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Sample records for dispersion compensating photonic

  1. Dispersion compensation in slot photonic crystal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plastun, Alexander; Konyukhov, Andrey

    2015-03-01

    Dispersion tailoring using photonic crystal cladding for slot waveguide is proposed. Numerical modeling based on the Maxwell equation for Te and TM modes of the photonic crystal is performed. Slot waveguide provide high intencity at the central area. Photonic crystal cladding of the slot waveguide allow us to compensate high values of the host glass dispersion.

  2. Broadband dispersion-compensating photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sigang; Zhang, Yejin; He, Lina; Xie, Shizhong

    2006-10-01

    We present a modified dual-core photonic crystal fiber, based on pure silica, with special grapefruit holes in the inner cladding. The fiber has large, broadband negative dispersion, and the dispersion value varies linearly from -380to-420 ps/(nmkm) in the C band. To decrease the fabrication difficulty, large air holes are adopted. Furthermore, the chromatic dispersion of the fiber is not sensitive to the structure parameters. So the proposed fiber structure can greatly facilitate fiber drawing and can be used for broadband dispersion compensation.

  3. Chromatic dispersion profile optimization of dual-concentric-core photonic crystal fibers for broadband dispersion compensation.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Takeshi; Saitoh, Kunimasa; Wada, Keisuke; Koshiba, Masanori

    2006-01-23

    Chromatic dispersion profile of dual-concentric-core photonic crystal fibers is optimized for broadband dispersion compensation of single mode fibers (SMFs) by using genetic algorithm incorporated with full-vector finite-element method. From the numerical results presented here, it is found that by increasing the distance between central core and outer ring core, larger negative dispersion coefficient and better dispersion slope compensation are possible. There is a tradeoff between the magnitude of negative dispersion coefficient and dispersion slope compensation due to the concave dispersion profile of dual-concentric-core photonic crystal fibers. In spite of the tradeoff, dual-concentric-core photonic crystal fibers having larger negative dispersion coefficient as well as compensating for dispersion slope of SMFs in the entire C band with large effective area can be designed.

  4. Simple semi-empirical model for chromatic dispersion estimation of dispersion compensating photonic-crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdin, Vladimir A.; Delmukhametov, Oleg R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple semi-empirical model for chromatic dispersion estimation of dispersion compensating photonic-crystal fibers in a limited range of wavelengths is presented in this paper. The proposed approach is widely used in the field of electromagnetic waves of the microwave range, for instance, for calculation of approximate estimates of the effectiveness of electromagnetic shields and here in this paper we adopted it for the estimation of chromatic dispersion of photonic-crystal fibers. It worth to note that this approach provides the possibility to evaluate approximate magnitude of the chromatic dispersion of dispersion compensating photonic-crystal fibers without extensive numerical calculations, but the main drawback of this method is that the validity of it is restricted only for the certain range of the wavelengths.

  5. Numerical comparison between conventional dispersion compensating fibers and photonic crystal fibers as lumped Raman amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Castellani, C E S; Cani, S P N; Segatto, M E V; Pontes, M J; Romero, M A

    2009-12-07

    In this paper we discuss the use of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) as discrete devices for simultaneous wideband dispersion compensation and Raman amplification. The performance of the PCFs in terms of gain, ripple, optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) and required fiber length for complete dispersion compensation is compared with conventional dispersion compensating fibers (DCFs). The main goal is to determine the minimum PCF loss beyond which its performance surpasses a state-of-the-art DCF and justifies practical use in telecommunication systems.

  6. Ultra-flattened negative dispersion for residual dispersion compensation using soft glass equiangular spiral photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran Hasan, Md.; Mahmud, R. R.; Morshed, Monir; Rabiul Hasan, Md.

    2016-09-01

    We present a numerical investigation of an equiangular spiral photonic crystal fibre (ES-PCF) in soft glass for negative flattened dispersion and ultra-high birefringence. An accurate numerical approach based on finite element method is used for the simulation of the proposed structure. It is demonstrated that it is possible to obtain average negative dispersion of -526.99 ps/nm/km over 1.05-1.70 μm wavelength range with dispersion variation of 3.7 ps/nm/km. The proposed ES-PCF also offers high birefringence of 0.0226 at the excitation wavelength of 1.55 μm. The results here show that the idea of using the proposed fibre can be potential means of effectively directing for residual dispersion compensation, fibre sensor design, long distance data transmission system and so forth.

  7. 40-Gbit/s Operation of Ultracompact Photodetector-Integrated Dispersion Compensator Based on One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagawa, Misuzu; Goto, Shigeo; Hosomi, Kazuhiko; Sugawara, Toshiki; Katsuyama, Toshio; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2008-08-01

    Utilizing large optical group-velocity dependence on wavelength without polarization-mode dependence, we have developed an ultracompact dispersion compensator based on multiple one-dimensional coupled-defect-type photonic crystals. The photonic crystal of the compensator, designed for a 1.55-µm optical communication system, consists of a multilayer thin-film structure and defect layers. The thin-film structure is substrate-free, which enables the compensator to be small, that is, a 1.4-mm-edge cube. To obtain a large group-velocity difference, 60 substrate-free films were stacked to form the compensator. The passband of the compensator is 2 nm, and the group-delay time difference within the band is more than 100 ps. A dispersion-compensator module integrated with a photodetector was fabricated. A 40-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero optical-transmission experiment was carried out with the compensator, demonstrating dispersion-compensation operation over a 10-km standard single-mode fiber, the dispersion of which corresponds to 170 ps/nm.

  8. Dispersion limits of the small mode area photonic crystal fibers designed as a broadband compensator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeleny, R.; Lucki, M.

    2014-05-01

    Nonlinear photonic crystal fibers with small effective mode area allow to control chromatic dispersion in the near-infrared region. In this paper the chromatic dispersion is controlled entirely by structural parameters and the influence of each structural parameter is examined and described in detail. Understanding of the influence not only permits fiber design and dispersion tailoring, but also predicts the potential manufacturing tolerances. As a consequence, the fiber structural parameters are modified to found the balance between the operating bandwidth and the high negative dispersion parameter. We found that the limit value for the dispersion parameter is of about -1600 ps•nm-1•km-1 at 1550 nm whereas the desired dispersion slope is achieved over the 120 nm wide band. We predict that the negative dispersion parameter cannot be higher in the small effective mode area photonic crystal fibers operating over the bandwidth larger than the one considered in our paper. The results are calculated by the full-vectorial finite difference frequency domain method.

  9. Analysis and compensation of dispersion-induced bit loss in a photonic A/D converter using time-wavelength interweaved sampling clock.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Wu, Guiling; Guo, Pan; Li, Xinwan; Chen, Jianping

    2009-09-28

    In this paper, the timing jitter induced by the fiber dispersion in photonic A/D converters using time-wavelength interweaved sampling clocks generated by optical time-division-multiplexing (OTDM) with fiber delay lines is analyzed and effective bit loss is calculated. A compensation method is proposed to decrease the dispersion-induced jitter. Simulations are performed and the results show the validity of the proposed compensation method. An experimental demonstration is carried out to verify the theoretical expression derived.

  10. Ultra-high negative dispersion compensating square lattice based single mode photonic crystal fiber with high nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md. Ibadul; Khatun, Maksuda; Ahmed, Kawsar

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents dispersion tailoring of photonic crystal fibers creating artificial defect along one of the regular square axes. A finite element method (FEM) has been enforced for numerical investigation of several guiding properties of the PCF covering a broad wavelength range about 1340-1640 nm over the telecommunication windows. According to simulation, the proposed PCF has obtained a strictly single-mode fiber, which has an ultra-high negative dispersion of about -584.60 to -2337.60 ps/(nm-km) and also possible to cover the highest nonlinearity order of 131.91 W-1 km-1 under the operating wavelength. Moreover, the proposed PCF structure experimentally focuses on higher nonlinear coefficient, which successfully compensates the chromatic dispersion of standard single mode in entire band of interest and greatly applicable to the optical transmission system. Additionally, the single mode behavior of S-PCF is explicated by employing V parameter. In our dispersion sensitive analysis, this fiber is significantly more robust due to successfully achieve ultra-high negative dispersion, which gains more promiscuous compared to the prior best results.

  11. Ultra-high negative dispersion compensating square lattice based single mode photonic crystal fiber with high nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md. Ibadul; Khatun, Maksuda; Ahmed, Kawsar

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents dispersion tailoring of photonic crystal fibers creating artificial defect along one of the regular square axes. A finite element method (FEM) has been enforced for numerical investigation of several guiding properties of the PCF covering a broad wavelength range about 1340-1640 nm over the telecommunication windows. According to simulation, the proposed PCF has obtained a strictly single-mode fiber, which has an ultra-high negative dispersion of about -584.60 to -2337.60 ps/(nm-km) and also possible to cover the highest nonlinearity order of 131.91 W-1 km-1 under the operating wavelength. Moreover, the proposed PCF structure experimentally focuses on higher nonlinear coefficient, which successfully compensates the chromatic dispersion of standard single mode in entire band of interest and greatly applicable to the optical transmission system. Additionally, the single mode behavior of S-PCF is explicated by employing V parameter. In our dispersion sensitive analysis, this fiber is significantly more robust due to successfully achieve ultra-high negative dispersion, which gains more promiscuous compared to the prior best results.

  12. Dispersion in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzens, Jeremy

    2005-11-01

    Investigations on the dispersive properties of photonic crystals, modified scattering in ring-resonators, monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and advanced data processing techniques for the finite-difference time-domain method are presented. Photonic crystals are periodic mesoscopic arrays of scatterers that modify the propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in a similar way as "natural" crystals modify the properties of electrons in solid-state physics. In this thesis photonic crystals are implemented as planar photonic crystals, i.e., optically thin semiconductor films with periodic arrays of holes etched into them, with a hole-to-hole spacing of the order of the wavelength of light in the dielectric media. Photonic crystals can feature forbidden frequency ranges (the band-gaps) in which light cannot propagate. Even though most work on photonic crystals has focused on these band-gaps for application such as confinement and guiding of light, this thesis focuses on the allowed frequency regions (the photonic bands) and investigates how the propagation of light is modified by the crystal lattice. In particular the guiding of light in bulk photonic crystals in the absence of lattice defects (the self-collimation effect) and the angular steering of light in photonic crystals (the superprism effect) are investigated. The latter is used to design a planar lightwave circuit for frequency domain demultiplexion. Difficulties such as efficient insertion of light into the crystal are resolved and previously predicted limitations on the resolution are circumvented. The demultiplexer is also fabricated and characterized. Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by means of resonantly enhanced grating couplers is investigated. The grating coupler is designed to bend light through a ninety-degree angle and is characterized with the finite-difference time-domain method. The vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers are

  13. Dispersion compensation based on prism compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongying; Lan, Tian; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang

    2017-04-01

    A prism compressor can compensate dispersion of femtosecond light pulses travelling in air for laser ranging. An accurate expression of the group delay dispersion (GDD) of a prism compressor at arbitrary incident angle and at arbitrary incident point is obtained, which is of benefit to finely compensating dispersion of femtosecond pulses. Influences of several parameters on group delay dispersion are analyzed for the active compensation of dispersion of femtosecond pulses. These expressions are convenient to applications of intra- and extra-cavity dispersion compensation of ultra-short laser pulses, as well as fine compensation of satellite laser ranging and laser altimetry.

  14. Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aieta, Francesco; Kats, Mikhail A.; Genevet, Patrice; Capasso, Federico

    2015-03-01

    The replacement of bulk refractive optical elements with diffractive planar components enables the miniaturization of optical systems. However, diffractive optics suffers from large chromatic aberrations due to the dispersion of the phase accumulated by light during propagation. We show that this limitation can be overcome with an engineered wavelength-dependent phase shift imparted by a metasurface, and we demonstrate a design that deflects three wavelengths by the same angle. A planar lens without chromatic aberrations at three wavelengths is also presented. Our designs are based on low-loss dielectric resonators, which introduce a dense spectrum of optical modes to enable dispersive phase compensation. The suppression of chromatic aberrations in metasurface-based planar photonics will find applications in lightweight collimators for displays, as well as chromatically corrected imaging systems.

  15. Huge group-velocity dispersion in a photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Cai, Yanyan; Meng, Qingsheng; Lu, Yali; Sun, Yiling; Zhang, Dengguo; Ruan, Shuangchen; Li, Jingzhen

    2005-11-01

    We investigated the group-velocity dispersion of a one dimensional uniform photonic crystal by the optical transmission method. For application in optical communications, the wavelength should be near one of the two edges of a photonic bandgap. Four kinds of dispersion-compensation may be obtained with a photonic crystal. Huge negative and positive group-velocity-dispersion (GVD) about a zero-dispersion-point as large as 5.1 Tera- ps/nm/km by a photonic crystal of 100 periods can be realized. Such a value is about 50 Giga times the GVD of conventional dispersion-compensation fibers. The GVD reaches a maximum when the optical length ratio of the high refractive index material to the low refractive index material is 1.2 for given operating parameters. When we keep the optical length of each layer being constant, the GVD is found to increase rapidly with the refractive index ration of the high refractive index material to the low one and even more rapidly with the number of periods of a photonic crystal. Under quite common operating parameters, a thin piece of photonic crystal of 100 periods may play the role of an ordinary dispersion-compensation fiber with a length over 158 kilo-meters.

  16. Dispersion-compensated fresnel lens

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1992-01-01

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4.multidot.10.sup.-5 inch and a profile width of at least 10.sup.-3 inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight.

  17. Dispersion-compensated Fresnel lens

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-11-03

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4[times]10[sup [minus]5] inch and a profile width of at least 10[sup [minus]3] inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight. 10 figs.

  18. Simultaneous dispersion compensation and polarization mode dispersion compensation using linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiquan; Chen, Ying; Xu, Mingyan; Zhu, Qiguang

    2005-01-01

    A composite structure based on linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating which can compensate for dispersion and polarization mode dispersion simultaneously has been proposed and characterized. On one hand, a chirped fiber Bragg grating can be regarded as a filter that is composed of several uniform sub-gratings. Therefore, optical signals with different wavelengths can be reflected at different points of the grating, which will result in different time delays, by which the dispersion compensation can be implemented easily. On the other hand, a chirped fiber Bragg grating has the pressure-induced birefringence effect. In the experiment, a piezoelectric transducer is used to apply the pressure on the linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating. Then the change of reflection spectra can be obtained when the pressure is applied at different points of the grating. From the reflection spectra response, the transverse pressure is found to lead to the split of the spectra of the grating. Through the observation of the group delay characteristics, we find that the differential group delay moves towards a bigger value with the increased voltage, and the maximal range of differential group delay (DGD) is 50 ps. By consequence, first-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) can be compensated for with linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating. Thus, when the data rate of the fiber communication system is above 10 Gb/s and below 40 Gb/s, the simultaneous compensation of DGD and PMD is necessary and can be achieved by the composite structure.

  19. Dispersion Compensation of Fiber Optic Systems for KSC Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozaitis, Samuel P.; Hand, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Installed fibers such as those at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are optimized for use at 1310 nm because they have zero dispersion at that wavelength. An installed fiber system designed to operate at 1310 nm will operate at a much lower data rate when operated at 1550 nm because the dispersion is not zero at 1550 nm. Using dispersion measurements of both installed and dispersion compensating fibers, we compensated a 21.04 km length of installed fiber with 4.25 km of dispersion compensating fiber. Using the compensated fiber-optic link, we reduced the dispersion to 0.494 ps/nm-km, from an uncompensated dispersion of 16.8 ps/nm-km. The main disadvantage of the compensated link using DC fiber was an increase in attenuation. Although the increase was not necessarily severe, it could be significant when insertion losses, connector losses, and fiber attenuation are taken into account.

  20. Dispersion compensation in chirped pulse amplification systems

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A.

    2014-07-15

    A chirped pulse amplification system includes a laser source providing an input laser pulse along an optical path. The input laser pulse is characterized by a first temporal duration. The system also includes a multi-pass pulse stretcher disposed along the optical path. The multi-pass pulse stretcher includes a first set of mirrors operable to receive input light in a first plane and output light in a second plane parallel to the first plane and a first diffraction grating. The pulse stretcher also includes a second set of mirrors operable to receive light diffracted from the first diffraction grating and a second diffraction grating. The pulse stretcher further includes a reflective element operable to reflect light diffracted from the second diffraction grating. The system further includes an amplifier, a pulse compressor, and a passive dispersion compensator disposed along the optical path.

  1. High-order dispersion effects in two-photon interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotta, Zeudi; Cialdi, Simone; Cipriani, Daniele; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-12-01

    Two-photon interference and Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect are relevant tools for quantum metrology and quantum information processing. In optical coherence tomography, the HOM effect is exploited to achieve high-resolution measurements with the width of the HOM dip being the main parameter. On the other hand, applications like dense coding require high-visibility performance. Here we address high-order dispersion effects in two-photon interference and study, theoretically and experimentally, the dependence of the visibility and the width of the HOM dip on both the pump spectrum and the downconverted photon spectrum. In particular, a spatial light modulator is exploited to experimentally introduce and manipulate a custom phase function to simulate the high-order dispersion effects. Overall, we show that it is possible to effectively introduce high-order dispersion effects on the propagation of photons and also to compensate for such effect. Our results clarify the role of the different dispersion phenomena and pave the way for optimization procedures in quantum technological applications involving PDC photons and optical fibers.

  2. Tunable chromatic dispersion and dispersion slope compensator using a planar lightwave circuit lattice-form filter.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, K; Takahashi, H; Shibata, T

    2008-06-01

    A tunable chromatic dispersion and dispersion slope compensator is proposed that has a single lattice-form filter configuration. Wavelength dependence is intentionally added to its tunable couplers, which produces dispersion slope compensation in addition to the dispersion compensation. Dispersion tunability of +/- 500 ps/nm and a slope of -4.9 ps/nm(2) over 40 GHz are successfully demonstrated, thus meeting the requirement for 40 Gbits/s differential quadrature phase shift keying transmission with an 80 km long nonzero dispersion-shifted fiber.

  3. Mode separation of Lamb waves based on dispersion compensation method.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kailiang; Ta, Dean; Moilanen, Petro; Wang, Weiqi

    2012-04-01

    Ultrasonic Lamb modes typically propagate as a combination of multiple dispersive wave packets. Frequency components of each mode distribute widely in time domain due to dispersion and it is very challenging to separate individual modes by traditional signal processing methods. In the present study, a method of dispersion compensation is proposed for the purpose of mode separation. This numerical method compensates, i.e., compresses, the individual dispersive waveforms into temporal pulses, which thereby become nearly un-overlapped in time and frequency and can thus be extracted individually by rectangular time windows. It was further illustrated that the dispersion compensation also provided a method for predicting the plate thickness. Finally, based on reversibility of the numerical compensation method, an artificial dispersion technique was used to restore the original waveform of each mode from the separated compensated pulse. Performances of the compensation separation techniques were evaluated by processing synthetic and experimental signals which consisted of multiple Lamb modes with high dispersion. Individual modes were extracted with good accordance with the original waveforms and theoretical predictions.

  4. Analysis of the dispersion compensation of acousto-optic deflectors used for multiphoton imaging.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shaoqun; Lv, Xiaohua; Bi, Kun; Zhan, Cheng; Li, Derong; Chen, Wei R; Xiong, Wenhui; Jacques, Steven L; Luo, Qingming

    2007-01-01

    The acousto-optic deflector (AOD) is highly preferred in laser scanning microscopy for its fast scanning ability and random-addressing capability. However, its application in two-photon microscopy is frustrated by the dispersion of the AOD, which results in beam distortion and pulse lengthening. We report the analysis of simultaneous compensation for the angular dispersion and temporal dispersion of the AOD by merely introducing a single dispersive element such as a prism or a grating. Besides serving as a scanner, the AOD is also a part of the compressor pair by integrating the dispersive nature of the AO interaction. This compensation principle is effective for both one-dimensional (1-D) AOD and two-dimensional (2-D) AOD scanning. Switching from a 1-D to a 2-D system requires proper optical alignment with the compensation element, but does not involve any new components. Analytical expressions are given to illustrate the working principle and to help with understanding the design of the system. Fluorescence images of beads and cells are shown to demonstrate the performance of two-photon microscopy when applying this compensated 2-D AOD as scanner.

  5. All-optical OFDM transmission of 7 x 5-Gb/s data over 84-km standard single-mode fiber without dispersion compensation and time gating using a photonic-integrated optical DFT device.

    PubMed

    Kang, I; Rasras, M; Liu, X; Chandrasekhar, S; Cappuzzo, M; Gomez, L T; Chen, Y F; Buhl, L; Cabot, S; Jaques, J

    2011-05-09

    We implement dispersion-tolerant and time-gating-free all-optical OFDM transmission using a photonic-integrated discrete Fourier transform (DFT) device. We show that 35-Gb/s OFDM data having near-unity spectral efficiency can be transmitted all-optically with 1-dB dispersion margin of ~1000 ps/nm. The passive-optical DFT circuit is implemented using multi-mode interference (MMI) couplers on a high index-contrast silica integrated-optic platform. We also propose a photonic DFT circuit based on an NxN MMI device capable of simultaneous channelization of OFDM signals into N subcarriers. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  6. Dispersion compensation for FD-OCT using spectrum reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Xiaodong; Chen, Xiaojie; Yu, Daoyin

    2015-01-01

    In OCT system, the chromatic dispersion of sample decreases the resolution and increases the depth misplacement. The developed numerical dispersion compensation techniques usually do not consider the higher order dispersion and time-consuming. We proposed a numerical compensation technique for correcting depth error and resolution deterioration in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Firstly, the rough depth of each scatter in multilayer sample is estimated through magnification curve. Then the depth of a scatter is iterated to minimum the residual of this scatter in the time domain. At last, the spectrum of the scatter is reconstructed and dispersion can be compensated with the tracked depth. The results show that the depth error is corrected to less than resolution level and the resolution is corrected to nearly ideal. The technique proposed can provide precise sample tomography, thus enhancing the understanding of sample character.

  7. Chirped-cavity dispersion-compensation filter design.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Ping; Chen, Sheng-Hui; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2006-03-01

    A new basic structure of a dispersive-compensation filter, called a chirped-cavity dispersion-compensator (CCDC) filter, was designed to offer the advantages of small ripples in both reflectance and group-delay dispersion (GDD). This filter provides a high dispersion compensation, like the Gires-Tournois interferometer (GTI) filter, and a wide working bandwidth, like the chirped mirror (CM). The structure of the CCDC is a cavity-type Fabry-Perot filter with a spacer layer (2 mH or 2 mL) and a chirped high reflector. The CCDC filter can provide a negative GDD of -50 fs2 over a bandwidth of 56 THz with half the optical thickness of the CM or the GTI.

  8. Chirped-cavity dispersion-compensation filter design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ya-Ping; Chen, Sheng-Hui; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2006-03-01

    A new basic structure of a dispersive-compensation filter, called a chirped-cavity dispersion-compensator (CCDC) filter, was designed to offer the advantages of small ripples in both reflectance and group-delay dispersion (GDD). This filter provides a high dispersion compensation, like the Gires-Tournois interferometer (GTI) filter, and a wide working bandwidth, like the chirped mirror (CM). The structure of the CCDC is a cavity-type Fabry-Perot filter with a spacer layer (2 mH or 2 mL) and a chirped high reflector. The CCDC filter can provide a negative GDD of -50 fs2 over a bandwidth of 56 THz with half the optical thickness of the CM or the GTI.

  9. Compensation of temporal and spatial dispersion for multiphoton acousto-optic laser-scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Vijay; Saggau, Peter

    2003-10-01

    In laser-scanning microscopy, acousto-optic (AO) deflection provides a means to quickly position a laser beam to random locations throughout the field-of-view. Compared to conventional laser-scanning using galvanometer-driven mirrors, this approach increases the frame rate and signal-to-noise ratio, and reduces time spent illuminating sites of no interest. However, random-access AO scanning has not yet been combined with multi-photon microscopy, primarily because the femtosecond laser pulses employed are subject to significant amounts of both spatial and temporal dispersion upon propagation through common AO materials. Left uncompensated, spatial dispersion reduces the microscope"s spatial resolution while temporal dispersion reduces the multi-photon excitation efficacy. In previous work, we have demonstrated, 1) the efficacy of a single diffraction grating scheme which reduces the spatial dispersion at least 3-fold throughout the field-of-view, and 2) the use of a novel stacked-prism pre-chirper for compensating the temporal dispersion of a pair of AODs using a shorter mechanical path length (2-4X) than standard prism-pair arrangements. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the use of these compensation approaches with a custom-made large-area slow-shear TeO2 AOD specifically suited for the development of a high-resolution 2-D random-access AO scanning multi-photon laser-scanning microscope (AO-MPLSM).

  10. Nonlinearity compensation using dispersion-folded digital backward propagation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Likai; Li, Guifang

    2012-06-18

    A computationally efficient dispersion-folded (D-folded) digital backward propagation (DBP) method for nonlinearity compensation of dispersion-managed fiber links is proposed. At the optimum power level of long-haul fiber transmission, the optical waveform evolution along the fiber is dominated by the chromatic dispersion. The optical waveform and, consequently, the nonlinear behavior of the optical signal repeat at locations of identical accumulated dispersion. Hence the DBP steps can be folded according to the accumulated dispersion. Experimental results show that for 6,084 km single channel transmission, the D-folded DBP method reduces the computation by a factor of 43 with negligible penalty in performance. Simulation of inter-channel nonlinearity compensation for 13,000 km wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission shows that the D-folded DBP method can reduce the computation by a factor of 37.

  11. A segmental dispersion compensation method to improve axial resolution of specified layer in FD-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bochen; Jiang, Zhuqing; Hu, Yujie; Wang, Zhe

    2016-10-01

    A segmental dispersion compensation method is proposed to compensate the dispersion in frequency domain optical coherence tomography. Tomographic imaging for epidermal layer of an onion slice is achieved in the experimental setup using optical fiber. The axial resolution of the tomography can be improved by using segmental dispersion compensation, because this dispersion compensation method employs segmental dispersion coefficients for the different lateral positions in one specific layer. Comparing with the traditional dispersion compensation method, segmental dispersion compensation method has the capability of separating the specified layer of sample and eliminating the dispersion broadening effect of specified layer.

  12. Single parameter optimization for simultaneous automatic compensation of multiple orders of dispersion for a 1.28 Tbaud signal.

    PubMed

    Paquot, Yvan; Schröder, Jochen; Van Erps, Jürgen; Vo, Trung D; Pelusi, Mark D; Madden, Steve; Luther-Davies, Barry; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2011-12-05

    We report the demonstration of automatic higher-order dispersion compensation for the transmission of 275 fs pulses associated with a Tbaud Optical Time Division Multiplexed (OTDM) signal. Our approach achieves simultaneous automatic compensation for 2nd, 3rd and 4th order dispersion using an LCOS spectral pulse shaper (SPS) as a tunable dispersion compensator and a dispersion monitor made of a photonic-chip-based all-optical RF-spectrum analyzer. The monitoring approach uses a single parameter measurement extracted from the RF-spectrum to drive a multidimensional optimization algorithm. Because these pulses are highly sensitive to fluctuations in the GVD and higher orders of chromatic dispersion, this work represents a key result towards practical transmission of ultrashort optical pulses. The dispersion can be adapted on-the-fly for a 1.28 Tbaud signal at any place in the transmission line using a black box approach.

  13. Microwave tunable dispersion compensator for optical fiber systems.

    PubMed

    Ranzani, Leonardo; Serrano, Joaquim Gòmez; Boffi, Pierpaolo; Martinelli, Mario

    2011-04-20

    A tunable device based on chirped microstrip delay lines is proposed to precompensate at the transmitter; the chromatic dispersion accumulated during optical fiber propagation. Compensated dispersion is finely tuned by changing the effective dielectric constant of the microstrip line by means of moving dielectric perturbers. Compensation up to 51 ps/GHz necessary to propagate over 400 km uncompensated standard single-mode fiber at 10 Gb/s is demonstrated. The proposed solution does not require coherent detection and can find application in metropolitan and regional area networks, where the physical path traced by each channel can change owing to the traffic routing, requiring the dynamic compensation of different amounts of accumulated dispersion.

  14. Chromatic dispersion compensation in coherent transmission system using digital filters.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tianhua; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Vanin, Evgeny; Wang, Ke; Friberg, Ari T; Zhang, Yimo

    2010-07-19

    We present a comparative analysis of three popular digital filters for chromatic dispersion compensation: a time-domain least mean square adaptive filter, a time-domain fiber dispersion finite impulse response filter, and a frequency-domain blind look-up filter. The filters are applied to equalize the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying transmission system. The characteristics of these filters are compared by evaluating their applicability for different fiber lengths, their usability for dispersion perturbations, and their computational complexity. In addition, the phase noise tolerance of these filters is also analyzed.

  15. Achromatic metasurface optical components by dispersive phase compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capasso, Federico

    2015-03-01

    The replacement of bulk refractive elements with flat ones enables the miniaturization of optical components required for integrated optical systems. This process comes with the limitation that planar optics suffers from large chromatic aberrations due to the dispersion of the phase accumulated by light during propagation. We show that this limitation can be overcome by compensating the dispersion of the propagation phase with the wavelength-dependent phase shift imparted by a metasurface. We demonstrate dispersion-free multi-wavelength dielectric metasurface deflectors in the near-infrared and design an achromatic flat lens in the same spectral region. Our design is based on low-loss coupled dielectric resonators, which introduce a dense spectrum of modes to enable dispersive phase compensation. Achromatic metasurfaces will find applications as multi-band-pass filters, lightweight collimators, and chromatically-corrected imaging lenses.

  16. Adaptive dispersion compensation for guided wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, James S.; Michaels, Jennifer E.

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves offer the promise of fast and reliable methods for interrogating large, plate-like structures. Distributed arrays of permanently attached, inexpensive piezoelectric transducers have thus been proposed as a cost-effective means to excite and measure ultrasonic guided waves for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. Guided wave data recorded from a distributed array of transducers are often analyzed and interpreted through the use of guided wave imaging algorithms, such as conventional delay-and-sum imaging or the more recently applied minimum variance imaging. Both imaging algorithms perform reasonably well using signal envelopes, but can exhibit significant performance improvements when phase information is used. However, the use of phase information inherently requires knowledge of the dispersion relations, which are often not known to a sufficient degree of accuracy for high quality imaging since they are very sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, pressure, and loading. This work seeks to perform improved imaging with phase information by leveraging adaptive dispersion estimates obtained from in situ measurements. Experimentally obtained data from a distributed array is used to validate the proposed approach.

  17. Amplitude Dispersion Compensation for Damage Detection Using Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Liang; Lin, Jing; Huang, Liping; Zhao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Besides the phase and group velocities, the amplitude of guided wave mode is also frequency dependent. This amplitude dispersion also influences the performance of guided wave methods in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). In this paper, the effects of amplitude dispersion to the spectrum and waveform of a propagating wave-packet are investigated. It is shown that the amplitude dispersion results in distortion in the spectrum of guided wave response, and thus influences the waveform of the wave-packet. To remove these effects, an amplitude dispersion compensation method is established on the basis of Vold–Kalman filter and Taylor series expansion. The performance of that method is then investigated by experimental examples. The results show that with the application of the amplitude dispersion compensation, the time reversibility could be preserved, which ensures the applicability of the time reversal method for damage detection. Besides, through amplitude dispersion compensation, the testing resolution of guided waves could be improved, so that the structural features located in the close proximity may be separately identified. PMID:27706067

  18. Amplitude Dispersion Compensation for Damage Detection Using Ultrasonic Guided Waves.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liang; Lin, Jing; Huang, Liping; Zhao, Ming

    2016-09-30

    Besides the phase and group velocities, the amplitude of guided wave mode is also frequency dependent. This amplitude dispersion also influences the performance of guided wave methods in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). In this paper, the effects of amplitude dispersion to the spectrum and waveform of a propagating wave-packet are investigated. It is shown that the amplitude dispersion results in distortion in the spectrum of guided wave response, and thus influences the waveform of the wave-packet. To remove these effects, an amplitude dispersion compensation method is established on the basis of Vold-Kalman filter and Taylor series expansion. The performance of that method is then investigated by experimental examples. The results show that with the application of the amplitude dispersion compensation, the time reversibility could be preserved, which ensures the applicability of the time reversal method for damage detection. Besides, through amplitude dispersion compensation, the testing resolution of guided waves could be improved, so that the structural features located in the close proximity may be separately identified.

  19. Modeling of grating compensated dispersion managed soliton systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Yuk Ha

    The transmission rate and propagation distance of optical fiber communication systems are limited by channel impairments such as chromatic dispersion, intrinsic fiber nonlinearity, polarization mode dispersion, amplifier noise, etc. We focus on the methods to curtail the chromatic dispersion which results in pulse broadening. The most effective solution is dispersion management which can be applied to NRZ and RZ (includes soliton) transmission formats. In 2004, through a combination of dispersion management and other techniques, the bit rate has reached 6 Tb/s over 6,120 km. Dispersion management is carried out by concatenation of fiber segments with different signs of dispersion coefficients alternately such that the average dispersion is small. Another method to counter the dispersion effect is to use soliton transmission that makes use of the intrinsic Kerr effect of optical fibers. It was discovered that soliton propagation is possible even in dispersion-managed (DM) systems; they are called DM solitons. Chirped fiber gratings (CFGs) are very attractive as dispersion compensators because of its compact size. The main drawback of using CFGs for dispersion compensation is their intrinsic group delay ripples (GDR). Group delay ripple causes intersymbol interference (ISI) through the overlapping of the side peaks, generated by GDR, in the temporal pulse profiles. As a result, the transmission performance drops. In NRZ transmission, the amplitudes of the side peaks increase linearly with the number of CFGs along the transmission line. In this thesis, we find that DM solitons exist in the DM fiber systems compensated by CFGs with GDR. The use of solitons suppresses the growth of the amplitudes of the side peaks. We found that the GDR could modify the grating dispersion. The current work also includes a novel method of using nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) to reduce the ISI induced by the GDR in CFG. The transmission record of grating compensated systems using

  20. Optical dispersion compensation in 300-pin MSA transponders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendlovic, David; Shabtay, Gal

    2005-02-01

    The 300-pin Multi Source Agreement (MSA) and other MSAs provide basic requirements from a transponder or transceiver used in 10Gb/s optical networks. These MSAs typically address a wide range of applications, including: SONET/SDH, 10GbE and 10GFC for Metro, long-haul (LH) and ultra-long-haul (ULH) networks. Nonetheless, being a basic standard, the 300-pin MSA addresses the minimal required specifications set and does not cover the whole set of requirements and applications that system vendors are interested in. For example, widely tunable and extended reach transponders are not included in the 300-pin MSA. Chromatic dispersion is one of the major reach limiting factors in optical networks. In reconfigurable optical networks, chunks of DWDM channels may travel through different routes and therefore require tunable dispersion compensation. In static ULH optical networks, the number of dispersion compensation fibers (DCFs) dictates the amount of residual chromatic dispersion. This residual chromatic dispersion differs from one DWDM channel to the other. Unless it is compensated at the receiver, it further restricts the link length and reduces the distance between one regenerator to the other. This results in shorter links and more O-E-O blocks, which dramatically increases the cost of the network. This paper discusses a specially designed optical dispersion compensation (ODC) device that is packaged in a standard butterfly package and can fit into a 300-pin MSA transponder. A transponder with the proposed ODC can still satisfy all the basic requirements that are described in the 300-pin MSA while providing improved chromatic dispersion tolerance.

  1. Jones precoder for polarization mode dispersion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhenyu; Sadjadpour, Hamid R.; Blum, Rick S.; Andrekson, Peter A.; Li, Tiffany Jing

    2008-04-01

    A new electrical-domain precoder is proposed to mitigate polarization mode dispersion (PMD) in optical communications by modeling a PMD-dominant fiber optical channel using a single input multiple output (SIMO) channel. Employing a bank of finite impulse response filters and a polarization modulator, and using parameters derived from the Jones matrix representation of PMD, the proposed precoder efficiently adapts to the time-varying nature of PMD and simultaneously pre-equalizes both polarization modes at the transmitter. The transmitter-only structure avoids losing phase and polarization information due to the nonlinearity of the commonly used square law direct-detection receiver. Analysis is performed to evaluate the impact of channel mismatch due to feedback delay, channel estimation errors, and the impact of the finite length of the precoder filters. The analytical results are used to guide selection of the appropriate feedback rate for the adaptive system. Extensive simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed Jones precoder, and present it as an effective, low-cost replacement to the complicated, expensive optical-domain counter-parts.

  2. Electronic compensation of chromatic dispersion using a digital coherent receiver.

    PubMed

    Savory, Seb J; Gavioli, Giancarlo; Killey, Robert I; Bayvel, Polina

    2007-03-05

    Digital signal processing (DSP) combined with a phase and polarization diverse coherent receiver is a promising technology for future optical networks. Not only can the DSP be used to remove the need for dynamic polarization control, but also it may be utilized to compensate for nonlinear and linear transmission impairments. In this paper we present results of a 42.8Gbit/s nonlinear transmission experiment, using polarization multiplexed QPSK data at 10.7GBaud, with 4 bits per symbol. The digital coherent receiver allows 107,424 ps/nm of chromatic dispersion to be compensated digitally after transmission over 6400km of standard single mode fiber.

  3. Dispersion control in square lattice photonic crystal fiber using hollow ring defects.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Lee, Sejin; Lee, Sungrae; Kim, So Eun; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2012-02-27

    We propose a new dispersion control scheme by introducing hollow ring defects having a central air hole and a GeO2-or F-doped silica ring with in a square lattice photonic crystal fiber. We confirmed the flexible dispersion controllability in the proposed structure in two aspects of dispersion managements: ultra-flattened near-zero dispersion in the 530 nm-bandwidth over all communication bands and dispersion compensation in C, L, and U band with a high compensation ratio of 0.96~1.0 in reference to the standard single mode fiber. The proposed SLPCFs were also estimated to have an inherently low splice loss due to the index contrast between the doped-ring and silica that kept a good guidance even along with collapsed air holes, which cannot be achieved in conventional PCFs.

  4. Depth-dependent dispersion compensation for full-depth OCT image.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liuhua; Wang, Xiangzhao; Li, Zhongliang; Zhang, Xiangyang; Bu, Yang; Nan, Nan; Chen, Yan; Wang, Xuan

    2017-05-01

    A depth-dependent dispersion compensation algorithm for enhancing the image quality of the Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) is presented. The dispersion related with depth in the sample is considered. Using the iterative method, an analytical formula for compensating the depth-dependent dispersion in the sample is obtained. We apply depth-dependent dispersion compensation algorithm to process the phantom images and in vivo images. Using sharpness metric based on variation coefficient to compare the results processed with different dispersion compensation algorithms, we find that the depth-dependent dispersion compensation algorithm can improve image quality at full depth.

  5. All-fiber chirped pulse amplification using highly-dispersive air-core photonic bandgap fiber.

    PubMed

    de Matos, C; Taylor, J; Hansen, T; Hansen, K; Broeng, J

    2003-11-03

    We show, for the first time to our knowledge, all-fiber chirped pulse amplification using an air-core photonic bandgap fiber. Pulses from a wavelength- and duration-tunable femtosecond/picosecond source at 10 GHz were dispersed in 100 m of dispersion compensating fiber before being amplified in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and subsequently recompressed in 10 m of the anomalously dispersive photonic bandgap fiber. Pulses as short as 1.1 ps were obtained. As air-core fibers present negligible nonlinearity, the presented configuration can potentially be used to obtain ultra-high pulse peak powers. A study of the air-core fiber dispersion and dispersion slope is also presented.

  6. Dispersion tailoring and compensation by modal interactions in OmniGuide fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engeness, Torkel D.; Ibanescu, Mihai; Johnson, Steven G.; Weisberg, Ori; Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Jacobs, Steven; Fink, Yoel

    2003-05-01

    We present a method for dispersion-tailoring of OmniGuide and other photonic band-gap guided fibers based on weak interactions ("anticrossings") between the core-guided mode and a mode localized in an intentionally introduced defect of the crystal. Because the core mode can be guided in air and the defect mode in a much higher-index material, we are able to obtain dispersion parameters in excess of 500,000 ps/nm-km. Furthermore, because the dispersion is controlled entirely by geometric parameters and not by material dispersion, it is easily tunable by structural choices and fiber-drawing speed. So, for example, we demonstrate how the large dispersion can be made to coincide with a dispersion slope that matches commercial silica fibers to better than 1%, promising efficient compensation. Other parameters are shown to yield dispersion-free transmission in a hollow OmniGuide fiber that also maintains low losses and negligible nonlinearities, with a nondegenerate TE01 mode immune to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD). We present theoretical calculations for a chalcogenide-based material system that has recently been experimentally drawn.

  7. Broadband submicron flattened dispersion compensating fiber with asymmetrical fluoride doped core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucki, M.; Zeleny, R.

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate selected fluoride optical materials and to present a photonic crystal fiber designed for specific applications in dispersion compensation by using those materials. The idea how to restrict chromatic dispersion is to increase the index contrast by using calcium fluoride or barium fluoride in the first ring of holes, which lower the effective index. In general, fluoride materials compared to standard silica glass in many aspects offer better mechanical and optical properties. The use of fluorides allows achieving broadband dispersion suppression impossible to achieve in standard fibers with similar geometry. The presented result comprises a numerical model of a photonic crystal fiber in a submicron lattice, specific for its negative dispersion coefficient achieved for broad spectrum of telecommunication wavelengths, i.e. 1300 - 1700 nm. The core consists of pure silica surrounded by three doped regions and three air-holes. Holes doped with fluoride materials enhance negative dispersion coefficient to -438 ps.nm-1.km-1. The diameter of doped regions is about 1 micrometer. Simulations were done by using the full-vector FDFD method. The wavelength evolution of refractive index of materials was introduced by using the Sellmeier approximation. The major advantage of the designed fibers is their material composition, low attenuation and broadband utilization.

  8. Performance analysis of the multimode fiber dispersion compensation with the use of compensating fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymiuk, L.; Belniak, P.

    2016-09-01

    SWDM systems are just to emerge in data-centers in order to reduce the number of fibers used and/or to increase the overall throughput. The biggest problem with employing such systems is the insufficient modal bandwidth in a wide range of wavelengths (850-940nm). Currently proposed solutions are based on the introduction of the new type multimode fiber, so-called wide-band MMF. Although the replacement of the legacy OM3/OM4 with new fibers enables employment of 4 channels SWDM, the bandwidth in side channels (850 and 940nm) is just accurate for current systems (each channel around 25Gbit/s at 300m), it does not provide any room for further future systems (requiring more bandwidth) development. We propose the other method to provide sufficient bandwidth in all SWDM channels. In our solution the legacy transmission OM3/OM4 fiber remains intact, however we compensate for modal dispersion by means of specially designed compensating fibers in all channels but 850nm (where the compensation is not required). In this paper we provide a series of numerical calculations performed with the use of custom designed numerical software in MatLab. We discuss the performance of our solution versus the length of the compensating fiber; we analyze the impact of launching conditions and chromatic dispersion (we assume multimode VCSEL and spectral dependent coupling). Presented results confirm the big potential of our solution for future high bitrate SWDM systems.

  9. Dispersion, birefringence, and amplification characteristics of newly designed dispersion compensating hole-assisted fibers.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kunimasa; Varshney, Shailendra K; Koshiba, Masanori

    2007-12-24

    We propose a new design of hole-assisted fiber (HAF) that can compensate for the accumulated dispersion in single-mode fiber link along with dispersion slope, thus providing broadband dispersion compensation over C-band as well as can amplify the signal channels by utilizing the stimulated Raman scattering phenomena. The proposed dispersion-compensating HAF (DCHAF) exhibits the lowest dispersion coefficient of -550 ps/nm/km at 1550 nm with an effective mode area of 15.6 microm(2). A 2.52 km long module of DCHAF amplifies incoming signals by rendering a gain of 4.2 dB with +/-0.8 dB gain flatness over whole C-band. To obtain accurate modal properties of DCHAF, a full-vector finite element method (FEM) solver is employed. The macro-bend loss characteristics of the proposed DCHAF are evaluated using FEM solver in cylindrical coordinate systems of a curved DCHAF, and low bending losses (<10(-2) dB/m for 1 cm bending radius) are obtained for improved DCHAF design while keeping intact its dispersion compensation and Raman amplification properties. We have further investigated the birefringence characteristics that can give significant information on the polarization mode dispersion of DCHAF by assuming a certain deformation (eccentricity e = 7%) either in air-holes or in the doped core or in both at a same time. It is noticed that the distortion in air-holes induces a birefringence of 10(-5), which is larger by a factor of 10 than the birefringence caused due to the core ellipticity. A PMD of 11.3 ps/ radicalkm is obtained at 1550 nm for distorted air-holes DCHAF structure.

  10. Dispersion Compensation Requirements for Optical CDMA Using WDM Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A J; Hendandez, V J; Feng, H X C; Heritage, J P; Lennon, W J

    2001-12-10

    Optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) uses very narrow transmission pulses and is thus susceptible to fiber optic link impairments. When the O-CDMA is implemented as wavelength/time (W/T) matrices which use wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) sources such as multi-frequency laser transmitters, the susceptibility may be higher due to: (a) the large bandwidth utilized and (b) the requirement that the various wavelength components of the codes be synchronized at the point of modulation and encoding as well as after (optical) correlation. A computer simulation based on the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, developed to study optical networking on the National Transparent Optical Network (NTON), was modified to characterize the impairments on the propagation and decoding of W/T matrix codes over a link of the NTON. Three critical link impairments were identified by the simulation: group velocity dispersion (GVD); the flatness of the optical amplifier gain; and the slope of the GVD. Subsequently, experiments were carried out on the NTON link to verify and refine the simulations as well as to suggest improvements in the W/T matrix signal processing design. The NTON link measurements quantified the O-CDMA dispersion compensation requirements. Dispersion compensation management is essential to assure the performance of W/T matrix codes.

  11. A reshaped excitation regenerating and mapping method for waveform correction in Lamb waves dispersion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhi; Zeng, Liang; Lin, Jing; Hua, Jiadong

    2017-02-01

    Dispersion effect of Lamb wave will cause wave-packets to spread out in space and time, making received signals hard to be interpreted. Though the conventional dispersion compensation method can restrain dispersion effect, waveform deformation still remains in the compensated results. To eliminate dispersion effect completely, a reshaped excitation dispersion compensation method is proposed in this paper. The method compensates the dispersed signal to the same shape as the original excitation by generating a reshaped excitation and then mapping the received signal from time domain to distance domain. Simulations and experiments are conducted for the validation of the waveform correction of the reshaped excitation dispersion compensation method. Applied in the traditional delay-and-sum algorithm, the new dispersion compensation method can effectively enhance the resolution of the damage imaging.

  12. Dispersion compensation for proximal scanning rigid OCT endoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankenau, Eva; Schumacher, Matthias; Koch, Peter; Konig, Frank; Daniltchenko, Dmitri; Schnorr, Dietmar; Huettmann, Gereon

    2004-07-01

    Combining endoscopy with optical coherence tomography (OCT) can improve the diagnosis in minimal invasive procedures. Up to now OCT probes were constructed using rotating or moving single-mode fibers or micro scanners at the tip of the probe. We describe an endoscopic OCT system which uses a specially designed rigid endoscope with an extracorporal scanner to create OCT images with 15 μm resolution. The OCT endoscope was constructed using a 270 mm gradient index lens with a diameter of 3 mm. Dispersion of the endoscope was compensated in the OCT interferometer by an all fiber approach. The system is now being tested for detecting malignancies in the urinary bladder.

  13. Dispersion limits in the design of small-mode-area photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeleny, Richard; Lucki, Michal

    2014-10-01

    The generally accepted view is that photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with a small effective mode area allow the control of chromatic dispersion in the near-infrared region. For this purpose, a silica index guiding PCF with hexagonal cladding is investigated to find its dispersion limitation. In addition, chromatic dispersion is entirely controlled by only three structural parameters; the influence of each structural parameter is examined and described in detail. Understanding the mechanism governing chromatic dispersion is necessary not only for the fiber design and dispersion tailoring, but also to predict the potential manufacturing tolerances. In spite of the fact that the fiber with specific parameters matches its relative dispersion slope to that of standard single-mode fibers over a large range of operating wavelengths, the negative dispersion parameter is not higher than those in commercially available dispersion-compensating fibers. Therefore, the fiber parameters are modified to find the balance between the operating bandwidth and the high negative dispersion parameter. The limit value for the dispersion parameter is found to be -1600 ps.nm-1.km-1 at 1550 nm, where the dispersion slope is achieved for the 120-nm wide band. We predict that the negative dispersion parameter cannot be higher in small effective mode area PCFs operating over a bandwidth larger than the one considered here. The results are calculated by the full-vectorial finite difference frequency domain method. The simulation model is verified by convergence testing.

  14. Flexible OFDM-based access systems with intrinsic function of chromatic dispersion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Murakawa, Takuya; Nagashima, Tomotaka; Hasegawa, Makoto; Shimizu, Satoshi; Hattori, Kuninori; Okuno, Masayuki; Mino, Shinji; Himeno, Akira; Uenohara, Hiroyuki; Wada, Naoya; Cincotti, Gabriella

    2015-12-01

    Cost-effective and tunable chromatic dispersion compensation in a fiber link are still an open issue in metro and access networks to cope with increasing costs and power consumption. Intrinsic chromatic dispersion compensation functionality of optical fractional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is discussed and experimentally demonstrated using dispersion-tunable transmitter and receiver based on wavelength selective switching devices.

  15. Evaluation of beam hardening and photon scatter by brass compensator for IMRT.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shimpei; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yukio; Miyashita, Hisayuki; Chang, Weishan; Kawachi, Toru; Katayose, Tetsurou; Kobayashi, Nao; Kunieda, Etsuo; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2012-11-01

    When a brass compensator is set in a treatment beam, beam hardening may take place. This variation of the energy spectrum may affect the accuracy of dose calculation by a treatment planning system and the results of dose measurement of brass compensator intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In addition, when X-rays pass the compensator, scattered photons are generated within the compensator. Scattered photons may affect the monitor unit (MU) calculation. In this study, to evaluate the variation of dose distribution by the compensator, dose distribution was measured and energy spectrum was simulated using the Monte Carlo method. To investigate the influence of beam hardening for dose measurement using an ionization chamber, the beam quality correction factor was determined. Moreover, to clarify the effect of scattered photons generated within the compensator for the MU calculation, the head scatter factor was measured and energy spectrum analyses were performed. As a result, when X-rays passed the brass compensator, beam hardening occurred and dose distribution was varied. The variation of dose distribution and energy spectrum was larger with decreasing field size. This means that energy spectrum should be reproduced correctly to obtain high accuracy of dose calculation for the compensator IMRT. On the other hand, the influence of beam hardening on k(Q) was insignificant. Furthermore, scattered photons were generated within the compensator, and scattered photons affect the head scatter factor. These results show that scattered photons must be taken into account for MU calculation for brass compensator IMRT.

  16. Soliton trapping of dispersive waves in photonic crystal fiber with two zero dispersive wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weibin; Yang, Hua; Tang, Pinghua; Zhao, Chujun; Gao, Jing

    2013-05-06

    Based on the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we present a numerical study of trapping of dispersive waves by solitons during supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers pumped with femtosecond pulses in the anomalous dispersion region. Numerical simulation results show that the generated supercontinuum is bounded by two branches of dispersive waves, namely blue-shifted dispersive waves (B-DWs) and red-shifted dispersive waves (R-DWs). We find a novel phenomenon that not only B-DWs but also R-DWs can be trapped by solitons across the zero-dispersion wavelength when the group-velocity matching between the soliton and the dispersive wave is satisfied, which may led to the generation of new spectral components via mixing of solitons and dispersive waves. Mixing of solitons with dispersive waves has been shown to play an important role in shaping not only the edge of the supercontinuum, but also its central part around the higher zero-dispersion wavelength. Further, we show that the phenomenon of soliton trapping of dispersive waves in photonic crystal fibers with two zero-dispersion wavelengths has a very close relationship with pumping power and the interval between two zero-dispersion wavelengths. In order to clearly display the evolution of soliton trapping of dispersive waves, the spectrogram of output pulses is observed using cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating technique (XFROG).

  17. Tunable coupled-mode dispersion compensation and its application to on-chip resonant four-wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Cale M; Zeng, Xiaoge; Popović, Miloš A

    2014-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate mode coupling as a viable dispersion compensation technique for phase-matched resonant four-wave mixing (FWM). We demonstrate a dual-cavity resonant structure that employs coupling-induced frequency splitting at one of three resonances to compensate for cavity dispersion, enabling phase matching. Coupling strength is controlled by thermal tuning of one cavity enabling active tuning of the resonant frequency matching. In a fabricated silicon microresonator, we show an 8 dB enhancement of seeded FWM efficiency over the noncompensated state. The measured FWM has a peak wavelength conversion efficiency of -37.9  dB across a free spectral range (FSR) of 3.334 THz (∼27  nm), which is, to the best of our knowledge, the largest in a silicon microresonator to demonstrate FWM to date. This form of dispersion compensation can be beneficial for many devices, including wavelength converters, parametric amplifiers, and widely detuned photon-pair sources. Apart from compensating dispersion, the proposed mechanism can alternatively be utilized in an otherwise dispersionless resonator to counteract the detuning effect of self- and cross-phase modulation on the pump resonance during FWM, thereby addressing a fundamental issue in the performance of light sources such as broadband optical frequency combs.

  18. Chromatic dispersion effect in a microwave photonic filter using superstructured fiber Bragg grating and dispersive fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Bennion, Ian; Williams, John

    2005-08-22

    In this paper a microwave photonic filter using superstructured fiber Bragg grating and dispersive fiber is investigated. A theoretical model to describe the transfer function of the filter taking into consideration the spectral width of light source is established. Experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical analysis. Both theoretical and experimental results indicate that due to chromatic dispersion the source spectral width introduces an additional power penalty to the microwave photonic response of the filter.

  19. Dispersion characteristics and compensation in the POLMUX coherent optical communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guijun; Ruan, Xiukai; Zhou, Zhili

    2017-07-01

    The trend of high-speed optical communication is to realize large capacity, fast speed and long haul transmission. However, the dispersion in an optical fiber link can cause signals distortion or even inter symbol interference (ISI). With increasing signal rate and transmission distance in the optical communication system, the development of high-speed optical fiber communication is restricted seriously. This paper is focusing on the dispersion characteristics and compensation of the polarization multiplexing (POLMUX) coherent optical communication system: (i) to study on dispersion theoretically, e.g., chromatic dispersion (CD), polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and dispersion tolerance; (ii) to analyze and compare the performance of dispersion with various 16-ary modulation formats; (iii) to compensate dispersion by the classical dispersion compensation methods.

  20. High-energy femtosecond Yb-doped dispersion compensation free fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Ortaç, B; Schmidt, O; Schreiber, T; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A; Hideur, A

    2007-08-20

    We report on a mode-locked high energy fiber laser operating in the dispersion compensation free regime. The sigma cavity is constructed with a saturable absorber mirror and short-length large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber. The laser generates positively-chirped pulses with an energy of 265 nJ at a repetition rate of 10.18 MHz in a stable and self-starting operation. The pulses are compressible down to 400 fs leading to a peak power of 500 kW. Numerical simulations accurately reflect the experimental results and reveal the mechanisms for self consistent intracavity pulse evolution. With this performance mode-locked fiber lasers can compete with state-of-the-art bulk femtosecond oscillators for the first time and pulse energy scaling beyond the muJ-level appears to be feasible.

  1. Configurable Dirac-like conical dispersions in complex photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Changqing; Lai, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We investigate Dirac-like conical dispersions in photonic crystals with complex unit cells. Comparing with photonic crystals with simple unit cells, the complex-unit-cell design can provide extra degrees of freedom to engineer the frequency of the Dirac-like point in a broad frequency regime. Interestingly, we find that many functionalities of double zero media associated with the Dirac-like point are well preserved in such complex photonic crystals, such as wave tunneling, cloaking, wave front control, etc. Different transmission behaviors, e.g., total reflection and negative refraction, can be achieved by shifting the frequency of the Dirac-like point.

  2. Dispersion compensated mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency comb with high power output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q. Y.; Manna, S.; Slivken, S.; Wu, D. H.; Razeghi, M.

    2017-04-01

    Chromatic dispersion control plays an underlying role in optoelectronics and spectroscopy owing to its enhancement to nonlinear interactions by reducing the phase mismatching. This is particularly important to optical frequency combs based on quantum cascade lasers which require negligible dispersions for efficient mode locking of the dispersed modes into equally spaced comb modes. Here, we demonstrated a dispersion compensated mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with high power output at room temperature. A low-loss dispersive mirror has been engineered to compensate the device's dispersion residue for frequency comb generation. Narrow intermode beating linewidths of 40 Hz in the comb-working currents were identified with a high power output of 460 mW and a broad spectral coverage of 80 cm-1. This dispersion compensation technique will enable fast spectroscopy and high-resolution metrology based on QCL combs with controlled dispersion and suppressed noise.

  3. Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kunimasa; Koshiba, M; Hasegawa, T; Sasaoka, E

    2003-04-21

    In order to control dispersion and dispersion slope of indexguiding photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), a new controlling technique of chromatic dispersion in PCF is reported. Moreover, our technique is applied to design PCF with both ultra-low dispersion and ultra-flattened dispersion in wide wavelength range. A full-vector finite element method with anisotropic perfectly matched layers is used to analyze the dispersion properties and the confinement losses in a PCF with finite number of air holes. It is shown from numerical results that it is possible to design a fourring PCF with flattened dispersion of 0 +/- 0.5 ps/(km.nm) from 1.19 m to 1.69 m wavelength range and a five-ring PCF with flattened dispersion of 0 +/- 0.4 ps/(km.nm) from 1.23 m to 1.72 m wavelength range.

  4. Numerical dispersion compensation for Partial Coherence Interferometry and Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Fercher, A; Hitzenberger, C; Sticker, M; Zawadzki, R; Karamata, B; Lasser, T

    2001-12-03

    Dispersive samples introduce a wavelength dependent phase distortion to the probe beam. This leads to a noticeable loss of depth resolution in high resolution OCT using broadband light sources. The standard technique to avoid this consequence is to balance the dispersion of the sample byarrangingadispersive materialinthereference arm. However, the impact of dispersion is depth dependent. A corresponding depth dependent dispersion balancing technique is diffcult to implement. Here we present a numerical dispersion compensation technique for Partial Coherence Interferometry (PCI) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) based on numerical correlation of the depth scan signal with a depth variant kernel. It can be used a posteriori and provides depth dependent dispersion compensation. Examples of dispersion compensated depth scan signals obtained from microscope cover glasses are presented.

  5. WDM coherent PDM-QPSK systems with and without inline optical dispersion compensation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chongjin

    2009-03-16

    Using numerical simulations, we study and compare the performance of 42.8-Gb/s and 112-Gb/s intradyne coherent polarization-division- multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) systems in wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) transmission with inline dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) and that with fully electronic dispersion compensation. Two effects are considered in the studies. One is fiber nonlinearities and the other is the local oscillator (LO) phase noise to amplitude noise conversion induced by electronic dispersion compensation. Results of 1000-km transmission employing standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) show that, for non-return-to-zero (NRZ) PDM-QPSK, both the 42.8-Gb/s and 112-Gb/s WDM systems with DCF have less tolerance to fiber nonlinearities than those with electronic dispersion compensation due to nonlinear polarization scattering. However, by using time-interleaved return-to-zero (RZ) P -QPSK, which can significantly suppress nonlinear polarization scattering in a system with inline DCF, the 42.8-Gb/s system with DCF can achieve better performance than that with electronic dispersion compensation, and comparable performance can be obtained for the 112-Gb/s system with DCF and that with electronic dispersion compensation. We find that the LO phase noise to amplitude noise conversion can cause significant penalties in the 112-Gb/s system with only electronic dispersion compensation if distributed feedback lasers are used.

  6. All-channel tunable optical dispersion compensator based on linear translation of a waveguide grating router.

    PubMed

    Sinefeld, David; Ben-Ezra, Shalva; Doerr, Christopher R; Marom, Dan M

    2011-04-15

    We propose and demonstrate a compact tunable optical dispersion compensation (TODC) device with a 100 GHz free spectral range capable of mitigating chromatic dispersion impairments. The TODC is based on longitudinal movement of a waveguide grating router, resulting in chromatic dispersion compensation of ±1000 ps/nm. We employed our TODC device for compensating 42.8 Gbit/sec differential phase-shifting keying signal, transmitted over 50 km fiber with a -2 dB power penalty at 10⁻⁹.

  7. Reversed dispersion slope photonic bandgap fibers for broadband dispersion control in femtosecond fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Várallyay, Z; Saitoh, K; Fekete, J; Kakihara, K; Koshiba, M; Szipocs, R

    2008-09-29

    Higher-order-mode solid and hollow core photonic bandgap fibers exhibiting reversed or zero dispersion slope over tens or hundreds of nanometer bandwidths within the bandgap are presented. This attractive feature makes them well suited for broadband dispersion control in femtosecond pulse fiber lasers, amplifiers and optical parametric oscillators. The canonical form of the dispersion profile in photonic bandgap fibers is modified by a partial reflector layer/interface placed around the core forming a 2D cylindrical Gires-Tournois type interferometer. This small perturbation in the index profile induces a frequency dependent electric field distribution of the preferred propagating higher-order-mode resulting in a zero or reversed dispersion slope.

  8. Ultrashort Laguerre-Gaussian pulses with angular and group velocity dispersion compensation.

    PubMed

    Zeylikovich, I; Sztul, H I; Kartazaev, V; Le, T; Alfano, R R

    2007-07-15

    Coherent optical vortices are generated from ultrashort 6.4 fs pulses. Our results demonstrate angular dispersion compensation of ultrashort 6.4 fs Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) pulses as well as what is believed to be the first direct autocorrelation measurement of 80 fs LG amplified pulses. A reflective-mirror-based 4f-compressor is proposed to compensate the angular and group velocity dispersion of the ultrashort LG pulses.

  9. Dispersion Based Photonic-Crystal Structures for RF Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    localized coupled-cavities in three-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 61, RI 1855-RI 1858 (2000). 15 U. Peschel, A. L. Reynolds, B. Arredondo , F...of the most rapidly advancing sectors in the electromagnetic arena. Herein, we demonstrated the applications of RF PhCs in improving the performance of...dielectric devices based on the unique dispersion properties of PhCs to achieve confinement, waveguiding, radiation, and filtering in the microwave to

  10. Compensated Crystal Assemblies for Type-II Entangled Photon Generation in Quantum Cluster States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    multi-crystal sources, such as cluster states, entanglement swapping, and teleportation . 15. SUBJECT TERMS quantum , entangled photons, joint...entanglement swapping, and teleportation . Key Words: quantum , entangled photons, joint spectral function, spontaneous parametric downconversion 2...DATES COVERED (From - To) OCT 2009 – SEP 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COMPENSATED CRYSTAL ASSEMBLIES FOR TYPE-II ENTANGLED PHOTO GENERATION IN QUANTUM

  11. Analysis of dispersion compensation by chirped fiber grating in directly and externally modulated CATV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qing; Liu, Feng; Qu, Ronghui; Fang, Zujie

    2007-12-01

    The dispersion compensation effect of the chirped fiber grating (CFG) is analyzed theoretically, and analytic expressions are derived for composite second-order (CSO) distortion in analog modulated sub-carrier multiplexed (AM-SCM) cable television (CATV) systems with externally and directly modulated transmitters. Simulations are given for the two kinds of modulations and for standard single mode fiber and non-zero dispersion shift fiber (NZDSF) systems. The results show that CFG could be used as a dispersion compensator in directly modulated systems, but its dispersion coefficient should be adjusted much more precisely than the externally modulated system. The requirements for the NZDSF system could be loosened much. It is proposed that directly modulated source may be used as a transmitter in CATV systems combined with tunable CFG dispersion compensator being adjusted precisely, which may be more cost-effective than externally modulation technology.

  12. Modulation Diversity for Chromatic Dispersion Compensation in Analog Photonic Links

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-14

    nono ztnJPqtE oωβωφ cos0 ] (4) where we establish the convention that primed variables correspond to ΦM and those...Ω+′                   Ω+−Ω+     + Ω+−Ω+     −−     − = ∑ ∑ ∑ ∞ −∞= Ω+ ∞ −∞= ∞ ≠ −∞= n nono oddk

  13. Design of wideband dispersion compensating optical fiber device based on higher-order LP11 mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Aditya; Rana, J. L.

    2000-07-01

    With the advent of erbium - doped fiber amplifers (EDFA), the fiber loss in the 1550 nm window can be easily compensated and the transmission distance extended even to few thousands of kms without the use of electronic regenerators. However, inorder to utilize the vast transmission capacity of the Single mode fiber, the positive chromatic dispersion exhibited by the existing standard single mode fibers remains to be the primary limitation. This development has motivated the researchers to find new techniques for compensating the positive dispersion of the existing single mode fiber network. It has been demonstrated that higher order modes exhibit large negative dispersion when operated closet o their cutoff wavelength. This negative dispersion can be used to compensate the positive chromatic dispersion of the existing single mode fiber. In this paper we discuss the issues related to the design and optimization of a passive device, dispersion compensating fiber (DCF), which is capable of compensating the chromatic dispersion of the existing fiber over a wide wavelength span from 1500 nm to 1600 nm. This wavelength range encompasses both the bandwidth of EDFA and the low attentuation window of single mode optical fiber. A finite element method (FEM) is used to calculate the dispersion characteristics of a single mode optical fiber with arbitrary refractive index profile. Computer simulations shows that an optimally designed dispersion compensating fiber can reduce the dispersion of standard fiber from 18.62 ps / km - nm to 0.45 ps / km - nm over the entire wavelength span, when it is added with the existing standard fiber in a ration of 20.56:1.

  14. Analytical evaluation of chromatic dispersion in photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Enrique; Pinheiro-Ortega, Teresa; Andrés, Pedro; Miret, Juan J; Ortigosa-Blanch, Arturo

    2005-03-01

    We present a two-dimensional modal approach for the evaluation, in an analytical manner, of chromatic dispersion in any kind of optical fiber. It combines an iterative Fourier technique to compute the propagation constant at any fixed wavelength and an analytical procedure to calculate its derivatives. The proposed formulation takes into account the effective anisotropy of the interfaces and allows us to deal with microstructured fibers, in general, and specifically with realistic photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), including arbitrary spatial refractive-index distributions of dispersive and absorbing materials. This fast and accurate numerical technique is extremely useful for both analysis and design. We show some results of analysis of PCFs with high anisotropy, and we also describe PCFs with new dispersive properties.

  15. Chromatic dispersion compensation and Coherent Direct-Sequence OCDMA operation on a single super structured FBG.

    PubMed

    Baños, Rocío; Pastor, Daniel; Amaya, Waldimar; Garcia-Munoz, Victor

    2012-06-18

    We have proposed, fabricated and demonstrated experimentally a set of Coherent Direct Sequence-OCDMA en/decoders based on Super Structured Fiber Bragg Gratings (SSFBGs) which are able to compensate the fiber chromatic dispersion at the same time that they perform the en/decoding task. The proposed devices avoid the use of additional dispersion compensation stages reducing system complexity and losses. This performance was evaluated for 5.4, 11.4 and 16.8 km of SSMF. The twofold performance was verified in Low Reflectivity regime employing only one GVD compensating device at decoder or sharing out the function between encoder and decoder devices. Shared functionality requires shorter SSFBGs designs and also provides added flexibility to the optical network design. Moreover, dispersion compensated en/decoders were also designed into the High Reflectivity regime employing synthesis methods achieving more than 9 dB reduction of insertion loss for each device.

  16. Simultaneous chromatic dispersion and PMD compensation by using coded-OFDM and girth-10 LDPC codes.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2008-07-07

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC)-coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is studied as an efficient coded modulation scheme suitable for simultaneous chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation. We show that, for aggregate rate of 10 Gb/s, accumulated dispersion over 6500 km of SMF and differential group delay of 100 ps can be simultaneously compensated with penalty within 1.5 dB (with respect to the back-to-back configuration) when training sequence based channel estimation and girth-10 LDPC codes of rate 0.8 are employed.

  17. Design of a pentagonal photonic crystal fiber with high birefringence and large flattened negative dispersion.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuyou; Liu, Pan; Xu, Zhenlong; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2015-08-20

    Novel pentagonal photonic crystal fiber with high birefringence, large flattened negative dispersion, and high nonlinearity is proposed. The dispersion and birefringence properties of this structure are simulated and analyzed numerically based on the full vector finite element method (FEM). Numerical results indicate that the fiber obtains a large average dispersion of -611.9  ps/nm/km over 1,460-1,625 nm and -474  ps/nm/km over 1425-1675 nm wavelength bands for two kinds of optimized designs, respectively. In addition, the proposed PCF shows a high birefringence of 1.67×10-2 and 1.75×10-2 at the operating wavelength of 1550 nm. Moreover, the influence of the possible variation in the parameters during the fabrication process on the dispersion and birefringence properties is studied. The proposed PCF would have important applications in polarization maintaining transmission systems, residual dispersion compensation, supercontinuum generation, and the design of widely tunable wavelength converters based on four-wave mixing.

  18. Dispersion-controlled slow light in photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Baba, Toshihiko; Adachi, Jun; Ishikura, Norihiro; Hamachi, Yohei; Sasaki, Hirokazu; Kawasaki, Takashi; Mori, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    Slow light with a markedly low group velocity is a promising solution for optical buffering and advanced time-domain optical signal processing. It is also anticipated to enhance linear and nonlinear effects and so miniaturize functional photonic devices because slow light compresses optical energy in space. Photonic crystal waveguide devices generate on-chip slow light at room temperature with a wide bandwidth and low dispersion suitable for short pulse transmission. This paper first explains the delay-bandwidth product, fractional delay, and tunability as crucial criteria for buffering capacity of slow light devices. Then the paper describes experimental observations of slow light pulse, exhibiting their record high values. It also demonstrates the nonlinear enhancement based on slow light pulse transmission.

  19. An imaging algorithm for damage detection with dispersion compensation using piezoceramic induced lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guangmin; Gao, Weihang; Song, Gangbing; Song, Yue

    2017-02-01

    Piezoceramic induced Lamb waves are often used for imaging based damage detection, especially for plate like structures. The dispersion effect of the Lamb waves deteriorates the performance of most of imaging methods, since the waveform of the dispersion signals will spread out. In this paper, an imaging method which can compensate the dispersion is developed. In the proposed method, the phase induced by the propagation distance is compensated firstly. After that, the phase deviation generated by the dispersion effect is compensated. Via the two compensations, the proposed method can derive an accurate location of the target with a clean imaging map. An experiment using a plate like structure with four piezoceramic transducer was conducted. In the experiment, the four piezoceramic sensors were used to obtain the signals of the scatterer that simulated the damage on an aluminum plate. The experimental results show that since the dispersion effect is compensated, the target’s image based on the proposed method is about 10 cm × 14 cm, which is about a quarter of that of using the back-projection imaging method.

  20. Broadband dispersion-compensating fiber for high-bit-rate transmission network use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, V. A.; Belov, A. V.; Dianov, E. M.; Abramov, A. A.; Bubnov, M. M.; Semjonov, S. L.; Shchebunjaev, A. G.; Khopin, V. F.; Guryanov, A. N.; Vechkanov, N. N.

    1995-08-01

    The optimum refractive-index profile and drawing temperature were investigated so as to maximize the figure of merit for multicladding broadband dispersion-compensating fibers. Based on the results of the investigation, the authors have fabricated a highly bend-resistant fiber with a 92.6-ps/(nm dB) figure of merit using the modified chemical-vapor deposition method for dispersion compensation in the 1.5-1.6- mu m wavelength region. The manufactured dispersion compensator does not suffer bend loss at 1.55 mu m for curvatures of radia of 6.3 and 3.3 cm, and it has a 1.1-dB/km bend loss at a curvature of radius of 1.6 cm. Codoping the germanium silicate core with fluorine diminishes the optical loss down to 0.70 dB/km at a 1.55- mu m wavelength.

  1. DPSK Modulated (Tbit/s) Transmission Incorporating Dispersion-compensated Hybrid Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vishal; Gautam, Sunil

    2013-12-01

    The simulative implementation of differential phase shift keying (DPSK) modulated data transmission incorporating single-pump highly efficient dispersion compensated Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier is demonstrated. The simulative results are discussed to compare two different types of configurations of dispersion compensated 16-channel wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system to achieve transmission of Tbit/s data. In pre-compensation technique, dispersion compensated fiber (DCF) is used prior to fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) (Type I) and in post-compensation technique; the DCF is used after FRA (Type II) in a WDM optical communication system. The pumped dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) is in use to act as FRA amplifier. The performance characteristics such as Q factor, BER and eye closure penalty are premeditated to realize the ultra high speed WDM systems by employing DCF based FRA together with DPSK modulation. From simulated results, it is recommended to implement Type I over Type II to realize the feasibility of such high speed WDM systems.

  2. Analysis of dispersion compensation for position-dependence in externally modulated CATV lightwave systems by using chirped fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qing; Liu, Feng; Cai, Haiwen; Qu, Ronghui; Fang, Zujie

    2005-10-01

    The dispersion compensation characteristics of the chirped fiber grating (CFG) for different dispersion compensation positions are analyzed in externally modulated cable television (CATV) lightwave system and the analytic expression of the composite second order (CSO) distortion is derived. The analyses give a reasonable explanation for the position-dependent effect of CFG dispersion compensator, which was found in practical systems. Moreover, the theoretical result is also verified by an experiment. It is believed that the theory will be helpful in designing optical CATV fiber links with nodes at proper positions both for intensity amplification and dispersion compensation.

  3. Leak Location in Plates: Compensation for Multi-Mode dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strei, M.; Roberts, R.; Holland, S.; Chimenti, D. E.

    2004-02-01

    The problem of noise source location in a plate-like structure using time of flight data recorded at sparsely distributed measurement locations is examined. The cross-correlation approach to source triangulation is not generally applicable to signals carried by multiple dispersive plate wave modes. This work examines the extensions to the principles of cross-correlation-based triangulation needed to robustly determine source location.

  4. Achromatic flat optical components via compensation between structure and material dispersions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Li, Xiong; Pu, Mingbo; Zhao, Zeyu; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Yanqin; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    Chromatism causes great quality degradation of the imaging system, especially for diffraction imaging. The most commonly method to overcome chromatism is refractive/diffractive hybrid optical system which, however, sacrifices the light weight and integration property of diffraction elements. A method through compensation between the structure dispersion and material dispersion is proposed to overcome the chromatism in flat integrated optical components. This method is demonstrated by making use of silver nano-slits waveguides to supply structure dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide to compensate the material dispersion of metal. A broadband deflector and lens are designed to prove the achromatic property of this method. The method demonstrated here may serve as a solution of broadband light manipulation in flat integrated optical systems. PMID:26794855

  5. Pulse compression and dispersion compensation for high- resolution Lamb wave inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, J.; Lin, J.; Zeng, L.

    2015-07-01

    The dispersion of ultrasonic guided waves causes the energy of a signal to spread out in space and time as it propagates, which decreases the performance for damage detection significantly. A lot of signal processing methods have been proposed to reduce the effect of dispersion for this reason. In this paper, with the aim of developing an efficient methodology for high resolution Lamb wave inspection, a pulse compression and dispersion compensation method is established. In this method, broadband excitation and pulse compression technique are introduced to reconstruct the transform function with a high SNR. Subsequently, a scheme is established to alleviate the dispersion effects by performing compensation on the original narrowband excitation signals, and thus the time duration of received wave packet can be compressed during the extracting process. Finally, Numerical simulation and experiment are carried on aluminum specimens to investigate the behavior of the proposed method.

  6. Signal Construction-Based Dispersion Compensation of Lamb Waves Considering Signal Waveform and Amplitude Spectrum Preservation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Wang, Tongguang

    2016-12-23

    The results of Lamb wave identification for the aerospace structures could be easily affected by the nonlinear-dispersion characteristics. In this paper, dispersion compensation of Lamb waves is of particular concern. Compared with the similar research works on the traditional signal domain transform methods, this study is based on signal construction from the viewpoint of nonlinear wavenumber linearization. Two compensation methods of linearly-dispersive signal construction (LDSC) and non-dispersive signal construction (NDSC) are proposed. Furthermore, to improve the compensation effect, the influence of the signal construction process on the other crucial signal properties, including the signal waveform and amplitude spectrum, is considered during the investigation. The linear-dispersion and non-dispersion effects are firstly analyzed. Then, after the basic signal construction principle is explored, the numerical realization of LDSC and NDSC is discussed, in which the signal waveform and amplitude spectrum preservation is especially regarded. Subsequently, associated with the delay-and-sum algorithm, LDSC or NDSC is employed for high spatial resolution damage imaging, so that the adjacent multi-damage or quantitative imaging capacity of Lamb waves can be strengthened. To verify the proposed signal construction and damage imaging methods, the experimental and numerical validation is finally arranged on the aluminum plates.

  7. Band gap and dispersion engineering of photonic crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Caihua

    Photonic crystals (PhCs) have been of great interest in a variety of fields in the past decade due to their great capability for manipulating photons in a manner similar to how electrons are controlled in a semiconductor material. In particular, PhCs are expected to revolutionize such fields as optical signal processing and optical communication by allowing the development of novel optical devices for high-density photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The development of PhC devices will be greatly accelerated by systematic designs. In this dissertation, I developed several procedures to systematically engineer the dispersion properties of PhCs. Using these procedures, I presented a variety of novel applications intended for use in future high-density PICs. These were achieved through efficient implementations of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the plane wave method (PWM). Specifically, by combining these efficient electromagnetic tools with the direct binary search (DBS) method or simulated annealing (SA), I developed very efficient synthesis processes and used them to optimize absolute photonic band gaps (PBGs) of PhC structures and a beam steering device based on a PhC with PBG(s). I also presented another novel PhC device working in PBG, namely a PhC ring drop filter. On the other hand, I utilized the FDTD method and the PWM to shape dispersion surfaces and/or contours of PhC structures for manipulating light propagation. In particular, I engineered PhCs with square- and circle-shaped equi-frequency contours (EFCs) and presented several applications using these two unique PhCs. These applications include optical beam routing, coupling and splitting a wide beam into multiple narrow self-guiding beams, a unidirectional emitter, and an in-plane lens coupler. I also explored negative refraction and left-handed behavior in PhCs and presented a flat lens using a PhC exhibiting negative refraction and left-handed behavior.

  8. Management of residual dispersion of an optical transmission system using octagonal photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Russel Reza; Goffar Khan, Muhammad Abdul; Razzak, S. M. Abdur

    2016-04-01

    An octagonal photonic crystal fiber (O-PCF) for numerical structure design and analysis of some particular properties are presented in this paper. The proposed design is suitable for residual dispersion compensation (RDC) with polarization maintaining (PM) applications as it offers extremely high-negative flattened average chromatic dispersion (DT) and absolute dispersion variation (ΔD) of around -(708±10) ps nm-1 km-1 and average high birefringence (B) of the order 10-2 for the wavelength limits of 1.46 to 1.67 μm (bandwidth of 210 nm that covers S+C+L+U bands in the infrared region of the optical third window). In addition, it exhibits very low confinement loss of 10-3.5 to 10-2.5 dB/m for that bandwidth. Moreover, to evaluate the sensitivity of the fiber properties (DT and B) during fabrication, ±0.02 μm variation in the optimum parameters is also studied.

  9. An Experiment of GMPLS-Based Dispersion Compensation Control over In-Field Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seno, Shoichiro; Horiuchi, Eiichi; Yoshida, Sota; Sugihara, Takashi; Onohara, Kiyoshi; Kamei, Misato; Baba, Yoshimasa; Kubo, Kazuo; Mizuochi, Takashi

    As ROADMs (Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers) are becoming widely used in metro/core networks, distributed control of wavelength paths by extended GMPLS (Generalized MultiProtocol Label Switching) protocols has attracted much attention. For the automatic establishment of an arbitrary wavelength path satisfying dynamic traffic demands over a ROADM or WXC (Wavelength Cross Connect)-based network, precise determination of chromatic dispersion over the path and optimized assignment of dispersion compensation capabilities at related nodes are essential. This paper reports an experiment over in-field fibers where GMPLS-based control was applied for the automatic discovery of chromatic dispersion, path computation, and wavelength path establishment with dynamic adjustment of variable dispersion compensation. The GMPLS-based control scheme, which the authors called GMPLS-Plus, extended GMPLS's distributed control architecture with attributes for automatic discovery, advertisement, and signaling of chromatic dispersion. In this experiment, wavelength paths with distances of 24km and 360km were successfully established and error-free data transmission was verified. The experiment also confirmed path restoration with dynamic compensation adjustment upon fiber failure.

  10. Parametric tunable dispersion compensation for the transmission of sub-picosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosu, Takayuki; Tanizawa, Ken; Petit, Stephane; Namiki, Shu

    2011-08-01

    Parametric tunable dispersion compensator (P-TDC), which allows format-independent operation owing to seamlessly wide bandwidth, is expected to be one of the key building blocks of the future ultra-high speed optical network. In this paper, a design of ultra-wide band P-TDC is presented showing that bandwidth over 2.5 THz can be achieved by compensating the chromatic dispersion up to the 4th order without employing additional method. In order to demonstrate the potential application of P-TDC in the Tbit/s optical time division multiplexing transmissions, 400 fs optical pulses were successfully transmitted through a dispersion managed 6-km DSF fiber span.

  11. Characterization of chromatic dispersion in photonic crystal fibers using scalar modulation instability.

    PubMed

    Wong, G K; Chen, A Y; Ha, S; Kruhlak, R; Murdoch, S; Leonhardt, R; Harvey, J; Joly, N

    2005-10-17

    A simple and accurate method is proposed for characterizing the chromatic dispersion of high air-filling fraction photonic crystal fibers. The method is based upon scalar modulation instability generated by a strong pump wave propagating near the zero-dispersion wavelength. Measuring the modulation instability sideband frequency shifts as a function of wavelength gives a direct measurement of the fiber's chromatic dispersion over a wide wavelength range. To simplify the dispersion calculation we introduce a simple analytical model of the fiber's dispersion, and verify its accuracy via a full numerical simulation. Measurements of the chromatic dispersion of two different types of high air-filling fraction photonic crystal fibers are presented.

  12. Compensation-free, all-fiber-optic, two-photon endomicroscopy at 1.55 μm

    PubMed Central

    Murari, Kartikeya; Zhang, Yuying; Li, Shenping; Chen, Yongping; Li, Ming-Jun; Li, Xingde

    2013-01-01

    We present an all-fiber-optic scanning multiphoton endomicroscope with 1.55 μm excitation without the need for prechirping femtosecond pulses before the endomicroscope. The system consists of a 1.55 μm femtosecond fiber laser, a customized double-clad fiber for light delivery and fluorescence collection, and a piezoelectric scan head. We demonstrate two-photon imaging of cultured cells and mouse tissue, both labeled with indocyanine green. Free-space multiphoton imaging with near-IR emission has previously shown benefits in reduced background fluorescence and lower attenuation for the fluorescence emission. For fiber-optic multiphoton imaging there is the additional advantage of using the soliton effect at the telecommunication wavelengths (1.3–1.6 μm) in fibers, permitting dispersion-compensation-free, small-footprint systems. We expect these advantages will help transition multiphoton endomicroscopy to the clinic. PMID:21479064

  13. Ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion controllability using a defected-core photonic crystal fiber with low confinement losses.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kunimasa; Florous, Nikolaos; Koshiba, Masanori

    2005-10-17

    The present paper describes a novel systematic solution to the problem of controlling the chromatic dispersion and dispersion slope in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), using a structurally-simple PCF with a defected-core. By adjusting the size of the central air-hole defect we can successfully design an ultra-flattened PCF with low confinement losses, as well as small effective mode area. The design strategy is based on the mutual cancellation between the waveguide and the material dispersions of the PCF, by varying the size of the central defected region in the core. The verification of the ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion property of the proposed PCF is ensured with an accurate full-vector finite element method with anisotropic perfectly matched layers. The ultra-flattened dispersion feature, as well as the low confinement losses and the small effective mode area are the main advantages of the proposed PCF structure, making it suitable as a chromatic dispersion controller dispersion compensator, or as candidate for nonlinear optical applications.

  14. Increased range of ultrasonic guided wave testing of overhead transmission line cables using dispersion compensation.

    PubMed

    Legg, Mathew; Yücel, Mehmet K; Kappatos, Vassilios; Selcuk, Cem; Gan, Tat-Hean

    2015-09-01

    Overhead Transmission Line (OVTL) cables can experience structural defects and are, therefore, inspected using Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques. Ultrasonic Guided Waves (UGW) is one NDT technique that has been investigated for inspection of these cables. For practical use, it is desirable to be able to inspect as long a section of cable as possible from a single location. This paper investigates increasing the UGW inspection range on Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cables by compensating for dispersion using dispersion curve data. For ACSR cables, it was considered to be difficult to obtain accurate dispersion curves using modelling due to the complex geometry and unknown coupling between wire strands. Group velocity dispersion curves were, therefore, measured experimentally on an untensioned, 26.5m long cable and a method of calculating theoretical dispersion curves was obtained. Attenuation and dispersion compensation were then performed for a broadband Maximum Length Sequence (MLS) excitation signal. An increase in the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of about 4-8dB compared to that of the dispersed signal was obtained. However, the main benefit was the increased ability to resolve the individual echoes from the end of the cable and an introduced defect in the form of a cut, which was 7 to at least 13dB greater than that of the dispersed signal. Five echoes were able to be clearly detected using MLS excitation signal, indicating the potential for an inspection range of up to 130m in each direction. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the longest inspection range for ACSR cables reported in the literature, where typically cables, which were only one or two meter long, have been investigated previously. Narrow band tone burst and Hann windowed tone burst excitation signal also showed increased SNR and ability to resolve closely spaced echoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced reflection via phase compensation from anomalous dispersion in atomic vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Junxiang; Zhou Haitao; Wang Dawei; Zhu Shiyao

    2011-05-15

    The phase compensation mechanism induced by anomalous dispersion in the reflection process of four-wave mixing (or reflection from a grating) in a three-level system is investigated, where the four wave vectors do not match in vacuum. An efficiency of the reflected signal of as high as 43% from a hot atomic cell of Cs is observed. The maximum reflection occurs when the frequency of the probe beam (and consequently the frequency of the reflected signal) is slightly red detuned from the transition frequency, which is attributed to the phase compensation from the steep anomalous dispersion accompanied with a strong probe absorption. The dependences of the efficiency on the angle between the coupling and probe lights, on the intensity of the coupling, field and on atomic density are studied. A theoretical model is presented and it is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Defaunation leads to interaction deficits, not interaction compensation, in an island seed dispersal network.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Evan C; Tewksbury, Joshua J; Rogers, Haldre S

    2017-07-20

    Following defaunation, the loss of interactions with mutualists such as pollinators or seed dispersers may be compensated through increased interactions with remaining mutualists, ameliorating the negative cascading impacts on biodiversity. Alternatively, remaining mutualists may respond to altered competition by reducing the breadth or intensity of their interactions, exacerbating negative impacts on biodiversity. Despite the importance of these responses for our understanding of the dynamics of mutualistic networks and their response to global change, the mechanism and magnitude of interaction compensation within real mutualistic networks remains largely unknown. We examined differences in mutualistic interactions between frugivores and fruiting plants in two island ecosystems possessing an intact or disrupted seed dispersal network. We determined how changes in the abundance and behavior of remaining seed dispersers either increased mutualistic interactions (contributing to "interaction compensation") or decreased interactions (causing an "interaction deficit") in the disrupted network. We found a "rich-get-richer" response in the disrupted network, where remaining frugivores favored the plant species with highest interaction frequency, a dynamic that worsened the interaction deficit among plant species with low interaction frequency. Only one of five plant species experienced compensation and the other four had significant interaction deficits, with interaction frequencies 56-95% lower in the disrupted network. These results do not provide support for the strong compensating mechanisms assumed in theoretical network models, suggesting that existing network models underestimate the prevalence of cascading mutualism disruption after defaunation. This work supports a mutualist biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship, highlighting the importance of mutualist diversity for sustaining diverse and resilient ecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. High-speed optical transmissions over a second- and third-order dispersion-managed DSF span with parametric tunable dispersion compensator.

    PubMed

    Tanizawa, Ken; Kurosu, Takayuki; Namiki, Shu

    2010-05-10

    A wideband and fast tunable chromatic dispersion compensator is one of the key components for the future high-speed optical transmissions. We have so far proposed and demonstrated a new tunable dispersion compensation scheme called parametric tunable dispersion compensator (P-TDC), which is based on the combination of parametric frequency conversion and frequency dependent dispersive media. The P-TDC has many attractive features such as a seamlessly wideband operation, wide tunable range and fast dispersion tuning. In fact, with appropriate configurations of dispersive media, the P-TDC can compensate the dispersion slope of transmission fibers even though the second-order dispersion is small. In this paper, we use such a P-TDC scheme and successfully achieve high-speed optical transmissions over a second- and third-order dispersion managed dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) span. The transmission experiments show low-penalty 172 Gbit/s return-to-zero on-off-keying transmissions over 126-km DSF. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  18. Cotton-yarn/TiO {2} dispersed resin photonic crystals with straight and wavy structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kirihara, S.; Miyamoto, Y.; Sakoda, K.

    2004-06-01

    The feasibility of three-dimensional (3-D) photonic crystals made using textile technology was investigated. Three different textures consisting of the cotton-yarn and TiO2 dispersed resin; a crossed linear-yarn laminated fabric, a multi layered woven fabric, and a 3-D woven fabric, were fabricated. The microwave attenuation of the transmission amplitude through these photonic crystals was measured. The straight cotton-yarn as well as the wavy cotton-yarn/TiO2 dispersed resin photonic crystals exhibited band gaps in the 6 to 15 GHz range. Thus, we could fabricate successfully 3-D photonic crystals using textile technology.

  19. Refractive-diffractive dispersion compensation for optical vortex beams with ultrashort pulse durations.

    PubMed

    Musigmann, Manfred; Jahns, Jürgen; Bock, Martin; Grunwald, Ruediger

    2014-11-01

    Wave fields, which are described mathematically by higher order Bessel functions, carry an orbital angular momentum and thus represent particular types of optical vortex beams with helical wavefronts. For the generation of such vortex beams, one may use, for instance, diffractive spiral axicons. Diffraction, however, leads invariably to strong dispersion, which is detrimental for ultrashort pulses since it leads to severe pulse broadening. This pulse broadening can be minimized or reduced completely (at least, in a specific plane of propagation) if the pulses propagate additionally through a medium with normal refractive dispersion. The refractive-diffractive generation of ultrashort vortex pulses was demonstrated earlier for a pulse duration of approximately 8 fs [Opt. Lett.37, 3804 (2012)10.1364/OL.37.003804OPLEDP0146-9592]. Here, we present an analytical description of the generation and propagation of these vortex beams and of the refractive-diffractive compensation of the dispersion.

  20. Plasmon-enhanced waveguide for dispersion compensation in mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Bidaux, Yves; Sergachev, Ilia; Wuester, Wolf; Maulini, Richard; Gresch, Tobias; Bismuto, Alfredo; Blaser, Stéphane; Muller, Antoine; Faist, Jérôme

    2017-04-15

    We demonstrate dispersion compensation in mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency combs (FCs) emitting at 7.8 μm using the coupling of a dielectric waveguide to a plasmonic resonance in the top cladding layer of the latter. Devices with group velocity dispersion lower than 110  fs2/mm were fabricated, and narrow beatnotes with FWHM linewidths below 1 kHz were measured on the entire operation range. At -20°C, the optical output power reaches 275 mW, and the optical spectrum spans 60  cm-1. The multi-heterodyne beating spectrum of two devices was measured and spans 46  cm-1, demonstrating the potential of dispersion-engineered waveguides for the fabrication of highly stable and reliable quantum cascade laser FCs with high output power across the mid-infrared.

  1. Chromatic dispersion monitoring and adaptive compensation using pilot symbols in an 8 x 12.5 Gbit/s all-optical OFDM system.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Satoshi; Cincotti, Gabriella; Wada, Naoya

    2014-04-07

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel technique for chromatic dispersion (CD) monitoring and adaptive compensation in an 8 x 12.5 Gbit/s all-optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (AO-OFDM) system by using two pilot symbols and a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) for a tunable CD compensator. The two pilot symbols are added to the first and the last sub-channels of the OFDM signal, and their relative time delay is detected and used for CD estimation at the CD monitoring circuit. The monitored CD value is fed to VIPA for CD compensation. In the experiments, the relative time delay between the two pilot symbols was successfully observed, and the adaptive CD compensation drastically improved the bit-error-rate (BER) from over 10(-5) to under 10(-9). The estimated CD values showed less than 10 ps/nm difference from the values measured by a photonic dispersion analyzer, which is accurate enough since the AO-OFDM system can keep BER<10(-9) upto 20 ps/nm residual CD.

  2. Limits on Cosmological Dispersion from Photon Bunches in GRB 090510 from Fermi LAT Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Connolly, R.; Kostinski, A.

    2013-01-01

    Three photons spanning about 30 GeV arrived within about one millisecond from the Fermi-detected GRB 090510A at a redshift of about 0.9. Although conceivably a > 3 sigma statistical fluctuation, when taken at face value, this photon bunch -- quite possibly a classic GRB pulse -- leads to a relatively tight bound on the ability of our universe to disperse high energy photons. Specifically given a generic dispersion relation where the time delay is proportional to the photon energy to the first power the limit on the dispersion strength is k1 < 1.61 x 10-5 sec Gpc-1 GeV-1. Two other short duration photon bunches bolster the statistical significance of this limit. In the context of some theories of quantum gravity this conservative bound translates into an minimum energy scale greater than 525 m_Planck suggesting that spacetime is smooth at energies perhaps a factor of 1000 below the Planck length.

  3. Chirped distributed Bragg reflector for broad-band group velocity dispersion compensation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Ban, D.

    2016-11-01

    Behaviors of chirped DBR for group velocity dispersion (GVD) compensation in THz QCLs with metal-metal waveguides have been investigated theoretically in both 1D and 3D models with COMSOL Multiphysics. The strategy of designing chirped DBR for GVD compensation in terahertz frequency range has been presented. In order to achieve broad-band GVD compensation with less distortion, a two-section chirped DBR structure is proposed.

  4. Design of a transversal equalizer for electronic dispersion compensation in optical communication links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhen-bin; Shi, Yong; Wang, Bo; Zeng, Xiang-ye

    2011-01-01

    A programmable transversal equalizer for electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) in optical fiber communication systems is developed. Based on the SiGe technology with a cut-off frequency of 80 GHz, the equalizer consists of 6 seriesparallel amplifiers as delay units and 7 Gilbert variable gain amplifiers as taps, which ensure that the equalizer can work at the bit rate of 10 Gb/s. With different tap gains, the forward voltage gain of the transversal equalizer varies, which demonstrates that the equalizer has various filtering characteristics such as low pass filtering, band pass filtering, band reject filtering, and notch filtering, so it can effectively simulate the inverse transfer function of dispersive channels in optical communications, and can be used for compensating the inter-symbol interference and other nonlinear problems caused by dispersion. The equalizer (including pads) occupies an area of 0.40 mm×1.08 mm, and its total power dissipation is 400 mW with 3.3 V power supply.

  5. Optical arbitrary waveform generator applicable to pulse generation and chromatic dispersion compensation of a remote UWB over fiber system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Wen, He; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhou, Bingkun

    2011-12-12

    Optical arbitrary waveform generator (OAWG), which can generate pre-distorted ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses to tolerate the chromatic dispersion (CD) of the fiber without any other CD compensation solutions, provides a good solution for the UWB over fiber system. In our paper, we experimentally demonstrate a new OAWG scheme based on multiple incoherent continuous wave lights by double side band with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) modulation. UWB Gaussian monocycle and doublet pulses are generated and the chromatic dispersion of 20-km, 50-km and 100-km single-mode fiber (SMF) are compensated by the OAWG system without any other CD compensation solutions. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  6. Few-cycle pulse generation from noncollinear optical parametric amplifier with static dispersion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Yuya; Sudo, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2017-09-01

    We present a novel design of a few-cycle noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) pumped by the second harmonic of a Ti:sapphire laser. A quasi-transform-limited sub-6 fs pulse width was realized by static dispersion compensation with commercially available chirped mirrors. The performance of the NOPA was tested by performing transient absorption spectroscopy on sensory rhodopsin II, and we observe short-lived oscillatory components that are associated with the vibrational coherence from the isomerizing molecule in the excited electronic state.

  7. Chromatic dispersion compensation using two pilot tones in optical OFDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lilong; Yang, Xuelin; Hu, Weisheng

    2011-12-01

    We propose a novel approach to compensate the fiber chromatic dispersion (CD) and to adjust the phase/amplitude using two pilot tones in fiber optical OFDM transmission. In the conventional channel estimation methods, one or more symbols have to be applied as the pilot tones. The new approach makes full use of the fiber CD properties while using less pilot tones. The simulations show a significant improvement (~ 2 dB) of the optical OFDM signal in terms of the bit error rate (BER) penalty, compared with the conventional least-square (LS) linear interpolation and one-reference-symbol methods.

  8. In-service light path PMD (polarization mode dispersion) monitoring by PMD compensation.

    PubMed

    Yao, X Steve; Chen, Xiaojun; Xia, T J; Wellbrock, Glenn; Chen, David; Peterson, Daniel; Zhang, Paul; Belisle, Ansel; Dong, Lei; Yu, Tao

    2010-12-20

    We describe a novel method of measuring PMD (polarization mode dispersion) of an in-service DWDM system by PMD compensation. We successfully demonstrate the method in a 1500-km ultra-long haul DWDM test bed. We further verify the feasibility of the method for in-service light path PMD monitoring in a field trial in a revenue-generating route in Verizon Network, and obtain an accurate PMD value without impacting live network traffic. The discrepancy between the measured and expected PMD values is less than 6% for all cases tested.

  9. Photon polarizability and its effect on the dispersion of plasma waves

    DOE PAGES

    Dodin, I. Y.; Ruiz, D. E.

    2017-03-06

    High-frequency photons travelling in plasma exhibit a linear polarizability that can influence the dispersion of linear plasma waves. We present a detailed calculation of this effect for Langmuir waves as a characteristic example. Here, two alternative formulations are given. In the first formulation, we calculate the modified dispersion of Langmuir waves by solving the governing equations for the electron fluid, where the photon contribution enters as a ponderomotive force. In the second formulation, we provide a derivation based on the photon polarizability. Then, the calculation of ponderomotive forces is not needed, and the result is more general.

  10. Slow light and chromatic temporal dispersion in photonic crystal waveguides using femtosecond time of flight.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, C E; Cattaneo, F; Perney, N M B; Baumberg, J J; Netti, M C; Zoorob, M E; Charlton, M D B; Parker, G J

    2006-01-01

    We report time-of-flight experiments on photonic-crystal waveguide structures using optical Kerr gating of a femtosecond white-light supercontinuum. These photonic-crystal structures, based on engineered silicon-nitride slab waveguides, possess broadband low-loss guiding properties, allowing the group velocity dispersion of optical pulses to be directly tracked as a function of wavelength. This dispersion is shown to be radically disrupted by the spectral band gaps associated with the photonic-crystal periodicity. Increased time-of-flight effects, or "slowed light," are clearly observed at the edges of band gaps in agreement with two-dimensional plane-wave theoretical models of group velocity dispersion. A universal model for slow light in such photonic crystals is proposed, which shows that slow light is controlled predominantly by the detuning from, and the size of, the photonic band gaps. Slowed light observed up to time delays of approximately 1 ps, corresponds to anomalous dispersion of approximately 3.5 ps/nm per mm of the photonic crystal structure. From the decreasing intensity of time-gated slow light as a function of time delay, we estimate the characteristic losses of modes which are guided in the spectral proximity of the photonic band gaps.

  11. Dispersion Relation of Electromagnetic Waves in One-Dimensional Plasma Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojo, Hitoshi; Mase, Atsushi

    The dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals is studied. The plasma photonic crystal is a periodic array composed of alternating thin plasma and dielectric material. The dispersion relation is obtained by solving a Maxwell wave equation using a method analogous to Kronig-Penny’s problem in quantum mechanics, and it is found that the frequency gap and cut-off appear in the dispersion relation. The frequency gap is shown to become larger with the increase of the plasma density as well as plasma width.

  12. High birefringence, low loss terahertz photonic crystal fibres with zero dispersion at 0.3 THz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Guo-Bing; Li, Shu-Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Shuo

    2011-09-01

    A terahertz photonic crystal fibre (THz-PCF) is designed for terahertz wave propagation. The dispersion property and model birefringence are studied by employing the finite element method. The simulation result reveals the changing patten of dispersion parameter versus the geometry. The influence of the large frequency band of terahertz on birefringence is also discussed. The design of low loss, high birefringence THz-PCFs with zero dispersion frequency at 0.3 THz is presented.

  13. Full Polarization Conical Dispersion and Zero-Refractive-Index in Two-Dimensional Photonic Hypercrystals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Photonic conical dispersion has been found in either transverse magnetic or transverse electric polarization, and the predominant zero-refractive-index behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal is polarization-dependent. Here, we show that two-dimensional photonic hypercrystals can be designed that exhibit polarization independent conical dispersion at the Brillouin zone center, as two sets of triply-degenerate point for each polarization are accidentally at the same Dirac frequency. Such photonic hypercrystals consist of periodic dielectric cylinders embedded in elliptic metamaterials, and can be viewed as full-polarized near zero-refractive-index materials around Dirac frequency by using average eigen-field evaluation. Numerical simulations including directional emissions and invisibility cloak are employed to further demonstrate the double-zero-index characteristics for both polarizations in the photonic hypercrystals. PMID:26956377

  14. Full Polarization Conical Dispersion and Zero-Refractive-Index in Two-Dimensional Photonic Hypercrystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2016-03-09

    Photonic conical dispersion has been found in either transverse magnetic or transverse electric polarization, and the predominant zero-refractive-index behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal is polarization-dependent. Here, we show that two-dimensional photonic hypercrystals can be designed that exhibit polarization independent conical dispersion at the Brillouin zone center, as two sets of triply-degenerate point for each polarization are accidentally at the same Dirac frequency. Such photonic hypercrystals consist of periodic dielectric cylinders embedded in elliptic metamaterials, and can be viewed as full-polarized near zero-refractive-index materials around Dirac frequency by using average eigen-field evaluation. Numerical simulations including directional emissions and invisibility cloak are employed to further demonstrate the double-zero-index characteristics for both polarizations in the photonic hypercrystals.

  15. Extracting and compensating dispersion mismatch in ultrahigh-resolution Fourier domain OCT imaging of the retina

    PubMed Central

    Choi, WooJhon; Baumann, Bernhard; Swanson, Eric A.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2012-01-01

    We present a numerical approach to extract the dispersion mismatch in ultrahigh-resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the retina. The method draws upon an analogy with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. By exploiting mathematical similarities between the expressions for aberration in optical imaging and dispersion mismatch in spectral / Fourier domain OCT, Shack-Hartmann principles can be extended from the two-dimensional paraxial wavevector space (or the x-y plane in the spatial domain) to the one-dimensional wavenumber space (or the z-axis in the spatial domain). For OCT imaging of the retina, different retinal layers, such as the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), the photoreceptor inner and outer segment junction (IS/OS), or all the retinal layers near the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) can be used as point source beacons in the axial direction, analogous to point source beacons used in conventional two-dimensional Shack-Hartman wavefront sensors for aberration characterization. Subtleties regarding speckle phenomena in optical imaging, which affect the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor used in adaptive optics, also occur analogously in this application. Using this approach and carefully suppressing speckle, the dispersion mismatch in spectral / Fourier domain OCT retinal imaging can be successfully extracted numerically and used for numerical dispersion compensation to generate sharper, ultrahigh-resolution OCT images. PMID:23187353

  16. A Study of Dispersion Compensation of Polarization Multiplexing-Based OFDM-OCDMA for Radio-over-Fiber Transmissions

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chih-Ta; Chen, Wen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Chromatic dispersion from optical fiber is the most important problem that produces temporal skews and destroys the rectangular structure of code patterns in the spectra-amplitude-coding-based optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) system. Thus, the balance detection scheme does not work perfectly to cancel multiple access interference (MAI) and the system performance will be degraded. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is the fastest developing technology in the academic and industrial fields of wireless transmission. In this study, the radio-over-fiber system is realized by integrating OFDM and OCDMA via polarization multiplexing scheme. The electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) equalizer element of OFDM integrated with the dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) is used in the proposed radio-over-fiber (RoF) system, which can efficiently suppress the chromatic dispersion influence in long-haul transmitted distance. A set of length differences for 10 km-long single-mode fiber (SMF) and 4 km-long DCF is to verify the compensation scheme by relative equalizer algorithms and constellation diagrams. In the simulation result, the proposed dispersion mechanism successfully compensates the dispersion from SMF and the system performance with dispersion equalizer is highly improved. PMID:27618042

  17. A Study of Dispersion Compensation of Polarization Multiplexing-Based OFDM-OCDMA for Radio-over-Fiber Transmissions.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chih-Ta; Chen, Wen-Bin

    2016-09-07

    Chromatic dispersion from optical fiber is the most important problem that produces temporal skews and destroys the rectangular structure of code patterns in the spectra-amplitude-coding-based optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) system. Thus, the balance detection scheme does not work perfectly to cancel multiple access interference (MAI) and the system performance will be degraded. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is the fastest developing technology in the academic and industrial fields of wireless transmission. In this study, the radio-over-fiber system is realized by integrating OFDM and OCDMA via polarization multiplexing scheme. The electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) equalizer element of OFDM integrated with the dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) is used in the proposed radio-over-fiber (RoF) system, which can efficiently suppress the chromatic dispersion influence in long-haul transmitted distance. A set of length differences for 10 km-long single-mode fiber (SMF) and 4 km-long DCF is to verify the compensation scheme by relative equalizer algorithms and constellation diagrams. In the simulation result, the proposed dispersion mechanism successfully compensates the dispersion from SMF and the system performance with dispersion equalizer is highly improved.

  18. Chromatic dispersion and PMD monitoring and compensation techniques studies in optical communication systems with single channel speed 40Gbit/s and CSRZ format.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; He, Lina; Yang, Sigang; Zhang, Yejin; Chen, Hongwei; Xie, Shizhong

    2007-06-11

    We study a whole compensation system for chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion, including monitoring subsystems and compensation subsystems in optical communication systems with single channel speed 40Gbit/s and CSRZ format. We employed the spectral shift effect of a semiconductor optical amplifier for chromatic dispersion monitoring, and a non-linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating for chromatic dispersion compensation. The degree of polarization characterizes is used as feedback control signal of polarization mode dispersion monitoring, and a polarization controller and a polarization maintaining fiber are formed a polarization mode dispersion compensator. The transmission experiment demonstrates that the whole compensation system is effective. It is suit for chromatic dispersion management and polarization mode dispersion eliminating in optical communication systems with high single channel speed and CSRZ format.

  19. Multi-channel nonlinearity compensation of PDM-QPSK signals in dispersion-managed transmission using dispersion-folded digital backward propagation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Cen; Liu, Xiang; Chandrasekhar, S; Fontaine, N K; Zhu, Likai; Li, G

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate nonlinearity compensation of 37.5-GHz-spaced 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals using dispersion-folded digital-backward-propagation and a spectrally-sliced receiver that simultaneously receives three WDM signals, showing mitigation of intra-channel and inter-channel nonlinear effects in a 2560-km dispersion-managed TWRS-fiber link. Intra-channel and adjacent inter-channel nonlinear compensation gains when WDM channels are fully populated in the C-band are estimated based on the GN-model.

  20. The effect of higher-order dispersion on slow light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Engelen, R J P; Sugimoto, Y; Watanabe, Y; Korterik, J P; Ikeda, N; van Hulst, N F; Asakawa, K; Kuipers, L

    2006-02-20

    We have studied the dispersion of ultrafast pulses in a photonic crystal waveguide as a function of optical frequency, in both experiment and theory. With phase-sensitive and time-resolved near-field microscopy, the light was probed inside the waveguide in a non-invasive manner. The effect of dispersion on the shape of the pulses was determined. As the optical frequency decreased, the group velocity decreased. Simultaneously, the measured pulses were broadened during propagation, due to an increase in group velocity dispersion. On top of that, the pulses exhibited a strong asymmetric distortion as the propagation distance increased. The asymmetry increased as the group velocity decreased. The asymmetry of the pulses is caused by a strong increase of higher order dispersion. As the group velocity was reduced to 0.116(9) .c, we found group velocity dispersion of -1.1(3) .10(6) ps(2)/km and third order dispersion of up to 1.1(4) .10(5) ps(3)/km. We have modelled our interferometric measurements and included the full dispersion of the photonic crystal waveguide. Our mathematical model and the experimental findings showed a good correspondence. Our findings show that if the most commonly used slow light regime in photonic crystals is to be exploited, great care has to be taken about higher-order dispersion.

  1. Single photon energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Patel, Shamim; Hawreliak, James A.; Ciricosta, Orlando; Collins, Gilbert W.; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H.; Suggit, Matthew J.; Tang, Henry; Wark, Justin S.

    2014-03-01

    With the pressure range accessible to laser driven compression experiments on solid material rising rapidly, new challenges in the diagnosis of samples in harsh laser environments are emerging. When driving to TPa pressures (conditions highly relevant to planetary interiors), traditional x-ray diffraction techniques are plagued by increased sources of background and noise, as well as a potential reduction in signal. In this paper we present a new diffraction diagnostic designed to record x-ray diffraction in low signal-to-noise environments. By utilising single photon counting techniques we demonstrate the ability to record diffraction patterns on nanosecond timescales, and subsequently separate, photon-by-photon, signal from background. In doing this, we mitigate many of the issues surrounding the use of high intensity lasers to drive samples to extremes of pressure, allowing for structural information to be obtained in a regime which is currently largely unexplored.

  2. Single photon energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Patel, Shamim; Ciricosta, Orlando; Suggit, Matthew J.; Wark, Justin S.; Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H.; Tang, Henry

    2014-03-15

    With the pressure range accessible to laser driven compression experiments on solid material rising rapidly, new challenges in the diagnosis of samples in harsh laser environments are emerging. When driving to TPa pressures (conditions highly relevant to planetary interiors), traditional x-ray diffraction techniques are plagued by increased sources of background and noise, as well as a potential reduction in signal. In this paper we present a new diffraction diagnostic designed to record x-ray diffraction in low signal-to-noise environments. By utilising single photon counting techniques we demonstrate the ability to record diffraction patterns on nanosecond timescales, and subsequently separate, photon-by-photon, signal from background. In doing this, we mitigate many of the issues surrounding the use of high intensity lasers to drive samples to extremes of pressure, allowing for structural information to be obtained in a regime which is currently largely unexplored.

  3. Single photon energy dispersive x-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Patel, Shamim; Hawreliak, James A; Ciricosta, Orlando; Collins, Gilbert W; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H; Suggit, Matthew J; Tang, Henry; Wark, Justin S

    2014-03-01

    With the pressure range accessible to laser driven compression experiments on solid material rising rapidly, new challenges in the diagnosis of samples in harsh laser environments are emerging. When driving to TPa pressures (conditions highly relevant to planetary interiors), traditional x-ray diffraction techniques are plagued by increased sources of background and noise, as well as a potential reduction in signal. In this paper we present a new diffraction diagnostic designed to record x-ray diffraction in low signal-to-noise environments. By utilising single photon counting techniques we demonstrate the ability to record diffraction patterns on nanosecond timescales, and subsequently separate, photon-by-photon, signal from background. In doing this, we mitigate many of the issues surrounding the use of high intensity lasers to drive samples to extremes of pressure, allowing for structural information to be obtained in a regime which is currently largely unexplored.

  4. Dispersion engineering of photonic crystal fibers by means of fluidic infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebnali-Heidari, M.; Dehghan, F.; Saghaei, H.; Koohi-Kamali, F.; Moravvej-Farshi, M. K.

    2012-09-01

    We present a technique based on the optofluidic method to design a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) experiencing small dispersion over a broad range of wavelengths. Without nano-scale variation in the air-hole diameter or the lattice constant of Λ, or even changing the shape of the air holes, this approach allows us to control the dispersion of the fundamental mode in a PCF simply by choosing a suitable refractive index of the liquid to infiltrate into the air holes of the PCF. Moreover, one can design a different PCF such as a dispersion flattened fiber (DFF), dispersion shifted fiber (DSF), by utilizing fluids of various refractive indices.

  5. Analysis of dispersion diagram for high performance refractive index sensor based on photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Hemant Sankar; Goyal, Amit Kumar; Pal, Suchandan

    2017-02-01

    Photonic crystal waveguide, to be used as a highly sensitive platform for refractive index based sensing applications, has been analyzed in this paper. The sensing performance is estimated by using dispersion diagram through using plane wave expansion simulations. The dispersion diagram is used to obtain transmittance and cut-off wavelengths for analyzing the sensor characteristics. It has been proposed that the photonic crystal waveguide with ring-type line defect provides a better perspective for sensing applications as compared to the conventional photonic crystal waveguide. An optimized ring-type photonic crystal waveguide structure with a defect filling factor of 50% shows a refractive index sensitivity of 450 nm/RIU having almost double the output signal strength compared to hole-type line defect waveguide with the same filling factor.

  6. Efficient low dispersion compact plasmonic-photonic coupler.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulos, T P H; Maier, S A; Oulton, R F

    2012-05-21

    We report efficient low dispersion light coupling into a silicon waveguide using an antenna consisting of two metallic nanoparticles. We find that strong multiple scattering between the nanoparticles dictates the coupling efficiency. We also explore directional coupling, by using different particles with a relative scattering phase, but find that optimum directionality corresponds to minimum efficiency. A dipole model highlights a subtle interplay between multiple scattering and directionality leading to a compromise allowing up to 30% transmission into a single direction. With a 500 nm bandwidth near infrared telecoms bands, group delay dispersion is sufficiently low to faithfully couple pulses as short as 50 fs.

  7. Full-color autostereoscopic 3D display system using color-dispersion-compensated synthetic phase holograms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyongsik; Kim, Hwi; Lee, Byoungho

    2004-10-18

    A novel full-color autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) display system has been developed using color-dispersion-compensated (CDC) synthetic phase holograms (SPHs) on a phase-type spatial light modulator. To design the CDC phase holograms, we used a modified iterative Fourier transform algorithm with scaling constants and phase quantization level constraints. We obtained a high diffraction efficiency (~90.04%), a large signal-to-noise ratio (~9.57dB), and a low reconstruction error (~0.0011) from our simulation results. Each optimized phase hologram was synthesized with each CDC directional hologram for red, green, and blue wavelengths for full-color autostereoscopic 3D display. The CDC SPHs were composed and modulated by only one phase-type spatial light modulator. We have demonstrated experimentally that the designed CDC SPHs are able to generate full-color autostereoscopic 3D images and video frames very well, without any use of glasses.

  8. Method to compensate the dispersion of kinetic energy resolution in a velocity map imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lan, Pengfei; Feng, Zhengpeng; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang

    2014-10-01

    Here we present a novel method to improve the kinetic energy resolution of a velocity map imaging(VMI) spectrometer. The main modifications, compared to the original design of Eppink and Parker (1997 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68 3477), are two additional grid electrodes. One of the electrodes is a grounded grid and the other is an arc-shaped grid with negative voltages (or positive voltages for an ions spectrometer). The arc-shaped electrode is axially symmetrical around the spectrometer axis. The field constructed by the two electrodes is to compensate the dispersion of the ‘v’-shaped energy resolution. Simulations by SIMION and reconstructions by the basis set expansion Abel transform method show that the kinetic energy resolution can be improved drastically by our new method. Furthermore, the accuracy in the determination of the kinetic energy of ion/electrons remains unchanged with respect to the original design.

  9. Tunable chirped fiber Bragg grating embedded in a textile laminated beam for fiber dispersion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Weichong; Liu, W. P.; Du, David G.; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Tao, Xiaoming; Yu, ChongXiu; Liu, Shong Hao

    1998-06-01

    A simple method is reported for transformation of a uniform fiber grating into a linear chirped grating and realization of independent tuning of grating's linear chirp degree and central wavelength. This method involves embedding a uniform grating into a textile laminated beam and creating an odd- symmetrical linear strain distribution along the grating versus its center with a three-point-bending and stretching setup. The grating's central wavelength and chirp degree can be tuned by adjusting the horizontal stretching range and vertical bending displacement on the beam independently. A simulated experiment for compensating the dispersion of a standard single-mode fiber over 100km for 10Gbit/s signal at 1550nm window is successfully demonstrated using such a tunable chirped grating with 10 cm in length.

  10. Dispersion-compensated beam-splitting of femtosecond light pulses: Wave optics analysis.

    PubMed

    Mínguez-Vega, Gladys; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Fernández-Alonso, Mercedes; Climent, Vicent; Lancis, Jesús; Caraquitena, José; Andrés, Pedro

    2007-01-22

    Recently, using parageometrical optics concepts, a hybrid, diffractive-refractive, lens triplet has been suggested to significantly improve the spatiotemporal resolution of light spots in multifocal processing with femtosecond laser pulses. Here, we carry out a rigorous wave-optics analysis, including the spatiotemporal nature of the wave equation, to elucidate both the spatial extent of the diffractive spots and the temporal duration of the pulse at the output plane. Specifically, we show nearly transform-limited behavior of diffraction maxima. Moreover, the temporal broadening of the pulse is related to the group velocity dispersion, which can be pre-compensated for in practical applications. Finally, some numerical simulations of the spatiotemporal wave field at the output plane in a realistic case are provided.

  11. Nonlinear wavelength conversion in photonic crystal fibers with three zero-dispersion points

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, S. P.; Biancalana, F.; Podlipensky, A.; St. J. Russell, P.

    2011-02-15

    In this theoretical study, we show that a simple endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber can be designed to yield, not just two, but three zero-dispersion wavelengths. The presence of a third dispersion zero creates a rich phase-matching topology, enabling enhanced control over the spectral locations of the four-wave-mixing and resonant-radiation bands emitted by solitons and short pulses. The greatly enhanced flexibility in the positioning of these bands has applications in wavelength conversion, supercontinuum generation, and pair-photon sources for quantum optics.

  12. Dispersive approach to two-photon exchange in elastic electron-proton scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Blunden, P. G.; Melnitchouk, W.

    2017-06-14

    We examine the two-photon exchange corrections to elastic electron-nucleon scattering within a dispersive approach, including contributions from both nucleon and Δ intermediate states. The dispersive analysis avoids off-shell uncertainties inherent in traditional approaches based on direct evaluation of loop diagrams, and guarantees the correct unitary behavior in the high energy limit. Using empirical information on the electromagnetic nucleon elastic and NΔ transition form factors, we compute the two-photon exchange corrections both algebraically and numerically. Finally, results are compared with recent measurements of e+ p to e- p cross section ratios from the CLAS, VEPP-3 and OLYMPUS experiments.

  13. In vacuo dispersion features for gamma-ray-burst neutrinos and photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; D'Amico, Giacomo; Rosati, Giacomo; Loret, Niccoló

    2017-07-01

    Over the past 15 years there has been considerable interest in the possibility of quantum-gravity-induced in vacuo dispersion, the possibility that spacetime itself might behave essentially like a dispersive medium for particle propagation. Two recent studies have exposed what might be in vacuo dispersion features for gamma-ray-burst (GRB) neutrinos of energy in the range of 100 TeV and for GRB photons with energy in the range of 10 GeV. We here show that these two features are roughly compatible with a description such that the same effects apply over four orders of magnitude in energy. We also show that it should not happen so frequently that such pronounced features arise accidentally, as a result of (still unknown) aspects of the mechanisms producing photons at GRBs or as a result of background neutrinos accidentally fitting the profile of a GRB neutrino affected by in vacuo dispersion.

  14. Method based on chirp decomposition for dispersion mismatch compensation in precision absolute distance measurement using swept-wavelength interferometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Hu, Tao; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu

    2015-12-14

    We establish a theoretical model of dispersion mismatch in absolute distance measurements using swept-wavelength interferometry (SWI) and propose a novel dispersion mismatch compensation method called chirp decomposition. This method separates the dispersion coefficient and distance under test, which ensures dispersion mismatch compensation without introducing additional random errors. In the measurement of a target located at 3.9 m, a measurement resolution of 45.9 μm is obtained, which is close to the theoretical resolution, and a standard deviation of 0.74 μm is obtained, which is better than the traditional method. The measurement results are compared to a single-frequency laser interferometer. The target moves from 1 m to 3.7 m, and the measurement precision using the new method is less than 0.81 μm.

  15. Direct and inverted nematic dispersions for soft matter photonics.

    PubMed

    Muševič, I; Skarabot, M; Humar, M

    2011-07-20

    General properties and recent developments in the field of nematic colloids and emulsions are discussed. The origin and nature of pair colloidal interactions in the nematic colloids are explained and an overview of the stable colloidal 2D crystalline structures and superstructures discovered so far is given. The nature and role of topological defects in the nematic colloids is discussed, with an emphasis on recently discovered entangled colloidal structures. Applications of inverted nematic emulsions and binding force mechanisms in nematic colloids for soft matter photonic devices are discussed.

  16. Performance of carrier phase recovery for electronically dispersion compensated coherent systems.

    PubMed

    Farhoudi, Ramtin; Ghazisaeidi, Amirhossein; Rusch, Leslie Ann

    2012-11-19

    An analytical approach taking into account carrier phase estimation (CPE) is presented to predict performance of quadrature phase shift-keying (QPSK) systems using coherent detection. Using this approach, system performance is found as a function of symbol rate, local oscillator (LO) linewidth, chromatic dispersion (CD) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A new expression is derived for the covariance matrix of the conditional probability density function (pdf) of the decision statistic. This pdf is used to find bit error rate (BER) semi-analytically. Our analytical derivation assumes perfect removal of data modulation which corresponds to an ideal decision feedback (DF) carrier recovery. The validity of the analytical pdf for predicting BER is verified for a wide range of system parameters of interest in long haul systems. In addition, our semi-analytical BER provides a lower bound for the Viterbi-Viterbi (VV) BER, while showing the analytical BER previously proposed in the literature shows an overly pessimistic prediction of VV BER performance. We show that inaccuracy in previous analysis stems from overly simple model for the CPE when compensating large accumulated dispersion electronically. Finally, we study extension of our results to quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Preliminary simulation results are promising but the accuracy of our semi-analytical approach for predicting BER should be investigated further.

  17. Nonlinear impairment compensation using expectation maximization for dispersion managed and unmanaged PDM 16-QAM transmission.

    PubMed

    Zibar, Darko; Winther, Ole; Franceschi, Niccolo; Borkowski, Robert; Caballero, Antonio; Arlunno, Valeria; Schmidt, Mikkel N; Gonzales, Neil Guerrero; Mao, Bangning; Ye, Yabin; Larsen, Knud J; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2012-12-10

    In this paper, we show numerically and experimentally that expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is a powerful tool in combating system impairments such as fibre nonlinearities, inphase and quadrature (I/Q) modulator imperfections and laser linewidth. The EM algorithm is an iterative algorithm that can be used to compensate for the impairments which have an imprint on a signal constellation, i.e. rotation and distortion of the constellation points. The EM is especially effective for combating non-linear phase noise (NLPN). It is because NLPN severely distorts the signal constellation and this can be tracked by the EM. The gain in the nonlinear system tolerance for the system under consideration is shown to be dependent on the transmission scenario. We show experimentally that for a dispersion managed polarization multiplexed 16-QAM system at 14 Gbaud a gain in the nonlinear system tolerance of up to 3 dB can be obtained. For, a dispersion unmanaged system this gain reduces to 0.5 dB.

  18. Energy dispersive photon counting detectors for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, William C.; Wessel, Jan C.; Malakhov, Nail; Wawrzyniak, Gregor; Hartsough, Neal E.; Gandhi, Thulasidharan; Nygard, Einar; Iwanczyk, Jan S.

    2013-09-01

    We report on our efforts toward the development of silicon (Si) strip detectors for energy-resolved clinical breast imaging. Typically, x-ray integrating detectors based on scintillating cesium iodide CsI(Tl) or amorphous selenium (a- Se) are used in most commercial systems. Recently, mammography instrumentation has been introduced based on photon counting silicon Si strip detectors. Mammography requires high flux from the x-ray generator, therefore, in order to achieve energy resolved single photon counting, a high output count rate (OCR) for the detector must be achieved at the required spatial resolution and across the required dynamic range for the application. The required performance in terms of the OCR, spatial resolution, and dynamic range must be obtained with sufficient field of view (FOV) for the application thus requiring the tiling of pixel arrays and scanning techniques. Room temperature semiconductors, operating as direct conversion x-ray sensors, can provide the required speed when connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at fast peaking times with multiple fixed thresholds per pixel, provided that the sensors are designed for rapid signal formation across the x-ray energy ranges of the application at the required energy and spatial resolutions. We present our methods and results from the optimization of prototype detectors based on Si strip structures. We describe the detector optimization and the development of ASIC readout electronics that provide the required spatial resolution, low noise, high count rate capabilities and minimal power consumption.

  19. Transverse wave propagation in photonic crystal based on holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey; Li, Ming Shian; Wu, Shing Trong

    2011-07-04

    This study investigates the transversely propagating waves in a body-centered tetragonal photonic crystal based on a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film. Rotating the film reveals three different transverse propagating waves. Degeneracy of optical Bloch waves from reciprocal lattice vectors explains their symmetrical distribution.

  20. Third-order dispersion compensation for petawatt-level lasers employing object-image-grating self-tiling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhaoyang Li; Yuxin Leng; Daxing Rao; Lei Chen; Yaping Dai

    2015-10-31

    A method is proposed for third-order dispersion compensation in compressors of femtosecond petawatt laser facilities employing object-image-grating self-tiling technology to prevent the return of the laser beam in amplifying chains. Simulations are performed for functioning and being developed Nd : glass and Ti : sapphire petawatt-level lasers. (control of radiation parameters)

  1. Supercontinuum generated in a dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingliang; Zhang, Shumin; Han, Mengmeng; Zhang, Huaxing; Yang, Hong; Yuan, Ting

    2014-11-01

    We have experimentally investigated supercontinuum generated by using different pulse dynamics patterns as the pump pulses. These patterns, which include conventional mode-locked single pulse, condensed phase pulses and pulsed bunches, were all directly produced from a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on a multi-layer graphene saturable absorber. The strong third-order optical nonlinearity of graphene and all fiber cavity configuration led to the multi-pulses operation states at a low pump power. A flat supercontinuum with 20-dB width of 550 nm from 1200 nm to 1750 nm have all been obtained by seeding the amplified conventional mode-locked single pulse and condensed phase pulses into a segment of photonic crystal fiber. On the other hand, experimental results also show that the pulsed bunches was not conducive to form a flat supercontinuum.

  2. Properties of group delay for photon tunneling through dispersive metamaterial barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinglin; Wang, Huisheng; Zheng, Fanong

    2017-01-01

    We make a detailed investigation on properties of the group delay for photon tunneling through dispersive metamaterial barriers by employing stationary phase method. Due to the anomalous dispersion of the different barriers, it is found that the group delay is positive for double negative metamaterial (DNM) barrier, while for single negative metamaterial (SNM) and negative-zero-positive index metamaterial (NZPIM) barriers, they can change from negative to positive with variations of both frequency and incident angle. The lateral shift for the photon tunneling has also been studied, whose sign is found not to dominate the sign of the group delay. It is further confirmed that the group delay tends to a saturation value with increasing barrier length because of Hartman effect. These results may provide some ideas for further study on the photon tunneling, suggest the analogous phenomena of valence electron in graphene, and produce some potential application in integrated optics and optical devices.

  3. Experimental demonstration of adaptive digital monitoring and compensation of chromatic dispersion for coherent DP-QPSK receiver.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, Robert; Zhang, Xu; Zibar, Darko; Younce, Richard; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2011-12-12

    We experimentally demonstrate a digital signal processing (DSP)-based optical performance monitoring (OPM) algorithm for in-service monitoring of chromatic dispersion (CD) in coherent transport networks. Dispersion accumulated in 40 Gbit/s QPSK signal after 80 km of fiber transmission is successfully monitored and automatically compensated without prior knowledge of fiber dispersion coefficient. Four different metrics for assessing CD mitigation are implemented and simultaneously verified proving to have high estimation accuracy. No observable penalty is measured when the monitoring module drives an adaptive digital CD equalizer. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  4. Large optical spectral range dispersion engineered silicon-based photonic crystal waveguide modulator.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Amir; Xu, Xiaochuan; Subbaraman, Harish; Lin, Che-Yun; Rahimi, Somayeh; Chen, Ray T

    2012-05-21

    We present a dispersion engineered slow light silicon-based photonic crystal waveguide PIN modulator. Low-dispersion slow light transmission over 18 nm bandwidth under the silica light line with a group index of 26.5 is experimentally confirmed. We investigate the variations of the modulator figure of merit, V(π) × L, as a function of the optical carrier wavelength over the bandwidth of the fundamental photonic crystal waveguide defect mode. A large signal operation with a record low maximum V(π )× L of 0.0464 V · mm over the low-dispersion optical spectral range is demonstrated. We also report the device operation at 2 GHz.

  5. Dense wavelength-division multiplexing dispersion compensators based on chirped and apodized Fibonacci structures: CA-FC(j,n).

    PubMed

    Golmohammadi, Saeed; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem; Rostami, Ali; Zarifkar, Abbas

    2008-12-10

    Chromatic dispersion compensation is an essential feature of high speed dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) systems. We propose a dispersion compensator structure whose characteristics meet the optical DWDM system requirements. The proposed structure is based on Fibonacci quasi-periodic multilayer structures composed of layers with large index differences. Studying the dispersive properties of Fibonacci structures with generation numbers j=3 and 4, and calculating group delay (GD) and group velocity dispersion (GVD) of their reflection bands, we have demonstrated that to have a smooth GD and almost a constant GVD in each band of a DWDM system, one needs not only to suitably chirp the structure refractive index profile, but also must properly apodize it. We also demonstrate the possibility of achieving high slope GDs and large GVDs by means of high order Fibonacci structures with thicker layers. Finally, by varying the layer dimensions and refractive indices as well as Fibonacci's order, one can design DWDM dispersion compensators suitable for distances as long as 220 km.

  6. Demonstration of channelized tunable optical dispersion compensator based on arrayed-waveguide grating and liquid crystal on silicon.

    PubMed

    Seno, Kazunori; Suzuki, Kenya; Ooba, Naoki; Watanabe, Kei; Ishii, Motohaya; Ono, Hirotaka; Mino, Shinji

    2010-08-30

    We propose and demonstrate a multi-channel tunable optical dispersion compensator (TODC) that consists of an arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) and liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS). By utilizing the AWG with a large angular dispersion and the LCOS with a flexible phase setting, we can construct a compact and flexible TODC that has a wide tuning range of chromatic dispersion. We confirmed experimentally that the TODC could realize channel-by-channel CD compensation for six WDM channels with a ± 800 ps/nm range and a 3 dB bandwidth of 24 GHz. We believe that the multi-channel operation of this TODC will help to reduce the cost and power consumption of high-speed optical transmission systems.

  7. Analysis of photonic band gap in dispersive properties of tunable three-dimensional photonic crystals doped by magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang HaiFeng; Liu Shaobin; Yang Huan; Kong Xiangkun

    2013-03-15

    In this paper, the magnetooptical effects in dispersive properties for two types of three-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals (MPPCs) containing homogeneous dielectric and magnetized plasma with diamond lattices are theoretically investigated for electromagnetic (EM) wave based on plane wave expansion (PWE) method, as incidence EM wave vector is parallel to the external magnetic field. The equations for two types of MPPCs with diamond lattices (dielectric spheres immersed in magnetized plasma background or vice versa) are theoretically deduced. The influences of dielectric constant, plasma collision frequency, filling factor, the external magnetic field, and plasma frequency on the dispersive properties for both types of structures are studied in detail, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations are also given. From the numerical results, it has been shown that the photonic band gaps (PBGs) for both types of MPPCs can be manipulated by plasma frequency, filling factor, the external magnetic field, and the relative dielectric constant of dielectric, respectively. Especially, the external magnetic field can enlarge the PBG for type-2 structure (plasma spheres immersed in dielectric background). However, the plasma collision frequency has no effect on the dispersive properties of two types of three-dimensional MPPCs. The locations of flatbands regions for both types of structures cannot be tuned by any parameters except for plasma frequency and the external magnetic field. The analytical results may be informative and of technical use to design the MPPCs devices.

  8. Engineering ultra-flattened normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber with silica material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferhat, Mohamed Lamine; Cherbi, Lynda; Bahloul, Lies; Hariz, Abdelhafid

    2017-05-01

    The tailoring of the group velocity dispersion (GVD) of an optical fiber is critical in many applications, influence on the bandwidth of information transmission in optical communication systems, successful utilization of nonlinear optical properties in applications such as supercontinuum generation, wavelength conversion and harmonic generation via stimulated Raman scattering ...In this work, we propose a design of ultra-flattened photonic crystal fiber by changing the diameter of the air holes of the cladding rings. The geometry is composed of only four rings, hexagonal structure of air holes and silica as background of the solid core. As a result, we present structures with broadband flat normal dispersion on many wavelengths bands useful for several applications. We obtain flat normal dispersion over 1000 nm broadband flat normal dispersion below -7 [ps/nm.km], and ultra-flat near zero normal dispersion below -0.2 [ps/nm.km] over 150 nm. The modeled photonic crystal fiber would be valuable for the fabrication of ultra-flattened-dispersion fibers, and have potential applications in wide-band high-speed optical communication systems, supercontinuum generation and many other applications.

  9. Three-chip differential phase-shift keying maximum likelihood sequence estimation for chromatic-dispersion and polarization-mode-dispersion compensation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Chen, Lian-Kuan

    2007-06-15

    We propose a novel three-chip differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) for chromatic-dispersion (CD) and first-order polarization-mode-dispersion (PMD) compensation to extend the transmission reach of the DPSK signal. Such a technique searches the most probable path through the trellis for DPSK data sequence estimation by exploiting the phase difference between not only the adjacent optical bits but also the bits that are one bit slot apart. The proposed scheme significantly outperforms conventional two-chip DPSK MLSE in CD and PMD compensation. We show that the proposed three-chip DPSK MLSE can enhance the CD tolerance of 10 Gbit/s DPSK signal to 2.5 times of that by using two-chip DPSK MLSE and can bound the penalty for 100 ps differential group delay by 1.4 dB.

  10. Improved LIDT values for dielectric dispersive compensating mirrors applying ternary composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemsen, T.; Schlichting, S.; Gyamfi, M.; Jupé, M.; Ehlers, H.; Morgner, U.; Ristau, D.

    2016-12-01

    The present contribution is addressed to an improved method to fabricate dielectric dispersive compensating mirrors (CMs) with an increased laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) by the use of ternary composite layers. Taking advantage of a novel in-situ phase monitor system, it is possible to control the sensitive deposition process more precisely. The study is initiated by a design synthesis, to achieve optimum reflection and GDD values for a conventional high low stack (HL)n. Afterwards the field intensity is analyzed, and layers affected by highest electric field intensities are exchanged by ternary composites of TaxSiyOz. Both designs have similar target specifications whereby one design is using ternary composites and the other one is distinguished by a (HL)n. The first layers of the stack are switched applying in-situ optical broad band monitoring in conjunction with a forward re-optimization algorithm, which also manipulates the layers remaining for deposition at each switching event. To accomplish the demanded GDD-spectra, the last layers are controlled by a novel in-situ white light interferometer operating in the infrared spectral range. Finally the CMs are measured in a 10.000 on 1 procedure according to ISO 21254 applying pulses with a duration of 130 fs at a central wavelength of 775 nm to determine the laser induced damage threshold.

  11. Dispersion-tolerant two-photon Michelson interferometer using telecom-band frequency-entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Akio; Fukuda, Daiji; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Yamamoto, Noritsugu

    2015-05-01

    The chromatic group velocity dispersion tolerance of a fiber-optic two-photon interferometer is characterized for telecom-band photon pairs that are frequency entangled. Two indium-gallium-arsenide single-photon detectors are used to record the coincidence counts. A single-wavelength laser diode continuously pumps a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide of 1-mm length. For near-degenerate spontaneous parametric downconversion, it generates wideband entangled collinear photon pairs. The spectral width of 115.8 nm is centered at 1550 nm. It is restricted by the performance of the single-photon detectors whose efficiency is poor beyond 1610 nm. Using a Michelson interferometer, two-photon interference signals are recorded with and without frequency entanglement. The frequency-entangled photon pairs are found to exhibit dispersion-tolerant two-photon interference, even though the two paths through the interferometer have different group velocity dispersion. The observed two-photon interference signal has a correlation time of 42.7 fs, in good agreement with calculations for a 115.8-nm spectral width. For comparison, results are also presented for photon pairs lacking frequency entanglement.

  12. Photonic bands and group-velocity dispersion in Si/SiO2 photonic crystals from white-light interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, M.; Bajoni, D.; Marabelli, F.; Andreani, L. C.; Pavesi, L.; Pucker, G.

    2004-03-01

    The phase delay of a light beam transmitted through (Si/SiO2)m multilayers with m=2,4,6,8 is measured by white-light interferometry based on a fixed Mach-Zehnder interferometer coupled to a scanning Michelson interferometer. Results for photonic band and group velocity dispersion are obtained in a wide frequency spectrum and compare successfully with the predictions of electromagnetic theory. In particular, a strong slowing down of the group velocity at the band edges and superluminal propagation within the gap are demonstrated.

  13. Digital dispersion compensation for ultrabroad-bandwidth single-camera spectral-domain polarization-sensitive OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenburg, Amy L.; Chhetri, Raghav K.

    2011-03-01

    Polarization-sensitive OCT is used to examine tissue microstructure by providing imaging of birefringent properties. Single-camera spectral-domain polarization-sensitive OCT has been of recent interest, whereby a custom spectrometer is employed to simultaneously measure orthogonal polarization states scattered from the sample. This avoids synchronization and triggering issues associated with multiple-camera setups. It also has the advantage that the optic axis can be extracted without polarization modulating the incident light. However, the disadvantage is that the line camera pixel-to-wavenumber nonlinearity requires either careful spectrometer alignment, or digital compensation. In fact, this problem is further exacerbated in high resolution PSOCT systems as they require compensation over larger bandwidths. Here we report the construction of an ultrabroad-bandwidth PSOCT system using a single camera spectrometer similar to Baumann et al. In order to enjoy the benefits of this instrument, we outline a method for digital dispersion compensation that removes the necessity for special camera alignment. We find that there are three non-negligible types of dispersion to consider: 1) the aforementioned camera pixel-to-wavenumber nonlinearity, 2) the refractive index dispersion in the sample itself, and 3) the dispersion imbalance between the arms of the OCT interferometer. The latter two were previously recognized for time-domain high-resolution OCT, where a digital dispersion compensation method was successfully employed to treat them both. For our SDOCT application, we find that dispersion types 1 and 2 have the same functional effect and can be combined into one compensation step, and as such, much of the previous compensation method can be used. However, we find that it is necessary to add two steps to the analysis technique whereby the relative scaling and positioning of the two polarization images is adjusted to align the scatterers. We also find that better

  14. Multiobjective adaptive feedback control of two-photon absorption coupled with propagation through a dispersive medium

    SciTech Connect

    Laforge, Francois O.; Roslund, Jonathan; Shir, Ofer M.; Rabitz, Herschel

    2011-07-15

    This work uses shaped femtosecond laser pulses to control the two-photon absorption (TPA) of coumarin 153 in a dispersive toluene medium. The dispersive medium reshapes the pulse along the optical path, and management of this effect is used to achieve spatial localization of TPA. Other control objectives were successfully implemented, including dual localization and high resolution local optimization of TPA. The solutions to these objectives were explored by means of evolutionary single- and multi-objective algorithms within a laboratory feedback loop.

  15. Dispersion and light transport characteristics of large-scale photonic-crystal coupled nanocavity arrays.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Takesue, Hiroki; Notomi, Masaya

    2014-04-15

    We investigate the dispersion and transmission properties of slow-light coupled-resonator optical waveguides that consist of more than 100 ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal cavities. We show that experimental group-delay spectra exhibited good agreement with numerically calculated dispersions obtained with the three-dimensional plane wave expansion method. Furthermore, a statistical analysis of the transmission property indicated that fabrication fluctuations in individual cavities are less relevant than in the localized regime. These behaviors are observed for a chain of up to 400 cavities in a bandwidth of 0.44 THz.

  16. Ultrafast tilting of the dispersion of a photonic crystal and adiabatic spectral compression of light pulses.

    PubMed

    Beggs, Daryl M; Krauss, Thomas F; Kuipers, L; Kampfrath, Tobias

    2012-01-20

    We demonstrate, by theory and experiment, the ultrafast tilting of the dispersion curve of a photonic-crystal waveguide following the absorption of a femtosecond pump pulse. By shaping the pump-beam cross section with a nanometric shadow mask, different waveguide eigenmodes acquire different spatial overlap with the perturbing pump, leading to a local flattening of the dispersion by up to 11%. We find that such partial mode perturbation can be used to adiabatically compress the spectrum of a light pulse traveling through the waveguide.

  17. Slow-light dispersion engineering of photonic crystal waveguides using selective microfluidic infiltration.

    PubMed

    Casas-Bedoya, A; Husko, C; Monat, C; Grillet, C; Gutman, N; Domachuk, P; Eggleton, B J

    2012-10-15

    We experimentally demonstrate dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides using selective infiltration of the first two rows of air holes with high index ionic liquids. The infiltrated PhC waveguide exhibits a dispersion window of 3 nm with a nearly constant group velocity of ~c/80 that depends on the liquid physical properties. We investigate how the effective refractive index changes in time due to the dynamics of the liquids in the holes. This demonstration highlights the versatility, flexibility, and tunability offered by optofluidics in PhC circuits.

  18. Design of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers with flattened chromatic dispersion.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuyou; Xu, Zhenlong; Ling, Weiwei; Liu, Pan

    2014-10-10

    A novel (to our knowledge) type of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with high nonlinearity and flattened dispersion is proposed. The propagation characteristics of chromatic dispersion, effective area, and nonlinearity are studied numerically by using the full-vector finite element method. Several PCF designs with high nonlinearity and nearly zero flattened dispersion or broadband flattened, and even ultraflattened, dispersion over different wavelength bands are obtained by optimizing the structural parameters. One optimized PCF has a nearly zero ultraflattened dispersion of 2.3  ps/(nm·km) with a dispersion variation of 0.2  ps/(nm·km) over the C+L+U wavelength bands. In addition, the dispersion slope and nonlinear coefficient at 1.55 μm can be up to 2.2×10(-3)  ps/nm(2)·km and 33.2  W(-1)·km(-1), respectively. The designs proposed in this paper have bright prospects for applications in all-optical format conversion, supercontinuum generation, optical wavelength conversion, and many other fields.

  19. Transfer and retrieval of optical coherence to strain-compensated quantum dots using a heterodyne photon-echo technique

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kazumasa; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu

    2013-12-04

    We performed the proof-of-principle demonstration of photon-echo quantum memory using strain-compensated InAs quantum dot ensemble in the telecommunication wavelength range. We succeeded in transfer and retrieval of relative phase of a time-bin pulse with a high fidelity. Our demonstration suggests the possibility of realizing ultrabroadband, high time-bandwidth products, multi-mode quantum memory which is operable at telecommunication wavelength.

  20. Optical link upgrade by dispersion and nonlinearity management technique realized by compensating optical cable coiled around of fiber optic closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdin, Vladimir A.; Bourdine, Anton V.; Volkov, Kirill A.

    2012-01-01

    We represent results of numerical simulations for upgrade of optical link with SMF by using the DDMS technique based on application of compensating optical cable coiled around of optical closure. We propose this technique for minimization land cost. Nonlinearity management for decreasing of quasi-solitons interaction is considered. Based on NLSE the model of optical link regeneration section with dispersion and nonlinearity management is described. The NLSE was solved numerically. Estimated values for optical system performance were derived by taking into account the amplified spontaneous emission noise, parameters of dispersion map deviations, and the interaction of quasi-solitons.

  1. Compensation of multi-channel mismatches in high-speed high-resolution photonic analog-to-digital converter.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zou, Weiwen; Yu, Lei; Wu, Kan; Chen, Jianping

    2016-10-17

    We demonstrate a method to compensate multi-channel mismatches that intrinsically exist in a photonic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) system. This system, nominated time-wavelength interleaved photonic ADC (TWI-PADC), is time-interleaved via wavelength demultiplexing/multiplexing before photonic sampling, wavelength demultiplexing channelization, and electronic quantization. Mismatches among multiple channels are estimated in frequency domain and hardware adjustment are used to approach the device-limited accuracy. A multi-channel mismatch compensation algorithm, inspired from the time-interleaved electronic ADC, is developed to effectively improve the performance of TWI-PADC. In the experiment, we configure out a 4-channel TWI-PADC system with 40 GS/s sampling rate based on a 10-GHz actively mode-locked fiber laser. After multi-channel mismatch compensation, the effective number of bit (ENOB) of the 40-GS/s TWI-PADC system is enhanced from ~6 bits to >8.5 bits when the RF frequency is within 0.1-3.1 GHz and from ~6 bits to >7.5 bits within 3.1-12.1 GHz. The enhanced performance of the TWI-PADC system approaches the limitation determined by the timing jitter and noise.

  2. Refractive index dispersion sensing using an array of photonic crystal resonant reflectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hermannsson, Pétur G.; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Sørensen, Kristian T.; Kristensen, Anders

    2015-08-10

    Refractive index sensing plays a key role in various environmental and biological sensing applications. Here, a method is presented for measuring the absolute refractive index dispersion of liquids using an array of photonic crystal resonant reflectors of varying periods. It is shown that by covering the array with a sample liquid and measuring the resonance wavelength associated with transverse electric polarized quasi guided modes as a function of period, the refractive index dispersion of the liquid can be accurately obtained using an analytical expression. This method is compact, can perform measurements at arbitrary number of wavelengths, and requires only a minute sample volume. The ability to sense a material's dispersion profile offers an added dimension of information that may be of benefit to optofluidic lab-on-a-chip applications.

  3. Buffering capability and limitations in low dispersion photonic crystal waveguides with elliptical airholes.

    PubMed

    Long, Fang; Tian, Huiping; Ji, Yuefeng

    2010-09-01

    A low dispersion photonic crystal waveguide with triangular lattice elliptical airholes is proposed for compact, high-performance optical buffering applications. In the proposed structure, we obtain a negligible-dispersion bandwidth with constant group velocity ranging from c/41 to c/256, by optimizing the major and minor axes of bulk elliptical holes and adjusting the position and the hole size of the first row adjacent to the defect. In addition, the limitations of buffer performance in a dispersion engineering waveguide are well studied. The maximum buffer capacity and the maximum data rate can reach as high as 262bits and 515 Gbits/s, respectively. The corresponding delay time is about 255.4ps.

  4. Three octave spanning supercontinuum by red-shifted dispersive wave in photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mohit; Konar, S.

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a three-layer index guided lead silicate (SF57) photonic crystal fiber which simultaneously promises to yield large effective optical nonlinear coefficient and low anomalous dispersion that makes it suitable for supercontinuum (SC) generation. At an operating wavelength 1550 nm, the typical optimized value of anomalous dispersion and effective nonlinear coefficient turns out to be ~4 ps/km/nm and ~1078 W-1km-1, respectively. Through numerical simulation, it is realized that the designed fiber promises to exhibit three octave spanning SC from 900 to 7200 nm using 50 fs 'sech' optical pulses of 5 kW peak power. Due to the cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing processes, a long range of red-shifted dispersive wave generated, which assists to achieve such large broadening. In addition, we have investigated the compatibility of SC generation with input pulse peak power increment and briefly discussed the impact of nonlinear processes on SC generation.

  5. Tunable stop-band hollow waveguide Bragg reflectors with tapered air core for adaptive dispersion-compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yasuki; Matsutani, Akihiro; Koyama, Fumio

    2006-03-01

    We propose a tunable stop-band hollow waveguide Bragg reflector with a variable tapered air core for an adjustable dispersion-compensation device. The tapered air-core structure gives us chirped Bragg reflection. The precise control of tapered air-core thickness and angle enables us to achieve the dynamic tuning of both stop-band width and center wavelength of Bragg reflection. We demonstrate center-wavelength tuning of 20.1nm corresponding to 1.3% of propagation constant change and stop-band expansion up to 5nm. Also, we demonstrate dispersion tuning operation either in negative or positive dispersion ranges with delay-time difference of about 10ps.

  6. Few-photon color imaging using energy-dispersive superconducting transition-edge sensor spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Niwa, Kazuki; Numata, Takayuki; Hattori, Kaori; Fukuda, Daiji

    2017-01-01

    Highly sensitive spectral imaging is increasingly being demanded in bioanalysis research and industry to obtain the maximum information possible from molecules of different colors. We introduce an application of the superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) technique to highly sensitive spectral imaging. A TES is an energy-dispersive photodetector that can distinguish the wavelength of each incident photon. Its effective spectral range is from the visible to the infrared (IR), up to 2800 nm, which is beyond the capabilities of other photodetectors. TES was employed in this study in a fiber-coupled optical scanning microscopy system, and a test sample of a three-color ink pattern was observed. A red–green–blue (RGB) image and a near-IR image were successfully obtained in the few-incident-photon regime, whereas only a black and white image could be obtained using a photomultiplier tube. Spectral data were also obtained from a selected focal area out of the entire image. The results of this study show that TES is feasible for use as an energy-dispersive photon-counting detector in spectral imaging applications. PMID:28374801

  7. Few-photon color imaging using energy-dispersive superconducting transition-edge sensor spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Kazuki; Numata, Takayuki; Hattori, Kaori; Fukuda, Daiji

    2017-04-04

    Highly sensitive spectral imaging is increasingly being demanded in bioanalysis research and industry to obtain the maximum information possible from molecules of different colors. We introduce an application of the superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) technique to highly sensitive spectral imaging. A TES is an energy-dispersive photodetector that can distinguish the wavelength of each incident photon. Its effective spectral range is from the visible to the infrared (IR), up to 2800 nm, which is beyond the capabilities of other photodetectors. TES was employed in this study in a fiber-coupled optical scanning microscopy system, and a test sample of a three-color ink pattern was observed. A red-green-blue (RGB) image and a near-IR image were successfully obtained in the few-incident-photon regime, whereas only a black and white image could be obtained using a photomultiplier tube. Spectral data were also obtained from a selected focal area out of the entire image. The results of this study show that TES is feasible for use as an energy-dispersive photon-counting detector in spectral imaging applications.

  8. Modeling of dispersion and nonlinear characteristics of tapered photonic crystal fibers for applications in nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakarzadeh, H.; Rezaei, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate for the first time the dispersion and the nonlinear characteristics of the tapered photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) as a function of length z, via solving the eigenvalue equation of the guided mode using the finite-difference frequency-domain method. Since the structural parameters such as the air-hole diameter and the pitch of the microstructured cladding change along the tapered PCFs, dispersion and nonlinear properties change with the length as well. Therefore, it is important to know the exact behavior of such fiber parameters along z which is necessary for nonlinear optics applications. We simulate the z dependency of the zero-dispersion wavelength, dispersion slope, effective mode area, nonlinear parameter, and the confinement loss along the tapered PCFs and propose useful relations for describing dispersion and nonlinear parameters. The results of this article, which are in a very good agreement with the available experimental data, are important for simulating pulse propagation as well as investigating nonlinear effects such as supercontinuum generation and parametric amplification in tapered PCFs.

  9. Slow light in mass-produced, dispersion-engineered photonic crystal ring resonators.

    PubMed

    McGarvey-Lechable, Kathleen; Hamidfar, Tabassom; Patel, David; Xu, Luhua; Plant, David V; Bianucci, Pablo

    2017-02-20

    We present experimental results of photonic crystal ring resonators (PhCRRs) fabricated on the CMOS-compatible, silicon-on-insulator platform via 193-nm deep-UV lithography. Our dispersion-engineering design approach is compared to experimental results, showing very good agreement between theory and measurements. Specifically, we report a mean photonic band-edge wavelength of 1546.2 ± 5.8 nm, a 0.2% variation from our targeted band-edge wavelength of 1550 nm. Methods for the direct calculation of the experimental, discrete dispersion relation and extraction of intrinsic quality factors for a highly-dispersive resonator are discussed. A maximum intrinsic quality factor of ≈83,800 is reported, substantiating our design method and indicating that high-throughput optical lithography is a viable candidate for PhCRR fabrication. Finally, through comparison of the mean intrinsic quality and slowdown factors of the PhCRRs and standard ring resonators, we present evidence of an increase in light-matter interaction strength with simultaneous preservation of microcavity lifetimes.

  10. Numerical calculation of phase-matching properties in photonic crystal fibers with three and four zero-dispersion wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xingtao; Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Shutao; Wang, Wei; Han, Ying; Liu, Zhaolun; Li, Shuguang; Hou, Lantian

    2015-10-19

    Photonic crystal fibers with three and four zero-dispersion wavelengths are presented through special design of the structural parameters, in which the closing to zero and ultra-flattened dispersion can be obtained. The unique phase-matching properties of the fibers with three and four zero-dispersion wavelengths are analyzed. Variation of the phase-matching wavelengths with the pump wavelengths, pump powers, dispersion properties, and fiber structural parameters is analyzed. The presence of three and four zero-dispersion wavelengths can realize wavelength conversion of optical soliton between two anomalous dispersion regions, generate six phase-matching sidebands through four-wave mixing and create more new photon pairs, which can be used for the study of supercontinuum generation, optical switches and quantum optics.

  11. Elimination of error induced by a beam splitter substrate for a dispersion-compensated polarization Sagnac interferometer.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jinyu; Jin, Shiqun; Hu, Penghao; Xia, Guo; Hu, Mingyong

    2017-03-01

    A wire grating beam splitter (WGBS) substrate in a dispersion-compensated polarization Sagnac interferometer (DCPSI) may introduce an additional shear distance in the shear distance generated by the DCPSI, thereby causing poor adaptability of the DCPSI to white light. This work applies a compensation scheme of an optical flat with the same material and thickness as the WGBS and parallel to the WGBS introduced in the other arm of the DCPSI. Theoretically, this method can decrease the additional shear distance approaching 0. The ideal shear distance in the simulation experiment is 5.86 mm, and the shear distance before and after compensation is 5.40 and 5.86 mm, respectively. The theoretical value of the additional shear distance in this experiment is -0.6625  mm, and the average compensation value is 0.66 mm. Overall, experiment and simulation results indicate that the above method can effectively eliminate the additional shear distance.

  12. Similariton fiber laser with a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber for dispersion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruehl, A.; Prochnow, O.; Engelbrecht, M.; Wandt, D.; Kracht, D.

    2007-05-01

    We report on an ytterbium-doped similariton fiber ring laser with a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber for intracavity dispersion control. The oscillator is hybrid mode locked with a saturable Bragg reflector and by nonlinear polarization evolution. This scheme allows for an exact adjustment of the transmission characteristic to avoid the formation of bunched noiselike pulses while the self-starting characteristic is preserved. The oscillator generates highly stretched similaritons at 1025 nm with a pulse energy above 1n J at a repetition rate of 21.9 MHz.

  13. Slow light from sharp dispersion by exciting dark photonic angular momentum states.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing-Hua; Kang, Ming; Li, Teng-Fei; Cui, Hai-Xu; Chen, Jing

    2013-02-01

    A photonic angular momentum state (PAMS) with a topological charge of m≠±1 is dipole forbidden at all polarizations of free-space incidence due to the existence of a unique helical phase. We show that by indirectly exciting dark PAMSs through coupling with a bright resonant element, a sharply variant transmission behavior and strong dispersion can be achieved. This behavior can subsequently be utilized in slow light. A metamaterial design, in which a group index n(g) greater than 500 can be achieved, is present.

  14. Measurement of group-velocity dispersion of Bloch modes in photonic-crystal-fiber rocking filters.

    PubMed

    Wong, G K L; Zang, L; Kang, M S; Russell, P St J

    2010-12-01

    We use low-coherence interferometry to measure the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of the fast and slow Bloch modes of structural rocking filters, produced by twisting a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber to and fro while scanning a focused CO(2) laser beam along it. The GVD curves in the vicinity of the resonant wavelength differ dramatically from those of the unperturbed fiber, suggesting that rocking filters could be used in the optimization of, e.g., four-wave mixing and supercontinuum generation. Excellent agreement is obtained between theory and experiment.

  15. Dispersion properties of transverse anisotropic liquid crystal core photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasawa, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    The dispersion properties of liquid crystal core photonic crystal fibers for different core diameters have been calculated by a full vectorial finite difference method. In calculations, air holes are assumed to be arranged in a regular hexagonal array in fused silica and a central hole is filled with liquid crystal to create a core. In this study, three types of transverse anisotropic configurations, where liquid crystal molecules are oriented in a transverse plane, and a planar configuration, where liquid crystal molecules are oriented in a propagation direction, are considered. The large changes of the dispersion properties are found when the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules is changed from a planar configuration to a uniform configuration, where all molecules are oriented in the same direction in a transverse plane. Since the orientation of liquid crystal molecules may be controlled by applying an electric field, it could be utilized for various applications including the spectral control of supercontinuum generation.

  16. Extremely low-loss, dispersion flattened porous-core photonic crystal fiber for terahertz regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Saiful; Islam, Mohammad Rakibul; Faisal, Mohammad; Arefin, Abu Sayeed Muhammad Shamsul; Rahman, Hasan; Sultana, Jakeya; Rana, Sohel

    2016-07-01

    A porous-core octagonal photonic crystal fiber (PC-OPCF) with ultralow effective material loss (EML), high core power fraction, and ultra flattened dispersion is proposed for terahertz (THz) wave propagation. At an operating frequency of 1 THz and core diameter of 345 μm, simulation results display an extremely low EML of 0.047 cm-1, 49.1% power transmission through core air holes, decreased confinement loss with the increase of frequency, and dispersion variation of 0.15 ps/THz/cm. In addition, the proposed PCF can successfully operate in single-mode condition. All the simulations are performed with finite-element modeling package, COMSOL v4.2. The design can be fabricated using a stacking and drilling method. Thus, the proposed fiber has the potential of being an effective transmission medium of broadband THz waves.

  17. Wideband slow light with ultralow dispersion in a W1 photonic crystal waveguide.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jian; Ren, Li-Yong; Yun, Mao-Jin; Wang, Xing-Jun

    2011-11-01

    A dispersion tailoring scheme for obtaining slow light in a silicon-on-insulator W1-type photonic crystal waveguide, novel to our knowledge, is proposed in this paper. It is shown that, by simply shifting the first two rows of air holes adjacent to the waveguide to specific directions, slow light with large group-index, wideband, and low group-velocity dispersion can be realized. Defining a criterion of restricting the group-index variation within a ±0.8% range as a flattened region, we obtain the ultraflat slow light with bandwidths over 5.0, 4.0, 2.5, and 1.0 nm when keeping the group index at 38.0, 48.8, 65.2, and 100.4, respectively. Numerical simulations are performed utilizing the three-dimensional (3D) plane-wave expansion method and the 3D finite-difference time-domain method.

  18. Designing of highly birefringence, dispersion shifted decagonal photonic crystal fiber with low confinement loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Moutusi; Gangwar, Rahul Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2017-09-01

    In this article we propose a decagonal photonic crystal fiber (D-PCF) consisting unique cladding without structural complexity having very high birefringent of the order of 10-2, less effective area of few square microns as well as low confinement loss of the order of 10-2 dB/m at 1.55 μm wavelength. The zero dispersion wavelength is also achieved in the near infrared region. This study clearly attributes to the fact that the zero dispersion wavelength at the near infrared region, very high birefringence and low confinement loss can be adjusted according to the necessity by changing the structural parameters with considerable fabrication tolerance. This fiber can prove itself useful in laser technology, telecommunication, non-linear application, sensor technology and also in making polarization maintaining devices.

  19. Chromatic dispersion compensation and fiber nonlinearity mitigation of OOK signals with diverse-VSB-filtering FFE and DFE.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Zhangyuan; Xu, Anshi

    2008-12-22

    We propose a diverse vestigial-sideband-filtering feed forward equalizer and decision feedback equalizer (DVSB-FFE-DFE), which is capable of compensating residual chromatic dispersion (CD) as well as mitigating fiber nonlinearity in on-off keying (OOK) systems. In DVSBFFE-DFE, the upper and the lower VSB filtered signals are jointly equalized with FFE followed by DFE. Simulation results show that in a 42.7 Gbit/s nonreturn-to-zero OOK system, DVSB-FFE-DFE can effectively mitigate the required optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty induced by residual CD and fiber nonlinearity.

  20. Conversion coefficients for determination of dispersed photon dose during radiotherapy: NRUrad input code for MCNP

    PubMed Central

    Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2017-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a common cancer treatment module, where a certain amount of dose will be delivered to the targeted organ. This is achieved usually by photons generated by linear accelerator units. However, radiation scattering within the patient’s body and the surrounding environment will lead to dose dispersion to healthy tissues which are not targets of the primary radiation. Determination of the dispersed dose would be important for assessing the risk and biological consequences in different organs or tissues. In the present work, the concept of conversion coefficient (F) of the dispersed dose was developed, in which F = (Dd/Dt), where Dd was the dispersed dose in a non-targeted tissue and Dt is the absorbed dose in the targeted tissue. To quantify Dd and Dt, a comprehensive model was developed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) package to simulate the linear accelerator head, the human phantom, the treatment couch and the radiotherapy treatment room. The present work also demonstrated the feasibility and power of parallel computing through the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) version of MCNP5. PMID:28362837

  1. Conversion coefficients for determination of dispersed photon dose during radiotherapy: NRUrad input code for MCNP.

    PubMed

    Shahmohammadi Beni, Mehrdad; Ng, C Y P; Krstic, D; Nikezic, D; Yu, K N

    2017-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a common cancer treatment module, where a certain amount of dose will be delivered to the targeted organ. This is achieved usually by photons generated by linear accelerator units. However, radiation scattering within the patient's body and the surrounding environment will lead to dose dispersion to healthy tissues which are not targets of the primary radiation. Determination of the dispersed dose would be important for assessing the risk and biological consequences in different organs or tissues. In the present work, the concept of conversion coefficient (F) of the dispersed dose was developed, in which F = (Dd/Dt), where Dd was the dispersed dose in a non-targeted tissue and Dt is the absorbed dose in the targeted tissue. To quantify Dd and Dt, a comprehensive model was developed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) package to simulate the linear accelerator head, the human phantom, the treatment couch and the radiotherapy treatment room. The present work also demonstrated the feasibility and power of parallel computing through the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) version of MCNP5.

  2. Dispersion engineering in soft glass photonic crystal fibers infiltrated with liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefaniuk, Tomasz; Le Van, Hieu; Pniewski, Jacek; Cao Long, Van; Ramaniuk, Aleksandr; Grajewski, Karol; Chu Van, Lanh; Karpierz, Mirosław; Trippenbach, Marek; Buczynski, Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    We present a numerical study of the dispersion characteristic modification in a nonlinear photonic crystal fibre (PCF) infiltrated with organic solvents. The PCF is made of PBG08 glass and was developed in the stack-and-draw process. The PBG08 glass has a high refractive index (n < 2.0), high nonlinear refractive index (n2 = 4.3×10-19 m2/W) and good rheological properties that allow for thermal processing of the glass without crystallization. In the numerical study 18 different solvents were used. The dispersion, mode area, and losses characteristics were calculated. The zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of the fibre can be shifted towards longer wavelengths by approx. 150 nm by using Nitrobenzene as infiltrating liquid and by a smaller value using other liquids. At the same time the mode area of the fundamental mode increases by approx. 5 to 15% depending on the wavelength considered. The confinement losses increase significantly for six analysed liquids by a few orders of magnitude up to 102 dB/m. Our approach allows to combine high nonlinearities of the soft glass with the possibility to tune zero dispersion wavelength to the desired value.

  3. Analysis of chromatic dispersion compensation and carrier phase recovery in long-haul optical transmission system influenced by equalization enhanced phase noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianhua; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Sergeyev, Sergey; Friberg, Ari T.; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo

    2017-06-01

    The performance of long-haul coherent optical fiber transmission system is significantly affected by the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN), due to the interaction between the electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) and the laser phase noise. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study on different chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation and carrier phase recovery (CPR) approaches, in the n-level phase shift keying (n-PSK) and the n-level quadrature amplitude modulation (n-QAM) coherent optical transmission systems, considering the impacts of EEPN. Four CD compensation methods are considered: the time-domain equalization (TDE), the frequency-domain equalization (FDE), the least mean square (LMS) adaptive equalization are applied for EDC, and the dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) is employed for optical dispersion compensation (ODC). Meanwhile, three carrier phase recovery methods are also involved: a one-tap normalized least mean square (NLMS) algorithm, a block-wise average (BWA) algorithm, and a Viterbi-Viterbi (VV) algorithm. Numerical simulations have been carried out in a 28-Gbaud dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) coherent transmission system, and the results indicate that the origin of EEPN depends on the choice of chromatic dispersion compensation methods, and the effects of EEPN also behave moderately different in accordance to different carrier phase recovery scenarios.

  4. Multiple Bragg diffraction in opal-based photonic crystals: Spectral and spatial dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkin, I. I.; Rybin, M. V.; Samusev, K. B.; Golubev, V. G.; Limonov, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of multiple Bragg diffraction from synthetic opals. An original setup permits us to overcome the problem of the total internal light reflection in an opal film and to investigate the diffraction from both the (111) and (1¯11) systems of planes responsible for the effect. As a result, angle- and frequency-resolved diffraction and transmission measurements create a picture of multiple Bragg diffraction that includes general agreement between dips in the transmission spectra and diffraction peaks for each incident white light angle and a twin-peak structure at frequencies of the photonic stop band edges. Two opposite cases of the interference are discussed: an interference of two narrow Bragg bands that leads to multiple Bragg diffraction with anticrossing regime for dispersion photonic branches and an interference of a narrow Bragg band and broad disorder-induced Mie background that results in a Fano resonance. A good quantitative agreement between the experimental data and calculated photonic band structure has been obtained.

  5. Phase mapping of ultrashort pulses in bimodal photonic structures: A window on local group velocity dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersen, H.; van Dijk, E. M. H. P.; Korterik, J. P.; van Hulst, N. F.; Kuipers, L.

    2004-12-01

    The amplitude and phase evolution of ultrashort pulses in a bimodal waveguide structure has been studied with a time-resolved photon scanning tunneling microscope (PSTM). When waveguide modes overlap in time intriguing phase patterns are observed. Phase singularities, arising from interference between different modes, are normally expected at equidistant intervals determined by the difference in effective index for the two modes. However, in the pulsed experiments the distance between individual singularities is found to change not only within one measurement frame, but even depends strongly on the reference time. To understand this observation it is necessary to take into account that the actual pulses generating the interference signal change shape upon propagation through a dispersive medium. This implies that the spatial distribution of phase singularities contains direct information on local dispersion characteristics. At the same time also the mode profiles, wave vectors, pulse lengths, and group velocities of all excited modes in the waveguide are directly measured. The combination of these parameters with an analytical model for the time-resolved PSTM measurements shows that the unique spatial phase information indeed gives a direct measure for the group velocity dispersion of individual modes. As a result interesting and useful effects, such as pulse compression, pulse spreading, and pulse reshaping become accessible in a local measurement.

  6. Phase mapping of ultrashort pulses in bimodal photonic structures: a window on local group velocity dispersion.

    PubMed

    Gersen, H; van Dijk, E M H P; Korterik, J P; van Hulst, N F; Kuipers, L

    2004-12-01

    The amplitude and phase evolution of ultrashort pulses in a bimodal waveguide structure has been studied with a time-resolved photon scanning tunneling microscope (PSTM). When waveguide modes overlap in time intriguing phase patterns are observed. Phase singularities, arising from interference between different modes, are normally expected at equidistant intervals determined by the difference in effective index for the two modes. However, in the pulsed experiments the distance between individual singularities is found to change not only within one measurement frame, but even depends strongly on the reference time. To understand this observation it is necessary to take into account that the actual pulses generating the interference signal change shape upon propagation through a dispersive medium. This implies that the spatial distribution of phase singularities contains direct information on local dispersion characteristics. At the same time also the mode profiles, wave vectors, pulse lengths, and group velocities of all excited modes in the waveguide are directly measured. The combination of these parameters with an analytical model for the time-resolved PSTM measurements shows that the unique spatial phase information indeed gives a direct measure for the group velocity dispersion of individual modes. As a result interesting and useful effects, such as pulse compression, pulse spreading, and pulse reshaping become accessible in a local measurement.

  7. A spatio-temporally compensated acousto-optic scanner for two-photon microscopy providing large field of view.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Y; Léger, J-F; Lapole, R; Honnorat, N; Candela, Y; Dieudonné, S; Bourdieu, L

    2008-07-07

    Acousto-optic deflectors (AOD) are promising ultrafast scanners for non-linear microscopy. Their use has been limited until now by their small scanning range and by the spatial and temporal dispersions of the laser beam going through the deflectors. We show that the use of AOD of large aperture (13mm) compared to standard deflectors allows accessing much larger field of view while minimizing spatio-temporal distortions. An acousto-optic modulator (AOM) placed at distance of the AOD is used to compensate spatial and temporal dispersions. Fine tuning of the AOM-AOD setup using a frequency-resolved optical gating (GRENOUILLE) allows elimination of pulse front tilt whereas spatial chirp is minimized thanks to the large aperture AOD.

  8. Photon Counting Energy Dispersive Detector Arrays for X-ray Imaging.

    PubMed

    Iwanczyk, Jan S; Nygård, Einar; Meirav, Oded; Arenson, Jerry; Barber, William C; Hartsough, Neal E; Malakhov, Nail; Wessel, Jan C

    2009-01-01

    The development of an innovative detector technology for photon-counting in X-ray imaging is reported. This new generation of detectors, based on pixellated cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector arrays electrically connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) for readout, will produce fast and highly efficient photon-counting and energy-dispersive X-ray imaging. There are a number of applications that can greatly benefit from these novel imagers including mammography, planar radiography, and computed tomography (CT). Systems based on this new detector technology can provide compositional analysis of tissue through spectroscopic X-ray imaging, significantly improve overall image quality, and may significantly reduce X-ray dose to the patient. A very high X-ray flux is utilized in many of these applications. For example, CT scanners can produce ~100 Mphotons/mm(2)/s in the unattenuated beam. High flux is required in order to collect sufficient photon statistics in the measurement of the transmitted flux (attenuated beam) during the very short time frame of a CT scan. This high count rate combined with a need for high detection efficiency requires the development of detector structures that can provide a response signal much faster than the transit time of carriers over the whole detector thickness. We have developed CdTe and CZT detector array structures which are 3 mm thick with 16×16 pixels and a 1 mm pixel pitch. These structures, in the two different implementations presented here, utilize either a small pixel effect or a drift phenomenon. An energy resolution of 4.75% at 122 keV has been obtained with a 30 ns peaking time using discrete electronics and a (57)Co source. An output rate of 6×10(6) counts per second per individual pixel has been obtained with our ASIC readout electronics and a clinical CT X-ray tube. Additionally, the first clinical CT images, taken with several of our prototype photon-counting and

  9. Towards hybrid pixel detectors for energy-dispersive or soft X-ray photon science.

    PubMed

    Jungmann-Smith, J H; Bergamaschi, A; Brückner, M; Cartier, S; Dinapoli, R; Greiffenberg, D; Huthwelker, T; Maliakal, D; Mayilyan, D; Medjoubi, K; Mezza, D; Mozzanica, A; Ramilli, M; Ruder, Ch; Schädler, L; Schmitt, B; Shi, X; Tinti, G

    2016-03-01

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications at free-electron lasers and synchrotron light sources. The JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype presented here is specifically geared towards low-noise performance and hence soft X-ray detection. The design, geometry and readout architecture of JUNGFRAU 0.4 correspond to those of other JUNGFRAU pixel detectors, which are charge-integrating detectors with 75 µm × 75 µm pixels. Main characteristics of JUNGFRAU 0.4 are its fixed gain and r.m.s. noise of as low as 27 e(-) electronic noise charge (<100 eV) with no active cooling. The 48 × 48 pixels JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype can be combined with a charge-sharing suppression mask directly placed on the sensor, which keeps photons from hitting the charge-sharing regions of the pixels. The mask consists of a 150 µm tungsten sheet, in which 28 µm-diameter holes are laser-drilled. The mask is aligned with the pixels. The noise and gain characterization, and single-photon detection as low as 1.2 keV are shown. The performance of JUNGFRAU 0.4 without the mask and also in the charge-sharing suppression configuration (with the mask, with a `software mask' or a `cluster finding' algorithm) is tested, compared and evaluated, in particular with respect to the removal of the charge-sharing contribution in the spectra, the detection efficiency and the photon rate capability. Energy-dispersive and imaging experiments with fluorescence X-ray irradiation from an X-ray tube and a synchrotron light source are successfully demonstrated with an r.m.s. energy resolution of 20% (no mask) and 14% (with the mask) at 1.2 keV and of 5% at 13.3 keV. The performance evaluation of the JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype suggests that this detection system could be the starting point for a future detector development effort for either applications in the soft X-ray energy regime or for an energy-dispersive

  10. Towards hybrid pixel detectors for energy-dispersive or soft X-ray photon science

    PubMed Central

    Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Huthwelker, T.; Maliakal, D.; Mayilyan, D.; Medjoubi, K.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Ramilli, M.; Ruder, Ch.; Schädler, L.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G.

    2016-01-01

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications at free-electron lasers and synchrotron light sources. The JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype presented here is specifically geared towards low-noise performance and hence soft X-ray detection. The design, geometry and readout architecture of JUNGFRAU 0.4 correspond to those of other JUNGFRAU pixel detectors, which are charge-integrating detectors with 75 µm × 75 µm pixels. Main characteristics of JUNGFRAU 0.4 are its fixed gain and r.m.s. noise of as low as 27 e− electronic noise charge (<100 eV) with no active cooling. The 48 × 48 pixels JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype can be combined with a charge-sharing suppression mask directly placed on the sensor, which keeps photons from hitting the charge-sharing regions of the pixels. The mask consists of a 150 µm tungsten sheet, in which 28 µm-diameter holes are laser-drilled. The mask is aligned with the pixels. The noise and gain characterization, and single-photon detection as low as 1.2 keV are shown. The performance of JUNGFRAU 0.4 without the mask and also in the charge-sharing suppression configuration (with the mask, with a ‘software mask’ or a ‘cluster finding’ algorithm) is tested, compared and evaluated, in particular with respect to the removal of the charge-sharing contribution in the spectra, the detection efficiency and the photon rate capability. Energy-dispersive and imaging experiments with fluorescence X-ray irradiation from an X-ray tube and a synchrotron light source are successfully demonstrated with an r.m.s. energy resolution of 20% (no mask) and 14% (with the mask) at 1.2 keV and of 5% at 13.3 keV. The performance evaluation of the JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype suggests that this detection system could be the starting point for a future detector development effort for either applications in the soft X-ray energy regime or for an energy-dispersive

  11. Photon Counting Energy Dispersive Detector Arrays for X-ray Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Nygård, Einar; Meirav, Oded; Arenson, Jerry; Barber, William C.; Hartsough, Neal E.; Malakhov, Nail; Wessel, Jan C.

    2009-01-01

    The development of an innovative detector technology for photon-counting in X-ray imaging is reported. This new generation of detectors, based on pixellated cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector arrays electrically connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) for readout, will produce fast and highly efficient photon-counting and energy-dispersive X-ray imaging. There are a number of applications that can greatly benefit from these novel imagers including mammography, planar radiography, and computed tomography (CT). Systems based on this new detector technology can provide compositional analysis of tissue through spectroscopic X-ray imaging, significantly improve overall image quality, and may significantly reduce X-ray dose to the patient. A very high X-ray flux is utilized in many of these applications. For example, CT scanners can produce ~100 Mphotons/mm2/s in the unattenuated beam. High flux is required in order to collect sufficient photon statistics in the measurement of the transmitted flux (attenuated beam) during the very short time frame of a CT scan. This high count rate combined with a need for high detection efficiency requires the development of detector structures that can provide a response signal much faster than the transit time of carriers over the whole detector thickness. We have developed CdTe and CZT detector array structures which are 3 mm thick with 16×16 pixels and a 1 mm pixel pitch. These structures, in the two different implementations presented here, utilize either a small pixel effect or a drift phenomenon. An energy resolution of 4.75% at 122 keV has been obtained with a 30 ns peaking time using discrete electronics and a 57Co source. An output rate of 6×106 counts per second per individual pixel has been obtained with our ASIC readout electronics and a clinical CT X-ray tube. Additionally, the first clinical CT images, taken with several of our prototype photon-counting and energy-dispersive

  12. Analysis of band structure, transmission properties, and dispersion behavior of THz wave in one-dimensional parabolic plasma photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Askari, Nasim; Eslami, Esmaeil; Mirzaie, Reza

    2015-11-15

    The photonic band gap of obliquely incident terahertz electromagnetic waves in a one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal is studied. The periodic structure consists of lossless dielectric and inhomogeneous plasma with a parabolic density profile. The dispersion relation and the THz wave transmittance are analyzed based on the electromagnetic equations and transfer matrix method. The dependence of effective plasma frequency and photonic band gap characteristics on dielectric and plasma thickness, plasma density, and incident angle are discussed in detail. A theoretical calculation for effective plasma frequency is presented and compared with numerical results. Results of these two methods are in good agreement.

  13. Electrically tunable zero dispersion wavelengths in photonic crystal fibers filled with a dual frequency addressable liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Wahle, Markus Kitzerow, Heinz-Siegfried

    2015-11-16

    We present a liquid crystal (LC) infiltrated photonic crystal fiber, which enables the electrical tuning of the position of zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs). A dual frequency addressable liquid crystal is aligned perpendicular on the inclusion walls of a photonic crystal fiber, which results in an escaped radial director field. The orientation of the LC is controlled by applying an external electric field. Due to the high index of the liquid crystal the fiber guides light by the photonic band gap effect. Multiple ZDWs exist in the visible and near infrared. The positions of the ZDWs can be either blue or red shifted depending on the frequency of the applied voltage.

  14. Large negative dispersion in dual-concentric-core photonic crystal fiber with hybrid cladding structure based on complete leaky mode coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jinhui; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Chongxiu; Jin, Cang; Shen, Xiangwei; Zhou, Guiyao; Li, Shuguang; Hou, Lantian

    2011-12-01

    Considering the optical stability of solution, the sugar-solution is infused into the outer core ring of dual-concentric-core photonic crystal fiber (DCCPCF). The influences of structure parameters and solution concentration on the phase and loss matching are comprehensively analyzed. By choosing the appropriate outer core mode to completely couple with the inner core fundamental mode, the large negative dispersion PCF around 1.55 μm is designed, which has the dispersion value of - 39,500 ps/km/nm as well as bandwidth of 7.4 nm and effective mode area of 28.3 μm 2. The designed PCF with hybrid cladding structure can effectively compensate the positive dispersion of conventional single mode fiber, and suppress the system perturbation caused by a series of nonlinear effects. Considering the mode field mismatching between the DCCPCF and the tapered fiber, the calculated connection loss around 1.55 μm is below 3 dB. In addition, the equivalent propagation constants of two leaky modes are deduced from the coupled-mode theory, and the complete mode coupling case can be well predicted by comparing the real and imaginary parts of propagation constants.

  15. Effect of Group-Velocity Dispersion on Photon-Number Squeezing of Optical Pulses using Optical Fibers and Spectral Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Norihiko; Horio, Takeo; Mori, Masakazu; Goto, Toshio; Yamane, Kazuo

    1999-04-01

    Photon-number squeezing of optical pulses using optical fibers and band-pass spectral filters is numerically analyzed. The evolution of the quantum noise in the optical pulse propagation is calculated in both the spectral and time domains. The mechanism of filtering squeezing and the role of the group-velocity dispersion are investigated.It is shown that the squeezing is realized owing to the interaction between the self-phase modulation and the group-velocity dispersion.

  16. Polarization maintaining highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with closely lying two zero dispersion wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Rabiul; Anower, Md. Shamim; Hasan, Md. Imran

    2016-05-01

    A simple hexagonal photonic crystal fiber is proposed to simultaneously achieve ultrahigh birefringence, large nonlinear coefficient, and two zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs). The finite element method with circular perfectly matched layer boundary condition is used to simulate the designed structure. Simulation results show that it is possible to achieve two closely lying ZDWs of 1.08 and 1.29 μm for x-polarization with 0.88 and 1.20 μm for y-polarization modes, respectively. In addition, an ultrahigh birefringence of 3.15×10-2 and a high nonlinear coefficient of 58 W-1 km-1 are also obtained at the excitation wavelength of 1.55 μm. The proposed fiber can have important applications in supercontinuum generation, parametric amplification, four-wave mixing, and optical sensors design.

  17. Slow light miniature devices with ultra-flattened dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Swati; Sinha, Ravindra; De La Rue, Richard M

    2009-08-03

    We propose a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic crystal waveguide within a hexagonal lattice of elliptical air holes for slow light propagation with group velocity in the range 0.0028c to 0.044c and ultra-flattened group velocity dispersion (GVD). The proposed structure is also investigated for its application as an optical buffer with a large value of normalized delay bandwidth product (DBP), equal to 0.778. Furthermore it is shown that the proposed structure can also be used for time or wavelength-division demultiplexing to separate two telecom wavelengths, 1.31 microm and 1.55 microm, on a useful time-scale and with minimal distortion.

  18. Wideband slow light and dispersion control in oblique lattice photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Leng, Feng-Chun; Liang, Wen-Yao; Liu, Bin; Wang, Tong-Biao; Wang, He-Zhou

    2010-03-15

    We find that the angle between elementary lattice vectors obviously affects the bandwidth and dispersion of slow light in photonic crystal line-defect waveguides. When the fluctuation of group index is strictly limited in a +/-1% range, the oblique lattice structures with the angle between elementary lattice vectors slightly larger than 60 degrees have broader available bandwidth of flat band slow light than triangular lattice structures. For example, for the angle 66 degrees , there are increases of the available bandwidth from 20% to 68% for several different structures. For the same angle and a +/-10% variation in group velocity, when group indices are nearly constants of 30, 48.5, 80 and 130, their corresponding bandwidths of flat band reach 20 nm, 11.8 nm, 7.3 nm and 3.9 nm around 1550 nm, respectively. The increasing of bandwidth is related to the shift of the anticrossing point towards smaller wave numbers.

  19. Study of the dispersive properties of three-dimensional photonic crystals with diamond lattices containing metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Kun

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, the dispersive properties of three-dimensional photonic crystals with diamond lattices containing isotropic dielectric and metamaterials are theoretically studied by a modified plane wave expansion method. In order to simplify the study, one only kind of the metamaterials is considered—the epsilon-negative materials. The eigenvalue equations of their structure depending on the diamond lattice realization (spheres with epsilon-negative materials inserted in the dielectric background) are deduced. A photonic band gap (PBG), a flatband region, and the first two stop band gaps (SBGs) above the flatband region in the Γ-X and Γ-L directions are found to appear. The results show that the upper edge of the flatband region cannot be tuned by any parameters except for the electronic plasma frequency. The PBG and first SBGs above the flatband region in the Γ-X and Γ-L directions for PCs can be modulated by the filling factor, relative dielectric constant and electronic plasma frequency, respectively. However, the damping factor has no effect on the locations of first PBG and the SBGs above the flatband region in the Γ-X and Γ-L directions.

  20. Fast and adaptive chromatic dispersion compensation scheme for digital coherent systems utilizing two-stage estimation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin; Yan, Lianshan; Yi, Anlin; Chen, Zhiyu; Pan, Yan; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Li, Guifang

    2015-06-15

    A two-stage fast and adaptive chromatic dispersion (CD) estimation algorithm is proposed and demonstrated for coherent polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) systems. The first stage uses signal power auto-correlation function for the coarse estimation while the second stage utilizes a modified constant modulus algorithm (MCMA) to obtain much more accurate accumulated CD. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is sufficient for CD estimation in non-dispersion-managed optical transmission of 112-Gb/s PDM-QPSK or 224-Gb/s PDM-16QAM signals. The concept is further experimentally verified in a 40-Gb/s PDM-QPSK system. Only ~7% estimation time is required to achieve similar accuracy compared to previous MCMA algorithm.

  1. Birefringence dispersion compensation demodulation algorithm for polarized low-coherence interferometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Liu, Tiegen; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Yin, Jinde; Wu, Fan

    2013-08-15

    A demodulation algorithm based on the birefringence dispersion characteristics for a polarized low-coherence interferometer is proposed. With the birefringence dispersion parameter taken into account, the mathematical model of the polarized low-coherence interference fringes is established and used to extract phase shift information between the measured coherence envelope center and the zero-order fringe, which eliminates the interferometric 2 π ambiguity of locating the zero-order fringe. A pressure measurement experiment using an optical fiber Fabry-Perot pressure sensor was carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experiment result showed that the demodulation precision was 0.077 kPa in the range of 210 kPa, which was improved by 23 times compared to the traditional envelope detection method.

  2. Electrohydrodynamic Behaviors in the Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Doped Optically Compensated Bend Polymer-Dispersed Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Ning; Wu, Jin-Jei; Ke, Hung-Lin

    2008-11-01

    We fabricated three optically compensated bend (OCB) polymer-dispersed nematic liquid crystal (PDLC) cells doped with a minute amount of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and observed the eletrohydrodynamic (EHD) behaviors of LCs in these three MWCNT-doped OCB PDLC cells at 5 or 12 V AC voltage with a frequency of 1 kHz or 60 Hz, respectively. Using the polarizing microscope, we discovered many kinds of domain patterns, including the fingerprint-like domain pattern, the uniform domain pattern, the bean-like domain pattern, the irregular big spot domain pattern, the hexagonal short period lattice domain pattern, and the rectangular period lattice domain pattern. This suggests that some domain patterns differ from the Kapustin-William's domain pattern while others were somewhat similar to the Kapustin-William's domain pattern.

  3. Tunable microwave metasurfaces for high-performance operations: dispersion compensation and dynamical switch

    PubMed Central

    Xu, He-Xiu; Tang, Shiwei; Ma, Shaojie; Luo, Weijie; Cai, Tong; Sun, Shulin; He, Qiong; Zhou, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the phase distributions on metasurfaces leads to fascinating effects such as anomalous light refraction/reflection, flat-lens focusing, and optics-vortex generation. However, metasurfaces realized so far largely reply on passive resonant meta-atoms, whose intrinsic dispersions limit such passive meta-devices’ performances at frequencies other than the target one. Here, based on tunable meta-atoms with varactor diodes involved, we establish a scheme to resolve these issues for microwave metasurfaces, in which the dispersive response of each meta-atom is precisely controlled by an external voltage imparted on the diode. We experimentally demonstrate two effects utilizing our scheme. First, we show that a tunable gradient metasurface exhibits single-mode high-efficiency operation within a wide frequency band, while its passive counterpart only works at a single frequency but exhibits deteriorated performances at other frequencies. Second, we demonstrate that the functionality of our metasurface can be dynamically switched from a specular reflector to a surface-wave convertor. Our approach paves the road to achieve dispersion-corrected and switchable manipulations of electromagnetic waves. PMID:27901088

  4. Tunable microwave metasurfaces for high-performance operations: dispersion compensation and dynamical switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, He-Xiu; Tang, Shiwei; Ma, Shaojie; Luo, Weijie; Cai, Tong; Sun, Shulin; He, Qiong; Zhou, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Controlling the phase distributions on metasurfaces leads to fascinating effects such as anomalous light refraction/reflection, flat-lens focusing, and optics-vortex generation. However, metasurfaces realized so far largely reply on passive resonant meta-atoms, whose intrinsic dispersions limit such passive meta-devices’ performances at frequencies other than the target one. Here, based on tunable meta-atoms with varactor diodes involved, we establish a scheme to resolve these issues for microwave metasurfaces, in which the dispersive response of each meta-atom is precisely controlled by an external voltage imparted on the diode. We experimentally demonstrate two effects utilizing our scheme. First, we show that a tunable gradient metasurface exhibits single-mode high-efficiency operation within a wide frequency band, while its passive counterpart only works at a single frequency but exhibits deteriorated performances at other frequencies. Second, we demonstrate that the functionality of our metasurface can be dynamically switched from a specular reflector to a surface-wave convertor. Our approach paves the road to achieve dispersion-corrected and switchable manipulations of electromagnetic waves.

  5. Wideband slow light with low dispersion in asymmetric slotted photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Tao; Tang, Jian; Li, Xiaoming; Dong, Chuanbo; He, Yu

    2013-12-01

    A new procedure of designing slotted photonic crystal waveguides is proposed to achieve slow light with improved normalized delay-bandwidth product and low group velocity dispersion that is suitable for both the W1 defect mode and the slot mode. The lateral symmetry of the waveguide in our study is broken by shifting the air holes periodically along the slot axis. The conversion of the "flat band" from band-up slow light to band-down slow light is achieved for the W1 defect mode. The group index curves of the W1 mode change from U-like to step-like and the group indices of 47, 67 and 130 are obtained with the bandwidth over 7.2, 4.8, and 2.3 nm around 1550 nm, respectively. We also obtain the group indices of 42, 55, and 108 for the slot mode with the bandwidth over 6.2, 5.6, and 2.2 nm, respectively. Then the low dispersion slow light propagation is numerically demonstrated by the finite-difference time-domain method.

  6. Dispersion engineering of slow light in hexagonal ring hole photonic crystal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min; Li, Changhong; Li, Liucun; Wang, Yumeng

    2016-10-01

    We adopt hexagonal optofluidic ring scatterers to built two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) with triangular lattice. By studying slow light effects of varieties of optical optofluidic rings, the thickness of optofluidic ring in X and Z direction, and the moving distance of the first row of scatterers near central waveguide, some relatively optimism results have been founded. In addition, in the process of research, we adopt PWE method to simulation calculation. When the thickness of optofluidic ring changes, the optimization results which ng equals 47.2120, bandwidth Δλ is 28.5nm and the group velocity dispersion β2 is 43.3418 ps2/mm. When the moving distance changes, the optimization results we could get that ng equals 15.6569, Δλ is 92.9nm and β2 is 7.8202 ps2/mm. This wideband and low dispersion slow light can be used for storage capacity with certain requirements of the optical buffer, optical sensors, etc.

  7. Zero-dispersion wavelength decreasing photonic crystal fibers for ultraviolet-extended supercontinuum generation.

    PubMed

    Kudlinski, A; George, A K; Knight, J C; Travers, J C; Rulkov, A B; Popov, S V; Taylor, J R

    2006-06-12

    We report the fabrication of photonic crystal fibers with a continuously-decreasing zero-dispersion wavelength along their length. These tapered fibers are designed to extend the generation of supercontinuum spectra from the visible into the ultraviolet. We report on their performance when pumped with both nanosecond and picosecond sources at 1.064 microm. The supercontinuum spectra have a spectral width (measured at the 10 dB points) extending from 0.372 microm to beyond 1.75 microm. In an optimal configuration a flat (3 dB) spectrum from 395 to 850 nm, with a minimum spectral power density of 2 mW/nm was achieved, with a total continuum output power of 3.5 W. We believe that the shortest wavelengths were generated by cascaded four-wave mixing: the continuous decrease of the zero dispersion wavelength along the fiber length enables the phase-matching condition to be satisfied for a wide range of wavelengths into the ultraviolet, while simultaneously increasing the nonlinear coefficient of the fiber.

  8. Evaluation of the computational effort for chromatic dispersion compensation in coherent optical PM-OFDM and PM-QAM systems.

    PubMed

    Poggiolini, P; Carena, A; Curri, V; Forghieri, F

    2009-02-02

    Recently, coherent-detection (CoD) polarization multiplexed (PM) transmission has attracted considerable interest, specifically as a possible solution for next-generation systems transmitting 100 Gb/s per channel and beyond. In this context, enabled by progress in ultra-fast digital signal processing (DSP) electronics, both multilevel phase/amplitude modulated formats (such as QAM) and orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexed (OFDM) formats have been proposed. One specific feature of DSP-supported CoD is the possibility of dealing with fiber chromatic dispersion (CD) electronically, either by post-filtering (PM-QAM) or by appropriately introducing symbol-duration redundancy (PM-OFDM). In both cases, ultra-long-haul fully uncompensated links seem to be possible. In this paper we estimate the computational effort required by CD compensation, when using the PM-QAM or PM-OFDM formats. Such effort, when expressed as number of operations per received bit, was found to be logarithmic with respect to link length, bit rate and fiber dispersion, for both classes of systems. We also found that PM-OFDM may have some advantage over PM-QAM, depending mostly on the over-sampling needed by the two systems. Asymptotically, for large channel memory and small over-sampling, the two systems tend to require the same CD-compensation computational effort. We also showed that the effort required by the mitigation of polarization-related effects can in principle be made small as compared to that of CD over long uncompensated links.

  9. Cascaded interactions between Raman induced solitons and dispersive waves in photonic crystal fibers at the advanced stage of supercontinuum generation.

    PubMed

    Driben, Rodislav; Mitschke, Fedor; Zhavoronkov, Nickolai

    2010-12-06

    The complex mechanism of multiple interactions between solitary and dispersive waves at the advanced stage of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber is studied in experiment and numerical simulations. Injection of high power negatively chirped pulses near zero dispersion frequency results in an effective soliton fission process with multiple interactions between red shifted Raman solitons and dispersive waves. These interactions may result in relative acceleration of solitons with further collisions between them of quasi-elastic or quasi-plastic kinds. In the spectral domain these processes result in enhancement of certain wavelength regions within the spectrum or development of a new significant band at the long wavelength side of the spectrum.

  10. Design of a Photonic Crystal Fiber with Zero Dispersion Wavelength Near 0.65 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Rakhi; Konar, S.

    The zero dispersion point of an index-guided photonic crystal fiber with triangular lattice of air holes has been shifted to 0.65 μm by varying the diameter of air hole of different rings. Using FDTD method, we have estimated group velocity dispersion, effective refractive index, the fiber parameter, and the mode field of the fundamental mode. It has been realized that the value of zero dispersion point is mainly decided by the air holes of the first ring. This fiber can be used for biomedical application, spectroscopy, and supercontinuum generation.

  11. Photonic Integrated Circuits Based on Plasmonics and Quantum Dot Materials: Properties, Compensation of Optical Losses and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thylen, Lars

    2010-03-01

    Nanophotonics and plasmonics have received much attention recently, fuelled by a general interest in nanotechnology but also by rapid advances in integrated photonics, mainly brought about by using silicon, with larger refractive index difference than previously employed [L. Thylen et al, J. Zhejiang Univ. SCIENCE 2006 7(12)]. Plasmonics offers a possibility for devices with field sizes much smaller than the wavelength of light in aa host medium. But the tighter the field confinement, the greater are generally the optical losses, determined by the imaginary part of epsilon. This remains a critical issue. Dissipative losses impede the ubiquitous usefulness of nanophotonics light wave circuits. Recently, optical gain in quantum dots for reducing or compensate losses was analyzed [A Bratkovsky et al, Applied Physics Letters 93, 193106 (2008)]. However, the concomitant effects of the high (but not unreachable) gain required for this are high power dissipation and signal to noise ratio degradation. Power dissipation is primarily due to the losses of the metal structures and Auger recombination in the quantum dots. A general and square chip size independent expression for the information capacity of a lossless (by amplification) plasmonic chip is given, using the allowed values for integrated electronics power dissipation. In conclusion, with amplification and with current understanding, it appears possible to sizewise come close to CMOS dimensions for isolated integrated photonic devices, but not in integration density. This is due to power dissipation in currently employed negative epsilon materials.

  12. Two-Dimensional Spatio-Temporal Signal Processing for Dispersion Compensation in Time-Stretched ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarighat, Alireza; Gupta, Shalabh; Sayed, Ali H.; Jalali, Bahram

    2007-06-01

    Time-stretched analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) have offered revolutionary enhancements in the performance of electronic converters by reducing the signal bandwidth prior to digitization. An inherent limitation of the time-stretched ADC is the frequency-selective response of the optical system that reduces the effective number of bits for ultrawideband signals. This paper proposes a solution based on spatio-temporal digital processing. The digital algorithm exploits the optical phase diversity to create a flat RF frequency response, even when the system's transfer function included deep nulls within the signal spectrum. For a 10× time-stretch factor with a 10-GHz input signal, simulations show that the proposed solution increases the overall achievable signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio to 52 dB in the presence of linear distortions. The proposed filter can be used to mitigate the dispersion penalty in other fiber optic applications as well.

  13. Dispersed three-pulse infrared photon echoes of nitrous oxide in water and octanol.

    PubMed

    Shattuck, J T; Schneck, J R; Chieffo, L R; Erramilli, S; Ziegler, L D

    2013-12-12

    Dispersed IR three-pulse photon echoes due to the antisymmetric (ν3) stretch mode of N2O dissolved in H2O and 1-octanol at room temperature are reported and analyzed. The experimentally determined transition frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF) in these two solvents is explained in terms of inertial solvent contributions, hydrogen bond network fluctuations, and, for octanol, the motions of the alkyl chains. The H2O hydrogen bond fluctuations result in 1.5 ps FFCF decay, in agreement with relaxation rates determined from photon echo based measurements of other aqueous solutions including salt solutions. In octanol, hydrogen bond fluctuations decay on a slower time scale of 3.3 ps and alkyl chain motions result in an inhomogeneous broadening contribution to the ν3 absorption spectrum that decays on a 35 ps time scale. Rotational reorientation of N2O is nearly 3 times faster in octanol as compared to water. Although the vibrational ν3 N2O absorption line shapes in water and octanol are similar, the line widths result from different coherence loss mechanisms. A hot band contribution in the N2O in octanol solution is found to have a significant effect on the echo spectrum due to its correspondingly stronger transition moment than that of the fundamental transition. The dephasing dynamics of the N2O ν3 stretch mode is of interest as a probe in ultrafast studies of complex or nanoconfined systems with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions such as phospholipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. These results demonstrate the value of the N2O molecule to act as a reporter of equilibrium fluctuations in such complex systems particularly due to its solubility characteristics and long vibrational lifetime.

  14. PMD and chromatic dispersion compensation in a 1.76-terabit/s (44 x 43 Gbit/s) optical transmission experiment over 600-km SMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Jens C.

    2004-10-01

    A simple, adaptive PMD compensator is demonstrated in a 1.76Terabit/s (44 x 43 Gbit/s) transmission experi- ment over 600km SMF with a mean PMD of 8 ps. The PMDC is composed of a LiNbO3 polarization-controller followed by a component with an adjustable differential group delay (DGD) in the range of 0-20 ps. Feedback control is provided by means of continuously monitoring and maximizing the degree of polarization (DOP). This PMDC is shown to automatically compensate well for 1st-order (0-28 ps) and one part - the depolarization - of 2nd-order (0-130 ps2) PMD. Polarization dependent chromatic dispersion (PCD), being the other part of 2nd-order PMD, is negligible as long transmission systems without a PMDC are considered. But in fact PCD plays a role when an optical PMDC is introduced. Because of the anyway tight tolerance of 40 Gbit/s optical signals to chromatic dispersion, the variable dispersion compensator VIPA (virtually imaged phased array) with a tuning range of +/-800 ps/nm is introduced besides the PMDC. Therefore, with VIPA not only residual chro- matic dispersion put also PCD is e«ectively compensated for. Using adaptive optical technologies compensating for PMD and chromatic dispersion, error-free transmission (BER< 10í15 with FEC, Q-margin=3 dB) of 44 x 43 Gbit/s (1.76 Tbit/s) over 600km of high PMD (8 ps) SMF is demonstrated.

  15. Effect of frequency chirp on supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers with two zero-dispersion wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Yu, Song; Zhang, Jie; Gu, Wanyi

    2007-02-05

    The effect of initial frequency chirp is investigated numerically to obtain efficient supercontinuum radiation in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with two closely spaced zero-dispersion wavelengths. The positive chirps, instead of zero or negative chirps, are recommended because self phase modulation and four-wave mixing can be facilitated by employing positive chirps. In contrast with the complicated and irregular spectrum generated by negative-chirped pulse, the spectrums generated by positive-chirped pulses are wider and much more regular. Moreover, the saturated length of the PCF, corresponding to the maximal spectrum width, can be shortened greatly and the efficiency of frequency conversion is also improved because of initial positive chirps. Nearly all the energy between the zero-dispersion wavelengths can be transferred to the normal dispersion region from the region within the two zero-dispersion wavelengths provided that the initial positive chirp is large enough.

  16. Optical monitoring of chemical processes in turbid biogenic liquid dispersions by Photon Density Wave spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hass, Roland; Munzke, Dorit; Ruiz, Salomé Vargas; Tippmann, Johannes; Reich, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    In turbid biogenic liquid material, like blood or milk, quantitative optical analysis is often strongly hindered by multiple light scattering resulting from cells, particles, or droplets. Here, optical attenuation is caused by losses due to absorption as well as scattering of light. Fiber-based Photon Density Wave (PDW) spectroscopy is a very promising method for the precise measurement of the optical properties of such materials. They are expressed as absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μ a and μ s', respectively) and are linked to the chemical composition and physical properties of the sample. As a process analytical technology, PDW spectroscopy can sense chemical and/or physical processes within such turbid biogenic liquids, providing new scientific insight and process understanding. Here, for the first time, several bioprocesses are analyzed by PDW spectroscopy and the resulting optical coefficients are discussed with respect to established mechanistic models of the chosen processes. As model systems, enzymatic casein coagulation in milk, temperature-induced starch hydrolysis in beer mash, and oxy- as well as deoxygenation of human donor blood were investigated by PDW spectroscopy. The findings indicate that also for very complex biomaterials (i.e., not well-defined model materials like monodisperse polymer dispersions), obtained optical coefficients allow for the assessment of a structure/process relationship and thus for a new analytical access to biogenic liquid material. This is of special relevance as PDW spectroscopy data are obtained without any dilution or calibration, as often found in conventional spectroscopic approaches.

  17. Molecularly Dispersed Donors in Acceptor Molecular Crystals for Photon Upconversion under Low Excitation Intensity.

    PubMed

    Hosoyamada, Masanori; Yanai, Nobuhiro; Ogawa, Taku; Kimizuka, Nobuo

    2016-02-01

    For real-world applications of photon upconversion based on the triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA-UC), it is imperative to develop solid-state TTA-UC systems that work effectively under low excitation power comparable to solar irradiance. As an approach in this direction, aromatic crystals showing high triplet diffusivity are expected to serve as a useful platform. However, donor molecules inevitably tend to segregate from the host acceptor crystals, and this inhomogeneity results in the disappointing performance of crystalline state TTA-UC. In this work, a series of cast-film-forming acceptors was developed, which provide both regular acceptor alignment and soft domains of alkyl chains that accommodate donor molecules without segregation. A typical triplet sensitizer, Pt(II) octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP), was dispersed in these acceptor crystals without aggregation. As a result, efficient triplet energy transfer from the donor to the acceptor and diffusion of triplet excitons among regularly aligned anthracene chromophores occurred. It resulted in TTA-UC emission at low excitation intensities, comparable to solar irradiance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Wideband and low-dispersion engineered slow light using liquid infiltration of a modified photonic crystal waveguide.

    PubMed

    Pourmand, Mohammad; Karimkhani, Arash; Nazari, Fakhroddin

    2016-12-10

    We present a wideband and low-dispersion slow-light photonic crystal waveguide with a large normalized delay-bandwidth product that can be exploited in many ultra-compact all-optical devices, such as modulators and switches. The proposed new approach is based on infiltrating optical fluid into the first and second rows of the shifted air holes adjacent to the line-defect waveguide in a hexagonal lattice of photonic crystal. The simulation results show that the normalized delay-bandwidth product can be enhanced to a large value of 0.469 with a wide bandwidth operation of 36.8 nm in the C-band frequency optical communication window. Furthermore, by means of two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations, the low-dispersion slow-light propagation is demonstrated by simulating the temporal Gaussian pulse width broadening.

  19. Measurement of degenerate two-photon absorption spectra of a series of developed two-photon initiators using a dispersive white light continuum Z-scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajami, Aliasghar; Husinsky, Wolfgang; Tromayer, Maximilian; Gruber, Peter; Liska, Robert; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr

    2017-08-01

    To achieve efficient micro- and nanostructuring based on two-photon polymerization (2PP), the development and evaluation of specialized two-photon initiators (2PIs) are essential. Hence, a reliable method to determine the two-photon absorption (2PA) spectra of the synthesized 2PIs used for 2PP structuring is crucial. A technique by which absolute visible-to-near-infrared 2PA spectra of degenerate nature can be determined via performing a single dispersive white-light continuum (WLC) Z-scan has been realized. Using a dispersed white light beam containing 8 fs pulses at wavelengths ranging from 650 nm to 950 nm, the nonlinear transmittance as a function of the sample position can be measured for all spectral components by performing a single scan along the laser beam propagation direction. In this work, the 2PA spectrum of three different 2PIs was determined using this technique. 2PP structuring was also accomplished using the developed 2PIs at different wavelengths. Tuning the wavelength of the laser to match the peak of the 2PA spectra of the developed 2PIs resulted in lower intensity thresholds and facilitated higher structuring speeds. As an example, using M2CMK 2PI for 2PP, the scanning speed can be increased up to 5 folds when the laser wavelength is tuned to 760 nm (i.e., 2PA maximum) instead of the conventionally used 800 nm.

  20. Compensation of spherical aberration influences for two-photon polymerization patterning of large 3D scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stichel, T.; Hecht, B.; Houbertz, R.; Sextl, G.

    2015-10-01

    Two-photon polymerization using femtosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 515 nm is used for three-dimensional patterning of photosensitive, biocompatible inorganic-organic hybrid polymers (ORMOCER®s). In order to fabricate millimeter-sized biomedical scaffold structures with interconnected pores, medium numerical aperture air objectives with long working distances are applied which allow voxel lengths of several micrometers and thus the solidification of large scaffolds in an adequate time. It is demonstrated that during processing the refraction of the focused laser beam at the air/material interface leads to strong spherical aberration which decreases the peak intensity of the focal point spread function along with shifting and severely extending the focal region in the direction of the beam propagation. These effects clearly decrease the structure integrity, homogeneity and the structure details and therefore are minimized by applying a positioning and laser power adaptation throughout the fabrication process. The results will be discussed with respect to the resulting structural homogeneity and its application as biomedical scaffold.

  1. Dispersion of nonlinear refraction and two-photon absorption using a white-light continuum Z-scan.

    PubMed

    Balu, Mihaela; Hales, Joel; Hagan, David; Van Stryland, Eric

    2005-05-16

    We use a white-light continuum (WLC) Z-scan technique to measure the degenerate two-photon absorption spectrum and associated dispersion of the nonlinear refraction in ZnSe. The spectral components of the WLC source are separated by using a narrow band variable filter to minimize nondegenerate nonlinearities. We observe a change in sign of the ultrafast nonlinear refractive index around 0.7 of the bandgap energy as predicted by theory.

  2. Observation of parametric gain due to four-wave mixing in dispersion engineered GaInP photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Colman, Pierre; Cestier, Isabelle; Willinger, Amnon; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Eisenstein, Gadi; De Rossi, Alfredo

    2011-07-15

    We investigate four-wave mixing (FWM) in GaInP 1.5 mm long dispersion engineered photonic crystal waveguides. We demonstrate an 11 nm FWM bandwidth in the CW mode and a conversion efficiency of -24 dB in the quasi-CW mode. For picosecond pump and probe pulses, we report a 3 dB parametric gain and nearly a -5 dB conversion efficiency at watt-level peak pump powers.

  3. Extinction ratio improvement by pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Chow, K K; Shu, C; Lin, Chinlon; Bjarklev, A

    2005-10-31

    We demonstrate extinction ratio improvement by using pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. A 6-dB improvement in the extinction ratio of a degraded return-to-zero signal has been achieved. A power penalty improvement of 3 dB at 10(-9) bit-error-rate level is obtained in the 10 Gb/s bit-error-rate measurements.

  4. Achromatic optical compensation using dispersion of uniaxial films for elimination of off-axis light leakage in a liquid crystal cell.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung-Won; Wok Park, Byung; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2013-11-10

    We propose an achromatic optical-compensation method using uniaxial films to eliminate the off-axis light leakage at the dark state in a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell. Three uniaxial films with different dispersion characteristics are used so that they can compensate each other to achieve achromatic effective phase retardation at off-axis. The retardation values are optimized with the aid of the Poincaré sphere and through numerical research. A contrast ratio of higher than 2000∶1 is predicted over the entire ±60° viewing cone for a homogeneously aligned LC cell with zero pretilt angle.

  5. Ultra-flattened nearly-zero dispersion and ultrahigh nonlinear slot silicon photonic crystal fibers with ultrahigh birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jianfei; Xie, Yingmao; Wang, Xinghua; Li, Dongbo; Huang, Tianye

    2017-07-01

    A slot silicon photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is proposed to simultaneously achieve ultrahigh birefringence, large nonlinearity and ultra-flattened nearly-zero dispersion over a wide wavelength range. By taking advantage on the slot effect, ultrahigh birefringence up to 0.0736 and ultrahigh nonlinear coefficient up to 211.48 W-1 m-1 for quasi-TE mode can be obtained at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. Moreover, ultra-flattened dispersion of 0.49 ps/(nm km) for quasi-TE mode can be achieved over a 180 nm wavelength range with low dispersion slope of 1.85 × 10-3 ps/(nm2 km) at 1.55 μm. Leveraging on these advantages, the proposed slot PCF has great potential for efficient all-optical signal processing applications.

  6. Measurement of higher order chromatic dispersion in a photonic bandgap fiber: comparative study of spectral interferometric methods.

    PubMed

    Grósz, T; Kovács, A P; Kiss, M; Szipőcs, R

    2014-03-20

    Chromatic dispersion of a 37 cm long, solid-core photonic bandgap (PBG) fiber was studied in the wavelength range of 740-840 nm with spectral interferometry employing a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a high resolution spectrometer. The interferometer was illuminated by a Ti:sapphire laser providing 20 fs pulses. A comparative study has been carried out to find the most accurate spectral phase retrieval method that is suitable for measuring higher order chromatic dispersion. The stationary phase point, the minima-maxima, the cosine function fit, the Fourier transform, and the windowed Fourier transform methods were tested. It was shown that out of these five techniques, the Fourier-transform method provided the dispersion coefficients with the highest accuracy, and it could also detect rapid phase changes in the vicinity of leaking mode frequencies within the transmission band of the PBG fiber.

  7. Wideband and low dispersion slow-light waveguide based on a photonic crystal with crescent-shaped air holes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Bo; Wang, Ling-ling; Huang, Wei-qing; Li, Xiao-fei; Zhai, Xiang; Zhang, Hong

    2012-08-10

    We present a procedure to generate slow light with a large group index, wideband, and low dispersion in our suggested photonic crystal waveguide. By modulation of the declinations in the first two rows of air holes, the group index, the bandwidth, and the dispersion can be tuned effectively. Utilizing the two-dimensional plane wave expansion method (PWE) and the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD), we demonstrate slow light with the group indices of 23, 35, and 45, respectively, while restricting the group-index variation within a 10% range. We accordingly attain an available bandwidth of 40.7, 23.7, and 5.1 nm, respectively. Meanwhile, the normalized delay-bandwidth product stays around 0.45, with minimal dispersion less than 0.2 (ps2/m) for all the cases.

  8. Electronic dispersion compensation in a 50 Gb/s optically unamplified direct-detection receiver enabled by vestigial-sideband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Ling, William A; Lyubomirsky, Ilya

    2014-03-24

    We present a novel method for dispersion compensation based on vestigial-sideband transmission of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexed signal through standard signal-mode fiber with a direct-detection receiver. This technique requires simpler optical components and can withstand greater link attenuation and splitting ratios than similar methods previously studied, making the method ideal for optically unamplified receivers, such as those in passive optical networks. We present simulations as well as experimental measurements to demonstrate its practicality.

  9. Dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clobert, J.; Danchin, E.; Dhondt, A.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of species to migrate and disperse is a trait that has interested ecologists for many years. Now that so many species and ecosystems face major environmental threats from habitat fragmentation and global climate change, the ability of species to adapt to these changes by dispersing, migrating, or moving between patches of habitat can be crucial to ensuring their survival. This book provides a timely and wide-ranging overview of the study of dispersal and incorporates much of the latest research. The causes, mechanisms, and consequences of dispersal at the individual, population, species and community levels are considered. The potential of new techniques and models for studying dispersal, drawn from molecular biology and demography, is also explored. Perspectives and insights are offered from the fields of evolution, conservation biology and genetics. Throughout the book, theoretical approaches are combined with empirical data, and care has been taken to include examples from as wide a range of species as possible.

  10. 0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference with dispersion cancellation for quantum optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Okano, Masayuki; Lim, Hwan Hong; Okamoto, Ryo; Nishizawa, Norihiko; Kurimura, Sunao; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2015-12-14

    Quantum information technologies harness the intrinsic nature of quantum theory to beat the limitations of the classical methods for information processing and communication. Recently, the application of quantum features to metrology has attracted much attention. Quantum optical coherence tomography (QOCT), which utilizes two-photon interference between entangled photon pairs, is a promising approach to overcome the problem with optical coherence tomography (OCT): As the resolution of OCT becomes higher, degradation of the resolution due to dispersion within the medium becomes more critical. Here we report on the realization of 0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference, which surpasses the current record resolution 0.75 μm of low-coherence interference for OCT. In addition, the resolution for QOCT showed almost no change against the dispersion of a 1 mm thickness of water inserted in the optical path, whereas the resolution for OCT dramatically degrades. For this experiment, a highly-efficient chirped quasi-phase-matched lithium tantalate device was developed using a novel 'nano-electrode-poling' technique. The results presented here represent a breakthrough for the realization of quantum protocols, including QOCT, quantum clock synchronization, and more. Our work will open up possibilities for medical and biological applications.

  11. 0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference with dispersion cancellation for quantum optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Masayuki; Lim, Hwan Hong; Okamoto, Ryo; Nishizawa, Norihiko; Kurimura, Sunao; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2015-12-01

    Quantum information technologies harness the intrinsic nature of quantum theory to beat the limitations of the classical methods for information processing and communication. Recently, the application of quantum features to metrology has attracted much attention. Quantum optical coherence tomography (QOCT), which utilizes two-photon interference between entangled photon pairs, is a promising approach to overcome the problem with optical coherence tomography (OCT): As the resolution of OCT becomes higher, degradation of the resolution due to dispersion within the medium becomes more critical. Here we report on the realization of 0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference, which surpasses the current record resolution 0.75 μm of low-coherence interference for OCT. In addition, the resolution for QOCT showed almost no change against the dispersion of a 1 mm thickness of water inserted in the optical path, whereas the resolution for OCT dramatically degrades. For this experiment, a highly-efficient chirped quasi-phase-matched lithium tantalate device was developed using a novel ‘nano-electrode-poling’ technique. The results presented here represent a breakthrough for the realization of quantum protocols, including QOCT, quantum clock synchronization, and more. Our work will open up possibilities for medical and biological applications

  12. All-fiber supercontinuum source based on a mode-locked ytterbium laser with dispersion compensation by linearly chirped Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Kivistö, S; Herda, R; Okhotnikov, O G

    2008-01-07

    We demonstrate an all-fiber picosecond soliton laser with dispersion management performed by a chirped Bragg grating that generates ~1.6 ps pulses representing the shortest pulsewidth reported to date using this technology. The large anomalous dispersion provided by the grating allows building of a long-length cavity laser with an extremely low fundamental repetition rate of 2.6 MHz. This source allows us to use an original approach for producing energetic pulses that after boosting in a medium power core-pumped amplifier produce an octave-spanning supercontinuum radiation in a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber.

  13. Effects of polarization mode dispersion on polarization-entangled photons generated via broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Hong, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-05-01

    An inexpensive and compact frequency multi-mode diode laser enables a compact two-photon polarization entanglement source via the continuous wave broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) process. Entanglement degradation caused by polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is one of the critical issues in optical fiber-based polarization entanglement distribution. We theoretically and experimentally investigate how the initial entanglement is degraded when the two-photon polarization entangled state undergoes PMD. We report an effect of PMD unique to broadband pumped SPDC, equally applicable to pulsed pumping as well as cw broadband pumping, which is that the amount of the entanglement degradation is asymmetrical to the PMD introduced to each quantum channel. We believe that our results have important applications in long-distance distribution of polarization entanglement via optical fiber channels.

  14. Dispersion spreading of biphotons in optical fibers and two-photon interference.

    PubMed

    Brida, G; Chekhova, M V; Genovese, M; Gramegna, M; Krivitsky, L A

    2006-04-14

    We present the first observation of two-photon polarization interference structure in the second-order Glauber correlation function of two-photon light generated via type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion. In order to obtain this result, two-photon light is transmitted through an optical fiber and the coincidence distribution is analyzed by means of the start-stop method. Beyond the experimental demonstration of an interesting effect in quantum optics, these results also have considerable relevance for quantum communications.

  15. Depolarization technique for wavelength conversion using four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taotao; Shu, Chester; Lin, Chinlon

    2005-07-11

    We have developed a depolarization technique to achieve polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion using four-wave mixing in an optical fiber. A maximum conversion efficiency of -11.79 dB was achieved over a 3 dB bandwidth of 26 nm in a 100-m-long dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber. The polarization-dependent conversion efficiency was less than 0.38 dB and the measured power penalty for a 10 Gbit/s NRZ signal was 1.9 dB. The relation between the conversion efficiency and the degree of polarization of the pump was also formulated.

  16. Design of nonlinear photonic crystal fibers with a double-cladded coaxial core for zero chromatic dispersion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong

    2012-10-01

    Photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a double-cladded coaxial core (CC) is proposed and analyzed to obtain propagation characteristics such as chromatic dispersion, field distribution, and effective area. Only by doubling the number of air holes to 12 in the inner hexagonal cladding layer with one pitch (Λ) value can the chromatic dispersion shift close to zero be achieved at 1.55 μm operation wavelength. The fundamental mode field for the double-cladded CCPCF is tightly confined to the central core region. Therefore, the effective area is normally very small, while it tends to be larger rather rapidly as the operating wavelength is longer than around 1.7 μm.

  17. Dispersion and loss control of high birefringence photonic crystal fiber with CdSe/ZnS quantum dot film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Helin; Yang, Aijun

    2017-04-01

    High birefringence photonic crystal fibers (HB-PCFs) with different CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) film thicknesses are designed, and their dispersion and loss properties are analyzed in detail. The results show that the fundamental modes along the x- and y-axis of HB-PCF with CdSe/ZnS QD films can be found. As pump wavelength increases, the birefringences of these designed QD HB-PCFs increase gradually. Their dispersions increase first and then decrease along the x- and y-axis of HB-PCFs. The losses of QD HB-PCFs are close to zero in the visible region while they increase gradually in the infrared region. By changing the thickness of CdSe/ZnS QD nanofilms in the air holes of fibers, the birefringence and dispersion of QD HB-PCFs vary obviously, and their losses can be reduced efficiently. It indicates that the dispersion and loss of HB-PCFs with QD thin films can be controlled effectively by depositing different QD film thicknesses and choosing a suitable pump wavelength in the experiment.

  18. Temperature-compensated distributed hydrostatic pressure sensor with a thin-diameter polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based on Brillouin dynamic gratings.

    PubMed

    Teng, Lei; Zhang, Hongying; Dong, Yongkang; Zhou, Dengwang; Jiang, Taofei; Gao, Wei; Lu, Zhiwei; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2016-09-15

    A temperature-compensated distributed hydrostatic pressure sensor based on Brillouin dynamic gratings (BDGs) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The principle is to measure the hydrostatic pressure induced birefringence changes through exciting and probing the BDGs in a thin-diameter pure silica polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber. The temperature cross-talk to the hydrostatic pressure sensing can be compensated through measuring the temperature-induced Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) changes using Brillouin optical time-domain analysis. A distributed measurement of hydrostatic pressure is demonstrated experimentally using a 4-m sensing fiber, which has a high sensitivity, with a maximum measurement error less than 0.03 MPa at a 20-cm spatial resolution.

  19. Design and development of a temperature-compensated fiber optic polarimetric pressure sensor based on photonic crystal fiber at 1550 nm.

    PubMed

    Gahir, Harneet K; Khanna, Dhiraj

    2007-03-10

    Use of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) in the field of sensing is relatively new. We propose the application of a PCF for pressure sensing. The fiber analyzed is a polarization-maintaining PCF that has negligible sensitivity to temperature, making it an ideal candidate for pressure sensing in harsh environments. On the basis of theoretical and experimental analysis, PCF is proposed to be applied as a temperature-compensated pressure sensor. Detailed theoretical analysis and the experiment carried out are described to show the concept of the sensor.

  20. Tunable Bragg extraction of light in photonic quasi crystals: dispersed liquid crystalline metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rippa, Massimo; Bobeico, Eugenia; Umeton, Cesare P.; Petti, Lucia

    2015-09-01

    By exploiting Metamaterials (MTMs) and Photonic Quasi-Crystals (PQCs), it is possible to realize man-made structures characterized by a selective EM response, which can be also controlled by combining the distinctive properties of reconfigurable soft-matter. By finely controlling lattice parameters of a given photonic structure, it is possible to optimize its extraction characteristics at a precise wavelength, or minimize the extraction of undesired modes. In general, however, once a structure is realized, its extraction properties cannot be varied. To cross this problem, it is possible to combine capabilities offered by both MTMs and PQCs with the reconfigurable properties of smart materials, such as Liquid Crystals (LCs); in this way, a completely new class of "reconfigurable metamaterials" (R-MTM) can be realized. We report here on the realization and characterization of a switchable photonic device, working in the visible range, based on nanostructured photonic quasi-crystals, layered with an azodye-doped nematic LC (NLC). The experimental characterization shows that its filtering effect is remarkable with its extraction spectra which can be controlled by applying an external voltage or by means of a laser light. The vertical extraction of the light, by the coupling of the modes guided by the PQC slab to the free radiation via Bragg scattering, consists of an extremely narrow orange emission band at 621 nm with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 8 nm. In our opinion, these results represent a breakthrough in the realization of innovative MTMs based active photonic devices such as tunable MTMs or reconfigurable lasers and active filters.

  1. Theoretical and experimental study of the nonlinear optical and dispersive properties of conventional and photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuis, Robinson

    The early use of the induced grating autocorrelation (IGA) method to measure the nonlinear refractive index of single mode fibers utilized 50-70 ps pulses at 1064-nm and required only 15-20 m lengths of fiber. Exotic fibers, such as photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), are extremely expensive and limit many applications to a few meters. Therefore, a practical measurement of the nonlinear coefficient for such exotic fibers requires a technique sensitive to shorter fiber lengths (< 5 m). To reduce the fiber length requirements, the IGA technique must use shorter pulses. In this work, a new mathematical description was developed for the IGA technique that is applicable to pulses as short as 100 fs. This model includes effects such as dispersion, self-phase modulation, stimulated Raman scattering, intra-pulse Raman scattering and self-steepening. The model was used to investigate pulse propagation at three pulsewidths: 50 ps, 2 ps, and 120 fs. The model predicted the sensitivity of IGA measurements to dispersive and nonlinear effects at these pulsewidths. The numerical model led to the successful experimental determination of both the dispersion and nonlinear coefficients of a 15m long single-mode fiber using a 2 ps Ti: sapphire laser at 800 nm. The nonlinear coefficient for several PCFs (a 30 cm long highly nonlinear PCF and two large mode area PCFs of 4.5 m and 4.9 m long) were also successfully measured with excellent numerical fits using this new IGA model.

  2. Comparative investigation of methods to determine the group velocity dispersion of an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baselt, Tobias; Popp, Tobias; Nelsen, Bryan; Lasagni, Andrés. Fabián.; Hartmann, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Endlessly single-mode fibers, which enable single mode guidance over a wide spectral range, are indispensable in the field of fiber technology. A two-dimensional photonic crystal with a silica central core and a micrometer-spaced hexagonal array of air holes is an established method to achieve endless single-mode guidance. There are two possible ways to determine the dispersion: measurement and calculation. We calculate the group velocity dispersion GVD based on the measurement of the fiber structure parameters, the hole diameter and the pitch of a presumed homogeneous hexagonal array and compare the calculation with two methods to measure the wavelength-dependent time delay. We measure the time delay on a three hundred meter test fiber with a homemade supercontinuum light source, a set of bandpass filters and a fast detector and compare the results with a white light interferometric setup. To measure the dispersion of optical fibers with high accuracy, a time-frequency-domain setup based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used. The experimental setup allows the determination of the wavelength dependent differential group delay of light travelling through a thirty centimeter piece of test fiber in the wavelength range from VIS to NIR. The determination of the GVD using different methods enables the evaluation of the individual methods for characterizing the endlessly single-mode fiber.

  3. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Design of Double Cladding Nearly Zero Dispersion Flattened Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Hou, Lan-Tian; Lu, Ming; Zhou, Gui-Yao

    2009-11-01

    We present a design of double cladding nearly zero dispersion flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with the core consisting of seven missing holes. The dispersion of the designed PCF fluctuates from -0.28 to 0.29 ps·km-1·nm-1 in the range of 1.35-1.795μm and the dispersion slope is -0.0038 ps·km-1·nm-2 at 1.55 μm. Due to its small air-hole to air-hole pitch in the inner cladding, the effective mode area is 6.48μm2 and the effective nonlinearity γ is as high as 13.78 W-1 km-1 at 1.55 μm. Two layers of air-hole rings in the outer cladding ensures the loss of the fundamental mode to be 2.9dB/km at 1.55 μm and two more air-hole rings can further reduce the fundamental mode's loss to the level of 4.2 × 10-3 dB/km.

  4. Four-wave mixing stability in hybrid photonic crystal fibers with two zero-dispersion wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Sévigny, Benoit; Vanvincq, Olivier; Valentin, Constance; Chen, Na; Quiquempois, Yves; Bouwmans, Géraud

    2013-12-16

    The four-wave mixing process in optical fibers is generally sensitive to dispersion uniformity along the fiber length. However, some specific phase matching conditions show increased robustness to longitudinal fluctuations in fiber dimensions, which affect the dispersion, even for signal and idler wavelengths far from the pump. In this paper, we present the method by which this point is found, how the fiber design characteristics impact on the stable point and demonstrate the stability through propagation simulations using the non-linear Schrödinger equation.

  5. Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal Bragg grating integrated inside a solid core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Zito, Gianluigi; Pissadakis, Stavros

    2013-09-01

    A polymer/liquid crystal-based fiber Bragg grating (PLC-FBG) is fabricated with visible two-beam holography by photo-induced modulation of a prepolymer/liquid crystal solution infiltrated into the hollow channels of a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process and effects related to the photonic bandgap guidance into the infiltrated PCF, and characterization of the PLC-FBG, are discussed. Experimental data presented here demonstrate that the liquid crystal inclusions of the PLC-FBG lead to high thermal and bending sensitivities. The microscopic behavior of the polymer/liquid crystal phase separation inside the PCF capillaries is examined using scanning electron microscopy, and is discussed further.

  6. Experimental photonic generation of chirped pulses using nonlinear dispersion-based incoherent processing.

    PubMed

    Rius, Manuel; Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2015-05-18

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a chirped microwave pulses generator based on the processing of an incoherent optical signal by means of a nonlinear dispersive element. Different capabilities have been demonstrated such as the control of the time-bandwidth product and the frequency tuning increasing the flexibility of the generated waveform compared to coherent techniques. Moreover, the use of differential detection improves considerably the limitation over the signal-to-noise ratio related to incoherent processing.

  7. Low DSP complexity mid-haul mode-division multiplexing links utilizing wideband modal dispersion compensated two-mode fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantopoulos, N. P.; Nakazawa, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Maruta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Kuwaki, N.; Matsuo, S.; Kitayama, K.

    2015-11-01

    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) over wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks is studied, particularly for the deployment of metro area networks (MAN) using two-mode fibers (TMF). Full C-band differential mode group delay (DMGD)-compensated TMF links are adopted for decreasing the computational complexity of real-time multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signal processing. The effect of modal crosstalk to the maximum delay spread of the channel is validated through numerical simulations. Finally, the 2×2 MIMO channel state information (CSI) of a 102.6-km DMGD-compensated TMF link is experimentally estimated for mode path provisioning based upon routing and mode assignment (RMA) in MDM networks. The results confirm close-to-zero total DMGD value over the entire C-band.

  8. Dispersion relation for electromagnetic propagation in stochastic dielectric and magnetic helical photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Carlos G; Reyes, Arturo

    2017-03-01

    We theoretically study the dispersion relation for axially propagating electromagnetic waves throughout a one-dimensional helical structure whose pitch and dielectric and magnetic properties are spatial random functions with specific statistical characteristics. In the system of coordinates rotating with the helix, by using a matrix formalism, we write the set of differential equations that governs the expected value of the electromagnetic field amplitudes and we obtain the corresponding dispersion relation. We show that the dispersion relation depends strongly on the noise intensity introduced in the system and the autocorrelation length. When the autocorrelation length increases at fixed fluctuation and when the fluctuation augments at fixed autocorrelation length, the band gap widens and the attenuation coefficient of electromagnetic waves propagating in the random medium gets larger. By virtue of the degeneracy in the imaginary part of the eigenvalues associated with the propagating modes, the random medium acts as a filter for circularly polarized electromagnetic waves, in which only the propagating backward circularly polarized wave can propagate with no attenuation. Our results are valid for any kind of dielectric and magnetic structures which possess a helical-like symmetry such as cholesteric and chiral smectic-C liquid crystals, structurally chiral materials, and stressed cholesteric elastomers.

  9. Dispersion relation for electromagnetic propagation in stochastic dielectric and magnetic helical photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendaño, Carlos G.; Reyes, Arturo

    2017-03-01

    We theoretically study the dispersion relation for axially propagating electromagnetic waves throughout a one-dimensional helical structure whose pitch and dielectric and magnetic properties are spatial random functions with specific statistical characteristics. In the system of coordinates rotating with the helix, by using a matrix formalism, we write the set of differential equations that governs the expected value of the electromagnetic field amplitudes and we obtain the corresponding dispersion relation. We show that the dispersion relation depends strongly on the noise intensity introduced in the system and the autocorrelation length. When the autocorrelation length increases at fixed fluctuation and when the fluctuation augments at fixed autocorrelation length, the band gap widens and the attenuation coefficient of electromagnetic waves propagating in the random medium gets larger. By virtue of the degeneracy in the imaginary part of the eigenvalues associated with the propagating modes, the random medium acts as a filter for circularly polarized electromagnetic waves, in which only the propagating backward circularly polarized wave can propagate with no attenuation. Our results are valid for any kind of dielectric and magnetic structures which possess a helical-like symmetry such as cholesteric and chiral smectic-C liquid crystals, structurally chiral materials, and stressed cholesteric elastomers.

  10. Oxide-cladding aluminum nitride photonic crystal slab: Design and investigation of material dispersion and fabrication induced disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, E. G. Alvarado, M. A.; Carreño, M. N. P.; Alayo, M. I.; Carvalho, D. O.; Ferlauto, A. S.

    2016-01-14

    Photonic crystal slabs with a lower-index material surrounding the core layer are an attractive choice to circumvent the drawbacks in the fabrication of membranes suspended in air. In this work we propose a photonic crystal (PhC) slab structure composed of a triangular pattern of air holes in a multilayer thin film of aluminum nitride embedded in silicon dioxide layers designed for operating around 450 nm wavelengths. We show the design of an ideal structure and analyze the effects of material dispersion based on a first-order correction perturbation theory approach using dielectric functions obtained by experimental measurements of the thin film materials. Numerical methods were used to investigate the effects of fabrication induced disorder of typical nanofabrication processes on the bandgap size and spectral response of the proposed device. Deviation in holes radii and positions were introduced in the proposed PhC slab model with a Gaussian distribution profile. Impacts of slope in holes sidewalls that might result from the dry etching of AlN were also evaluated. The results show that for operation at the midgap frequency, slope in holes sidewalls is more critical than displacements in holes sizes and positions.

  11. Oxide-cladding aluminum nitride photonic crystal slab: Design and investigation of material dispersion and fabrication induced disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, E. G.; Carvalho, D. O.; Ferlauto, A. S.; Alvarado, M. A.; Carreño, M. N. P.; Alayo, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    Photonic crystal slabs with a lower-index material surrounding the core layer are an attractive choice to circumvent the drawbacks in the fabrication of membranes suspended in air. In this work we propose a photonic crystal (PhC) slab structure composed of a triangular pattern of air holes in a multilayer thin film of aluminum nitride embedded in silicon dioxide layers designed for operating around 450 nm wavelengths. We show the design of an ideal structure and analyze the effects of material dispersion based on a first-order correction perturbation theory approach using dielectric functions obtained by experimental measurements of the thin film materials. Numerical methods were used to investigate the effects of fabrication induced disorder of typical nanofabrication processes on the bandgap size and spectral response of the proposed device. Deviation in holes radii and positions were introduced in the proposed PhC slab model with a Gaussian distribution profile. Impacts of slope in holes sidewalls that might result from the dry etching of AlN were also evaluated. The results show that for operation at the midgap frequency, slope in holes sidewalls is more critical than displacements in holes sizes and positions.

  12. Dispersion compensation of a 1x N passive optical router with low loss, a flat passband, and low cross talk.

    PubMed

    Leick, L; Madsen, C K

    2002-08-01

    A 1xN interferometer-based router with single-stage all-pass filters in the arms has low loss, a flat passband, and low cross talk. However, we show that the router has substantial cubic dispersion over the channel passband, which is identical from channel to channel. For a 1x4 router with a free spectral range of 100 GHz, the average dispersion slope over a 60% passband is -8x10(3)ps/nm(2), and thus a cascade of four routers incurs a significant system power penalty. A three-stage all-pass filter placed on the input arm reduces the dispersion of all channels by a factor of 16. The router is quite insensitive to variations in the all-pass filter design parameters.

  13. Multiple dynamic regimes in colloid-polymer dispersions: New insight using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Sunita; Kishore, Suhasini; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec R.; Bhatia, Surita R.

    2015-12-01

    We present an X-ray photon correlation spectros- copy (XPCS) study of dynamic transitions in an anisotropic colloid-polymer dispersion with multiple arrested states. The results provide insight into the mechanism for formation of repulsive glasses, attractive glasses, and networked gels of col- loids with weakly adsorbing polymer chains. In the presence of adsorbing polymer chains, we observe three distinct regimes: a state with slow dynamics consisting of finite particles and clusters, for which interparticle interactions are predominantly repulsive; a second dynamic regime occurring above the satu- ration concentration of added polymer, in which small clusters of nanoparticles form via a short-range depletion attraction; and a third regime above the overlap concentration in which dynamics of clusters are independent of polymer chain length. The observed complex dynamic state diagram is primarily gov- erned by the structural reorganization of a nanoparticle cluster and polymer chains at the nanoparticle-polymer surface and in the concentrated medium, which in turn controls the dynamics of the dispersion

  14. Experimental investigation of combined four-wave mixing and Raman effect in the normal dispersion regime of a photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Kudlinski, A; Pureur, V; Bouwmans, G; Mussot, A

    2008-11-01

    We study the effect of stimulated Raman scattering on four-wave mixing sidebands generated by pumping in the normal dispersion regime of a photonic crystal fiber. Q-switch nanosecond pulses at 1064 nm are used to generate signal and idler wavelengths by degenerate four-wave mixing. These three waves generate their own Raman Stokes orders, leading to a broadband supercontinuum.

  15. Design of an As2Se3-based photonic quasi-crystal fiber with highly nonlinear and dual zero-dispersion wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tongtong; Lou, Shuqin; Su, Wei; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    We propose an As2Se3-based highly nonlinear photonic quasi-crystal fiber with dual zero-dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs). Using a full-vector finite element method, the proposed fiber is optimized to obtain high nonlinear coefficient, low confinement loss and two zero-dispersion points by optimizing the structure parameters. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed photonic quasi-crystal fiber (PQF) has dual ZDWs and the nonlinear coefficient up to 2600 W-1 km-1 within the wavelength range from 2 to 5.5 μm. Due to the introduction of the large air holes in the third ring of the proposed fiber, the ability of confining the fundamental mode field can be improved effectively and thus the low confinement loss can be obtained. The proposed PQF with high nonlinearity and dual ZDWs will have a number of potential applications in four-wave mixing, super-continuum generation, and higher-order dispersion effects.

  16. 10.7 Gb/s electronic predistortion transmitter using commercial FPGAs and D/A converters implementing real-time DSP for chromatic dispersion and SPM compensation.

    PubMed

    Waegemans, Robert; Herbst, Stefan; Holbein, Ludwig; Watts, Philip; Bayvel, Polina; Fürst, Cornelius; Killey, Robert I

    2009-05-11

    We present an experimental demonstration of simultaneous chromatic dispersion and self-phase modulation compensation at 10.7 Gb/s using real-time electronic digital signal processing. This was achieved using a pre-distorting transmitter based on commercially available field programmable gate arrays and 21.4 GS/s, 6-bit resolution digital-to-analog converters. The digital signal processing employed look-up tables stored in RAM. This resulted in the achievement of a BER of 10(-6) at an OSNR of 16 dB after transmission over a 450 km link of uncompensated standard single mode fiber with + 4 dBm launch power.

  17. Continues-wave Brillouin-Raman fiber ring laser using 7.7 km long dispersion compensating fiber at 1563 nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizman, Z. I.; Zakaria, U. N.; Latiff, A. A.; Harun, S. W.; Jusoh, Z.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate the generation of continues-wave (CW) laser based on Brillouin-Raman fiber laser (BRFL) by incorporating a 7.7 km long dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) as a nonlinear gain medium. The 1455 nm Raman pump (RP) was launched into the DCF via a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). At 645 mW pump power, stable CW laser presence at 1563.5 nm (1st stokes), 1563.4 (2nd stokes) nm and 1563.3 nm (3rd stokes). Those peak wavelengths have produced most identical output power. This finding proves our ring laser cavity has the capability to generate stable CW BRFL. Thus, it potentially to generate pulse laser operation in the future work.

  18. Simultaneous dispersion and non-linearity compensation with mid-span optical phase conjugation and distributed Raman amplifier for a sub-carrier multiplexed optical transmission link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, S.; Vardhanan, A. Vishnu; Gangopadhyay, R.

    2007-11-01

    Optical phase conjugation (OPC) and distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) combination (OPC-DRA) is demonstrated as a potential enabling solution for simultaneous reduction of fiber non-linearities and dispersion compensation of a sub-carrier multiplexed (SCM) optical transmission link. The present work is focused on the use of OPC-DRA combination for system performance improvement in terms of composite second order distortion (CSO) and carrier to noise ratio (CNR) of the SCM link. The analysis further shows that, introduction of DRA with proper pumping scheme significantly reduce fiber non-linearity resulting in improvement of the system performance in terms of CNR, compared to the situation where only mid-way optical phase conjugation is used.

  19. Photonic control of surface anchoring on solid colloids dispersed in liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Prathap Chandran, S; Mondiot, F; Mondain-Monval, O; Loudet, J C

    2011-12-20

    The anchoring of liquid-crystal (LC) mesogens to the surfaces of colloids is an important factor in determining intercolloidal interactions and the symmetry of the ensuing colloidal assembly in nematic colloids. The dynamic control of surface anchoring could therefore provide a handle to tune the colloidal organization and resulting properties in these systems. In this article, we report our results on the study of thermotropic nematic LC (E7) dispersions of silica and glass microcolloids bearing photosensitive surface azobenzene groups. By the photoinduced modulation of the colloidal-LC interfacial properties, due to the trans-cis isomerization of azobenzene units, we tune the anchoring on silica colloids from homeotropic (trans-azobenzene) to homogeneous planar (cis-azobenzene) reversibly. In tune with the change in surface anchoring, the interparticle interactions were also dictated by dipolar and quadrupolar symmetries for homeotropic and homogeneous planar anchoring, respectively. In our experiments, we find that, in addition to the isomerization state of the surface-bound azobenzene units, the nature of the colloid plays a crucial role in determining the anchoring state obtained on applying photostimuli. We also study the LC anchoring on colloids as a function of the azobenzene surface density and find that beyond a threshold value the anchoring properties remain invariant. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. An Overview of High-Resolution, Non-Dispersive, Imaging Spectrometers for High-Energy Photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy has become a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites initiated a new era in x-ray astronomy. Despite their successes, there is still need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band and for extended sources. What is needed is a non-dispersive imaging spectrometer - essentially a 14-bit x-ray color camera. And a requirement for a nondispersive spectrometer designed to provide eV-scale spectral resolution is a temperature below 0.1 K. The required spectral resolution and the constraints of thermodynamics and engineering dictate the temperature regime nearly independently of the details of the sensor or the read-out technology. Low-temperature spectrometers can be divided into two classes - - equilibrium and non-equilibrium. In the equilibrium devices, or calorimeters, the energy is deposited in an isolated thermal mass and the resulting increase in temperature is measured. In the non-equilibrium devices, the absorbed energy produces quantized excitations that are counted to determine the energy. The two approaches have different strong points, and within each class a variety of optimizations have been pursued. I will present the basic fundamentals of operation and the details of the most successful device designs to date. I will also discuss how the measurement priorities (resolution, energy band, count rate) influence the optimal choice of detector technology.

  1. An Overview of High-Resolution, Non-Dispersive, Imaging Spectrometers for High-Energy Photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy has become a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites initiated a new era in x-ray astronomy. Despite their successes, there is still need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band and for extended sources. What is needed is a non-dispersive imaging spectrometer - essentially a 14-bit x-ray color camera. And a requirement for a nondispersive spectrometer designed to provide eV-scale spectral resolution is a temperature below 0.1 K. The required spectral resolution and the constraints of thermodynamics and engineering dictate the temperature regime nearly independently of the details of the sensor or the read-out technology. Low-temperature spectrometers can be divided into two classes - - equilibrium and non-equilibrium. In the equilibrium devices, or calorimeters, the energy is deposited in an isolated thermal mass and the resulting increase in temperature is measured. In the non-equilibrium devices, the absorbed energy produces quantized excitations that are counted to determine the energy. The two approaches have different strong points, and within each class a variety of optimizations have been pursued. I will present the basic fundamentals of operation and the details of the most successful device designs to date. I will also discuss how the measurement priorities (resolution, energy band, count rate) influence the optimal choice of detector technology.

  2. Side mode suppression and dispersion compensation analysis of a 60 GHz radio-over-fibre system based on a gain switched laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Eamonn; Barry, Liam

    2014-02-01

    The research and technical community have designated a band of 7 GHz between 57 and 64 GHz for short-range wireless communications. This paper utilizes a simple and cost effective technique for generating a 60 GHz millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal using an optical comb source based on a gain-switched laser (GSL). This research investigates the effects unwanted comb lines have on the overall system performance with 2.5 Gb/s data transmission. To do this, a programmable optical filter is used to suppress the unwanted comb lines to varying levels. Bit-error rate (BER) measurements were carried out against received optical power to demonstrate the detrimental effects the unwanted comb lines have on the modulated mm-wave signal when not sufficiently suppressed. As chromatic dispersion is a limiting factor to the system's transmission distance, this work also investigates pre-compensation for dispersion utilizing the programmable group delay capabilities of the programmable optical filter, demonstrating the ability to extend the transmission distance by 12 km. All experimental results obtained are reinforced through simulation.

  3. Photoionization-Induced Emission of Tunable Few-Cycle Midinfrared Dispersive Waves in Gas-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers.

    PubMed

    Novoa, D; Cassataro, M; Travers, J C; Russell, P St J

    2015-07-17

    We propose a scheme for the emission of few-cycle dispersive waves in the midinfrared using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled with noble gas. The underlying mechanism is the formation of a plasma cloud by a self-compressed, subcycle pump pulse. The resulting free-electron population modifies the fiber dispersion, allowing phase-matched access to dispersive waves at otherwise inaccessible frequencies, well into the midinfrared. Remarkably, the pulses generated turn out to have durations of the order of two optical cycles. In addition, this ultrafast emission, which occurs even in the absence of a zero dispersion point between pump and midinfrared wavelengths, is tunable over a wide frequency range simply by adjusting the gas pressure. These theoretical results pave the way to a new generation of compact, fiber-based sources of few-cycle midinfrared radiation.

  4. Design of all normal dispersion highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum light sources: Applications to optical coherence tomography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. A.; Namihira, Y.; Razzak, S. M. A.; Islam, M. A.; Liu, J.; Kaijage, S. F.; Hirako, Y.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the generation of supercontinuum (SC) light source based on a highly nonlinear Germanium (Ge) doped photonic crystal fiber (HNL-GePCF) with all normal group velocity dispersion (GVD). By doping 3% higher refractive index Ge inside silica, nonlinear coefficient γ is increased as large as 110.6 W -1 km -1 at 1.31 μm. Using finite element method (FEM) with a circular perfectly matched boundary layer (PML), it is shown through simulations that the proposed HNL-GePCF offers an efficient SC generation for dental optical coherence tomography (OCT) applications at 1.31 μm. By propagating sech 2 picosecond optical pulses having 2.5 ps and 1.0 ps pulsewidth at a full width at half maximum (FWHM) through the proposed HNL-GePCF, output optical pulses are analyzed by the split-step Fourier method to obtain the spectral contents. Simulation results show that 105 m of the proposed HNL-GePCF can produce 100 nm spectrum (10 dB bandwidth) at 1.31 μm for 2.5 ps input optical pulse and 110 m of such HNL-GePCF can produce 140 nm spectrum (10 dB bandwidth) for 1.0 ps input optical pulse. Therefore, the highest longitudinal resolutions in the depth direction for dental OCT are found about 3.28 μm for enamel and 3.51 μm for dentin.

  5. Versatile photonic microwave waveforms generation using a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator without other dispersive elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Guang-Fu; Hu, Lin; Jiang, Yang; Tian, Jing; Zi, Yue-Jiao; Wu, Ting-Wei; Huang, Feng-Qin

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a photonic microwave waveform generator based on a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this reported scheme, only one radio frequency signal is used to drive the dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator. Meanwhile, dispersive elements or filters are not required in the proposed scheme, which make the scheme simpler and more stable. In this way, six variables can be adjusted. Through the different combinations of these variables, basic waveforms with full duty and small duty cycle can be generated. Tunability of the generator can be achieved by adjusting the frequency of the RF signal and the optical carrier. The corresponding theoretical analysis and simulation have been conducted. With guidance of theory and simulation, proof-of-concept experiments are carried out. The basic waveforms, including Gaussian, saw-up, and saw-down waveforms, with full duty and small duty cycle are generated at the repetition rate of 2 GHz. The theoretical and simulation results agree with the experimental results very well.

  6. All-fiber nonlinearity- and dispersion-managed dissipative soliton nanotube mode-locked laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Popa, D.; Wittwer, V. J.; Milana, S.; Hasan, T.; Jiang, Z.; Ferrari, A. C.; Ilday, F. Ö.

    2015-12-01

    We report dissipative soliton generation from an Yb-doped all-fiber nonlinearity- and dispersion-managed nanotube mode-locked laser. A simple all-fiber ring cavity exploits a photonic crystal fiber for both nonlinearity enhancement and dispersion compensation. The laser generates stable dissipative solitons with large linear chirp in the net normal dispersion regime. Pulses that are 8.7 ps long are externally compressed to 118 fs, outperforming current nanotube-based Yb-doped fiber laser designs.

  7. All-fiber nonlinearity- and dispersion-managed dissipative soliton nanotube mode-locked laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Popa, D. Wittwer, V. J.; Milana, S.; Hasan, T.; Jiang, Z.; Ferrari, A. C.; Ilday, F. Ö.

    2015-12-14

    We report dissipative soliton generation from an Yb-doped all-fiber nonlinearity- and dispersion-managed nanotube mode-locked laser. A simple all-fiber ring cavity exploits a photonic crystal fiber for both nonlinearity enhancement and dispersion compensation. The laser generates stable dissipative solitons with large linear chirp in the net normal dispersion regime. Pulses that are 8.7 ps long are externally compressed to 118 fs, outperforming current nanotube-based Yb-doped fiber laser designs.

  8. A photon counting and a squeezing measurement method by the exact absorption and dispersion spectrum of Λ-type Atoms.

    PubMed

    Naeimi, Ghasem; Alipour, Samira; Khademi, Siamak

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the master equations for the interaction of two-mode photons with a three-level Λ-type atom are exactly solved for the coherence terms. In this paper the exact absorption spectrum is applied for the presentation of a non-demolition photon counting method, for a few number of coupling photons, and its benefits are discussed. The exact scheme is also applied where the coupling photons are squeezed and the photon counting method is also developed for the measurement of the squeezing parameter of the coupling photons.

  9. Optimizing single-nanoparticle two-photon microscopy by in situ adaptive control of femtosecond pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Donghai; Deng, Yongkai; Chu, Saisai; Jiang, Hongbing; Wang, Shufeng; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-07-11

    Single-nanoparticle two-photon microscopy shows great application potential in super-resolution cell imaging. Here, we report in situ adaptive optimization of single-nanoparticle two-photon luminescence signals by phase and polarization modulations of broadband laser pulses. For polarization-independent quantum dots, phase-only optimization was carried out to compensate the phase dispersion at the focus of the objective. Enhancement of the two-photon excitation fluorescence intensity under dispersion-compensated femtosecond pulses was achieved. For polarization-dependent single gold nanorod, in situ polarization optimization resulted in further enhancement of two-photon photoluminescence intensity than phase-only optimization. The application of in situ adaptive control of femtosecond pulse provides a way for object-oriented optimization of single-nanoparticle two-photon microscopy for its future applications.

  10. Peculiarities of spectral properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal with an anisotropic defect layer of the nanocomposite with resonant dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Vetrov, S Ya; Timofeev, I V; Pankin, P S

    2014-09-30

    We have studied the spectral properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal with a structure defect that represents an anisotropic nanocomposite layer sandwiched between two multilayer dielectric mirrors. The nanocomposite consists of metallic nanoscale inclusions of orientationally ordered spheroidal shape, dispersed in a transparent matrix, and is characterised by an effective resonant permittivity. Each of the two orthogonal polarisations of probe radiation corresponds to a particular plasmon resonant frequency of the nanocomposite. The problem of calculating the transmittance spectrum of the waves with s- and p-polarisations for such structures is solved. Spectral manifestation of splitting of the defect mode depending on the structure parameters and volumetric fraction of the nanospheroids is studied. The essential dependence of the position of maxima of the defect modes in the bandgap of the photonic crystal and their splitting on the incidence angle, polarisation, and the ratio of lengths of the polar and equatorial semi-axes of the spheroidal nanoparticles is shown. (photonic crystals)

  11. High-resolution broadband spectroscopy using externally dispersed interferometry at the Hale telescope: Part 2, photon noise theory

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, David J.; Edelstein, Jerry; Wishnow, Edward; Sirk, Martin; Muirhead, Philip S.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Lloyd, James P.

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution broadband spectroscopy at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths (950 to 2450 nm) has been performed using externally dispersed interferometry (EDI) at the Hale telescope at Mt. Palomar, with the TEDI interferometer mounted within the central hole of the 200-in. primary mirror in series with the comounted TripleSpec NIR echelle spectrograph. These are the first multidelay EDI demonstrations on starlight. We demonstrated very high (10×) resolution boost and dramatic (20× or more) robustness to point spread function wavelength drifts in the native spectrograph. Data analysis, results, and instrument noise are described in a companion paper (part 1). This part 2 describes theoretical photon limited and readout noise limited behaviors, using simulated spectra and instrument model with noise added at the detector. We show that a single interferometer delay can be used to reduce the high frequency noise at the original resolution (1× boost case), and that except for delays much smaller than the native response peak half width, the fringing and nonfringing noises act uncorrelated and add in quadrature. This is due to the frequency shifting of the noise due to the heterodyning effect. We find a sum rule for the noise variance for multiple delays. The multiple delay EDI using a Gaussian distribution of exposure times has noise-to-signal ratio for photon-limited noise similar to a classical spectrograph with reduced slitwidth and reduced flux, proportional to the square root of resolution boost achieved, but without the focal spot limitation and pixel spacing Nyquist limitations. At low boost (~1×) EDI has ~1.4× smaller noise than conventional, and at >10× boost, EDI has ~1.4× larger noise than conventional. Readout noise is minimized by the use of three or four steps instead of 10 of TEDI. Net noise grows as step phases change from symmetrical arrangement with wavenumber across the band. As a result, for three (or four) steps, we calculate a multiplicative

  12. High-resolution broadband spectroscopy using externally dispersed interferometry at the Hale telescope: Part 2, photon noise theory

    DOE PAGES

    Erskine, David J.; Edelstein, Jerry; Wishnow, Edward; ...

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution broadband spectroscopy at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths (950 to 2450 nm) has been performed using externally dispersed interferometry (EDI) at the Hale telescope at Mt. Palomar, with the TEDI interferometer mounted within the central hole of the 200-in. primary mirror in series with the comounted TripleSpec NIR echelle spectrograph. These are the first multidelay EDI demonstrations on starlight. We demonstrated very high (10×) resolution boost and dramatic (20× or more) robustness to point spread function wavelength drifts in the native spectrograph. Data analysis, results, and instrument noise are described in a companion paper (part 1). This part 2 describes theoreticalmore » photon limited and readout noise limited behaviors, using simulated spectra and instrument model with noise added at the detector. We show that a single interferometer delay can be used to reduce the high frequency noise at the original resolution (1× boost case), and that except for delays much smaller than the native response peak half width, the fringing and nonfringing noises act uncorrelated and add in quadrature. This is due to the frequency shifting of the noise due to the heterodyning effect. We find a sum rule for the noise variance for multiple delays. The multiple delay EDI using a Gaussian distribution of exposure times has noise-to-signal ratio for photon-limited noise similar to a classical spectrograph with reduced slitwidth and reduced flux, proportional to the square root of resolution boost achieved, but without the focal spot limitation and pixel spacing Nyquist limitations. At low boost (~1×) EDI has ~1.4× smaller noise than conventional, and at >10× boost, EDI has ~1.4× larger noise than conventional. Readout noise is minimized by the use of three or four steps instead of 10 of TEDI. Net noise grows as step phases change from symmetrical arrangement with wavenumber across the band. As a result, for three (or four) steps, we calculate a

  13. High-resolution broadband spectroscopy using externally dispersed interferometry at the Hale telescope: Part 2, photon noise theory

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, David J.; Edelstein, Jerry; Wishnow, Edward; Sirk, Martin; Muirhead, Philip S.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Lloyd, James P.

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution broadband spectroscopy at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths (950 to 2450 nm) has been performed using externally dispersed interferometry (EDI) at the Hale telescope at Mt. Palomar, with the TEDI interferometer mounted within the central hole of the 200-in. primary mirror in series with the comounted TripleSpec NIR echelle spectrograph. These are the first multidelay EDI demonstrations on starlight. We demonstrated very high (10×) resolution boost and dramatic (20× or more) robustness to point spread function wavelength drifts in the native spectrograph. Data analysis, results, and instrument noise are described in a companion paper (part 1). This part 2 describes theoretical photon limited and readout noise limited behaviors, using simulated spectra and instrument model with noise added at the detector. We show that a single interferometer delay can be used to reduce the high frequency noise at the original resolution (1× boost case), and that except for delays much smaller than the native response peak half width, the fringing and nonfringing noises act uncorrelated and add in quadrature. This is due to the frequency shifting of the noise due to the heterodyning effect. We find a sum rule for the noise variance for multiple delays. The multiple delay EDI using a Gaussian distribution of exposure times has noise-to-signal ratio for photon-limited noise similar to a classical spectrograph with reduced slitwidth and reduced flux, proportional to the square root of resolution boost achieved, but without the focal spot limitation and pixel spacing Nyquist limitations. At low boost (~1×) EDI has ~1.4× smaller noise than conventional, and at >10× boost, EDI has ~1.4× larger noise than conventional. Readout noise is minimized by the use of three or four steps instead of 10 of TEDI. Net noise grows as step phases change from symmetrical arrangement with wavenumber across the band. As a result, for three (or four) steps, we calculate a multiplicative

  14. High-resolution broadband spectroscopy using externally dispersed interferometry at the Hale telescope: part 2, photon noise theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erskine, David J.; Edelstein, Jerry; Wishnow, Edward; Sirk, Martin; Muirhead, Philip S.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Lloyd, James P.

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution broadband spectroscopy at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths (950 to 2450 nm) has been performed using externally dispersed interferometry (EDI) at the Hale telescope at Mt. Palomar, with the TEDI interferometer mounted within the central hole of the 200-in. primary mirror in series with the comounted TripleSpec NIR echelle spectrograph. These are the first multidelay EDI demonstrations on starlight. We demonstrated very high (10×) resolution boost and dramatic (20× or more) robustness to point spread function wavelength drifts in the native spectrograph. Data analysis, results, and instrument noise are described in a companion paper (part 1). This part 2 describes theoretical photon limited and readout noise limited behaviors, using simulated spectra and instrument model with noise added at the detector. We show that a single interferometer delay can be used to reduce the high frequency noise at the original resolution (1× boost case), and that except for delays much smaller than the native response peak half width, the fringing and nonfringing noises act uncorrelated and add in quadrature. This is due to the frequency shifting of the noise due to the heterodyning effect. We find a sum rule for the noise variance for multiple delays. The multiple delay EDI using a Gaussian distribution of exposure times has noise-to-signal ratio for photon-limited noise similar to a classical spectrograph with reduced slitwidth and reduced flux, proportional to the square root of resolution boost achieved, but without the focal spot limitation and pixel spacing Nyquist limitations. At low boost (˜1×) EDI has ˜1.4× smaller noise than conventional, and at >10× boost, EDI has ˜1.4× larger noise than conventional. Readout noise is minimized by the use of three or four steps instead of 10 of TEDI. Net noise grows as step phases change from symmetrical arrangement with wavenumber across the band. For three (or four) steps, we calculate a multiplicative bandwidth

  15. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Anti-Stokes Frequency Shift and Evolution in Polarization-Maintaining Photonic Crystal Fiber with Two-Zero Dispersion Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He-Lin; Leng, Yu-Xin; Xu, Zhi-Zhan; Qi, Yi-Hong; Hu, Ming-Lie; Wang, Ching-Yue

    2009-08-01

    Using the tunable pump pulses with about 100 fs pulse duration and 1064 nm central wavelength; the polarization-, wavelength- and power-dependent anti-Stokes lines are generated and modulated simultaneously in a polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PM-PCF) with two zero-dispersion wavelengths. By accurately controlling the polarization directions, the wavelength and the power of the pump pulse in the fiber anomalous region close to the second zero-dispersion wavelength of the PM-PCF, the output anti-Stokes pulse spectra can be tuned between 563 nm and 603 nm, which is in good agreement with the theoretical simulation. The color conversion of the mode image from yellow to orange is also observed with the different polarization pump pulses. These results can be attributed to the combined interaction between the fiber birefringence (including linear- and nonlinear-birefringence) and dispersion, and are attributed to phase-matching parametric four-wave mixing.

  16. Nonlinear polarization dynamics in a weakly birefringent all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber: toward a practical coherent fiber supercontinuum laser

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaomin; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    Dispersion-flattened dispersion-decreased all-normal dispersion (DFDD-ANDi) photonic crystal fibers have been identified as promising candidates for high-spectral-power coherent supercontinuum (SC) generation. However, the effects of the unintentional birefringence of the fibers on the SC generation have been ignored. This birefringence is widely present in nonlinear non-polarization maintaining fibers with a typical core size of 2 µm, presumably due to the structural symmetry breaks introduced in the fiber drawing process. We find that an intrinsic form-birefringence on the order of 10−5 profoundly affects the SC generation in a DFDD-ANDi photonic crystal fiber. Conventional simulations based on the scalar generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation (GNLSE) fail to reproduce the prominent observed features of the SC generation in a short piece (9-cm) of this fiber. However, these features can be qualitatively or semi-quantitatively understood by the coupled GNLSE that takes into account the form-birefringence. The nonlinear polarization effects induced by the birefringence significantly distort the otherwise simple spectrotemporal field of the SC pulses. We therefore propose the fabrication of polarization-maintaining DFDD-ANDi fibers to avoid these adverse effects in pursuing a practical coherent fiber SC laser. PMID:22274457

  17. Enhanced two-channel nonlinear imaging by a highly polarized supercontinuum light source generated from a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wei; Bao, Hongchun; Gu, Min

    2011-05-01

    Real-time monitoring the variation of chlorophyll distributions and cellular structures in leaves during plant growth provides important information for understanding the physiological statuses of plants. Two-photon-excited autofluorescence imaging and second harmonic generation imaging of leaves can be used for monitoring the nature intrinsic fluorophores distribution and cellular structures of leaves by the use of the near-infrared region of light which has minimal light absorption by endogenous molecules and thus increases tissue penetration. However, the two-photon absorption peak of intrinsic fluorophores of a ficus benjamina leaf is 50 nm away from the second harmonic generation excitation wavelength, which cannot be effectively excited by a femtosecond laser beam with one central wavelength. This paper shows that a highly polarized supercontinuum light generated from a birefringent nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths can effectively excite two-photon autofluorescence as well as second harmonic generation signals for simultaneously monitoring intrinsic fluorophore distributions and non-centrosymmetric structures of leaves.

  18. Enhanced two-channel nonlinear imaging by a highly polarized supercontinuum light source generated from a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wei; Bao, Hongchun; Gu, Min

    2011-05-01

    Real-time monitoring the variation of chlorophyll distributions and cellular structures in leaves during plant growth provides important information for understanding the physiological statuses of plants. Two-photon-excited autofluorescence imaging and second harmonic generation imaging of leaves can be used for monitoring the nature intrinsic fluorophores distribution and cellular structures of leaves by the use of the near-infrared region of light which has minimal light absorption by endogenous molecules and thus increases tissue penetration. However, the two-photon absorption peak of intrinsic fluorophores of a ficus benjamina leaf is 50 nm away from the second harmonic generation excitation wavelength, which cannot be effectively excited by a femtosecond laser beam with one central wavelength. This paper shows that a highly polarized supercontinuum light generated from a birefringent nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths can effectively excite two-photon autofluorescence as well as second harmonic generation signals for simultaneously monitoring intrinsic fluorophore distributions and non-centrosymmetric structures of leaves.

  19. Peculiarities of spectral properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal with an anisotropic defect layer of the nanocomposite with resonant dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, S. Ya; Pankin, P. S.; Timofeev, I. V.

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the spectral properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal with a structure defect that represents an anisotropic nanocomposite layer sandwiched between two multilayer dielectric mirrors. The nanocomposite consists of metallic nanoscale inclusions of orientationally ordered spheroidal shape, dispersed in a transparent matrix, and is characterised by an effective resonant permittivity. Each of the two orthogonal polarisations of probe radiation corresponds to a particular plasmon resonant frequency of the nanocomposite. The problem of calculating the transmittance spectrum of the waves with s- and p-polarisations for such structures is solved. Spectral manifestation of splitting of the defect mode depending on the structure parameters and volumetric fraction of the nanospheroids is studied. The essential dependence of the position of maxima of the defect modes in the bandgap of the photonic crystal and their splitting on the incidence angle, polarisation, and the ratio of lengths of the polar and equatorial semi-axes of the spheroidal nanoparticles is shown.

  20. Development of a high-speed wavelength-dispersive IBIL analysis and imaging system using a multi-channel photon-counting spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kada, Wataru; Kawabata, Shunsuke; Satoh, Takahiro; Parajuli, Raj Kumar; Yamada, Naoto; Koka, Masashi; Miura, Kenta; Hanaizumi, Osamu; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2017-09-01

    A high-speed wavelength-dispersive ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) detector was demonstrated using a newly developed photon-counting mode spectrometer based on a 32-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) array combined with a high-efficiency optical grating. An integrated electrical circuit based on a field-programmable gate array was prepared to process 32 individual IBIL signals from different PMT channels. These signal were further processed conventionally by a micro-PIXE analysis system. Individual pulses corresponding to each IBIL photon incident from the PMT array were multiplexed into a single analog chain with different amplitudes corresponding to the channel number of the array. The signal had a pulse width of 2 μs in the amplitude range 0-10 V. The results suggest that the demonstrated IBIL detector can be used to detect differences in IBIL images at multiple wavelengths.

  1. Measurement and tuning of the chromatic dispersion of a silicon photonic wire around the half band gap spectral region.

    PubMed

    Leo, François; Dave, Utsav; Keyvaninia, Shahram; Kuyken, Bart; Roelkens, Gunther

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate the measurement and tuning of second-to-fourth order dispersion of a silicon wire waveguide in a spectral region of low nonlinear losses. Using white light interferometry we extract the chromatic dispersion of our waveguide from 1950 to 2300 nm. Moreover we demonstrate tuning of the zero dispersion wavelength over more than 100 nm, pushing it to longer wavelength by partially underetching the waveguide.

  2. Design of an ultracompact low-power all-optical modulator by means of dispersion engineered slow light regime in a photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Sara; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem; Ebnali-Heidari, Majid

    2012-05-10

    We present the design procedure for an ultracompact low-power all-optical modulator based on a dispersion-engineered slow-light regime in a photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometer (PhC MZI), selectively infiltrated by nonlinear optical fluids. The dispersionless slow-light regime enhancing the nonlinearities enabled a 22 μm long PhC MZI to operate as a modulator with an input power as low as 3 mW/μm. Simulations reveal that the switching threshold can be controlled by varying the optofluidic infiltration.

  3. Four-wave mixing based widely tunable wavelength conversion using 1-m dispersion-shifted bismuth-oxide photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Chow, K K; Kikuchi, K; Nagashima, T; Hasegawa, T; Ohara, S; Sugimoto, N

    2007-11-12

    We demonstrate widely tunable wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing using a dispersion-shifted bismuth-oxide photonic crystal fiber (Bi-PCF). A 1-meter-long Bi-PCF is used as the nonlinear medium for wavelength conversion of a 10 Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signal. A 3- dB working range of the converted signal over 35 nm is obtained with around 1-dB power penalty in the bit-error-rate measurements.

  4. Scalar generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation-quantified continuum generation in an all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber for broadband coherent optical sources

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Sharma, Utkarsh; Siegel, Martin; Kopf, Daniel; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We quantitatively predict the observed continuum-like spectral broadening in a 90-mm weakly birefringent all-normal dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber pumped by 1041-nm 229-fs 76-MHz pulses from a solid-state Yb:KYW laser. The well-characterized continuum pulses span a bandwidth of up to 300 nm around the laser wavelength, allowing high spectral power density pulse shaping useful for various coherent control applications. We also identify the nonlinear polarization effect that limits the bandwidth of these continuum pulses, and therefore report the path toward a series of attractive alternative broadband coherent optical sources. PMID:21197060

  5. Parametric down-conversion with optimized spectral properties in nonlinear photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Corona, Maria; U'Ren, Alfred B.

    2007-10-15

    We study the joint spectral properties of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a one-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal in a collinear, degenerate, type-II geometry. We show that the photonic crystal properties may be exploited to compensate for material dispersion and obtain photon pairs that are nearly factorable, in principle, for arbitrary materials and spectral regions, limited by the ability to fabricate the nonlinear crystal with the required periodic variation in the refractive indices for the ordinary and extraordinary waves.

  6. Wavelength conversion, time demultiplexing and multicasting based on cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zhan-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2012-05-01

    We propose the use of cross-phase modulation (XPM) and four-wave mixing (FWM) in dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers (HNL-PCFs) to implement the functionalities of wavelength conversion, simultaneous time demultiplexing and wavelength multicasting in optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) systems. The experiments on wavelength conversion at 80 Gbit s-1and OTDM demultiplexing from 80 to 10 Gbit s-1 with wavelength multicasting of two channels are successfully demonstrated to validate the proposed scheme, which are carried out by using two segments of dispersion-flattened HNL-PCFs with lengths of 100 and 50 m, respectively. Moreover, the bit error rate (BER) performance is also measured. The results show that our designed system can achieve a power penalty of less than 4.6 dB for two multicasting channels with a 24 nm wavelength span at the BER of 10-9 when compared with the 10 Gbit/s back-to-back measurement. The proposed system is transparent to bit rate since only an ultrafast third-order nonlinear effect is used. The resulting configuration is compact, robust and reliable, benefiting from the use of dispersion-flattened HNL-PCFs with short lengths. This also makes the proposed system more flexible in the operational wavelengths than those based on dispersion-shifted fibers and traditional highly nonlinear fibers. The work was supported in part by the CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams.

  7. Trimming the threshold dispersion below 10 e-rms in a large area readout IC working in a single photon counting mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmon, P.; Maj, P.; Gryboś, P.; Szczygieł, R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method of an in-pixel threshold dispersion correction implemented in a prototype readout integrated circuit (IC) operating in a single photon counting mode. The new threshold correction method was implemented in a readout IC of area 9.6× 14.9 mm2 containing 23552 square pixels with the pitch of 75 μm designed and fabricated in CMOS 130 nm technology. Each pixel of the IC consists of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaper, two discriminators, two 14-bit counters and a low-area trim DACs for threshold correction. The user can either control the range of the trim DAC globally for all the pixels in the integrated circuit or modify the trim DACs characteristics locally in each pixel independently. Using a simulation tool based on the Monte-Carlo methods, we estimated how much we could improve the offset trimming by increasing the number of bits in the trim DACs or implementing additional bits in a pixel to modify the characteristics of the trim DACs. The measurements of our IC prototype show that it is possible to reduce the effective threshold dispersion in large-area single-photon counting chips below 10 electrons rms.

  8. The right circular polarized waves in the three-dimensional anisotropic dispersive photonic crystals consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material as the Faraday effects considered

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Feng E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Shao-Bin E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Tang, Yi-Jun; Zhen, Jian-Ping

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, the properties of the right circular polarized (RCP) waves in the three-dimensional (3D) dispersive photonic crystals (PCs) consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material with face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices are theoretically investigated by the plane wave expansion method, which the homogeneous anisotropic dielectric spheres (the uniaxial material) immersed in the magnetized plasma background, as the Faraday effects of magnetized plasma are considered (the incidence electromagnetic wave vector is parallel to the external magnetic field at any time). The equations for calculating the anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) for the RCP waves in the first irreducible Brillouin zone are theoretically deduced. The anisotropic PBGs and a flatbands region can be obtained. The effects of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, anisotropic dielectric filling factor, plasma frequency, and plasma cyclotron frequency (the external magnetic field) on the properties of first two anisotropic PBGs for the RCP waves are investigated in detail, respectively. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in fcc lattices at U and W points, and the complete PBGs for the RCP waves can be achieved compared to the conventional 3D dispersive PCs composed of the magnetized plasma and isotropic material. It is also shown that the first two anisotropic PBGs can be tuned by those parameters as mentioned above. Those PBGs can be enlarged by introducing the uniaxial material into such 3D PCs as the Faraday effects are considered.

  9. Experimental measurement and numerical analysis of group velocity dispersion in cladding modes of an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baselt, Tobias; Taudt, Christopher; Nelsen, Bryan; Lasagni, Andrés. Fabián.; Hartmann, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The optical properties of the guided modes in the core of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) can be easily manipulated by changing the air-hole structure in the cladding. Special properties can be achieved in this case such as endless singlemode operation. Endlessly single-mode fibers, which enable single-mode guidance over a wide spectral range, are indispensable in the field of fiber technology. A two-dimensional photonic crystal with a silica central core and a micrometer-spaced hexagonal array of air holes is an established method to achieve endless single-mode properties. In addition to the guidance of light in the core, different cladding modes occur. The coupling between the core and the cladding modes can affect the endlessly single-mode guides. There are two possible ways to determine the dispersion: measurement and calculation. We calculate the group velocity dispersion (GVD) of different cladding modes based on the measurement of the fiber structure parameters, the hole diameter and the pitch of a presumed homogeneous hexagonal array. Based on the scanning electron image, a calculation was made of the optical guiding properties of the microstructured cladding. We compare the calculation with a method to measure the wavelength-dependent time delay. We measure the time delay of defined cladding modes with a homemade supercontinuum light source in a white light interferometric setup. To measure the dispersion of cladding modes of optical fibers with high accuracy, a time-domain white-light interferometer based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used. The experimental setup allows the determination of the wavelengthdependent differential group delay of light travelling through a thirty centimeter piece of test fiber in the wavelength range from VIS to NIR. The determination of the GVD using different methods enables the evaluation of the individual methods for characterizing the cladding modes of an endlessly single-mode fiber.

  10. Reflectance and reflection phase of photonic crystal with anisotropic left-handed materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Chunmin; Yao, Baoli

    2016-11-01

    The reflectance and reflection phase properties of one dimensional photonic crystals with anisotropic left-handed materials is investigated by transfer matrix method. It is demonstrated that the width of zero- n band gap is influenced by the incident angle, polarization, the proportion of lattice and the ratio of thickness which is different from the zero- n band gap with isotropic left hand materials. The value of reflection phase is affected by incident angle and polarization and not affected by the proportion of lattice and the ratio of thickness. These characteristic may be useful for making photonic crystal phase compensators and the dispersion compensators.

  11. Two-photon exchange corrections to elastic e--proton scattering: Full dispersive treatment of π N states at low momentum transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomalak, Oleksandr; Pasquini, Barbara; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2017-05-01

    We evaluate the pion-nucleon intermediate-state contribution to the two-photon exchange (TPE) correction in the elastic electron-nucleon scattering within a dispersive framework. We calculate the contribution from all π N partial waves using the MAID parametrization. We provide the corresponding TPE correction to the unpolarized e p scattering cross section in the region of low momentum transfer Q2≲0.064 GeV2 , where no analytical continuation into the unphysical region of the TPE scattering amplitudes is required. We compare our result in the forward angular region with an alternative TPE calculation, in terms of structure functions, and find a good agreement, indicating a small contribution at low Q2 due to discontinuities beyond π N . We also compare our results with empirical fits.

  12. A hybrid Jacobi-Davidson method for interior cluster eigenvalues with large null-space in three dimensional lossless Drude dispersive metallic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tsung-Ming; Lin, Wen-Wei; Wang, Weichung

    2016-10-01

    We study how to efficiently solve the eigenvalue problems in computing band structure of three-dimensional dispersive metallic photonic crystals with face-centered cubic lattices based on the lossless Drude model. The discretized Maxwell equations result in large-scale standard eigenvalue problems whose spectrum contains many zero and cluster eigenvalues, both prevent existed eigenvalue solver from being efficient. To tackle this computational difficulties, we propose a hybrid Jacobi-Davidson method (hHybrid) that integrates harmonic Rayleigh-Ritz extraction, a new and hybrid way to compute the correction vectors, and a FFT-based preconditioner. Intensive numerical experiments show that the hHybrid outperforms existed eigenvalue solvers in terms of timing and convergence behaviors.

  13. Investigating the dispersive properties of the three-dimensional photonic crystals with face-centered-cubic lattices containing epsilon-negative materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Kun

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, dispersive properties of three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals (PCs) with face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices composed of the isotropic positive-index materials and epsilon-negative materials are theoretically investigated based on a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method. The eigenvalue equations of such structure (spheres with epsilon-negative materials inserted in the dielectric background) are deduced. The band structures can be obtained by solving such nonlinear eigenvalue equations. It can be obviously seen that a photonic band gap (PBG), a flat band region, and two stop band gaps (SBGs) in the Г- X and Г- L directions appear, respectively. The results show that the upper edges of flat band region cannot be tuned by any parameters except for the electronic plasma frequency. The first PBG and the first SBGs above the flat band region in the Г- X and Г- L directions for the 3D PCs can be modulated by the filling factor, relative dielectric constant and electronic plasma frequency, respectively. However, the damping factor has no effect on the locations of the first PBG and the first SBGs above the flat band region in the Г- X and Г- L directions. These results may provide theoretical instructions to design the future optoelectronic and communication devices containing epsilon-negative materials.

  14. The role of artificial defects for engineering large effective mode area, flat chromatic dispersion, and low leakage losses in photonic crystal fibers: Towards high speed reconfigurable transmission platforms.

    PubMed

    Florous, Nikolaos; Saitoh, Kunimasa; Koshiba, Masanori

    2006-01-23

    The present paper describes a novel systematic solution to the challenging task of realizing photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with flat chromatic dispersion, low leakage losses, and large mode area, mainly for applications as information carriers in wide-band high speed optical transmission systems. The proposed design strategy is based on the existence of an artificially-defected air-hole ring in the cladding and on the modulation of the refractive index of the core by assembling additional defected air-holes in the central core region of the fiber. The validation of the proposed design is carried out by adopting an efficient full-vectorial finite element method with perfectly matched layers for accurate characterization of PCFs. The remarkable flat chromatic dispersion as well as the large mode area and the low leakage losses are the main advantages of the proposed PCF structure, making it an ideal candidate for performing wavelength division multiplexing operation in reconfigurable optical transmission systems or as an information delivering platform in high speed optical communication systems. Typical characteristics of the newly proposed PCF are: flattened chromatic dispersion of 6.3+/-0.5 ps/km/nm in the S+C+L telecommunication band, and effective mode area as large as 100 microm(2) in the same wavelength range. We additionally provide numerical data about the performance of the proposed PCF in splicing mode as well as during macrobending operation and we give qualitative information regarding the sensitivity of the proposed transmission platform to structural disorders of the design parameters.

  15. Proposition of a compensated pixelwise calibration for photonic infrared cameras and comparison to classic calibration procedures: Case of thermoelastic stress analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Saux, V.; Doudard, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a compensated pixelwise calibration that integrates the effects of the camera housing temperature. The results of this calibration are compared on black body images to classic two points Non Uniformity Correction based calibrations, compensated or not. It is shown that the proposed approach leads to a significant improvement in the thermal resolution with a reduction in the mean error as well as the standard deviation. The approach is finally challenged on a real case measurement focusing on thermoelasticity. The gain in terms of accuracy measurement is highlighted by comparing the proposed calibration to classic calibrations and the scope of interest of this new calibration is discussed.

  16. Cryogenic thermoelectric (QVD) detectors: Emerging technique for fast single-photon counting and non-dispersive energy characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulian, A.; Wood, K.; van Vechten, D.; Fritz, G.

    2004-09-01

    ''QVD'' detectors are based on thermoelectric heat-to-voltage (Q → V) conversion and digital (V → D) readout. We have devised and analyzed the performance of QVD detectors with several different sensor designs that enable use of high thermoelectric figure of merit samples, be they of thin film, bulk crystal, or whisker form. Our first QVD devices had the well-studied material Au-Fe as thin film sensors. More recently, we have confirmed the literature reports of substantially higher Seebeck coefficient at cryogenic temperatures in lanthanum (cerium) hexaborides. We have also investigated the kinetic properties of La(Ce)B6 crystals with different La-Ce ratios. Currently we are exploring prototype devices based on bulk single-crystalline sensors. These include a successfully tested candidate with a sharp-end hexaboride sensor and small-size bismuth absorber - a whisker prototype. In theory, QVD sensors are competitive with superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) and transition edge sensor (TES) devices in energy resolution ability. However, QVD sensors ought to be able to respond at very much faster rates than these competitors; the lanthanum-cerium hexaboride sensors are expected to reach rates of 100 MHz counting rates for UV/optical photons. In addition to traditional astrophysical applications, these detectors can be applied to the tasks of quantum computing and communication.

  17. Highly dispersive slot waveguides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Yue, Yang; Xiao-Li, Yinying; Beausoleil, Raymond G; Willner, Alan E

    2009-04-27

    We propose a slot-waveguide with high dispersion, in which a slot waveguide is coupled to a strip waveguide. A negative dispersion of up to -181520 ps/nm/km is obtained due to a strong interaction of the slot and strip modes. A flat and large dispersion is achievable by cascading the dispersive slot-waveguides with varied waveguide thickness or width for dispersion compensation and signal processing applications. We show - 31300 ps/nm/km dispersion over 147-nm bandwidth with <1% variance.

  18. Dramatic Raman Gain Suppression in the Vicinity of the Zero Dispersion Point in a Gas-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauerschmidt, S. T.; Novoa, D.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2015-12-01

    In 1964 Bloembergen and Shen predicted that Raman gain could be suppressed if the rates of phonon creation and annihilation (by inelastic scattering) exactly balance. This is only possible if the momentum required for each process is identical, i.e., phonon coherence waves created by pump-to-Stokes scattering are identical to those annihilated in pump-to-anti-Stokes scattering. In bulk gas cells, this can only be achieved over limited interaction lengths at an oblique angle to the pump axis. Here we report a simple system that provides dramatic Raman gain suppression over long collinear path lengths in hydrogen. It consists of a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber whose zero dispersion point is pressure adjusted to lie close to the pump laser wavelength. At a certain precise pressure, stimulated generation of Stokes light in the fundamental mode is completely suppressed, allowing other much weaker phenomena such as spontaneous Raman scattering to be explored at high pump powers.

  19. High-performance transmission in analog photonic links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyu; Yan, Lianshan; Jiang, Hengyun; Ye, Jia; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Zou, Xihua

    2013-12-01

    Analog photonic link (APL) has been considered to be a promising technique due to the low insertion loss, broad bandwidth and immunity to electromagnetic interference. It is essential for many microwave systems, such as avionics, modern electronic warfare, and wireless communication systems. However, polarization effect, chromatic dispersion (CD), fiber Kerr effect and RF nonlinearity are four main problems in APL. All of them degrade the performance of the link. Therefore, APL needs to be optimized according to the different requirements in various applications. In this paper, we firstly establish a propagation model and provide the general expressions for the analog signal in photonic link based on coupled-mode theory and the small-signal analysis. Such model can describe the interaction of polarization effect, CD and nonlinearity. We also investigate the noise figure (NF) and spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) in dispersive nonlinear link based on the proposed model. Subsequently, we review and introduce different compensation schemes for these impairments, such as CD compensation based on double sideband (DSB) modulation, and simultaneous compensation for CD and nonlinearity by employing a phase modulator (PM). After compensations, the SFDR of the link can be improved greatly. In addition, recent experimental results show that APL might be a supporting technique for the 4G or higher speed optical-wireless communication systems in near future.

  20. The ground states of iron(III) porphines: role of entropy-enthalpy compensation, Fermi correlation, dispersion, and zero-point energies.

    PubMed

    Kepp, Kasper P

    2011-10-01

    Porphyrins are much studied due to their biochemical relevance and many applications. The density functional TPSSh has previously accurately described the energy of close-lying electronic states of transition metal systems such as porphyrins. However, a recent study questioned this conclusion based on calculations of five iron(III) porphines. Here, we compute the geometries of 80 different electronic configurations and the free energies of the most stable configurations with the functionals TPSSh, TPSS, and B3LYP. Zero-point energies and entropy favor high-spin by ~4kJ/mol and 0-10kJ/mol, respectively. When these effects are included, and all electronic configurations are evaluated, TPSSh correctly predicts the spin of all the four difficult phenylporphine cases and is within the lower bound of uncertainty of any known theoretical method for the fifth, iron(III) chloroporphine. Dispersion computed with DFT-D3 favors low-spin by 3-53kJ/mol (TPSSh) or 4-15kJ/mol (B3LYP) due to the attractive r(-6) term and the shorter distances in low-spin. The very large and diverse corrections from TPSS and TPSSh seem less consistent with the similarity of the systems than when calculated from B3LYP. If the functional-specific corrections are used, B3LYP and TPSSh are of equal accuracy, and TPSS is much worse, whereas if the physically reasonable B3LYP-computed dispersion effect is used for all functionals, TPSSh is accurate for all systems. B3LYP is significantly more accurate when dispersion is added, confirming previous results.

  1. Teacher Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

    Minnesota state policy makers are concerned about teacher compensation because it constitutes a major category of state and local spending and can affect education results. This report examines compensation issues by describing the pay structure of Minnesota's K-12 public school teachers, making pay comparisons with other professionals, and…

  2. Teacher Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

    Minnesota state policy makers are concerned about teacher compensation because it constitutes a major category of state and local spending and can affect education results. This report examines compensation issues by describing the pay structure of Minnesota's K-12 public school teachers, making pay comparisons with other professionals, and…

  3. Compensation Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roady, Celia

    2008-01-01

    Congress, the news media, and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) continue to cast a wary eye on the compensation of nonprofit leaders. Hence, any college or university board that falls short of IRS expectations in its procedures for setting the president's compensation is putting the president, other senior officials, and board members at…

  4. Supercritical fluid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry combined with postcolumn compensation and one-step acetone protein precipitation to evaluate the bioavailability of probucol solid dispersion tablet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bei; Pei, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaoting; Zhu, Meng; Zhao, Longshan; Zhang, Tianhong

    2016-10-01

    Solid dispersion technology was used to improve the bioavailability of probucol due to its low hydrophilicity and high lipophilicity. In this study, a highly rapid and sensitive supercritical fluid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was optimized and validated for the determination of probucol in beagle dog plasma with diazepam as an internal standard. The analyte and internal standard were extracted by acetone and then separated on a polar 2-ethylpyridine phase column (100 mm × 3 mm, 1.7 μm) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min using CO2 (≥99.99%) and methanol (95:5, v/v) as the mobile phase. The mass transition ion-pair was m/z 515.6→236.2 and 285.2→193.1 for probucol and internal standard, respectively. Excellent linearity was observed over the concentration range of 5-5000 ng/mL (r(2) ≥ 0.9999) with a lower limit of quantification of 5 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision for all quality control samples were within ±15%. The proposed method was accurate, rapid and reproducible, which was successfully applied to a bioavailabilty evaluation of probucol solid dispersion tablets.

  5. CAN AN ENERGY-COMPENSATED SOLID-STATE X-RAY DETECTOR BE USED FOR RADIATION PROTECTION APPLICATIONS AT HIGHER PHOTON ENERGIES?

    PubMed

    Ören, Ünal; Herrnsdorf, Lars; Gunnarsson, Mikael; Mattsson, Sören; Rääf, Christopher L

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of a solid-state detector commonly available at hospitals for parallel use as a real-time personal radiation monitor following radiation emergency situations. A solid-state detector probe with an inherent filtration (R100, RTI Electronics AB, Mölndal, Sweden) was chosen for evaluation. The energy dependence and the linearity in signal response with kerma in air were examined, and the detector was exposed to both X-ray beams using a conventional X-ray unit with effective photon energies ranging between 28.5 and 48.9 keV and to gamma rays 1.17 and 1.33 MeV from (60)Co. The R100 exhibited ∼1.7 times over-response at the lowest X-ray energy relative to the (60)Co source. The detector demonstrated a linear response (R(2) = 1) when irradiated with (60)Co to air kerma values in the range of 20-200 mGy. The conclusion is that high-energy photons such as those from (60)Co can be detected by the R100 with an energy response within a factor of <2 over the energy range examined and that the detector can provide real-time dose measurements following nuclear or radiological events.

  6. Dispersion management with metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2017-03-07

    An apparatus, system, and method to counteract group velocity dispersion in fibers, or any other propagation of electromagnetic signals at any wavelength (microwave, terahertz, optical, etc.) in any other medium. A dispersion compensation step or device based on dispersion-engineered metamaterials is included and avoids the need of a long section of specialty fiber or the need for Bragg gratings (which have insertion loss).

  7. High-quality metamaterial dispersive grating on the facet of an optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savinov, V.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2017-08-01

    Bragg gratings fabricated along the mode propagation direction in optical fibers are a powerful technology for controlling dispersion. Here, we show that a dielectric metamaterial grating with sub-wavelength period fabricated in the thin layer of silicon on the fiber facet exhibits transmission resonance with the quality factor exceeding 300. We demonstrate how focused ion beam patterning, commonly expected to degrade the optical performance of materials, can be exploited to create low-loss photonic nanostructures on the fiber facet. Only a few tens of nanometers in thickness, such facet gratings can be used in compact interconnects, dispersion compensation, and sensing applications.

  8. Improving femtosecond laser pulse delivery through a hollow core photonic crystal fiber for temporally focused two-photon endomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heejin; So, Peter T. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a strategy to improve delivery of femtosecond laser pulses from a regenerative amplifier through a hollow core photonic crystal fiber for temporally focused wide-field two-photon endomicroscopy. For endomicroscope application, wide-field two-photon excitation has the advantage of requiring no scanning in the distal end. However, wide-field two-photon excitation requires peak power that is 104–105 times higher than the point scanning approach corresponding to femtosecond pulses with energy on the order of 1–10 μJ at the specimen plane. The transmission of these high energy pulses through a single mode fiber into the microendoscope is a significant challenge. Two approaches were pursued to partially overcome this limitation. First, a single high energy pulse is split into a train of pulses with energy below the fiber damage threshold better utilizing the available laser energy. Second, stretching the pulse width in time by introducing negative dispersion was shown to have the dual benefit of reducing fiber damage probability and compensating for the positive group velocity dispersion induced by the fiber. With these strategy applied, 11 fold increase in the two photon excitation signal has been demonstrated. PMID:25316120

  9. Optical properties of solid core honeycomb photonic crystal fiber with different doping levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guangyu; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong; Peng, Jiangde

    2006-01-01

    Group velocity dispersion (GVD) and effective mode area (Aeff) of solid core honeycomb cladding photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with different up/down doping levels are investigated theoretically. Both total internal reflection (TIR) and photonic bandgap (PBG) guiding mechanisms are shown to be available in this fiber structure with gradual change of the doping level. It is noted that the previously overlooked TIR guiding design with up-doping could acquire improved nonlinear property compared with PBG mechanism in short normalized wavelength region. On the other hand, the total GVD is shown to be dominated by waveguide dispersion corresponding to the fiber structure. Numerical results show that HPCF can achieve small Aeff with low air-fill fraction, and doping level in HPCF provides an additional way to change GVD excepting structure parameters. Special cases are given to demonstrate the potential of HPCF in combining design of Aeff and GVD, aiming at applications such as Raman amplification and dispersion compensation around 1550nm.

  10. Two-photon spectroscopy of excitons with entangled photons.

    PubMed

    Schlawin, Frank; Mukamel, Shaul

    2013-12-28

    The utility of quantum light as a spectroscopic tool is demonstrated for frequency-dispersed pump-probe, integrated pump-probe, and two-photon fluorescence signals which show Ramsey fringes. Simulations of the frequency-dispersed transmission of a broadband pulse of entangled photons interacting with a three-level model of matter reveal how the non-classical time-bandwidth properties of entangled photons can be used to disentangle congested spectra, and reveal otherwise unresolved features. Quantum light effects are most pronounced at weak intensities when entangled photon pairs are well separated, and are gradually diminished at higher intensities when different photon pairs overlap.

  11. Broadband terahertz dispersion control in hybrid waveguides.

    PubMed

    Fobbe, Tobias; Markmann, Sergej; Fobbe, Felix; Hekmat, Negar; Nong, Hanond; Pal, Shovon; Balzerwoski, Patrick; Savolainen, Janne; Havenith, Martina; Wieck, Andreas D; Jukam, Nathan

    2016-09-19

    Dispersion control is a key objective in the field of photonics and spectroscopy, since it enhances non-linear effects by both enabling phase matching and offering slow light generation. In addition, it is essential for frequency comb generation, which requires a phase-lock mechanism that is provided by broadband compensation of group velocity dispersion (GVD). At optical frequencies, there are several well-established concepts for dispersion control such as prism or grating pairs. However, terahertz dispersion control is still a challenge, thus hindering further progress in the field of terahertz science and technology. In this work, we present a hybrid waveguide with both broadband, tuneable positive and more than octave-spanning negative terahertz GVD on the order of 10-22 s2/m, which is suitable for either intra- or extra cavity operation. This new terahertz device will enable ultra-short pulse compression, allow soliton propagation, improve frequency comb operation and foster the development of novel non-linear applications.

  12. Wavelength-domain RF photonic signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lu

    This thesis presents a novel approach to RF-photonic signal processing applications based on wavelength-domain optical signal processing techniques using broadband light sources as the information carriers, such as femtosecond lasers and white light sources. The wavelength dimension of the broadband light sources adds an additional degree of freedom to conventional optical signal processing systems. Two novel wavelength-domain optical signal processing systems are presented and demonstrated in this thesis. The first wavelength-domain RF photonic signal processing system is a wavelength-compensated squint-free photonic multiple beam-forming system for wideband RF phased-array antennas. Such a photonic beam-forming system employs a new modulation scheme developed in this thesis, which uses traveling-wave tunable filters to modulate wideband RF signals onto broadband optical light sources in a frequency-mapped manner. The wavelength dimension of the broadband light sources provides an additional dimension in the wavelength-compensated Fourier beam-forming system for mapping the received RF frequencies to the linearly proportional optical frequencies, enabling true-time-delay beam forming, as well as other novel RF-photonic signal processing functions such as tunable filtering and frequency down conversion. A new slow-light mechanism, the SLUGGISH light, has also been discovered with an effective slow-light velocity of 86 m/s and a record time-bandwidth product of 20. Experimental demonstration of true-time-delay beam forming based on the SLUGGISH light effect has also been presented in this thesis. In the second wavelength-domain RF photonic signal processing system, the wavelength dimension increases the information carrying capacity by spectrally multiplexing multiple wavelength channels in a wavelength-division-multiplexing fiber-optic communication system. A novel ultrafast all-optical 3R (Re-amplification, Retiming, Re-shaping) wavelength converter based on

  13. Photonic Crystal Fiber Based Entangled Photon Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    shifted-fiber ( DSF ) and a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) can be cooled at the liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). The advantage of the HNLF is a larger......signal for one of the photon-pair generated in four-wave mixing process. χ : the Kerr nonlinearity. k : wave vector. DSF : dispersion shifted fiber

  14. Measurement of the Two-photon Absorption Coefficient of Gallium Phosphide (GaP) Using a Dispersion-minimized Sub-10 Femtosecond Z-scan Measurement System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    bandwidth of the pulse. Using the standard laboratory and analysis methods of Sheik- Bahae et al., we obtain a two-photon absorption coefficient, β, of...organic thin-film materials deposited on various substrates. 15 6. References 1. Sheik- Bahae , M.; Said, A. A.; Van Stryland, E. W. High...sensitivity, Single-beam n2 Measurements. Optics Letters 1989, 14 (17). 2. Sheik- Bahae , M.; Said, A. A.; Van Stryland, E. W.; Wei, T-H; Hagan, D. J

  15. Dispersionless gaps and cavity modes in photonic crystals containing hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chun-hua; Ding, Yaqiong; Jiang, Hai-tao; Li, Yunhui; Wang, Zhan-shan; Zhang, Ye-wen; Chen, Hong

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically study dispersionless gaps and cavity modes in one-dimensional photonic crystals composed of hyperbolic metamaterials and dielectric. Bragg gaps in conventional all-dielectric photonic crystals are always dispersive because propagating phases in two kinds of dielectrics decrease with incident angle. Here, based on phase variation compensation between a hyperbolic metamaterial layer and an isotropic dielectric layer, the dispersion of the gap can be offset and thus a dispersionless gap can be realized. Moreover, the dispersionless property of such gap has a wide parameter space. The dispersionless gap can be used to realize a dispersionless cavity mode. The dispersionless gaps and cavity modes will possess significant applications for all-angle reflectors, high-Q filters excited with finite-sized sources, and nonlinear wave mixing processes.

  16. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e..gamma.. scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by ..gamma gamma.. collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F/sub 2//sup ..gamma../(x,Q/sup 2/) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved.

  17. Nonlinear polarization rotation in a dispersion-flattened photonic-crystal fiber for ultrawideband (>100 nm) all-optical wavelength conversion of 10 Gbit/s nonreturn-to-zero signals.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C H; Chow, C W; Tsang, H K; Lin, Chinlon; Bjarklev, A

    2006-06-15

    We study the conversion bandwidth of the cross-polarization-modulation (XPoIM)-based wavelength conversion scheme with a dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic-crystal fiber for signals with a nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) modulation format. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the conversion bandwidth can be extended to cover a very wide band, including S-, C-, and L-bands for 10 Gbit/s NRZ signals (a total bandwidth of 120 nm is experimentally demonstrated). We also study the theoretical bandwidth limit for 40 Gbit/s NRZ signals. A significant extension of the conversion bandwidth using the XPoIM approach compared with the four-wave mixing approach previously reported is demonstrated.

  18. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-07-01

    Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Super-flat coherent supercontinuum source in As38.8Se61.2 chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber with all-normal dispersion engineering at a very low input energy.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Mbaye; Salem, Amine Ben; Cherif, Rim; Saghaei, Hamed; Wague, Ahmadou

    2017-01-10

    We numerically report super-flat coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum (MIR-SC) generation in a chalcogenide As38.8Se61.2 photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The dispersion and nonlinear parameters of As38.8Se61.2 chalcogenide PCFs by varying the diameter of the air holes are engineered to obtain all-normal dispersion (ANDi) with high nonlinearities. We show that launching low-energy 50 fs optical pulses with 0.88 kW peak power (corresponding to pulse energy of 0.05 nJ) at a central wavelength of 3.7 μm into a 5 cm long ANDi-PCF generates a flat-top coherent MIR-SC spanning from 2900 to 4575 nm with a high spectral flatness of 3 dB. This ultra-wide and flattened spectrum has excellent stability and coherence properties that can be used for MIR applications such as medical diagnosis of diseases, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and drug detection.

  20. Phase-resolved pulse propagation through metallic photonic crystal slabs: plasmonic slow light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Nau, Dietmar; Bauer, Christina; Christ, André; Gräbeldinger, Hedi; Giessen, Harald

    2017-03-01

    We characterized the electromagnetic field of ultra-short laser pulses after propagation through metallic photonic crystal structures featuring photonic and plasmonic resonances. The complete pulse information, i.e. the envelope and phase of the electromagnetic field, was measured using the technique of cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating. In good agreement, measurements and scattering matrix simulations show a dispersive behaviour of the spectral phase at the position of the resonances. Asymmetric Fano-type resonances go along with asymmetric phase characteristics. Furthermore, the spectral phase is used to calculate the dispersion of the sample and possible applications in dispersion compensation are investigated. Group refractive indices of 700 and 70 and group delay dispersion values of 90 000 fs2 and 5000 fs2 are achieved in transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization, respectively. The behaviour of extinction and spectral phase can be understood from an intuitive model using the complex transmission amplitude. An associated depiction in the complex plane is a useful approach in this context. This method promises to be valuable also in photonic crystal and filter design, for example, with regards to the symmetrization of the resonances. This article is part of the themed issue 'New horizons for nanophotonics'.

  1. Phase-resolved pulse propagation through metallic photonic crystal slabs: plasmonic slow light.

    PubMed

    Schönhardt, Anja; Nau, Dietmar; Bauer, Christina; Christ, André; Gräbeldinger, Hedi; Giessen, Harald

    2017-03-28

    We characterized the electromagnetic field of ultra-short laser pulses after propagation through metallic photonic crystal structures featuring photonic and plasmonic resonances. The complete pulse information, i.e. the envelope and phase of the electromagnetic field, was measured using the technique of cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating. In good agreement, measurements and scattering matrix simulations show a dispersive behaviour of the spectral phase at the position of the resonances. Asymmetric Fano-type resonances go along with asymmetric phase characteristics. Furthermore, the spectral phase is used to calculate the dispersion of the sample and possible applications in dispersion compensation are investigated. Group refractive indices of 700 and 70 and group delay dispersion values of 90 000 fs(2) and 5000 fs(2) are achieved in transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization, respectively. The behaviour of extinction and spectral phase can be understood from an intuitive model using the complex transmission amplitude. An associated depiction in the complex plane is a useful approach in this context. This method promises to be valuable also in photonic crystal and filter design, for example, with regards to the symmetrization of the resonances.This article is part of the themed issue 'New horizons for nanophotonics'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Spectral property of two-photon flux generated by four-photon scattering in photonic-crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongbo; Liu, Xueming; Hu, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaohui

    2010-12-01

    Based on the scalar four-photon scattering process, the quantum state of a lightwave at the output of fiber is derived by solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a perturbation theory. The joint spectral function of two photons is achieved from the derived quantum state. The dispersion operator involves the third-order dispersion term in the case that the pump wavelength is close to the zero dispersion wavelength. Simulation results show the first-order approximation of our joint spectral function is in excellent agreement with the complicated exact solution. By analyzing the spectral property of the two-photon flux generated by four-photon scattering in photonic-crystal fibers, it is found that the sign of dispersion has very little influence on the spectrum except the slight modulation instability in the anomalous dispersion domain.

  3. Bulletlike light pulses in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuanhong; Gong, Qian; Yao, Peijun; Zhao, Deyin; Jiang, Xunya

    2008-08-01

    We report the bulletlike propagation of light pulse in a particularly designed two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal. Unlike traditional light bullet supported by nonlinear materials, this bulletlike propagation is achieved only by 2D photonic crystal, where the diffraction and the group velocity dispersion of a light pulse are eliminated naturally by combining two distinct properties of photonic crystal, i.e., self-collimation and zero group velocity dispersion. Moreover, we studied the influence of third order dispersion on the propagation of light bullet and found that it can be greatly suppressed by an improved structure of photonic crystal.

  4. Reactive power compensating system

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  5. Faculty Compensation Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silander, Fred

    1983-01-01

    Faculty compensation policy is seen as one means by which an institution influences the faculty to work toward institutional goals. Among the broad criteria for compensation are worth, equity, need, and market measures. Benefits and issues in compensation including differentials in compensation, merit, part-time instruction, etc. are discussed.…

  6. Two-photon entanglement generation: different Bell states within the linewidth of phase-matching.

    PubMed

    Brida, G; Chekhova, M V; Genovese, M; Krivitsky, L A

    2007-08-06

    It is shown that for a phase-matched nonlinear process producing entangled states, different Bell states are generated for different mismatch values. In particular, generation of the singlet Bell state is demonstrated within the natural linewidth of collinear frequency-degenerate type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) without the o-e delay compensation. The singlet state can be filtered out by spectral selection or by the time selection of the two-photon amplitude at the output of a dispersive fibre. The effect is of considerable importance for fibre quantum communication.

  7. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-06-23

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  8. Compensation Review Analyst

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-03

    COMPERA is a decision support system designed to facilitate the compensation review process. With parameters provided by the user(s), the system generates recommendations for base increases and nonbase compensation that strives to align total compensation with performance compensation targets. The user(s) prescribe(s) compensation targets according to performance (or value of contribution) designators. These targets are presented in look-up tables, which are then used by embedded formulas in the worksheet to determine the recommended compensation for each individual.

  9. Photon doses in NPL standard neutron fields.

    PubMed

    Roberts, N J; Horwood, N A; McKay, C J

    2014-10-01

    Standard neutron fields are invariably accompanied by a photon component due to the neutron-generating reactions and secondary neutron interactions in the surrounding environment. A set of energy-compensated Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and electronic personal dosemeters (EPDs) have been used to measure the photon dose rates in a number of standard radionuclide and accelerator-based neutron fields. The GM tubes were first characterised in standard radioisotope and X-ray photon fields and then modelled using MCNP to determine their photon dose response as a function of energy. Values for the photon-to-neutron dose equivalent ratios are presented and compared with other published values.

  10. All-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversion at 10 Gbit/s with 1-to-4 wavelength multicasting exploiting cross-phase modulation & four-wave-mixing in single dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zhan-Qiang; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2016-04-01

    All-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversion with a function of wavelength multicasting is proposed in this paper, which is realized by exploiting cross-phase modulation (XPM) and four-wave-mixing (FWM) in a dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (DF-HNL-PCF). The designed format converter is experimentally demonstrated, for which the 1-to-4 wavelength multicasting is achieved simultaneously by filtering out two FWM idler waves and both blue-chirped and red-chirped components of the broadened NRZ spectrum induced by XPM. Moreover, the wavelength tunability and dynamic characteristics of the proposed NRZ-to-RZ format converter are also exploited using the different central wavelengths of an optical clock signal and varying the input optical power at a DF-HNL-PCF in our experiment. It is shown that the designed format converter can possess a wide range of operational wavelength over 17 nm, an optimal extinction ratio of 11.6 dB, and a Q-factor of 7.1, respectively. Since the proposed scheme uses an optical fiber-based configuration and is easy for implementation, it can be very useful for future applications in advanced fiber-optic communication networks.

  11. Two-photon interference of polarization-entangled photons in a Franson interferometer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Kwon, Osung; Moon, Han Seb

    2017-07-18

    We present two-photon interference experiments with polarization-entangled photon pairs in a polarization-based Franson-type interferometer. Although the two photons do not meet at a common beamsplitter, a phase-insensitive Hong-Ou-Mandel type two-photon interference peak and dip fringes are observed, resulting from the two-photon interference effect between two indistinguishable two-photon probability amplitudes leading to a coincidence detection. A spatial quantum beating fringe is also measured for nondegenerate photon pairs in the same interferometer, although the two-photon states have no frequency entanglement. When unentangled polarization-correlated photons are used as an input state, the polarization entanglement is successfully recovered through the interferometer via delayed compensation.

  12. Demodulation of an optical fiber MEMS pressure sensor based on single bandpass microwave photonic filter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiping; Ni, Xiaoqi; Wang, Ming; Cui, Yifeng; Shi, Qingyun

    2017-01-23

    In this paper, a demodulation method for optic fiber micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) pressure sensor exploiting microwave photonics filter technique is firstly proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A single bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) which mainly consists of a spectrum-sliced light source, a pressurized optical fiber MEMS EFPI, a phase modulator (PM) and a length of dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) is demonstrated. The frequency response of the filter with respect to the pressure is studied. By detecting the resonance frequency shifts of the MPF, the pressure can be determined. The theoretical and experimental results show that the proposed EFPI pressure demodulation method has a higher resolution and higher speed than traditional methods based on optical spectrum analysis. The sensitivity of the sensor is measured to be as high as 86 MHz/MPa in the range of 0-4Mpa. Moreover, the sensitivity can be easily adjusted.

  13. An optical fiber MEMS pressure sensor using microwave photonics filtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiping; Wang, Ming; Ni, Xiaoqi; Xia, Wei; Guo, Dongmei; Hao, Hui; Ma, Qingyu; Zhuang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    A fiber-optic micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) pressure sensor exploiting microwave photonics filtering technique is firstly proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A single-bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) which mainly consists of a spectrum-sliced light source, a pressurized EFPI, a phase modulator (PM) and a length of dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) is demonstrated. The frequency response of the filter with respect to the pressure is studied. By detecting the resonance frequency shifts of the MPF, the pressure can be determined. The theoretical and experimental results show that the proposed EFPI pressure sensor has a higher resolution and higher speed than traditional methods based on optical spectrum analysis. The sensitivity of the sensor is measured to be as high as 86 MHz/MPa in the range of 0-4MPa.

  14. Fiber-optic CATV system performance improvement by using split-band technique and photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Tzeng, Shah-Jye; Chuang, Yao-Wei; Chen, Guan-Lin; Peng, Hsiang-Chun

    2007-03-01

    A directly-modulated amplitude modulation-vestigial sideband (AM-VSB) cable television (CATV) erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)-repeated system that uses split-band technique and photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as a broadband dispersion compensation device is proposed and demonstrated. In contrast to a conventional externally-modulated fiber-optic CATV system, good performance of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second order (CSO) and composite triple beat (CTB) were obtained in our proposed systems over a combination of 100-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and 3.6 km PCF.

  15. Bilayer dispersion-flattened waveguides with four zero-dispersion wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuhao; Jafari, Zeinab; Agarwal, Anu M; Kimerling, Lionel C; Li, Guifang; Michel, Jurgen; Zhang, Lin

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new type of bilayer dispersion-flattened waveguides that have four zero-dispersion wavelengths. Low and flat dispersion can be achieved by using two different material combinations, with a much smaller index contrast as compared to the previously proposed slot-assisted dispersion-flattened waveguides. Without using a nano-slot, dispersion becomes less sensitive to waveguide dimensions, which is highly desirable for high-yield device fabrication. Ultra-low dispersion, high nonlinearity, and fabrication-friendly design would make it promising for practical implementation of nonlinear photonic functions. The proposed waveguide configuration deepens our understanding of the dispersion flattening principle.

  16. Toxic compensation bills

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.C.

    1985-10-01

    Congress has demonstrated interest in toxic compensation legislation, but not enough agreement to make significant progress. Advocates of reform claim that the legal system is heavily weighed against victims who seek compensation through the courts. Proposed reforms include a compensation fund and a cause of action in federal court. Critics have questioned whether these changes in the law would represent an improvement. Existing income replacement, medical cost reimbursement, and survivor insurance programs largely cover the losses of individuals with chronic disease. Thus, the need for an additional compensation is not clear. Furthermore, experience with compensation funds such as the Black Lung Fund suggests that political rather than scientific criteria may be used to determine eligibility. Finally, under the proposed financing mechanisms the compensation funds that are being debated would not increase incentives for care in the handling of hazardous wastes or toxic substances.

  17. Toxic compensation bills.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R C

    1985-01-01

    Congress has demonstrated interest in toxic compensation legislation, but not enough agreement to make significant progress. Advocates of reform claim that the legal system is heavily weighed against victims who seek compensation through the courts. Proposed reforms include a compensation fund and a cause of action in federal court. Critics have questioned whether these changes in the law would represent an improvement. Existing income replacement, medical cost reimbursement, and survivor insurance programs largely cover the losses of individuals with chronic disease. Thus, the need for an additional compensation is not clear. Furthermore, experience with compensation funds such as the Black Lung Fund suggests that political rather than scientific criteria may be used to determine eligibility. Finally, under the proposed financing mechanisms the compensation funds that are being debated would not increase incentives for care in the handling of hazardous wastes or toxic substances. PMID:4085440

  18. Studies of the modal properties of circularly photonic crystal fiber (C-PCF) for high power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Partha Sona; Roy Chaudhuri, Partha

    2016-04-01

    The guiding properties of a new type of photonic crystal fibers where air-holes are arranged in a circular pattern (C-PCF) with a silica matrix have been investigated. The dispersion properties of the fiber with different spacing of circle and air-hole diameter have been studied in detail. It is shown that C-PCFs with smaller values of radius and higher air-filling fraction can be used as dispersion compensating fiber. A comparison between fibers with circular and triangular lattice has also been performed, taking into account the dispersion properties and the effective area in the wavelength range between 1200 nm and 1600 nm. C-PCF can better compensate the inline dispersion for both single wavelength and broadband wavelength applications which is a unique property not observed by regular triangular-lattice or square-lattice PCFs. The fiber provides higher effective area, making it a better candidate for high power accumulations in the core of the fiber. The fiber also shows red-shifting of the first zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW), flatter dispersion slope and lower Group Velocity Dispersion (GVD) in the normal dispersion region thereby making it a better candidate for high power nonlinear applications like super-continuum generation, soliton pulse propagation etc. With the above advantages, we have considered a series study of these circular-lattice structures for various geometrical parameters and temporal pulses in order to explore the characteristics of broadband supercontinuum generation. This design study for high power supercontinuum generation will be very helpful for potential application of new sources in various fields like astronomy, climatology, spectroscopy optical tomography and sensing etc. to name a few.

  19. Optics of globular photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelik, V S

    2007-05-31

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the optical properties of globular photonic crystals - new physical objects having a crystal structure with the lattice period exceeding considerably the atomic size, are presented. As globular photonic crystals, artificial opal matrices consisting of close-packed silica globules of diameter {approx}200 nm were used. The reflection spectra of these objects characterising the parameters of photonic bands existing in these crystals in the visible spectral region are presented. The idealised models of the energy band structure of photonic crystals investigated in the review give analytic dispersion dependences for the group velocity and the effective photon mass in a globular photonic crystal. The characteristics of secondary emission excited in globular photonic crystals by monochromatic and broadband radiation are presented. The results of investigations of single-photon-excited delayed scattering of light observed in globular photonic crystals exposed to cw UV radiation and radiation from a repetitively pulsed copper vapour laser are presented. The possibilities of using globular photonic crystals as active media for lasing in different spectral regions are considered. It is proposed to use globular photonic crystals as sensitive sensors in optoelectronic devices for molecular analysis of organic and inorganic materials by the modern methods of laser spectroscopy. The results of experimental studies of spontaneous and stimulated globular scattering of light are discussed. The conditions for observing resonance and two-photon-excited delayed scattering of light are found. The possibility of accumulation and localisation of the laser radiation energy inside a globular photonic crystal is reported. (review)

  20. Rationalizing vaccine injury compensation.

    PubMed

    Mello, Michelle M

    2008-01-01

    Legislation recently adopted by the United States Congress provides producers of pandemic vaccines with near-total immunity from civil lawsuits without making individuals injured by those vaccines eligible for compensation through the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. The unusual decision not to provide an alternative mechanism for compensation is indicative of a broader problem of inconsistency in the American approach to vaccine-injury compensation policy. Compensation policies have tended to reflect political pressures and economic considerations more than any cognizable set of principles. This article identifies a set of ethical principles bearing on the circumstances in which vaccine injuries should be compensated, both inside and outside public health emergencies. A series of possible bases for compensation rules, some grounded in utilitarianism and some nonconsequentialist, are discussed and evaluated. Principles of fairness and reasonableness are found to constitute the strongest bases. An ethically defensible compensation policy grounded in these principles would make a compensation fund available to all individuals with severe injuries and to individuals with less-severe injuries whenever the vaccination was required by law or professional duty.

  1. Compensators for three-dimensional treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Mageras, G S; Mohan, R; Burman, C; Barest, G D; Kutcher, G J

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is a method of designing compensators for a single beam or one or more pairs of beams, not necessarily parallel opposed. The objective is to produce a flat distribution in a plane that may be perpendicular to the central ray or may be an arbitrarily oriented plane, for example, a plane that bisects the hinge angle between two beams. The method takes into account not only surface irregularities but also tissue inhomogeneities, hinge angles between beams, distance from the source, and even "horns" in the beam. The design process employs convolution of Monte Carlo generated pencil beams with photon fluence distributions, appropriately modified for the presence of beam modifiers (blocks and compensators), to compute dose in a flat homogeneous phantom. Corrections for inhomogeneities and surface curvature are applied by using computerized tomography information to determine the effective path length through tissue. Multiple interactions are used to arrive at a compensator that properly incorporates changes in radiation transport, and therefore dose distribution, resulting from the presence of beam-shaping devices. In each iteration it is assumed that the required reduction in dose at a point can be achieved by reducing the fluence along the ray joining the source to computation point proportionately. The compensator design is represented as a finely spaced matrix of thickness values which is entered into a prorammable milling maching for fabrication. Dose measurements in phantom exposed to 6-MV x rays with and without compensation are presented.

  2. Gmti Motion Compensation

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2004-07-20

    Movement of a GMTI radar during a coherent processing interval over which a set of radar pulses are processed may cause defocusing of a range-Doppler map in the video signal. This problem may be compensated by varying waveform or sampling parameters of each pulse to compensate for distortions caused by variations in viewing angles from the radar to the target.

  3. A study on the application of chirped photonic crystal fiber in multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiali; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey; Skibina, Julia S.; Steinmeyer, Günter; Tang, Shuo

    2013-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is a powerful technique for high resolution imaging of biological tissues. A specially-designed chirped photonic crystal fiber (CPCF) is introduced for MPM applications. The CPCF eliminates most pulse broadening effects in a broad transmission window because its cell-size radial chirp in the cladding structure localizes the reflection of different wavelengths in different resonant layers of the cladding, similar to chirped mirrors. In contrast, traditional hollow core fiber (HCF) consists of several identical reflective layers that produce substantial higher-order dispersion. The feasibility of applying the CPCF for MPM imaging is studied. The propagation properties of the CPCF are characterized by autocorrelation traces measured with and without the CPCF, which confirms an extremely low dispersion of the CPCF. The dispersion from other optics in the MPM imaging system is further compensated by a double-folded prism pair. In the autocorrelation trace measurement, satellite peaks are observed when the length of the CPCF is short (~40 cm), which disappear when the fiber length is chosen sufficiently long. The satellite peaks appear to originate from modal dispersion. With propagation lengths above 1 m, single mode propagation can be achieved in the CPCF. The extremely low dispersion of CPCF over a wide transmission window is promising in MPM applications for the fiber delivery of femtosecond pulses, especially in sub-20fs or tunable laser illumination.

  4. Full vectorial finite element analysis of photonic crystal devices: Application to low-loss modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo Jun

    A full vectorial finite element analysis is presented for the design and analysis of photonic crystal structures. Finite element C++ class libraries are developed based on the vector formulation of the two and three dimensional wave equation. Whitney 1-forms, often called edge elements, are used as basis functions to avoid spurious modes in eigenanalyses. The current finite element codes can solve 2-D and 3-D eigenvalue and scattering problems with boundary conditions: the perfect electric conductor (PEC), the perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) and the Bloch boundary condition. Open boundary problems can also be solved by implementing the perfectly matched layers (PML). Eigenanalyses are performed for various types of photonic crystal structures such as unit cells, infinite waveguides and defect cavities. The transmission spectra of the photonic crystal guiding structures, straight waveguides, waveguide bends and waveguide branches, are derived using scattering formulation. Experimental verification is also presented for a single and five missing line photonic crystal waveguides. Based on the calculated transmission spectra, we conducted simulated annealing optimization of branches and bends to increase the transmission. We applied previous results to a Mach-Zehnder type optical interferometer. The design of waveguide arms is modified to increase the sensitivity. Change of lattice constant gives rise to the shift of the waveguide band. Thus, the operating frequency can be moved to the bandedge which exhibits more dispersive characteristics. We also investigated the coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) structures for the same purpose. By inserting the defect air holes in the waveguide channel, the shape and the frequency range of the band can be engineered. The increase in the sensitivity of the CROW is analyzed by varying the radii of the defect air holes in the waveguide channel. Also group velocities and their dispersion characteristics are investigated and

  5. Using a Recirculating Fiber Loop to Determine the Limitations Placed on Ultra-High-Performance Soliton and Linear Optical Systems by Polarization Mode Dispersion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    fiber and a lithium- niobate (LiNbO3) polarization controller was used which was synchronized to the electronic loop controller circuitry. The tail of...Q. Yu, L. S. Yan, Y. Xie, M. Hauer , A. E. Willner, “Higher order polarization mode dispersion compensation using a fixed time delay followed by a...variable time delay”, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol 13, Aug 2001. 9. P. Ebrahimi, M. C. Hauer , Q. Yu, R. Khosravani and A. E. Willner, “The

  6. Tuning photonic bands in plasma metallic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Mayank Kumar; Chaudhari, Sachin

    2016-11-01

    Introducing plasma in the background provides additional degrees of freedom for tuning dispersion curves of photonic crystals. 2D photonic crystals in triangular lattice arrangements offer more global bandgap regions and thus are of more interest for various applications. The dispersion characteristics of a two-dimensional plasma metallic photonic crystal (PMPC) in square as well as triangular lattice arrangements have been analyzed in this paper using the orthogonal finite difference time domain method. The dispersion characteristics of PMPCs for the range of r/a ratios and plasma frequencies for triangular lattice configuration have been analyzed. On introducing plasma in the background, the photonic bands of PMPC are shifted towards higher normalized frequencies. This shift is more for lower bands and increases with plasma frequency. The cut-off frequency was observed for both TE and TM polarizations in PMPC and showed strong dependence on r/a ratio as well as plasma frequency. Photonic bandgaps of PMPC may be tuned by controlling plasma parameters, giving opportunity for utilizing these PMPC structures for various applications such as fine-tuning cavities for enhanced light-matter interaction, plasmonic waveguides, and Gyrotron cavities.

  7. Photonic Hypercrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narimanov, Evgenii E.

    2014-10-01

    We introduce a new "universality class" of artificial optical media—photonic hypercrystals. These hyperbolic metamaterials, with periodic spatial variation of dielectric permittivity on subwavelength scale, combine the features of optical metamaterials and photonic crystals. In particular, surface waves supported by a hypercrystal possess the properties of both the optical Tamm states in photonic crystals and surface-plasmon polaritons at the metal-dielectric interface.

  8. Photon absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the detection and treatment of osteoporosis. This paper is a review of the merits and limitations of the various noninvasive modalities currently available for the measurement of bone mineral density with special emphasis placed upon the nuclear medicine techniques of single-photon and dual-photon absorptiometry. The clinicians should come away with an understanding of the relative advantages and disadvantages of photon absorptiometry and its optimal clinical application. 49 references.

  9. Ocular dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Noojin, Gary D.; Thomas, Robert J.; Stolarski, David J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1999-06-01

    Spectrally resolved white-light interferometry (SRWLI) was used to measure the wavelength dependence of refractive index (i.e., dispersion) for various ocular components. The accuracy of the technique was assessed by measurement of fused silica and water, the refractive indices of which have been measured at several different wavelengths. The dispersion of bovine and rabbit aqueous and vitreous humor was measured from 400 to 1100 nm. Also, the dispersion was measured from 400 to 700 nm for aqueous and vitreous humor extracted from goat and rhesus monkey eyes. For the humors, the dispersion did not deviate significantly from water. In an additional experiment, the dispersion of aqueous and vitreous humor that had aged up to a month was compared to freshly harvested material. No difference was found between the fresh and aged media. An unsuccessful attempt was also made to use the technique for dispersion measurement of bovine cornea and lens. Future refinement may allow measurement of the dispersion of cornea and lens across the entire visible and near-infrared wavelength band. The principles of white- light interferometry including image analysis, measurement accuracy, and limitations of the technique, are discussed. In addition, alternate techniques and previous measurements of ocular dispersion are reviewed.

  10. Topological photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S. C.

    2008-03-01

    We associate intrinsic energy equal to hν /2 with the spin angular momentum of photon, and propose a topological model based on orbifold in space and tifold in time as topological obstructions. The model is substantiated using vector wavefield disclinations. The physical photon is suggested to be a particlelike topological photon and a propagating wave such that the energy hν of photon is equally divided between spin energy and translational energy, corresponding to linear momentum of hν /c. The enigma of wave-particle duality finds natural resolution, and the proposed model gives new insights into the phenomena of interference and emission of radiation.

  11. Silicon photonics manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Zortman, William A; Trotter, Douglas C; Watts, Michael R

    2010-11-08

    Most demonstrations in silicon photonics are done with single devices that are targeted for use in future systems. One of the costs of operating multiple devices concurrently on a chip in a system application is the power needed to properly space resonant device frequencies on a system's frequency grid. We asses this power requirement by quantifying the source and impact of process induced resonant frequency variation for microdisk resonators across individual die, entire wafers and wafer lots for separate process runs. Additionally we introduce a new technique, utilizing the Transverse Electric (TE) and Transverse Magnetic (TM) modes in microdisks, to extract thickness and width variations across wafers and dice. Through our analysis we find that a standard six inch Silicon on Insulator (SOI) 0.35 μm process controls microdisk resonant frequencies for the TE fundamental resonances to within 1 THz across a wafer and 105 GHz within a single die. Based on demonstrated thermal tuner technology, a stable manufacturing process exhibiting this level of variation can limit the resonance trimming power per resonant device to 231 μW. Taken in conjunction with the power to compensate for thermal environmental variations, the expected power requirement to compensate for fabrication-induced non-uniformities is 17% of that total. This leads to the prediction that thermal tuning efficiency is likely to have the most dominant impact on the overall power budget of silicon photonics resonator technology.

  12. Integrated optomechanical single-photon frequency shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Linran; Zou, Chang-Ling; Poot, Menno; Cheng, Risheng; Guo, Xiang; Han, Xu; Tang, Hong X.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to manipulate single photons is of critical importance for fundamental quantum optics studies and practical implementations of quantum communications. While extraordinary progresses have been made in controlling spatial, temporal, spin and orbit angular momentum degrees of freedom, frequency-domain control of single photons so far relies on nonlinear optical effects, which have faced obstacles such as noise photons, narrow bandwidth and demanding optical filtering. Here, we demonstrate the first integrated optomechanical single-photon frequency shifter with near-unity efficiency. A frequency shift up to 150 GHz at telecom wavelength is realized without measurable added noise and the preservation of quantum coherence is verified through quantum interference between twin photons of different colours. This single-photon frequency shifter will be invaluable for increasing the channel capacity of quantum communications and compensating frequency mismatch between quantum systems, paving the road towards a hybrid quantum network.

  13. Phase tracking with differential dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubois, Xavier; Lacour, Sylvestre; Perrin, Guy S.; Dembet, Roderick; Fedou, Pierre; Eisenhauer, Frank; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Straubmeier, Christian; Amorim, Antonio; Brandner, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Differential chromatic dispersion in single-mode optical fibres leads to a loss of contrast of the white light fringe. For the GRAVITY instrument, this aspect is critical since it limits the fringe tracking performance. We present a real-time algorithm that compensates for differential dispersion due to varying fibre lengths using prior calibration of the optical fibres. This correction is limited by the accuracy to which the fibres stretch is known. We show how this affects the SNR on the white light fringe for different scenarios and we estimate how this phenomenon might eventually impact the astrometric accuracy of GRAVITY observations.

  14. Reactive Power Compensator.

    DOEpatents

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.

    1992-07-28

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.

  15. Reactive power compensator

    DOEpatents

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  16. The photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Russell L.

    2009-10-01

    There are no TEM waves, only photons. Lets build a photon, using a radio antenna. A short antenna (2L<< λ) simplifies the calculation, letting B fall off everywhere as 1/r^2. The Biot-Savart law finds B = (μ0/4π)(LI0/r^2)θφt. The magnetic flux thru a semi-circle of radius λ/2 is set equal to the flux quantum h/e, determining the needed source strength, LI0. From this, one can integrate the magnetic energy density over a sphere of radius λ/2 and finds it to be 1.0121 hc/λ. Pretty close. A B field collapses when the current ceases, but the photon evades this by creating a ɛ0E / t displacement current at center that fully supports the toroidal B assembly as it moves at c. This E=vxB arises because the photon moves at c. Stopped, a photon decays. At every point along the photon's path, an observer will note a transient oscillation of an E field. This sources the EM ``guiding wave'', carrying little or no energy and expanding at c. At the head of the photon, all these spherical guiding waves gather ``in-phase'' as a planar wavefront. This model speaks to all the many things we know about light. The photon is tiny, but its guiding wave is huge.

  17. Chalcogenide waveguide structure for dispersion in mid-infrared wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, Nandam; Lak Lee, Yeung; Shin, WooJin

    2017-03-01

    We present a waveguide design with low dispersion in mid-infrared wavelengths. The design consists of slot-strip-slot structures horizontally, the strip structure is considered with high index and slot is considered with low index material. We show a dispersion of 0–350 ps/(km·nm) over a band width of 1375 nm, and the structure shows zero dispersions at 2512 and 3887 nm wavelength. The magnitude of dispersion can be fine-tuned by varying the waveguide parameters. Such a waveguide structure with low dispersion at mid-infrared wavelengths has a great potential for supercontinuum generation application. Apart this, we have also proposed dispersion compensation structure, the structure shows a high negative dispersion at 1510 nm wavelength. The structure should find application in the design of an integrated optic dispersion compensator for optical telecommunication and ultrafast waveguide lasers.

  18. Heralded single-photon source in a III-V photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alex S; Husko, Chad; Collins, Matthew J; Lehoucq, Gaelle; Xavier, Stéphane; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2013-03-01

    In this Letter we demonstrate heralded single-photon generation in a III-V semiconductor photonic crystal platform through spontaneous four-wave mixing. We achieve a high brightness of 3.4×10(7) pairs·s(-1) nm(-1) W(-1) facilitated through dispersion engineering and the suppression of two-photon absorption in the gallium indium phosphide material. Photon pairs are generated with a coincidence-to-accidental ratio over 60 and a low g(2) (0) of 0.06 proving nonclassical operation in the single photon regime.

  19. Federal Employees' Compensation Act.

    PubMed

    Ladou, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA) program provides wage loss compensation and payments for medical treatment to federal civilian employees. Administered by the Department of Labor (DOL), FECA covers over 2.7 million federal employees in more than 70 different agencies. FECA costs rose from $1.4 billion in 1990 to $2.6 in 2006, while the federal workforce remained essentially unchanged. While federal civilian employees represent only 2.1% of all workers eligible for workers' compensation benefits, federal programs account for 6% of the benefits paid. Disability benefits under FECA are far greater than those in the state workers' compensation programs. The benefit payments often exceed the former salary of the injured employee. The last congressional hearings on the FECA program were held over thirty years ago. It is unlikely that Congressional review will occur any time soon, as the entrenched bureaucracy that benefits from the FECA program defines and protects its future.

  20. Dispersing Agents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Also called dispersants, these chemicals used in spill cleanups contain surfactants and/or solvent compounds that act to break petroleum oil into small droplets, which can then break down further in the water.

  1. Chromatic dispersion effects in analog polarization-modulated links.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Anthony L; Bucholtz, Frank

    2006-04-20

    The effect of chromatic dispersion on a photonic link employing polarization modulation is studied analytically and experimentally. For analog polarization modulation, dispersion introduces a frequency-dependent rotation to the orientation of modulation about the center of modulation. As a result, the dispersion-limited bandwidth of the link will depend on receiver design.

  2. Quantum optical rotatory dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Tischler, Nora; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Vidal, Xavier; Zeilinger, Anton; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of molecular optical activity manifests itself as the rotation of the plane of linear polarization when light passes through chiral media. Measurements of optical activity and its wavelength dependence, that is, optical rotatory dispersion, can reveal information about intricate properties of molecules, such as the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms comprising a molecule. Given a limited probe power, quantum metrology offers the possibility of outperforming classical measurements. This has particular appeal when samples may be damaged by high power, which is a potential concern for chiroptical studies. We present the first experiment in which multiwavelength polarization-entangled photon pairs are used to measure the optical activity and optical rotatory dispersion exhibited by a solution of chiral molecules. Our work paves the way for quantum-enhanced measurements of chirality, with potential applications in chemistry, biology, materials science, and the pharmaceutical industry. The scheme that we use for probing wavelength dependence not only allows one to surpass the information extracted per photon in a classical measurement but also can be used for more general differential measurements. PMID:27713928

  3. Quantum optical rotatory dispersion.

    PubMed

    Tischler, Nora; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Vidal, Xavier; Zeilinger, Anton; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    The phenomenon of molecular optical activity manifests itself as the rotation of the plane of linear polarization when light passes through chiral media. Measurements of optical activity and its wavelength dependence, that is, optical rotatory dispersion, can reveal information about intricate properties of molecules, such as the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms comprising a molecule. Given a limited probe power, quantum metrology offers the possibility of outperforming classical measurements. This has particular appeal when samples may be damaged by high power, which is a potential concern for chiroptical studies. We present the first experiment in which multiwavelength polarization-entangled photon pairs are used to measure the optical activity and optical rotatory dispersion exhibited by a solution of chiral molecules. Our work paves the way for quantum-enhanced measurements of chirality, with potential applications in chemistry, biology, materials science, and the pharmaceutical industry. The scheme that we use for probing wavelength dependence not only allows one to surpass the information extracted per photon in a classical measurement but also can be used for more general differential measurements.

  4. Compensation law in composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufresne, A.; Lavergne, C.; Lacabanne, C.

    1993-12-01

    The experimental resolution of the α retardation / relaxation mode of model composites epoxy resin- glass beads has been performed using Thermo Stimulated Creep (TSCr) and Thermo Stimulated Currents (TSC) spectroscopies. The distributed retardation / relaxation times τ are found to obey a compensation law, which is characteristic of cooperative movements liberated at the vicinity of T g. The T c and τ c compensation parameters reveal that the microstructure is strongly linked to the nature of the interface.

  5. Evaluating Military Compensation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    has also compared the out-of-pocket health costs of families who use its preferred-provider organization ( PPO ) or fee-for-service options with those...comparison controlled for demographic differ- ences between military and civilian families. EVALUATING MILITARY COMPENSATION 17using PPO plans. In 2005...governments would have to absorb the difference. A PP E N D IX A Total Compensation for the Median Enlisted MemberUsing a different approach from

  6. ACTS Rain Fade Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coney, Thom A.

    1996-01-01

    Performance status of the Adaptive Rain Fade Compensation includes: (1) The rain fade protocol is functional detecting fades, providing an additional 10 dB of margin and seamless transitions to and from coded operation; (2) The stabilization of the link margins and the optimization of rain fade decision thresholds has resulted in improved BER performance; (3) Characterization of the fade compensation algorithm is ongoing.

  7. Risk and Combat Compensation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    an ice cream freezer, and shrimp and steak Fridays. My (personal) room had a working AC [air conditioning] unit and Internet connection. VBC...The Death Gratuity , SGLI, T-SGLI, Dependency and Indemnity Compensation (DIC), and Survivor Benefit Plan (SBP) can be thought of as elements of...Benefit Programs Program Current Level Death Gratuity $100K SGLI $400K T-SGLI Up to $100K Dependency & Indemnity Compensation (DIC) Varies by grade

  8. ACTS Rain Fade Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coney, Thom A.

    1996-01-01

    Performance status of the Adaptive Rain Fade Compensation includes: (1) The rain fade protocol is functional detecting fades, providing an additional 10 dB of margin and seamless transitions to and from coded operation; (2) The stabilization of the link margins and the optimization of rain fade decision thresholds has resulted in improved BER performance; (3) Characterization of the fade compensation algorithm is ongoing.

  9. Intra-channel nonlinearity compensation for PM-16 QAM traffic co-propagating with 28 Gbaud m-ary QAM neighbours.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Danish; Sygletos, Stylianos; Ellis, Andrew D

    2013-02-25

    We quantify the benefits of intra-channel nonlinear compensation in meshed optical networks, in view of network configuration, fibre design aspect, and dispersion management. We report that for a WDM optical transport network employing flexible 28Gbaud PM-mQAM transponders with no in-line dispersion compensation, intra-channel nonlinear compensation, for PM-16QAM through traffic, offers significant improvements of up to 4dB in nonlinear tolerance (Q-factor) irrespective of the co-propagating modulation format, and that this benefit is further enhanced (1.5dB) by increasing local link dispersion. For dispersion managed links, we further report that advantages of intra-channel nonlinear compensation increase with in-line dispersion compensation ratio, with 1.5dB improvements after 95% in-line dispersion compensation, compared to uncompensated transmission.

  10. All-order dispersion cancellation and energy-time entangled state.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jinsoo; Cho, Kiyoung; Oh, Cha-Hwan; Kang, Hoonsoo

    2017-01-23

    Dispersion cancellation with an energy-time entangled photon pair in Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference is one phenomenon that reveals the nonclassical nature of the entangled photon pair. This phenomenon has been observed in materials with very weak dispersions. If the higher-order dispersion coefficient is non-negligible, then the experiment must be modified to realize dispersion cancellation. All-order dispersion cancellation using balanced dispersion was suggested by Steinberg. However, the same phenomenon is expected to occur even if a photon pair is not entangled. This behaviour can be explained by path indistinguishability with identical dispersion. To achieve an all-order dispersion experiment that cannot be explained classically, we modified the experiment and performed another all-order dispersion cancellation experiment that cannot be explained by identical dispersion. This is the first demonstration of nonclassical all-order dispersion cancellation.

  11. Ultra-broadband photonic internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, there is presented a review of our today's understanding of the ultimately broadband photonic Internet. A simple calculation is presented showing the estimate of the throughput of the core photonic network branches. Optoelectronic components, circuits, systems and signals, together with analogous electronic entities and common software layers, are building blocks of the contemporary Internet. Participation of photonics in development of the physical layer in the future Internet will probably increase. The photonics leads now to a better usage of the available bandwidth (increase of the spectral efficiency measured in Bit/s/Hz), increase in the transmission rate (from Gbps, via Tbps up to probably Pbps), increase in the transmission distance without signal regeneration (in distortion compensated active optical cables), increase in energy/power efficiency measured in W/Gbps, etc. Photonics may lead, in the future, to fully transparent optical networks and, thus, to essential increase in bandwidth and network reliability. It is expected that photonics (with biochemistry, electronics and mechatronics) may build psychological and physiological interface for humans to the future global network. The following optical signal multiplexing methods were considered, which are possible without O/E/O conversion: TDM-OTDM, FDM-CO-OFDM, OCDM-OCDMA, WDM-DWDM.

  12. Source-corrected two-photon excited fluorescence measurements between 700 and 880 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, W.G.; Wachter, E.A.; Lytle, F.E.; Armas, M.; Seaton, C.

    1998-04-01

    Passively mode-locked titanium:sapphire (Ti:S) lasers are capable of generating a high-frequency train of transform-limited subpico-second pulses, producing peak powers near 10{sup 5}thinspW at moderate average powers. The low energy per pulse ({lt}20 nJ) permits low fluence levels to be maintained in tightly focused beams, reducing the possibility of saturating fluorescence transitions. These properties, combined with a wavelength tunability from approximately 700 nm to 1 {mu}m, provide excellent opportunities for studying simultaneous two-photon excitation (TPE). However, pulse formation is very sensitive to a variety of intracavity parameters, including group velocity dispersion compensation, which leads to wavelength-dependent pulse profiles as the wavelength is scanned. This wavelength dependence can seriously distort band shapes and apparent peak heights during collection of two-photon spectral data. Since two-photon excited fluorescence is proportional to the product of the peak and average powers, it is not possible to obtain source-independent spectra by using average power correction schemes alone. Continuous-wave, single-mode lasers can be used to generate source-independent two-photon data, but these sources are four to five orders of magnitude less efficient than the mode-locked Ti:S laser and are not practical for general two-photon measurements. Hence, a continuous-wave, single-mode Ti:S laser has been used to collect a source-independent excitation spectrum for the laser dye Coumarin 480. This spectrum may be used to correct data collected with multimode sources; this possibility is demonstrated by using a simple ratiometric method to collect accurate TPE spectra with the mode-locked Ti:S laser. An approximate value of the two-photon cross section for Coumarin 480 is also given. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  13. Workers' Compensation and Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Michael K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Workers' Compensation system and teacher stress to determine if a burned-out teacher should be eligible for Workers' Compensation benefits. Concludes that although most states do not allow Workers' Compensation benefits to burned-out teachers, compensation should be granted because the injuries are real and work-related. (Contains 48…

  14. Workers' Compensation and Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Michael K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Workers' Compensation system and teacher stress to determine if a burned-out teacher should be eligible for Workers' Compensation benefits. Concludes that although most states do not allow Workers' Compensation benefits to burned-out teachers, compensation should be granted because the injuries are real and work-related. (Contains 48…

  15. Self-assembled tunable photonic hyper-crystals

    PubMed Central

    Smolyaninova, Vera N.; Yost, Bradley; Lahneman, David; Narimanov, Evgenii E.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel artificial optical material, the “photonic hyper-crystal”, which combines the most interesting features of hyperbolic metamaterials and photonic crystals. Similar to hyperbolic metamaterials, photonic hyper-crystals exhibit broadband divergence in their photonic density of states due to the lack of usual diffraction limit on the photon wave vector. On the other hand, similar to photonic crystals, hyperbolic dispersion law of extraordinary photons is modulated by forbidden gaps near the boundaries of photonic Brillouin zones. Three dimensional self-assembly of photonic hyper-crystals has been achieved by application of external magnetic field to a cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid. Unique spectral properties of photonic hyper-crystals lead to extreme sensitivity of the material to monolayer coatings of cobalt nanoparticles, which should find numerous applications in biological and chemical sensing. PMID:25027947

  16. Self-assembled tunable photonic hyper-crystals.

    PubMed

    Smolyaninova, Vera N; Yost, Bradley; Lahneman, David; Narimanov, Evgenii E; Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2014-07-16

    We demonstrate a novel artificial optical material, the "photonic hyper-crystal", which combines the most interesting features of hyperbolic metamaterials and photonic crystals. Similar to hyperbolic metamaterials, photonic hyper-crystals exhibit broadband divergence in their photonic density of states due to the lack of usual diffraction limit on the photon wave vector. On the other hand, similar to photonic crystals, hyperbolic dispersion law of extraordinary photons is modulated by forbidden gaps near the boundaries of photonic Brillouin zones. Three dimensional self-assembly of photonic hyper-crystals has been achieved by application of external magnetic field to a cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid. Unique spectral properties of photonic hyper-crystals lead to extreme sensitivity of the material to monolayer coatings of cobalt nanoparticles, which should find numerous applications in biological and chemical sensing.

  17. Photon generator

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  18. Photon diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, John

    2009-11-01

    In current light models, a particle-like model of light is inconsistent with diffraction observations. A model of light is proposed wherein photon inferences are combined with the cosmological scalar potential model (SPM). That the photon is a surface with zero surface area in the travel direction is inferred from the Michelson-Morley experiment. That the photons in slits are mathematically treated as a linear antenna array (LAA) is inferred from the comparison of the transmission grating interference pattern and the single slit diffraction pattern. That photons induce a LAA wave into the plenum is inferred from the fractal model. Similarly, the component of the photon (the hod) is treated as a single antenna radiating a potential wave into the plenum. That photons are guided by action on the surface of the hod is inferred from the SPM. The plenum potential waves are a real field (not complex) that forms valleys, consistent with the pilot waves of the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics. Therefore, the Afshar experiment result is explained, supports Bohm, and falsifies Copenhagen. The papers may be viewed at http://web.citcom.net/˜scjh/.

  19. Photonic lanterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Argyros, Alexander; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2013-12-01

    Multimode optical fibers have been primarily (and almost solely) used as "light pipes" in short distance telecommunications and in remote and astronomical spectroscopy. The modal properties of the multimode waveguides are rarely exploited and mostly discussed in the context of guiding light. Until recently, most photonic applications in the applied sciences have arisen from developments in telecommunications. However, the photonic lantern is one of several devices that arose to solve problems in astrophotonics and space photonics. Interestingly, these devices are now being explored for use in telecommunications and are likely to find commercial use in the next few years, particularly in the development of compact spectrographs. Photonic lanterns allow for a low-loss transformation of a multimode waveguide into a discrete number of single-mode waveguides and vice versa, thus enabling the use of single-mode photonic technologies in multimode systems. In this review, we will discuss the theory and function of the photonic lantern, along with several different variants of the technology. We will also discuss some of its applications in more detail. Furthermore, we foreshadow future applications of this technology to the field of nanophotonics.

  20. Optimizing pulse compressibility in completely all-fibered Ytterbium chirped pulse amplifiers for in vivo two photon laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A; Grüner-Nielsen, L; Andreana, M; Stadler, M; Kirchberger, S; Sturtzel, C; Distel, M; Zhu, L; Kautek, W; Leitgeb, R; Baltuska, A; Jespersen, K; Verhoef, A

    2017-08-01

    A simple and completely all-fiber Yb chirped pulse amplifier that uses a dispersion matched fiber stretcher and a spliced-on hollow core photonic bandgap fiber compressor is applied in nonlinear optical microscopy. This stretching-compression approach improves compressibility and helps to maximize the fluorescence signal in two-photon laser scanning microscopy as compared with approaches that use standard single mode fibers as stretcher. We also show that in femtosecond all-fiber systems, compensation of higher order dispersion terms is relevant even for pulses with relatively narrow bandwidths for applications relying on nonlinear optical effects. The completely all-fiber system was applied to image green fluorescent beads, a stained lily-of-the-valley root and rat-tail tendon. We also demonstrated in vivo imaging in zebrafish larvae, where we simultaneously measure second harmonic and fluorescence from two-photon excited red-fluorescent protein. Since the pulses are compressed in a fiber, this source is especially suited for upgrading existing laser scanning (confocal) microscopes with multiphoton imaging capabilities in space restricted settings or for incorporation in endoscope-based microscopy.

  1. Compensation neurosis rides again.

    PubMed

    Levy, A

    1992-01-01

    Compensation neurosis (CN), also known as accident neurosis, has generally not been considered to be a 'real' disorder. In 1961 it was seemingly laid to rest by Henry Miller, a distinguished neurologist, in a sharp article which appeared in the British Medical Journal. Miller's view of patients who presented psychological symptoms following accidents or traumas was suspicious. Compensated or not, his view seemed to be that they should have their legal process finished as quickly as possible and then they will miraculously convalescence. Miller's work, it appeared, was the coup de grâce for this ill-defined diagnosis. Today, however, compensation neurosis seems to ride again. After a prolonged silence in the psychiatric literature, new papers are emerging, strongly suggesting that this vanishing diagnosis be reconsidered. This new trend will be presented.

  2. Thermal compensating mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Campbell, Scott R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The main objective is to provide a device for maintaining the alignment integrity of an alignment sensitive component over a wide range of temperatures. A thermal compensating mount is presented. A cylindrical extension is integrally formed to the alignment sensitive component. Both the extension and component share the same coefficient of thermal expansion. The cylindrical extension is placed into a mounting structure which has a diameter greater than that of the extension. An adhesive secures the cylindrical extension to the mount. The difference between the diameters of the cylindrical extension and the cylindrical receptacle is such that the differential thermal expansion across the extension and the receptacle edges is exactly compensated for by the thermal compensation of the adhesive between them. Accordingly, the alignment sensitive component does not change position when subjected to temperature variations. One application of this invention is laser optical-path folding prisms, which are fixed to the mounting surface by a small amount of epoxy adhesive.

  3. Dosage Compensation in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Brockdorff, Neil; Turner, Bryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Many organisms show major chromosomal differences between sexes. In mammals, females have two copies of a large, gene-rich chromosome, the X, whereas males have one X and a small, gene-poor Y. The imbalance in expression of several hundred genes is lethal if not dealt with by dosage compensation. The male–female difference is addressed by silencing of genes on one female X early in development. However, both males and females now have only one active X chromosome. This is compensated by twofold up-regulation of genes on the active X. This complex system continues to provide important insights into mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. PMID:25731764

  4. Two-photon geometric optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, T. B.; Strekalov, D. V.; Klyshko, D. N.; Rubin, M. H.; Sergienko, A. V.; Shih, Y. H.

    1996-04-01

    We report two-photon correlation experiments using spontaneous parametric down-conversion under a severe manipulation of the input pump field. Considering the case of passing the laser beam through a focusing lens before the down-conversion crystal, theoretical calculations and a series of imaging experiments demonstrate two-photon geometric optics effects. In particular, the imaging in coincidence counts of an aperture placed in one of the down-conversion beams is found to be the analog of a simple spherical mirror system, which displays a ``vacuum dispersion'' effect in that the object and image distances are wavelength weighted.

  5. Massive photons and Lorentz violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambiaso, Mauro; Lehnert, Ralf; Potting, Robertus

    2012-04-01

    All quadratic translation- and gauge-invariant photon operators for Lorentz breakdown are included into the Stueckelberg Lagrangian for massive photons in a generalized Rξ gauge. The corresponding dispersion relation and tree-level propagator are determined exactly, and some leading-order results are derived. The question of how to include such Lorentz-violating effects into a perturbative quantum-field expansion is addressed. Applications of these results within Lorentz-breaking quantum-field theories include the regularization of infrared divergences as well as the free propagation of massive vector bosons.

  6. Dispersion Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budiansky, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses the need for more accurate and complete input data and field verification of the various models of air pollutant dispension. Consideration should be given to changing the form of air quality standards based on enhanced dispersion modeling techniques. (Author/RE)

  7. Dispersion Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budiansky, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses the need for more accurate and complete input data and field verification of the various models of air pollutant dispension. Consideration should be given to changing the form of air quality standards based on enhanced dispersion modeling techniques. (Author/RE)

  8. Performance of the EIGER single photon counting detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, G.; Bergamaschi, A.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Johnson, I.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.

    2015-03-01

    EIGER is a single photon counting hybrid pixel detector being developed at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland, for applications at synchrotron light sources in an energy range from a few to 25 keV. EIGER is characterized by a small pixel size (75 × 75 μm2), a frame rate up to 22 kHz and a small dead time between frames (4 μs). An EIGER module is a hybrid detector composed of a ≈ 8 × 4 cm2 monolithic silicon sensor bump bonded to 4 × 2 readout chips, for a total of 500 kpixels. Each pixel has a configurable depth (up to 12 bits) counter and records the number of photons impinging. Custom designed module electronics reads out the bits in the pixel counter and processes the data in the module before transferring them to a PC. A large dynamic range (32 bits) for the pixel counter can be obtained through on-board image summation. Rate corrections can be applied on-board to compensate for inefficiencies when the pixel counting rates approach pile-up levels around a million counts per second. The EIGER modules are the building blocks of large area detectors: a 1.5 and a 9 Mpixel systems are under development for the cSAXS beamline at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) at PSI. The very high frame rate capabilities are equally fast for multi-module systems due to the fully parallel data processing.The module calibration will be discussed, with emphasis on the choice of the optimal operation settings as a function of photon energy. The performance regarding threshold dispersion and minimum achievable threshold will be presented. In addition, the progress towards the production of larger multi-module systems will be discussed.

  9. 10-Gb/s PMD compensation using ferroelectric liquid crystals and several PMD penalty signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinz, S.; Sandel, D.; Yoshida-Dierolf, M.; Mirvoda, V.; Noe, Reinhold; Weyrauch, Thomas; Beresnev, L.; Haase, Wolfgang

    1999-04-01

    Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) hampers development of greater than or equal to 10 Gb/s trunk lines but can be compensated by endless polarization controllers and birefringent fiber. We demonstrate automatic 10 Gb/s PMD compensation using three deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystal cells.

  10. Backlash compensator mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Chrislock, Jerry L.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanism which compensates for backlash error in a lead screw position indicator by decoupling the indicator shaft from the lead screw when reversing rotation. The position indicator then displays correct information regardless of the direction of rotation of the lead screw.

  11. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  12. Identity, Compensation, and Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acredolo, Curt; Acredolo, Linda P.

    1979-01-01

    Tests Piaget's assertions regarding compensation, identity, and conservation using a modified replication of Piaget and Taponier's classic study of liquid conservation. A total of 96 children in kindergarten and first grade were presented with a sequence of anticipation-of-liquid-conservation, anticipation-of-water-levels, and standard…

  13. Patterns of Enlisted Compensation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    we documented the patterns of enlisted compensation. Nor did we perform a behavioral analysis of these patterns-that is, we do not explain why the...patterns we observed exist. Rather, our documentation of the patterns is intended to be a baseline description that can serve to identify areas in which future behavioral analysis would be especially fruitful.

  14. Evolution of dosage compensation.

    PubMed

    Steinemann, M; Steinemann, S; Turner, B M

    1996-04-01

    In polytene chromosome squashes from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the single, dosage-compensated X chromosome in males can be distinguished from the autosomes by the presence of an isoform of histone H4 acetylated at lysine 16, H4.Ac16. We have used H4.Ac16 as a marker to examine the evolving relationship between dosage compensation and sex chromosome composition in species of Drosophila with one (D. melanogaster), two (D. pseudoobscura) or three (D. miranda) identifiable X chromosome arms. In each case, we find that H4.Ac16 is distributed as discrete, closely spaced bands along the entire length of each X chromosome, the only exception being the X2 chromosome of D. miranda in which a terminal region constituting about 10% of the chromosome by length is not labelled with anti-H4.Ac16 antibodies. We conclude that, with this exception, dosage compensation extends along the X chromosomes of all three species. As D. pseudoobscura and D. miranda diverged only about 2 Mya, the spread of dosage-compensated loci along X2 has been rapid, suggesting that regional changes rather than piecemeal, gene-by-gene, changes may have been involved.

  15. The Compensation Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

  16. AACC CEO Survey: Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillippe, Kent A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) conducted a survey of community college chief executive officers (CEOs) to collect their opinions on current issues, and gather information on their compensation. This report provides the results from this survey. The AACC CEO Survey was sent to 960 public community college presidents.…

  17. The Superintendent's Compensation Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzke, Eugene R.

    Guidelines are presented to help school boards evaluate superintendents and set up their compensation packages. The author describes informal and formal evaluation procedures and states his preference for the latter, since they promote mutual understanding between the superintendent and the board. A flow chart illustrates a superintendent…

  18. Teacher Compensation and Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Carolyn

    Traditionally, teacher compensation has been viewed in isolation from other components of organizational reform. This paper examines changes in dominant models of schooling over time using an organizational lens. The six models include scientific management, humanistic/specialization, effective schools, content-driven, high standards/high…

  19. Formula Based Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Doug; Picus, Lawrence O.

    1999-01-01

    Recognizing that traditional salary bargaining is divisive and that teacher salaries should remain competitive, Temple City (California) Unified School District has been experimenting with formula-based compensation for the past four years. Primary benefits are lack of conflict over salary increases, which are determined before negotiating other…

  20. The Compensation Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

  1. Reconfigurable microwave photonic in-phase and quadrature detector for frequency agile radar.

    PubMed

    Emami, Hossein; Sarkhosh, Niusha

    2014-06-01

    A microwave photonic in-phase and quadrature detector is conceived and practically demonstrated. The detector has the ability to become electronically reconfigured to operate at any frequency over a wide range. This makes it an excellent candidate for frequency agile radars and other electronic warfare systems based on frequency hopping. The detector exhibits a very low amplitude and phase imbalance, which removes the need for any imbalance compensation technique. The system is designed based on the transversal filtering concept and reconfigurability is achieved via wavelength control in a dispersive fiber. The system operation was demonstrated over a frequency range of 3.5-35 GHz, with a maximum of -32 dB amplitude imbalance.

  2. Design methodology for multi-pumped discrete Raman amplifiers: case-study employing photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Castellani, C E S; Cani, S P N; Segatto, M E; Pontes, M J; Romero, M A

    2009-08-03

    This paper proposes a new design methodology for discrete multi-pumped Raman amplifier. In a multi-objective optimization scenario, in a first step the whole solution-space is inspected by a CW analytical formulation. Then, the most promising solutions are fully investigated by a rigorous numerical treatment and the Raman amplification performance is thus determined by the combination of analytical and numerical approaches. As an application of our methodology we designed an photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifier configuration which provides low ripple, high gain, clear eye opening and a low power penalty. The amplifier configuration also enables to fully compensate the dispersion introduced by a 70-km singlemode fiber in a 10 Gbit/s system. We have successfully obtained a configuration with 8.5 dB average gain over the C-band and 0.71 dB ripple with almost zero eye-penalty using only two pump lasers with relatively low pump power.

  3. Two-photon microscope for multisite microphotolysis of caged neurotransmitters in acute brain slices

    PubMed Central

    Losavio, Bradley E.; Iyer, Vijay; Saggau, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We developed a two-photon microscope optimized for physiologically manipulating single neurons through their postsynaptic receptors. The optical layout fulfills the stringent design criteria required for high-speed, high-resolution imaging in scattering brain tissue with minimal photodamage. We detail the practical compensation of spectral and temporal dispersion inherent in fast laser beam scanning with acousto-optic deflectors, as well as a set of biological protocols for visualizing nearly diffraction-limited structures and delivering physiological synaptic stimuli. The microscope clearly resolves dendritic spines and evokes electrophysiological transients in single neurons that are similar to endogenous responses. This system enables the study of multisynaptic integration and will assist our understanding of single neuron function and dendritic computation. PMID:20059271

  4. Dosimetric characteristics of Thermo-Shield material for orthovoltage photon beams.

    PubMed

    Bahmaid, Mohammad; Kim, Siyong; Liu, Chihray R; Palta, Jatinder R

    2003-06-01

    Conventionally, lead has been used for field shaping in orthovoltage radiation therapy. Recently, a compensator material named Thermo-Shield was presented for field shaping in electron beams. Thermo-Shield is composed of nontoxic, high atomic weight metal particles dispersed in a thermoplastic matrix. It is manually moldable and conforms to human anatomy or any shape at temperatures of 108-132 degrees F. It is reusable and can be continuously reshaped to better fit the treatment field. Dosimetric characteristics of thermoplastic material were studied for Philips RT250 orthovoltage photon beams ranging from 75 to 250 kVp. It was found that Thermo-Shield should be four to five times thicker than lead to achieve the same transmission (less than 5%). However, it did not cause significant degradation in penumbra. Clinical procedures for use are discussed.

  5. Photonic preprocessor for analog-to-digital-converter using a cavity-less pulse source.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Andreas O J; Liu, Lan; Tong, Zhi; Myslivets, Evgeny; Ataie, Vahid; Kuo, Bill P-P; Alic, Nikola; Radic, Stojan

    2012-12-10

    A photonic preprocessor for analog to digital conversion is demonstrated and characterized using a cavity-less optical pulse source. The pulse source generates high fidelity pulses at 2 GHz repetition rate with temporal width of 3 ps. Chirped pulses are formed by cascaded amplitude and phase modulators, and subsequently compressed in dispersion compensating fiber. Sampling operation is performed with a dual-output Mach-Zehnder modulator, where the complimentary output enables a reduction of noise by 3 dB. Phase noise characterization shows that the phase noise of the generated pulses is fully dictated by the RF source. The high quality of the pulse source used in a sampling preprocessor experiment was verified by measuring 8 effective number of bits at 10 GHz and 7.0 effective number of bits at 40 GHz.

  6. Surgeon compensation and motivation.

    PubMed

    Leitch, K K; Walker, P M

    2000-06-01

    Financial incentives are the only form of compensation that will motivate surgeons at an academic health sciences center to perform the tasks outlined in the hospital's mission statement. A questionnaire divided into 5 sections: demographics, compensation, time allocation, benefits and incentives, and motivational factors. The Department of Surgery, The Toronto Hospital, Toronto, Ontario. All academic surgeons (N=64) practicing at The Toronto Hospital in July 1997. Of the 64 eligible mailed surveys, there were responses for 59. Of these 59 surgeons, 48 (81%) receive compensation through a fee-for-service method. However, only 32 (54%) of the surgeons prefer the fee-for-service method, while 18 (31%) prefer salary and 9 (15%) prefer an alternative system. On average, these academic surgeons spend 44% of their time teaching or performing research, for which they receive 14% of their total income. Of the motivational factors assessed, financial bonuses are a positive motivational factor for all "surgeon tasks." In addition, task-specific motivational factors were established for research, teaching, and operating, including research facilities, mentorship and prestige, and interesting case types, respectively. Surgeons are not appropriately renumerated for time spent on academic activities, and many would prefer an alternative form of compensation to the fee-for-service method. Knowledge that surgeons are receptive to tasks supporting the hospital's mission statement leads us to conclude that appropriate motivation can shape the activity of academic surgeons. Financial rewards ranked the highest as a motivational factor for all surgeon tasks; however, task-specific motivational factors were identified. Overall, multiple factors, specifically targeted to the individual, will serve to motivate. Thus, compensation packages based on individual preferences and personal motivational factors will be the most successful.

  7. Longitudinal photons in a relativistic magneto-active plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tsintsadze, N. L.; Rehman, Ayesha; Murtaza, G.; Shah, H. A.

    2007-10-15

    This paper presents some aspects of interaction of superstrong high-frequency electromagnetic waves with strongly magnetized plasmas. The case in which the photon-photon interaction dominates the photon-plasma particle interaction is considered. Strictly speaking, the photon and photon bunch interaction leads to the self-modulation of the photon gas. Assuming that the density of the plasma does not change, the dispersion relation, which includes relativistic self-modulation, is investigated. The existence of longitudinal photons in a strong magnetic field has the well-known Bogoliubov-type energy spectrum. The stability of the photon flow is investigated and an expression for Landau damping of the photons is obtained. Finally, it has been shown that the interaction of even a very strong electromagnetic radiation with a plasma does not always lead to instability, but causes only a change in plasma properties, whereby the plasma remains stable.

  8. Green photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Frederic

    2012-02-01

    Photonics, the broad merger of electronics with the optical sciences, encompasses such a wide swath of technology that its impact is almost universal in our everyday lives. This is a broad overview of some aspects of the industry and their contribution to the ‘green’ or environmental movement. The rationale for energy conservation is briefly discussed and the impact of photonics on our everyday lives and certain industries is described. Some opinions from industry are presented along with market estimates. References are provided to some of the most recent research in these areas.

  9. Vesicle Photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Scott, E. A.; Roke, Sylvie; Hubbell, J. A.; Psaltis, D.

    2013-04-03

    Thin membranes, under appropriate boundary conditions, can self-assemble into vesicles, nanoscale bubbles that encapsulate and hence protect or transport molecular payloads. In this paper, we review the types and applications of light fields interacting with vesicles. By encapsulating light-emitting molecules (e.g. dyes, fluorescent proteins, or quantum dots), vesicles can act as particles and imaging agents. Vesicle imaging can take place also under second harmonic generation from vesicle membrane, as well as employing mass spectrometry. Light fields can also be employed to transport vesicles using optical tweezers (photon momentum) or directly pertrurbe the stability of vesicles and hence trigger the delivery of the encapsulated payload (photon energy).

  10. Fog dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Christensen, L. S.; Collins, F. G.; Camp, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A study of economically viable techniques for dispersing warm fog at commercial airports is presented. Five fog dispersion techniques are examined: evaporation suppression, downwash, mixing, seeding with hygroscopic material, thermal techniques, and charged particle techniques. Thermal techniques, although effective, were found to be too expensive for routine airport operations, and detrimental to the environment. Seeding or helicopter downwash are practical for small-scale or temporary fog clearing, but are probably not useful for airport operations on a routine basis. Considerable disagreement exists on the capability of charged particle techniques, which stems from the fact that different assumptions and parameter values are used in the analytical models. Recommendations resulting from the review of this technique are listed, and include: experimental measurements of the parameters in question; a study to ascertain possible safety hazards, such as increased electrical activity or fuel ignition during refueling operations which could render charged particle techniques impractical; and a study of a single charged particle generator.

  11. Fog dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Christensen, L. S.; Collins, F. G.; Camp, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A study of economically viable techniques for dispersing warm fog at commercial airports is presented. Five fog dispersion techniques are examined: evaporation suppression, downwash, mixing, seeding with hygroscopic material, thermal techniques, and charged particle techniques. Thermal techniques, although effective, were found to be too expensive for routine airport operations, and detrimental to the environment. Seeding or helicopter downwash are practical for small-scale or temporary fog clearing, but are probably not useful for airport operations on a routine basis. Considerable disagreement exists on the capability of charged particle techniques, which stems from the fact that different assumptions and parameter values are used in the analytical models. Recommendations resulting from the review of this technique are listed, and include: experimental measurements of the parameters in question; a study to ascertain possible safety hazards, such as increased electrical activity or fuel ignition during refueling operations which could render charged particle techniques impractical; and a study of a single charged particle generator.

  12. Photon-phonon anti-stokes upconversion of a photonically, electronically, and thermally isolated opal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stem, Michelle R.

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the present research was to investigate an intense violet shift displayed by a non-toxic, natural silicate material with a highly ordered nanostructure. The material displayed an unexpected, nonlinear 2:3 photon-phonon anti-Stokes upconversion while photonically, electronically, and thermally isolated. Conducted aphotonically and at ambient temperatures, the specimen upconverted a low-power, 650 nm constant wave red laser to an internally highly dispersed 433 nm violet wavelength. The strong dispersion was largely due to nearly total internal reflection of the laser. The upconversion had an efficiency of about 78 %, based on specimen volume, with no detectable thermal variance. The 2:3 anti-Stokes upconversion displayed by this material is likely the result of a previously unknown photon-phonon evanescence response that amplified the energy of a portion of the incident laser photons. Thus, a portion of the incident laser photons were upconverted, and the material converted another portion into an amplified energy that caused the upconversion. Internal micro-lasing appeared to be a means of photon-phonon evanescent energy redistribution, enabling dispersed photonic upconversion. Additional analyses also found an unexpectedly rhythmic photonic structure in spectrophotometric scans, polariscopic color changing, and previously undocumented ultraviolet responses.

  13. Photonic Bandgaps in Photonic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok; Gates, Amanda L.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.; Witherow, William K.; Paley, Mark S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This talk will focus on photonic bandgaps that arise due to nearly free photon and tight-binding effects in coupled microparticle and ring-resonator systems. The Mie formulation for homogeneous spheres is generalized to handle core/shell systems and multiple concentric layers in a manner that exploits an analogy with stratified planar systems, thereby allowing concentric multi-layered structures to be treated as photonic bandgap (PBG) materials. Representative results from a Mie code employing this analogy demonstrate that photonic bands arising from nearly free photon effects are easily observed in the backscattering, asymmetry parameter, and albedo for periodic quarter-wave concentric layers, though are not readily apparent in extinction spectra. Rather, the periodicity simply alters the scattering profile, enhancing the ratio of backscattering to forward scattering inside the bandgap, in direct analogy with planar quarter-wave multilayers. PBGs arising from tight-binding may also be observed when the layers (or rings) are designed such that the coupling between them is weak. We demonstrate that for a structure consisting of N coupled micro-resonators, the morphology dependent resonances split into N higher-Q modes, in direct analogy with other types of oscillators, and that this splitting ultimately results in PBGs which can lead to enhanced nonlinear optical effects.

  14. Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, W.; Eliel, E. R.; Woerdman, J. P.; Euser, T. G.; Scharrer, M.; Russell, P.

    2012-03-01

    High-dimensional entangled photons pairs are interesting for quantum information and cryptography: Compared to the well-known 2D polarization case, the stronger non-local quantum correlations could improve noise resistance or security, and the larger amount of information per photon increases the available bandwidth. One implementation is to use entanglement in the spatial degree of freedom of twin photons created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, which is equivalent to orbital angular momentum entanglement, this has been proven to be an excellent model system. The use of optical fiber technology for distribution of such photons has only very recently been practically demonstrated and is of fundamental and applied interest. It poses a big challenge compared to the established time and frequency domain methods: For spatially entangled photons, fiber transport requires the use of multimode fibers, and mode coupling and intermodal dispersion therein must be minimized not to destroy the spatial quantum correlations. We demonstrate that these shortcomings of conventional multimode fibers can be overcome by using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, which follows the paradigm to mimic free-space transport as good as possible, and are able to confirm entanglement of the fiber-transported photons. Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons is largely unexplored yet, therefore we discuss the main complications, the interplay of intermodal dispersion and mode mixing, the influence of external stress and core deformations, and consider the pros and cons of various fiber types.

  15. Statistical analysis of cascaded PLC-based PMD compensator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Lei; Wu, Xingkun

    2005-01-01

    The planar lightwave circuit (PLC) on silicon substrate offers a promising on-chip integrated solution to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) compensation for long haul high speed communications. A novel cascaded PLC based PMD compensator is proposed in this paper and a detailed statistical analysis of PMD generated by cascaded PLC circuits is presented. Using Gisin and Pellaux's approach the distributions of first-order PMD produced by various multiple-stage PLC circuits were obtained by Monte Carlo simulation with respect to the phase shift introduced by heating elements in the circuits. The generated PMD was compared with a standard Maxwell distribution and that of a 12-stage nonlinear crystal based PMD compensator. It was found that a 3-stage cascaded PLC circuit yields a performance close to that of the crystal-based PMD compensator, while with a significant reduction in packaged size and enhancement in stability.

  16. Slow-light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide.

    PubMed

    Xiong, C; Monat, Christelle; Clark, Alex S; Grillet, Christian; Marshall, Graham D; Steel, M J; Li, Juntao; O'Faolain, Liam; Krauss, Thomas F; Rarity, John G; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2011-09-01

    We report the generation of correlated photon pairs in the telecom C-band at room temperature from a dispersion-engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguide. The spontaneous four-wave mixing process producing the photon pairs is enhanced by slow-light propagation enabling an active device length of less than 100 μm. With a coincidence to accidental ratio of 12.8 at a pair generation rate of 0.006 per pulse, this ultracompact photon pair source paves the way toward scalable quantum information processing realized on-chip.

  17. One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical calculations indicate that it should be possible for one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals (see figure) to exhibit giant dispersions known as the superprism effect. Previously, three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal superprisms have demonstrated strong wavelength dispersion - about 500 times that of conventional prisms and diffraction gratings. Unlike diffraction gratings, superprisms do not exhibit zero-order transmission or higher-order diffraction, thereby eliminating cross-talk problems. However, the fabrication of these 3D photonic crystals requires complex electron-beam substrate patterning and multilayer thin-film sputtering processes. The proposed 1D superprism is much simpler in structural complexity and, therefore, easier to design and fabricate. Like their 3D counterparts, the 1D superprisms can exhibit giant dispersions over small spectral bands that can be tailored by judicious structure design and tuned by varying incident beam direction. Potential applications include miniature gas-sensing devices.

  18. Mitigating Photon Jitter in Optical PPM Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of photon-arrival jitter in an optical pulse-position-modulation (PPM) communication channel has been performed, and now constitutes the basis of a methodology for designing receivers to compensate so that errors attributable to photon-arrival jitter would be minimized or nearly minimized. Photon-arrival jitter is an uncertainty in the estimated time of arrival of a photon relative to the boundaries of a PPM time slot. Photon-arrival jitter is attributable to two main causes: (1) receiver synchronization error [error in the receiver operation of partitioning time into PPM slots] and (2) random delay between the time of arrival of a photon at a detector and the generation, by the detector circuitry, of a pulse in response to the photon. For channels with sufficiently long time slots, photon-arrival jitter is negligible. However, as durations of PPM time slots are reduced in efforts to increase throughputs of optical PPM communication channels, photon-arrival jitter becomes a significant source of error, leading to significant degradation of performance if not taken into account in design. For the purpose of the analysis, a receiver was assumed to operate in a photon- starved regime, in which photon counts follow a Poisson distribution. The analysis included derivation of exact equations for symbol likelihoods in the presence of photon-arrival jitter. These equations describe what is well known in the art as a matched filter for a channel containing Gaussian noise. These equations would yield an optimum receiver if they could be implemented in practice. Because the exact equations may be too complex to implement in practice, approximations that would yield suboptimal receivers were also derived.

  19. Radiating dipoles in photonic crystals

    PubMed

    Busch; Vats; John; Sanders

    2000-09-01

    The radiation dynamics of a dipole antenna embedded in a photonic crystal are modeled by an initially excited harmonic oscillator coupled to a non-Markovian bath of harmonic oscillators representing the colored electromagnetic vacuum within the crystal. Realistic coupling constants based on the natural modes of the photonic crystal, i.e., Bloch waves and their associated dispersion relation, are derived. For simple model systems, well-known results such as decay times and emission spectra are reproduced. This approach enables direct incorporation of realistic band structure computations into studies of radiative emission from atoms and molecules within photonic crystals. We therefore provide a predictive and interpretative tool for experiments in both the microwave and optical regimes.

  20. Deferred Compensation Becomes More Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2006-01-01

    A key part of the compensation package for some college and university presidents is money that they do not receive in their paychecks. Formally known as deferred compensation, such payments can take many forms, including supplemental retirement pay, severance pay, or even bonuses. With large institutions leading the way, deferred compensation has…

  1. Deferred Compensation Becomes More Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2006-01-01

    A key part of the compensation package for some college and university presidents is money that they do not receive in their paychecks. Formally known as deferred compensation, such payments can take many forms, including supplemental retirement pay, severance pay, or even bonuses. With large institutions leading the way, deferred compensation has…

  2. The Federal Employees' Compensation Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Willis J.

    1991-01-01

    The 1916 Federal Employees' Compensation Act is still the focal point around which the federal workers compensation program works today. The program has gone through many changes on its way to becoming a modern means of compensating workers for job-related injury, disease, and death. (Author)

  3. Optically tunable chromatic dispersion controller with coupled-cavity etalon structure.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xuewen; Sugden, Kate; Bennion, Ian

    2005-06-15

    We propose and demonstrate a novel optically tunable dynamic dispersion-compensation device with coupled-cavity etalon structure. Experimentally, it was achieved with an all-fiber coupled-cavity etalon made in an Er/Yb codoped fiber pumped by a 980-nm laser diode. The dispersion was tuned from -300 to +400 ps/nm in the experiment. The potential advantages of such optically tunable dispersion compensators include fast response time and remotely controllable operation.

  4. CGI delay compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during aggressive tasks such as nap-of-the-earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer-generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitide distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.

  5. Ground difference compensating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2005-10-25

    A method of ground level compensation includes measuring a voltage of at least one signal with respect to a primary ground potential and measuring, with respect to the primary ground potential, a voltage level associated with a secondary ground potential. A difference between the voltage level associated with the secondary ground potential and an expected value is calculated. The measured voltage of the at least one signal is adjusted by an amount corresponding to the calculated difference.

  6. Fano resonance in anodic aluminum oxide based photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Shang, Guo Liang; Fei, Guang Tao; Zhang, Yao; Yan, Peng; Xu, Shao Hui; Ouyang, Hao Miao; Zhang, Li De

    2014-01-08

    Anodic aluminum oxide based photonic crystals with periodic porous structure have been prepared using voltage compensation method. The as-prepared sample showed an ultra-narrow photonic bandgap. Asymmetric line-shape profiles of the photonic bandgaps have been observed, which is attributed to Fano resonance between the photonic bandgap state of photonic crystal and continuum scattering state of porous structure. And the exhibited Fano resonance shows more clearly when the sample is saturated ethanol gas than air-filled. Further theoretical analysis by transfer matrix method verified these results. These findings provide a better understanding on the nature of photonic bandgaps of photonic crystals made up of porous materials, in which the porous structures not only exist as layers of effective-refractive-index material providing Bragg scattering, but also provide a continuum light scattering state to interact with Bragg scattering state to show an asymmetric line-shape profile.

  7. Motion compensated digital tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    van der Reijden, Anneke; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-12-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited angle image reconstruction method for cone beam projections that offers patient surveillance capabilities during VMAT based SBRT delivery. Motion compensation (MC) has the potential to mitigate motion artifacts caused by respiratory motion, such as blur. The purpose of this feasibility study was therefore to develop and evaluate motion-compensated DTS (MC-DTS). MC-DTS images were reconstructed by back projection of X-ray projection images acquired over 30° arcs. Back projection lines were deformed according to an a priori motion model derived from the 4D planning CT. MC-DTS was evaluated on a respiratory motion phantom and 3 lung cancer patients. Respiratory artifact reduction was assessed visually and quantified by fitting a cumulative Gaussian function to profiles along the background-GTV transition in the CC direction. MC reconstruction was fast enough to keep up with image acquisition and considerably reduced motion blur visually. Quantitatively, MC reduced the background-GTV transition distance by 49%. Motion compensation considerably improved the image quality of DTS images of lung cancer patients, giving an opportunity for more accurate DTS guidance and intra-fraction monitoring concurrent with VMAT delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Photon Collider Physics with Real Photon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J; Asztalos, S

    2005-11-03

    Photon-photon interactions have been an important probe into fundamental particle physics. Until recently, the only way to produce photon-photon collisions was parasitically in the collision of charged particles. Recent advances in short-pulse laser technology have made it possible to consider producing high intensity, tightly focused beams of real photons through Compton scattering. A linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider could thus be transformed into a photon-photon collider with the addition of high power lasers. In this paper they show that it is possible to make a competitive photon-photon collider experiment using the currently mothballed Stanford Linear Collider. This would produce photon-photon collisions in the GeV energy range which would allow the discovery and study of exotic heavy mesons with spin states of zero and two.

  9. Nonlinear collective effects in photon-photon and photon-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, Mattias; Shukla, Padma K.

    2006-04-01

    Strong-field effects in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas and high intensity laser and cavity systems are considered, related to quantum electrodynamical (QED) photon-photon scattering. Current state-of-the-art laser facilities are close to reaching energy scales at which laboratory astrophysics will become possible. In such high energy density laboratory astrophysical systems, quantum electrodynamics will play a crucial role in the dynamics of plasmas and indeed the vacuum itself. Developments such as the free-electron laser may also give a means for exploring remote violent events such as supernovae in a laboratory environment. At the same time, superconducting cavities have steadily increased their quality factors, and quantum nondemolition measurements are capable of retrieving information from systems consisting of a few photons. Thus, not only will QED effects such as elastic photon-photon scattering be important in laboratory experiments, it may also be directly measurable in cavity experiments. Here implications of collective interactions between photons and photon-plasma systems are described. An overview of strong field vacuum effects is given, as formulated through the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian. Based on the dispersion relation for a single test photon traveling in a slowly varying background electromagnetic field, a set of equations describing the nonlinear propagation of an electromagnetic pulse on a radiation plasma is derived. The stability of the governing equations is discussed, and it is shown using numerical methods that electromagnetic pulses may collapse and split into pulse trains, as well as be trapped in a relativistic electron hole. Effects, such as the generation of novel electromagnetic modes, introduced by QED in pair plasmas is described. Applications to laser-plasma systems and astrophysical environments are also discussed.

  10. Optical fiber dispersion characterization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geeslin, A.; Arriad, A.; Riad, S. M.; Padgett, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    The theory, design, and results of optical fiber pulse dispersion measurements are considered. Both the hardware and software required to perform this type of measurement are described. Hardware includes a thermoelectrically cooled injection laser diode source, an 800 GHz gain bandwidth produce avalanche photodiode and an input mode scrambler. Software for a HP 9825 computer includes fast Fourier transform, inverse Fourier transform, and optimal compensation deconvolution. Test set construction details are also included. Test results include data collected on a 1 Km fiber, a 4 Km fiber, a fused spliced, eight 600 meter length fibers concatenated to form 4.8 Km, and up to nine optical connectors.

  11. Microalgae photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floume, Timmy; Coquil, Thomas; Sylvestre, Julien

    2011-05-01

    Due to their metabolic flexibility and fast growth rate, microscopic aquatic phototrophs like algae have a potential to become industrial photochemical converters. Algae photosynthesis could enable the large scale production of clean and renewable liquid fuels and chemicals with major environmental, economic and societal benefits. Capital and operational costs are the main issues to address through optical, process and biochemical engineering improvements. In this perspective, a variety of photonic approaches have been proposed - we introduce them here and describe their potential, limitations and compatibility with separate biotechnology and engineering progresses. We show that only sunlight-based approaches are economically realistic. One of photonics' main goals in the algae field is to dilute light to overcome photosaturation effects that impact upon cultures exposed to full sunlight. Among other approaches, we introduce a widely-compatible broadband spectral adaptation technique called AlgoSun® that uses luminescence to optimize sunlight spectrum in view of the bioconverter's requirements.

  12. Photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1995-10-01

    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF{sub 2} windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission.

  13. Photonic homeostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon C.; Li, Fan-Hui

    2010-11-01

    Photonic homeostatics is a discipline to study the establishment, maintenance, decay, upgrading and representation of function-specific homoestasis (FSH) by using photonics. FSH is a negative-feedback response of a biosystem to maintain the function-specific fluctuations inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A stress may increase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activities above FSH-specific SIRT1 activity to induce a function far from its FSH. On the one hand, low level laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LLL) can not modulate a function in its FSH or a stress in its stress-specific homeostasis (StSH), but modulate a function far from its FSH or a stress far from its StSH. On the other hand, the biophotons from a biosystem with its function in its FSH should be less than the one from the biosystem with its function far from its FSH. The non-resonant interaction of low intensity laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LIL) and a kind of membrane protein can be amplified by all the membrane proteins if the function is far from its FSH. This amplification might hold for biophoton emission of the membrane protein so that the photonic spectroscopy can be used to represent the function far from its FSH, which is called photonomics.

  14. Axionic shortcuts for high energy photons

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolaidis, A.

    2010-04-01

    We study the photon axion mixing in the presence of large extra dimensions. The eigenvalues and eigenstates of the mixing matrix are analyzed and we establish the resonance condition for the total conversion of a high energy photon into a Kaluza-Klein (KK) axion state. This resonant transition, a photon transformed into a KK axion traveling freely through the bulk and converting back into a photon, may provide a plausible explanation for the transparency of the universe to energetic photons. If the brane we live in is curved, then there are shortcuts through the bulk, which the axion can take. Within our model, the photons having the appropriate resonance energy are using the axionic shortcut and arrive earlier compared to the photons which follow the geodesic on the brane. We suggest that such axionic shortcuts are at the root of the dispersion of time arrival of photons observed by the MAGIC telescope. We indicate also the cosmological significance of the existence of axionic shortcuts for the photon.

  15. Dirac directional emission in anisotropic zero refractive index photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    He, Xin-Tao; Zhong, Yao-Nan; Zhou, You; Zhong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2015-08-14

    A certain class of photonic crystals with conical dispersion is known to behave as isotropic zero-refractive-index medium. However, the discrete building blocks in such photonic crystals are limited to construct multidirectional devices, even for high-symmetric photonic crystals. Here, we show multidirectional emission from low-symmetric photonic crystals with semi-Dirac dispersion at the zone center. We demonstrate that such low-symmetric photonic crystal can be considered as an effective anisotropic zero-refractive-index medium, as long as there is only one propagation mode near Dirac frequency. Four kinds of Dirac multidirectional emitters are achieved with the channel numbers of five, seven, eleven, and thirteen, respectively. Spatial power combination for such kind of Dirac directional emitter is also verified even when multiple sources are randomly placed in the anisotropic zero-refractive-index photonic crystal.

  16. Dirac directional emission in anisotropic zero refractive index photonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin-Tao; Zhong, Yao-Nan; Zhou, You; Zhong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    A certain class of photonic crystals with conical dispersion is known to behave as isotropic zero-refractive-index medium. However, the discrete building blocks in such photonic crystals are limited to construct multidirectional devices, even for high-symmetric photonic crystals. Here, we show multidirectional emission from low-symmetric photonic crystals with semi-Dirac dispersion at the zone center. We demonstrate that such low-symmetric photonic crystal can be considered as an effective anisotropic zero-refractive-index medium, as long as there is only one propagation mode near Dirac frequency. Four kinds of Dirac multidirectional emitters are achieved with the channel numbers of five, seven, eleven, and thirteen, respectively. Spatial power combination for such kind of Dirac directional emitter is also verified even when multiple sources are randomly placed in the anisotropic zero-refractive-index photonic crystal. PMID:26271208

  17. Temperature Compensated Piezoelectric Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    temperature compensated orientations. Most recent work by Megumi et al.^ ’ indicates that the composition ^r0.61Ba0.39Nt,2^6 is ^e on...close agreement with the values a = 12.461Ä and c = 3.936A reported by Megumi et al.’^’ for the same composition. 44 C4462A/jbs «» Rockwell...Phys. 40_, 4699 (1969). K. Megumi , N. Nagatsuma, Y. Kashiwasda, and Y. Furuhata, J. Mat. Sei. U., 1583 (1976). N. Uchica and Niizeki, Proc. IEEE 61_

  18. Measurement of neutron dose in the compensator IMRT treatment.

    PubMed

    Rezaian, Abbas; Nedaie, Hassan Ali; Banaee, Nooshin

    2017-10-01

    A radiation treatment delivery technique, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), has found widespread use in the treatment of cancers. One of IMRT implementing methods is IMRT compensator based, which the modulation are done by high Z materials. When photons with energies higher than 8MV interact with high Z material in path, Photoneutrons are produced. In this study, the effect of compensator on photoneutron production was investigated. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to calculate the neutron dose equivalent as a function of the depth in phantom with and without compensator. Measurements were made using CR-39 track-etched detectors. CR-39 detectors, were cut in dimensions of 2.5×2.5 cm(2) by laser, placed in different depths of slab phantom and then irradiated by 18MV photons. Same procedure was performed with the compensator present and absent. The measured data were compared with MCNP calculations. In both experimental and simulation results, neutron dose equivalent when compensator used, was less than non-compensator field. The calculated neutron dose equivalent was maximum at surface and decreased exponentially by increasing depth, but in experimental data, the neutron dose equivalent reached a maximum at approximately 3cm depth in the phantom and beyond which decreased with depth.CR-39 calibration was carried out in air, by considering that neutron energy spectrum changes toward thermal neutrons by depth in phantom increasing, it is suggested that for measuring equivalent neutron dose at phantom depth, should have proper neutron calibration in terms of energy spectrum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sub-picosecond chirped return-to-zero nonlinear optical pulse propagating in dense dispersion-managed fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuqin; Le, Zichun; Quan, Bisheng

    2006-01-01

    By numerical simulation, we show that the fourth-order dispersion (FOD) makes sub-picosecond optical pulse broaden as second-order dispersion (SOD), makes optical pulse oscillate simultaneously as third-order dispersion (TOD). Based on above two reasons, sub-picosecond optical pulse will be widely broaden and lead to emission of continuum radiation during propagation. Here, resemble to two- and third-order dispersion compensation, fourth-order dispersion compensation is also suggested in a dispersion-managed optical fiber link, which is realized by arranging two kinds of fiber with opposite dispersion sign in each compensation cell. For sake of avoiding excessively broadening, ultra short scale dispersion compensation cell is required in ultra high speed optical communication system. In a full dispersion compensation optical fiber system which path average dispersion is zero about SOD, TOD, and FOD, even suffering from affection of high order nonlinear like self-steep effect and self-frequency shift, 200 fs gauss optical pulse can stable propagate over 1000 km with an optimal initial chirp. When space between neighboring optical pulse is only 2 picoseconds corresponding to 500 Gbit/s transmitting capacity, eye diagram is very clarity after 1000 km. The results demonstrate that ultra short scale dispersion compensation including FOD is need and effective in ultra-high speed optical communication.

  20. Photon Sieve Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, G.; Dearborn, M.; Hcharg, G.

    2010-09-01

    We are investigating new technologies for creating ultra-large apertures (>20m) for space-based imagery. Our approach has been to create diffractive primaries in flat membranes deployed from compact payloads. These structures are attractive in that they are much simpler to fabricate, launch and deploy compared to conventional three-dimensional optics. In this case the flat focusing element is a photon sieve which consists of a large number of holes in an otherwise opaque substrate. A photon sieve is essentially a large number of holes located according to an underlying Fresnel Zone Plate (FZP) geometry. The advantages over the FZP are that there are no support struts which lead to diffraction spikes in the far-field and non-uniform tension which can cause wrinkling of the substrate. Furthermore, with modifications in hole size and distribution we can achieve improved resolution and contrast over conventional optics. The trade-offs in using diffractive optics are the large amounts of dispersion and decreased efficiency. We present both theoretical and experimental results from small-scale prototypes. Several key solutions to issues of limited bandwidth and efficiency have been addressed. Along with these we have studied the materials aspects in order to optimize performance and achieve a scalable solution to an on-orbit demonstrator. Our current efforts are being directed towards an on-orbit 1m solar observatory demonstration deployed from a CubeSat bus.

  1. Better photonic crystal fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J. C.

    2008-11-01

    The development of optical fibers with two-dimensional patterns of air holes running down their length has reinvigorated research in the field of fiber optics. It has greatly - and fundamentally - broadened the range of specialty optical fibers, by demonstrating that optical fibers can be more 'special" than previously thought. Applications of such special fibers have not been hard to find. Fibers with air cores have made it possible to deliver energetic femtosecond-scale optical pulses, transform limited, as solitons, using single-mode fiber. Other fibers with anomalous dispersion at visible wavelengths have spawned a new generation of single-mode optical supercontinuum sources, spanning visible and near-infrared wavelengths and based on compact pump sources. A third example is in the field of fiber lasers, where the use of photonic crystal fiber concepts has led to a new hybrid laser technology, in which the very high numerical aperture available using air holes have enabled fibers so short they are more naturally held straight than bent. However, commercial success demands more than just a fiber and an application. The useful properties of the fibers need to be optimized for the specific application. This tutorial will describe some of the basic physics and technology behind these photonic crystal fibers (PCF's), illustrated with some of the impressive demonstrations of the past 18 months.

  2. Photonic Nanojets.

    PubMed

    Heifetz, Alexander; Kong, Soon-Cheol; Sahakian, Alan V; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the substantial body of literature emerging since 2004 concerning photonic nanojets. The photonic nanojet is a narrow, high-intensity, non-evanescent light beam that can propagate over a distance longer than the wavelength λ after emerging from the shadow-side surface of an illuminated lossless dielectric microcylinder or microsphere of diameter larger than λ. The nanojet's minimum beamwidth can be smaller than the classical diffraction limit, in fact as small as ~λ/3 for microspheres. It is a nonresonant phenomenon appearing for a wide range of diameters of the microcylinder or microsphere if the refractive index contrast relative to the background is less than about 2:1. Importantly, inserting within a nanojet a nanoparticle of diameter d(ν) perturbs the far-field backscattered power of the illuminated microsphere by an amount that varies as d(ν)3 for a fixed λ. This perturbation is much slower than the d(ν)6 dependence of Rayleigh scattering for the same nanoparticle, if isolated. This leads to a situation where, for example, the measured far-field backscattered power of a 3-μm diameter microsphere could double if a 30-nm diameter nanoparticle were inserted into the nanojet emerging from the microsphere, despite the nanoparticle having only 1/10,000(th) the cross-section area of the microsphere. In effect, the nanojet serves to project the presence of the nanoparticle to the far field. These properties combine to afford potentially important applications of photonic nanojets for detecting and manipulating nanoscale objects, subdiffraction-resolution nanopatterning and nanolithography, low-loss waveguiding, and ultrahigh-density optical storage.

  3. Photonic Nanojets

    PubMed Central

    Heifetz, Alexander; Kong, Soon-Cheol; Sahakian, Alan V.; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the substantial body of literature emerging since 2004 concerning photonic nanojets. The photonic nanojet is a narrow, high-intensity, non-evanescent light beam that can propagate over a distance longer than the wavelength λ after emerging from the shadow-side surface of an illuminated lossless dielectric microcylinder or microsphere of diameter larger than λ. The nanojet’s minimum beamwidth can be smaller than the classical diffraction limit, in fact as small as ~λ/3 for microspheres. It is a nonresonant phenomenon appearing for a wide range of diameters of the microcylinder or microsphere if the refractive index contrast relative to the background is less than about 2:1. Importantly, inserting within a nanojet a nanoparticle of diameter dν perturbs the far-field backscattered power of the illuminated microsphere by an amount that varies as dν3 for a fixed λ. This perturbation is much slower than the dν6 dependence of Rayleigh scattering for the same nanoparticle, if isolated. This leads to a situation where, for example, the measured far-field backscattered power of a 3-μm diameter microsphere could double if a 30-nm diameter nanoparticle were inserted into the nanojet emerging from the microsphere, despite the nanoparticle having only 1/10,000th the cross-section area of the microsphere. In effect, the nanojet serves to project the presence of the nanoparticle to the far field. These properties combine to afford potentially important applications of photonic nanojets for detecting and manipulating nanoscale objects, subdiffraction-resolution nanopatterning and nanolithography, low-loss waveguiding, and ultrahigh-density optical storage. PMID:19946614

  4. Photon calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1988-04-22

    A photon calorimeter is provided that comprises a laminar substrate that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating, that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions, are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly. 4 figs.

  5. Photon Calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1989-01-01

    A photon calorimeter (20, 40) is provided that comprises a laminar substrate (10, 22, 42) that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating (28, 48, 52), that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions (30, 50, 54) are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly.

  6. Solitons and spectral broadening in long silicon-on- insulator photonic wires.

    PubMed

    Ding, W; Benton, C; Gorbach, A V; Wadsworth, W J; Knight, J C; Skryabin, D V; Gnan, M; Sorrel, M; De La Rue, R M

    2008-03-03

    We report measurements and numerical modeling of spectral broadening and soliton propagation regimes in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides of 3 to 4 dispersion lengths using 100fs pump pulses. We also present accurate measurements of the group index and dispersion of the photonic wire.

  7. Effects of dispersion on mode locking in optical parametric oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, S.

    1995-08-01

    We discuss the role that group-velocity dispersion and cavity detuning play in the onset of mode locking in synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators. Because of the phase-sensitive character of the parametric gain, it is shown for the degenerate case that dispersion effects associated with off-resonance operation can lead to subpulse structures and spectral splitting of the parametric pulses. This behavior is interpreted on the basis of a dispersion-induced interference phenomenon between the two nearly degenerate parametric photons produced by the conversion of one pump photon in the nonlinear medium.

  8. Soliton Pulse Analysis in GaInP Photonic Crystal Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, P. K.; Nagar, A. K.

    Solitons are nonlinear waves that remain invariant as they propagate. Precise control of dispersion and nonlinear effects govern soliton propagation. In recent years Photonic crystals (PhCs) have attracted a great deal of attention due to the facility to engineer and enhance both their nonlinear and dispersive effects. In this article we show soliton pulse analysis in GaInP Photonic Crystal Waveguides using AUTO bifurcation analysis tool. We have demonstrated pulse compression at moderately slow velocities in GaInP Photonic Crystal Waveguides. This is enabled by the enhanced self phase modulation and strong negative group velocity dispersion in the Photonic Crystal Waveguides.

  9. Photon detector configured to employ the Gunn effect and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Cich, Michael J

    2015-03-17

    Embodiments disclosed herein relate to photon detectors configured to employ the Gunn effect for detecting high-energy photons (e.g., x-rays and gamma rays) and methods of use. In an embodiment, a photon detector for detecting high-energy photons is disclosed. The photon detector includes a p-i-n semiconductor diode having a p-type semiconductor region, an n-type semiconductor region, and a compensated i-region disposed between the p-type semiconductor region and the n-type semiconductor region. The compensated i-region and has a width of about 100 .mu.m to about 400 .mu.m and is configured to exhibit the Gunn effect when the p-i-n semiconductor diode is forward biased a sufficient amount. The compensated i-region is doped to include a free carrier concentration of less than about 10.sup.10 cm.sup.-3.

  10. Tunable hollow optical waveguides for photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Fumio

    2004-10-01

    We propose a tunable hollow optical waveguide with a variable air core toward a new class of photonic integrated circuits. We present various unique features in hollow waveguides and the combination with microelectro-mechanical system (MEMS) will gives us widely tunable waveguide devices. We presente the design and fabrication of a tunable hollow waveguide with a variable air core. We describe the full-vectorial modeling of 3D and slab hollow waveguides with a variable air core, which is also supported by experiments. We demonstrated low loss and polarization insensitive waveguiding in an air core with optimized multilayer coating. The result shows a possibility of a large change of ~3% in propagation constant with a variable air core. We will present a wide variety of device applications based on hollow waveguides, which include tunable grating demultiplexers, variable attenuators, optical switches, tunable Bragg reflectors, tunable dispersion compensators and tunable lasers. The device structure can be formed by fully planar fabrication processes based on lithography and etching. The proposed concept may open up a new class of various tunable optical devices, which give us unique features of wide tunability, compact size and temperature insensitivity.

  11. Compensated gadolinium-loaded plastic scintillators for thermal neutron detection (and counting)

    SciTech Connect

    Dumazert, Jonathan; Coulon, Romain; Bertrand, Guillaume H. V.; Hamel, Matthieu; Sguerra, Fabien; Dehe-Pittance, Chrystele; Normand, Stephane; Mechin, Laurence

    2015-07-01

    Plastic scintillator loading with gadolinium-rich organometallic complexes shows a high potential for the deployment of efficient and cost-effective neutron detectors. Due to the low-energy photon and electron signature of thermal neutron capture by gadolinium-155 and gadolinium-157, alternative treatment to Pulse Shape Discrimination has to be proposed in order to display a trustable count rate. This paper discloses the principle of a compensation method applied to a two-scintillator system: a detection scintillator interacts with photon radiation and is loaded with gadolinium organometallic compound to become a thermal neutron absorber, while a non-gadolinium loaded compensation scintillator solely interacts with the photon part of the incident radiation. Posterior to the nonlinear smoothing of the counting signals, a hypothesis test determines whether the resulting count rate after photon response compensation falls into statistical fluctuations or provides a robust image of a neutron activity. A laboratory prototype is tested under both photon and neutron irradiations, allowing us to investigate the performance of the overall compensation system in terms of neutron detection, especially with regards to a commercial helium-3 counter. The study reveals satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity and orientates future investigation toward promising axes. (authors)

  12. Cellular automata in photonic cavity arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Liew, T C H

    2016-10-31

    We propose theoretically a photonic Turing machine based on cellular automata in arrays of nonlinear cavities coupled with artificial gauge fields. The state of the system is recorded making use of the bistability of driven cavities, in which losses are fully compensated by an external continuous drive. The sequential update of the automaton layers is achieved automatically, by the local switching of bistable states, without requiring any additional synchronization or temporal control.

  13. Compensations during Unsteady Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Mu; Jindrich, Devin L

    2014-12-01

    Locomotion in a complex environment is often not steady, but the mechanisms used by animals to power and control unsteady locomotion (stability and maneuverability) are not well understood. We use behavioral, morphological, and impulsive perturbations to determine the compensations used during unsteady locomotion. At the level both of the whole-body and of joints, quasi-stiffness models are useful for describing adjustments to the functioning of legs and joints during maneuvers. However, alterations to the mechanics of legs and joints often are distinct for different phases of the step cycle or for specific joints. For example, negotiating steps involves independent changes of leg stiffness during compression and thrust phases of stance. Unsteady locomotion also involves parameters that are not part of the simplest reduced-parameter models of locomotion (e.g., the spring-loaded inverted pendulum) such as moments of the hip joint. Extensive coupling among translational and rotational parameters must be taken into account to stabilize locomotion or maneuver. For example, maneuvers with morphological perturbations (increased rotational inertial turns) involve changes to several aspects of movement, including the initial conditions of rotation and ground-reaction forces. Coupled changes to several parameters may be employed to control maneuvers on a trial-by-trial basis. Compensating for increased rotational inertia of the body during turns is facilitated by the opposing effects of several mechanical and behavioral parameters. However, the specific rules used by animals to control translation and rotation of the body to maintain stability or maneuver have not been fully characterized. We initiated direct-perturbation experiments to investigate the strategies used by humans to maintain stability following center-of-mass (COM) perturbations. When walking, humans showed more resistance to medio-lateral perturbations (lower COM displacement). However, when running, humans

  14. Attractive photons in a quantum nonlinear medium.

    PubMed

    Firstenberg, Ofer; Peyronel, Thibault; Liang, Qi-Yu; Gorshkov, Alexey V; Lukin, Mikhail D; Vuletić, Vladan

    2013-10-03

    The fundamental properties of light derive from its constituent particles--massless quanta (photons) that do not interact with one another. However, it has long been known that the realization of coherent interactions between individual photons, akin to those associated with conventional massive particles, could enable a wide variety of novel scientific and engineering applications. Here we demonstrate a quantum nonlinear medium inside which individual photons travel as massive particles with strong mutual attraction, such that the propagation of photon pairs is dominated by a two-photon bound state. We achieve this through dispersive coupling of light to strongly interacting atoms in highly excited Rydberg states. We measure the dynamical evolution of the two-photon wavefunction using time-resolved quantum state tomography, and demonstrate a conditional phase shift exceeding one radian, resulting in polarization-entangled photon pairs. Particular applications of this technique include all-optical switching, deterministic photonic quantum logic and the generation of strongly correlated states of light.

  15. Optimizing optical pre-dispersion using transmit DSP for mitigation of Kerr nonlinearities in dispersion managed cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, James; Gaudette, Jamie; Mehta, Priyanth

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of digital signal processing (DSP) in optical transmitters and receivers, the ability to finely tune the ratio of pre and post dispersion compensation can be exploited to best mitigate the nonlinear penalties caused by the Kerr effect. A portion of the nonlinear penalty in optical communication channels has been explained by an increase in peak to average power ratio (PAPR) inherent in highly dispersed signals. The standard approach for minimizing these impairments applies 50% pre dispersion compensation and 50% post dispersion compensation, thereby decreasing average PAPR along the length of the cable, as compared with either 100% pre or post dispersion compensation. In this paper we demonstrate that simply considering the net accumulated dispersion, and applying 50/50 pre/post dispersion is not necessarily the best way to minimize PAPR and subsequent Kerr nonlinearities. Instead, we consider the cumulative dispersion along the entire length of the cable, and, taking into account this additional information, derive an analytic formula for the minimization of PAPR. Alignment with simulation and experimental measurements is presented using a commercially available 100Gb/s dual-polarization binary phase-shift-keying (DP-BPSK) coherent modem, with transmitter and receiver DSP. Measurements are provided from two different 5000km dispersion managed Submarine test-beds, as well as a 3800km terrestrial test-bed with a mixture of SMF-28 and TWRS optical fiber. This method is shown to deviate significantly from the conventional 50/50 method described above, in dispersion managed communications systems, and more closely aligns with results obtained from simulation and data collected from laboratory test-beds.

  16. Autocorrelation measurement of femtosecond laser pulses based on two-photon absorption in GaP photodiode

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, E. Z.; Watson, T. F.; Festy, F.

    2014-08-11

    Semiconductor materials which exhibit two-photon absorption characteristic within a spectral region of interest can be useful in building an ultra-compact interferometric autocorrelator. In this paper, we report on the evidence of a nonlinear absorption process in GaP photodiodes which was exploited to measure the temporal profile of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses with a tunable peak wavelength above 680 nm. The two-photon mediated conductivity measurements were performed at an average laser power of less than a few tenths of milliwatts. Its suitability as a single detector in a broadband autocorrelator setup was assessed by investigating the nonlinear spectral sensitivity bandwidth of a GaP photodiode. The highly favourable nonlinear response was found to cover the entire tuning range of our Ti:sapphire laser and can potentially be extended to wavelengths below 680 nm. We also demonstrated the flexibility of GaP in determining the optimum compensation value of the group delay dispersion required to restore the positively chirped pulses inherent in our experimental optical system to the shortest pulse width possible. With the rise in the popularity of nonlinear microscopy, the broad two-photon response of GaP and the simplicity of this technique can provide an alternative way of measuring the excitation laser pulse duration at the focal point of any microscopy systems.

  17. Autocorrelation measurement of femtosecond laser pulses based on two-photon absorption in GaP photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, E. Z.; Watson, T. F.; Festy, F.

    2014-08-01

    Semiconductor materials which exhibit two-photon absorption characteristic within a spectral region of interest can be useful in building an ultra-compact interferometric autocorrelator. In this paper, we report on the evidence of a nonlinear absorption process in GaP photodiodes which was exploited to measure the temporal profile of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses with a tunable peak wavelength above 680 nm. The two-photon mediated conductivity measurements were performed at an average laser power of less than a few tenths of milliwatts. Its suitability as a single detector in a broadband autocorrelator setup was assessed by investigating the nonlinear spectral sensitivity bandwidth of a GaP photodiode. The highly favourable nonlinear response was found to cover the entire tuning range of our Ti:sapphire laser and can potentially be extended to wavelengths below 680 nm. We also demonstrated the flexibility of GaP in determining the optimum compensation value of the group delay dispersion required to restore the positively chirped pulses inherent in our experimental optical system to the shortest pulse width possible. With the rise in the popularity of nonlinear microscopy, the broad two-photon response of GaP and the simplicity of this technique can provide an alternative way of measuring the excitation laser pulse duration at the focal point of any microscopy systems.

  18. Photonic water dynamically responsive to external stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Koki; Kim, Youn Soo; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-08-01

    Fluids that contain ordered nanostructures with periodic distances in the visible-wavelength range, anomalously exhibit structural colours that can be rapidly modulated by external stimuli. Indeed, some fish can dynamically change colour by modulating the periodic distance of crystalline guanine sheets cofacially oriented in their fluid cytoplasm. Here we report that a dilute aqueous colloidal dispersion of negatively charged titanate nanosheets exhibits structural colours. In this `photonic water', the nanosheets spontaneously adopt a cofacial geometry with an ultralong periodic distance of up to 675 nm due to a strong electrostatic repulsion. Consequently, the photonic water can even reflect near-infrared light up to 1,750 nm. The structural colour becomes more vivid in a magnetic flux that induces monodomain structural ordering of the colloidal dispersion. The reflective colour of the photonic water can be modulated over the entire visible region in response to appropriate physical or chemical stimuli.

  19. Photonic water dynamically responsive to external stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Koki; Kim, Youn Soo; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-01-01

    Fluids that contain ordered nanostructures with periodic distances in the visible-wavelength range, anomalously exhibit structural colours that can be rapidly modulated by external stimuli. Indeed, some fish can dynamically change colour by modulating the periodic distance of crystalline guanine sheets cofacially oriented in their fluid cytoplasm. Here we report that a dilute aqueous colloidal dispersion of negatively charged titanate nanosheets exhibits structural colours. In this ‘photonic water', the nanosheets spontaneously adopt a cofacial geometry with an ultralong periodic distance of up to 675 nm due to a strong electrostatic repulsion. Consequently, the photonic water can even reflect near-infrared light up to 1,750 nm. The structural colour becomes more vivid in a magnetic flux that induces monodomain structural ordering of the colloidal dispersion. The reflective colour of the photonic water can be modulated over the entire visible region in response to appropriate physical or chemical stimuli. PMID:27572806

  20. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOEpatents

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  1. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOEpatents

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  2. Dressed Photons Induced Resistance Oscillation and Zero Resistance in Arrayed Simple Harmonic Oscillators with No Impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Chun; Chen, Guang-Yin; Lin, Lee

    2016-11-01

    We investigate a system of an array of N simple harmonic oscillators (SHO) interacting with photons through QED interaction. As the energy of photon is around the spacing between SHO energy levels, energy gaps appear in the dispersion relation of the interacted (dressed) photons. This is quite different from the dispersion relation of free photons. Due to interactions between dressed photonic field and arrayed SHO, the photoresistance of this system shows oscillations and also drops to zero as irradiated by EM field of varying frequencies.

  3. Dressed Photons Induced Resistance Oscillation and Zero Resistance in Arrayed Simple Harmonic Oscillators with No Impurity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Chun; Chen, Guang-Yin; Lin, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a system of an array of N simple harmonic oscillators (SHO) interacting with photons through QED interaction. As the energy of photon is around the spacing between SHO energy levels, energy gaps appear in the dispersion relation of the interacted (dressed) photons. This is quite different from the dispersion relation of free photons. Due to interactions between dressed photonic field and arrayed SHO, the photoresistance of this system shows oscillations and also drops to zero as irradiated by EM field of varying frequencies. PMID:27886252

  4. Dressed Photons Induced Resistance Oscillation and Zero Resistance in Arrayed Simple Harmonic Oscillators with No Impurity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chun; Chen, Guang-Yin; Lin, Lee

    2016-11-25

    We investigate a system of an array of N simple harmonic oscillators (SHO) interacting with photons through QED interaction. As the energy of photon is around the spacing between SHO energy levels, energy gaps appear in the dispersion relation of the interacted (dressed) photons. This is quite different from the dispersion relation of free photons. Due to interactions between dressed photonic field and arrayed SHO, the photoresistance of this system shows oscillations and also drops to zero as irradiated by EM field of varying frequencies.

  5. Tevatron direct photon results.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlmann, S.

    1999-09-21

    Tevatron direct photon results since DIS98 are reviewed. Two new CDF measurements are discussed, the Run Ib inclusive photon cross section and the photon + Muon cross section. Comparisons with the latest NLO QCD calculations are presented.

  6. Influence of compensator thickness, field size, and off-axis distance on the effective attenuation coefficient of a cerrobend compensator for intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Haghparast, Abbas; Hashemi, Bijan; Eivazi, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-04-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be performed by using compensators. To make a compensator for an IMRT practice, it is required to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient (μ{sub eff}) of its material, which is affected by various factors. We studied the effect of the variation of the most important factors on the calculation of the μ{sub eff} of the cerrobend compensator for 6-MV photon beams, including the field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis distance. Experimental measurements were carried out at 100 cm source-to-surface distance and 10 cm depth for the 6-MV photon beams of an Elekta linac using various field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis settings. The field sizes investigated ranged from 4 × 4 to 25 × 25 cm{sup 2} and the cerrobend compensator thicknesses from 0.5–6 cm. For a fixed compensator thickness, variation of the μ{sub eff} with the field size ranged from 3.7–6.8%, with the highest value attributed to the largest compensator thickness. At the reference field size of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}, the μ{sub eff} varied by 16.5% when the compensator thickness was increased from 0.5–6 cm. However, the variation of the μ{sub eff} with the off-axis distance was only 0.99% at this field size, whereas for the largest field size, it was more significant. Our results indicated that the compensator thickness and field size have the most significant effect on the calculation of the compensator μ{sub eff} for the 6-MV photon beam. Therefore, it is recommended to consider these parameters when calculating the compensator thickness for an IMRT practice designed for these beams. The off-axis distance had a significant effect on the calculation of the μ{sub eff} only for the largest field size. Hence, it is recommended to consider the effect of this parameter only for field sizes larger than 25 × 25 cm{sup 2}.

  7. Processing and error compensation of diffractive optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunlong; Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Feng; Qin, Hui; Li, Junqi; Mai, Yuying

    2014-09-01

    Diffractive optical element (DOE) shows high diffraction efficiency and good dispersion performance, which makes the optical system becoming light-weight and more miniature. In this paper, the design, processing, testing, compensation of DOE are discussed, especially the analyzing of compensation technology which based on the analyzing the DOE measurement date from Taylor Hobson PGI 1250. In this method, the relationship between shadowing effect with diamond tool and processing accuracy are analyzed. According to verification processing on the Taylor Hobson NANOFORM 250 lathe, the results indicate that the PV reaches 0.539 micron, the surface roughness reaches 4nm, the step position error is smaller than λ /10 and the step height error is less than 0.23 micron after compensation processing one time.

  8. Energy response improvement for photon dosimetry using pulse analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, Dizaji H.

    2016-02-01

    During the last few years, active personal dosimeters have been developed and have replaced passive personal dosimeters in some external monitoring systems, frequently using silicon diode detectors. Incident photons interact with the constituents of the diode detector and produce electrons. These photon-induced electrons deposit energy in the detector's sensitive region and contribute to the response of diode detectors. To achieve an appropriate photon dosimetry response, the detectors are usually covered by a metallic layer with an optimum thickness. The metallic cover acts as an energy compensating shield. In this paper, a software process is performed for energy compensation. Selective data sampling based on pulse height is used to determine the photon dose equivalent. This method is applied to improve the energy response in photon dosimetry. The detector design is optimized for the response function and determination of the photon dose equivalent. Photon personal dose equivalent is determined in the energy range of 0.3-6 MeV. The error values of the calculated data for this wide energy range and measured data for 133Ba, 137Cs, 60Co and 241Am-Be sources respectively are up to 20% and 15%. Fairly good agreement is seen between simulation and dose values obtained from our process and specifications from several photon sources.

  9. High-order dispersion suppression for FFAG-based optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenning, R.; Machida, S.; Kelliher, D.; Khan, A.; Edgecock, R.

    2012-05-01

    The resurgence of interest in FFAG type magnets has motivated the desire for high-order dispersion suppression to aid the development of dispersion-free straight sections to currently circular designs. In scaling FFAGs, dispersion suppression can only be achieved over a limited momentum range and breaks down as high-order chromatic aberration terms become significant. However by breaking the scaling law and varying the individual multipole components, these can be compensated for and a design for high-order dispersion suppression achieved. This paper presents a process for doing so and discusses the impact on beta functions, as well as the effect of magnet positioning errors.

  10. Physics at high energy photon photon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    I review the physic prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking.

  11. Resonance formation in photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gidal, G.

    1988-08-01

    Recent experimental progress on resonance formation in photon-photon collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on the pseudoscalar and tensor nonents and on the ..gamma gamma..* production of spin-one resonances. 37 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Disordered photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, Diederik S.

    2013-03-01

    What do lotus flowers have in common with human bones, liquid crystals with colloidal suspensions, and white beetles with the beautiful stones of the Taj Mahal? The answer is they all feature disordered structures that strongly scatter light, in which light waves entering the material are scattered several times before exiting in random directions. These randomly distributed rays interfere with each other, leading to interesting, and sometimes unexpected, physical phenomena. This Review describes the physics behind the optical properties of disordered structures and how knowledge of multiple light scattering can be used to develop new applications. The field of disordered photonics has grown immensely over the past decade, ranging from investigations into fundamental topics such as Anderson localization and other transport phenomena, to applications in imaging, random lasing and solar energy.

  13. Semiconductor surface emitting lasers for photon pairs generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanbever, Luc R.; Karpov, Evgueni; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2017-10-01

    We study the feasibility of generating photon pairs in a resonant Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) as a result of a third-order non-linear, four wave mixing interaction. We focus on degenerate four wave mixing in the spontaneous regime where two pump photons are annihilated to create a pair of signal and idler photons. Using the methods of quantum optics, we calculate the two-photon production rate, the spectrum of the generated photons, and the signal-idler cross-correlations. We highlight how the dispersion of the medium in the VCSEL cavity (a regular GaAs configuration) significantly diminishes the two-photon production rate. Based on our results, we enumerate the characteristics of a VCSEL that would be suitable for photon pair generation.

  14. Changing Conceptions of Employee Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Hayes, Linda J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses many differing forms of incentive compensation systems that are being used in today's organizations. The review traces the roots of bonus compensation from individual piece-work plans through the adoption of organization-wide gain sharing plans to the growing recognition of open-book management. Reasons for the…

  15. Negotiating a fair compensation package.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Thomas L

    2005-01-01

    At the end of the day, compensation packages must be fair for both you and your employer. Employers should conduct an economic analysis to determine what they can afford to offer and calculate the economic return that they should rightfully receive. Understanding the employer's side of the equation is equally important in developing a win/win compensation package for yourself.

  16. Strategies for redesigning physician compensation.

    PubMed

    Corneliuson, Susan K; Hackman, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Five principles should guide a health system's efforts to redesign its physician compensation plan: Goals should be aligned. Goals should not focus solely on productivity. Metrics should be not only individual, but also team-based. Initial metrics should be selected from among those currently being used. Compensation plans should avoid long-term commitments.

  17. Alternative Teacher Compensation: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.; Rigby, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This policy primer is designed to provide base-line information about new forms of teacher pay that are emerging around the country, to support the local conversations and negotiations that will lead to the development of innovative compensation systems. It identifies reasons why teacher compensation is high on local, state, and federal policy…

  18. Compensation: The Impact of Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1994-01-01

    Complexity of employee compensation policy is examined as it applies to colleges and universities. It is argued that sound compensation policy helps the institution attract and retain qualified, skilled employees. New approaches that shift the focus from job to employee are outlined, and their implications for institutions of higher education are…

  19. Photonic compressive sensing with a micro-ring-resonator-based microwave photonic filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Ding, Yunhong; Zhu, Zhijing; Chi, Hao; Zheng, Shilie; Zhang, Xianmin; Jin, Xiaofeng; Galili, Michael; Yu, Xianbin

    2016-08-01

    A novel approach to realize photonic compressive sensing (CS) with a multi-tap microwave photonic filter is proposed and demonstrated. The system takes both advantages of CS and photonics to capture wideband sparse signals with sub-Nyquist sampling rate. The low-pass filtering function required in the CS is realized in a photonic way by using a frequency comb and a dispersive element. The frequency comb is realized by shaping an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source with an on-chip micro-ring resonator, which is beneficial to the integration of photonic CS. A proof-of-concept experiment for a two-tone signal acquisition with frequencies of 350 MHz and 1.25 GHz is experimentally demonstrated with a compression factor up to 16.

  20. Silicon-based photonic crystal waveguides and couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Stephen G.

    2008-10-01

    Most commercial photonics-related research and development efforts currently fall into one or both of the following technological sectors: silicon photonics and photonic integrated circuits. Silicon photonics [18] is the field concerned with assimilating photonic elements into the well-established CMOS VLSI architecture and IC manufacturing. The convergence of these technologies would be mutually advantageous: photonic devices could increase bus speeds and greatly improve chip-to-chip and board-to-board data rates, whereas photonics, as a field, would benefit from mature silicon manufacturing and economies of scale. On the other hand, those in the photonic integrated circuit sector seek to continue the miniaturization of photonic devices in an effort to obtain an appreciable share of the great windfall of profits that occur when manufacturing, packaging, and testing costs are substantially reduced by shrinking photonic elements to chip-scale dimensions. Integrated photonics companies may [12] or may not [34] incorporate silicon as the platform. In this thesis, we seek to further develop a technology that has the potential to facilitate the forging of silicon photonics and photonic integrated circuits: photonic crystals on silicon-on-insulator substrates. We will first present a brief overview of photonic crystals and their physical properties. We will then detail a finely-tuned procedure for fabricating two-dimensional photonic crystal in the silicon-on-insulator material system. We will then examine transmission properties of our fabricated devices including propagation loss, group index dispersion, and coupling efficiency of directional couplers. Finally, we will present a description of a system for adiabatically tapering optical fibers and the results of using tapered fibers for efficiently coupling light into photonic crystal devices.

  1. Workers' compensation law: an overview.

    PubMed

    Yorker, B

    1994-09-01

    1. The workers' compensation system provides benefits to workers who are injured or made ill in the course of employment or their dependents regardless of fault. 2. The current workers' compensation laws benefit both the employer and the employee; however, workers' compensation is an exclusive remedy which bars recovery through a negligence lawsuit. 3. Workers' compensation regulations interact with other federal statutes such as the Americans With Disabilities Act and the Family Medical Leave Act. 4. Workers' compensation covers occupational injuries and occupational diseases, which may include cumulative trauma and mental stress claims. Nurses may be instrumental in evaluating and planning for an injured employee's return to work and occasionally in detecting fraudulent claims.

  2. Large Mode Area Yb-doped Photonic Bandgap Fiber Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-08

    fibers (AS-PBF), which have open and highly dispersive cladding , making them ideal for higher-order-mode controls in large-mode-area fibers. I will...1-3]. We have been studying all-solid photonic bandgap fibers (AS-PBF), which have open and highly dispersive cladding , making them ideal for higher...have open and highly dispersive cladding , making them ideal for higher-order-mode controls in large-mode-area fibers. I will review our recent

  3. A hollow waveguide Bragg reflector: A tunable platform for integrated photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Hollow waveguides are promising candidates for applications in sensing and high-power transmission. Flexible design and cost effective fabrication of hollow waveguides make it possible to realize integrated devices with small temperature dependence, tight control on optical confinement and tailorable characteristics. One of the potential applications of hollow waveguide is a tunable Bragg reflector, which can be used as building block for integrated photonics. In this review, integrated tunable Bragg reflector based on hollow-core optical waveguide is reviewed and presented; this Bragg reflector offers variable characteristics and design flexibility for applications in reconfigurable integrated photonic devices and circuits. Variety of tunable optical functions can be realized with on-chip Bragg reflector based on hollow waveguide, few of them are discussed in this review. Ultra-wide tuning in Bragg wavelength and on-chip polarization control can be realized using 3D hollow waveguide. A tapered 3D hollow waveguide Bragg reflector for an adjustable compensation of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is then discussed. The utilization of a high-index contrast grating in hollow waveguide is demonstrated to reduce the polarization dependence and reflection-bandwidth. The polarization- and bandwidth control may be useful for realizing polarization insensitive devices and semiconductor lasers with ultra-wide tuning.

  4. Wide-band acousto-optic deflectors for large field of view two-photon microscope.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Runhua; Zhou, Zhenqiao; Lv, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2012-04-01

    Acousto-optic deflector (AOD) is an attractive scanner for two-photon microscopy because it can provide fast and versatile laser scanning and does not involve any mechanical movements. However, due to the small scan range of available AOD, the field of view (FOV) of the AOD-based microscope is typically smaller than that of the conventional galvanometer-based microscope. Here, we developed a novel wide-band AOD to enlarge the scan angle. Considering the maximum acceptable acoustic attenuation in the acousto-optic crystal, relatively lower operating frequencies and moderate aperture were adopted. The custom AOD was able to provide 60 MHz 3-dB bandwidth and 80% peak diffraction efficiency at 840 nm wavelength. Based on a pair of such AOD, a large FOV two-photon microscope was built with a FOV up to 418.5 μm (40× objective). The spatiotemporal dispersion was compensated simultaneously with a single custom-made prism. By means of dynamic power modulation, the variation of laser intensity within the FOV was reduced below 5%. The lateral and axial resolution of the system were 0.58-2.12 μm and 2.17-3.07 μm, respectively. Pollen grain images acquired by this system were presented to demonstrate the imaging capability at different positions across the entire FOV.

  5. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms (NPO-30232) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 10a. A photonic crystal is an optical component that has a periodic structure comprising two dielectric materials with high dielectric contrast (e.g., a semiconductor and air), with geometrical feature sizes comparable to or smaller than light wavelengths of interest. Experimental superprisms have been realized as photonic crystals having three-dimensional (3D) structures comprising regions of amorphous Si alternating with regions of SiO2, fabricated in a complex process that included sputtering. A photonic crystal of the type to be exploited according to the present proposal is said to be one-dimensional (1D) because its contrasting dielectric materials would be stacked in parallel planar layers; in other words, there would be spatial periodicity in one dimension only. The processes of designing and fabricating 1D photonic crystal superprisms would be simpler and, hence, would cost less than do those for 3D photonic crystal superprisms. As in 3D structures, 1D photonic crystals may be used in applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing. In the extended-range configuration, it is also suitable for spectrometry applications. As an engineered structure or artificially engineered material, a photonic crystal can exhibit optical properties not commonly found in natural substances. Prior research had revealed several classes of photonic crystal structures for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden in certain frequency ranges, denoted photonic bandgaps. It had also been found that in narrow frequency bands just outside the photonic bandgaps, the angular wavelength dispersion of electromagnetic waves propagating in photonic crystal superprisms is much stronger than is the angular wavelength dispersion obtained

  6. Nonlinear surface waves in photonic hypercrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Munazza Zulfiqar

    2017-08-01

    Photonic crystals and hyperbolic metamaterials are merged to give the concept of photonic hypercrystals. It combines the properties of its two constituents to give rise to novel phenomena. Here the propagation of Transverse Magnetic waves at the interface between a nonlinear dielectric material and a photonic hypercrystal is studied and the corresponding dispersion relation is derived using the uniaxial parallel approximation. Both dielectric and metallic photonic hypercrystals are studied and it is found that nonlinearity limits the infinite divergence of wave vectors of the surface waves. These states exist in the frequency region where the linear surface waves do not exist. It is also shown that the nonlinearity can be used to engineer the group velocity of the resulting surface wave.

  7. Quantum electrodynamics near a photonic bandgap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanbing; Houck, Andrew A.

    2017-01-01

    Photonic crystals are a powerful tool for the manipulation of optical dispersion and density of states, and have thus been used in applications from photon generation to quantum sensing with nitrogen vacancy centres and atoms. The unique control provided by these media makes them a beautiful, if unexplored, playground for strong-coupling quantum electrodynamics, where a single, highly nonlinear emitter hybridizes with the band structure of the crystal. Here we demonstrate that such a hybridization can create localized cavity modes that live within the photonic bandgap, whose localization and spectral properties we explore in detail. We then demonstrate that the coloured vacuum of the photonic crystal can be employed for efficient dissipative state preparation. This work opens exciting prospects for engineering long-range spin models in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture, as well as new opportunities for dissipative quantum state engineering.

  8. The characters of dense dispersion managed soliton in optical fiber transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuqin; Zhou, Guosheng; Huang, Zhaoming

    2003-03-01

    The properties of ultra-short dense dispersion-managed soliton (DDMS) in optical fiber links are investigated. They show some excellent characters, such as, reducing pulse's breathing extent greatly, facing fewer mutual interactions and tolerating larger local dispersion. In general, DDMS is more stable than a conventional dispersion-managed soliton in high-capacity systems. Excessively dense dispersion compensation is more suitable for systems with weak nonlinear effect.

  9. Hyperentangled photon sources in semiconductor waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dongpeng; Helt, L. G.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Torres, Juan P.; Sipe, J. E.; Helmy, A. S.

    2014-02-01

    We propose and analyze the performance of a technique to generate mode and polarization hyperentangled photons in monolithic semiconductor waveguides using two concurrent type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) processes. These two SPDC processes are achieved by waveguide engineering which allows for simultaneous modal phase matching with the pump beam in a higher-order mode. Paired photons generated in each process are cross polarized and guided by different guiding mechanisms, which produces entanglement in both polarization and spatial mode. Theoretical analysis shows that the output quantum state has a high quality of hyperentanglement by spectral filtering with a bandwidth of a few nanometers, while off-chip compensation is not needed. This technique offers a path to realize an electrically pumped hyperentangled photon source.

  10. [Vestibular compensation studies]. [Vestibular Compensation and Morphological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perachio, Adrian A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The following topics are reported: neurophysiological studies on MVN neurons during vestibular compensation; effects of spinal cord lesions on VNC neurons during compensation; a closed-loop vestibular compensation model for horizontally canal-related MVN neurons; spatiotemporal convergence in VNC neurons; contributions of irregularly firing vestibular afferents to linear and angular VOR's; application to flight studies; metabolic measures in vestibular neurons; immediate early gene expression following vestibular stimulation; morphological studies on primary afferents, central vestibular pathways, vestibular efferent projection to the vestibular end organs, and three-dimensional morphometry and imaging.

  11. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-12-02

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  12. Compensated pulsed alternator

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, William F.; Driga, Mircea D.; Woodson, Herbert H.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak outout. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit.

  13. Compensation and gender.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    In a single generation, there has been a revolution in the role women play in the work-force. Unfortunately, many inequities exist between a man's experience in the workforce and a woman's most notably, the wage disparity in female-dominated professions; salary inequities between men and women within professions; and inadequate compensation packages, poor retirement benefits, and a lack of job-guaranteed family leave for women in the workforce. Movement toward rectifying these inequities is encumbered by the many polarized reactions to the various difficulties women experience and the fact that these difficulties are influenced by many factors-social/cultural, economic, and political. ASHA may begin stalking out its position by increasing awareness and understanding of the issues addressed above and identifying which issues the Association can influence through education and which may be better addressed by the government. Through educating our membership and supporting productive government solutions, ASHA may hope to improve the working woman's financial status and, therefore, her choices and opportunities.

  14. Spectrally Engineering Photonic Entanglement with a Time Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, J. M.; Mastrovich, M.; Resch, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    A time lens, which can be used to reshape the spectral and temporal properties of light, requires the ultrafast manipulation of optical signals and presents a significant challenge for single-photon application. In this work, we construct a time lens based on dispersion and sum-frequency generation to spectrally engineer single photons from an entangled pair. The strong frequency anticorrelations between photons produced from spontaneous parametric down-conversion are converted to positive correlations after the time lens, consistent with a negative-magnification system. The temporal imaging of single photons enables new techniques for time-frequency quantum state engineering.

  15. Influence of Strongly Magnetized Plasma on Photon Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Rumyantsev, D.A.; Chistyakov, M.V.

    2005-10-01

    The photon splitting {gamma} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} in a strongly magnetized medium of arbitrary temperature and chemical potential is considered. In comparison with the case of a pure magnetic field, a new photon splitting channel is shown to be possible below the electron-positron pair production threshold. The partial splitting amplitudes and probabilities are calculated by taking into account the photon dispersion in a strong magnetic field and a charge-symmetric plasma. An enhancement of the photon splitting probability compared to the case of a magnetic field without plasma has been found to be possible under certain conditions.

  16. Error of Archimedes spiral when applied in linearity compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ke; Chen, Xiuzheng; Song, Jincheng; Liang, Yajun

    2013-01-01

    The polar coordinates equation of Archimedes spiral is ρ = ρ0 + aθ , also known as uniform speed spiral. In a polar coordinate system, the polar radius ρ has linear relation with polar angle θ . This character could be used for linearity compensation in mechanical engineering, or metrical instrument. For example, it could be used for moment linearity compensation, the common configuration has a pivot axis on the pole, and a thin line wrap around the spiral on the turntable. The gravitation of a suspension used as constant pull, and the level polar radius as force arm, then it generates a liner moment when the Archimedes spiral rotating at uniform speed. But as the polar angle of tangent point on the plumb line changes at any moment, the polar radius on level direction isn't linear with polar angle anymore, and the small error influences the effect of linearity compensation configuration. This paper presented the application of Archimedes spiral in linearity compensation, analyzed the theory error, and deduced the error equation by Mathematic theory. Using computer emulator, educed the precise errors of some dispersed points in common use, and provided according error tabulation. In engineering applications, engineers could consult this error tabulation and correct the points on Archimedes spiral, to realize accurately linearity compensation.

  17. 75 FR 49595 - Performance of Functions; Claims for Compensation Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...; Claims for Compensation Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act; Compensation for Disability and Death of Noncitizen Federal Employees Outside the United States; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... for Compensation Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act; Compensation for Disability and Death...

  18. 76 FR 37897 - Performance of Functions; Claims for Compensation Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... and 25 Performance of Functions; Claims for Compensation Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act; Compensation for Disability and Death of Noncitizen Federal Employees Outside the United States; Final Rule #0... Performance of Functions; Claims for Compensation Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act; Compensation...

  19. Compact wavelength demultiplexing using focusing negative index photonic crystal superprisms.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Babak; Huang, Jiandong; Soltani, Mohammad; Askari, Murtaza; Mohammadi, Saeed; Rakhshandehroo, Mohammad; Adibi, Ali

    2006-03-20

    Here, we demonstrate a compact photonic crystal wavelength demultiplexing device based on a diffraction compensation scheme with two orders of magnitude performance improvement over the conventional superprism structures reported to date. We show that the main problems of the conventional superprism-based wavelength demultiplexing devices can be overcome by combining the superprism effect with two other main properties of photonic crystals, i.e., negative diffraction and negative refraction. Here, a 4-channel optical demultiplexer with a channel spacing of 8 nm and cross-talk level of better than -6.5 dB is experimentally demonstrated using a 4500 microm(2) photonic crystal region.

  20. Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical motion of photonic devices driven by optical forces provides a profound means of coupling between optical fields. The current focus of these optomechanical effects has been on cavity optomechanics systems in which co-localized optical and mechanical modes interact strongly to enable wave mixing between photons and phonons, and backaction cooling of mechanical modes. Alternatively, extended mechanical modes can also induce strong non-local effects on propagating optical fields or multiple localized optical modes at distances. Here, we demonstrate a multicavity optomechanical device in which torsional optomechanical motion can shuttle photons between two photonic crystal nanocavities. The resonance frequencies of the two cavities, one on each side of this 'photon see-saw', are modulated antisymmetrically by the device's rotation. Pumping photons into one cavity excites optomechanical self-oscillation, which strongly modulates the inter-cavity coupling and shuttles photons to the other empty cavity during every oscillation cycle in a well-regulated fashion.