results would suggest that properties in processing horizontal and vertical disparities are different in infancy, and that the sensitivity to horizontal disparity are still premature in 27 weeks after birth.

  14. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s) for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement) and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development. PMID:22762776

  15. Meeting Report: “Metagenomics, Metadata and Meta-analysis” (M3) Special Interest Group at ISMB 2009

    PubMed Central

    Field, Dawn; Friedberg, Iddo; Sterk, Peter; Kottmann, Renzo; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Hirschman, Lynette; Garrity, George M.; Cochrane, Guy; Wooley, John; Gilbert, Jack

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the “Metagenomics, Metadata and Meta-analysis” (M3) Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting held at the Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology 2009 conference. The Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) hosted this meeting to explore the bottlenecks and emerging solutions for obtaining biological insights through large-scale comparative analysis of metagenomic datasets. The M3 SIG included 16 talks, half of which were selected from submitted abstracts, a poster session and a panel discussion involving members of the GSC Board. This report summarizes this one-day SIG, attempts to identify shared themes and recapitulates community recommendations for the future of this field. The GSC will also host an M3 workshop at the Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing (PSB) in January 2010. Further information about the GSC and its range of activities can be found at http://gensc.org/. PMID:21304668

  16. HLA-Mismatched Microtransplant in Older Patients Newly Diagnosed With Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Results From the Microtransplantation Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mei; Chao, Nelson J; Li, Jian-Yong; Rizzieri, David A; Sun, Qi-Yun; Mohrbacher, Ann; Krakow, Elizabeth F; Sun, Wan-Jun; Shen, Xu-Liang; Zhan, Xin-Rong; Wu, De-Pei; Liu, Li; Wang, Juan; Zhou, Min; Yang, Lin-Hua; Bao, Yang-Yi; Dong, Zheng; Cai, Bo; Hu, Kai-Xun; Yu, Chang-Lin; Qiao, Jian-Hui; Zuo, Hong-Li; Huang, Ya-Jing; Sung, Anthony D; Qiao, Jun-Xiao; Liu, Zhi-Qing; Liu, Tie-Qiang; Yao, Bo; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Qian, Si-Xuan; Liu, Wei-Wei; Forés, Rafael; Duarte, Rafael F; Ai, Hui-Sheng

    2017-09-14

    The outcome of older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unsatisfactory. Recent studies have shown that HLA-mismatched microtransplant could improve outcomes in such patients. To evaluate outcomes in different age groups among older patients with newly diagnosed AML who receive HLA-mismatched microtransplant. This multicenter clinical study included 185 patients with de novo AML at 12 centers in China, the United States, and Spain in the Microtransplantation Interest Group. Patients were divided into the following 4 age groups: 60 to 64 years, 65 to 69 years, 70 to 74 years, and 75 to 85 years. The study period was May 1, 2006, to July 31, 2015. Induction chemotherapy and postremission therapy with cytarabine hydrochloride with or without anthracycline, followed by highly HLA-mismatched related or fully mismatched unrelated donor cell infusion. No graft-vs-host disease prophylaxis was used. The primary end point of the study was to evaluate the complete remission rates, leukemia-free survival, and overall survival in different age groups. Additional end points of the study included hematopoietic recovery, graft-vs-host disease, relapse rate, nonrelapse mortality, and other treatment-related toxicities. Among 185 patients, the median age was 67 years (range, 60-85 years), and 75 (40.5%) were female. The denominators in adjusted percentages in overall survival, leukemia-free survival, relapse, and nonrelapse mortality are not the sample proportions of observations. The overall complete remission rate was not significantly different among the 4 age groups (75.4% [52 of 69], 70.2% [33 of 47], 79.1% [34 of 43], and 73.1% [19 of 26). The 1-year overall survival rates were 87.7%, 85.8%, and 77.8% in the first 3 age groups, which were much higher than the rate in the fourth age group (51.7%) (P = .004, P = .008, and P = .04, respectively). The 2-year overall survival rates were 63.7% and 66.8% in the first 2 age groups, which were higher than the

  17. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  18. Socioeconomic Disparities in Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.; Krueger, Patrick M.; Denney, Justin T.

    2011-01-01

    The inverse relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and unhealthy behaviors such as tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition have been well demonstrated empirically but encompass diverse underlying causal mechanisms. These mechanisms have special theoretical importance because disparities in health behaviors, unlike disparities in many other components of health, involve something more than the ability to use income to purchase good health. Based on a review of broad literatures in sociology, economics, and public health, we classify explanations of higher smoking, lower exercise, poorer diet, and excess weight among low-SES persons into nine broad groups that specify related but conceptually distinct mechanisms. The lack of clear support for any one explanation suggests that the literature on SES disparities in health and health behaviors can do more to design studies that better test for the importance of the varied mechanisms. PMID:21909182

  19. Disparity map estimation using image pyramid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszkowski, Mikołaj

    2013-10-01

    The task of a short baseline stereo matching algorithm is to calculate the disparity map given two rectified images of one scene. Most algorithms assume that a maximal possible disparity exists and search all disparities in the range from 1 to this maximal disparity. In the case of large images and wide disparity search range this can be very computationally demanding. In this article a simple coarse to fine hierarchical matching method based on the Gaussian pyramid and local stereo matching is investigated. Such an approach allows significant reduction of the number of disparities searched compared to the full search algorithm. Moreover it is shown, that grouping pixels into simple square regions is in most cases sufficient to avoid significant errors that typically appear at disparity map discontinuities when hierarchical schemes are used. Finally, it is presented that in most cases the quality of the disparity map obtained using the investigated algorithm is of comparable quality to a disparity map obtained using full-search local stereo algorithm.

  20. What is binocular disparity?

    PubMed Central

    Lappin, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    What are the geometric primitives of binocular disparity? The Venetian blind effect and other converging lines of evidence indicate that stereoscopic depth perception derives from disparities of higher-order structure in images of surfaces. Image structure entails spatial variations of intensity, texture, and motion, jointly structured by observed surfaces. The spatial structure of binocular disparity corresponds to the spatial structure of surfaces. Independent spatial coordinates are not necessary for stereoscopic vision. Stereopsis is highly sensitive to structural disparities associated with local surface shape. Disparate positions on retinal anatomy are neither necessary nor sufficient for stereopsis. PMID:25161634

  1. Measurement Issues in Health Disparities Research

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Mildred; Ford, Marvella E; Stewart, Anita L; A Teresi, Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    Background Racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care have been documented; the elimination of such disparities is currently part of a national agenda. In order to meet this national objective, it is necessary that measures identify accurately the true prevalence of the construct of interest across diverse groups. Measurement error might lead to biased results, e.g., estimates of prevalence, magnitude of risks, and differences in mean scores. Addressing measurement issues in the assessment of health status may contribute to a better understanding of health issues in cross-cultural research. Objective To provide a brief overview of issues regarding measurement in diverse populations. Findings Approaches used to assess the magnitude and nature of bias in measures when applied to diverse groups include qualitative analyses, classic psychometric studies, as well as more modern psychometric methods. These approaches should be applied sequentially, and/or iteratively during the development of measures. Conclusions Investigators performing comparative studies face the challenge of addressing measurement equivalence, crucial for obtaining accurate results in cross-cultural comparisons. PMID:16179000

  2. In vitro tests for drug hypersensitivity reactions: an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, C; Celik, G; Rouzaire, P; Whitaker, P; Bonadonna, P; Rodrigues-Cernadas, J; Vultaggio, A; Brockow, K; Caubet, J C; Makowska, J; Nakonechna, A; Romano, A; Montañez, M I; Laguna, J J; Zanoni, G; Gueant, J L; Oude Elberink, H; Fernandez, J; Viel, S; Demoly, P; Torres, M J

    2016-08-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) are a matter of great concern, both for outpatient and in hospital care. The evaluation of these patients is complex, because in vivo tests have a suboptimal sensitivity and can be time-consuming, expensive and potentially risky, especially drug provocation tests. There are several currently available in vitro methods that can be classified into two main groups: those that help to characterize the active phase of the reaction and those that help to identify the culprit drug. The utility of these in vitro methods depends on the mechanisms involved, meaning that they cannot be used for the evaluation of all types of DHRs. Moreover, their effectiveness has not been defined by a consensus agreement between experts in the field. Thus, the European Network on Drug Allergy and Drug Allergy Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology has organized a task force to provide data and recommendations regarding the available in vitro methods for DHR diagnosis. We have found that although there are many in vitro tests, few of them can be given a recommendation of grade B or above mainly because there is a lack of well-controlled studies, most information comes from small studies with few subjects and results are not always confirmed in later studies. Therefore, it is necessary to validate the currently available in vitro tests in a large series of well-characterized patients with DHR and to develop new tests for diagnosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The future of the pharmaceutical sciences and graduate education: recommendations from the AACP Graduate Education Special Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Wu-Pong, Susanna; Gobburu, Jogarao; O'Barr, Stephen; Shah, Kumar; Huber, Jason; Weiner, Daniel

    2013-05-13

    Despite pharma's recent sea change in approach to drug discovery and development, U.S. pharmaceutical sciences graduate programs are currently maintaining traditional methods for master's and doctoral student education. The literature on graduate education in the biomedical sciences has long been advocating educating students to hone soft skills like communication and teamwork, in addition to maintaining excellent basic skills in research. However, recommendations to date have not taken into account the future trends in the pharmaceutical industry. The AACP Graduate Education Special Interest Group has completed a literature survey of the trends in the pharmaceutical industry and graduate education in order to determine whether our graduate programs are strategically positioned to prepare our graduates for successful careers in the next few decades. We recommend that our pharmaceutical sciences graduate programs take a proactive leadership role in meeting the needs of our future graduates and employers. Our graduate programs should bring to education the innovation and collaboration that our industry also requires to be successful and relevant in this century.

  4. The Future of the Pharmaceutical Sciences and Graduate Education: Recommendations from the AACP Graduate Education Special Interest Group

    PubMed Central

    Gobburu, Jogarao; O’Barr, Stephen; Shah, Kumar; Huber, Jason; Weiner, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Despite pharma's recent sea change in approach to drug discovery and development, U.S. pharmaceutical sciences graduate programs are currently maintaining traditional methods for master's and doctoral student education. The literature on graduate education in the biomedical sciences has long been advocating educating students to hone soft skills like communication and teamwork, in addition to maintaining excellent basic skills in research. However, recommendations to date have not taken into account the future trends in the pharmaceutical industry. The AACP Graduate Education Special Interest Group has completed a literature survey of the trends in the pharmaceutical industry and graduate education in order to determine whether our graduate programs are strategically positioned to prepare our graduates for successful careers in the next few decades. We recommend that our pharmaceutical sciences graduate programs take a proactive leadership role in meeting the needs of our future graduates and employers. Our graduate programs should bring to education the innovation and collaboration that our industry also requires to be successful and relevant in this century. PMID:23716757

  5. Disparate stakeholder management: the case of elk and bison feeding in southern Greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koontz, Lynne; Hoag, Dana; DeLong, Don

    2012-01-01

    For resource decisions to make the most possible progress toward achieving agency mandates, managers must work with stakeholders and may need to at least partially accommodate some of their key underlying interests. To accommodate stakeholder interests, while also substantively working toward fulfilling legal mandates, managers must understand the sociopolitical factors that influence the decision-making process. We coin the phrase disparate stakeholder management (DSM) to describe situations with disparate stakeholders and disparate management solutions. A DSM approach (DSMA) requires decision makers to combine concepts from many sciences, thus releasing them from disciplinary bonds that often constrain innovation and effectiveness. We combined three distinct approaches to develop a DSMA that assisted in developing a comprehensive range of elk and bison management alternatives in the Southern Greater Yellowstone Area. The DSMA illustrated the extent of compromise between meeting legal agency mandates and accommodating the preferences of certain stakeholder groups.

  6. Measuring disparities in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Karen; Bohm, Michele; Keppel, Kenneth

    2008-12-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines a health disparity as a "[health] difference that occurs by gender, race or ethnicity, education or income, disability, geographic location, or sexual orientation." Health equity is achieved by eliminating health disparities or inequalities. Measuring health disparities is a critical first step toward reducing differences in health outcomes. To determine the methods to be used in measuring a health disparity, several decisions must be made, which include: (1) selecting a reference group for the comparison of 2 or more groups; (2) determining whether a disparity should be measured in absolute or in relative terms; (3) opting to measure health outcomes or health indicators expressed as adverse or favorable events; (4) selecting a method to monitor a disparity over time; and (5) choosing to measure a disparity as a pair-wise comparison between 2 groups or in terms of a summary measure of disparity among all groups for a particular characteristic. Different choices may lead to different conclusions about the size and direction of health disparities at a point in time and changes in disparities over time.The objective of this article is to review the methods for measuring health disparities, provide examples of their use, and make specific recommendations for measuring disparities in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

  7. Health Technology Assessment for Molecular Diagnostics: Practices, Challenges, and Recommendations from the Medical Devices and Diagnostics Special Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Susan; Polisena, Julie; S Spinner, Daryl; Postulka, Anne; Y Lu, Christine; Tiwana, Simrandeep K; Faulkner, Eric; Poulios, Nick; Zah, Vladimir; Longacre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Health technology assessments (HTAs) are increasingly used to inform coverage, access, and utilization of medical technologies including molecular diagnostics (MDx). Although MDx are used to screen patients and inform disease management and treatment decisions, there is no uniform approach to their evaluation by HTA organizations. The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Devices and Diagnostics Special Interest Group reviewed diagnostic-specific HTA programs and identified elements representing common and best practices. MDx-specific HTA programs in Europe, Australia, and North America were characterized by methodology, evaluation framework, and impact. Published MDx HTAs were reviewed, and five representative case studies of test evaluations were developed: United Kingdom (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's Diagnostics Assessment Programme, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase mutation), United States (Palmetto's Molecular Diagnostic Services Program, OncotypeDx prostate cancer test), Germany (Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare, human papillomavirus testing), Australia (Medical Services Advisory Committee, anaplastic lymphoma kinase testing for non-small cell lung cancer), and Canada (Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, Rapid Response: Non-invasive Prenatal Testing). Overall, the few HTA programs that have MDx-specific methods do not provide clear parameters of acceptability related to clinical and analytic performance, clinical utility, and economic impact. The case studies highlight similarities and differences in evaluation approaches across HTAs in the performance metrics used (analytic and clinical validity, clinical utility), evidence requirements, and how value is measured. Not all HTAs are directly linked to reimbursement outcomes. To improve MDx HTAs, organizations should provide greater transparency, better communication and collaboration between industry and HTA

  8. Survey of CAM interest, self-care, and satisfaction with health care for type 2 diabetes at group health cooperative

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Very little research has explored the factors that influence interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. We surveyed persons with sub-optimally controlled type 2 diabetes to evaluate potential relationships between interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments, current self-care practices, motivation to improve self-care practices and satisfaction with current health care for diabetes. Methods 321 patients from a large integrated healthcare system with type 2 diabetes, who were not using insulin and had hemoglobin A1c values between 7.5-9.5%, were telephoned between 2009-2010 and asked about their self-care behaviors, motivation to change, satisfaction with current health care and interest in trying naturopathic (ND) care for their diabetes. Responses from patients most interested in trying ND care were compared with those from patients with less interest. Results 219 (68.5%) patients completed the survey. Nearly half (48%) stated they would be very likely to try ND care for their diabetes if covered by their insurance. Interest in trying ND care was not related to patient demographics, health history, clinical status, or self-care behaviors. Patients with greater interest in trying ND care rated their current healthcare as less effective for controlling their blood sugar (mean response 5.9 +/- 1.9 vs. 6.6 +/- 1.5, p = 0.003), and were more determined to succeed in self-care (p = 0.007). Current CAM use for diabetes was also greater in ND interested patients. Conclusions Patients with sub-optimally controlled type 2 diabetes expressed a high level of interest in trying ND care. Those patients with the greatest interest were less satisfied with their diabetes care, more motivated to engage in self-care, and more likely to use other CAM therapies for their diabetes. PMID:22132687

  9. The Story of the AERA Special Interest Group on Creation and Utilization of Curriculum Knowledge--1970-1984: Toward Excellence in Curriculum Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Edmund C.; And Others

    The American Educational Research Association's (AERA) Special Interest Group (SIG) on "Creation and Utilization of Curriculum Knowledge" was formed in 1971 by researchers whose work focused upon the advancement of knowledge in curriculum. The interest area for this SIG centered on generic knowledge about: (1) curriculum definitions; (2)…

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (78th, Washington, DC, August 9-12, 1995). Science Communications Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Science Communication Interest Group section of the proceedings contains the following seven papers: "Using Television to Foster Children's Interest in Science" (Marie-Louise Mares and others); "Trends in Newspaper Coverage of Science over Three Decades: A Content Analytic Study" (Marianne G. Pellechia); "Media…

  11. Arts and Learning Research, 1995. The Journal of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, California, April 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diket, Read M., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The papers gathered in this volume were presented at the 1995 meeting of the American Educational Research Association; many were part of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group programs. Papers in the volume explore a range of research interests and conceptualizations for the arts. Following an editorial, papers are: "Beyond the Public…

  12. Addressing Asthma Health Disparities: A Multilevel Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Rand, Cynthia S.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial research has documented pervasive disparities in the prevalence, severity, and morbidity of asthma among minority populations compared to non-Latino whites. The underlying causes of these disparities are not well understood, and as a result, the leverage points to address them remain unclear. A multilevel framework for integrating research in asthma health disparities is proposed in order to advance both future research and clinical practice. The components of the proposed model include health care policies and regulations, operation of the health care system, provider/clinician-level factors, social/environmental factors, and individual/family attitudes and behaviors. The body of research suggests that asthma disparities have multiple, complex and inter-related sources. Disparities occur when individual, environmental, health system, and provider factors interact with one another over time. Given that the causes of asthma disparities are complex and multilevel, clinical strategies to address these disparities must therefore be comparably multilevel and target many aspects of asthma care. Clinical Implications: Several strategies that could be applied in clinical settings to reduce asthma disparities are described including the need for routine assessment of the patient’s beliefs, financial barriers to disease management, and health literacy, and the provision of cultural competence training and communication skills to health care provider groups. PMID:19447484

  13. What limits the morphological disparity of clades?

    PubMed

    Oyston, Jack W; Hughes, Martin; Wagner, Peter J; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew A

    2015-12-06

    The morphological disparity of species within major clades shows a variety of trajectory patterns through evolutionary time. However, there is a significant tendency for groups to reach their maximum disparity relatively early in their histories, even while their species richness or diversity is comparatively low. This pattern of early high-disparity suggests that there are internal constraints (e.g. developmental pleiotropy) or external restrictions (e.g. ecological competition) upon the variety of morphologies that can subsequently evolve. It has also been demonstrated that the rate of evolution of new character states decreases in most clades through time (character saturation), as does the rate of origination of novel bodyplans and higher taxa. Here, we tested whether there was a simple relationship between the level or rate of character state exhaustion and the shape of a clade's disparity profile: specifically, its centre of gravity (CG). In a sample of 93 extinct major clades, most showed some degree of exhaustion, but all continued to evolve new states up until their extinction. Projection of states/steps curves suggested that clades realized an average of 60% of their inferred maximum numbers of states. Despite a weak but significant correlation between overall levels of homoplasy and the CG of clade disparity profiles, there were no significant relationships between any of our indices of exhaustion curve shape and the clade disparity CG. Clades showing early high-disparity were no more likely to have early character saturation than those with maximum disparity late in their evolution.

  14. What limits the morphological disparity of clades?

    PubMed Central

    Oyston, Jack W.; Hughes, Martin; Wagner, Peter J.; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    The morphological disparity of species within major clades shows a variety of trajectory patterns through evolutionary time. However, there is a significant tendency for groups to reach their maximum disparity relatively early in their histories, even while their species richness or diversity is comparatively low. This pattern of early high-disparity suggests that there are internal constraints (e.g. developmental pleiotropy) or external restrictions (e.g. ecological competition) upon the variety of morphologies that can subsequently evolve. It has also been demonstrated that the rate of evolution of new character states decreases in most clades through time (character saturation), as does the rate of origination of novel bodyplans and higher taxa. Here, we tested whether there was a simple relationship between the level or rate of character state exhaustion and the shape of a clade's disparity profile: specifically, its centre of gravity (CG). In a sample of 93 extinct major clades, most showed some degree of exhaustion, but all continued to evolve new states up until their extinction. Projection of states/steps curves suggested that clades realized an average of 60% of their inferred maximum numbers of states. Despite a weak but significant correlation between overall levels of homoplasy and the CG of clade disparity profiles, there were no significant relationships between any of our indices of exhaustion curve shape and the clade disparity CG. Clades showing early high-disparity were no more likely to have early character saturation than those with maximum disparity late in their evolution. PMID:26640649

  15. Building a funded research program in cancer health disparities: considerations for young investigators.

    PubMed

    Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Phillips, Lynette S; Nichols, Hazel B; Martinez, Elena; Thompson, Beti; Ojeifo, John; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2015-05-01

    A workshop entitled "Building a funded research program in cancer health disparities" was held at the 38th Annual American Society of Preventive Oncology (ASPO) Meeting. Organized by the Junior Members Interest Group, the session addressed topics relevant to career development for cancer disparities investigators. Such considerations include the development of research programs on a backdrop of existing multi- and transdisciplinary teams, recognizing opportunities for advancing their research, given the growth of consortia-related research, and development of effective community-based partnerships. Key strategies for developing a sustainable career in cancer health disparities in the current environment include the need to effectively engage with communities, appreciate the value of team science and develop cross-discipline collaborations, and navigate the use and utility of consortia for disparities research. Academic considerations related to earning tenure and promotion that may be faced by the junior investigator in cancer health disparities were also discussed. This report may serve to both educate and provide lessons for early-stage investigators who wish to tackle complex scientific questions while developing their careers in cancer health disparities.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, San Antonio, Texas, May 16–18, 2017

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2017-05-15

    karst hydrogeologic systems. As a result, numerous federal, state, and local agencies have a strong interest in the study of karst terrains.Many of the major springs and aquifers in the United States have developed in carbonate rocks, such as the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina; the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma; and the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in west-central Texas. These aquifers, and the springs that discharge from them, serve as major water-supply sources and form unique ecological habitats. Competition for the water resources of karst aquifers is common, and urban development and the lack of attenuation of contaminants in karst areas due to dissolution features that form direct pathways into karst aquifers can impact the ecosystem and water quality associated with these aquifers.The concept for developing a platform for interaction among scientists within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) working on karst-related studies evolved from the November 1999 National Groundwater Meeting of the USGS. As a result, the Karst Interest Group (KIG) was formed in 2000. The KIG is a loose-knit, grass-roots organization of USGS and non-USGS scientists and researchers devoted to fostering better communication among scientists working on, or interested in, karst science. The primary mission of the KIG is to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration and technology transfer among scientists working in karst areas. Additionally, the KIG encourages collaborative studies between the different mission areas of the USGS as well as with other federal and state agencies, and with researchers from academia and institutes.To accomplish its mission, the KIG has organized a series of workshops that have been held near nationally important karst areas. To date (2017) seven KIG workshops, including the workshop documented in this report, have been held. The workshops

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Carlsbad, New Mexico, April 29-May 2, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Spangler, Lawrence E.; Kuniansky, Eve L.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2014-01-01

    strong interest in the study of karst terrains.Many of the major springs and aquifers in the United States have developed in carbonate rocks, such as the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina; the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma; and the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in west-central Texas. These aquifers, and the springs that discharge from them, serve as major water-supply sources and as unique ecological habitats. Competition for the water resources of karst aquifers is common, and urban development and the lack of attenuation of contaminants in karst areas can impact the ecosystem and water quality of these aquifers.The concept for developing a platform for interaction among scientists within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) working on karst-related studies evolved from the November 1999 National Ground-Water Meeting of the USGS. As a result, the Karst Interest Group (KIG) was formed in 2000. The KIG is a loose-knit, grass-roots organization of USGS and non-USGS scientists and researchers devoted to fostering better communication among scientists working on, or interested in, karst science. The primary mission of the KIG is to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration and technology transfer among scientists working in karst areas. Additionally, the KIG encourages collaborative studies between the different mission areas of the USGS as well as other federal and state agencies, and with researchers from academia and institutes. The KIG also encourages younger scientists by participation of students in the poster and oral sessions.To accomplish its mission, the KIG has organized a series of workshops that are held near nationally important karst areas. To date (2014) six KIG workshops, including the workshop documented in this report, have been held. The workshops typically include oral and poster sessions on selected karst-related topics and research, as well

  18. Family forest landowners' interest in forest carbon offset programs: Focus group findings from the Lake States, USA

    Treesearch

    Kristell A. Miller; Stephanie A. Snyder; Mike A. Kilgore; Mae A. Davenport

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, focus groups were organized with individuals owning 20+ acres in the Lake States region of the United States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) to discuss various issues related to forest carbon offsetting. Focus group participants consisted of landowners who had responded to an earlier mail-back survey (2010) on forest carbon offsets. Two focus groups were...

  19. Technology use and interest among low-income parents of young children: differences by age group and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Swindle, Taren M; Ward, Wendy L; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bokony, Patti; Pettit, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    To examine demographic differences in frequency of use of technologies and interest in receiving nutrition information via technology by low-income parents and caregivers. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Head Start and state-funded child care programs. A total of 806 parents and caregivers from low-income families. A 20-item survey assessed frequency of use and interest in technologies (dependent variables) and collected participant age and ethnicity (independent variables). Multivariate ANOVA analysis investigated whether age, ethnicity, and their interactions were related to frequency of use and interest in technology types. Daily rates of usage for Internet, text messaging, and cell phone use were over 60%. However, Twitter and blogs were accessed daily by < 13% of respondents. The omnibus 2-way interaction of ethnicity and age was nonsignificant. However, main effects for ethnicity (Wilks' λ = .85; F = 3.13; P < .001) and age (Wilks' λ = .89; F = 2.29; P < .001) were observed. Facebook, e-mail, texting, and smartphone applications may be innovative modalities to engage with low-income parents and caregivers aged ≤ 45. However, some strategies may be ineffective for reaching Hispanic families as they reported less use of the Internet, Facebook, and e-mail as well as less interest in e-mail. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. 26 CFR 1.861-11 - Special rules for allocating and apportioning interest expense of an affiliated group of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... possessions source investment income and general limitation income. For purposes of section 904, Z's qualified possessions source investment income constitutes foreign source passive income. In computing the section 30A..., thus, only X incurs interest expense. (B) Analysis for regular tax. Assume first that X has no...

  1. The Implementation of Conflicting Interests in Higher Education. Comparative Higher Education Research Group Working Paper Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Gary

    A comparative analysis of the process by which conflicting interests are implemented in the higher education systems of the United States, England, Sweden, and France is presented. Attention is also directed to differentiation in these systems, and to the systems' receptiveness to such differentiation (i.e., splitting up existing functions, or…

  2. Health Disparities in Women

    PubMed Central

    Hornbuckle, Lyndsey M; Amutah-Onukagha, Ndidiamaka; Bryan, Alicia; Skidmore Edwards, Elizabeth; Madzima, Takudzwa; Massey, Kelly; May, Linda; Robinson, Leah E

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND SCOPE Clinical Medicine Insights: Women’s Health is an international, open-access, peer-reviewed journal which considers manuscripts on all aspects of the diagnosis, management, and prevention of disorders specific to women, in addition to related genetic, pathophysiological, and epidemiological topics. Clinical Medicine Insights: Women’s Health aims to provide researchers working in this complex, quickly developing field with online, open access to highly relevant scholarly articles by leading international researchers. In a field where the literature is ever-expanding, researchers increasingly need access to up-to-date, high-quality scholarly articles on areas of specific contemporary interest. This supplement is on Health Disparities in Women. This supplement aims to address this by presenting high-quality articles that allow readers to distinguish the signal from the noise. The editor in chief hopes that through this effort, practitioners and researchers will be aided in finding answers to some of the most complex and pressing issues of our time. PMID:28579867

  3. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog

    Cancer.gov

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  4. A manual-based group program to improve mental health: what kind of teachers are interested and who stands to benefit from this program?

    PubMed

    Unterbrink, Thomas; Pfeifer, Ruth; Krippeit, Lorena; Zimmermann, Linda; Rose, Uwe; Joos, Andreas; Hartmann, Armin; Wirsching, Michael; Bauer, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate a manual-based group program for teachers aiming at strengthening mental health, we examined (1) whether the teachers interested in participating differ from their colleagues without interest and (2) whether there is evidence of subgroups benefiting more than others among those who participated. Out of a basic sample of 949 schoolteachers, 337 teachers declared interest in a group program. All teachers were surveyed with the "General Health Questionnaire", the "Maslach Burnout Inventory" and the "Effort Reward Imbalance Questionnaire". In addition, participating teachers were screened with the "Symptom Checklist 27" T and χ(2)-tests were calculated to detect differences between those interested in the program and the remaining 612 teachers. Six factors were established and used for a regression analysis that identified specific parameters more or less correlating with health benefits of those who participated in the program. Findings showed that those declaring interest in the intervention displayed a higher degree of occupational stress according to all health parameters examined. Teachers interested in the program were significantly younger, more frequently female and single. The regression analysis showed that the baseline scores of the six health parameters were the strongest predictors for improvement. Worse scores before the beginning of the intervention correlated with a more positive effect. Intervention programs aiming at alleviating the mental stress of teachers find the interest of those who need it most. More importantly, the latter are the ones who--at least if our program is applied-benefit best.

  5. Using Reported Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases to Illustrate Potential Methodological Issues in the Measurement of Racial and Ethnic Disparities.

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W; Patel, Chirag G; Gift, Thomas L; Bernstein, Kyle T; Aral, Sevgi O

    2017-09-01

    Racial disparities in the burden of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been documented and described for decades. Similarly, methodological issues and limitations in the use of disparity measures to quantify disparities in health have also been well documented. The purpose of this study was to use historic STD surveillance data to illustrate four of the most well-known methodological issues associated with the use of disparity measures. We manually searched STD surveillance reports to find examples of racial/ethnic distributions of reported STDs that illustrate key methodological issues in the use of disparity measures. The disparity measures we calculated included the black-white rate ratio, the Index of Disparity (weighted and unweighted by subgroup population), and the Gini coefficient. The 4 examples we developed included illustrations of potential differences in relative and absolute disparity measures, potential differences in weighted and nonweighted disparity measures, the importance of the reference point when calculating disparities, and differences in disparity measures in the assessment of trends in disparities over time. For example, the gonorrhea rate increased for all minority groups (relative to whites) from 1992 to 1993, yet the Index of Disparity suggested that racial/ethnic disparities had decreased. Although imperfect, disparity measures can be useful to quantify racial/ethnic disparities in STDs, to assess trends in these disparities, and to inform interventions to reduce these disparities. Our study uses reported STD rates to illustrate potential methodological issues with these disparity measures and highlights key considerations when selecting disparity measures for quantifying disparities in STDs.

  6. Entamoeba dispar: Could it be pathogenic

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Neumann, Elisabeth; Gomes, Maria Aparecida; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal

    2015-01-01

    Amebiasis is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This ameba can colonize the human intestine and persist as a commensal parasite, similar to Entamoeba dispar, an ameba considered to be non-pathogenic. The similarities between E. histolytica and E. dispar make the latter an attractive model for studies aimed at clarifying the pathogenesis of amebiasis. However, in addition to being an interesting experimental model, this relative of E. histolytica remains poorly understood. In the 1990, it was believed that E. dispar was unable to produce significant experimental lesions. This scenario began to change in 1996, when E. dispar strains were isolated from symptomatic patients in Brazil. These strains were able to produce liver and intestinal lesions that were occasionally indistinguishable from those produced by E. histolytica. These and other findings, such as the detection of E. dispar DNA sequences in samples from patients with amebic liver abscess, have revived the possibility that this species can produce lesions in humans. The present paper presents a series of studies on E. dispar that begin to reveal a new facet of this protozoan. PMID:25709947

  7. Rural Health Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Update of the Rural-Urban Chartbook Highlights current trends and disparities across different levels of metro- and ...

  8. Disparities in Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips Disparities in Oral Health Oral Health Conditions Periodontal Disease Community Water Fluoridation Water Fluoridation Basics Over 70 ... 2% of U.S. adults have some form of periodontal disease. In adults aged 65 and older, 70.1% ...

  9. Literacy and Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Mooney, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the relationship between literacy and health disparities, focusing on the concept of health literacy. Recommendations are provided for ways to bridge the health literacy gap for learners in adult basic education and family literacy programs.

  10. Literacy and Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Mooney, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the relationship between literacy and health disparities, focusing on the concept of health literacy. Recommendations are provided for ways to bridge the health literacy gap for learners in adult basic education and family literacy programs.

  11. Classroom Discourse during Social Studies: Students' Purposes and Topics of Interest in Peer-led Discussion Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Susan I.

    This study was designed as an effort to understand how student-directed small-group discussions can further student thinking about issues related to social studies. The study utilized participant observation to collect data two to three times weekly as students engaged in a literature-based reading program called Book Club. The specific questions…

  12. Internet Postings Linked to Student Highlight Interest in "Hate Groups": Experts Say Recruitment Efforts Targeting School-Age Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    In an Internet forum run by the Libertarian National Socialist Green Party, an organization espousing neo-Nazi views, Jeff Weise made his comments about the group in the year leading up to his deadly armed assault at Red Lake High School in Minnesota. The forum lists 34 postings written by the 16-year-old Native American youth. The commentary Mr.…

  13. Igniting interest in prevention: using firefighter focus groups to inform implementation and enhancement of an urban canvassing program.

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; McDonald, Eileen M; Tran, Nhan T; Trump, Alison R; OʼBrocki, Raymond C; Gielen, Andrea C

    2012-01-01

    Smoke alarm canvassing is recognized as an empirically based, effective intervention for increasing access to and the presence of smoke alarms in homes. We sought to inform the implementation of an intervention designed to enhance an existing fire department smoke alarm canvassing program through an empirically grounded, participatory process. We conducted a series of focus groups with fire union leaders and firefighters involved with the canvassing program in 1 US city, shared the results with the participants, and presented the resulting recommendations to fire department leadership. This research occurred in Baltimore, Maryland. Focus group participants included firefighters who participate in the Fire Department's smoke alarm canvassing program and representatives from the local firefighters' union. The focus groups sought to capture firefighters' experiences with and opinions about the canvassing program and how to improve it as well as challenges to canvassing work. We conducted 10 focus groups with 65 participants. Firefighters' perspectives on the canvassing program and their recommendations for improving it were expressed through 3 categories of themes concerning program management, canvassing challenges, and attitudes about the program and the community. We also discuss the process of presenting these findings and recommendations to the participants and the fire department leadership, and describe how implementation of some of the recommendations has progressed. Both the process and outcomes of this formative work inform how to develop and implement community-based public health interventions in real-world settings through academic-community partnerships. The findings also have implications for how canvassing programs are being implemented.

  14. Internet Postings Linked to Student Highlight Interest in "Hate Groups": Experts Say Recruitment Efforts Targeting School-Age Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    In an Internet forum run by the Libertarian National Socialist Green Party, an organization espousing neo-Nazi views, Jeff Weise made his comments about the group in the year leading up to his deadly armed assault at Red Lake High School in Minnesota. The forum lists 34 postings written by the 16-year-old Native American youth. The commentary Mr.…

  15. Racial and ethnic disparities in renal transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Churak, Joanne M.

    2005-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in renal transplantation. The causes are multifactorial and include but are not limited to racism, socioeconomic status and class, unfavorable geographical location, lack of organ donation by minority groups, and differences in social networks, health beliefs culture and HLA typing. These disparities affect blacks, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, Alaskan natiives and Asians. Elimination of these disparities is difficult, since many of the causes are intertwined, and it is difficult todiscern attributable disparity risk associated with the various factors. The possible solutions and recommendations are numerous. Since it is difficult to identify which may be successsful, thorough evaluation is required to determine which should be implemented. Some recommendations may not be easily implemented. Those selected for implementation must be continuously monitored for the expected results and effects. PMID:15712778

  16. Engendering health disparities.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2005-01-01

    How is gender implicated in our exploration of health disparities in Canada? Set against the backdrop of federal government policy, this review paper examines the ways in which gender intersects with other health determinants to produce disparate health outcomes. An overview of salient issues including the impact of gender roles, environmental exposures, gender violence, workplace hazards, economic disparities, the costs of poverty, social marginalization and racism, aging, health conditions, interactions with health services, and health behaviours are considered. This review suggests health is detrimentally affected by gender roles and statuses as they intersect with economic disparities, cultural, sexual, physical and historical marginalization as well as the strains of domestic and paid labour. These conditions result in an unfair health burden borne in particular by women whose access to health determinants is--in various degrees--limited. While progress has certainly been made on some fronts, the persistence of health disparities among diverse populations of women and men suggests a postponement of the vision of a just society with health for all that was articulated in the Federal Plan on Gender Equality. Commitment, creativity and collaboration from stakeholders ranging from various levels of government, communities, academics, non-governmental agencies and health professionals will be required to reduce and eliminate health disparities between and among all members of our society.

  17. The Effect of Participating in a Pre-Veterinary Learning Community of Freshmen Interest Group (FIG) Has on the Odds of New Animal Science Majors Graduate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, John R., II; Williams, James E.; Ellersieck, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    All first-year students who entered the University of Missouri-Columbia as animal science majors between the fall of 1998 and 2004 (n = 619) had the opportunity to participate in a residentially-based Freshmen Interest Group (FIG) and/or a learning community specifically designed for them. The odds of graduating is significant for all three…

  18. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (84th, Washington, DC, August 5-8, 2001). Science Communication Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Science Communication Interest Group section of the proceedings contains the following 6 selected papers: "The Internet and the Environmental Protection Agency: Public Access to Toxic Chemical Off-Site Consequence Information" (James F. Carstens); "Motivations To Participate in Riparian Improvement Programs: Applying the Theory…

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Graduate Education Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Graduate Education Interest Group section of the proceedings contains the following five papers: "The Press, President, and Presidential Popularity During Ronald Reagan's War on Drugs" (Hyo-Seong Lee); "Malaysia's Broadcasting Industry in Transition: Effect of New Competitions on Traditional Television Channels" (Tee-Tuan…

  20. Arts and Learning Research, 1999-2000. The Journal of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresler, Liora, Ed.; Ellis, Nancy C., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This volume contains papers which encompass visual arts, drama, music, literature, and poetry education, creating a space for scholars from diverse intellectual traditions. Following editorial notes and a message from the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group Chair, David Betts, are the papers of part 1, The Interconnectedness of Issues across…

  1. Arts and Learning Research, 1998-1999. The Journal of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, Illinois, April 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresler, Liora, Ed.; Ellis, Nancy C., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This volume highlights thought-provoking issues in visual arts, drama, and music education presented at the 1998 meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Following a message from the Special Interest Group Chair, Larry Kantner, and an editorial, articles in section 1 are: "Art Beginnings" (L. A. Kantner); "Teachers'…

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Science Communication Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Science Communication Interest Group section of the proceedings contains the following five papers: "Accounting for the Complexity of Causal Explanations in the Wake of an Environmental Risk" (LeeAnn Kahlor, Sharon Dunwoody and Robert J. Griffin); "Construction of Technology Crisis and Safety: News Media's Framing the Y2K…

  3. 40 CFR 35.4145 - How much time do my group or other interested groups have to submit a TAG application to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regional office within the second 30 days after the date the public notice appears in your local newspaper announcing that EPA has received an LOI. This second 30-day period begins on the day after the first 30-day period § 35.4115 describes ends. EPA will only accept applications from groups that submitted an LOI...

  4. 40 CFR 35.4145 - How much time do my group or other interested groups have to submit a TAG application to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regional office within the second 30 days after the date the public notice appears in your local newspaper announcing that EPA has received an LOI. This second 30-day period begins on the day after the first 30-day period § 35.4115 describes ends. EPA will only accept applications from groups that submitted an LOI...

  5. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566

  6. Public opinion and interest group positions on open-space issues in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA: Implications for resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannery, Thomas Allan

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to elicit and compare the open-space preferences of citizens and openspace experts in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. A randomly selected sample of 492 citizens and 35 open-space experts participated in a telephone survey during May 5 18, 1986. The following hypothesis was tested and used as a guideline for the study: HO1: There is no significant difference between respondents' status and preference for open space in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The hypothesis was rejected. Findings confirmed respondents' status affected preference for open space. Of the eight issues on which the citizen and expert groups were compared, five recorded significant differences in response profiles. The open-space expert group was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate offroad vehicle facilities, wildlife preserves, a citywide recreational trail, and a trail system along the arroyos and city ditches. The citizen sample was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate overnight camping facilities. Both groups equally supported using open space to accommodate an outdoor amphitheater, outdoor education facilities, and rafting, kayaking, and canoeing facilities. The finding indicated that expert preferences did not represent an aggregate of citizen preferences for managing open-space resources. Understanding both expert and citizen positions will facilitate decision-making processes and help resolve environmental disputes.

  7. Sustainable forest management preferences of interest groups in three regions with different levels of industrial forestry: an exploratory attribute-based choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Kati; Adamowicz, Wiktor; Kneeshaw, Daniel; Messier, Christian

    2010-07-01

    The challenge of sustainable forest management is to integrate diverse and sometimes conflicting management objectives. In order to achieve this goal, we need a better understanding of the aspects influencing the preferences of diverse groups and how these groups make trade-offs between different attributes of SFM. We compare the SFM preferences of interest groups in regions with different forest use histories based on the reasoning that the condition of the forest reflects the forest use history of the area. The condition of the forest also shapes an individual's forest values and attitudes. These held values and attitudes are thought to influence SFM preferences. We tested whether the SFM preferences vary amongst the different interest groups within and across regions. We collected data from 252 persons using a choice experiment approach, where participants chose multiple times among different options described by a combination of attributes that are assigned different levels. The novelty of our approach was the use of choice experiments in the assessment of regional preference differences. Given the complexity of inter-regional comparison and the small sample size, this was an exploratory study based on a purposive rather than random sample. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the aggregation of preferences of all individuals within a region does not reveal all information necessary for forest management planning since opposing viewpoints could cancel each other out and lead to an interpretation that does not reflect possibly polarised views. Although based on a small sample size, the preferences of interest groups within a region are generally statistically significantly different from each other; however preferences of interest groups across regions are also significantly different. This illustrates the potential importance of assessing heterogeneity by region and by group.

  8. The role of support groups, advocacy groups, and other interested parties in improving the care of patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: pleas and warnings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P

    2010-01-01

    In the era of advocacy groups, it seems appropriate to contemplate how best to utilize them for patient benefit in the management of those with disorders of sex development (DSD), including those with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Such interactions, to be constructive, require a spirit of cooperation to optimize outcomes. A traditional view of advocacy groups as a type of defender of patients' rights appears outdated and it is time that the benefits of their participation be fully realized. Open dialogue with all patients/families, including those who feel harmed by prior care are paramount. We discuss several recent examples of interactions that illustrate how dialogue in the name of "advocacy" can have a negative impact on developing a framework for ongoing constructive dialogue and actions. Such approaches completely change the dynamics of subsequent interactions. Physicians involved in the care of individuals with DSD, including those with CAH, and patients should be aware of confrontational techniques and legal implications that may be used by some advocacy groups. Hopefully recent efforts to promote a multidisciplinary care approach for patients with DSD/CAH will continue to foster mutual cooperation between team members, where the common goal is improving patient/family outcomes and quality of life.

  9. The role of citizen public-interest groups in the decision-making process of a science-intensive culture

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    This study explores how concerns about the environment have escalated in the past three decades from being peripheral to that of a mainstream social movement. Most environmental concerns stem from the deployment of technologies where technical expertise is essential to effective participation in the decision-making process. The manner in which the current policy for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste was devised and passed by Congress provides the information base through which the role of citizen groups in the decision-making process in a science-intensive culture is explored, as they seek to overcome the adverse environmental impacts and economic inequities of this Act. The actual process by which citizens have confronted this current flawed policy is described, which includes how technical expertise from various sources made the citizens' case credible and effective. Several existing and theoretical models of citizen participation are described. Recommendations and conclusions are presented briefly, and a recommended model based on the concept of sustainable development is proposed.

  10. Reducing the Grade Disparities between American Indians and Euro-American Students in Introduction to Psychology through Small-Group, Peer-Mentored, Supplemental Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okun, Morris Alan; Berlin, Anna; Hanrahan, Jeanne; Lewis, James; Johnson, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental instruction (SI) is a small-group, peer-mentored programme which is compatible with the learning preferences of American Indian students. We tested the hypothesis that SI is a compensatory strategy that reduces the differences in the grades earned in introduction to psychology by Euro-American and American Indian students. The sample…

  11. Reducing the Grade Disparities between American Indians and Euro-American Students in Introduction to Psychology through Small-Group, Peer-Mentored, Supplemental Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okun, Morris Alan; Berlin, Anna; Hanrahan, Jeanne; Lewis, James; Johnson, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental instruction (SI) is a small-group, peer-mentored programme which is compatible with the learning preferences of American Indian students. We tested the hypothesis that SI is a compensatory strategy that reduces the differences in the grades earned in introduction to psychology by Euro-American and American Indian students. The sample…

  12. European survey of diagnosis and management of the polycystic ovary syndrome: results of the ESE PCOS Special Interest Group's Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Conway, Gerard; Dewailly, Didier; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Escobar-Morreale, Hector F; Franks, Steven; Gambineri, Alessandra; Kelestimur, Fahrettin; Macut, Djuro; Micic, Dragan; Pasquali, Renato; Pfeifer, Marija; Pignatelli, Duarte; Pugeat, Michel; Yildiz, Bulent

    2014-10-01

    There is evidence for differences between endocrinologists and other specialists in their approach to diagnosis and management of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A mailed survey consisting of a simple questionnaire aiming to understand current practice for diagnosis and management of the PCOS by specialists across Europe. The questionnaire consisted of 23 questions grouped to achieve information on i) the general characteristics of the respondents, ii) patients with PCOS seen by endocrinologists, iii) the main diagnostic criteria, iv) biochemical parameters used in the differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism, v) long-term concerns, and, finally vi) treatment choices. A total of 357 questionnaires representing 13.3% of the members of European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) were available for final analysis; 93% of the respondents were endocrinologists In relation to the diagnostic criteria, respondents were most likely to select menstrual irregularity as the most frequent criteria used for the diagnosis of PCOS although very high rates were achieved for the use of hirsutism and biochemical hyperandrogenism. It therefore appears that the NIH criteria were followed by the majority of respondents. The most frequent biochemical parameters in the differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism were total testosterone or free androgen index. Obesity and type 2 diabetes were regarded as the principal long-term concerns for PCOS. The most common treatments for patients with PCOS were metformin (33%), lifestyle modification (25%), and oral contraceptives (22%). More direct treatments of infertility include clomiphene citrate alone or in combination with metformin, prescribed by 9 and 23%, respectively, whereas only 6% used other methods for induction of ovulation. The survey produced by ESE is a good start for evaluating the perspective in the diagnosis and treatment of PCOS by endocrinologists in Europe. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Type II Diabetes Disparities in Diverse Women: The Potential Roles of Body Composition, Diet, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Margaret A.; Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S.; Larsen, Britta A.

    2016-01-01

    The rates of diabetes in the U.S. are rapidly increasing, and vary widely across different racial/ethnic groups. This paper explores the potential contribution of body composition, diet, and physical activity in explaining diabetes disparities across women of different racial and ethnic backgrounds. For body composition, racial/ethnic groups differ widely by BMI, distribution of body mass, and quantity and type of adipose tissue. Dietary patterns that vary across race/ethnicity include consumption of meat, added sugars, high-glycemic carbohydrates, and fast food. Additionally, physical activity patterns of interest include aerobic vs. muscle-strengthening exercises, and the purpose of physical activity (leisure, occupation, or transportation). Overall, these variables provide a partial picture of the source of these widening disparities, and could help guide future research in addressing and reducing diabetes disparities. PMID:26648099

  14. Reducing disparities in diabetes among African-American and Latino residents of Detroit: the essential role of community planning focus groups.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Edith C; Willis, Sharla K; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Guzman, J Ricardo; Allen, Alex J; Two Feathers, Jackie; Loveluck, Jimena

    2004-01-01

    Diabetes is prevalent among African-American and Latino Detroit residents, with profound consequences to individuals, families, and communities. The REACH Detroit Partnership engaged eastside and southwest Detroit families in focus groups organized by community, age, gender, and language, to plan community-based participatory interventions to reduce the prevalence and impact of diabetes and its risk factors. Community residents participated in planning, implementing, and analyzing data from the focus groups and subsequent planning meetings. Major themes included: 1) diabetes is widespread and risk begins in childhood, with severe consequences for African Americans and Latinos; 2) denial and inadequate health care contribute to lack of public awareness about pre-symptomatic diabetes; 3) diabetes risks include heredity, high sugar, fat and alcohol intake, overweight, lack of exercise, and stress; and 4) cultural traditions, lack of motivation, and lack of affordable, accessible stores, restaurants, and recreation facilities and programs, are barriers to adopting preventive lifestyles. Participants identified community assets and made recommendations that resulted in REACH Detroit's multi-level intervention design and programs. They included development of: 1) family-oriented interventions to support lifestyle change at all ages; 2) culturally relevant community and health provider education and materials; 3) social support group activities promoting diabetes self-management, exercise, and healthy eating; and 4) community resource development and advocacy.

  15. Summarizing Social Disparities in Health

    PubMed Central

    Asada, Yukiko; Yoshida, Yoko; Whipp, Alyce M

    2013-01-01

    Context Reporting on health disparities is fundamental for meeting the goal of reducing health disparities. One often overlooked challenge is determining the best way to report those disparities associated with multiple attributes such as income, education, sex, and race/ethnicity. This article proposes an analytical approach to summarizing social disparities in health, and we demonstrate its empirical application by comparing the degrees and patterns of health disparities in all fifty states and the District of Columbia (DC). Methods We used the 2009 American Community Survey, and our measure of health was functional limitation. For each state and DC, we calculated the overall disparity and attribute-specific disparities for income, education, sex, and race/ethnicity in functional limitation. Along with the state rankings of these health disparities, we developed health disparity profiles according to the attribute making the largest contribution to overall disparity in each state. Findings Our results show a general lack of consistency in the rankings of overall and attribute-specific disparities in functional limitation across the states. Wyoming has the smallest overall disparity and West Virginia the largest. In each of the four attribute-specific health disparity rankings, however, most of the best- and worst-performing states in regard to overall health disparity are not consistently good or bad. Our analysis suggests the following three disparity profiles across states: (1) the largest contribution from race/ethnicity (thirty-four states), (2) roughly equal contributions of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic factor(s) (ten states), and (3) the largest contribution from socioeconomic factor(s) (seven states). Conclusions Our proposed approach offers policy-relevant health disparity information in a comparable and interpretable manner, and currently publicly available data support its application. We hope this approach will spark discussion regarding how best

  16. Saugus River and Tributaries, Lynn Malden, Revere and Saugus, Massachusetts. Flood Damage Reduction. Volume 6. Appendix I. Planning Correspondence: Lynn, Malden, Revere, Saugus, Interest Groups, and News Articles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Feasibility Report - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Report Water Resources Investigation Saugus River and Tributaries, Lynn, Maiden , Revere and...Saugus, Massachusetts Flood Damage Reduction Volume 6 Appendix I - Planning Correspondence Lynn, Maiden , Revere, Saugus, 11NW 4* Interest Groups, and...Commission 92 Lake View Avenue Lynn, MA 01901 Ms. Linda Villiams 33 Sweetser Terrace Lynn. MA 01901 E-IOa DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY NEW ENGLAND DIVISION

  17. Health Disparities in Veterans: A Map of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Karli; Low, Allison; Everson, Teresa; Gordon, Christine D; Veazie, Stephanie; Lozier, Crystal C; Freeman, Michele; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Mendelson, Aaron; Friesen, Mark; Paynter, Robin; Friesen, Caroline; Anderson, Johanna; Boundy, Erin; Saha, Somnath; Quiñones, Ana; Kansagara, Devan

    2017-09-01

    Goals for improving the quality of care for all Veterans and eliminating health disparities are outlined in the Veterans Health Administration Blueprint for Excellence, but the degree to which disparities in utilization, health outcomes, and quality of care affect Veterans is not well understood. To characterize the research on health care disparities in the Veterans Health Administration by means of a map of the evidence. We conducted a systematic search for research studies published from 2006 to February 2016 in MEDLINE and other data sources. We included studies of Veteran populations that examined disparities in 3 outcome categories: utilization, quality of health care, and patient health. We abstracted data on study design, setting, population, clinical area, outcomes, mediators, and presence of disparity for each outcome category. We grouped the data by population characteristics including race, disability status, mental illness, demographics (age, era of service, rural location, and distance from care), sex identity, socioeconomic status, and homelessness, and created maps illustrating the evidence. We reviewed 4249 citations and abstracted data from 351 studies which met inclusion criteria. Studies examining disparities by race/ethnicity comprised by far the vast majority of the literature, followed by studies examining disparities by sex, and mental health condition. Very few studies examined disparities related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity or homelessness. Disparities findings vary widely by population and outcome. Our evidence maps provide a "lay of the land" and identify important gaps in knowledge about health disparities experienced by different Veteran populations.

  18. Racial Healthcare Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Penner, Louis A.; Hagiwara, Nao; Eggly, Susan; Gaertner, Samuel L.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Dovidio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, members of racial/ethnic minority groups typically experience poorer health than members of racial/ethnic majority groups. The core premise of this article is that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to race and ethnicity play a critical role in healthcare disparities. Social psychological theories of the origins and consequences of these thoughts, feelings, and behaviors offer critical insights into the processes responsible for these disparities and suggest interventions to address them. We present a multilevel model that explains how societal, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors can influence ethnic/racial health disparities. We focus our literature review, including our own research, and conceptual analysis at the intrapersonal (the race-related thoughts and feelings of minority patients and non-minority physicians) and interpersonal levels (intergroup processes that affect medical interactions between minority patients and non-minority physicians). At both levels of analysis, we use theories of social categorization, social identity, contemporary forms of racial bias, stereotype activation, stigma, and other social psychological processes to identify and understand potential causes and processes of health and healthcare disparities. In the final section, we identify theory-based interventions that might reduce ethnic/racial disparities in health and healthcare. PMID:25197206

  19. Disparities in influenza immunization among US adults.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jennifer L

    2009-02-01

    In the United States, health disparities exist among ethnic minority groups, the uninsured, and those with other barriers to health care access. Health disparities exist for many diseases, but are especially pronounced for preventive health services and preventable diseases. Persons affected by disparities experience higher incidences of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as influenza, and are more likely to die from those diseases as well. Although influenza vaccines are relatively safe, inexpensive, and effective in reducing infection and disease complications, many groups in the United States do not yet benefit from this potentially lifesaving intervention. Possible explanations for disparities in influenza vaccination include: (1) barriers to access such as cost, insurance status, and language differences; (2) underestimation of personal risk and misunderstanding of vaccination risks; (3) mistrust toward the health care system. Proposed strategies to minimize these disparities include: (1) changes to health care system structural factors that serve as access barriers, (2) education to increase awareness and improve demand for vaccines, (3) involvement of community-based organizations to assess local needs and design responsive solutions.

  20. Data Show Retention Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee J.; Robelen, Erik W.; Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    New nationwide data collected by the U.S. Department of Education's civil rights office reveal stark racial and ethnic disparities in student retentions, with black and Hispanic students far more likely than white students to repeat a grade, especially in elementary and middle school. The contrast is especially strong for African-Americans. In the…

  1. Data Show Retention Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee J.; Robelen, Erik W.; Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    New nationwide data collected by the U.S. Department of Education's civil rights office reveal stark racial and ethnic disparities in student retentions, with black and Hispanic students far more likely than white students to repeat a grade, especially in elementary and middle school. The contrast is especially strong for African-Americans. In the…

  2. Conflict of Interest Policies and Industry Relationships of Guideline Development Group Members: A Cross-Sectional Study of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Depression.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Lisa; Krimsky, Sheldon; Wheeler, Emily E; Peters, Shannon M; Brodt, Madeline; Shaughnessy, Allen F

    2017-01-01

    Because of increased attention to the issue of trustworthiness of clinical practice guidelines, it may be that both transparency and management of industry associations of guideline development groups (GDGs) have improved. The purpose of the present study was to assess a) the disclosure requirements of GDGs in a cross-section of guidelines for major depression; and, b) the extent and type of conflicts of panel members. Treatment guidelines for major depression were identified and searched for conflict of interest policies and disclosure statements. Multi-modal screens for undeclared conflicts were also conducted. Fourteen guidelines with a total of 172 panel members were included in the analysis. Eleven of the 14 guidelines (78%) had a stated conflict of interest policy or disclosure statement, although the policies varied widely. Most (57%) of the guidelines were developed by panels that had members with industry financial ties to drug companies that manufacture antidepressant medication. However, only a minority of total panel members (18%) had such conflicts of interest. Drug company speakers bureau participation was the most common type of conflict. Although some progress has been made, organizations that develop guidelines should continue to work toward greater transparency and minimization of financial conflicts of interest.

  3. Disparities in drinking patterns and risks among ethnic majority and minority groups in China: The roles of acculturation, religion, family and friends.

    PubMed

    He, Jianhui; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Cai, Le; McNeil, Edward

    2016-02-01

    Studies investigating alcohol consumption related factors have rarely focused on the relationship between acculturation, religion and drinking patterns. The objective of this study is to explore the predictors of drinking patterns and their mutual relationships, especially acculturation, ethnicity and religion. A cross-sectional household survey using a multistage systematic sampling technique was conducted in Yunnan Province of China. A revised Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA) and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) Chinese version were used to measure acculturation and drinking patterns. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the structures of how predictors affect drinking patterns. A total of 977 subjects aged 12-35 years were surveyed. A higher percentage of binge drinking was found among Lisu people. However, the proportion of drinking until intoxication was highest among Han. Gender and enculturation had both direct (standardized β=-0.193, -0.079) and indirect effects (standardized β=-0.126, 0.033) on risky drinking pattern; perceived risk of alcohol consumption (-0.065), family drinking environment (0.061), and friend drinking environment (0.352) affected risky drinking pattern directly, while education level (0.066), ethnicity (-0.038), acculturation (0.012), religious belief (-0.038), and age group (0.088) had indirect effects. Risky drinking pattern was associated with gender and aboriginal culture enculturation both directly and indirectly, and related to mainstream culture acculturation and religious belief indirectly. Other demographic (such as education level) and social family factors (friend drinking environment for example) also had effects on risky drinking pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transitioning to independence and maintaining research careers in a new funding climate: american society of preventive oncology junior members interest group report.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jada G; Birmingham, Wendy C; Tehranifar, Parisa; Irwin, Melinda L; Klein, William M P; Nebeling, Linda; Chubak, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    The American Society of Preventive Oncology (ASPO) is a professional society for multi-disciplinary investigators in cancer prevention and control. The ASPO Junior Members Interest Group promotes the interests of predoctoral, postdoctoral, and junior faculty members within the Society, and provides them with career development and training opportunities. To this end, as part of the 37th ASPO Annual Meeting held in Memphis, Tennessee in March 2013, the Junior Members Interest Group organized a session designed to address issues faced by early-career investigators as they navigate the transition to become an independent, well-funded scientist with a sustainable program of research in the current climate of reduced and limited resources. Four speakers were invited to provide their complementary but distinct perspectives on this topic based on their personal experiences in academic, research-intensive positions and in federal funding agencies. This report summarizes the main themes that emerged from the speakers' presentations and audience questions related to mentoring; obtaining grant funding; publishing; developing expertise; navigating appointments, promotion, and tenure; and balancing demands. These lessons can be used by early-career investigators in cancer prevention and control as they transition to independence and build programs of fundable research. ©2013 AACR.

  5. Transitioning to Independence and Maintaining Research Careers in a New Funding Climate: American Society of Preventive Oncology Junior Members Interest Group Report

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Birmingham, Wendy C.; Tehranifar, Parisa; Irwin, Melinda L.; Klein, William M. P.; Nebeling, Linda; Chubak, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The American Society of Preventive Oncology (ASPO) is a professional society for multi-disciplinary investigators in cancer prevention and control. The ASPO Junior Members Interest Group promotes the interests of predoctoral, postdoctoral, and junior faculty members within the Society, and provides them with career development and training opportunities. To this end, as part of the 37th ASPO Annual Meeting held in Memphis, Tennessee in March 2013, the Junior Members Interest Group organized a session designed to address issues faced by early career investigators as they navigate the transition to become an independent, well-funded scientist with a sustainable program of research in the current climate of reduced and limited resources. Four speakers were invited to provide their complementary but distinct perspectives on this topic based on their personal experiences in academic, research-intensive positions and in federal funding agencies. This report summarizes the main themes that emerged from the speakers’ presentations and audience questions related to mentoring; obtaining grant funding; publishing; developing expertise; navigating appointments, promotion, and tenure; and balancing demands. These lessons can be used by early career investigators in cancer prevention and control as they transition to independence and build programs of fundable research. PMID:24190867

  6. Health disparities in Milwaukee by socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Vila, Peter M; Swain, Geoffrey R; Baumgardner, Dennis J; Halsmer, Sarah E; Remington, Patrick L; Cisler, Ron A

    2007-10-01

    In 2006, the city of Milwaukee ranked worse than any Wisconsin county for health outcomes and worse than all but 1 county for health determinants. To further examine disparities in health, Milwaukee city ZIP codes were stratified into 3 groups (lower, middle, and upper) by socioeconomic status (SES). Health determinants (15 measures) and health outcomes (2 measures) were compared across these ZIP code groups, and to the rest of Wisconsin. The risk ratio for the lower SES group in comparison to the upper SES group was at least 2.0 for 5 of the 17 measures examined, and was at least 1.5 for 13 of the 17 measures. The upper SES group in Milwaukee, while the healthiest in the city, was worse than the state average in 6 measures. Large health disparities within the city of Milwaukee are associated with geographic regions of differing socioeconomic status. As the state's largest urban center, Milwaukee's relatively poor health and significant health disparities have a considerable impact on the overall health of the state. To improve population health in Wisconsin, substantial efforts and resources are needed to address these disparities, and their related upstream factors.

  7. Undertaking cancer research in international settings: report from the american society for preventive oncology special interest group on international issues in cancer.

    PubMed

    Wernli, Karen J; Kitahara, Cari M; Tamers, Sara L; Al-Temimi, Mohammed H; Braithwaite, Dejana

    2013-09-01

    The mission of the American Society for Preventive Oncology Special Interest Group in International Issues in Cancer is to serve as a worldwide cancer prevention resource. At the 2013 annual meeting, we presented three early career investigators who conducted research with international collaborators as part of postdoctoral studies. We present a synopsis of each of the scientific presentations. The investigators also highlight useful strategies to encourage a more successful international collaboration, including seeking out existing collaborations between colleagues and international researchers, maintaining awareness and sensitivity of cultural norms, establishing clear communication about investigator roles and expectations, and persevering in the face of potential challenges due to the nature of these collaborations. Incorporation of these key elements could prove useful for researchers interested in pursuing cross-country projects.

  8. Relaxation and Impact on the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control: Interest of group psychoeducation for stress management in the context of liaison psychiatry within a General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Denis; Lepiéce, Brice; Reynaert, Christine; Zdanowicz, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    In this article we propose a model for caring for a group focusing on psychoeducation for stress management and learning relaxation designed for patients experiencing somatization and who were recruited during organic medicine consultations. We are developing an interest for this kind of group from a clinical and practical point of view and have sought to demonstrate the impact that this kind of care can have on health representations among these patients through using the MHLC (Multidimensional Health Locus of Control) questionnaire. Participants in the stress management and relaxation groups completed the questionnaire at the beginning of the first session and at the end of the second and last session. We collected 94 usable questionnaires between January 2008 and December 2014 and processed the data using Student's t-test on paired samples. The results tend to demonstrate that psychoeducation for stress management and relaxation reduces internality scores in patients with high scores and the opposite for patients whose internality scores are low. Our research protocol does not enable us to distinguish between the respective influences of the psychoeducation group and the relaxation group. The psychoeducation groups for stress management and relaxation have an impact on health representations in patients experiencing somatization who would not have spontaneously sought out psychiatric consultations.

  9. Cancer Disparities: Unmet Challenges in the Elimination of Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Gehlert, Sarah; Colditz, Graham A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The first 20 years of publication of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention occurred during a period of increased attention to health disparities and advances in knowledge about their determinants. Yet, despite clear documentation of disparities and advanced understanding of determinants, we have made little headway in reducing disparities at the population level. Multilevel models, such as one produced by the Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD), hold promise for understanding the complex determinants of cancer disparities and their interactions as well as translating scientific discoveries into solutions. The CPHHD model maps across a range of scientific disciplines, from the biological to the social, each with its own disciplinary language and methods. The ability to work effectively across disciplinary boundaries is essential to framing comprehensive solutions. Methods After briefly characterizing the current state of knowledge about health disparities, we outline three major challenges faced by disparities researchers and practitioners and offer suggestions for addressing these challenges. Results These challenges are how to consider race and ethnicity in disparities research, how best to translate discoveries into public health solutions to cancer disparities, and how to create a research environment that supports the successful execution of multilevel research. Conclusions Attention to all three of the challenges outlined above is urgently needed to advance our efforts to eliminate cancer disparities. Impact Addressing the challenges outlined above will help to eliminate disparities in the future. PMID:21784956

  10. Listening effort and fatigue: what exactly are we measuring? A British Society of Audiology Cognition in Hearing Special Interest Group 'white paper'.

    PubMed

    McGarrigle, Ronan; Munro, Kevin J; Dawes, Piers; Stewart, Andrew J; Moore, David R; Barry, Johanna G; Amitay, Sygal

    2014-07-01

    There is growing interest in the concepts of listening effort and fatigue associated with hearing loss. However, the theoretical underpinnings and clinical meaning of these concepts are unclear. This lack of clarity reflects both the relative immaturity of the field and the fact that research studies investigating listening effort and fatigue have used a variety of methodologies including self-report, behavioural, and physiological measures. This discussion paper provides working definitions for listening effort and listening-related fatigue. Using these definitions as a framework, methodologies to assess these constructs are reviewed. Although each technique attempts to characterize the same construct (i.e. the clinical presentation of listening effort and fatigue), different assumptions are often made about the nature of these phenomena and their behavioural and physiological manifestations. We suggest that researchers consider these assumptions when interpreting their data and, where possible, make predictions based on current theoretical knowledge to add to our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of listening effort and listening-related fatigue. Following recent interest in the cognitive involvement in hearing, the British Society of Audiology (BSA) established a Special Interest Group on Cognition in Hearing in May 2013. In an exploratory group meeting, the ambiguity surrounding listening effort and fatigue was discussed. To address this problem, the group decided to develop a 'white paper' on listening effort and fatigue. This is a discussion document followed by an international set of commentaries from leading researchers in the field. An approach was made to the editor of the International Journal of Audiology who agreed to this suggestion. This paper, and the associated commentaries that follow, are the result.

  11. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  12. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  13. Social Determinants of Racial Disparities in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Jenna M.; Moxey-Mims, Marva M.; Eggers, Paul W.; Narva, Andrew S.; Star, Robert A.; Rodgers, Griffin P.

    2016-01-01

    Significant disparities in CKD rates and outcomes exist between black and white Americans. Health disparities are defined as health differences that adversely affect disadvantaged populations, on the basis of one or more health outcomes. CKD is the complex result of genetic and environmental factors, reflecting the balance of nature and nurture. Social determinants of health have an important role as environmental components, especially for black populations, who are disproportionately disadvantaged. Understanding the social determinants of health and appreciating the underlying differences associated with meaningful clinical outcomes may help nephrologists treat all their patients with CKD in an optimal manner. Altering the social determinants of health, although difficult, may embody important policy and research efforts, with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes for patients with kidney diseases, and minimizing the disparities between groups. PMID:27178804

  14. Genetic Research and Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Pamela; Cho, Mildred K.; Condit, Celeste M.; Hunt, Linda M.; Koenig, Barbara; Marshall, Patricia; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Spicer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Alleviating health disparities in the United States is a goal with broad support. Medical research undertaken to achieve this goal typically adopts the well-established perspective that racial discrimination and poverty are the major contributors to unequal health status. However, the suggestion is increasingly made that genetic research also has a significant role to play in alleviating this problem, which likely overstates the importance of genetics as a factor in health disparities. Overemphasis on genetics as a major explanatory factor in health disparities could lead researchers to miss factors that contribute to disparities more substantially and may also reinforce racial stereotyping, which may contribute to disparities in the first place. Arguments that promote genetics research as a way to help alleviate health disparities are augmented by several factors, including research funding initiatives and the distinct demographic patterns of health disparities in the United States. PMID:15213210

  15. Interest in and barriers to participation in multiple family groups among head and neck cancer survivors and their primary family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, Jamie; Ross, Stephanie; Steinglass, Peter; Ronis-Tobin, Victor; Singh, Bhuvanesh

    2004-06-01

    This study examined interest in and barriers to participation in a multiple family group intervention (MFG) for adult cancer survivors and their family caregivers. The intervention was developed to assist families in coping with the persistent challenges of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. Eighty eligible families having a member diagnosed and treated for cancers of the head and neck region completed a baseline quality of life survey consisting of standardized psychosocial measures, and then all patients and their families were invited to participate in a day-long multiple family group program. However, despite extensive recruitment efforts and accommodations to address anticipated barriers for nonparticipation, only 15 of the 80 (19%) eligible families agreed to attend the MFG workshop. Post-MFG, participating families reported high levels of program satisfaction and usefulness. These findings are discussed in the context of increasing the use of family-focused interventions in cancer care settings.

  16. Diabetes Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Peek, Monica E.; Cargill, Algernon; Huang, Elbert S.

    2008-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities bear a disproportionate burden of the diabetes epidemic; they have higher prevalence rates, worse diabetes control, and higher rates of complications. This article reviews the effectiveness of health care interventions at improving health outcomes and/or reducing diabetes health disparities among racial/ethnic minorities with diabetes. Forty-two studies met inclusion criteria. On average, these health care interventions improved the quality of care for racial/ethnic minorities, improved health outcomes (such as diabetes control and reduced diabetes complications), and possibly reduced health disparities in quality of care. There is evidence supporting the use of interventions that target patients (primarily through culturally tailored programs), providers (especially through one-on-one feedback and education), and health systems (particularly with nurse case managers and nurse clinicians). More research is needed in the areas of racial/ethnic minorities other than African Americans and Latinos, health disparity reductions, long-term diabetes-related outcomes, and the sustainability of health care interventions over time. PMID:17881626

  17. Identity development, intelligence structure, and interests: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents during the decision-making process

    PubMed Central

    Pellerone, Monica; Passanisi, Alessia; Bellomo, Mario Filippo Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Background Forming one’s identity is thought to be the key developmental task of adolescence, but profound changes in personality traits also occur in this period. The negotiation of complex social settings, the creation of an integrated identity, and career choice are major tasks of adolescence. The adolescent, having to make choices for his or her future, has not only to consider his or her own aspirations and interests but also to possess a capacity for exploration and commitment; in fact, career commitments can be considered as a fit between the study or career that is chosen and personal values, skills, and preferences. Methods The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the role of identity on profile of interests; the relation between identity and decisional style; the correlation between identity, aptitudes, interests, and school performance; and the predictive variables to school success. The research involved 417 Italian students who live in Enna, a small city located in Sicily, Italy, aged 16–19 years (197 males and 220 females) in the fourth year (mean =17.2, standard deviation =0.52) and the fifth year (mean =18.2, standard deviation =0.64) of senior secondary school. The research lasted for one school year; the general group of participants consisted of 470 students, and although all participants agreed to be part of the research, there was a dropout rate of 11.28%. They completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire to measure their identity development, the Intelligence Structure Test to investigate aptitudes, the Self-Directed Search to value interests, and General Decision Making Style questionnaire to describe their individual decisional style. Results The data showed that high-school performance was positively associated with rational decision-making style and identity diffusion predicted the use of avoidant style. Interests were related to identity exploration; the differentiation of preferences was related to identity

  18. Identity development, intelligence structure, and interests: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents during the decision-making process.

    PubMed

    Pellerone, Monica; Passanisi, Alessia; Bellomo, Mario Filippo Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Forming one's identity is thought to be the key developmental task of adolescence, but profound changes in personality traits also occur in this period. The negotiation of complex social settings, the creation of an integrated identity, and career choice are major tasks of adolescence. The adolescent, having to make choices for his or her future, has not only to consider his or her own aspirations and interests but also to possess a capacity for exploration and commitment; in fact, career commitments can be considered as a fit between the study or career that is chosen and personal values, skills, and preferences. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the role of identity on profile of interests; the relation between identity and decisional style; the correlation between identity, aptitudes, interests, and school performance; and the predictive variables to school success. The research involved 417 Italian students who live in Enna, a small city located in Sicily, Italy, aged 16-19 years (197 males and 220 females) in the fourth year (mean =17.2, standard deviation =0.52) and the fifth year (mean =18.2, standard deviation =0.64) of senior secondary school. The research lasted for one school year; the general group of participants consisted of 470 students, and although all participants agreed to be part of the research, there was a dropout rate of 11.28%. They completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire to measure their identity development, the Intelligence Structure Test to investigate aptitudes, the Self-Directed Search to value interests, and General Decision Making Style questionnaire to describe their individual decisional style. The data showed that high-school performance was positively associated with rational decision-making style and identity diffusion predicted the use of avoidant style. Interests were related to identity exploration; the differentiation of preferences was related to identity commitment; investigative

  19. Responses to interocular disparity correlation in the human cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Ifan Betina; Minini, Loredana; Dow, James; Parker, Andrew J; Bridge, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Perceiving binocular depth relies on the ability of our visual system to precisely match corresponding features in the left and right eyes. Yet how the human brain extracts interocular disparity correlation is poorly understood. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to characterize brain regions involved in processing interocular disparity correlation. By varying the amount of interocular correlation of a disparity-defined random-dot-stereogram, we concomitantly controlled the perception of binocular depth and measured the percent Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (%BOLD)-signal in multiple regions-of-interest in the human occipital cortex and along the intra-parietal sulcus. Results A linear support vector machine classification analysis applied to cortical responses showed patterns of activation that represented different disparity correlation levels within regions-of-interest in the visual cortex. These also revealed a positive trend between the difference in disparity correlation and classification accuracy in V1, V3 and lateral occipital cortex. Classifier performance was significantly related to behavioural performance in dorsal visual area V3. Cortical responses to random-dot-stereogram stimuli were greater in the right compared to the left hemisphere. Conclusions Our results show that multiple regions in the cerebral cortex are sensitive to changes in interocular disparity correlation, and that dorsal area V3 may play an important role in the early transformation of binocular disparity to depth perception. PMID:24588533

  20. Gynecologic Cancer Disparities: a Report from the Health Disparities Taskforce of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Yvonne; Holcomb, Kevin; Chapman-Davis, Eloise; Khabele, Dineo; Farley, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To review the extent of health disparities in gynecologic cancer care and outcomes and to propose recommendations to help counteract the disparities. Methods We searched the electronic databases PubMed and the Cochrane Library. We included studies demonstrating quantifiable differences by race and ethnicity in the incidence, treatment, and survival of gynecologic cancers in the United States (US). Most studies relied on retrospective data. We focused on differences between Black and White women, because of the limited number of studies on non-Black women. Results White women have a higher incidence of ovarian cancer compared to Black women. However, the all-cause ovarian cancer mortality in Black women is 1.3 times higher than that of White women. Endometrial and cervical cancer mortality in Black women is twice that of White women. The etiology of these disparities is multifaceted. However, much of the evidence suggests that equal care leads to equal outcomes for Black women diagnosed with gynecologic cancers. Underlying molecular factors may play an additional role in aggressive tumor biology and endometrial cancer disparities. Conclusion Gynecologic cancer disparities exist between Black and White women. The literature is limited by the lack of large prospective trials and adequate numbers of non-Black racial and ethnic groups. We conclude with recommendations for continued research and a multifaceted approach to eliminate gynecologic cancer disparities. PMID:24406291

  1. Racial Disparities in Hepatitis C Treatment Eligibility.

    PubMed

    Sims, Omar; Pollio, David; Hong, Barry; North, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) is more prevalent in African Americans than in any other racial group in the United States. However, African Americans are more likely to be deemed ineligible for HCV treatment than non-African Americans. There has been limited research into the origins of racial disparities in HCV treatment eligibility. The purpose of this study was to compare medical and non-medical characteristics commonly assessed in clinical practice that could potentially contribute to HCV treatment ineligibility disparities between African American and non-African American patients. Patients with confirmed HCV RNA considering treatment (n = 309) were recruited from university-affiliated and VA liver and infectious disease clinics. African Americans and non-African Americans did not differ in prevalence of lifetime and current psychiatric disorders and risky behaviors, and HCV knowledge. HCV clinical characteristics were similar between both groups in terms of HCV exposure history, number of months aware of HCV diagnosis, stage of fibrosis, and HCV virologic levels. African Americans did have higher proportions of diabetes, renal disease, and bleeding ulcer. No clinical evidence was found to indicate that African Americans should be more often deemed ineligible for HCV treatment than other racial groups. Diabetes and renal disease do not fully explain the HCV treatment ineligibility racial disparity, because HCV patients with these conditions are priority patients for HCV treatment because of their greater risk for cirrhosis, steatosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The findings suggest that an underlying contributor to the HCV treatment eligibility disparity disfavoring African Americans could be racial discrimination.

  2. Biological basis of cancer health disparities: resources and challenges for research

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Sachin K; Azim, Shafquat; Ahmad, Aamir; Zubair, Haseeb; Tyagi, Nikhil; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Bhardwaj, Arun; Singh, Seema; Rocconi, Rodney P; Singh, Ajay P

    2017-01-01

    Last few decades have witnessed remarkable progress in our understanding of cancer initiation and progression leading to refinement of prevention and treatment approaches. Although these advances have improved the survival of cancer patients in general, certain racial/ethnic groups have benefited only partially. Footprints of cancer-associated racial disparities are very much evident in cancers of the prostate, breast, cervical, colorectal, endometrium, liver and lung. These health inequalities are mostly attributed to socioeconomic differences among races, but there is a growing realization that these may actually be due to inherent biological differences as well. Indeed, significant data now exist to support the biological basis of racial disparities in cancer, warranting basic research investigations, using appropriate tools and model systems. In this article, we have aimed to succinctly review the literature supporting the biological bases of racial disparities in cancer, along with available resources, databases and model systems that will be of interest to researchers. Moreover, we have highlighted the specific areas that need attention in terms of development of resources and/or tools, and discuss the opportunities and challenges in basic biological research in cancer health disparities. PMID:28123843

  3. Biological basis of cancer health disparities: resources and challenges for research.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sachin K; Azim, Shafquat; Ahmad, Aamir; Zubair, Haseeb; Tyagi, Nikhil; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Bhardwaj, Arun; Singh, Seema; Rocconi, Rodney P; Singh, Ajay P

    2017-01-01

    Last few decades have witnessed remarkable progress in our understanding of cancer initiation and progression leading to refinement of prevention and treatment approaches. Although these advances have improved the survival of cancer patients in general, certain racial/ethnic groups have benefited only partially. Footprints of cancer-associated racial disparities are very much evident in cancers of the prostate, breast, cervical, colorectal, endometrium, liver and lung. These health inequalities are mostly attributed to socioeconomic differences among races, but there is a growing realization that these may actually be due to inherent biological differences as well. Indeed, significant data now exist to support the biological basis of racial disparities in cancer, warranting basic research investigations, using appropriate tools and model systems. In this article, we have aimed to succinctly review the literature supporting the biological bases of racial disparities in cancer, along with available resources, databases and model systems that will be of interest to researchers. Moreover, we have highlighted the specific areas that need attention in terms of development of resources and/or tools, and discuss the opportunities and challenges in basic biological research in cancer health disparities.

  4. Challenges and opportunities in international molecular cancer prevention research: An ASPO Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and International Cancer Prevention Interest Groups Report.

    PubMed

    Epplein, Meira; Bostick, Roberd M; Mu, Lina; Ogino, Shuji; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kanetsky, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer estimates that over half of the new cancer cases and almost two-thirds of the cancer deaths in 2012 occurred in low and middle income countries. To discuss the challenges and opportunities to reducing the burden of cancer worldwide, the Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and the International Issues in Cancer Special Interest Groups joined forces to hold a session during the 38th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Preventive Oncology (March 2014, Arlington, Virginia). The session highlighted three topics of particular interest to molecular cancer prevention researchers working internationally, specifically: 1) biomarkers in cancer research; 2) environmental exposures and cancer; and 3) molecular pathological epidemiology. A major factor for successful collaboration illuminated during the discussion was the need for strong, committed, and reliable international partners. A key element of establishing such relationships is to thoroughly involve individual international collaborators in the development of the research question; engaged international collaborators are particularly motivated to champion and shepherd the project through all necessary steps, including issues relating to institutional review boards, political sensitivity, laboratory-based assays, and tumor subtyping. Also essential is allotting time for the building, maintaining, and investing in such relationships so that successful international collaborations may take root and bloom. While there are many challenges inherent to international molecular cancer research, the opportunities for furthering the science and prevention of cancer worldwide are great, particularly at this time of increasing cancer incidence and prevalence in low and middle income countries.

  5. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Quality of Health Care.

    PubMed

    Fiscella, Kevin; Sanders, Mechelle R

    2016-01-01

    The annual National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports document widespread and persistent racial and ethnic disparities. These disparities result from complex interactions between patient factors related to social disadvantage, clinicians, and organizational and health care system factors. Separate and unequal systems of health care between states, between health care systems, and between clinicians constrain the resources that are available to meet the needs of disadvantaged groups, contribute to unequal outcomes, and reinforce implicit bias. Recent data suggest slow progress in many areas but have documented a few notable successes in eliminating these disparities. To eliminate these disparities, continued progress will require a collective national will to ensure health care equity through expanded health insurance coverage, support for primary care, and public accountability based on progress toward defined, time-limited objectives using evidence-based, sufficiently resourced, multilevel quality improvement strategies that engage patients, clinicians, health care organizations, and communities.

  6. Left behind: cancer disparities in the developed world.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Niharika; Crawford, Gregory B; Lemonde, Manon; Rittenberg, Cynthia N; Fernández-Ortega, Paz

    2016-08-01

    Huge advances have been made in cancer treatments over recent decades; however, significant disparities still exist in the developed world on the basis of race, socioeconomic status, education level, geographical location, and immigration status and in the United States, insurance status. Cancer disparities persist in the continuum of cancer care from risk factors, screening, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and end-of-life care. The causes of disparities are complex and multifactorial. The MASCC (Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer) Education Study Group would like to propose a framework of cancer disparities from a social perspective utilizing "social determinants of health" as delineated by the World Health Organization and highlight an unmet need for research and policy innovations to address cancer disparities in developed world.

  7. Definition of Sensitive Skin: An Expert Position Paper from the Special Interest Group on Sensitive Skin of the International Forum for the Study of Itch.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent; Ständer, Sonja; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Reich, Adam; Wallengren, Joanna; Evers, Andrea W M; Takamori, Kenji; Brenaut, Emilie; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Fluhr, Joachim; Berardesca, Enzo; Weisshaar, Elke

    2017-01-04

    Sensitive skin is a frequent complaint in the general population, in patients, and among subjects suffering from itch. The International Forum for the Study of Itch (IFSI) decided to initiate a special interest group (SIG) on sensitive skin. Using the Delphi method, sensitive skin was defined as "A syndrome defined by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations (stinging, burning, pain, pruritus, and tingling sensations) in response to stimuli that normally should not provoke such sensations. These unpleasant sensations cannot be explained by lesions attributable to any skin disease. The skin can appear normal or be accompanied by erythema. Sensitive skin can affect all body locations, especially the face". This paper summarizes the background, unresolved aspects of sensitive skin and the process of developing this definition.

  8. Paraneoplastic itch: an expert position statement from the Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Forum on the Study of Itch (IFSI).

    PubMed

    Weisshaar, Elke; Weiss, Melanie; Mettang, Thomas; Yosipovitch, Gil; Zylicz, Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    In clinical practice, the term "paraneoplastic itch" is used to describe itch in patients with cancer. Patients with hematological or solid tumor malignancies can be affected. In general, paraneoplastic itch is considered a rare disorder. However, paraneoplastic itch in hematological malignancies such as polycythemia vera and lymphoma are relatively frequent while other forms of paraneoplastic itch are in fact extremely rare. The true frequency of this symptom is unclear, epidemiological data in this field are limited. Itch in malignant disease may additionally impair patients' quality of life. A population-based cohort study showed that chronic itch without concomitant skin changes is a risk factor for having undiagnosed hematologic and bile duct malignancies. Paraneoplastic itch is rather resistant to treatment. In 2012, an interdisciplinary interest group of physicians and researchers was founded, aiming to generate a clear definition of paraneoplastic itch. In this paper we briefly review the current knowledge and aim to define what can be summarized under the term "paraneoplastic itch".

  9. Renewable Energy Policy Evolutions: A Binary Comparative Analysis of German and U.S. Renewable Energy Deployment and Policy through Interest Group Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodeiro, Simon

    Germany and the United States, although similar in their industrialization and political structures, reveal marked differences in their national energy policies. Variability in energy policies and the resulting renewable energy deployment in each country have been attributed to political decision-making, international energy regimes and legislative frameworks, in addition to economic mechanisms. This research comes to the conclusion that although a variety of factors lead to coherent renewable energy policy at the federal level, the lobbying efforts of fossil fuel industries serve to depress the ability, in the United States, for sustainable and renewable energy movements to gain headway. As this research shows, the strength of a lobby group or associations can influence policy measures by framing the political landscape, influencing the content of legislation, and achieving political alignment to prime a state for renewable energy policy or not depending on what interests are represented.

  10. A Rural African American Faith Community's Solutions to Depression Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Keneshia; Haynes, Tiffany; Yeary, Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Greer-Williams, Nancy; Hartwig, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore how a rural African American faith community would address depression within their congregations and the community as a whole. Design and Sample A qualitative, interpretive descriptive methodology was used. The sample included 24 participants representing pastors, parishioners interested in health, and African American men who had experienced symptoms of depression in a community in the Arkansas Delta. Measures The primary data sources for this qualitative research study were focus groups. Results Participants identified three key players in the rural African American faith community who can combat depression: the Church, the Pastor/Clergy, and the Layperson. The roles of each were identified and recommendations for each to address depression disparities in rural African Americans. Conclusions The recommendations can be used to develop faith-based interventions for depression targeting the African American faith community. PMID:24720658

  11. Mission of the Future. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the Association for the Development of Computer-Based Instructional Systems. Volume III: Users Interest Groups (San Diego, California, February 27 to March 1, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for the Development of Computer-based Instructional Systems.

    The third of three volumes of papers presented at the 1979 ADCIS convention, this collection includes 30 papers presented to special interest groups--implementation, minicomputer users, National Consortium for Computer Based Music Instruction, and PLATO users. Papers presented to the implementation interest group were concerned with faculty…

  12. Mission of the Future. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the Association for the Development of Computer-Based Instructional Systems. Volume III: Users Interest Groups (San Diego, California, February 27 to March 1, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for the Development of Computer-based Instructional Systems.

    The third of three volumes of papers presented at the 1979 ADCIS convention, this collection includes 30 papers presented to special interest groups--implementation, minicomputer users, National Consortium for Computer Based Music Instruction, and PLATO users. Papers presented to the implementation interest group were concerned with faculty…

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Subsidence Interest Group conference, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California, November 18-19, 1992; abstracts and summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prince, Keith R.; Galloway, Devin L.; Leake, Stanley A.

    1995-01-01

    with this unprecedented increase in pumpage, substantial amounts of land subsidence were observed in several areas of the United States, most notably in Arizona, California, and Texas. Beginning in 1955, under the direction of Joseph Poland, the Geological Survey began the "Mechanics of Aquifers Project," which focused largely on the processes that resulted in land subsidence due to the withdrawal of ground water. This research team gained international renown as they advanced the scientific understanding of aquifer mechanics and land-subsidence theory. The results of field studies by members of this research group not only verified the validity of the application of Terzaghi's consolidation theory to compressible aquifers, but they also provided definitions, methods of quantification, and confirmation of the interrelation among hydraulic head declines, aquifer-system compaction, and land subsidence. In addition to conducting pioneering research, this group also formed a "center of expertise," providing a focal point within the Geological Survey for the dissemination of technology and scientific understanding in aquifer mechanics. However, when the "Mechanics of Aquifers Project" was phased out in 1984, the focal point for technology transfer no longer existed. Interest among various state and local agencies in land subsidence has persisted, and the Geological Survey has continued to participate in a broad spectrum of cooperative and Federally funded projects in aquifer mechanics and land subsidence. These projects are designed to identify and monitor areas with the potential for land subsidence, to conduct basic research in the processes that control land subsidence and the development of earth fissures, as well as to develop new quantitative tools to predict aquifer-system deformation. In 1989 an ad hoc "Aquifer Mechanics and Subsidence Interest Group" (referred to herein as the "Subsidence Interest Group") was formed

  14. Evidence for Updating the Core Domain Set of Outcome Measures for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Report from a Special Interest Group at OMERACT 2016.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Esi M; Riebschleger, Meredith P; Horonjeff, Jennifer; Consolaro, Alessandro; Munro, Jane E; Thornhill, Susan; Beukelman, Timothy; Brunner, Hermine I; Creek, Emily L; Harris, Julia G; Horton, Daniel B; Lovell, Daniel J; Mannion, Melissa L; Olson, Judyann C; Rahimi, Homaira; Gallo, Maria Chiara; Calandra, Serena; Ravelli, Angelo; Ringold, Sarah; Shenoi, Susan; Stinson, Jennifer; Toupin-April, Karine; Strand, Vibeke; Bingham, Clifton O

    2017-08-15

    The current Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) Core Set was developed in 1997 to identify the outcome measures to be used in JIA clinical trials using statistical and consensus-based techniques, but without patient involvement. The importance of patient/parent input into the research process has increasingly been recognized over the years. An Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) JIA Core Set Working Group was formed to determine whether the outcome domains of the current core set are relevant to those involved or whether the core set domains should be revised. Twenty-four people from the United States, Canada, Australia, and Europe, including patient partners, formed the working group. Guided by the OMERACT Filter 2.0 process, we performed (1) a systematic literature review of outcome domains, (2) a Web-based survey (142 patients, 343 parents), (3) an idea-generation study (120 parents), (4) 4 online discussion boards (24 patients, 20 parents), and (5) a Special Interest Group (SIG) activity at the OMERACT 13 (2016) meeting. A MEDLINE search of outcome domains used in studies of JIA yielded 5956 citations, of which 729 citations underwent full-text review, and identified additional domains to those included in the current JIA Core Set. Qualitative studies on the effect of JIA identified multiple additional domains, including pain and participation. Twenty-one participants in the SIG achieved consensus on the need to revise the entire JIA Core Set. The results of qualitative studies and literature review support the need to expand the JIA Core Set, considering, among other things, additional patient/parent-centered outcomes, clinical data, and imaging data.

  15. Congenitally Impaired Disparity Vergence in Children With Infantile Esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Krista R.; Felius, Joost; Ramachandran, Santoshi; John, Blesson A.; Jost, Reed M.; Birch, Eileen E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We examined whether congenital impairment of disparity vergence in infantile esotropia (ET) exists in children with short duration ET (≤3 months) compared with long-duration ET and healthy controls. A short duration of misalignment would allow for a substantial amount of balanced binocular input during the critical period of binocular disparity development. Methods A total of 19 children aged 5 to 12 years and treated for infantile ET with a short (≤3 months; n = 10) or long (≥5 months; n = 9) duration of constant misalignment before alignment were enrolled. A total of 22 healthy control children were enrolled as a comparison group. Eye movements during disparity vergence and accommodative vergence were recorded using an EyeLink 1000 binocular eye tracker. Mean response gain was compared between and within groups to determine the effect of duration of misalignment and viewing condition. Results Compared with controls, children with short (P = 0.002) and long (P < 0.001) duration infantile ET had reduced response gains for disparity vergence, but not for accommodative vergence (P = 0.19). Conclusions Regardless of duration of misalignment, children with infantile ET had reduced disparity vergence, consistent with a congenital impairment of disparity vergence in infantile ET. Although early correction of misalignment increases the likelihood that some level of binocular disparity sensitivity will be present, normal levels may never be achieved. PMID:27159445

  16. 10 Years Later: Changes in Food Access Disparities in New Orleans since Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Mundorf, Adrienne R; Willits-Smith, Amelia; Rose, Donald

    2015-08-01

    Inadequate access to healthy food is a problem in many urban neighborhoods, particularly for racial-ethnic minorities and low-income groups who are more likely to reside in food deserts. Although substantial research throughout the country has documented the existence of these disparities, few studies have focused on how this access changes over time or is affected by environmental shocks. This study examined citywide supermarket access in New Orleans as well as racial-ethnic disparities in this access, prior to Hurricane Katrina and at three times afterwards. On-the-ground verification of supermarket locations was conducted in 2004-2005, 2007, 2009, and 2014 and was mapped with secondary demographic data. Census tracts were defined as predominantly African-American neighborhoods if 80 % or more of the population identified as such. HLM Poisson regression analyses were conducted in 2014 to identify the difference in likelihood of finding supermarkets in a neighborhood by race-ethnicity and across all years of interest. Racial-ethnic disparities existed before the storm and worsened after it (IRR = 0.35; 95 % CI = 0.21, 0.60). Improvements in disparities to pre-storm levels were not seen until 2009, 4 years after the storm. By 2014, supermarket access, on average, was not significantly different in African-American neighborhoods than in others (IRR = 0.90; 95 % CI = 0.65, 1.26). The slow recovery of New Orleans' retail food infrastructure after Hurricane Katrina highlights the need for an increased focus on long-term planning to address disparities, especially those that may be exaggerated by shocks.

  17. Why should we investigate the morphological disparity of plant clades?

    PubMed Central

    Oyston, Jack W.; Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disparity refers to the morphological variation in a sample of taxa, and is distinct from diversity or taxonomic richness. Diversity and disparity are fundamentally decoupled; many groups attain high levels of disparity early in their evolution, while diversity is still comparatively low. Diversity may subsequently increase even in the face of static or declining disparity by increasingly fine sub-division of morphological ‘design’ space (morphospace). Many animal clades reached high levels of disparity early in their evolution, but there have been few comparable studies of plant clades, despite their profound ecological and evolutionary importance. This study offers a prospective and some preliminary macroevolutionary analyses. Methods Classical morphometric methods are most suitable when there is reasonable conservation of form, but lose traction where morphological differences become greater (e.g. in comparisons across higher taxa). Discrete character matrices offer one means to compare a greater diversity of forms. This study explores morphospaces derived from eight discrete data sets for major plant clades, and discusses their macroevolutionary implications. Key Results Most of the plant clades in this study show initial, high levels of disparity that approach or attain the maximum levels reached subsequently. These plant clades are characterized by an initial phase of evolution during which most regions of their empirical morphospaces are colonized. Angiosperms, palms, pines and ferns show remarkably little variation in disparity through time. Conifers furnish the most marked exception, appearing at relatively low disparity in the latest Carboniferous, before expanding incrementally with the radiation of successive, tightly clustered constituent sub-clades. Conclusions Many cladistic data sets can be repurposed for investigating the morphological disparity of plant clades through time, and offer insights that are complementary to more focused

  18. Sharing a disparate landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Khan, Carolyne

    2010-06-01

    Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, " Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged atmosphere of Israel. This forum article offers a response to their efforts. Writing from a framework of critical pedagogy, I use the concepts of space and time to anchor my analysis, as I examine the issue of power in this Jew/Arab collaborative environmental project. This response problematizes "sharing" in a landscape fraught with disparities. It also looks to further Tal and Alkaher's work by geographically and politically grounding it in the broader current conflict and by juxtaposing sustainability with equity.

  19. Whose interests count?

    PubMed

    Brudney, Daniel; Lantos, John D

    2014-10-01

    Whose interests should count and how should various interests be balanced at the pediatric patient's bedside? The interests of the child patient clearly count. Recently, however, many authors have argued that the family's interests also count. But how should we think about the interests of others? What does it mean to talk about "the family" in this context? Does it really just mean the interests of each individual family member? Or is the family itself a moral entity that has interests of its own independent of the interests of each of its members? Are such interests important only as they affect the patient's interest or also for their own sake? In this special supplement to Pediatrics, a group of pediatricians, philosophers, and lawyers grapple with these questions. They examine these issues from different angles and reach different conclusions. Jointly, they demonstrate the ethical importance and, above all, the ethical complexity of the family's role at the bedside.

  20. One country, two worlds - the health disparity in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyue; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Fei; Hoekstra, Edward J; Zhuo, Jiatong

    2012-01-01

    As result of its spectacular economic growth, millions of Chinese have been lifted out of poverty, making China a model for impoverished countries. Although, for many, economic growth has led to prosperity, ever-growing disparities exist between those who have benefited from the economic advancement and those left behind. Massive gaps in development exist between: regions, urban and rural and social groups. This contribution is to develop a detailed understanding of the health disparity in China by examining the discrepancies in major health indicators. Current efforts to reduce the disparities, and its challenges, opportunities and global implications are also assessed.

  1. A Preliminary Core Domain Set for Clinical Trials of Shoulder Disorders: A Report from the OMERACT 2016 Shoulder Core Outcome Set Special Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Rachelle; Page, Matthew J; Huang, Hsiaomin; Verhagen, Arianne P; Beaton, Dorcas; Kopkow, Christian; Lenza, Mario; Jain, Nitin B; Richards, Bethan; Richards, Pamela; Voshaar, Marieke; van der Windt, Danielle; Gagnier, Joel J

    2017-01-15

    The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Shoulder Core Outcome Set Special Interest Group (SIG) was established to develop a core outcome set (COS) for clinical trials of shoulder disorders. In preparation for OMERACT 2016, we systematically examined all outcome domains and measurement instruments reported in 409 randomized trials of interventions for shoulder disorders published between 1954 and 2015. Informed by these data, we conducted an international Delphi consensus study including shoulder trial experts, clinicians, and patients to identify key domains that should be included in a shoulder disorder COS. Findings were discussed at a stakeholder premeeting of OMERACT. At OMERACT 2016, we sought consensus on a preliminary core domain set and input into next steps. There were 13 and 15 participants at the premeeting and the OMERACT 2016 SIG meeting, respectively (9 attended both meetings). Consensus was reached on a preliminary core domain set consisting of an inner core of 4 domains: pain, physical function/activity, global perceived effect, and adverse events including death. A middle core consisted of 3 domains: emotional well-being, sleep, and participation (recreation and work). An outer core of research required to inform the final COS was also formulated. Our next steps are to (1) analyze whether participation (recreation and work) should be in the inner core, (2) conduct a third Delphi round to finalize definitions and wording of domains and reach final endorsement for the domains, and (3) determine which instruments fulfill the OMERACT criteria for measuring each domain.

  2. Consensus definition of sarcopenia, cachexia and pre-cachexia: joint document elaborated by Special Interest Groups (SIG) "cachexia-anorexia in chronic wasting diseases" and "nutrition in geriatrics".

    PubMed

    Muscaritoli, M; Anker, S D; Argilés, J; Aversa, Z; Bauer, J M; Biolo, G; Boirie, Y; Bosaeus, I; Cederholm, T; Costelli, P; Fearon, K C; Laviano, A; Maggio, M; Rossi Fanelli, F; Schneider, S M; Schols, A; Sieber, C C

    2010-04-01

    Chronic diseases as well as aging are frequently associated with deterioration of nutritional status, loss muscle mass and function (i.e. sarcopenia), impaired quality of life and increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Although simple and effective tools for the accurate screening, diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition have been developed during the recent years, its prevalence still remains disappointingly high and its impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life clinically significant. Based on these premises, the Special Interest Group (SIG) on cachexia-anorexia in chronic wasting diseases was created within ESPEN with the aim of developing and spreading the knowledge on the basic and clinical aspects of cachexia and anorexia as well as of increasing the awareness of cachexia among health professionals and care givers. The definition, the assessment and the staging of cachexia, were identified as a priority by the SIG. This consensus paper reports the definition of cachexia, pre-cachexia and sarcopenia as well as the criteria for the differentiation between cachexia and other conditions associated with sarcopenia, which have been developed in cooperation with the ESPEN SIG on nutrition in geriatrics. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Drug allergy passport and other documentation for patients with drug hypersensitivity - An ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group Position Paper.

    PubMed

    Brockow, K; Aberer, W; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; Bavbek, S; Bircher, A; Bilo, B; Blanca, M; Bonadonna, P; Burbach, G; Calogiuri, G; Caruso, C; Celik, G; Cernadas, J; Chiriac, A; Demoly, P; Oude Elberink, J N G; Fernandez, J; Gomes, E; Garvey, L H; Gooi, J; Gotua, M; Grosber, M; Kauppi, P; Kvedariene, V; Laguna, J J; Makowska, J S; Mosbech, H; Nakonechna, A; Papadopolous, N G; Ring, J; Romano, A; Rockmann, H; Sargur, R; Sedlackova, L; Sigurdardottir, S; Schnyder, B; Storaas, T; Torres, M; Zidarn, M; Terreehorst, I

    2016-11-01

    The strongest and best-documented risk factor for drug hypersensitivity (DH) is the history of a previous reaction. Accidental exposures to drugs may lead to severe or even fatal reactions in sensitized patients. Preventable prescription errors are common. They are often due to inadequate medical history or poor risk assessment of recurrence of drug reaction. Proper documentation is essential information for the doctor to make sound therapeutic decision. The European Network on Drug Allergy and Drug Allergy Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology have formed a task force and developed a drug allergy passport as well as general guidelines of drug allergy documentation. A drug allergy passport, a drug allergy alert card, a certificate, and a discharge letter after medical evaluation are adequate means to document DH in a patient. They are to be handed to the patient who is advised to carry the documentation at all times especially when away from home. A drug allergy passport should at least contain information on the culprit drug(s) including international nonproprietary name, clinical manifestations including severity, diagnostic measures, potential cross-reactivity, alternative drugs to prescribe, and where more detailed information can be obtained from the issuer. It should be given to patients only after full allergy workup. In the future, electronic prescription systems with alert functions will become more common and should include the same information as in paper-based documentation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 34 CFR 222.162 - What disparity standard must a State meet in order to be certified and how are disparities in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart. (b)(1) Weighted average disparity for different grade level groups. If a State requests it, the... similar grade levels of instruction. (2) In those cases, the weighted average disparity for all groups... under paragraph (a) of this section. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 7709) ...

  5. Health disparities and advertising content of women's magazines: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Duerksen, Susan C; Mikail, Amy; Tom, Laura; Patton, Annie; Lopez, Janina; Amador, Xavier; Vargas, Reynaldo; Victorio, Maria; Kustin, Brenda; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2005-01-01

    Background Disparities in health status among ethnic groups favor the Caucasian population in the United States on almost all major indicators. Disparities in exposure to health-related mass media messages may be among the environmental factors contributing to the racial and ethnic imbalance in health outcomes. This study evaluated whether variations exist in health-related advertisements and health promotion cues among lay magazines catering to Hispanic, African American and Caucasian women. Methods Relative and absolute assessments of all health-related advertising in 12 women's magazines over a three-month period were compared. The four highest circulating, general interest magazines oriented to Black women and to Hispanic women were compared to the four highest-circulating magazines aimed at a mainstream, predominantly White readership. Data were collected and analyzed in 2002 and 2003. Results Compared to readers of mainstream magazines, readers of African American and Hispanic magazines were exposed to proportionally fewer health-promoting advertisements and more health-diminishing advertisements. Photographs of African American role models were more often used to advertise products with negative health impact than positive health impact, while the reverse was true of Caucasian role models in the mainstream magazines. Conclusion To the extent that individual levels of health education and awareness can be influenced by advertising, variations in the quantity and content of health-related information among magazines read by different ethnic groups may contribute to racial disparities in health behaviors and health status. PMID:16109157

  6. Health disparities and advertising content of women's magazines: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Duerksen, Susan C; Mikail, Amy; Tom, Laura; Patton, Annie; Lopez, Janina; Amador, Xavier; Vargas, Reynaldo; Victorio, Maria; Kustin, Brenda; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2005-08-18

    Disparities in health status among ethnic groups favor the Caucasian population in the United States on almost all major indicators. Disparities in exposure to health-related mass media messages may be among the environmental factors contributing to the racial and ethnic imbalance in health outcomes. This study evaluated whether variations exist in health-related advertisements and health promotion cues among lay magazines catering to Hispanic, African American and Caucasian women. Relative and absolute assessments of all health-related advertising in 12 women's magazines over a three-month period were compared. The four highest circulating, general interest magazines oriented to Black women and to Hispanic women were compared to the four highest-circulating magazines aimed at a mainstream, predominantly White readership. Data were collected and analyzed in 2002 and 2003. Compared to readers of mainstream magazines, readers of African American and Hispanic magazines were exposed to proportionally fewer health-promoting advertisements and more health-diminishing advertisements. Photographs of African American role models were more often used to advertise products with negative health impact than positive health impact, while the reverse was true of Caucasian role models in the mainstream magazines. To the extent that individual levels of health education and awareness can be influenced by advertising, variations in the quantity and content of health-related information among magazines read by different ethnic groups may contribute to racial disparities in health behaviors and health status.

  7. Clinical care and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Starfield, B; Gérvas, J; Mangin, D

    2012-04-01

    Health disparities, also known as health inequities, are systematic and potentially remediable differences in one or more aspects of health across population groups defined socially, economically, demographically, or geographically. This topic has been the subject of research stretching back at least decades. Reports and studies have delved into how inequities develop in different societies and, with particular regard to health services, in access to and financing of health systems. In this review, we consider empirical studies from the United States and elsewhere, and we focus on how one aspect of health systems, clinical care, contributes to maintaining systematic differences in health across population groups characterized by social disadvantage. We consider inequities in clinical care and the policies that influence them. We develop a framework for considering the structural and behavioral components of clinical care and review the existing literature for evidence that is likely to be generalizable across health systems over time. Starting with the assumption that health services, as one aspect of social services, ought to enhance equity in health care, we conclude with a discussion of threats to that role and what might be done about them.

  8. Social, Economic, and Health Disparities Among LGBT Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Emlet, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities and poorer health outcomes. As this population grows, further research is needed on factors that contribute to promoting health equity, while decreasing discrimination and improving competent service delivery.

  9. Social, Economic, and Health Disparities Among LGBT Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Emlet, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities and poorer health outcomes. As this population grows, further research is needed on factors that contribute to promoting health equity, while decreasing discrimination and improving competent service delivery. PMID:28366981

  10. Partnering Health Disparities Research With Quality Improvement Science in Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Lion, K. Casey

    2015-01-01

    Disparities in pediatric health care quality are well described in the literature, yet practical approaches to decreasing them remain elusive. Quality improvement (QI) approaches are appealing for addressing disparities because they offer a set of strategies by which to target modifiable aspects of care delivery and a method for tailoring or changing an intervention over time based on data monitoring. However, few examples in the literature exist of QI interventions successfully decreasing disparities, particularly in pediatrics, due to well-described challenges in developing, implementing, and studying QI with vulnerable populations or in underresourced settings. In addition, QI interventions aimed at improving quality overall may not improve disparities, and in some cases, may worsen them if there is greater uptake or effectiveness of the intervention among the population with better outcomes at baseline. In this article, the authors review some of the challenges faced by researchers and frontline clinicians seeking to use QI to address health disparities and propose an agenda for moving the field forward. Specifically, they propose that those designing and implementing disparities-focused QI interventions reconsider comparator groups, use more rigorous evaluation methods, carefully consider the evidence for particular interventions and the context in which they were developed, directly engage the social determinants of health, and leverage community resources to build collaborative networks and engage community members. Ultimately, new partnerships between communities, providers serving vulnerable populations, and QI researchers will be required for QI interventions to achieve their potential related to health care disparity reduction. PMID:25560436

  11. Explaining ethnic disparities in preterm birth in Argentina and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Wehby, George L; Pawluk, Mariela; Nyarko, Kwame A; López-Camelo, Jorge S

    2016-11-22

    Little is understood about racial/ethnic disparities in infant health in South America. We quantified the extent to which the disparity in preterm birth (PTB; <37 gestational weeks) rate between infants of Native only ancestry and those of European only ancestry in Argentina and Ecuador are explained by household socio-economic, demographic, healthcare use, and geographic location indicators. The samples included 5199 infants born between 2000 and 2011 from Argentina and 1579 infants born between 2001 and 2011 from Ecuador. An Oaxaca-Blinder type decomposition model adapted to binary outcomes was estimated to explain the disparity in PTB risk across groups of variables and specific variables. Maternal use of prenatal care services significantly explained the PTB disparity, by nearly 57% and 30% in Argentina and Ecuador, respectively. Household socio-economic status explained an additional 26% of the PTB disparity in Argentina. Differences in maternal use of prenatal care may partly explain ethnic disparities in PTB in Argentina and Ecuador. Improving access to prenatal care may reduce ethnic disparities in PTB risk in these countries.

  12. Uneven Magnitude of Disparities in Cancer Risks from Air Toxics

    PubMed Central

    James, Wesley; Jia, Chunrong; Kedia, Satish

    2012-01-01

    This study examines race- and income-based disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in Cancer Alley, LA, USA. Risk estimates were obtained from the 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment and socioeconomic and race data from the 2005 American Community Survey, both at the census tract level. Disparities were assessed using spatially weighted ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and quantile regression (QR) for five major air toxics, each with cancer risk greater than 10−6. Spatial OLS results showed that disparities in cancer risks were significant: People in low-income tracts bore a cumulative risk 12% more than those in high-income tracts (p < 0.05), and those in black-dominant areas 16% more than in white-dominant areas (p < 0.01). Formaldehyde and benzene were the two largest contributors to the disparities. Contributions from emission sources to disparities varied by compound. Spatial QR analyses showed that magnitude of disparity became larger at the high end of exposure range, indicating worsened disparity in the poorest and most highly concentrated black areas. Cancer risk of air toxics not only disproportionately affects socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial minority communities, but there is a gradient effect within these groups with poorer and higher minority concentrated segments being more affected than their counterparts. Risk reduction strategies should target emission sources, risk driver chemicals, and especially the disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:23208297

  13. Explaining Racial Disparities in Infant Health in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to quantify how socioeconomic, health care, demographic, and geographic effects explain racial disparities in low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) rates in Brazil. Methods. We employed a sample of 8949 infants born between 1995 and 2009 in 15 cities and 7 provinces in Brazil. We focused on disparities in LBW (< 2500 g) and PTB (< 37 gestational weeks) prevalence between infants of African ancestry alone or African mixed with other ancestries, and European ancestry alone. We used a decomposition model to quantify the contributions of conceptually relevant factors to these disparities. Results. The model explained 45% to 94% of LBW and 64% to 94% of PTB disparities between the African ancestry groups and European ancestry. Differences in prenatal care use and geographic location were the most important contributors, followed by socioeconomic differences. The model explained the majority of the disparities for mixed African ancestry and part of the disparity for African ancestry alone. Conclusions. Public policies to improve children’s health should target prenatal care and geographic location differences to reduce health disparities between infants of African and European ancestries in Brazil. PMID:23409894

  14. Explaining racial disparities in infant health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nyarko, Kwame A; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E; Wehby, George L

    2015-10-01

    We sought to quantify how socioeconomic, health care, demographic, and geographic effects explain racial disparities in low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) rates in Brazil. We employed a sample of 8949 infants born between 1995 and 2009 in 15 cities and 7 provinces in Brazil. We focused on disparities in LBW (< 2500 g) and PTB (< 37 gestational weeks) prevalence between infants of African ancestry alone or African mixed with other ancestries, and European ancestry alone. We used a decomposition model to quantify the contributions of conceptually relevant factors to these disparities. The model explained 45% to 94% of LBW and 64% to 94% of PTB disparities between the African ancestry groups and European ancestry. Differences in prenatal care use and geographic location were the most important contributors, followed by socioeconomic differences. The model explained the majority of the disparities for mixed African ancestry and part of the disparity for African ancestry alone. Public policies to improve children's health should target prenatal care and geographic location differences to reduce health disparities between infants of African and European ancestries in Brazil.

  15. [Explaining racial disparities in infant health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    A Nyarko, Kwame; López-Camelo, Jorge; E Castilla, Eduardo; L Wehby, George

    2014-04-01

    We sought to quantify how socioeconomic, health care, demographic, and geographic effects explain racial disparities in low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) rates in Brazil. We employed a sample of 8 949 infants born between 1995 and 2009 in 15 cities and 7 provinces in Brazil. We focused on disparities in LBW (< 2 500 g) and PTB (< 37 gestational weeks) prevalence between infants of African ancestry alone or African mixed with other ancestries, and European ancestry alone. We used a decomposition model to quantify the contributions of conceptually relevant factors to these disparities. The model explained 45% to 94% of LBW and 64% to 94% of PTB disparities between the African ancestry groups and European ancestry. Differences in prenatal care use and geographic location were the most important contributors, followed by socioeconomic differences. The model explained the majority of the disparities for mixed African ancestry and part of the disparity for African ancestry alone. Public policies to improve children's health should target prenatal care and geographic location differences to reduce health disparities between infants of African and European ancestries in Brazil.

  16. Explaining Racial Disparities in Infant Health in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to quantify how socioeconomic, health care, demographic, and geographic effects explain racial disparities in low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) rates in Brazil. Methods. We employed a sample of 8949 infants born between 1995 and 2009 in 15 cities and 7 provinces in Brazil. We focused on disparities in LBW (< 2500 g) and PTB (< 37 gestational weeks) prevalence between infants of African ancestry alone or African mixed with other ancestries, and European ancestry alone. We used a decomposition model to quantify the contributions of conceptually relevant factors to these disparities. Results. The model explained 45% to 94% of LBW and 64% to 94% of PTB disparities between the African ancestry groups and European ancestry. Differences in prenatal care use and geographic location were the most important contributors, followed by socioeconomic differences. The model explained the majority of the disparities for mixed African ancestry and part of the disparity for African ancestry alone. Conclusions. Public policies to improve children’s health should target prenatal care and geographic location differences to reduce health disparities between infants of African and European ancestries in Brazil. PMID:26313046

  17. The Effect of Elective Rotations on the Self-assessment Examination Results of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Residents: Implications for Minimizing Educational Resource Disparities in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lien, I-Nan; Wu, Pei-Shen; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Lew, Henry L

    2017-08-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to assess whether a knowledge disparity existed between physical medicine and rehabilitation residents from community hospitals versus those from medical centers, before the introduction of short-term elective training at the end of 2008 and (2), if such disparity existed, to determine whether 1-month short-term elective training was associated with minimizing such disparity, as reflected in the self-assessment examination scores. Self-assessment examination scores from 2007-2016 were analyzed in each of the following three topics: (a) cardiac rehabilitation, (b) pulmonary rehabilitation, and (c) orthotics. Student's t tests were used to identify score discrepancies between both groups. (1) At baseline (2007-2008), trainees from community hospitals scored lower in all three topics (P < 0.05). (2) After the short-term elective training, follow-up comparisons showed no differences in either cardiac or pulmonary rehabilitation for 2009-2016. Regarding orthotics, trainees from both groups showed no significant differences for 2009-2010 and 2011-2012. Interestingly, for 2013-2014 and 2015-2016, trainees from medical centers scored higher again, but only in orthotics. (1) In 2007-2008, a knowledge disparity existed between physical medicine and rehabilitation residents from community hospitals and medical centers in Taiwan. (2) Short-term elective training was associated with minimizing such disparity from 2009-2016, especially in cardiac and pulmonary rehabilitation.

  18. Measuring Disparities across the Distribution of Mental Health Care Expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; Manning, Willard; Alegría, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous mental health care disparities studies predominantly compare mean mental health care use across racial/ethnic groups, leaving policymakers with little information on disparities among those with a higher level of expenditures. Aims of the Study To identify racial/ethnic disparities among individuals at varying quantiles of mental health care expenditures. To assess whether disparities in the upper quantiles of expenditure differ by insurance status, income and education. Methods Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of white, black and Latino adults 18 years and older (n=83,878). Our dependent variable was total mental health care expenditure. We measured disparities in any mental health care expenditures, disparities in mental health care expenditure at the 95th, 97.5th, and 99th expenditure quantiles of the full population using quantile regression, and at the 50th, 75th, and 95th quantiles for positive users. In the full population, we tested interaction coefficients between race/ethnicity and income, insurance, and education levels to determine whether racial/ethnic disparities in the upper quantiles differed by income, insurance and education. Results Significant Black-white and Latino-white disparities were identified in any mental health care expenditures. In the full population, moving up the quantiles of mental health care expenditures, Black-White and Latino-White disparities were reduced but remained statistically significant. No statistically significant disparities were found in analyses of positive users only. The magnitude of black-white disparities was smaller among those enrolled in public insurance programs compared to the privately insured and uninsured in the 97.5th and 99th quantiles. Disparities persist in the upper quantiles among those in higher income categories and after excluding psychiatric inpatient and emergency department (ED) visits. Discussion Disparities exist in any mental health care and

  19. Assisted reproductive medicine in Poland --Fertility and Sterility Special Interest Group of the Polish Gynaecological Society (SPiN PTG) 2012 report.

    PubMed

    Janicka, Anna; Spaczyńiski, Robert Z; Kurzawa, Rafał

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this report is to present data concerning results and complications related to infertility treatment using assisted reproductive technology (ART) and insemination (IUI) in Poland in 2012. The report was prepared by the Fertility and Sterility Special Interest Group of the Polish Gynaecological Society (SPiN PTG), based on individual data provided by fertility clinics. Reporting was voluntary data were not subject to external verification. The report presents the availability and the structure of infertility treatment services, the number of procedures performed, their effectiveness and the most common complications. In 2014, 34 Polish fertility clinics provided information to the report, presenting data from 2012. The total number of reported treatment cycles using ART was 17,116 (incl. 10,714 fresh IVF/ICSI) and 14,727 IUI. The clinical pregnancy rate per cycle was on average 33.7% for fresh IVF/ICSI and 13.3% for IUI. The prevalence of multiple births was 15.7% and 6.2%, in case of IVF/ICSI and IUI methods respectively The most frequent complication in the course of treatment using ART was ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)--severe OHSS constituted 0.68% of all stimulated cycles. The SPiN PTG report shows the average effectiveness and safety of ART and was the only proof of responsibility and due diligence of fertility centres in Poland. However, due to the lack of a central register of fertility clinics, facultative participation in the report as well as incomplete information on pregnancy and delivery rate, the collected data do not reflect the full spectrum of Polish reproductive medicine.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey Subsidence Interest Group Conference; proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, February 14-16, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prince, Keith R.; Leake, Stanley A.

    1997-01-01

    Introducation to Papers: This report is a compilation of short papers that are based on oral presentations summarizing the results of recent research that were given at the third meeting of the Subsidence Interest Group held in Las Vegas, Nevada, February 14?16, 1995. The report includes case studies of land subsidence and aquifer-system deformation resulting from fluid withdrawal, geothermal development, and mine collapse. Methods for monitoring land subsidence using Global Positioning System technology for the rapid and accurate measurement of changes in land-surface altitude also are described. The current status of numerical simulation of land subsidence in the USGS is summarized, and several of the short papers deal with the development and application of new numerical techniques for simulation and quantification of aquifersystem deformation. Not all oral presentations made at the meeting are documented in this report. Several of the presentations were of ongoing research and as such, the findings were provisional in nature and were offered at the meeting to stimulate scientific discussion and debate among colleagues. The information presented in this report, although only a subset of the proceedings of the meeting in Las Vegas, should help expand the scientific basis for management decisions to mitigate or control the effects of land subsidence. The short papers describing the results of these studies provide a cross section of ongoing research in aquifer mechanics and land subsidence and also form an assessment of the current technology and 'state of the science.' The analytical and interpretive methods described in this report will be useful to scientists involved in studies of ground-water hydraulics and aquifer-system deformation.

  1. A systematic literature review on the application of Rasch analysis in musculoskeletal disease -- a special interest group report of OMERACT 11.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ying-Ying; Png, May-Ee; Conaghan, Philip; Tennant, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Rasch measurement model provides robust analysis of the internal construct validity of outcome measures. We reviewed the application of Rasch analysis in musculoskeletal medicine as part of the work leading to discussion in a Special Interest Group in Rasch Analysis at Outcome Measures in Rheumatology 11. A systematic literature review of SCOPUS and MEDLINE was performed (January 1, 1985, to February 29, 2012. Original research reports in English using "Rasch" or "Item Response Theory" in musculoskeletal diseases were assessed by 2 independent reviewers. The topics of focus and analysis methodology details were recorded. Of 212 articles reviewed, 114 were included. The number of publications rose from 1 in 1991-1992 to 23 in 2011-February 2012. Disease areas included rheumatoid arthritis (28%), osteoarthritis (16.6%), and general musculoskeletal disorders (43%). Sixty-six reports (57.9%) evaluated psychometric properties of existing scales and 35 (30.7%) involved development of new scales. Nine articles (7.9%) were on methodology illustration. Four articles were on item banking and computer adaptive testing. A majority of the articles reported fit statistics, while the basic Rasch model assumption (i.e., unidimensionality) was examined in only 57.2% of the articles. An improvement in reporting qualities with Rasch articles was noted over time. In addition, only 11.4% of the articles provided a transformation table for interval scale measurement in clinical practice. The Rasch model has been increasingly used in rheumatology over the last 2 decades in a wide range of applications. The majority of the articles demonstrated reasonable quality of reporting. Improvements in quality of reporting over time were revealed.

  2. Disparities in stroke incidence contributing to disparities in stroke mortality.

    PubMed

    Howard, Virginia J; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Judd, Suzanne E; McClure, Leslie A; Safford, Monika M; Rhodes, J David; Cushman, Mary; Moy, Claudia S; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Kissela, Brett M; Howard, George

    2011-04-01

    While black-white and regional disparities in U.S. stroke mortality rates are well documented, the contribution of disparities in stroke incidence is unknown. We provide national estimates of stroke incidence by race and region, contrasting these to publicly available stroke mortality data. This analysis included 27,744 men and women without prevalent stroke (40.4% black), aged ≥45 years from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study, enrolled 2003-2007. Incident stroke was defined as first occurrence of stroke over 4.4 years of follow-up. Age-sex-adjusted stroke mortality rates were calculated using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiological Research (WONDER) System. There were 460 incident strokes over 113,469 person-years of follow-up. Relative to the rest of the United States, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of stroke in the southeastern stroke belt and stroke buckle were 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-1.29) and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.96-1.47), respectively. The age-sex-adjusted black/white IRR(black) was 1.51 (95% CI, 1.26-1.81), but for ages 45-54 years the IRR(black) was 4.02 (95% CI, 1.23-13.11) while for ages 85+ it was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.33-2.20). Generally, the IRRs(black) were less than the mortality rate ratios (MRRs) across age groups; however, only in ages 55-64 years and 65-74 years did the 95% CIs of IRRs(black) not include the MRR(black) . The MRRs for regions were within 95% CIs for IRRs. National patterns of black-white and regional differences in stroke incidence are similar to those for stroke mortality; however, the magnitude of differences in incidence appear smaller. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.

  3. Trends in kidney transplantation rates and disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Stolzmann, Kelly L.; Bautista, Leonelo E.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; McElroy, Jane A.; Becker, Bryan N.; Remington, Patrick L.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the likelihood of transplantation and trends over time among persons with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Wisconsin. METHODS: We examined the influence of patient- and community-level characteristics on the rate of kidney transplantation in Wisconsin among 22,387 patients diagnosed with ESRD between January 1, 1982 and October 30, 2005. We grouped patients by the year of ESRD onset in order to model the change in transplantation rates over time. RESULTS: After multivariate adjustment, all other racial groups were significantly less likely to be transplanted compared with whites, and the racial disparity increased over calendar time. Older patients were less likely to be transplanted in all periods. Higher community income and education level and a greater distance from patients' residence to the nearest dialysis center significantly increased the likelihood of transplantation. Males also had a significantly higher rate of transplantation than females. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate a growing disparity in transplantation rates by demographic characteristics and a consistent disparity in transplantation by socioeconomic characteristics. Future studies should focus on identifying specific barriers to transplantation among different subpopulations in order to target effective interventions. PMID:17722672

  4. The human face of health disparities.

    PubMed

    Green, Alexander R

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the issue of disparities in health between racial/ethnic groups has moved from the realm of common sense and anecdote to the realm of science. Hard, cold data now force us to consider what many had long taken for granted. Not only does health differ by race/ethnicity, but our health care system itself is deeply biased. From lack of diversity in the leadership and workforce, to ethnocentric systems of care, to biased clinical decision-making, the American health care system is geared to treat the majority, while the minority suffers. The photos shown here are of patients and scenes that recall some of the important landmarks in research on racial/ethnic disparities in health. The purpose is to put faces and humanity onto the numbers. While we now have great bodies of evidence upon which to lobby for change, in the end, each statistic still represents a personal tragedy or an individual triumph.

  5. Federal investments to eliminate racial/ethnic health-care disparities.

    PubMed

    Moy, Ernest; Freeman, William

    2014-01-01

    Health care is an important lever for moderating the effects of social determinants on health. We present a model that describes the relationships among social disadvantage, health-care disparities, and health disparities. Improving access to health care and enhancing patient-provider interaction are critical pathways for reducing disparities. Increasing the diversity of the public health and health-care workforces is an efficient strategy for reducing disparities because it impacts both access to care and patient-provider communication. Federal policy makers should continue interest in workforce diversity to optimize the health of all Americans.

  6. Eliminating Tobacco-Related Health Disparities: Directions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; King, Gary; Lawrence, Deirdre; Petrucci, Sallie Anne; Robinson, Robert G.; Banks, David; Marable, Sharon; Grana, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Certain groups in the United States remain at high risk and suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related illness and death despite progress made in reducing tobacco use. To address gaps in research on tobacco-related disparities and develop a comprehensive agenda aimed at reducing such disparities, representatives from funding agencies, community-based organizations, and academic institutions convened at the National Conference on Tobacco and Health Disparities in 2002. Conference participants reviewed the current research, identified existing gaps, and prioritized scientific recommendations. Panel discussions were organized to address research areas affecting underserved and understudied populations. We report major research recommendations made by the conference participants in several scientific domains. These recommendations will ultimately help guide the field in reducing and eliminating tobacco-related disparities in the United States. PMID:14759929

  7. Racial disparities in pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Ramnitz, Mary Scott; Lodish, Maya B

    2013-09-01

    The question of whether or not children, particularly girls, are entering puberty earlier than they did in the past has been a concern in both the medical community and the general population. A secular trend analysis of the current data on pubertal timing in boys and girls is limited by variations in the study design, the population assessed, and the methods used to determine pubertal development. These differences present a challenge when interpreting the available data, especially when comparing multiple studies. The influence of race on pubertal timing and development had not been assessed before the 1970s. The purpose of this article is to review the reported variations in pubertal timing among different racial/ethnic groups. Data suggest African American girls enter puberty earlier and reach menarche earlier than Caucasian and Hispanic girls. In addition, the trend toward earlier timing of puberty seems to be occurring faster in African American girls compared with Caucasian girls over the past 25 years. While the mechanism and understanding of the cause of racial disparities in pubertal development remain to be discerned, genetic and/or environmental factors may play a role and require further investigation.

  8. Latitude and longitude vertical disparity

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C. A.; Phillipson, Graeme P.; Glennerster, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The literature on vertical disparity is complicated by the fact that several different definitions of the term “vertical disparity” are in common use, often without a clear statement about which is intended or a widespread appreciation of the properties of the different definitions. Here, we examine two definitions of retinal vertical disparity: elevation-latitude and elevation-longitude disparity. Near the fixation point, these definitions become equivalent, but in general, they have quite different dependences on object distance and binocular eye posture, which have not previously been spelt out. We present analytical approximations for each type of vertical disparity, valid for more general conditions than previous derivations in the literature: we do not restrict ourselves to objects near the fixation point or near the plane of regard, and we allow for non-zero torsion, cyclovergence and vertical misalignments of the eyes. We use these expressions to derive estimates of the latitude and longitude vertical disparity expected at each point in the visual field, averaged over all natural viewing. Finally, we present analytical expressions showing how binocular eye position – gaze direction, convergence, torsion, cyclovergence, and vertical misalignment – can be derived from the vertical disparity field and its derivatives at the fovea. PMID:20055544

  9. Student Competencies Emphasized by Faculty in Disparate Academic Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael D.; Smart, John C.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relative emphasis placed on different student competencies by 248 faculty members in disparate theory-based clusters of academic departments. Findings suggest that faculty create distinctive academic environments inclined to require, reinforce, and reward their preferred patterns of student abilities and interests in a manner…

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (86th, Kansas City, Missouri, July 30-August 2, 2003). Entertainment Studies Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Entertainment Studies Interest Group of the proceedings contains the following 9 papers: "Beyond Modern Racism: Backlash and Brutality on 'The Shield'" (John D. Richardson); "Big Brother and the T-Group: How We Might Learn from Reality Television" (Rod Allen and Nod Miller); "Hegemony and Counterhegemony in Bravo's…

  11. Descriptive Analysis of the 2014 Race-Based Healthcare Disparities Measurement Literature.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gilbert, Keon L; Hudson, Darrell; Milam, Laurel; Colditz, Graham A

    2016-08-29

    There are more than 500 articles in the 2014 race-based healthcare disparities literature across a broad array of diseases and outcomes. However, unlike many other forms of research (e.g., clinical trials and systematic reviews), there are no required reporting guidelines when submitting results of disparities studies to journals. This study describes the race-based healthcare disparities measurement literature in terms of study design, journal characteristics, generation of health disparities research, type of disparity measure used, and adherence to disparities measurement guidelines. We searched three databases of peer-reviewed literature, PubMed, Ovid Medline, and JSTOR, for English language articles published in 2014 on racial/ethnic healthcare disparities. Studies must have quantitatively measured the difference in health outcomes between two racial/ethnic groups in order to be included. Our final sample included 266 studies from 167 medical and public health journals. Only 7 % (n = 19) of articles reported both an absolute and relative measure of disparity; the majority of studies (64 %, n = 171) reported only a relative measure of effect. Most studies were published in clinical journals (74 %, n = 198), used secondary data (86 %, n = 229), and calculated black-white disparities (82 %, n = 218). The most common condition studied was cancer (25 %, n = 67), followed by a surgical procedure (18 %, n = 48). On average, articles in the sample only met 61 % of the applicable guidelines on reporting of disparities. To be able to synthesize findings in the racial disparities literature (meta-analysis), there is a need for the use of consistent methods for quantifying disparities and reporting in the literature. A more consistent battery of measures and consistent reporting across studies may help speed our understanding of the origins and development of solutions to address healthcare disparities. Despite guidelines for best practices in reporting

  12. Quality of care and racial disparities in medicare among potential ACOs.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ryan E; Ayanian, John Z; Zaslavsky, Alan M; McWilliams, J Michael

    2014-09-01

    The Medicare Accountable Care Organization (ACO) programs encourage integration of providers into large groups and reward provider groups for improving quality, but not explicitly for reducing health care disparities. Larger group size and better overall quality may or may not be associated with smaller disparities. To examine differences in patient characteristics between provider groups sufficiently large to participate in ACO programs and smaller groups; the association between group size and racial disparities in quality; and the association between quality and disparities among larger groups. Using 2009 Medicare claims for 3.1 million beneficiaries with cardiovascular disease or diabetes and linked data on provider groups, we compared racial differences in quality by provider group size, adjusting for patient characteristics. Among larger groups, we used multilevel models to estimate correlations between group performance on quality measures for white beneficiaries and black-white disparities within groups. Four process measures of quality, hospitalization for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) related to cardiovascular disease or diabetes, and hospitalization for any ACSC. Beneficiaries served by larger groups were more likely to be white and live in areas with less poverty and more education. Larger group size was associated with smaller disparities in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol testing and retinal exams, but not in other process measures or hospitalization for ACSCs. Among larger groups, better quality for white beneficiaries in one measure (hospitalization for ACSCs related to cardiovascular disease or diabetes) was correlated with smaller racial disparities (r = 0.28; P = 0.02), but quality was not correlated with disparities in other measures. Larger provider group size and better performance on quality measures were not consistently associated with smaller racial disparities in care for Medicare beneficiaries with

  13. Interest in, concerns about, and preferences for potential video-group delivery of an effective behavioral intervention among women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Marhefka, Stephanie L; Fuhrmann, Hollie J; Gilliam, Patricia; Lopez, Bernice; Baldwin, Julie

    2012-10-01

    Novel strategies are needed to expand access to effective behavioral interventions for HIV prevention. Delivering effective group-based interventions to people living with HIV using video-conferencing technology is an innovative approach that may address this need, but has not been explored. Twenty-seven women living with HIV (WLH) who had just completed Healthy Relationships, a group-based behavioral program for WLH, participated in focus groups to share their thoughts about potentially participating in Healthy Relationships via a video-conferencing group. Overall, WLH supported the idea of video-group delivery of the program. They had numerous questions about logistics, expressed concerns about safety and confidentiality, and indicated a preference for accessing video-groups via special video-phones versus computers. Findings warrant further research into the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of video-group delivery of HIV prevention interventions and suggest important considerations for researchers and practitioners who may employ video-conferencing for intervention delivery.

  14. Environmental Activism Revisited: The Changing Nature of Communication through Organizational Public Relations, Special Interest Groups and the Mass Media. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies, Volume V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, Larissa A., Ed.

    The environmental movement of the 1960's and early 1970's resulted in unprecedented attention to environmental issues both in the mass media and in the scholarly literature. Interest has waned in recent years, with a concomitant erosion of coverage of what many consider enduring problems--particularly in water and air pollution and nuclear power.…

  15. Implementing the Institute of Medicine definition of disparities: an application to mental health care.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Thomas G; Alegria, Margarita; Cook, Benjamin L; Wells, Kenneth B; Zaslavsky, Alan M

    2006-10-01

    In a recent report, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) defines a health service disparity between population groups to be the difference in treatment or access not justified by the differences in health status or preferences of the groups. This paper proposes an implementation of this definition, and applies it to disparities in outpatient mental health care. Health Care for Communities (HCC) reinterviewed 9,585 respondents from the Community Tracking Study in 1997-1998, oversampling individuals with psychological distress, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, or mental health treatment. The HCC is designed to make national estimates of service use. Expenditures are modeled using generalized linear models with a log link for quantity and a probit model for any utilization. We adjust for group differences in health status by transforming the entire distribution of health status for minority populations to approximate the white distribution. We compare disparities according to the IOM definition to other methods commonly used to assess health services disparities. Our method finds significant service disparities between whites and both blacks and Latinos. Estimated disparities from this method exceed those for competing approaches, because of the inclusion of effects of mediating factors (such as income) in the IOM approach. A rigorous definition of disparities is needed to monitor progress against disparities and to compare their magnitude across studies. With such a definition, disparities can be estimated by adjusting for group differences in models for expenditures and access to mental health services.

  16. Indian Health Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Providers Best & Promising Practices Clinical Resources Committees Continuing Education Health & Wellness Programs Health Information Technology LISTSERV Email Groups National Combined Councils Patient Education ...

  17. Toward the Elimination of Colorectal Cancer Disparities Among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Blumenthal, Daniel S; Seay, Shirley Jordan; Smith, Selina A

    2016-12-01

    In the USA, race and socioeconomic status are well-known factors associated with colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates. These are higher among blacks than whites and other racial/ethnic groups. In this article, we review opportunities to address disparities in colorectal cancer incidence, mortality, and survivorship among African Americans. First, we summarize the primary prevention of colorectal cancer and recent advances in the early detection of the disease and disparities in screening. Then, we consider black-white disparities in colorectal cancer treatment and survival including factors that may contribute to such disparities and the important roles played by cultural competency, patient trust in one's physician, and health literacy in addressing colorectal cancer disparities, including the need for studies involving the use of colorectal cancer patient navigators who are culturally competent. To reduce these disparities, intervention efforts should focus on providing high-quality screening and treatment for colorectal cancer and on educating African Americans about the value of diet, weight control, screening, and treatment. Organized approaches for delivering colorectal cancer screening should be accompanied by programs and policies that provide access to diagnostic follow-up and treatment for underserved populations.

  18. Toward the Elimination of Colorectal Cancer Disparities Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Daniel S.; Seay, Shirley Jordan; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the USA, race and socioeconomic status are well-known factors associated with colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates. These are higher among blacks than whites and other racial/ethnic groups. Methods In this article, we review opportunities to address disparities in colorectal cancer incidence, mortality, and survivorship among African Americans. Results First, we summarize the primary prevention of colorectal cancer and recent advances in the early detection of the disease and disparities in screening. Then, we consider black-white disparities in colorectal cancer treatment and survival including factors that may contribute to such disparities and the important roles played by cultural competency, patient trust in one’s physician, and health literacy in addressing colorectal cancer disparities, including the need for studies involving the use of colorectal cancer patient navigators who are culturally competent. Conclusion To reduce these disparities, intervention efforts should focus on providing high-quality screening and treatment for colorectal cancer and on educating African Americans about the value of diet, weight control, screening, and treatment. Organized approaches for delivering colorectal cancer screening should be accompanied by programs and policies that provide access to diagnostic follow-up and treatment for underserved populations. PMID:27294749

  19. Introduction: CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Pamela A; Yoon, Paula W; Kaufmann, Rachel B

    2013-11-22

    This supplement is the second CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report (CHDIR). The 2011 CHDIR was the first CDC report to assess disparities across a wide range of diseases, behavioral risk factors, environmental exposures, social determinants, and health-care access (CDC. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report-United States, 2011. MMWR 2011;60[Suppl; January 14, 2011]). The 2013 CHDIR provides new data for 19 of the topics published in 2011 and 10 new topics. When data were available and suitable analyses were possible for the topic area, disparities were examined for population characteristics that included race and ethnicity, sex, sexual orientation, age, disability, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. The purpose of this supplement is to raise awareness of differences among groups regarding selected health outcomes and health determinants and to prompt actions to reduce disparities. The findings in this supplement can be used by practitioners in public health, academia and clinical medicine; the media; the general public; policymakers; program managers; and researchers to address disparities and help all persons in the United States live longer, healthier, and more productive lives.

  20. Effects of Prism Eyeglasses on Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Volkhard; Joos, Roland; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In optometry of binocular vision, the question may arise whether prisms should be included in eyeglasses to compensate an oculomotor and/or sensory imbalance between the two eyes. The corresponding measures of objective and subjective fixation disparity may be reduced by the prisms, or the adaptability of the binocular vergence system may diminish effects of the prisms over time. This study investigates effects of wearing prisms constantly for about 5 weeks in daily life. Two groups of 12 participants received eyeglasses with prisms having either a base-in direction or a base-out direction with an amount up to 8 prism diopters. Prisms were prescribed based on clinical fixation disparity test plates at 6 m. Two dependent variables were used: (1) subjective fixation disparity was indicated by a perceived offset of dichoptic nonius lines that were superimposed on the fusion stimuli and (2) objective fixation disparity was measured with a video based eye tracker relative to monocular calibration. Stimuli were presented at 6 m and included either central or more peripheral fusion stimuli. Repeated measurements were made without the prisms and with the prisms after about 5 weeks of wearing these prisms. Objective and subjective fixation disparity were correlated, but the type of fusion stimulus and the direction of the required prism may play a role. The prisms did not reduce the fixation disparity to zero, but induced significant changes in fixation disparity with large effect sizes. Participants receiving base-out prisms showed hypothesized effects, which were concurrent in both types of fixation disparity. In participants receiving base-in prisms, the individual effects of subjective and objective effects were negatively correlated: the larger the subjective (sensory) effect, the smaller the objective (motor) effect. This response pattern was related to the vergence adaptability, i.e. the individual fusional vergence reserves.

  1. Effects of Prism Eyeglasses on Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity

    PubMed Central

    Schroth, Volkhard; Joos, Roland; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In optometry of binocular vision, the question may arise whether prisms should be included in eyeglasses to compensate an oculomotor and/or sensory imbalance between the two eyes. The corresponding measures of objective and subjective fixation disparity may be reduced by the prisms, or the adaptability of the binocular vergence system may diminish effects of the prisms over time. This study investigates effects of wearing prisms constantly for about 5 weeks in daily life. Two groups of 12 participants received eyeglasses with prisms having either a base-in direction or a base-out direction with an amount up to 8 prism diopters. Prisms were prescribed based on clinical fixation disparity test plates at 6 m. Two dependent variables were used: (1) subjective fixation disparity was indicated by a perceived offset of dichoptic nonius lines that were superimposed on the fusion stimuli and (2) objective fixation disparity was measured with a video based eye tracker relative to monocular calibration. Stimuli were presented at 6 m and included either central or more peripheral fusion stimuli. Repeated measurements were made without the prisms and with the prisms after about 5 weeks of wearing these prisms. Objective and subjective fixation disparity were correlated, but the type of fusion stimulus and the direction of the required prism may play a role. The prisms did not reduce the fixation disparity to zero, but induced significant changes in fixation disparity with large effect sizes. Participants receiving base-out prisms showed hypothesized effects, which were concurrent in both types of fixation disparity. In participants receiving base-in prisms, the individual effects of subjective and objective effects were negatively correlated: the larger the subjective (sensory) effect, the smaller the objective (motor) effect. This response pattern was related to the vergence adaptability, i.e. the individual fusional vergence reserves. PMID:26431525

  2. Approaching Health Disparities from a Population Perspective: The NIH Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Addressing health disparities has been a national challenge for decades. The NIH-sponsored Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHDs) represent the first federal initiative to support transdisciplinary multilevel research on the determinants of health disparities. Using preliminar...

  3. Disparity channels in early vision

    PubMed Central

    Roe, AW; Parker, AJ; Born, RT; DeAngelis, GC

    2008-01-01

    The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in our knowledge of the neural basis of stereopsis. New cortical areas have been found to represent binocular disparities, new representations of disparity information (e.g., relative disparity signals) have been uncovered, the first topographic maps of disparity have been measured, and the first causal links between neural activity and depth perception have been established. Equally exciting is the finding that training and experience affects how signals are channeled through different brain areas, a flexibility that may be crucial for learning, plasticity, and recovery of function. The collective efforts of several laboratories have established stereo vision as one of the most productive model systems for elucidating the neural basis of perception. Much remains to be learned about how the disparity signals that are initially encoded in primary visual cortex are routed to and processed by extrastriate areas to mediate the diverse capacities of 3D vision that enhance our daily experience of the world. PMID:17978018

  4. Disparity channels in early vision.

    PubMed

    Roe, Anna W; Parker, Andrew J; Born, Richard T; DeAngelis, Gregory C

    2007-10-31

    The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in our knowledge of the neural basis of stereopsis. New cortical areas have been found to represent binocular disparities, new representations of disparity information (e.g., relative disparity signals) have been uncovered, the first topographic maps of disparity have been measured, and the first causal links between neural activity and depth perception have been established. Equally exciting is the finding that training and experience affects how signals are channeled through different brain areas, a flexibility that may be crucial for learning, plasticity, and recovery of function. The collective efforts of several laboratories have established stereo vision as one of the most productive model systems for elucidating the neural basis of perception. Much remains to be learned about how the disparity signals that are initially encoded in primary visual cortex are routed to and processed by extrastriate areas to mediate the diverse capacities of three-dimensional vision that enhance our daily experience of the world.

  5. Integrating Disparate Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-21

    between Pierre de Fermat (1608-1672) and Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) that began the development of modern probability theory. Their correspondence...34] Table 1: Reproduction of the table that appears in Graunt (1662). Huygens wrote up the solution of Ferrnat and Pascal , and is thus credited with...permutations and combinations, the weak law of large numbers as well as the binomial theorem. What interested Bernoulli was to apply the Fermat- Pascal idea of

  6. Are We Missing the Mark? The Implementation of Community Based Participatory Education in Cancer Disparities Curriculum Development.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Cassandra; Naylor, Keith; Watkins, Yashika; Britt, Thomas; Hinton, Lisa; Curry, Gina; Randal, Fornessa; Lam, Helen; Kim, Karen

    2015-06-01

    The Chicago south side, even more so than national populations, continues to be burdened with widening gaps of disparities in cancer outcomes. Therefore, Chicago community members were engaged in addressing the following content areas for a cancer disparities curriculum: (1) the south side Chicago community interest in participating in curriculum design, (2) how community members should be involved in designing cancer disparities curriculum, and (3) what community members believe the curriculum should address to positively impact their community. Eighty-six community members from 19 different zip code areas of Chicago attended the deliberative session. A survey composed of three quantitative and three short-answer content questions was analyzed. The majority of participants were from the south side of Chicago (62 %) and females (86 %). Most, 94 %, believed community members should be involved in cancer disparities curriculum development. Moreover, 56 % wanted to be involved in designing the curriculum, and 61 % reported an interest in taking a course in cancer disparities. Three categorical themes were derived from the qualitative questions: (1) community empowerment through disparities education-"a prescription for change," (2) student skill development in community engagement and advocacy training, and (3) community expression of shared experiences in cancer health disparities. The community provided valuable input for curricular content and has an interest in collaborating on cancer disparities curriculum design. Community participation must be galvanized to improve disparities curricular development and delivery to successfully address the challenges of eliminating disparities in health.

  7. Are We Missing the Mark? The Implementation of Community Based Participatory Education in Cancer Disparities Curriculum Development

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Cassandra; Naylor, Keith; Watkins, Yashika; Britt, Thomas; Hinton, Lisa; Curry, Gina; Randal, Fornessa; Lam, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Chicago south side, even more so than national populations, continues to be burdened with widening gaps of disparities in cancer outcomes. Therefore, Chicago community members were engaged in addressing the following content areas for a cancer disparities curriculum: (1) the south side Chicago community interest in participating in curriculum design, (2) how community members should be involved in designing cancer disparities curriculum, and (3) what community members believe the curriculum should address to positively impact their community. Methods Eighty-six community members from 19 different zip code areas of Chicago attended the deliberative session. A survey composed of three quantitative and three short-answer content questions was analyzed. Results The majority of participants were from the south side of Chicago (62 %) and females (86 %). Most, 94 %, believed community members should be involved in cancer disparities curriculum development. Moreover, 56 % wanted to be involved in designing the curriculum, and 61 % reported an interest in taking a course in cancer disparities. Three categorical themes were derived from the qualitative questions: (1) community empowerment through disparities education—“a prescription for change,” (2) student skill development in community engagement and advocacy training, and (3) community expression of shared experiences in cancer health disparities. Conclusion The community provided valuable input for cur-ricular content and has an interest in collaborating on cancer disparities curriculum design. Community participation must be galvanized to improve disparities curricular development and delivery to successfully address the challenges of eliminating disparities in health. PMID:26085978

  8. Untangling the health disparities of teen pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Talashek, Marie L; Alba, Melinda L; Patel, Angira

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis is to determine whether a developmental maturity model differentially predicts pregnancy for African American, Puerto Rican, and Mexican inner-city teens. This is a secondary analysis of data from a case control study that tested a model of developmental maturity and teen pregnancy with 183 pregnant and never-pregnant pairs of inner-city teens matched on age, ethnicity, and freshman cohort. The models differentially predict pregnancy for the separate ethnic groups, with sexual behaviors being the most important factors regardless of ethnicity. The health disparities of teen pregnancies may not decrease unless patterns of dating/sexual behaviors are reversed.

  9. Disparities in perinatal medicine: preterm birth, stillbirth, and infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Spong, Catherine Y; Iams, Jay; Goldenberg, Robert; Hauck, Fern R; Willinger, Marian

    2011-04-01

    Infant mortality, stillbirths, and preterm births are major public health priorities with significant disparities based on race and ethnicity. Interestingly, when evaluating the rates over the past 30 to 50 years, the disparity persists in all three and is remarkably consistent. In the United States, the infant mortality rate is 6.7 deaths per 1,000 live births, the stillbirth rate is 6.2 per 1,000 deliveries, and the preterm birth rate is 12.8% of live births. The rates among non-Hispanic African Americans are dramatically higher, nearly double the infant mortality at 13.4 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, nearly double the stillbirth rate at 11.1 stillbirths per 1,000 deliveries, and one third higher with preterm births at 18.4% of live births. Despite numerous conferences, workshops, articles, and investigators focusing on this line of work, the disparities persist and, in some cases, are growing. In this article, we summarize a Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development workshop that focused on these disparities to identify the associated factors to determine their relative contributions, identify gaps in knowledge, and develop specific strategies to address the disparities in the short-term and long-term.

  10. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Mental Health Care Utilization among U.S. College Students: Applying the Institution of Medicine Definition of Health Care Disparities.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Justin B; Eisenberg, Daniel; Lu, Liya; Gathright, Molly

    2015-10-01

    The authors apply the Institute of Medicine's definition of health care disparities to college students. The analysis pools data from the first two waves of the Healthy Minds Study, a multicampus survey of students' mental health (N = 13,028). A probit model was used for any past-year service utilization, and group differences in health status were adjusted by transforming the entire distribution for each minority population to approximate the white distribution. Disparities existed between whites and all minority groups. Compared to other approaches, the predicted service disparities were greater because this method included the effects of mediating SES variables. Health care disparities persist in the college setting despite improved access and nearly universal insurance coverage. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating potential sources of disparities beyond geography and coverage.

  11. Using Genetic Technologies To Reduce, Rather Than Widen, Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caren E.; Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Dookeran, Keith A.; Hampel, Heather; Tin, Adrienne; Maruthur, Nisa M.; Schisler, Jonathan C.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Ordovás, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that both biological and nonbiological factors contribute to health disparities. Genetics, in particular, plays a part in how common diseases manifest themselves. Today, unprecedented advances in genetically based diagnoses and treatments provide opportunities for personalized medicine. However, disadvantaged groups may lack access to these advances, and treatments based on research on non-Hispanic whites might not be generalizable to members of minority groups. Unless genetic technologies become universally accessible, existing disparities could be widened. Addressing this issue will require integrated strategies, including expanding genetic research, improving genetic literacy, and enhancing access to genetic technologies among minority populations in a way that avoids harms such as stigmatization. PMID:27503959

  12. Using Genetic Technologies To Reduce, Rather Than Widen, Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caren E; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Dookeran, Keith A; Hampel, Heather; Tin, Adrienne; Maruthur, Nisa M; Schisler, Jonathan C; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Tucker, Katherine L; Ordovás, José M

    2016-08-01

    Evidence shows that both biological and nonbiological factors contribute to health disparities. Genetics, in particular, plays a part in how common diseases manifest themselves. Today, unprecedented advances in genetically based diagnoses and treatments provide opportunities for personalized medicine. However, disadvantaged groups may lack access to these advances, and treatments based on research on non-Hispanic whites might not be generalizable to members of minority groups. Unless genetic technologies become universally accessible, existing disparities could be widened. Addressing this issue will require integrated strategies, including expanding genetic research, improving genetic literacy, and enhancing access to genetic technologies among minority populations in a way that avoids harms such as stigmatization.

  13. Encouraging Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merton, Bryan

    2001-01-01

    Young British adults (n=47) identified situations for which they needed basic skills and barriers to skill development: low self-confidence, negative learning attitudes, peer pressure, cost, and scheduling. Results suggested the importance of grounding basic skills in everyday contexts; offering accessible classes, small groups, and individual…

  14. The Relationship between Health Literacy and Health Disparities: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mantwill, Sarah; Monestel-Umaña, Silvia; Schulz, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Health literacy is commonly associated with many of the antecedents of health disparities. Yet the precise nature of the relationship between health literacy and disparities remains unclear. A systematic review was conducted to better understand in how far the relationship between health literacy and health disparities has been systematically studied and which potential relationships and pathways have been identified. Methods Five databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE and CINAHL, were searched for peer-reviewed studies. Publications were included in the review when they (1) included a valid measure of health literacy, (2) explicitly conceived a health disparity as related to a social disparity, such as race/ethnicity or education and (3) when results were presented by comparing two or more groups afflicted by a social disparity investigating the effect of health literacy on health outcomes. Two reviewers evaluated each study for inclusion and abstracted relevant information. Findings were ordered according to the disparities identified and the role of health literacy in explaining them. Results 36 studies were included in the final synthesis. Most of the studies investigated racial/ethnic disparities, followed by some few studies that systematically investigated educational disparities. Some evidence was found on the mediating function of health literacy on self-rated health status across racial/ethnic and educational disparities, as well as on the potential effect of health literacy and numeracy on reducing racial/ethnic disparities in medication adherence and understanding of medication intake. Conclusion Overall the evidence on the relationship between health literacy and disparities is still mixed and fairly limited. Studies largely varied with regard to health(-related) outcomes under investigation and the health literacy assessments used. Further, many studies lacked a specific description of the nature of the disparity that was explored and a clear

  15. Socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Chetna; Do, Young Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the magnitude of socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India after correcting for potential reporting heterogeneity by socio-economic characteristics (education and wealth). Methods Data from Wave 1 of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007–2008) involving six Indian states were used. Seven health system responsiveness domains were considered for a respondent’s last visit to an outpatient service in 12 months: prompt attention, dignity, clarity of information, autonomy, confidentiality, choice and quality of basic amenities. Hierarchical ordered probit models (correcting for reporting heterogeneity through anchoring vignettes) were used to assess the association of socio-economic characteristics with the seven responsiveness domains, controlling for age, gender and area of residence. Stratified analysis was also conducted among users of public and private health facilities. Results Our statistical models accounting for reporting heterogeneity revealed socio-economic disparities in all health system responsiveness domains. Estimates suggested that individuals from the lowest wealth group, for example, were less likely than individuals from the highest wealth group to report ‘very good’ on the dignity domain by 8% points (10% vs 18%). Stratified analysis showed that such disparities existed among users of both public and private health facilities. Conclusion Socio-economic disparities exist in health system responsiveness in India, irrespective of the type of health facility used. Policy efforts to monitor and improve these disparities are required at the health system level. PMID:22709921

  16. The Ethical Imperative of Addressing Oral Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.Y.; Divaris, K.

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities are preventable differences in the burden of disease or opportunities to achieve optimal health that are experienced by socially disadvantaged population groups. Reducing health disparities has been identified as an ethical imperative by the World Health Organization’s Commission on Social Determinants of Health and numerous other national and international bodies. Significant progress has been made over the past years in identifying vulnerable groups, and ‘distal’ factors including political, economic, social, and community characteristics are now considered pivotal. It is thus unsurprising that the remarkable advances in the science and practice of dentistry have not led to notable reductions in oral health disparities. In this review, we summarize recent work and emphasize the need for a solid theoretical framing to guide oral health disparities research. We provide a theoretical framework outlining pathways that operate across the continuum of oral health determinants during the lifecourse and highlight potential areas for intervention. Because oral health disparities emanate from the unequal distribution of social, political, economic, and environmental resources, tangible progress is likely to be realized only by a global movement and concerted efforts by all stakeholders, including policymakers, the civil society, and academic, professional, and scientific bodies. PMID:24189268

  17. Eliminating Disparities in School Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishioka, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Disparities in suspension rates for White, Black, Hispanic, and American Indian students are more often a result of inequitable disciplinary actions than differences in behavior. Exclusionary discipline undermines students' academic achievement by weakening their connection with school and removing them from the classroom. Students who experience…

  18. Global ovarian cancer health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chornokur, Ganna; Amankwah, Ernest K.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to broadly review the scientific literature and summarize the most up-to-date findings on ovarian cancer health disparities worldwide and in the United States (U.S.). Methods The present literature on disparities in ovarian cancer was reviewed. Original research and relevant review articles were included. Results Ovarian cancer health disparities exist worldwide and in the U.S. Ovarian cancer disproportionately affect African American women at all stages of the disease, from presentation through treatment, and ultimately increased mortality and decreased survival, compared to non-Hispanic White women. Increased mortality is likely to be explained by unequal access to care and non-standard treatment regimens frequently administered to African American women, but may also be attributed to genetic susceptibility, acquired co-morbid conditions and increased frequency of modifiable risk factors, albeit to substantially lesser extent. Unequal access to care is, in turn, largely a consequence of lower socioeconomic status and lack of private health insurance coverage among the African American population. Conclusions Our findings suggest the need for policy changes aimed at facilitating equal access to quality medical care. At the same time, further research is necessary to fully resolve racial disparities in ovarian cancer. PMID:23266352

  19. Eliminating Disparities in School Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishioka, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Disparities in suspension rates for White, Black, Hispanic, and American Indian students are more often a result of inequitable disciplinary actions than differences in behavior. Exclusionary discipline undermines students' academic achievement by weakening their connection with school and removing them from the classroom. Students who experience…

  20. Toward Explaining Mental Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aneshensel, Carol S.

    2009-01-01

    Mental health disparities refer to the disproportionate amount of psychopathology found among persons of disadvantageous social standing, such as persons of low socioeconomic status (SES). Although social and self selection cannot entirely be ruled out as explanations for these differences, the accumulation of evidence supports a social causation…

  1. Activation of weak IR fundamentals of two species of astrochemical interest in the T(d) point group--the importance of amorphous ices.

    PubMed

    Hudson, R L; Gerakines, P A; Loeffler, M J

    2015-05-21

    New measurements are reported on the weak ν1 and ν2 fundamentals of frozen CH4, a solid of considerable astrochemical interest. Infrared spectra in the ν1 and ν2 regions are presented for three CH4-ice phases at 10-30 K with new absorption coefficients and band strengths to quantify the results. In contrast to the situation with the two crystalline phases of CH4, both ν1 and ν2 were seen clearly in methane's amorphous phase. To support our CH4 work, we also present new results for NH4SH, a component of Jupiter's atmosphere, showing that the ν2 vibration of NH4(+) undergoes a dramatic loss of intensity during an amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition, but is regenerated in equally-dramatic fashion by radiation-induced amorphization of the sample. Results are compared to work recently published in this journal and elsewhere.

  2. Decomposing racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Hasebe, Takuya; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2015-06-12

    While persistent racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination have been reported among the elderly, characteristics contributing to disparities are poorly understood. This study aimed to assess characteristics associated with racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination using a nonlinear Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. We performed cross-sectional multivariable logistic regression analyses for which the dependent variable was self-reported receipt of influenza vaccine during the 2010-2011 season among community dwelling non-Hispanic African-American (AA), non-Hispanic White (W), English-speaking Hispanic (EH) and Spanish-speaking Hispanic (SH) elderly, enrolled in the 2011 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) (un-weighted/weighted N=6,095/19.2 million). Using the nonlinear Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method, we assessed the relative contribution of seventeen covariates - including socio-demographic characteristics, health status, insurance, access, preference regarding healthcare, and geographic regions - to disparities in influenza vaccination. Unadjusted racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination were 14.1 percentage points (pp) (W-AA disparity, p<0.001), 25.7 pp (W-SH disparity, p<0.001) and 0.6 pp (W-EH disparity, p>.8). The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method estimated that the unadjusted W-AA and W-SH disparities in vaccination could be reduced by only 45% even if AA and SH groups become equivalent to Whites in all covariates in multivariable regression models. The remaining 55% of disparities were attributed to (a) racial/ethnic differences in the estimated coefficients (e.g., odds ratios) in the regression models and (b) characteristics not included in the regression models. Our analysis found that only about 45% of racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination among the elderly could be reduced by equalizing recognized characteristics among racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are needed to identify additional

  3. Sexual orientation disparities in physical health: age and gender effects in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bränström, Richard; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Pachankis, John E

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have identified substantial health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals compared to heterosexuals. However, possible variation in sexual orientation health disparities by age and according to gender remains largely unexplored. To examine physical health disparities between LGB and heterosexual individuals in a general population sample in Sweden, to explore potential age and gender differences in these disparities, and to test potential mechanisms underlying any observed disparities. Between 2008 and 2013, 60,922 individuals (16-84 years of age) responded to nationwide population-based health surveys. In the sample, 430 (0.7%) individuals self-identified as gay/lesbian and 757 (1.3%) self-identified as bisexual. Logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were used to explore health disparities based on sexual orientation. Overall, LGB individuals were more likely to report worse self-rated health as well as more physical health symptoms (e.g., pain, insomnia, dermatitis, tinnitus, intestinal problems) and conditions (e.g., diabetes, asthma, high blood pressure) compared to heterosexuals. However, these physical health disparities differed by age. Disparities were largest among adolescents and young adults and generally smallest in older age groups. Health behaviors and elevated reports of exposure to perceived discrimination, victimization, and threats of violence among sexual minorities partially explained the sexual orientation disparities in physical health. Age emerged as an important effect modifier of physical health disparities based on sexual orientation. Gender-specific findings suggest that sexual orientation disparities persist into adulthood for women but are gradually attenuated for older age groups; in contrast, for men, these disparities disappear starting with young adults. These results support a developmental model of minority stress and physical health among LGB individuals.

  4. Decomposing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Influenza Vaccination among the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Hasebe, Takuya; Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    While persistent racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination have been reported among the elderly, characteristics contributing to disparities are poorly understood. This study aimed to assess characteristics associated with racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination using a nonlinear Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. We performed cross-sectional multivariable logistic regression analyses for which the dependent variable was self-reported receipt of influenza vaccine during the 2010–2011 season among community dwelling non-Hispanic African-American (AA), non-Hispanic White (W), English-speaking Hispanic (EH) and Spanish-speaking Hispanic (SH) elderly, enrolled in the 2011 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) (un-weighted/weighted N= 6,095/19.2million). Using the nonlinear Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method, we assessed the relative contribution of seventeen covariates—including socio-demographic characteristics, health status, insurance, access, preference regarding healthcare, and geographic regions —to disparities in influenza vaccination. Unadjusted racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination were 14.1 percentage points (pp) (W-AA disparity, p<.001), 25.7 pp (W-SH disparity, p<.001) and 0.6 pp (W-EH disparity, p>.8). The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method estimated that the unadjusted W-AA and W-SH disparities in vaccination could be reduced by only 45% even if AA and SH groups become equivalent to Whites in all covariates in multivariable regression models. The remaining 55% of disparities were attributed to (a) racial/ethnic differences in the estimated coefficients (e.g., odds ratios) in the regression models and (b) characteristics not included in the regression models. Our analysis found that only about 45% of racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination among the elderly could be reduced by equalizing recognized characteristics among racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are needed to identify additional

  5. Different interest group views of fuels treatments: survey results from fire and fire surrogate treatments in a Sierran mixed conifer forest, California, USA

    Treesearch

    Sarah McCaffrey; Jason J. Moghaddas; Scott L. Stephens

    2008-01-01

    The present paper discusses results from a survey about the acceptance of and preferences for fuels treatments of participants following a field tour of the University of California Blodgett Forest Fire and Fire Surrogate Study Site. Although original expectations were that tours would be composed of general members of the public, individual tour groups ultimately were...

  6. Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

  7. Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

  8. Disparities in Intratumoral Steroidogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    a regular primary care physician are substantial barriers to PC screening and early diagnosis(2). These factors are likely responsible for some of...a substantial confounder in our analysis. Although, we have previously measured insulin levels in our mice, and found no significant difference in... insulin levels in the different diet groups (Fig 6), we had not rigorously Figure 3. Analysis of nuclear AR expression in PCa tumors. LNCaP tumors

  9. Disparities in Pediatric Obesity in the United States12

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youfa

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the disparities in the U.S. childhood obesity epidemic, mainly based on recent nationally representative data. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased since the late 1970s; the over time shifts (changes) in distributions of various body fatness measures indicate that U.S. children have become fatter and the obese groups gained more body fat, especially more central obesity, as indicated by waist circumference. However, considerable between-group and regional disparities exist in the prevalence, fatness measures, and over time trends. The disparities and trends are complex, which reflects the complexity and dynamics in obesity etiology. Clearly, some population groups are affected more seriously than others. Native American children have the highest prevalence of obesity, whereas Asians have the lowest rate among all ethnic groups. Preschool age children have a lower obesity prevalence than older children. Young people in some states and cities are twice more likely to be overweight or obese than those living in other regions. Low-socioeconomic status is associated with obesity only among some population groups, e.g. white children and adolescents. Vigorous, effective interventions are needed to promote healthy lifestyles among U.S. young people and to reduce disparities in obesity. PMID:22211187

  10. National newspaper coverage of minority health disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Amzel, Anouk; Ghosh, Chandak

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess American newspaper coverage regarding racial and ethnic minority health disparities (MHDs). METHODS: LexisNexis was queried with specific word combinations to elicit all MHD articles printed in 257 newspapers from 2000-2004. The full texts were read and articles categorized by racial/ethnic group and specific MHD topics mentioned. RESULTS: In the five years from 2000-2004, 1188 MHD articles were published, representing 0.09% of all articles about health. Newspapers gave much attention to MHD when discussed in conferences and meetings and speeches by senior health officials and politicians. Cancer, cardiovascular disease and HIV/AIDS were most frequent among disease-specific mentions. Articles about African Americans comprised 60.4% of all race/ethnicity-mentioning articles. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the release of major organizational reports and the publication of many studies confirming the prevalence of MHD, few newspaper articles have been published explaining MHD to the public. Because of the general public's low rate of health literacy, the health world should collaborate with the media to present a consistent, simple message concerning gaps in care experienced by all racial/ethnic minority groups. In a time of consumer-directed healthcare, if Americans understand that MHDs exist, they may galvanize to advocate for disparity elimination and quality improvement. PMID:17987915

  11. Arts and Learning Research, 1992-1993. The Journal of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, California, April 1992; Atlanta, Georgia, April 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Lorrie, Ed.; Morbey, Mary Leigh, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The research papers gathered in this volume were presented at the 1992 and 1993 meetings of the American Educational Research Association most were part of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group programs. Papers focus on the following themes: assessing student learning; women's movement in art education; and art education in various…

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (86th, Kansas City, Missouri, July 30-August 2, 2003). Science Communication Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Science Communication Interest Group of the proceedings contains the following 7 papers: "Risk Perceptions and Food Safety: A Test of the Psychometric Paradigm" (Joye C. Gordon); "An Entertainment-Education Video as a Tool to Influence Mammography Compliance Behavior in Latinas" (Gail D. Love); "Promise or Peril: How…

  13. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (84th, Washington, DC, August 5-8, 2001). Religion and Media Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Religion and Media Interest Group section of the proceedings contains the following 4 selected papers: "'Where All Things Are Pure and of Good Report': The Doctrinal Theology, Religious Practice, and Media Manipulation of the Christian Science Church" (Douglas J. Swanson); "Religion and Topoi in the News: An Analysis of the…

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (82nd, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 3-8, 1999). Religion and Media Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Religion and Media Interest Group section of the Proceedings contains the following 4 papers: "Not Alone in a Crowd: Religion, Media and Community Connectedness at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century" (Michael A. Longinow); "Hollywood's God: The Problem of Divine Providence" (Jeffery A. Smith); "The Press and the…

  15. The Serials Partnership: Teamwork, Technology and Trends. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the North American Serials Interest Group, Inc. (4th, Claremont, California, June 3-6, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Patricia Ohl, Ed.; Ogburn, Joyce L.

    1990-01-01

    Fifteen papers presented at the fourth annual conference of the North American Serials Interest Group addressed the topics of scholarly communication, optical data disks in libraries, differences among types of serials vendors, and organizational responses to the current journal pricing crisis. A transcript of the summary session and summaries of…

  16. Mission of the Future. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the Association for the Development of Computer-Based Instructional Systems. Volume II: Special Interest Groups (San Diego, California, February 27 to March 1, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for the Development of Computer-based Instructional Systems.

    The second of three volumes of papers presented at the 1979 ADCIS convention, this collection includes 37 papers presented to four special interest groups--computer based training, deaf education, elementary/secondary education/junior colleges, and health education. The eight papers on computer based training describe computer graphics, computer…

  17. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Religion and Media Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Religion and Media Interest Group section of the proceedings contains the following nine papers: "The Effect of Age and Background of Religious Broadcasting Executives on Digital Television Implementation" (Brad Schultz); "Environmental Reporting, Religion Reporting, and the Question of Advocacy" (Rick Clifton Moore);…

  18. Arts and Learning Research, 1996-1997. The Journal of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association (New York, New York, April 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diket, Read M., Ed.; Klein, Sheri R., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The papers gathered in this volume were presented at the 1996 meeting of the American Educational Research Association, mostly at programs of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group. Papers in the volume focus on research in the arts in the areas of profiles of learning and assessment (section 1), community-based art education (section 2),…

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (85th, Miami, Florida, August 5-8, 2002). Science Communication Interest Group Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Science Communication Interest Group Division of the proceedings contains the following 7 papers: "Forecasting the Future: How Television Weathercasters' Attitudes and Beliefs about Climate Change Affect Their Cognitive Knowledge on the Science" (Kris Wilson); "The Web and E-Mail in Science Communication: Results of In-Depth…

  20. AAHD's Health Promotion and Wellness, Part 3: Health Disparities and People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article is the third of a 4-part series on "Health Promotion and Wellness" from the American Association on Health and Disability (AAHD). It focuses on health disparities and people with disabilities. Health disparities are differences in health outcomes between groups that reflect social inequalities. Disability rates vary by ethnicity, age,…

  1. AAHD's Health Promotion and Wellness, Part 3: Health Disparities and People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article is the third of a 4-part series on "Health Promotion and Wellness" from the American Association on Health and Disability (AAHD). It focuses on health disparities and people with disabilities. Health disparities are differences in health outcomes between groups that reflect social inequalities. Disability rates vary by ethnicity, age,…

  2. Partnering health disparities research with quality improvement science in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Lion, K Casey; Raphael, Jean L

    2015-02-01

    Disparities in pediatric health care quality are well described in the literature, yet practical approaches to decreasing them remain elusive. Quality improvement (QI) approaches are appealing for addressing disparities because they offer a set of strategies by which to target modifiable aspects of care delivery and a method for tailoring or changing an intervention over time based on data monitoring. However, few examples in the literature exist of QI interventions successfully decreasing disparities, particularly in pediatrics, due to well-described challenges in developing, implementing, and studying QI with vulnerable populations or in underresourced settings. In addition, QI interventions aimed at improving quality overall may not improve disparities, and in some cases, may worsen them if there is greater uptake or effectiveness of the intervention among the population with better outcomes at baseline. In this article, the authors review some of the challenges faced by researchers and frontline clinicians seeking to use QI to address health disparities and propose an agenda for moving the field forward. Specifically, they propose that those designing and implementing disparities-focused QI interventions reconsider comparator groups, use more rigorous evaluation methods, carefully consider the evidence for particular interventions and the context in which they were developed, directly engage the social determinants of health, and leverage community resources to build collaborative networks and engage community members. Ultimately, new partnerships between communities, providers serving vulnerable populations, and QI researchers will be required for QI interventions to achieve their potential related to health care disparity reduction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Immunization disparities by Hispanic ethnicity and language preference.

    PubMed

    Haviland, Amelia M; Elliott, Marc N; Hambarsoomian, Katrin; Lurie, Nicole

    2011-01-24

    Seasonal influenza and pneumococcal immunization rates are substantially lower for older Hispanics than for non-Hispanic whites. Beneficiary-reported past-year influenza and lifetime pneumococcal immunization for English- and Spanish-preferring Hispanic beneficiaries were compared with those for non-Hispanic whites in cross-sectional bilingual survey data using data from 244 618 randomly sampled community-dwelling respondents (age ≥65 years) with the 2008 Medicare Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey (a 62% response rate). Weighted logistic regression estimated immunization disparities with and without adjustment for health status, sociodemographic variables related to access, and location. Hierarchical models examined the role of specific geographic factors in immunization disparities. Pneumococcal immunization rates for Spanish- and English-speaking Hispanics were substantially lower than those for non-Hispanic whites (40% and 56% vs 74%; P < .001 for both comparisons). Influenza immunization rates for Spanish- and English-speaking Hispanics were also lower than for non-Hispanic whites (64% and 68% vs 76%; P < .001 for both comparisons). Health status-adjusted differences were similar; additional adjustment for sociodemographics reduced pneumococcal disparities by approximately one-third and influenza disparities by approximately half, but all disparities remained significant. Pneumococcal disparities were consistently smaller for patients in managed care plans. Influenza disparities were greater both in linguistically isolated areas and in "new destination" areas without long-standing Hispanic populations. Hispanic seniors, especially when Spanish-preferring and in linguistically isolated "new destinations," such as the Southeast, continue to be immunized at markedly lower rates than non-Hispanic whites, even after adjustment for health and sociodemographics. Individual physicians and policymakers may be able to assist this vulnerable

  4. Historical Trend of Disparity Implications of Medicare MTM Eligibility Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Qiao, Yanru

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) and Hispanics have a lower likelihood of being eligible for medication therapy management (MTM) services than do non-Hispanic Whites (Whites) based on Medicare MTM eligibility criteria. Objective To determine whether MTM eligibility criteria would perform differently over time, this study examined the trend of MTM disparities from 1996–1997 to 2007–2008. Methods The study populations were Medicare beneficiaries from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Proportions and the odds of MTM eligibility were compared between Whites and ethnic minorities. The trend of disparities was examined by including in logistic regression models interaction terms between dummy variables for the minority groups and 2007–2008. MTM eligibility thresholds for 2008 and 2010–2011 were analyzed. Main and sensitivity analyses were conducted to represent the entire range of the eligibility criteria. Results This study found no statistical significant racial or ethnic disparities associated with the MTM eligibility criteria for 2008 among the Medicare population during 1996–1997. However, racial disparities associated with 2010–2011 MTM eligibility criteria were significant according to multivariate analyses among the Medicare population during 1996–1997. During 2007–2008, both racial and ethnic disparities associated with both 2008 MTM eligibility criteria and 2010–2011 eligibility criteria were generally significant. Disparity patterns did not exhibit a statistically significant change from 1996–1997 to 2007–2008. Conclusion Racial and ethnic disparities in meeting MTM eligibility criteria may not decrease over time unless MTM eligibility criteria are changed. PMID:23062785

  5. Historical trend of disparity implications of Medicare MTM eligibility criteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junling; Qiao, Yanru

    2013-01-01

    Non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) and Hispanics have a lower likelihood of being eligible for medication therapy management (MTM) services than do non-Hispanic Whites (Whites) based on Medicare MTM eligibility criteria. To determine whether MTM eligibility criteria would perform differently over time, this study examined the trend of MTM disparities from 1996-1997 to 2007-2008. The study populations were Medicare beneficiaries from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Proportions and the odds of MTM eligibility were compared between Whites and ethnic minorities. The trend of disparities was examined by including in logistic regression models interaction terms between dummy variables for the minority groups and 2007-2008. MTM eligibility thresholds for 2008 and 2010-2011 were analyzed. Main and sensitivity analyses were conducted to represent the entire range of the eligibility criteria. This study found no statistical significant racial or ethnic disparities associated with the MTM eligibility criteria for 2008 among the Medicare population during 1996-1997. However, racial disparities associated with 2010-2011 MTM eligibility criteria were significant according to multivariate analyses among the Medicare population during 1996-1997. During 2007-2008, both racial and ethnic disparities associated with both 2008 MTM eligibility criteria and 2010-2011 eligibility criteria were generally significant. Disparity patterns did not exhibit a statistically significant change from 1996-1997 to 2007-2008. Racial and ethnic disparities in meeting MTM eligibility criteria may not decrease over time unless MTM eligibility criteria are changed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intergroup Relations and Health Disparities: A Social Psychological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Method Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Results Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. Conclusions A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PMID:23646834

  7. 29 CFR 1607.11 - Disparate treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disparate treatment. 1607.11 Section 1607.11 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.11 Disparate treatment. The principles of disparate or unequal treatment must be distinguished from the concepts of validation. A selection...

  8. 29 CFR 1607.11 - Disparate treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disparate treatment. 1607.11 Section 1607.11 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.11 Disparate treatment. The principles of disparate or unequal treatment must be distinguished from the concepts of validation. A selection procedure...

  9. 29 CFR 1607.11 - Disparate treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disparate treatment. 1607.11 Section 1607.11 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.11 Disparate treatment. The principles of disparate or unequal treatment must be distinguished from the concepts of validation. A selection procedure...

  10. 29 CFR 1607.11 - Disparate treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disparate treatment. 1607.11 Section 1607.11 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.11 Disparate treatment. The principles of disparate or unequal treatment must be distinguished from the concepts of validation. A selection procedure...

  11. Disparities in Attention to HIV-Prevention Information

    PubMed Central

    Crause, Candi; Vaid, Awais; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Compared to European-Americans, African-Americans have greater probability of becoming infected with HIV, as well as worse outcomes when they become infected. Therefore, adequate health communications should ensure that they capture the attention of African-Americans and do not perpetuate disadvantages relative to European-Americans. The objective of this report was to examine if racial disparities in attention to health information parallel racial disparities in health outcomes. Participants were clients of a public health clinic (Study 1 n = 64; Study 2 n = 55). Unobtrusive observation in a public health waiting room, message reading times, and response-time on a modified flanker task were used to examine attention to HIV- and flu-information across racial groups. In Study 1, participants were observed for the duration of their time in a public health clinic waiting room (average duration 31 minutes). In Study 2, participants completed tasks in a private room at the public health clinic (average duration 21 minutes). Across all attention measures, results suggest an interaction between race and information type on attention to health information. In particular, African-Americans differentially attended to information as a function of information type, with decreased attention to HIV versus flu information. In contrast, European-Americans attended equally to both HIV and flu information. As such, disparities in attention yielded less access to certain health information for African- than European-Americans in a health setting. The identified disparities in attention are particularly problematic because they disadvantage African-Americans at a time of great effort to correct racial disparities. Modifying the framing of health information in ways that ensure attention by all racial groups may be a strategy to increase attention, and thereby reduce disparities in health outcomes. Future research should find solutions that increase attentional access to health

  12. Disparities in attention to HIV-prevention information.

    PubMed

    Earl, Allison; Crause, Candi; Vaid, Awais; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Compared to European-Americans, African-Americans have greater probability of becoming infected with HIV, as well as worse outcomes when they become infected. Therefore, adequate health communications should ensure that they capture the attention of African-Americans and do not perpetuate disadvantages relative to European-Americans. The objective of this report was to examine if racial disparities in attention to health information parallel racial disparities in health outcomes. Participants were clients of a public health clinic (Study 1 n = 64; Study 2 n = 55). Unobtrusive observation in a public health waiting room, message reading times, and response-time on a modified flanker task were used to examine attention to HIV- and flu-information across racial groups. In Study 1, participants were observed for the duration of their time in a public health clinic waiting room (average duration: 31 min). In Study 2, participants completed tasks in a private room at the public health clinic (average duration: 21 min). Across all attention measures, results suggest an interaction between race and information type on attention to health information. In particular, African-Americans differentially attended to information as a function of information type, with decreased attention to HIV- versus flu-information. In contrast, European-Americans attended equally to both HIV- and flu-information. As such, disparities in attention yielded less access to certain health information for African- than European-Americans in a health setting. The identified disparities in attention are particularly problematic because they disadvantage African-Americans at a time of great effort to correct racial disparities. Modifying the framing of health information in ways that ensure attention by all racial groups may be a strategy to increase attention, and thereby reduce disparities in health outcomes. Future research should find solutions that increase attentional access to health

  13. Interest in new heterodinuclear transition-metal/main-group-metal complexes: DFT study of electronic structure and mechanism of fluoride sensing function.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Yamabe, Shinichi; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2013-06-28

    Systematic DFT calculations were carried out on a series of heterodinuclear complexes [(o-(Ph2P)C6H4)3M(1)M(2)Cl](+) (M(1) = As, Sb, or Bi; M(2) = Pd or Pt) to investigate the mechanism of colorimetric sensing function for the fluoride anion. The fluoride anion binds with the M(1) center to afford a hypervalent M(1) species with large stabilization energy. For instance, the stabilization energy by the fluoride adduct formation is -15.5 kcal mol(-1) for 3 (M(1) = Sb; M(2) = Pd) and -16.2 kcal mol(-1) for 6 (M(1) = Sb; M(2) = Pt), where a negative value represents stabilization. Interestingly, the allosteric coordination of the third phosphine with the M(2) center is induced by the fluoride adduct formation. For chloride, bromide, and thiocyanide anions, the binding energies are positive (~4.5 kcal mol(-1)), and the allosteric coordination does not occur. The allosteric coordination plays a crucial role in the absorption spectrum change induced by the fluoride adduct formation. For instance, the fluoride adduct formation quenches the absorption band of 3 around 400 nm and newly exhibits two absorption peaks at longer wavelength, 475 and 451 nm. These two peaks are assigned to ligand-field transitions (d(xy)→ d(z(2)) and d(x(2)-y(2))→ d(z(2))) including metal-to-ligand charge transfer character. We discussed the reasons why the allosteric coordination can occur only in the fluoride adduct and induces these two absorptions in the longer wavelength region. In addition, the Bi-Pd combination is also recommended for a fluoride sensing material, while the Sb-Pt combination is recommended for cyanide sensing.

  14. Health Disparity and Cancer Health Disparity in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Jiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    China is one of the largest and most populated countries in the world. It has undergone rapid economic growth in recent years. However, the development is not equitable, and the distribution of wealth significantly varies among the regions in China. Geographical and socioeconomic inequalities, together with the lack of an equitable national social support system, cause the high variance of health outcomes among the regions. Furthermore, the fast growth of the economy has evoked many environmental challenges and puts much pressure on the population. The severe environmental deterioration, especially of the atmosphere and water bodies, has affected the health of the people living in China. As a result, cancer has become a major public health issue, and an alarming increase in incidence and mortality has been reported. However, cancer incidence and mortality vary in different areas in China. Cancer and cancer treatment disparities have existed for years. This article will discuss the existing health and cancer disparities associated with the risk factors and how these disparities are managed in China.

  15. Health Disparity and Cancer Health Disparity in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Jiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    China is one of the largest and most populated countries in the world. It has undergone rapid economic growth in recent years. However, the development is not equitable, and the distribution of wealth significantly varies among the regions in China. Geographical and socioeconomic inequalities, together with the lack of an equitable national social support system, cause the high variance of health outcomes among the regions. Furthermore, the fast growth of the economy has evoked many environmental challenges and puts much pressure on the population. The severe environmental deterioration, especially of the atmosphere and water bodies, has affected the health of the people living in China. As a result, cancer has become a major public health issue, and an alarming increase in incidence and mortality has been reported. However, cancer incidence and mortality vary in different areas in China. Cancer and cancer treatment disparities have existed for years. This article will discuss the existing health and cancer disparities associated with the risk factors and how these disparities are managed in China. PMID:28083550

  16. Disparities and genetic risk factors in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Katherine A; Patel, Sanjay R

    2016-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an increasingly prevalent condition. A growing body of literature supports substantial racial disparities in the prevalence, risk factors, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease. Craniofacial structure among Asians appears to confer an elevated risk of OSA despite lower rates of obesity. Among African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanics, OSA prevalence is increased, likely due in part to obesity. The burden of symptoms, particularly excessive daytime sleepiness, is higher among African Americans, although Hispanics more often report snoring. Limited data suggest that African Americans may be more susceptible to hypertension in the setting of OSA. While differences in genetic risk factors may explain disparities in OSA burden, no definitive genetic differences have yet been identified. In addition to disparities in OSA development, disparities in OSA diagnosis and treatment have also been identified. Increased severity of disease at diagnosis among African Americans suggests a delay in diagnosis. Treatment outcomes are also suboptimal among African Americans. In children, tonsillectomy is less likely to cure OSA and more commonly associated with complications in this group. Among adults, adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is substantially lower in African Americans. The reasons for these disparities, particularly in outcomes, are not well understood and should be a research priority.

  17. Disparities and Genetic Risk Factors in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Katherine A.; Patel, Sanjay R.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an increasingly prevalent condition. A growing body of literature supports substantial racial disparities in the prevalence, risk factors, presentation, diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Craniofacial structure among Asians appears to confer an elevated risk of OSA despite lower rates of obesity. Among African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanics, OSA prevalence is increased, likely due in part to obesity. Burden of symptoms, particularly excessive daytime sleepiness, is higher among African Americans, though Hispanics more often report snoring. Limited data suggest African Americans may be more susceptible to hypertension in the setting of OSA. While differences in genetic risk factors may explain disparities in OSA burden, no definitive genetic differences have yet been identified. In addition to disparities in OSA development, disparities in OSA diagnosis and treatment have also been identified. Increased severity of disease at diagnosis among African Americans suggests a delay in diagnosis. Treatment outcomes are also suboptimal among African Americans. In children, tonsillectomy is less likely to cure OSA and more commonly associated with complications in this group. Among adults, adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is substantially lower in African Americans. The reasons for these disparities, particularly in outcomes, are not well understood and should be a research priority. PMID:26428843

  18. Disparities in sexually transmitted disease rates across the "eight Americas".

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of 3 bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) in 8 subpopulations (known as the "eight Americas") defined by race and a small number of county-level sociodemographic and geographical characteristics. The eight Americas are (1) Asians and Pacific Islanders in specific counties; (2) Northland low-income rural white; (3) Middle America; (4) Low-income whites in Appalachia and Mississippi Valley; (5) Western Native American; (6) Black middle America; (7) Southern low-income rural black; and (8) High-risk urban black. A list of the counties comprising each of the eight Americas was obtained from the corresponding author of the original eight Americas project, which examined disparities in mortality rates across the eight Americas. Using county-level STD surveillance data, we calculated syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates (new cases per 100,000) for each of the eight Americas. Reported STD rates varied substantially across the eight Americas. STD rates were generally lowest in Americas 1 and 2 and highest in Americas 6, 7, and 8. Although disparities in STDs across the eight Americas are generally similar to the well-established disparities in STDs across race/ethnicity, the grouping of counties into the eight Americas does offer additional insight into disparities in STDs in the United States. The high STD rates we found for black Middle America are consistent with the assertion that sexual networks and social factors are important drivers of racial disparities in STDs.

  19. Health disparities beginning in childhood: a life-course perspective.

    PubMed

    Braveman, Paula; Barclay, Colleen

    2009-11-01

    In this article we argue for the utility of the life-course perspective as a tool for understanding and addressing health disparities across socioeconomic and racial or ethnic groups, particularly disparities that originate in childhood. Key concepts and terms used in life-course research are briefly defined; as resources, examples of existing literature and the outcomes covered are provided along with examples of longitudinal databases that have often been used for life-course research. The life-course perspective focuses on understanding how early-life experiences can shape health across an entire lifetime and potentially across generations; it systematically directs attention to the role of context, including social and physical context along with biological factors, over time. This approach is particularly relevant to understanding and addressing health disparities, because social and physical contextual factors underlie socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in health. A major focus of life-course epidemiology has been to understand how early-life experiences (particularly experiences related to economic adversity and the social disadvantages that often accompany it) shape adult health, particularly adult chronic disease and its risk factors and consequences. The strong life-course influences on adult health could provide a powerful rationale for policies at all levels--federal, state, and local--to give more priority to investment in improving the living conditions of children as a strategy for improving health and reducing health disparities across the entire life course.

  20. Both Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus enhancin genes contribute to viral potency

    Treesearch

    Holly J.R. Popham; David S. Bischoff; James M. Slavicek

    2001-01-01

    Enhancins are a group of proteins first identified in granuloviruses (GV) that have the ability to enhance nuclear polyhedrosis virus potency. We had previously identified an enhancin gene (E1) in the Lymantria dispar multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) (D.S. Bischoff and J.M. Slavicek, J. Virol. 71:...

  1. Encouraging Physical Activity in Minorities: Eliminating Disparities by 2010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo, Carlos J.

    2000-01-01

    American cultural diversity makes it difficult to promote one single fitness and health program. Health disparities exist between racial and ethnic groups. Healthy People 2000 and 2010 are designed to encourage physical activity for all, regardless of race, ethnicity, or economic status. Physicians need to understand these inequities and consider…

  2. Examining Racial Disparities in Teacher Perceptions of Student Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooc, North

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: The overrepresentation of some minority groups in special education in the United States raises concerns about racial inequality and stratification within schools. While many actors and mechanisms within the school system may contribute to racial disparities in special education, the role of teachers is particularly important…

  3. Examining Racial Disparities in Teacher Perceptions of Student Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooc, North

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: The overrepresentation of some minority groups in special education in the United States raises concerns about racial inequality and stratification within schools. While many actors and mechanisms within the school system may contribute to racial disparities in special education, the role of teachers is particularly important…

  4. A Community-Engaged Cardiovascular Health Disparities Research Training Curriculum: Implementation and Preliminary Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Purnell, Tanjala; Halbert, Jennifer P.; Matens, Richard; Miller, Edgar R. “Pete”; Levine, David M.; Nguyen, Tam H.; Gudzune, Kimberly A.; Crews, Deidra C.; Mahlangu-Ngcobo, Mankekolo; Cooper, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    To overcome cardiovascular disease (CVD) disparities impacting high-risk populations, it is critical to train researchers and leaders in conducting community-engaged CVD disparities research. The authors summarize the key elements, implementation, and preliminary outcomes of the CVD Disparities Fellowship and Summer Internship Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Schools of Medicine, Nursing, and Bloomberg School of Public Health. In 2010, program faculty and coordinators established a trans-disciplinary CVD disparities training and career development fellowship program for scientific investigators who desire to conduct community-engaged clinical and translational disparities research. The program was developed to enhance mentorship support and research training for faculty, post-doctoral fellows, and pre-doctoral students interested in conducting CVD disparities research. A CVD Disparities Summer Internship Program for undergraduate and pre-professional students was also created to provide a broad experience in public health and health disparities in Baltimore, Maryland, with a focus on CVD. Since 2010, 39 pre-doctoral, post-doctoral, and faculty fellows have completed the program. Participating fellows have published disparities-related research and given presentations both nationally and internationally. Five research grant awards have been received by faculty fellows. Eight undergraduates, 1 post-baccalaureate, and 2 medical professional students representing seven universities have participated in the summer undergraduate internship. Over half of the undergraduate students are applying to or have been accepted into medical or graduate school. The tailored CVD health disparities training curriculum has been successful at equipping varying levels of trainees (from undergraduate students to faculty) with clinical research and public health expertise to conducting community-engaged CVD disparities research. PMID:25054421

  5. A community-engaged cardiovascular health disparities research training curriculum: implementation and preliminary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Purnell, Tanjala; Halbert, Jennifer P; Matens, Richard; Miller, Edgar R Pete; Levine, David M; Nguyen, Tam H; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Crews, Deidra C; Mahlangu-Ngcobo, Mankekolo; Cooper, Lisa A

    2014-10-01

    To overcome cardiovascular disease (CVD) disparities impacting high-risk populations, it is critical to train researchers and leaders in conducting community-engaged CVD disparities research. The authors summarize the key elements, implementation, and preliminary outcomes of the CVD Disparities Fellowship and Summer Internship Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Schools of Medicine, Nursing, and Bloomberg School of Public Health. In 2010, program faculty and coordinators established a transdisciplinary CVD disparities training and career development fellowship program for scientific investigators who desire to conduct community-engaged clinical and translational disparities research. The program was developed to enhance mentorship support and research training for faculty, postdoctoral fellows, and predoctoral students interested in conducting CVD disparities research. A CVD Disparities Summer Internship Program for undergraduate and preprofessional students was also created to provide a broad experience in public health and health disparities in Baltimore, Maryland, with a focus on CVD. Since 2010, 39 predoctoral, postdoctoral, and faculty fellows have completed the program. Participating fellows have published disparities-related research and given presentations both nationally and internationally. Five research grant awards have been received by faculty fellows. Eight undergraduates, one postbaccalaureate, and two medical professional students representing seven universities have participated in the summer undergraduate internship. Over half of the undergraduate students are applying to or have been accepted into medical or graduate school. The tailored CVD health disparities training curriculum has been successful at equipping varying levels of trainees (from undergraduate students to faculty) with clinical research and public health expertise to conducting community-engaged CVD disparities research.

  6. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  7. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  8. The Association Between Racial Disparity in Income and Reported Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Chesson, Harrell W.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Kent, Charlotte K.; Aral, Sevgi O.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between racial disparity in income and reported race-specific county-level bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States focusing on disparities between Blacks and Whites. Methods. Data are from the US 2000 decennial census. We defined 2 race–income county groups (high and low race–income disparity) on the basis of the difference between Black and White median household incomes. We used 2 approaches to examine disparities in STI rates across the groups. In the first approach, we computed and compared race-specific STI rates for the groups. In the second approach, we used spatial regression analyses to control for potential confounders. Results. Consistent with the STI literature, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis rates for Blacks were substantially higher than were those for Whites. We also found that racial disparities in income were associated with racial disparities in chlamydia and gonorrhea rates and, to a lesser degree, syphilis rates. Conclusions. Racial disparities in household income may be a more important determinant of racial disparities in reported STI morbidity than are absolute levels of household income. PMID:23488482

  9. Social determinants of disparities in weight among US children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M; Talih, Makram

    2014-10-01

    To explore whether contextual variables attenuate disparities in weight among 18,639 US children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001 to 2010. Disparities were assessed using the Symmetrized Rényi Index, a new measure that summarizes disparities in the severity of a disease, as well as the prevalence, across multiple population groups. Propensity score subclassification was used to ensure covariate balance between racial and ethnic subgroups and account for individual-level and contextual covariates. Before propensity score subclassification, significant disparities were evident in the prevalence of overweight and/or obesity and the degree of excess weight among overweight/obese children and adolescents. After propensity score subclassification, racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence and severity of excess weight were completely attenuated within matched groups, indicating that racial and ethnic differences were explained by social determinants such as neighborhood socioeconomic and demographic factors. The limited overlap in covariate distributions between various racial/ethnic subgroups warrants further attention in disparities research. The attenuation of disparities within matched groups suggests that social determinants such as neighborhood socioeconomic factors may engender disparities in weight among US children and adolescents. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The association between racial disparity in income and reported sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Chesson, Harrell W; Leichliter, Jami S; Kent, Charlotte K; Aral, Sevgi O

    2013-05-01

    We examined the association between racial disparity in income and reported race-specific county-level bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States focusing on disparities between Blacks and Whites. Data are from the US 2000 decennial census. We defined 2 race-income county groups (high and low race-income disparity) on the basis of the difference between Black and White median household incomes. We used 2 approaches to examine disparities in STI rates across the groups. In the first approach, we computed and compared race-specific STI rates for the groups. In the second approach, we used spatial regression analyses to control for potential confounders. Consistent with the STI literature, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis rates for Blacks were substantially higher than were those for Whites. We also found that racial disparities in income were associated with racial disparities in chlamydia and gonorrhea rates and, to a lesser degree, syphilis rates. Racial disparities in household income may be a more important determinant of racial disparities in reported STI morbidity than are absolute levels of household income.

  11. Transformation for health: a framework for health disparities research.

    PubMed

    Esperat, M Christina R; Feng, Du; Owen, Donna C; Green, Alexia E

    2005-01-01

    The task of generating knowledge addressing disparities in health among vulnerable populations in American society is explored. The community-based participatory approach as an alternate paradigm to traditional research is mentioned as a process for understanding the realities of the populations of interest. Identification and testing of mediating and moderating variables is suggested to guide the process of increasing knowledge regarding health disparities. Transformation for Health is proposed as a conceptual framework to study how these third variables influence the relationship between the primary variables of interest. A theoretical example is offered describing the application of the framework to study the mediators and moderators in an investigation of childhood obesity. Analytical challenges in the exploration of "third variables" are described, and the authors recommend that salient methodological issues should be addressed when conducting these types of investigations.

  12. Stereoscopic roadside curb height measurement using V-disparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matu, Florin O.; Vlaykov, Iskren; Thogersen, Mikkel; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Managing road assets, such as roadside curbs, is one of the interests of municipalities. As an interesting application of computer vision, this paper proposes a system for automated measurement of the height of the roadside curbs. The developed system uses the spatial information available in the disparity image obtained from a stereo setup. Data about the geometry of the scene is extracted in the form of a row-wise histogram of the disparity map. From parameterizing the two strongest lines, each pixel can be labeled as belonging to one plane, either ground, sidewalk or curb candidates. Experimental results show that the system can measure the height of the roadside curb with good accuracy and precision.

  13. Food Systems and Public Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Roni A.; Palmer, Anne M.; Mckenzie, Shawn E.; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The United States has set a national goal to eliminate health disparities. This article emphasizes the importance of food systems in generating and exacerbating health disparities in the United States and suggests avenues for reducing them. It presents a conceptual model showing how broad food system conditions interplay with community food environments—and how these relationships are filtered and refracted through prisms of social disparities to generate and exacerbate health disparities. Interactions with demand factors in the social environment are described. The article also highlights the separate food systems pathway to health disparities via environmental and occupational health effects of agriculture. PMID:23173027

  14. Physical Activity Disparities Between US-born and Immigrant Children by Maternal Region of Origin.

    PubMed

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Kaul, Bhavika

    2016-04-01

    We examined and compared patterns in physical activity participation for children of US-born and immigrant mothers from seven world geographic regions, and tested whether the physical activity differences were attenuated by socioeconomic status or maternal language proficiency. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten data (N = 18,850) we utilized logistic regression to predict adequate vigorous physical activity and participation in group and individual sports for kindergarten children. US-born children of US-born parents have significantly higher rates of physical activity compared to immigrant children. Children of Mexican, Southeast Asian, and Caribbean immigrants were especially unlikely to participate in sports. These disparities were not significantly attenuated by socioeconomic status, but accounting for language proficiency reduced some differences between the US-born and immigrant children, particularly for group sports participation. Researchers interested in improving the physical activity patterns of second-generation children should consider the relevance of language barriers in promoting healthy living.

  15. Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Albion Wills, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of 98 metazoan clades radiating throughout the Phanerozoic. The disparity profiles of groups through time are summarized in terms of their center of gravity (CG), with values above and below 0.50 indicating top- and bottom-heaviness, respectively. Clades that terminate at one of the "big five" mass extinction events tend to have truncated trajectories, with a significantly top-heavy CG distribution overall. The remaining 63 clades show the opposite tendency, with a significantly bottom-heavy mean CG (relatively early high disparity). Resampling tests are used to identify groups with a CG significantly above or below 0.50; clades not terminating at a mass extinction are three times more likely to be significantly bottom-heavy than top-heavy. Overall, there is no clear temporal trend in disparity profile shapes from the Cambrian to the Recent, and early high disparity is the predominant pattern throughout the Phanerozoic. Our results do not allow us to distinguish between ecological and developmental explanations for this phenomenon. To the extent that ecology has a role, however, the paucity of bottom-heavy clades radiating in the immediate wake of mass extinctions suggests that early high disparity more probably results from the evolution of key apomorphies at the base of clades rather than from physical drivers or catastrophic ecospace clearing.

  16. Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew Albion

    2013-01-01

    There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of 98 metazoan clades radiating throughout the Phanerozoic. The disparity profiles of groups through time are summarized in terms of their center of gravity (CG), with values above and below 0.50 indicating top- and bottom-heaviness, respectively. Clades that terminate at one of the “big five” mass extinction events tend to have truncated trajectories, with a significantly top-heavy CG distribution overall. The remaining 63 clades show the opposite tendency, with a significantly bottom-heavy mean CG (relatively early high disparity). Resampling tests are used to identify groups with a CG significantly above or below 0.50; clades not terminating at a mass extinction are three times more likely to be significantly bottom-heavy than top-heavy. Overall, there is no clear temporal trend in disparity profile shapes from the Cambrian to the Recent, and early high disparity is the predominant pattern throughout the Phanerozoic. Our results do not allow us to distinguish between ecological and developmental explanations for this phenomenon. To the extent that ecology has a role, however, the paucity of bottom-heavy clades radiating in the immediate wake of mass extinctions suggests that early high disparity more probably results from the evolution of key apomorphies at the base of clades rather than from physical drivers or catastrophic ecospace clearing. PMID:23884651

  17. The Moral Problem of Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Health disparities exist along lines of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic class in US society. I argue that we should work to eliminate these health disparities because their existence is a moral wrong that needs to be addressed. Health disparities are morally wrong because they exemplify historical injustices. Contractarian ethics, Kantian ethics, and utilitarian ethics all provide theoretical justification for viewing health disparities as a moral wrong, as do several ethical principles of primary importance in bioethics. The moral consequences of health disparities are also troubling and further support the claim that these disparities are a moral wrong. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides additional support that health disparities are a moral wrong, as does an analogy with the generally accepted duty to provide equal access to education. In this article, I also consider and respond to 3 objections to my thesis. PMID:20147677

  18. DIDA - Dynamic Image Disparity Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-31

    Understanding, Dynamic Image Analysis , Disparity Analysis, Optical Flow, Real-Time Processing ___ 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on revere side If necessary aid identify...three aspects of dynamic image analysis must be studied: effectiveness, generality, and efficiency. In addition, efforts must be made to understand the...environment. A better understanding of the need for these Limiting constraints is required. Efficiency is obviously important if dynamic image analysis is

  19. Allometric disparity in rodent evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Laura A B

    2013-01-01

    In this study, allometric trajectories for 51 rodent species, comprising equal representatives from each of the major clades (Ctenohystrica, Muroidea, Sciuridae), are compared in a multivariate morphospace (=allometric space) to quantify magnitudes of disparity in cranial growth. Variability in allometric trajectory patterns was compared to measures of adult disparity in each clade, and dietary habit among the examined species, which together encapsulated an ecomorphological breadth. Results indicate that the evolution of allometric trajectories in rodents is characterized by different features in sciurids compared with muroids and Ctenohystrica. Sciuridae was found to have a reduced magnitude of inter-trajectory change and growth patterns with less variation in allometric coefficient values among members. In contrast, a greater magnitude of difference between trajectories and an increased variation in allometric coefficient values was evident for both Ctenohystrica and muroids. Ctenohystrica and muroids achieved considerably higher adult disparities than sciurids, suggesting that conservatism in allometric trajectory modification may constrain morphological diversity in rodents. The results provide support for a role of ecology (dietary habit) in the evolution of allometric trajectories in rodents. PMID:23610638

  20. The evolution of a disparity decision in human visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cottereau, Benoit R.; Ales, Justin M.; Norcia, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    We used fMRI-informed EEG source-imaging in humans to characterize the dynamics of cortical responses during a disparity-discrimination task. After the onset of a disparity-defined target, decision-related activity was found within an extended cortical network that included several occipital regions of interest (ROIs): V4, V3A, hMT+ and the Lateral Occipital Complex (LOC). By using a response-locked analysis, we were able to determine the timing relationships in this network of ROIs relative to the subject's behavioral response. Choice-related activity appeared first in the V4 ROI almost 200 ms before the button press and then subsequently in the V3A ROI. Modeling of the responses in the V4 ROI suggests that this area provides an early contribution to disparity discrimination. Choice-related responses were also found after the button-press in ROIs V4, V3A, LOC and hMT+. Outside the visual cortex, choice-related activity was found in the frontal and temporal pole before the button-press. By combining the spatial resolution of fMRI-informed EEG source imaging with the ability to sort out neural activity occurring before, during and after the behavioral manifestation of the decision, our study is the first to assign distinct functional roles to the extra-striate ROIs involved in perceptual decisions based on disparity, the primary cue for depth. PMID:24513152

  1. Community First Communication: Reversing Information Disparities to Achieve Environmental Justice

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Edward A.; Desai, Chintan

    2011-01-01

    We address how information developed and effectively communicated through community based participatory research (CBPR) can reverse long-standing information disparities, empower a community, and be an agent for sustained change. Substantial information and power disparities existed between the polluted community and both the pollution industry and governmental regulators. An environmental justice partnership between a local community organization, physicians, and university performed CBPR and then developed a novel communication strategy to address a series of information disparities around a local water pollution issue. The community established a set of principles to govern the communication of results as soon as they were determined to be scientifically valid, including informing study participants and the community before other interested parties. CBPR results combined with a community-first communication strategy reversed the preexisting information disparities. The novel communication flow reversed the preferential information flow to industry and government associated with the usual scientific publication process. The community was empowered, and industry and government agencies responded positively to study recommendations. The CBPR results together with community first communication led to adoption of both community-wide and individual solutions and provided powerful motivation for behavioral change by industry and residents. PMID:21546988

  2. Binocular integration and disparity selectivity in mouse primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Scholl, Benjamin; Burge, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Signals from the two eyes are first integrated in primary visual cortex (V1). In many mammals, this binocular integration is an important first step in the development of stereopsis, the perception of depth from disparity. Neurons in the binocular zone of mouse V1 receive inputs from both eyes, but it is unclear how that binocular information is integrated and whether this integration has a function similar to that found in other mammals. Using extracellular recordings, we demonstrate that mouse V1 neurons are tuned for binocular disparities, or spatial differences, between the inputs from each eye, thus extracting signals potentially useful for estimating depth. The disparities encoded by mouse V1 are significantly larger than those encoded by cat and primate. Interestingly, these larger disparities correspond to distances that are likely to be ecologically relevant in natural viewing, given the stereo-geometry of the mouse visual system. Across mammalian species, it appears that binocular integration is a common cortical computation used to extract information relevant for estimating depth. As such, it is a prime example of how the integration of multiple sensory signals is used to generate accurate estimates of properties in our environment. PMID:23515794

  3. Community First Communication: Reversing Information Disparities to Achieve Environmental Justice.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Edward A; Desai, Chintan

    2010-09-01

    We address how information developed and effectively communicated through community based participatory research (CBPR) can reverse long-standing information disparities, empower a community, and be an agent for sustained change. Substantial information and power disparities existed between the polluted community and both the pollution industry and governmental regulators. An environmental justice partnership between a local community organization, physicians, and university performed CBPR and then developed a novel communication strategy to address a series of information disparities around a local water pollution issue. The community established a set of principles to govern the communication of results as soon as they were determined to be scientifically valid, including informing study participants and the community before other interested parties. CBPR results combined with a community-first communication strategy reversed the preexisting information disparities. The novel communication flow reversed the preferential information flow to industry and government associated with the usual scientific publication process. The community was empowered, and industry and government agencies responded positively to study recommendations. The CBPR results together with community first communication led to adoption of both community-wide and individual solutions and provided powerful motivation for behavioral change by industry and residents.

  4. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  5. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Patients' Experience With Skilled Home Health Care Services.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laura M; Anderson, Wayne L; Kenyon, Anne; Kinyara, Elizabeth; With, Sarah K; Teichman, Lori; Dean-Whittaker, Debra; Goldstein, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities are found in many health care settings; however, there is little prior research on such disparities among patients receiving home health care services. This study used 2012 Home Health Care CAHPS(®) data to identify any overall patient-level disparities in self-reported experience of care and to decompose these disparities according to whether they result from within-agency versus between-agency differences. Although patient experience of care ratings were high across all groups, the study identified consistently lower ratings for all minority groups on two of three Home Health Care CAHPS measures, with Asians reporting the greatest disparities. Three quarters of disparities were found to be within-agency disparities, which were primarily related to care processes and provider/patient communications rather than to specific health care services received. Despite high ratings in general, home health agencies may need to focus on cultural competency initiatives to address racial and ethnic disparities within their agencies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Stereo transparency and the disparity gradient limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKee, Suzanne P.; Verghese, Preeti

    2002-01-01

    Several studies (Vision Research 15 (1975) 583; Perception 9 (1980) 671) have shown that binocular fusion is limited by the disparity gradient (disparity/distance) separating image points, rather than by their absolute disparity values. Points separated by a gradient >1 appear diplopic. These results are sometimes interpreted as a constraint on human stereo matching, rather than a constraint on fusion. Here we have used psychophysical measurements on stereo transparency to show that human stereo matching is not constrained by a gradient of 1. We created transparent surfaces composed of many pairs of dots, in which each member of a pair was assigned a disparity equal and opposite to the disparity of the other member. For example, each pair could be composed of one dot with a crossed disparity of 6' and the other with uncrossed disparity of 6', vertically separated by a parametrically varied distance. When the vertical separation between the paired dots was small, the disparity gradient for each pair was very steep. Nevertheless, these opponent-disparity dot pairs produced a striking appearance of two transparent surfaces for disparity gradients ranging between 0.5 and 3. The apparent depth separating the two transparent planes was correctly matched to an equivalent disparity defined by two opaque surfaces. A test target presented between the two transparent planes was easily detected, indicating robust segregation of the disparities associated with the paired dots into two transparent surfaces with few mismatches in the target plane. Our simulations using the Tsai-Victor model show that the response profiles produced by scaled disparity-energy mechanisms can account for many of our results on the transparency generated by steep gradients.

  7. Stereo transparency and the disparity gradient limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKee, Suzanne P.; Verghese, Preeti

    2002-01-01

    Several studies (Vision Research 15 (1975) 583; Perception 9 (1980) 671) have shown that binocular fusion is limited by the disparity gradient (disparity/distance) separating image points, rather than by their absolute disparity values. Points separated by a gradient >1 appear diplopic. These results are sometimes interpreted as a constraint on human stereo matching, rather than a constraint on fusion. Here we have used psychophysical measurements on stereo transparency to show that human stereo matching is not constrained by a gradient of 1. We created transparent surfaces composed of many pairs of dots, in which each member of a pair was assigned a disparity equal and opposite to the disparity of the other member. For example, each pair could be composed of one dot with a crossed disparity of 6' and the other with uncrossed disparity of 6', vertically separated by a parametrically varied distance. When the vertical separation between the paired dots was small, the disparity gradient for each pair was very steep. Nevertheless, these opponent-disparity dot pairs produced a striking appearance of two transparent surfaces for disparity gradients ranging between 0.5 and 3. The apparent depth separating the two transparent planes was correctly matched to an equivalent disparity defined by two opaque surfaces. A test target presented between the two transparent planes was easily detected, indicating robust segregation of the disparities associated with the paired dots into two transparent surfaces with few mismatches in the target plane. Our simulations using the Tsai-Victor model show that the response profiles produced by scaled disparity-energy mechanisms can account for many of our results on the transparency generated by steep gradients.

  8. State of disparities in cardiovascular health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mensah, George A; Mokdad, Ali H; Ford, Earl S; Greenlund, Kurt J; Croft, Janet B

    2005-03-15

    Reducing health disparities remains a major public health challenge in the United States. Having timely access to current data on disparities is important for policy and program development. Accordingly, we assessed the current magnitude of disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors in the United States. Using national surveys, we determined CVD and risk factor prevalence and indexes of morbidity, mortality, and overall quality of life in adults > or =18 years of age by race/ethnicity, sex, education level, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. Disparities were common in all risk factors examined. In men, the highest prevalence of obesity (29.2%) was found in Mexican Americans who had completed a high school education. Black women with or without a high school education had a high prevalence of obesity (47.3%). Hypertension prevalence was high among blacks (39.8%) regardless of sex or educational status. Hypercholesterolemia was high among white and Mexican American men and white women in both groups of educational status. Ischemic heart disease and stroke were inversely related to education, income, and poverty status. Hospitalization was greater in men for total heart disease and acute myocardial infarction but greater in women for congestive heart failure and stroke. Among Medicare enrollees, congestive heart failure hospitalization was higher in blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaska Natives than among whites, and stroke hospitalization was highest in blacks. Hospitalizations for congestive heart failure and stroke were highest in the southeastern United States. Life expectancy remains higher in women than men and higher in whites than blacks by approximately 5 years. CVD mortality at all ages tended to be highest in blacks. Disparities in CVD and related risk factors remain pervasive. The data presented here can be invaluable for policy development and in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of interventions

  9. Disparities in diabetes mellitus among Caribbean populations: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Nadia R; Francis, Damian K; Ferguson, Trevor S; Hennis, Anselm J M; Wilks, Rainford J; Harris, Eon Nigel; MacLeish, Marlene M Y; Sullivan, Louis W

    2015-02-25

    Despite the large body of research on racial/ethnic disparities in health, there are limited data on health disparities in Caribbean origin populations. This review aims to analyze and synthesize published literature on the disparities in diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications among Afro-Caribbean populations. A detailed protocol, including a comprehensive search strategy, was developed and used to identify potentially relevant studies. Identified studies were then screened for eligibility using pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. An extraction form was developed to chart data and collate study characteristics including methods and main findings. Charted information was tagged by disparity indicators and thematic analysis performed. Disparity indicators evaluated include ethnicity, sex, age, socioeconomic status, disability and geographic location. Gaps in the literature were identified and extrapolated into a gap map. A total of 1009 diabetes related articles/manuscripts, published between 1972 and 2013, were identified and screened. Forty-three studies met inclusion criteria for detailed analysis. Most studies were conducted in the United Kingdom, Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica, and used a cross-sectional study design. Overall, studies reported a higher prevalence of DM among Caribbean Blacks compared to West African Blacks and Caucasians but lower when compared to South Asian origin groups. Morbidity from diabetes-related complications was highest in persons with low socioeconomic status. Gap analysis showed limited research data reporting diabetes incidence by sex and socioeconomic status. No published literature was found on disability status or sexual orientation as it relates to diabetes burden or complications. Prevalence and morbidity were the most frequently reported outcomes. Literature on diabetes health disparities in Caribbean origin populations is limited. Future research should address these knowledge gaps and develop approaches

  10. Unsuspected functional disparity in Devonian fishes revealed by tooth morphometrics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauchey, Samuel; Girard, Catherine; Adnet, Sylvain; Renaud, Sabrina

    2014-09-01

    The shape of features involved in key biological functions, such as teeth in nutrition, can provide insights into ecological processes even in ancient time, by linking the occupation of the morphological space (disparity) to the occupation of the ecological space. Investigating disparity in radiating groups may provide insights into the ecological diversification underlying evolution of morphological diversity. Actinopterygian fishes initiated their radiation in the Devonian, a period characterized by the diversification of marine ecosystem. Although a former morpho-functional analysis of jaw shape concluded to conservative and poorly diversified morphologies in this early part of their history, fish tooth disparity evidenced here an unsuspected diversity of possible functional significance in the pivotal period of the Late Devonian (Famennian). All teeth being caniniforms, some were stocky and robust, in agreement with expectations for active generalist predators. More surprisingly, elongated teeth also occurred at the beginning of Famennian. Their needle-like shape challenges morpho-functional interpretations by making them fragile in response to bending or torsion. The occurrence of both types of fish teeth during the beginning of the Famennian points to a discrete but real increase in disparity, thus testifying a first burst of feeding specialization despite overall conservative jaw morphology. The disappearance of these needle-like teeth in the Late Famennian might have been related to a relay in dental diversity with abundant co-occurring groups, namely conodonts and chondrichthyans (sharks).

  11. Participatory action research to understand and reduce health disparities.

    PubMed

    Olshansky, Ellen; Sacco, Diane; Braxter, Betty; Dodge, Pamela; Hughes, Ebony; Ondeck, Michele; Stubbs, Margaret L; Upvall, Michele J

    2005-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is an excellent way to systematically learn about the conditions under which people experience health disparities, what it is like from the perspective of those experiencing such disparities and, even more importantly, how to ameliorate this major public health problem and create a more equitable and effective health care system. This article describes the method of PAR, supports the appropriateness of PAR to learn about and reduce health disparities, and then presents some specific examples of research projects that have employed or are planning to employ PAR. These examples are from the work of several authors of this article, who are members of an interdisciplinary working group that serves as a forum for discussion of issues related to qualitative research methods and facilitates the development of qualitative studies. All of the authors of this article are part of a task force of this working group that is focusing specifically on community outreach with the goal of reducing health disparities within specific communities.

  12. Trends in racial disparities for asthma outcomes among children 0-17 years, 2001-2010

    PubMed Central

    Akinbami, Lara J.; Moorman, Jeanne E.; Simon, Alan E.; Schoendorf, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Racial disparities in childhood asthma have been a long-standing target for intervention, especially disparities in hospitalization and mortality. Objectives Describe trends in racial disparities in asthma outcomes using both traditional population-based rates and at-risk rates (based on the estimated number of children with asthma) to account for prevalence differences between race groups. Methods Estimates of asthma prevalence and outcomes (emergency department visits, hospitalizations and deaths) were calculated from national data for 2001 to 2010 for black and white children. Trends were calculated using weighted log-linear regression, and changes in racial disparities over time were assessed using Joinpoint. Results Disparities in asthma prevalence between black and white children increased from 2001 to 2010; at the end of this period, black children were twice as likely as white children to have asthma. Population-based rates showed that disparities in asthma outcomes remained stable (ED visits and hospitalizations) or increased (asthma attack prevalence, deaths). In contrast, analysis with at-risk rates which account for differences in asthma prevalence showed that disparities in asthma outcomes either remained stable (deaths), decreased (ED visits, hospitalizations), or did not exist (asthma attack prevalence). Conclusion Using at-risk rates to assess racial disparities in asthma outcomes accounts for prevalence differences between black and white children, and adds another perspective to the population-based examination of asthma disparities. An at-risk rate analysis shows that among children with asthma, there is no disparity for asthma attack prevalence, and that progress has been made in decreasing disparities in asthma ED visit and hospitalization rates. PMID:25091437

  13. Health disparities among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Mawn, Barbara; Siqueira, Eduardo; Koren, Ainat; Slatin, Craig; Devereaux Melillo, Karen; Pearce, Carole; Hoff, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe the process of an interdisciplinary case study that examined the social contexts of occupational and general health disparities among health care workers in two sets of New England hospitals and nursing homes. A political economy of the work environment framework guided the study, which incorporated dimensions related to market dynamics, technology, and political and economic power. The purpose of this article is to relate the challenges encountered in occupational health care settings and how these could have impacted the study results. An innovative data collection matrix that guided small-group analysis provided a firm foundation from which to make design modifications to address these challenges. Implications for policy and research include the use of a political and economic framework from which to frame future studies, and the need to maintain rigor while allowing flexibility in design to adapt to challenges in the field.

  14. Reducing health disparities: the role of sleep deficiency and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Laposky, Aaron D; Van Cauter, Eve; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2016-02-01

    Decrements in sleep health, including insufficient sleep duration, irregular timing of sleep, poor sleep quality, and sleep/circadian disorders, are widespread in modern society and are associated with an array of disease risks and outcomes, including those contributing to health disparities (eg, cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes, psychiatric illness, and cancer). Recent findings have uncovered racial/ethnic and socioeconomic position differences in sleep health; however, the contribution of sleep deficiency to health disparities remains largely unexplored, and understanding the underlying causes of disparities in sleep health is only beginning to emerge. In 2011, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a workshop, bringing together sleep and health disparities investigators, to identify research gaps and opportunities to advance sleep and health disparities science. This article provides a brief background and rationale for the workshop, and it disseminates the research recommendations and priorities resulting from the working group discussions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Moving Toward Paradigm-Shifting Research in Health Disparities Through Translational, Transformational, and Transdisciplinary Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kyu B.; Stoff, David M.; Pohlhaus, Jennifer Reineke; Sy, Francisco S.; Stinson, Nathaniel; Ruffin, John

    2010-01-01

    Translational, transdisciplinary, and transformational research stands to become a paradigm-shifting mantra for research in health disparities. A windfall of research discoveries using these 3 approaches has increased our understanding of the health disparities in racial, ethnic, and low socioeconomic status groups. These distinct but related research spheres possess unique environments, which, when integrated, can lead to innovation in health disparities science. In this article, we review these approaches and propose integrating them to advance health disparities research through a change in philosophical position and an increased emphasis on community engagement. We argue that a balanced combination of these research approaches is needed to inform evidence-based practice, social action, and effective policy change to improve health in disparity communities. PMID:20147662

  16. Redressing wounds: finding a legal framework to remedy racial disparities in medical care.

    PubMed

    Shin, Michael S

    2002-12-01

    In recent years, numerous medical studies and reports have documented startling disparities between the health status of African Americans and White Americans. The literature is replete with evidence that one of the main causes of these racial disparities is the different treatment of patients of different racial groups. This Comment addresses the possibility that implicit cognitive bias, in the form of implicit attitudes and stereotypes, significantly contributes to these racial disparities in medical treatment. Finding existing legal frameworks inadequate to address current disparities in health care, this Comment recommends avenues for the reworking of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Specifically, it suggests that disparate-treatment provisions that encompass claims arising from unintentional discrimination should be incorporated into Title VI, and it offers the employment law frameworks of Title VII and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act as models for such reform.

  17. Empowerment to reduce health disparities.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, Nina

    2002-01-01

    This article articulates the theoretical construct of empowerment and its importance for health-enhancing strategies to reduce health disparities. Powerlessness is explored as a risk factor in the context of social determinants, such as poverty, discrimination, workplace hazards, and income inequities. Empowerment is presented and compared with social capital and community capacity as strategies to strengthen social protective factors. A case study of a youth empowerment and policy project in New Mexico illustrates the usefulness of empowerment strategies in both targeting social determinants, such as public policies which are detrimental to youth, and improving community capacities of youth to be advocates for social change. Challenges for future practice and research are articulated.

  18. Getting to equal: strategies to understand and eliminate general and orthopaedic healthcare disparities.

    PubMed

    Dykes, Daryll C; White, Augustus A

    2009-10-01

    The 2001 Institute of Medicine report entitled Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care pointed out extensive healthcare disparities in the United States even when controlling for disease severity, socioeconomic status, education, and access. The literature identifies several groups of Americans who receive disparate healthcare: ethnic minorities, women, children, the elderly, the handicapped, the poor, prisoners, lesbians, gays, and the transgender population. Disparate healthcare represents an enormous current challenge with substantial moral, ethical, political, public health, public policy, and economic implications, all of which are likely to worsen over the next several decades without immediate and comprehensive action. A review of recent literature reveals over 100 general and specific suggestions and solutions to eliminate healthcare disparities. While healthcare disparities have roots in multiple sources, racial stereotypes and biases remain a major contributing factor and are prototypical of biases based on age, physical handicap, socioeconomic status, religion, sexual orientation or other differences. Given that such disparities have a strong basis in racial biases, and that the principles of racism are similar to those of other "isms", we summarize the current state of healthcare disparities, the goals of their eradication, and the various potential solutions from a conceptual model of racism affecting patients (internalized racism), caregivers (personally mediated racism), and society (institutionalized racism).

  19. Geographic variation in racial disparities in child maltreatment: The influence of county poverty and population density.

    PubMed

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Lanier, Paul; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; Welch, Hannah; Dineen, Michael

    2015-09-01

    There are documented disparities in the rates at which black children come into contact with the child welfare system in the United States compared to white children. A great deal of research has proliferated aimed at understanding whether systematic biases or differential rates of risk among different groups drive these disparities (Drake et al., 2011). In the current study, county rates of maltreatment disparity are compared across the United States and examined in relation to rates of poverty disparity as well as population density. Specifically, using hierarchical linear modeling with a spatially lagged dependent variable, the current study examined data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) and found that poverty disparities were associated with rates of maltreatment disparities, and densely populated metropolitan counties tended to have the greatest levels of maltreatment disparity for both black and Hispanic children. A significant curvilinear relationship was also observed between these variables, such that in addition to the most densely populated counties, the most sparsely populated counties also tended to have higher rates of maltreatment disparity for black and Hispanic children.

  20. Effects of Medicare Part D on Disparity Implications of Medication Therapy Management Eligibility Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Qiao, Yanru; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Jamison, JoEllen Jarrett; Spivey, Christina A.; Li, Liyuan; Wan, Jim Y.; White-Means, Shelley I.; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Cushman, William C.; Chisholm-Burns, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that there were greater racial and ethnic disparities among individuals who were ineligible for medication therapy management (MTM) services than among MTM-eligible individuals before the implementation of Medicare Part D in 2006. Objective To determine whether the implementation of Medicare Part D in 2006 correlates to changes in racial and ethnic disparities among MTM-ineligible and MTM-eligible beneficiaries. Methods Data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey were analyzed in this retrospective observational analysis. To examine potential racial and ethnic disparities, non-Hispanic whites were compared with non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics. Three aspects of disparities were analyzed, including health status, health services utilization and costs, and medication utilization patterns. A generalized difference-in-differences analysis was used to examine the changes in difference in disparities between MTM-ineligible and MTM-eligible individuals from 2004–2005 to 2007–2008 relative to changes from 2001–2002 and 2004–2005. Various multivariate regressions were used based on the types of dependent variables. A main analysis and several sensitivity analyses were conducted to represent the ranges of MTM eligibility thresholds used by Medicare Part D plans in 2010. Results The main analysis showed that Part D implementation was not associated with reductions in greater racial and ethnic disparities among MTM-ineligible than MTM-eligible Medicare beneficiaries. The main analysis suggests that after Part D implementation, Medicare MTM eligibility criteria may not consistently improve the existing racial and ethnic disparities in health status, health services utilization and costs, and medication utilization. By contrast, several sensitivity analyses showed that Part D implementation did correlate with a significant reduction in greater racial disparities among the MTM-ineligible group than the MTM-eligible group in

  1. Effects of medicare part d on disparity implications of medication therapy management eligibility criteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junling; Qiao, Yanru; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Jamison, JoEllen Jarrett; Spivey, Christina A; Li, Liyuan; Wan, Jim Y; White-Means, Shelley I; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Cushman, William C; Chisholm-Burns, Marie

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that there were greater racial and ethnic disparities among individuals who were ineligible for medication therapy management (MTM) services than among MTM-eligible individuals before the implementation of Medicare Part D in 2006. To determine whether the implementation of Medicare Part D in 2006 correlates to changes in racial and ethnic disparities among MTM-ineligible and MTM-eligible beneficiaries. Data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey were analyzed in this retrospective observational analysis. To examine potential racial and ethnic disparities, non-Hispanic whites were compared with non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics. Three aspects of disparities were analyzed, including health status, health services utilization and costs, and medication utilization patterns. A generalized difference-in-differences analysis was used to examine the changes in difference in disparities between MTM-ineligible and MTM-eligible individuals from 2004-2005 to 2007-2008 relative to changes from 2001-2002 and 2004-2005. Various multivariate regressions were used based on the types of dependent variables. A main analysis and several sensitivity analyses were conducted to represent the ranges of MTM eligibility thresholds used by Medicare Part D plans in 2010. The main analysis showed that Part D implementation was not associated with reductions in greater racial and ethnic disparities among MTM-ineligible than MTM-eligible Medicare beneficiaries. The main analysis suggests that after Part D implementation, Medicare MTM eligibility criteria may not consistently improve the existing racial and ethnic disparities in health status, health services utilization and costs, and medication utilization. By contrast, several sensitivity analyses showed that Part D implementation did correlate with a significant reduction in greater racial disparities among the MTM-ineligible group than the MTM-eligible group in activities of daily living and in instrumental

  2. Racial and ethnic disparities in assisted reproductive technology access and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Molly; Fujimoto, Victor

    2016-05-01

    Infertility is a global problem affecting all ethnic, racial, and religious groups. Nevertheless, only a minority of the U.S. population has access to treatment. Additionally, for those who do engage in treatment, outcomes are disparate among various ethnic and racial groups. This article addresses racial and ethnic disparities regarding rates of fecundity and infertility, access to care, and assisted reproductive technology outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Discrete Gabor Filters For Binocular Disparity Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1995-01-01

    Discrete Gabor filters proposed for use in determining binocular disparity - difference between positions of same feature or object depicted in stereoscopic images produced by two side-by-side cameras aimed in parallel. Magnitude of binocular disparity used to estimate distance from cameras to feature or object. In one potential application, cameras charge-coupled-device video cameras in robotic vision system, and binocular disparities and distance estimates used as control inputs - for example, to control approaches to objects manipulated or to maintain safe distances from obstacles. Binocular disparities determined from phases of discretized Gabor transforms.

  4. Quality of Care and Disparities in Obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Growing attention is being paid to obstetric quality of care as patients are pressing the health care system to measure and improve quality. There is also an increasing recognition of persistent racial and ethnic disparities prevalent in obstetric outcomes. Yet few studies have linked obstetric quality of care with racial and ethnic disparities. This article reviews definitions of quality of care, health disparities, and health equity as they relate to obstetric care and outcomes; describes current efforts and challenges in obstetric quality measurement; and proposes 3 steps in an effort to develop, track, and improve quality and reduce disparities in obstetrics.

  5. Issues and Methods in Disparities Research

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Alvarez, Maria; Colon, Angel; Esteban, Cynthia; Febo, Vivian; Klein, Robert B.; Mitchell, Daphne Koinis; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Montealegre, Federico; Ortega, Alexander N.; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose; Seifer, Ronald; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Epidemiologic studies have documented higher rates of asthma prevalence and morbidity in minority children compared to non-Latino white (NLW) children. Few studies focus on the mechanisms involved in explaining this disparity, and fewer still on the methodological challenges involved in rigorous disparities research. Objectives and Methods This article provides an overview of challenges and potential solutions to research design for studies of health disparities. The methodological issues described in this article were framed on an empirical model of asthma health disparities that views disparities as resulting from several factors related to the healthcare system and the individual/community system. The methods used in the Rhode Island–Puerto Rico Asthma Center are provided as examples, illustrating the challenges in executing disparities research. Results Several methods are described: distinguishing ethnic/racial differences from methodological artifacts, identifying and adapting culturally sensitive measures to explain disparities, and addressing the challenges involved in determining asthma and its severity in Latino and other minority children. The measures employed are framed within each of the components of the conceptual model presented. Conclusions Understanding ethnic and/or cultural disparities in asthma morbidity is a complicated process. Methodologic approaches to studying the problem must reflect this complexity, allowing us to move from documenting disparities to understanding them, and ultimately to reducing them. PMID:19658111

  6. Using Administrative Data to Examine Health Disparities and Outcomes in Neurological Diseases of the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Willis, Allison W

    2015-11-01

    The fields of neurodegenerative disease and dementia research have grown considerably in the last several decades. Due to tremendous efforts of basic and clinical research scientists, we know a great deal about dementia risk factors and have multiple treatment options. Clinician recognition of cognitive impairment has increased considerably, national policies which support screening for and documenting cognitive dysfunction now exist, and public awareness of neurodegenerative disease has never been greater. These conditions promote (and demand) the growth of translational epidemiology and health services research, which focuses on examining outcomes in groups of individuals as a function of health care experiences. This review discusses the use of administrative data to answer health care outcomes and disparities questions in dementia. Of particular interest are publically available datasets that contain varying amounts of diagnostic, clinical, pharmacy, and patient information. Methodological challenges that are frequently encountered and must be understood to minimize biased inference are also discussed.

  7. Description of Nematotaenia dispar from gray monitor (Varanus griseus) a new record in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohammed, Hamdan I

    2009-04-01

    Due to the increasing information on the reptile fauna in Saudi Arabia and the importance of this group of vertebrate animals, it is of great interest to study the parasites that can infect them. Out of total ten gray monitor Varanus griseus of both sex, only three were found to be infected (representing an infection rate of 30%) with parasitic worms. The parasitic burden index was 20. As regards to sex, 60.7% of the infected Varanus were males. These gray monitor, Varanus griseus of both sexes were caught from the arid area of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The present study provided that Nematotaenia dispar was the only worm isolated and identified from the infected gray monitor. The present is the first record of this parasite from Saudi Arabia.

  8. Can subjective and objective socioeconomic status explain minority health disparities in Israel?

    PubMed

    Baron-Epel, Orna; Kaplan, Giora

    2009-11-01

    Disparities in health exist between the three main population groups in Israel, non-immigrant Jews, immigrants from the former Soviet Union (arriving in Israel since 1990) and Arabs. This study examines the relationship between health and socioeconomic status in this multicultural population and assesses to what extent subjective and objective socioeconomic measures may explain the disparities in health. A random cross sectional telephone survey of 1004 Israelis aged 35-65 was performed. The questionnaire measured physical and mental health-related quality of life using the Short Form 12. Information regarding subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) and objective socioeconomic status (SES) was collected. Arabs and immigrant women from the former Soviet Union had worse physical health compared to non-immigrant Jews. Immigrant and Arab men and women had worse mental health compared to non-immigrant Jews. Multivariable log-linear regression analysis adjusting for age, SSS or SES explained the disparities in physical health between Arab and non-immigrant Jewish men. However, SSS and SES did not explain the disparities in physical health between the three groups of women. The disparities in mental health between immigrants and non-immigrant Jews can be explained by SSS for both men and women, whereas the disparities between Arabs and Jews can be explained by objective SES only among women. Employed men reported better physical and mental health. Part of the disparities in mental health in Israel can be attributed to differences in SSS and SES in the different groups. However, there is a need to identify additional factors that may add to the disparities in both physical and mental health. The disparities due to socioeconomic status vary by health measure and population group.

  9. The Importance of Geographic Data Aggregation in Assessing Disparities in American Indian Prenatal Care

    PubMed Central

    Call, Kathleen Thiede; Blewett, Lynn A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether aggregate national data for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIANs) mask geographic variation and substantial subnational disparities in prenatal care utilization. Methods. We used data for US births from 1995 to 1997 and from 2000 to 2002 to examine prenatal care utilization among AIAN and non-Hispanic White mothers. The indicators we studied were late entry into prenatal care and inadequate utilization of prenatal care. We calculated rates and disparities for each indicator at the national, regional, and state levels, and we examined whether estimates for regions and states differed significantly from national estimates. We then estimated state-specific changes in prevalence rates and disparity rates over time. Results. Prenatal care utilization varied by region and state for AIANs and non-Hispanic Whites. In the 12 states with the largest AIAN birth populations, disparities varied dramatically. In addition, some states demonstrated substantial reductions in disparities over time, and other states showed significant increases in disparities. Conclusions. Substantive conclusions about AIAN health care disparities should be geographically specific, and conclusions drawn at the national level may be unsuitable for policymaking and intervention at state and local levels. Efforts to accommodate the geographically specific data needs of AIAN health researchers and others interested in state-level comparisons are warranted. PMID:19910356

  10. Corporatization of pain medicine: implications for widening pain care disparities.

    PubMed

    Meghani, Salimah H

    2011-04-01

    The current health care system in the United States is structured in a way that ensures that more opportunity and resources flow to the wealthy and socially advantaged. The values intrinsic to the current profit-oriented culture are directly antithetical to the idea of equitable access. A large body of literature points to disparities in pain treatment and pain outcomes among vulnerable groups. These disparities range from the presence of disproportionately higher numbers and magnitude of risk factors for developing disabling pain, lack of access to primary care providers, analgesics and interventions, lack of referral to pain specialists, longer wait times to receive care, receipt of poor quality of pain care, and lack of geographical access to pharmacies that carry opioids. This article examines the manner in which the profit-oriented culture in medicine has directly and indirectly structured access to pain care, thereby widening pain treatment disparities among vulnerable groups. Specifically, the author argues that the corporatization of pain medicine amplifies disparities in pain outcomes in two ways: 1) directly through driving up the cost of pain care, rendering it inaccessible to the financially vulnerable; and 2) indirectly through an interface with corporate loss-aversion/risk management culture that draws upon irrelevant social characteristics, thus worsening disparities for certain populations. Thus, while financial vulnerability is the core reason for lack of access, it does not fully explain the implications of corporate microculture regarding access. The effect of corporatization on pain medicine must be conceptualized in terms of overt access to facilities, providers, pharmaceuticals, specialty services, and interventions, but also in terms of the indirect or covert effect of corporate culture in shaping clinical interactions and outcomes. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Education: Psychology's Role in Understanding and Reducing Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Mahgoub, Lana

    2016-01-01

    We review the scope and sources of ethnic and racial disparities in education with a focus on the the implications of psychological theory and research for understanding and redressing these disparities. We identify 3 sources of ethnic and racial disparities including (a) social class differences, (b) differential treatment based on ethnic and…

  12. Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Education: Psychology's Role in Understanding and Reducing Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Mahgoub, Lana

    2016-01-01

    We review the scope and sources of ethnic and racial disparities in education with a focus on the the implications of psychological theory and research for understanding and redressing these disparities. We identify 3 sources of ethnic and racial disparities including (a) social class differences, (b) differential treatment based on ethnic and…

  13. Prioritizing health disparities in medical education to improve care.

    PubMed

    Awosogba, Temitope; Betancourt, Joseph R; Conyers, F Garrett; Estapé, Estela S; Francois, Fritz; Gard, Sabrina J; Kaufman, Arthur; Lunn, Mitchell R; Nivet, Marc A; Oppenheim, Joel D; Pomeroy, Claire; Yeung, Howa

    2013-05-01

    Despite yearly advances in life-saving and preventive medicine, as well as strategic approaches by governmental and social agencies and groups, significant disparities remain in health, health quality, and access to health care within the United States. The determinants of these disparities include baseline health status, race and ethnicity, culture, gender identity and expression, socioeconomic status, region or geography, sexual orientation, and age. In order to renew the commitment of the medical community to address health disparities, particularly at the medical school level, we must remind ourselves of the roles of doctors and medical schools as the gatekeepers and the value setters for medicine. Within those roles are responsibilities toward the social mission of working to eliminate health disparities. This effort will require partnerships with communities as well as with academic centers to actively develop and to implement diversity and inclusion strategies. Besides improving the diversity of trainees in the pipeline, access to health care can be improved, and awareness can be raised regarding population-based health inequalities. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Prioritizing health disparities in medical education to improve care

    PubMed Central

    Awosogba, Temitope; Betancourt, Joseph R.; Conyers, F. Garrett; Estapé, Estela S.; Francois, Fritz; Gard, Sabrina J.; Kaufman, Arthur; Lunn, Mitchell R.; Nivet, Marc A.; Oppenheim, Joel D.; Pomeroy, Claire; Yeung, Howa

    2015-01-01

    Despite yearly advances in life-saving and preventive medicine, as well as strategic approaches by governmental and social agencies and groups, significant disparities remain in health, health quality, and access to health care within the United States. The determinants of these disparities include baseline health status, race and ethnicity, culture, gender identity and expression, socioeconomic status, region or geography, sexual orientation, and age. In order to renew the commitment of the medical community to address health disparities, particularly at the medical school level, we must remind ourselves of the roles of doctors and medical schools as the gatekeepers and the value setters for medicine. Within those roles are responsibilities toward the social mission of working to eliminate health disparities. This effort will require partnerships with communities as well as with academic centers to actively develop and to implement diversity and inclusion strategies. Besides improving the diversity of trainees in the pipeline, access to health care can be improved, and awareness can be raised regarding population-based health inequalities. PMID:23659676

  15. Comparative phylogeography of the Smilax hispida group (Smilacaceae) in eastern Asia and North America--implications for allopatric speciation, causes of diversity disparity, and origins of temperate elements in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunpeng; Qi, Zhechen; Ma, Weiwei; Dai, Qiongyan; Li, Pan; Cameron, Kenneth M; Lee, Joongku; Xiang, Qiu-Yun Jenny; Fu, Chengxin

    2013-08-01

    The Smilax hispida group (Smilacaceae) exhibits a discontinuous distribution in eastern Asia, eastern and western United States, and Mexico. A broad scale phylogeographic analysis was conducted for this group to evaluate the hypotheses of accelerated allopatric divergence in eastern Asia and a northern origin of the temperate elements in Mexico. Phylogeny was inferred using seven plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Species delineation was assessed using genealogical sorting indices (GSI). Lineage divergence time, haplotype diversification rates, and ancestral distributions were estimated using Bayesian methods. Phylogeographic patterns in eastern Asia and North America were compared by analyzing 539 individuals from 64 populations to assess allopatric diversification. Results strongly supported delineation of six allopatric species, the origin of this group from a Mexican ancestor around 11.42mya, and Mexican origins of the temperate species in Mexico. Significant geographic structure of haplotypes was found in eastern Asia, and greater haplotype diversification rate was observed for the North American lineage. Our data support allopatric speciation in eastern Asia but do not find evidence of an elevated diversification rate. Greater species diversity of the study system in eastern Asia may be due to a longer evolutionary history. Our results do not support northern origins of the Mexican temperate species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of food culture and marketing activity in health disparities.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jerome D; Crockett, David; Harrison, Robert L; Thomas, Kevin D

    2012-11-01

    Marketing activities have attracted increased attention from scholars interested in racial disparities in obesity prevalence, as well as the prevalence of other preventable conditions. Although reducing the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to racial/ethnic communities would represent a significant step forward in eliminating racial disparities in health, we focus instead on a critical-related question. What is the relationship between marketing activities, food culture, and health disparities? This commentary posits that food culture shapes the demand for food and the meaning attached to particular foods, preparation styles, and eating practices, while marketing activities shape the overall environment in which food choices are made. We build on prior research that explores the socio-cultural context in which marketing efforts are perceived and interpreted. We discuss each element of the marketing mix to highlight the complex relationship between food culture, marketing activities, and health disparities.

  17. The neighborhood context of racial and ethnic disparities in arrest.

    PubMed

    Kirk, David S

    2008-02-01

    This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with afocus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disadvantage relative to other racial and ethnic groups, and these layers work to create differences in arrest. At the family level, results show that disadvantages in the form of unstable family structures explain much of the disparities in arrest across race and ethnicity. At the neighborhood level, black youths tend to reside in areas with both significantly higher levels of concentrated poverty than other youths as well as lower levels of collective efficacy than white youths. Variations in neighborhood tolerance of deviance across groups explain little of the arrest disparities, yet tolerance of deviance does influence the frequency with which a crime ultimately ends in an arrest. Even after accounting for relevant demographic, family, and neighborhood-level predictors, substantial residual arrest differences remain between black youths and youths of other racial and ethnic groups.

  18. Has Medicare Part D Reduced Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Prescription Drug Use and Spending?

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Elham; Jensen, Gail A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether Medicare Part D has reduced racial/ethnic disparities in prescription drug utilization and spending. Data Nationally representative data on white, African American, and Hispanic Medicare seniors from the 2002–2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey are analyzed. Five measures are examined: filling any prescriptions during the year, the number of prescriptions filled, total annual prescription spending, annual out-of-pocket prescription spending, and average copay level. Study Design We apply the Institute of Medicine's definition of a racial/ethnic disparity and adopt a difference-in-difference-in-differences (DDD) estimator using a multivariate regression framework. The treatment group consists of Medicare seniors, the comparison group, adults without Medicare aged 55–63 years. Principal Findings Difference-in-difference-in-differences estimates suggest that for African Americans Part D increased the disparity in annual spending on prescription drugs by $258 (p = .011), yet had no effect on other measures of prescription drug disparities. For Hispanics, DDD estimates suggest that the program reduced the disparities in annual number of prescriptions filled, annual total and out-of-pocket spending on prescription drugs by 2.9 (p = .077), $282 (p = .019) and $143 (p < .001), respectively. Conclusion Medicare Part D had mixed effects. Although it reduced Hispanic/white disparities related to prescription drugs among seniors, it increased the African American/white disparity in total annual spending on prescription drugs. PMID:24102408

  19. Projecting mechanics into morphospace: disparity in the feeding system of labrid fishes.

    PubMed Central

    Hulsey, C Darrin; Wainwright, Peter C

    2002-01-01

    In no group of organisms has the link between species richness, morphological disparity, disparity in mechanics and functional or ecological diversification been made explicit. As a step towards integrating these measures of diversity, we examine how the mechanics of the anterior-jaw four-bar linkages of 104 species of Great Barrier Reef (GBR) labrid fishes maps into a scale-independent morphospace. As predicted from theory, no relationship exists between overall size and the mechanics of velocity and force transmission in labrid anterior-jaw linkages. Nonetheless, mechanics associated with the anterior jaw appear to have constrained diversification of labrid anterior-jaw morphology. Furthermore, simulations depict a generally nonlinear relationship between the length of individual links and transmission of motion. In addition, no relationship was found between morphological disparity and mechanical disparity among the most species-rich labrid groups from the GBR. It is also established that regions of morphospace equivalent in morphological disparity differ over nearly an order of magnitude in mechanical disparity. These results illustrate that without an explicit interpretation of the consequences of per unit change in morphology, conclusions about diversification drawn only from morphological disparity may be misleading. PMID:11839201

  20. Herbivorous dinosaur jaw disparity and its relationship to extrinsic evolutionary drivers.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, Jamie A; Anderson, Philip S L; Barrett, Paul M; Rayfield, Emily J

    2017-02-01

    Morphological responses of nonmammalian herbivores to external ecological drivers have not been quantified over extended timescales. Herbivorous nonavian dinosaurs are an ideal group to test for such responses, because they dominated terrestrial ecosystems for more than 155 Myr and included the largest herbivores that ever existed. The radiation of dinosaurs was punctuated by several ecologically important events, including extinctions at the Triassic/Jurassic (Tr/J) and Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) boundaries, the decline of cycadophytes, and the origin of angiosperms, all of which may have had profound consequences for herbivore communities. Here we present the first analysis of morphological and biomechanical disparity for sauropodomorph and ornithischian dinosaurs in order to investigate patterns of jaw shape and function through time. We find that morphological and biomechanical mandibular disparity are decoupled: mandibular shape disparity follows taxonomic diversity, with a steady increase through the Mesozoic. By contrast, biomechanical disparity builds to a peak in the Late Jurassic that corresponds to increased functional variation among sauropods. The reduction in biomechanical disparity following this peak coincides with the J/K extinction, the associated loss of sauropod and stegosaur diversity, and the decline of cycadophytes. We find no specific correspondence between biomechanical disparity and the proliferation of angiosperms. Continual ecological and functional replacement of pre-existing taxa accounts for disparity patterns through much of the Cretaceous, with the exception of several unique groups, such as psittacosaurids that are never replaced in their biomechanical or morphological profiles.