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Sample records for disposal restrictions ldr

  1. Complying with Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) for CERCLA remedial actions involving contaminated soil and debris

    SciTech Connect

    Bascietto, J.

    1991-01-01

    CERCLA Sect. 121(e) requires that remedial actions must comply with at least the minimum standards of all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements'' (ARARs) of federal and state laws. EPA has determined that RCRA land disposal restrictions may be ARAR for certain CERCLA remedial actions involving soil and debris. This means that soil and debris contaminated with prohibited or restricted wastes cannot be land disposed if (1) these wastes have not attained the treatment standards set by EPA for a specified waste or (2) have been the subject of a case-by-case extension, national capacity variance, or successful no migration'' petition. RCRA LDR treatment standards are based on Best Demonstrated Available Technology'' (BDAT), not on health-based concentrations. Because the treatment of the soil and debris matrix presents technological difficulties not yet addressed by EPA (BDAT standards are generally set for industrial process wastes), compliance options such as obtaining a Treatability Variance, are available and will generally be necessary for soil and debris wastes. In the recently promulgated revisions to the National Contingency Plan (NCP) for CERCLA implementation, EPA provides important information for CERCLA project managers regarding LDR compliance, particularly for obtaining a treatability variance for land disposal of contaminated soil and debris.

  2. Guidance: Demonstrating Compliance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) Alternative Soil Treatment Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance provides suggestions and perspectives on how members of the regulated community, states, and the public can demonstrate compliance with the alternative treatment standards for certain contaminated soils that will be land disposed.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes VII Appendix VII to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Pt. 268, App. VII...

  4. Hazardous Waste Management System: Land Disposal Restrictions - Federal Register Notice, June 26, 1992

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is taking regulatory action to approve an extension of the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) effective date applicable to owners and operators of secondary lead smelters who are engaged in the reclamation of lead-bearing hazardous materials.

  5. Hazardous Waste Management System: Land Disposal Restrictions - Federal Register Notice, May 15, 1992

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In response to the Proposed Rule on Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) for Newly Listed Wastes and Hazardous Debris, EPA received numerous comments regarding the availability of treatment capacity for hazardous debris. EPA agrees with these comments.

  6. Variance Assistance Document: Land Disposal Restrictions Treatability Variances and Determinations of Equivalent Treatment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides assistance to those seeking to submit a variance request for LDR treatability variances and determinations of equivalent treatment regarding the hazardous waste land disposal restrictions program.

  7. Policy Statement: Clarification of the Dilution Prohibition and Combustion of Inorganic Metal-Bearing Hazardous Wastes for Land Disposal Restrictions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum sets out a Statement of Policy under the RCRA clarifying the application of the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) prohibition on dilution (see 40 CFR 268.3) to combustion of certain inorganic metal-bearing hazardous wastes.

  8. Calculation of Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) Treatment Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    examples of calculations of treatment standards including for High Concentration Selenium Wastes Using Data Submitted by Chemical Waste Management (CWM) and Antimony Using Data Submitted by Chemical Waste Management and Data Obtained From Rollins.

  9. 1997 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1997-04-07

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tn-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al, 1989). The text of this milestone is below. ''LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration of other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: Waste characterization plan; Storage report; Treatment report; Treatment plan; Waste minimization plan; A schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; and A process for establishing interim milestones.

  10. Land Disposal Restrictions for Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The land disposal restrictions prohibits the land disposal of untreated hazardous wastes. EPA has specified either concentration levels or methods of treatment for hazardous constituents to meet before land disposal.

  11. 1994 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1994-04-01

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al. 1992). The text of this milestone is below. LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration at other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: waste characterization plan; storage report; treatment report; treatment plan; waste minimization plan; a schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; a process for establishing interim milestones. The original plan was published in October 1990. This is the fourth of a series of annual updates required by Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-26-01. A Tri-Party Agreement change request approved in March 1992 changed the annual due date from October to April and consolidated this report with a similar one prepared under Milestone M-25-00. The reporting period for this report is from April 1, 1993, to March 31, 1994.

  12. New Land disposal restrictions for contaminated soil and debris, and newly identified toxicity characteristic organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) program to radioactive mixed wastes (RMW) has been clarified through US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Department of Energy (DOE) rulemakings and notices. However, a number of waste management concerns involving RMW and RMW-contaminated soil and debris continue to exist with respect to achieving compliance with LDR provisions and treatment standards. Consequently, DOE has become increasingly proactive in its participation in the LDR rulemaking process and in the identification of LDR compliance issues associated with its RMW inventories. Both data and recommendations from across the DOE complex have been collected and transmitted to EPA in response to proposed requirements that would implement LDR for contaminated soil and debris, and certain newly identified toxicity characteristic (TC) organic wastes. Much of this information focused on concerns related to the application of proposed regulatory approaches to RMW streams. Some highlights from the information included in these DOE responses are presented.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Dates of Surface Disposed Wastes (Non-Soil and Debris) Regulated in the LDRS a—Comprehensive List Waste... Small quantity generators, CERCLA response/RCRA corrective action, initial generator's solvent-water... corrective action, initial generator's solvent-water mixtures, solvent-containing sludges and solids Nov. 8...

  14. 1998 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1998-04-10

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-01H. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility. The US Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors on the Hanford Facility were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid mixed waste. This waste is regulated under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of l976 and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers only mixed waste. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into the Tri-Party Agreement to bring the Hanford Facility operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for mixed waste. This report is the eighth update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide the following information: (1) Waste Characterization Information -- Provides information about characterizing each LDR mixed waste stream. The sampling and analysis methods and protocols, past characterization results, and, where available, a schedule for providing the characterization information are discussed. (2) Storage Data -- Identifies and describes the mixed waste on the Hanford Facility. Storage data include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 dangerous waste codes, generator process knowledge needed to identify the waste and to make LDR determinations, quantities

  15. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.49 Alternative LDR... soil that exhibits a characteristic of hazardous waste, or exhibited a characteristic of hazardous waste at the time it was generated, into a land disposal unit. The following chart describes whether...

  16. EPA proposes amendment to LDR program

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, C.

    1993-11-01

    A proposed rule signed on Aug. 31, 1993, by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Carol M. Browner, would amend the land disposal restrictions (LDR) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The rule, published in the Federal Register on Sept. 14, 1993, is commonly referred to as the Phase II LDR Rule. The proposal addresses treatment standards for newly identified organic toxicity characteristic (TC) wastes and proposes universal treatment standards for listed waste streams. Comments on the proposed rule are due to EPA by Nov. 15, 1993. Other major issues addressed in this proposal include alternative treatment standards for soils contaminated with listed hazardous wastes; treatment standards for newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene production wastes; new requirements for high total organic carbon ignitable wastes and TC pesticide wastes; and modifications to the hazardous waste recycling regulations.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Prohibited Hazardous Wastes VIII Appendix VIII to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Pt. 268, App. VIII Appendix VIII to Part 268—LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes National Capacity...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Prohibited Hazardous Wastes VIII Appendix VIII to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Pt. 268, App. VIII Appendix VIII to Part 268—LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes National Capacity...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Prohibited Hazardous Wastes VIII Appendix VIII to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Pt. 268, App. VIII Appendix VIII to Part 268—LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes National Capacity...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes VIII Appendix VIII to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Pt. 268, App. VIII Appendix...

  1. 1993 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.

    1993-04-01

    Since the early 1940s, the contractors at the Hanford Site have been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste (RMW). This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976{sup 2}(RCRA) and Atomic Energy Act{sup 3}. This report covers mixed waste only. Hazardous waste that is not contaminated with radionuclides is not addressed in this report. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order{sup 1} (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for RMW. This report is the third update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide, the information that follows: Waste characterization information; storage data; treatment information; waste reduction information; schedule; and progress.

  2. 1995 Report on Hanford site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-26-01E. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors at the Hanford Site were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers mixed waste only. The Washington State Department of Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDRs) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for radioactive mixed waste. This report is the fifth update of the plan first issued in 1990. Tri-Party Agreement negotiations completed in 1993 and approved in January 1994 changed and added many new milestones. Most of the changes were related to the Tank Waste Remediation System and these changes are incorporated into this report.

  3. Pointing control for LDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yam, Y.; Briggs, C.

    1988-01-01

    One important aspect of the LDR control problem is the possible excitations of structural modes due to random disturbances, mirror chopping, and slewing maneuvers. An analysis was performed to yield a first order estimate of the effects of such dynamic excitations. The analysis involved a study of slewing jitters, chopping jitters, disturbance responses, and pointing errors, making use of a simplified planar LDR model which describes the LDR dynamics on a plane perpendicular to the primary reflector. Briefly, the results indicate that the command slewing profile plays an important role in minimizing the resultant jitter, even to a level acceptable without any control action. An optimal profile should therefore be studied.

  4. Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation Efforts Associated with the Oak Ridge Reservation`s Land Disposal Restrictions Federal Facility Compliance Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, T.J., Conley, T.B.

    1995-12-31

    On June 12, 1992, the U. S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) to regulate the treatment of wastes governed by the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance Requirement 5 of the agreement states that `. . . DOE shall submit to EPA for review and approval a plan for the treatment of the LDR prohibited wastes identified in Appendices 1B, 2B, and 3B. This plan must identify the treatment strategy for such wastes to meet LDR treatment standards and must include a schedule, not to exceed two (2) years after the submittal of this plan (i.e., March 1995), for the evaluation and prioritization of treatment method options, treatability studies, if required, and technology development. The FFCA divided the mixed wastes currently stored on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) into two categories. Appendix A listed those wastes for which existing treatment methods and facilities exist. Appendix B listed wastes for which no identified treatment methods or facilities exist on the ORR.

  5. A database for compliance with land disposal restrictions

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, M.W.

    1990-09-01

    The new restrictions on land disposal introduce additional challenges to hazardous waste managers. Laboratory waste streams consisting of small volumes of diverse waste types will be particularly difficult to manage due to the large number of possible treatment standards that could be applied. To help remedy this management problem, a user-friendly database has been developed to provide the regulatory information required for each of the hazardous wastes present in the wastes stream of a large research laboratory. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Hanford land disposal restrictions plan for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Since the early 1940s, the Hanford Site has been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act. The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) to bring Hanford Site Operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement was amended to require development of the Hanford Land Disposal Restrictions Plan for Mixed Wastes (this plan) to comply with land disposal restrictions requirements for radioactive mixed waste. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the this plan provides, the following sections: Waste Characterization Plan, Storage Report, Treatment Report, Treatment Plan, Waste Minimization Plan, a schedule, depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with land disposal restriction requirements, and a process for establishing interim milestones. 34 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs.

  7. Guidebook: Quality Assurance/Quality Control Procedures for Submission of Data for the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document explains how to generate data which characterizes the performance of hazardous waste treatment systems in terms of the composition of treated hazardous waste streams plus treatment system operation and design.

  8. Special Consolidated Checklists for Land Disposal Restrictions (unchanged since 1992)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This checklist consolidates LDR rules from the first rule promulgated on November 7, 1986 through June 30, 1992, including the Third Third Scheduled wastes (i.e., from Revision Checklist 34 through Revision Checklist 106, 57 FR 28628, June 26, 1992).

  9. Treatability study of aqueous, land disposal restricted mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, D.R.

    1992-12-01

    Treatment studies have been completed on two aqueous waste streams at the Mixed Waste Storage Facility that are classified as land disposal restricted. Both wastes had mercury and lead as characteristic hazardous constituents. Samples from one of these wastes, composed of mercury and lead sulfide particles along with dissolved mercury and lead, was successfully treated by decanting, filtering, and ion exchanging. The effluent water had an average level of 0.003 and 0.025 mg/L of mercury and lead, respectively. These values are well below the targeted RCRA limits of 0.2 mg/L mercury and 5.0 mg/L lead. An acidic stream, containing the same hazardous metals, was also successfully treated using a treatment process of precipitation, filtering, and then ion exchange. Treatment of another waste was not completely successful, presumably because of the interference of a chelating agent.

  10. Treatability study for the bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable LDR low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this report is the solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted (LDR) low-level mixed waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Benchscale solidification was performed on samples of this mixed waste, which was done under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act treatability study. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids, and treatment techniques included the use of conventional Portland cement and sulphur polymer cement (SPC). A total of 113 monoliths were made under the experimental design matrix for this study; 8 of these were blank'' monoliths (contained no waste). Thus, 105 monoliths were used to solidify 21.6 kg of mixed waste; 92 were made with Portland cement systems, and 13 were made with SPC. Recipes for all monoliths are given, and suggested recipes (as based on the minimized leaching of toxic components) are summarized. In most cases, the results presented herein indicate that solidification was successful in immobilizing toxic metals, thereby transforming low-level mixed waste into low-level nonhazardous waste. The ultimate goal of this project is to use appropriate solidification techniques, as described in the literature, to transform low-level mixed waste to low-level nonhazardous waste by satisfying pertinent disposal requirements for this waste. Disposal requirements consider the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, a free liquids test, and radiological analyses. This work is meaningful in that it will provide a basis for the disposal of waste that is currently categorized as LDR low-level mixed waste.

  11. Treatability study for the bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable LDR low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this report is the solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted (LDR) low-level mixed waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Benchscale solidification was performed on samples of this mixed waste, which was done under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act treatability study. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids, and treatment techniques included the use of conventional Portland cement and sulphur polymer cement (SPC). A total of 113 monoliths were made under the experimental design matrix for this study; 8 of these were ``blank`` monoliths (contained no waste). Thus, 105 monoliths were used to solidify 21.6 kg of mixed waste; 92 were made with Portland cement systems, and 13 were made with SPC. Recipes for all monoliths are given, and suggested recipes (as based on the minimized leaching of toxic components) are summarized. In most cases, the results presented herein indicate that solidification was successful in immobilizing toxic metals, thereby transforming low-level mixed waste into low-level nonhazardous waste. The ultimate goal of this project is to use appropriate solidification techniques, as described in the literature, to transform low-level mixed waste to low-level nonhazardous waste by satisfying pertinent disposal requirements for this waste. Disposal requirements consider the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, a free liquids test, and radiological analyses. This work is meaningful in that it will provide a basis for the disposal of waste that is currently categorized as LDR low-level mixed waste.

  12. LDR structural experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard A.; Gates, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector that would utilize the Space Station. The objective of the study was to use the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration for focusing on experiment definition activity which would identify the Space Station accommodation requirements and interface constraints. Results of the study defined three Space Station based experiments to demonstrate the technologies needed for an LDR type structure. The basic experiment configurations are the same as the JPL baseline except that the primary mirror truss is 10 meters in diameter instead of 20. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of the optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments and alignment of the optical components occur on the second experiment. The structure will then be moved to the payload pointing system for pointing, optical control and scientific optical measurement for the third experiment.

  13. 7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.75 Section 319.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...; disposal of articles refused importation. (a) The Secretary has determined that in order to prevent the... subpart. (b) Any article refused importation for noncompliance with the requirements of this subpart...

  14. 7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.75 Section 319.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...; disposal of articles refused importation. (a) The Secretary has determined that in order to prevent the... subpart. (b) Any article refused importation for noncompliance with the requirements of this subpart...

  15. 7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.75 Section 319.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...; disposal of articles refused importation. (a) The Secretary has determined that in order to prevent the... subpart. (b) Any article refused importation for noncompliance with the requirements of this subpart...

  16. 7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.75 Section 319.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...; disposal of articles refused importation. (a) The Secretary has determined that in order to prevent the... subpart. (b) Any article refused importation for noncompliance with the requirements of this subpart...

  17. 7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.75 Section 319.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...; disposal of articles refused importation. (a) The Secretary has determined that in order to prevent the... subpart. (b) Any article refused importation for noncompliance with the requirements of this subpart...

  18. 76 FR 34200 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Revision of the Treatment Standards for Carbamate Wastes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 268 and 271 RIN 2050-AG65 Land Disposal Restrictions: Revision of the Treatment...) treatment standards for hazardous wastes from the production of carbamates and carbamate commercial chemical... action proposes to remove the carbamate Regulated Constituents from the table of Universal...

  19. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site.

  20. 1999 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restriction for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    BLACK, D.G.

    1999-03-25

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-011. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility.

  1. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) feasibility study update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alff, W. H.; Banderman, L. W.

    1983-01-01

    In 1982 a workshop was held to refine the science rationale for large deployable reflectors (LDR) and develop technology requirements that support the science rationale. At the end of the workshop, a set of LDR consensus systems requirements was established. The subject study was undertaken to update the initial LDR study using the new systems requirements. The study included mirror materials selection and configuration, thermal analysis, structural concept definition and analysis, dynamic control analysis and recommendations for further study. The primary emphasis was on the dynamic controls requirements and the sophistication of the controls system needed to meet LDR performance goals.

  2. Report of the Asilomar 3 LDR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, M. J. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The conclusions and recommendations of the workshop held to study technology development issues critical to the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) are summarized. LDR is to be a dedicated, orbiting, astronomical observatory, operating at wavelengths from 30 to 1000 microns, a spectral region where the Earth's atmosphere is almost completely opaque. Because it will have a large, segmented, passively cooled aperture, LDR addresses a wide range of technology areas. These include lightweight, low cost, structural composite reflector panels, primary support structures, wavefront sensing and adaptive optics, thermal background management, and integrated vibration and pointing control systems. The science objectives for LDR present instrument development challenges for coherent and direct arrayed detectors which can operate effectively at far infrared and submillimeter wavelengths, and for sub-Kelvin cryogenic systems.

  3. Evaluation of the impact of meteorological restrictions on the TEAD Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flamm, K.J.

    1989-09-08

    This document has been prepared in support of the Tooele Army Depot (TEAD) Site Specific Environmental Impact Statement (SSEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). This study evaluates the impact of TEAD site specific meteorological, geographical and chronological effects on the hazard distances resulting from the Credible Catastrophic Accidents (CCAs) used in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). In addition, the study evaluates the impact on the total risk to the public by restricting or partially restricting disposal operations to the portion of the day when stable meteorological conditions do not exist.

  4. 77 FR 50622 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Site-Specific Treatment Variance for Hazardous Selenium-Bearing Waste...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Selenium-Bearing Waste Treated by U.S. Ecology Nevada in Beatty, NV AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., under the Land Disposal Restrictions program, to U.S. Ecology Nevada in Beatty, Nevada for the treatment... applies only to U.S. Ecology Nevada located in Beatty, Nevada. B. Table of Contents I. Background ] A...

  5. Land Disposal Restrictions for Third Third Scheduled Wastes - Federal Register Notice, January 31, 1991

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On June 1, 1990, EPA published regulations promulgating congressionally-mandated prohibitions on land disposal of certain hazardous wastes. This notice corrects errors and clarifies the language of the June 1, 1990 final rule.

  6. Land Disposal Restrictions for Third Third Scheduled Wastes - Federal Register Notice, March 6, 1992

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On June 1, 1990, EPA published regulations promulgating congressionally mandated prohibitions on land disposal of certain hazardous wastes. This notice corrects errors and clarifies the language in the preamble and regulations of the final rule.

  7. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 5, Land disposal compliance and hydrogen generation restricted concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  8. Introduction to the report of the Asilomar 3 LDR workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) is a system concept for a dedicated, orbiting, submillimeter, far infrared, astronomical observatory. The purpose of the 3rd conference was to review the latest system concepts for LDR, update the science requirements, and assess the status of the technology development that was recommended at Asilomar 2. The technology development assessment included ongoing work within NASA, the DOD, and various universities. Problem areas and technologies not being adequately addressed were to be identified and prioritized. In particular, the CSTI program in Sensors and Precision Segmented Reflectors was reviewed for appropriateness and progress relative to LDR technology needs.

  9. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Analysis of space station requirements for LDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Vinkey, Victor F.; Runge, Fritz C.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine how the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) might benefit from the use of the space station for assembly, checkout, deployment, servicing, refurbishment, and technology development. Requirements that must be met by the space station to supply benefits for a selected scenario are summarized. Quantitative and qualitative data are supplied. Space station requirements for LDR which may be utilized by other missions are identified. A technology development mission for LDR is outlined and requirements summarized. A preliminary experiment plan is included. Space Station Data Base SAA 0020 and TDM 2411 are updated.

  10. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Requirements for Space Station Accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, D. A.; Clayton, M. J.; Runge, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    Top level requirements for assembly and integration of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Observatory at the Space Station are examined. Concepts are currently under study for LDR which will provide a sequel to the Infrared Astronomy Satellite and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility. LDR will provide a spectacular capability over a very broad spectral range. The Space Station will provide an essential facility for the initial assembly and check out of LDR, as well as a necessary base for refurbishment, repair and modification. By providing a manned platform, the Space Station will remove the time constraint on assembly associated with use of the Shuttle alone. Personnel safety during necessary EVA is enhanced by the presence of the manned facility.

  11. Hybrid deployable support truss designs for LDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J.

    1988-01-01

    Concepts for a 20-meter diameter Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) deployable truss backup structure, and analytical predictions of its structural characteristics are discussed. The concept shown is referred to as the SIXPAC; It is a combination of the PACTRUSS concept and a single-fold beam, which would make up the desired backup structure. One advantage of retaining the PACTRUSS concept is its packaging density and its capability for synchronous deployment. Various 2-meter hexagonal panel arrangements are possible for this Hybrid PACTRUSS structure depending on the panel-to-structure attachment strategies used. Static analyses of the SIXPAC using various assumptions for truss designs and panel masses of 10 kg sq meters were performed to predict the tip displacement of the structure when supported at the center. The tip displacement ranged from 0.20 to 0.44 mm without the panel mass, and from 0.9 to 3.9 mm with the panel mass (in a 1-g field). The data indicate that the structure can be adequately ground tested to validate its required performance in space, assuming the required performance in space is approximately 100 microns. The static displacement at the tip of the structure when subjected to an angular acceleration of 0.001 rad/sec squared were estimated to range from 0.8 to 7.5 microns, depending on the type of truss elements.

  12. Design of a microfabricated device for ligase detection reaction (LDR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Dwhyte O.; Maha, Amit; Wang, Yun; Soper, Steven A.; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E.; Murphy, Michael C.

    2003-12-01

    The objective was to design and manufacture a microscale Ligase Detection Reaction (LDR) device for detection of cancer-associated rare gene mutations. The LDR module will be incorporated with other devices such as a Continuous Flow Polymerase Chain Reaction (CFRCR) unit and a Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) chip in a modular lab-on-a-chip technology. During LDR, devloped by Francis Barany, several primers are mixed with the analyte, exposed to a thermal cycle consisting of two steps of 95°C and 65°C for 20 cycles, and cooled to 0°C. The first step in the design was to determine if the baseline time for the LDR reaction could be reduced from the 2 1/2 hours required for the orignal reaction. Experiments have shown that it is posssible to obtain useable product from the LDR after 40 minutes, a 75% reduction, before going to the microscale, which should allow further improvements. Due to the extensive mixing needed prior to the reaction a set of alternative diffusion mixers was identified and microfabricated to determine which geometry was the most effective. Simulations of the thermal response of the device were done using finite element analysis (FEA) to compare to experimental results. The required temperature profile will be obtained by using resistive heaters and thermoelectric modules. A prototype LDR device was laid out based on the results of the studies.

  13. Design of a microfabricated device for ligase detection reaction (LDR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Dwhyte O.; Maha, Amit; Wang, Yun; Soper, Steven A.; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E.; Murphy, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to design and manufacture a microscale Ligase Detection Reaction (LDR) device for detection of cancer-associated rare gene mutations. The LDR module will be incorporated with other devices such as a Continuous Flow Polymerase Chain Reaction (CFRCR) unit and a Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) chip in a modular lab-on-a-chip technology. During LDR, devloped by Francis Barany, several primers are mixed with the analyte, exposed to a thermal cycle consisting of two steps of 95°C and 65°C for 20 cycles, and cooled to 0°C. The first step in the design was to determine if the baseline time for the LDR reaction could be reduced from the 2½ hours required for the orignal reaction. Experiments have shown that it is posssible to obtain useable product from the LDR after 40 minutes, a 75% reduction, before going to the microscale, which should allow further improvements. Due to the extensive mixing needed prior to the reaction a set of alternative diffusion mixers was identified and microfabricated to determine which geometry was the most effective. Simulations of the thermal response of the device were done using finite element analysis (FEA) to compare to experimental results. The required temperature profile will be obtained by using resistive heaters and thermoelectric modules. A prototype LDR device was laid out based on the results of the studies.

  14. Urethral toxicity after LDR brachytherapy: experience in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobumichi; Asakawa, Isao; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2015-01-01

    Urinary toxicity is common after low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy, and the resolution of urinary toxicity is a concern. In particular, urinary frequency is the most common adverse event among the urinary toxicities. We have previously reported that approximately 70% of patients experience urinary frequency during the first 6 months after seed implantation. Most urinary adverse events were classified as Grade 1, and Grade 2 or higher adverse events were rare. The incidence of urinary retention was approximately 2-4%. A high International Prostate Symptom Score before seed implantation was an independent predictor of acute urinary toxicity of Grade 2 or higher. Several previous reports from the United States also supported this trend. In Japan, LDR brachytherapy was legally approved in 2003. A nationwide prospective cohort study entitled Japanese Prostate Cancer Outcome Study of Permanent Iodine-125 Seed Implantation was initiated in July 2005. It is an important issue to limit urinary toxicities in patients who undergo LDR brachytherapy.

  15. Changes of Space Debris Orbits After LDR Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wnuk, E.; Golebiewska, J.; Jacquelard, C.; Haag, H.

    2013-09-01

    A lot of technical studies are currently developing concepts of active removal of space debris to protect space assets from on orbit collision. For small objects, such concepts include the use of ground-based lasers to remove or reduce the momentum of the objects thereby lowering their orbit in order to facilitate their decay by re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere. The concept of the Laser Debris Removal (LDR) system is the main subject of the CLEANSPACE project. One of the CLEANSPACE objectives is to define a global architecture (including surveillance, identification and tracking) for an innovative ground-based laser solution, which can remove hazardous medium debris around selected space assets. The CLEANSPACE project is realized by a European consortium in the frame of the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), Space topic. The use of sequence of laser operations to remove space debris, needs very precise predictions of future space debris orbital positions, on a level even better than 1 meter. Orbit determination, tracking (radar, optical and laser) and orbit prediction have to be performed with accuracy much better than so far. For that, the applied prediction tools have to take into account all perturbation factors that influence object orbit. The expected object's trajectory after the LDR operation is a lowering of its perigee. To prevent the debris with this new trajectory to collide with another object, a precise trajectory prediction after the LDR sequence is therefore the main task allowing also to estimate re-entry parameters. The LDR laser pulses change the debris object velocity v. The future orbit and re-entry parameters of the space debris after the LDR engagement can be calculated if the resulting ?v vector is known with the sufficient accuracy. The value of the ?v may be estimated from the parameters of the LDR station and from the characteristics of the orbital debris. However, usually due to the poor knowledge of the debris

  16. The Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) - Plans and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Paul N.

    The program history, scientific aims, design, and projected performance of the LDR, a 20-m-primary two-stage four-mirror orbiting sub-mm/FIR astronomical observatory under NASA development, are reviewed. It is shown that the LDR would provide capabilities complementary to those of IRAS, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, the IRTF, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the planned Space IR Telescope Facility for observations of small-scale background anisotropies, high-redshift galaxies, and objects at temperatures of a few times 10 K or lower. The current design concept is illustrated with extensive drawings, diagrams, and tables of instrument parameters. Particular attention is given to the graphite-epoxy facing and Al-honeycomb core of the primary structure, the focal-plane instruments, and outstanding technological problems.

  17. Future Orbits of Space Debris after LDR Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wnuk, E.; Golebiewska, J.; Jacquelard, Christophe; Haag, Herve

    2013-08-01

    The paper, in the first part, presents general information about the CLEANSPACE project including the main drivers and requirements. Overall CLEANSPACE objective is to define a global architecture (including surveillance, identification and tracking) for an innovative ground-based laser solution which can remove hazardous medium debris around selected space assets. The CLEANSPACE project is realized by an European consortium in the frame of the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). The second contains estimations of velocity changes, perigee lowering and lifetime reducing for an exemplary objects for different parameters of the LDR system.

  18. State-of-the-art: prostate LDR brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Voulgaris, S; Nobes, J P; Laing, R W; Langley, S E M

    2008-01-01

    This article on low dose rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy reviews long-term results, patient selection and quality of life issues. Mature results from the United States and United Kingdom are reported and issues regarding definitions of biochemical failure are discussed. Latest data comparing brachytherapy with radical prostatectomy or no definitive treatment and also the risk of secondary malignancies after prostate brachytherapy are presented. Urological parameters of patient selection and quality of life issues concerning urinary, sexual and bowel function are reviewed. The position of prostate brachytherapy next to surgery as a first-line treatment modality is demonstrated.

  19. Program management plan for development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation efforts associated with Oak Ridge Reservation`s Land Disposal Restrictions Federal Facility Compliance Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, T.B.

    1994-04-01

    This program management plan covers the development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation efforts necessary to identify treatment methods for all the waste listed in Appendix B of the ORR`s LDR/FFCA as well as any new wastes which meet Appendix B criteria. To successfully identify a treatment method, at least a proof-of-principle level of understanding must be obtained: that is, the candidate processes must be demonstrated as effective in treating the wastes to the LDR; however, an optimized process is not required. Where applicable and deemed necessary and where the budgets will support them, pilot-scale demonstrations will be pursued. The overall strategy being adopted in this program will be composed of the following activities: Scoping of the study; characterization; development and screening of alternatives; treatability investigations; and detailed analysis of alternatives.

  20. 37 CFR 7.24 - Requests to record security interest or other restriction of holder's rights of disposal or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests to record security... TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN FILINGS PURSUANT TO THE PROTOCOL RELATING TO... International Registration § 7.24 Requests to record security interest or other restriction of holder's rights...

  1. Workshop on Technology Development Issues for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishioka, Kenji (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The results of the 2nd Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Technology Review Workshop held at Asilomar, California, March 17 to 22, 1985, are summarized. The workshop was convened to update LDR Technology status and to revise as necessary the results for the first LDR Workshop held in June 1982. There were some 100 participants representing government agencies, industry, and universities. This Workshop's goal was to assess, identify, and set priorities for the LDR technology issues based on requirements identified in the first workshop. Four high-priority technology areas were identified: (1) mirror materials and construction; (2) sensing and controls; (3) system-simulation and modeling capability; and (4) submillimeter instruments. The results of the workshop were used to provide a list of technolgy issues for the development of a technology initiatives plan for the LDR by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology.

  2. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... inorganic solids debris contaminated with D004-D011 wastes, and all soil and debris contaminated with mixed... contaminated with K088 wastes Oct. 8, 1997. 10. Soil and debris contaminated with radioactive wastes mixed with.... 13. Soil and debris contaminated with mixed radioactive newly identified D004-D011 characteristic...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... inorganic solids debris contaminated with D004-D011 wastes, and all soil and debris contaminated with mixed... contaminated with K088 wastes Oct. 8, 1997. 10. Soil and debris contaminated with radioactive wastes mixed with.... 13. Soil and debris contaminated with mixed radioactive newly identified D004-D011 characteristic...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... inorganic solids debris contaminated with D004-D011 wastes, and all soil and debris contaminated with mixed... contaminated with K088 wastes Oct. 8, 1997. 10. Soil and debris contaminated with radioactive wastes mixed with.... 13. Soil and debris contaminated with mixed radioactive newly identified D004-D011 characteristic...

  5. Protein accumulation underlying lifespan extension via ovariectomy in grasshoppers is consistent with the disposable soma hypothesis but is not due to dietary restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hatle, John D.; Paterson, Cathy S.; Jawaid, Imran; Lentz, Colleen; Wells, Sean M.; Fronstin, Raime B.

    2008-01-01

    Reduced reproduction extends lifespan in many experimental animals, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. The disposable soma hypothesis suggests that when reproduction is reduced, more nutrients are allocated to the soma and lifespan is extended. Alternatively, the reproductive tissues or the process of reproduction may have a direct (i.e., non-nutritional) negative effect on lifespan. We used ovariectomized grasshoppers to examine the effects of reduced reproduction throughout the lifespan at the physiological level. We focused on protein, the limiting nutrient for egg production. Ovariectomized females lived significantly longer than sham females. Because both groups ingested similar amounts, the effect was independent of dietary restriction. Despite this, ovariectomized females gained less body mass than sham females. Ovariectomized grasshoppers produced the egg yolk-precursor protein vitellogenin. At the time sham females laid their first clutch, cumulative reproductive protein was similar in ovariectomized and sham females. By advanced ages, however, ovariectomized females had produced about 5-fold less cumulative reproductive protein than sham females. In contrast, old ovariectomized females had at least 2-fold more hemolymph storage protein. These results are consistent with ovariectomy extending lifespan in part via enhanced protein allocation to storage at the expense of reproduction. PMID:18761078

  6. Protein accumulation underlying lifespan extension via ovariectomy in grasshoppers is consistent with the disposable soma hypothesis but is not due to dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Hatle, John D; Paterson, Cathy S; Jawaid, Imran; Lentz, Colleen; Wells, Sean M; Fronstin, Raime B

    2008-10-01

    Reduced reproduction extends lifespan in many experimental animals, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. The disposable soma hypothesis suggests that when reproduction is reduced, more nutrients are allocated to the soma and lifespan is extended. Alternatively, the reproductive tissues or the process of reproduction may have a direct (i.e., non-nutritional) negative effect on lifespan. We used ovariectomized grasshoppers to examine the effects of reduced reproduction throughout the lifespan at the physiological level. We focused on protein, the limiting nutrient for egg production. Ovariectomized females lived significantly longer than sham females. Because both groups ingested similar amounts, the effect was independent of dietary restriction. Despite this, ovariectomized females gained less body mass than sham females. Ovariectomized grasshoppers produced the egg yolk-precursor protein vitellogenin. At the time sham females laid their first clutch, cumulative reproductive protein was similar in ovariectomized and sham females. By advanced ages, however, ovariectomized females had produced about five-fold less cumulative reproductive protein than sham females. In contrast, old ovariectomized females had at least two-fold more hemolymph storage protein. These results are consistent with ovariectomy extending lifespan in part via enhanced protein allocation to storage at the expense of reproduction.

  7. Simulation requirements for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soosaar, K.

    1984-01-01

    Simulation tools for the large deployable reflector (LDR) are discussed. These tools are often the transfer function variety equations. However, transfer functions are inadequate to represent time-varying systems for multiple control systems with overlapping bandwidths characterized by multi-input, multi-output features. Frequency domain approaches are the useful design tools, but a full-up simulation is needed. Because of the need for a dedicated computer for high frequency multi degree of freedom components encountered, non-real time smulation is preferred. Large numerical analysis software programs are useful only to receive inputs and provide output to the next block, and should be kept out of the direct loop of simulation. The following blocks make up the simulation. The thermal model block is a classical heat transfer program. It is a non-steady state program. The quasistatic block deals with problems associated with rigid body control of reflector segments. The steady state block assembles data into equations of motion and dynamics. A differential raytrace is obtained to establish a change in wave aberrations. The observation scene is described. The focal plane module converts the photon intensity impinging on it into electron streams or into permanent film records.

  8. Rendering of HDR content on LDR displays: an objective approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasula, Lukáš; Narwaria, Manish; Fliegel, Karel; Le Callet, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic range compression (or tone mapping) of HDR content is an essential step towards rendering it on traditional LDR displays in a meaningful way. This is however non-trivial and one of the reasons is that tone mapping operators (TMOs) usually need content-specific parameters to achieve the said goal. While subjective TMO parameter adjustment is the most accurate, it may not be easily deployable in many practical applications. Its subjective nature can also influence the comparison of different operators. Thus, there is a need for objective TMO parameter selection to automate the rendering process. To that end, we investigate into a new objective method for TMO parameters optimization. Our method is based on quantification of contrast reversal and naturalness. As an important advantage, it does not require any prior knowledge about the input HDR image and works independently on the used TMO. Experimental results using a variety of HDR images and several popular TMOs demonstrate the value of our method in comparison to default TMO parameter settings.

  9. Methods for prostate stabilization during transperineal LDR brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podder, Tarun; Sherman, Jason; Rubens, Deborah; Messing, Edward; Strang, John; Ng, Wan-Sing; Yu, Yan

    2008-03-01

    In traditional prostate brachytherapy procedures for a low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation seed implant, stabilizing needles are first inserted to provide some rigidity and support to the prostate. Ideally this will provide better seed placement and an overall improved treatment. However, there is much speculation regarding the effectiveness of using regular brachytherapy needles as stabilizers. In this study, we explored the efficacy of two types of needle geometries (regular brachytherapy needle and hooked needle) and several clinically feasible configurations of the stabilization needles. To understand and assess the prostate movement during seed implantation, we collected in vivo data from patients during actual brachytherapy procedures. In vitro experimentation with tissue-equivalent phantoms allowed us to further understand the mechanics behind prostate stabilization. We observed superior stabilization with the hooked needles compared to the regular brachytherapy needles (more than 40% in bilateral parallel needle configuration). Prostate movement was also reduced significantly when regular brachytherapy needles were in an angulated configuration as compared to the parallel configuration (more than 60%). When the hooked needles were angulated for stabilization, further reduction in prostate displacement was observed. In general, for convenience of dosimetric planning and to avoid needle collision, all needles are desired to be in a parallel configuration. In this configuration, hooked needles provide improved stabilization of the prostate. On the other hand, both regular and hooked needles appear to be equally effective in reducing prostate movement when they are in angulated configurations, which will be useful in seed implantation using a robotic system. We have developed nonlinear spring-damper model for the prostate movement which can be used for adapting dosimetric planning during brachytherapy as well as for developing more realistic haptic devices and

  10. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Kissing Bonds using Local Defect Resonance (LDR) Spectroscopy: A Simulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delrue, S.; Tabatabaeipour, M.; Hettler, J.; Van Den Abeele, K.

    With the growing demand from industry to optimize and further develop existing Non-Destructive Testing & Evaluation (NDT&E) techniques or new methods to detect and characterize incipient damage with high sensitivity and increased quality, ample efforts have been devoted to better understand the typical behavior of kissing bonds, such as delaminations and cracks. Recently, it has been shown experimentally that the nonlinear ultrasonic response of kissing bonds could be enhanced by using Local Defect Resonance (LDR) spectroscopy. LDR spectroscopy is an efficient NDT technique that takes advantage of the characteristic fre- quencies of the defect (defect resonances) in order to provide maximum acoustic wave-defect interaction. In fact, for nonlinear methodologies, the ultrasonic excitation of the sample should occur at either multiples or integer ratios of the characteristic defect resonance frequencies, in order to obtain the highest signal-to-noise response in the nonlinear LDR spectroscopy. In this paper, the potential of using LDR spectroscopy for the detection, localization and characterization of kissing bonds is illustrated using a 3D simulation code for elastic wave propagation in materials containing closed but dynamically active cracks or delaminations. Using the model, we are able to define an appropriate method, based on the Scaling Subtraction Method (SSM), to determine the local defect resonance frequencies of a delamination in a composite plate and to illustrate an increase in defect nonlinearity due to LDR. The simulation results will help us to obtain a better understanding of the concept of LDR and to assist in the further design and testing of LDR spectroscopy for the detection, localization and characterization of kissing bonds.

  11. The Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) report of the Science Coordination Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) is a telescope designed to carry out high-angular resolution, high-sensitivity observations at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. The scientific rationale for the LDR is discussed in light of the recent Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) results and the several new ground-based observatories planned for the late 1980s. The importance of high sensitivity and high angular resolution observations from space in the submillimeter region is stressed. The scientific and technical problems of using the LDR in a light bucket mode at approx. less than 5 microns and in designing the LDR as an unfilled aperture with subarcsecond resolution are also discussed. The need for an aperture as large as 20 m is established, along with the requirements of beam-shape stability, spatial chopping, thermal control, and surface figure stability. The instrument complement required to cover the wavelength-spectral resolution region of interest to the LDR is defined.

  12. Local defect resonance (LDR): A route to highly efficient thermosonic and nonlinear ultrasonic NDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodov, Igor

    2014-02-01

    The concept of LDR is based on the fact that inclusion of a defect leads to a local drop of rigidity for a certain mass of the material that should manifest in a particular characteristic frequency of the defect. A frequency match between the driving ultrasonic wave and this characteristic frequency provides an efficient energy pumping from the wave directly into the defect. For simulated and realistic defects in various materials the LDR-induced local resonance increase in the vibration amplitude averages up to ˜ (20-40 dB). Due to a strong resonance amplification of the local vibrations, the LDR-driven defects manifest a profound nonlinearity even at moderate ultrasonic excitation level. The nonlinearity combined with resonance results in efficient generation of the higher harmonics and is also used as a filter/amplifier in the frequency mixing mode of nonlinear NDT. The LDR high-Q thermal response enables to realize a frequency-selective imaging with an opportunity to distinguish between different defects by changing the driving frequency. The LDR-thermosonics requires much lower acoustic power to activate defects that makes it possible to avoid high-power ultrasonic instrumentation and proceed to a noncontact ultrasonic thermography by using air-coupled ultrasonic excitation.

  13. The Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) report of the Science Coordination Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-10-01

    The Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) is a telescope designed to carry out high-angular resolution, high-sensitivity observations at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. The scientific rationale for the LDR is discussed in light of the recent Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) results and the several new ground-based observatories planned for the late 1980s. The importance of high sensitivity and high angular resolution observations from space in the submillimeter region is stressed. The scientific and technical problems of using the LDR in a light bucket mode at approx. less than 5 microns and in designing the LDR as an unfilled aperture with subarcsecond resolution are also discussed. The need for an aperture as large as 20 m is established, along with the requirements of beam-shape stability, spatial chopping, thermal control, and surface figure stability. The instrument complement required to cover the wavelength-spectral resolution region of interest to the LDR is defined.

  14. Transition from LDR to HDR brachytherapy for cervical cancer: Evaluation of tumor control, survival, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Romano, K D; Pugh, K J; Trifiletti, D M; Libby, B; Showalter, T N

    In 2012, our institution transitioned from low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy to high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. We report clinical outcomes after brachytherapy for cervical cancer at our institution over a continuous 10-year period. From 2004 to 2014, 258 women (184 LDR and 74 HDR) were treated with tandem and ovoid brachytherapy in the multidisciplinary management of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stages IA-IVB cervical cancer. Clinical and treatment-related prognostic factors including age, stage, smoking status, relevant doses, and toxicity data were recorded. Median followup for the LDR and HDR groups was 46 months and 12 months, respectively. The majority of patients (92%) received external beam radiotherapy as well as concurrent chemotherapy (83%) before the start of brachytherapy. For all stages, the 1-year local control and overall survival (OS) rates were comparable between the LDR and HDR groups (87% vs. 81%, p = 0.12; and 75% vs. 85%, p = 0.16), respectively. Factors associated with OS on multivariate analysis include age, stage, and nodal involvement. On multivariate analysis, severe toxicity (acute or chronic) was higher with HDR than LDR (24% vs. 10%, p = 0.04). Additional prognostic factors associated with increased severe toxicity include former/current smokers and total dose to lymph nodes. This comparative retrospective analysis of a large cohort of women treated with brachytherapy demonstrates no significant difference in OS or local control between the LDR and HDR. Acute and chronic toxicity increased shortly after the implementation of HDR, highlighting the importance of continued refinement of HDR methods, including integrating advanced imaging. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 2: Technology assessment and technology development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative LDR system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume presents thirteen technology assessments and technology development plans, as well as an overview and summary of the LDR concepts. Twenty-two proposed augmentation projects are described (selected from more than 30 candidates). The five LDR technology areas most in need of supplementary support are: cryogenic cooling; astronaut assembly of the optically precise LDR in space; active segmented primary mirror; dynamic structural control; and primary mirror contamination control. Three broad, time-phased, five-year programs were synthesized from the 22 projects, scheduled, and funding requirements estimated.

  16. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 2: Technology assessment and technology development plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-04-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative LDR system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume presents thirteen technology assessments and technology development plans, as well as an overview and summary of the LDR concepts. Twenty-two proposed augmentation projects are described (selected from more than 30 candidates). The five LDR technology areas most in need of supplementary support are: cryogenic cooling; astronaut assembly of the optically precise LDR in space; active segmented primary mirror; dynamic structural control; and primary mirror contamination control. Three broad, time-phased, five-year programs were synthesized from the 22 projects, scheduled, and funding requirements estimated.

  17. Emesis as a Screening Diagnostic for Low Dose Rate (LDR) Total Body Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Camarata, A. S.; Switchenko, J. M.; Demidenko, E.; Flood, A. B.; Swartz, H. M.; Ali, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Current radiation disaster manuals list the time-to-emesis (TE) as the key triage indicator of radiation dose. The data used to support TE recommendations were derived primarily from nearly instantaneous, high dose rate exposures as part of variable condition accident databases. To date, there has not been a systematic differentiation between triage dose estimates associated with high and low dose rate (LDR) exposures, even though it is likely that after a nuclear detonation or radiologic disaster, many surviving casualties would have received a significant portion of their total exposure from fallout (LDR exposure) rather than from the initial nuclear detonation or criticality event (high dose rate exposure). This commentary discusses the issues surrounding the use of emesis as a screening diagnostic for radiation dose after LDR exposure. As part of this discussion, previously published clinical data on emesis after LDR total body irradiation (TBI) is statistically re-analyzed as an illustration of the complexity of the issue and confounding factors. This previously published data includes 107 patients who underwent TBI up to 10.5 Gy in a single fraction delivered over several hours at 0.02 to 0.04 Gy/min. Estimates based on these data for the sensitivity of emesis as a screening diagnostic for low dose rate radiation exposure range from 57.1% to 76.6%, and the estimates for specificity range from 87.5% to 99.4%. Though the original data contain multiple confounding factors, the evidence regarding sensitivity suggests that emesis appears to be quite poor as a medical screening diagnostic for LDR exposures. PMID:26910032

  18. Biological equivalence between LDR and PDR in cervical cancer: multifactor analysis using the linear-quadratic model

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Isabel; Pirraco, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this work was the biological comparison between Low Dose Rate (LDR) and Pulsed Dose Rate (PDR) in cervical cancer regarding the discontinuation of the afterloading system used for the LDR treatments at our Institution since December 2009. Material and methods In the first phase we studied the influence of the pulse dose and the pulse time in the biological equivalence between LDR and PDR treatments using the Linear Quadratic Model (LQM). In the second phase, the equivalent dose in 2 Gy/fraction (EQD2) for the tumor, rectum and bladder in treatments performed with both techniques was evaluated and statistically compared. All evaluated patients had stage IIB cervical cancer and were treated with External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) plus two Brachytherapy (BT) applications. Data were collected from 48 patients (26 patients treated with LDR and 22 patients with PDR). Results In the analyses of the influence of PDR parameters in the biological equivalence between LDR and PDR treatments (Phase 1), it was calculated that if the pulse dose in PDR was kept equal to the LDR dose rate, a small the-rapeutic loss was expected. If the pulse dose was decreased, the therapeutic window became larger, but a correction in the prescribed dose was necessary. In PDR schemes with 1 hour interval between pulses, the pulse time did not influence significantly the equivalent dose. In the comparison between the groups treated with LDR and PDR (Phase 2) we concluded that they were not equivalent, because in the PDR group the total EQD2 for the tumor, rectum and bladder was smaller than in the LDR group; the LQM estimated that a correction in the prescribed dose of 6% to 10% was ne-cessary to avoid therapeutic loss. Conclusions A correction in the prescribed dose was necessary; this correction should be achieved by calculating the PDR dose equivalent to the desired LDR total dose. PMID:23346123

  19. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-04-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  20. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  1. Leucine disposal rate for assessment of amino acid metabolism in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Gerald B.; Deger, Serpil M.; Chen, Guanhua; Bian, Aihua; Sha, Feng; Booker, Cindy; Kesler, Jaclyn T.; David, Sthuthi; Ellis, Charles D.; Ikizler, T. Alp

    2016-01-01

    Background Protein energy wasting (PEW) is common in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and closely associated with poor outcomes. Insulin resistance and associated alterations in amino acid metabolism are potential pathways leading to PEW. We hypothesized that the measurement of leucine disposal during a hyperinsulinemic- euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamp (HEAC) procedure would accurately measure the sensitivity to insulin for its actions on concomitant carbohydrate and protein metabolism in MHD patients. Methods We examined 35 MHD patients and 17 control subjects with normal kidney function by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEGC) followed by HEAC clamp procedure to obtain leucine disposal rate (LDR) along with isotope tracer methodology to assess whole body protein turnover. Results The glucose disposal rate (GDR) by HEGC was 5.1 ± 2.1 mg/kg/min for the MHD patients compared to 6.3 ± 3.9 mg/kg/min for the controls (p = 0.38). The LDR during HEAC was 0.09 ± 0.03 mg/kg/min for the MHD patients compared to 0.11 ± 0.05 mg/kg/min for the controls (p = 0.009). The LDR level was correlated with whole body protein synthesis (r = 0.25; p = 0.08), with whole body protein breakdown (r = −0.38 p = 0.01) and net protein balance (r = 0.85; p < 0.001) in the overall study population. Correlations remained significant in subgroup analysis. The GDR derived by HEGC and LDR correlated well in the controls (r = 0.79, p < 0.001), but less so in the MHD patients (r = 0.58, p < 0.001). Conclusions Leucine disposal rate reliably measures amino acid utilization in MHD patients and controls in response to high dose insulin. PMID:27413537

  2. Dose reduction in LDR brachytherapy by implanted prostate gold fiducial markers

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Lutgens, Ludy; Murrer, Lars; Afsharpour, Hossein; Haas-Kock, Danielle de; Visser, Peter; Gils, Francis van; Verhaegen, Frank

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric impact of gold fiducial markers (FM) implanted prior to external beam radiotherapy of prostate cancer on low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy seed implants performed in the context of combined therapy was investigated. Methods: A virtual water phantom was designed containing a single FM. Single and multi source scenarios were investigated by performing Monte Carlo dose calculations, along with the influence of varying orientation and distance of the FM with respect to the sources. Three prostate cancer patients treated with LDR brachytherapy for a recurrence following external beam radiotherapy with implanted FM were studied as surrogate cases to combined therapy. FM and brachytherapy seeds were identified on post implant CT scans and Monte Carlo dose calculations were performed with and without FM. The dosimetric impact of the FM was evaluated by quantifying the amplitude of dose shadows and the volume of cold spots. D{sub 90} was reported based on the post implant CT prostate contour. Results: Large shadows are observed in the single source-FM scenarios. As expected from geometric considerations, the shadows are dependent on source-FM distance and orientation. Large dose reductions are observed at the distal side of FM, while at the proximal side a dose enhancement is observed. In multisource scenarios, the importance of shadows appears mitigated, although FM at the periphery of the seed distribution caused underdosage (LDR brachytherapy seed implant dose distributions. Therefore, reduced tumor control could be expected from FM implanted in tumors, although

  3. Near constant-time optimal piecewise LDR to HDR inverse tone mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qian; Su, Guan-Ming; Yin, Peng

    2015-02-01

    In a backward compatible HDR image/video compression, it is a general approach to reconstruct HDR from compressed LDR as a prediction to original HDR, which is referred to as inverse tone mapping. Experimental results show that 2- piecewise 2nd order polynomial has the best mapping accuracy than 1 piece high order or 2-piecewise linear, but it is also the most time-consuming method because to find the optimal pivot point to split LDR range to 2 pieces requires exhaustive search. In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm that completes optimal 2-piecewise 2nd order polynomial inverse tone mapping in near constant time without quality degradation. We observe that in least square solution, each entry in the intermediate matrix can be written as the sum of some basic terms, which can be pre-calculated into look-up tables. Since solving the matrix becomes looking up values in tables, computation time barely differs regardless of the number of points searched. Hence, we can carry out the most thorough pivot point search to find the optimal pivot that minimizes MSE in near constant time. Experiment shows that our proposed method achieves the same PSNR performance while saving 60 times computation time compared to the traditional exhaustive search in 2-piecewise 2nd order polynomial inverse tone mapping with continuous constraint.

  4. License restrictions at Barnwell

    SciTech Connect

    Autry, V.R.

    1991-12-31

    The State of South Carolina was delegated the authority by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the receipt, possession, use and disposal of radioactive material as an Agreement State. Since 1970, the state has been the principal regulatory authority for the Barnwell Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. The radioactive material license issued authorizing the receipt and disposal of low-level waste contains numerous restrictions to ensure environmental protection and compliance with shallow land disposal performance criteria. Low-level waste has evolved from minimally contaminated items to complex waste streams containing high concentrations of radionuclides and processing chemicals which necessitated these restrictions. Additionally, some waste with their specific radionuclides and concentration levels, many classified as low-level radioactive waste, are not appropriate for shallow land disposal unless additional precautions are taken. This paper will represent a number of these restrictions, the rationale for them, and how they are being dealt with at the Barnwell disposal facility.

  5. Disposable rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  6. Disposal rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  7. Disposable Scholarship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fredrick

    2004-01-01

    The digital materials that faculty produce for their classrooms often are saved only to storage devices that might become obsolete in a few years. Without an institutional effort to provide access systems, storage, and services for their digital media, are campuses in danger of creating "Disposable Scholarship"? In this article, the author…

  8. SU-E-T-259: Development of a Primary Standard for LDR Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, H; McEwen, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The National Research Council initiated a program in 2012 to develop a primary standard to calibrate I-125 and Pd-103 sources used for LDR brachytherapy and disseminate this through calibration services to Canadian users. This will simplify procedures as Canadian cancer centres currently have to ship instruments to the US. Methods: The standard is based on a commercial version of the wide-angle free air chamber (WAFAC) pioneered by NIST. Significant enhancements were implemented to improve signal-to-noise and measurement reproducibility and eliminate electric field effects. Validation of this ionization chamber was then carried out in a low-energy X -ray beam (∼ 31 keV) where the dose rate had been previously established using the existing NRC primary standard free-air chamber. As a final component of this initial testing, measurements were made with a set of I-125 seeds (with air kerma strength traceable to NIST). Results: Excellent agreement of the two NRC free-air chambers was obtained within the combined standard uncertainty of 0.5 %. However, it was found that the WAFAC response is very sensitive to the beam geometry (distance from the source, diameter of the beam-defining aperture, etc) and Monte Carlo calculations, carried out to evaluate these geometry corrections, have confirmed the experimental results. The results for the seed measurements indicated a precision of better than 1 % is achievable for a reasonable acquisition time and the air kerma strength agreed with the manufacturer (NIST-traceable) value within 2 %. Conclusion: The prototype primary standard for LDR brachytherapy has met accuracy target of 3 % for the determination of air kerma strength. Work is ongoing to refine operation of the device and develop the calibration protocol for clinical users, with an anticipated launch of a calibration service in late 2015.

  9. Multiple scattering effects on the Linear Depolarization Ratio (LDR) measured during CaPE by a Ka-band air-borne radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iguchi, Toshio; Meneghini, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Air-borne radar measurements of thunderstorms were made as part of the CaPE (Convection and Precipitation/Electrification) experiment in Florida in July 1991. The radar has two channels, X-band (10 GHz) and Ka-band (34.5 GHz), and is capable of measuring cross-polarized returns as well as co-polarized returns. In stratiform rain, the cross-polarized components can be observed only at the bright band region and from the surface reflection. The linear depolarization ratios (LDR's) measured at X-band and Ka-band at the bright band are nearly equal. In convective rain, however, the LDR in Ka-band often exceeds the X-band LDR by several dB, and sometimes by more than 10 dB, reaching LDR values of up to -5 dB over heavy convective rain. For randomly oriented hydrometeors, such high LDR values cannot be explained by single scattering from non-spherical scattering particles alone. Because the LDR by single backscatter depends weakly on the wavelength, the difference between the Ka-band and X-band LDR's suggests that multiple scattering effects prevail in the Ka-band LDR. In order to test this inference, the magnitude of the cross-polarized component created by double scattering was calculated using the parameters of the airborne radar, which for both frequencies has beamwidths of 5.1 degrees and pulse widths of 0.5 microsecond. Uniform rain beyond the range of 3 km is assumed.

  10. Changes in glucose disposal after a caloric restriction-induced weight loss program in obese postmenopausal women: characteristics of positive and negative responders in a Montreal-Ottawa New Emerging Team study.

    PubMed

    Myette-Côté, Étienne; Doucet, Éric; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Brochu, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate individual characteristics that explain interindividual variations in glucose disposal in response to a 6-month weight loss program in obese postmenopausal women. The cohort was divided into tertiles based on changes in glucose disposal after weight loss. Only women in the upper tertile (positive responders: Δ glucose disposal ≥ 0.92 mg/kg/min; n = 19) and lower tertile (negative responders: Δ glucose disposal ≤ -0.23 mg/kg/min; n = 19) were considered for analyses. Outcome measures included body weight, lean body mass (LBM), LBM index (= LBM / height [m]), fat mass (FM), FM index (= FM / height [m]), visceral fat, subcutaneous abdominal fat, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, interleukin-6, lipid profile, physical activity levels, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, glucose disposal by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique, and resting blood pressure. At baseline, positive responders had higher triglycerides and hsCRP levels and lower glucose disposal (0.01 < P < 0.05) than negative responders. Except for visceral fat, the entire cohort showed significant decreases in all measures of body composition (P < 0.005) after weight loss, with greater decreases in body weight, body mass index, and FM index in positive responders (P < 0.005). Finally, data revealed that only positive responders showed decreases in LBM, LBM index, and hsCRP levels after weight loss (P between 0.01 and 0.001). An important interindividual variability in changes in glucose disposal after weight loss is observed. Interestingly, participants who display improvements in glucose disposal also show significant decreases in LBM, LBM index, and hsCRP after weight loss.

  11. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  12. Monte Carlo study of LDR seed dosimetry with an application in a clinical brachytherapy breast implant

    SciTech Connect

    Furstoss, C.; Reniers, B.; Bertrand, M. J.; Poon, E.; Carrier, J.-F.; Keller, B. M.; Pignol, J. P.; Beaulieu, L.; Verhaegen, F.

    2009-05-15

    A Monte Carlo (MC) study was carried out to evaluate the effects of the interseed attenuation and the tissue composition for two models of {sup 125}I low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy seeds (Medi-Physics 6711, IBt InterSource) in a permanent breast implant. The effect of the tissue composition was investigated because the breast localization presents heterogeneities such as glandular and adipose tissue surrounded by air, lungs, and ribs. The absolute MC dose calculations were benchmarked by comparison to the absolute dose obtained from experimental results. Before modeling a clinical case of an implant in heterogeneous breast, the effects of the tissue composition and the interseed attenuation were studied in homogeneous phantoms. To investigate the tissue composition effect, the dose along the transverse axis of the two seed models were calculated and compared in different materials. For each seed model, three seeds sharing the same transverse axis were simulated to evaluate the interseed effect in water as a function of the distance from the seed. A clinical study of a permanent breast {sup 125}I implant for a single patient was carried out using four dose calculation techniques: (1) A TG-43 based calculation, (2) a full MC simulation with realistic tissues and seed models, (3) a MC simulation in water and modeled seeds, and (4) a MC simulation without modeling the seed geometry but with realistic tissues. In the latter, a phase space file corresponding to the particles emitted from the external surface of the seed is used at each seed location. The results were compared by calculating the relevant clinical metrics V{sub 85}, V{sub 100}, and V{sub 200} for this kind of treatment in the target. D{sub 90} and D{sub 50} were also determined to evaluate the differences in dose and compare the results to the studies published for permanent prostate seed implants in literature. The experimental results are in agreement with the MC absolute doses (within 5% for EBT

  13. H.R. 1180: A Bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to provide congressional authorization for restrictions on receipt of out-of-State municipal solid waste and for State control over transportation of municipal solid waste, and to clarify the authority for certain municipal solid waste flow control arrangements, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, March 9, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The report H.R. 1180 is a bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to provide congressional authorization for restrictions on receipt of out-of-State municipal solid waste and for State control over transportation of municipal solid waste, and to clarify the authority for certain municipal solid waste flow control arrangements. The proposed legislative text is provided.

  14. Which Disposable Chest Electrode?

    PubMed Central

    Hubner, P. J. B.

    1969-01-01

    Chest electrodes are preferred to limb electrodes for cardiac monitoring, as limb movements are not restricted and produce less interference of the E.C.G. trace. Eight types of disposable chest electrodes were investigated to compare their performance, skin reactions, cost, ease of application, size, and skin–electrode impedance. Elema-Schonander electrodes were found to be the most efficient and the most expensive. In their application care was required to avoid severe skin reactions. Dracard electrodes were simple to attach, worked well without severe skin reactions, and were cheap. They are recommended for routine use. Smith and Nephew electrodes, a type of “multipoint electrodes” which do not require electrode jelly, frequently produced severe skin reactions, making them unsuitable for monitoring for periods exceeding 12 hours. PMID:5801347

  15. HDR and LDR Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Lip Cancer: the Experience of the Catalan Institute of Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Mena, Estefanía Palacios; Fabregas, Joan Pera; Miguelez, Cristina Gutiérrez; Guedea, Ferran

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Lip cancer can be treated by surgery, external radiotherapy, and/or brachytherapy (BT). In recent years, BT has become increasingly favored for this type of cancer. The aim of the present study was to analyze local control and survival of patients treated at our institution between July 1989 and June 2008. Material and methods We performed a retrospective study of 121 patients (109 males and 12 females) who underwent lip cancer brachytherapy from July 1989 to June 2008. Median age was 67 years and median follow-up was 31.8 months (range 20-188 months). Out of 121 patients, 100 (82.6%) were treated with low dose rate (LDR) BT while the remaining 21 patients (17.4%) received high dose rate (HDR) BT. Results The most common cell type was squamous cell carcinoma (115 cases; 95%) and most tumors were located on the lower lip (107 patients; 88.4%). Most cases were either stage T1 (62 patients; 51.2%), or T2 (44 cases; 36.4%). After 15 years of follow-up, overall survival was 89.5%, cause-specific survival 97.8%, and disease-free survival 86.6%. Local, regional, and distant control at 15 years were 90%, 92%, and 98.8%, respectively. Grade 3 mucosal toxicity was observed in 23% of patients treated with LDR compared to 33% of HDR patients, and grade 4 mucosal toxicity in 9% versus 0% in the HDR group. Conclusions Our findings confirm that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for lip cancer. The results from our series are in line with those published elsewhere. Based on our limited data, HDR appears to be equally as good as LDR, although this needs to be confirmed by further studies. PMID:28031737

  16. Using LDR as Sensing Element for an External Fuzzy Controller Applied in Photovoltaic Pumping Systems with Variable-Speed Drives

    PubMed Central

    Maranhão, Geraldo Neves De A.; Brito, Alaan Ubaiara; Leal, Anderson Marques; Fonseca, Jéssica Kelly Silva; Macêdo, Wilson Negrão

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, a fuzzy controller applied to a Variable-Speed Drive (VSD) for use in Photovoltaic Pumping Systems (PVPS) is proposed. The fuzzy logic system (FLS) used is embedded in a microcontroller and corresponds to a proportional-derivative controller. A Light-Dependent Resistor (LDR) is used to measure, approximately, the irradiance incident on the PV array. Experimental tests are executed using an Arduino board. The experimental results show that the fuzzy controller is capable of operating the system continuously throughout the day and controlling the direct current (DC) voltage level in the VSD with a good performance. PMID:26402688

  17. Using LDR as Sensing Element for an External Fuzzy Controller Applied in Photovoltaic Pumping Systems with Variable-Speed Drives.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Geraldo Neves De A; Brito, Alaan Ubaiara; Leal, Anderson Marques; Fonseca, Jéssica Kelly Silva; Macêdo, Wilson Negrão

    2015-09-22

    In the present paper, a fuzzy controller applied to a Variable-Speed Drive (VSD) for use in Photovoltaic Pumping Systems (PVPS) is proposed. The fuzzy logic system (FLS) used is embedded in a microcontroller and corresponds to a proportional-derivative controller. A Light-Dependent Resistor (LDR) is used to measure, approximately, the irradiance incident on the PV array. Experimental tests are executed using an Arduino board. The experimental results show that the fuzzy controller is capable of operating the system continuously throughout the day and controlling the direct current (DC) voltage level in the VSD with a good performance.

  18. Comparative Study of LDR (Manchester System) and HDR Image-guided Conformal Brachytherapy of Cervical Cancer: Patterns of Failure, Late Complications, and Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Kailash Dyk, Sylvia van; Bernshaw, David; Rajasooriyar, Chrishanthi; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To compare patterns of failure, late toxicities, and survival in locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated by either low-dose-rate (LDR) or conformal high-dose-rate (HDRc) brachytherapy as a part of curative radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective comparative study of 217 advanced cervix cancer patients was conducted; 90 of these patients received LDR and 127 received HDRc brachytherapy. All patients were staged using International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) rules, had pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and were treated with concurrent cisplatin chemoradiotherapy. Both groups matched for FIGO stage, MRI tumor volume, and uterine invasion status. Results: Local and pelvic failures were similar 12-13% and 14% both in both groups. Abdominal and systemic failures in LDR group were 21% and 24%, whereas corresponding failures in HDRc group were 20% and 24%. Sixty-eight percent (87/127) of patients treated by HDRc remained asymptomatic, whereas 42% (38/90) of patients were asymptomatic from the bowel and bladder symptoms after treatment with LDR. The 5-year OS rate was 60% (SE = 4%). The 5-year failure-free survival rate was 55% (SE = 3%). There was no significant difference between the groups. Conclusions: Image-guided HDRc planning led to a large decrease in late radiation effects in patients treated by HDRc. Patterns of failure and survival were similar in patients treated either by LDR or HDRc.

  19. Biological effective dose evaluation in gynaecological brachytherapy: LDR and HDR treatments, dependence on radiobiological parameters, and treatment optimisation.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, C; Botta, F; Conte, L; Vanoli, P; Cerizza, L

    2008-10-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the biological efficacy of different high-dose-rate (HDR) and low-dose-rate (LDR) treatments of gynaecological lesions, to identify the causes of possible nonuniformity and to optimise treatment through customised calculation. The study considered 110 patients treated between 2001 and 2006 with external beam radiation therapy and/or brachytherapy with either LDR (afterloader Selectron, (137)Cs) or HDR (afterloader microSelectron Classic, (192)Ir). The treatments were compared in terms of biologically effective dose (BED) to the tumour and to the rectum (linear-quadratic model) by using statistical tests for comparisons between independent samples. The difference between the two treatments was statistically significant in one case only. However, within each technique, we identified considerable nonuniformity in therapeutic efficacy due to differences in fractionation schemes and overall treatment time. To solve this problem, we created a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet allowing calculation of the optimal treatment for each patient: best efficacy (BED(tumour)) without exceeding toxicity threshold (BED(rectum)). The efficacy of a treatment may vary as a result of several factors. Customised radiobiological evaluation is a useful adjunct to clinical evaluation in planning equivalent treatments that satisfy all dosimetric constraints.

  20. Drilling fluid disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, L.E.; Sanders, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    A maze of U.S. regulations and regulatory agencies coupled with uncertainty in interpretation of environmental data and an evolving system of disposal engineering will require industry action to monitor the area and derive a solid engineering basis for disposal of spent drilling fluid. A set of disposal methods with approximate costs is presented to serve as an initial guide for disposal. 16 refs.

  1. 7 CFR 352.10 - Inspection; safeguards; disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection; safeguards; disposal. 352.10 Section 352...; safeguards; disposal. (a) Inspection and release. Prohibited and restricted products and articles subject to... refused such entry or movement before unloading or landing, or which were refused such entry or...

  2. A Multiplex PCR/LDR Assay for Simultaneous Detection and Identification of the NIAID Category B Bacterial Food and Water-borne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rundell, Mark S.; Pingle, Maneesh; Das, Sanchita; Hussain, Aashiq; Ocheretina, Oksana; Charles, Macarthur; Larone, Davise H.; Spitzer, Eric D.; Golightly, Linnie; Barany, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Enteric pathogens that cause gastroenteritis remain a major global health concern. The goal of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR/LDR assay for the detection of all NIAID category B bacterial food and water-borne pathogens directly from stool specimens. To validate the PCR/LDR assay, clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp., Vibrio spp., Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were tested. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay was assessed using a large number of seeded culture-negative stool specimens and a smaller set of clinical specimens from Haiti. The overall sensitivity ranged from 91 to 100% (median 100%) depending on the species. For the majority of organisms the sensitivity was 100%. The overall specificity based on initial testing ranged from 98% to 100% depending on the species. After additional testing of discordant samples the lowest specificity was 99.4%. PCR/LDR detected additional category B agents (particularly diarrheagenic E. coli) in 11/40 specimens from Haiti that were culture-positive for V. cholerae and in approximately 1% of routine culture-negative stool specimens from a hospital in New York. This study demonstrated the ability of the PCR/LDR assay to detect a large comprehensive panel of category B enteric bacterial pathogens as well as mixed infections. This type of assay has the potential to provide earlier warnings of possible public health threats and more accurate surveillance of food and water-borne pathogens. PMID:24709368

  3. A multiplex PCR/LDR assay for simultaneous detection and identification of the NIAID category B bacterial food and water-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Mark S; Pingle, Maneesh; Das, Sanchita; Hussain, Aashiq; Ocheretina, Oksana; Charles, Macarthur; Larone, Davise H; Spitzer, Eric D; Golightly, Linnie; Barany, Francis

    2014-06-01

    Enteric pathogens that cause gastroenteritis remain a major global health concern. The goal of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR/ligation detection reaction (LDR) assay for the detection of all NIAID category B bacterial food and water-borne pathogens directly from stool specimens. To validate the PCR/LDR assay, clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp., Vibrio spp., Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were tested. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were assessed using a large number of seeded culture-negative stool specimens and a smaller set of clinical specimens from Haiti. The overall sensitivity ranged from 91% to 100% (median 100%) depending on the species. For the majority of organisms, the sensitivity was 100%. The overall specificity based on initial testing ranged from 98% to 100% depending on the species. After additional testing of discordant samples, the lowest specificity was 99.4%. PCR/LDR detected additional category B agents (particularly diarrheagenic E. coli) in 11/40 specimens from Haiti that were culture-positive for V. cholerae and in approximately 1% of routine culture-negative stool specimens from a hospital in New York. This study demonstrated the ability of the PCR/LDR assay to detect a large comprehensive panel of category B enteric bacterial pathogens as well as mixed infections. This type of assay has the potential to provide earlier warnings of possible public health threats and more accurate surveillance of food and water-borne pathogens.

  4. Deep Drawing for high LDR by a new Hydro-rim Forming Process with Differential Temperature- Analysis and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Y. Ben; Tirosh, J.; Rubinski, Ludmila

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and test a possible increase of the Limit Drawing Ratio (LDR) in Deep Drawing by Hydro-rim process (a certain subset of the classical Hydroforming) which includes the newly differential temperature effect. The idea is to facilitate the plastic flow by local heating along the flange and to cool the area where strength is needed. The suggested analysis is based on the dual bounds approach (upper and lower bounds simultaneously) using the highly versatile Johnson-Cook constitutive material model. The advantage of combined high hydraulic pressure (about 1000 bar) with relatively high blank temperature (with magnitude of about one third the melting temperature of the considered material) in the same operation is discussed. Emphasis is given to the rule of blank temperature difference (between the flange and the wall of the product) conjugate with optimal hydro rim pressure in increasing the limit drawing ratio of the products (Aluminum, Copper and various Steels).

  5. SU-F-BRA-13: Knowledge-Based Treatment Planning for Prostate LDR Brachytherapy Based On Principle Component Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, J; Bradshaw, B; Godette, K; Schreibmann, E; Chanyavanich, V

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To create a knowledge-based algorithm for prostate LDR brachytherapy treatment planning that standardizes plan quality using seed arrangements tailored to individual physician preferences while being fast enough for real-time planning. Methods: A dataset of 130 prior cases was compiled for a physician with an active prostate seed implant practice. Ten cases were randomly selected to test the algorithm. Contours from the 120 library cases were registered to a common reference frame. Contour variations were characterized on a point by point basis using principle component analysis (PCA). A test case was converted to PCA vectors using the same process and then compared with each library case using a Mahalanobis distance to evaluate similarity. Rank order PCA scores were used to select the best-matched library case. The seed arrangement was extracted from the best-matched case and used as a starting point for planning the test case. Computational time was recorded. Any subsequent modifications were recorded that required input from a treatment planner to achieve an acceptable plan. Results: The computational time required to register contours from a test case and evaluate PCA similarity across the library was approximately 10s. Five of the ten test cases did not require any seed additions, deletions, or moves to obtain an acceptable plan. The remaining five test cases required on average 4.2 seed modifications. The time to complete manual plan modifications was less than 30s in all cases. Conclusion: A knowledge-based treatment planning algorithm was developed for prostate LDR brachytherapy based on principle component analysis. Initial results suggest that this approach can be used to quickly create treatment plans that require few if any modifications by the treatment planner. In general, test case plans have seed arrangements which are very similar to prior cases, and thus are inherently tailored to physician preferences.

  6. LDR brachytherapy: can low dose rate hypersensitivity from the "inverse" dose rate effect cause excessive cell killing to peripherial connective tissues and organs?

    PubMed

    Leonard, B E; Lucas, A C

    2009-02-01

    Examined here are the possible effects of the "inverse" dose rate effect (IDRE) on low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy. The hyper-radiosensitivity and induced radioresistance (HRS/IRR) effect benefits cell killing in radiotherapy, and IDRE and HRS/IRR seem to be generated from the same radioprotective mechanisms. We have computed the IDRE excess cell killing experienced in LDR brachytherapy using permanent seed implants. We conclude, firstly, that IDRE is a dose rate-dependent manifestation of HRS/IRR. Secondly, the presence of HRS/IRR or IDRE in a cell species or tissue must be determined by direct dose-response measurements. Thirdly, a reasonable estimate is that 50-80% of human adjoining connective and organ tissues experience IDRE from permanent implanted LDR brachytherapy. If IDRE occurs for tissues at point A for cervical cancer, the excess cell killing will be about a factor of 3.5-4.0 if the initial dose rate is 50-70 cGy h(-1). It is greater for adjacent tissues at lower dose rates and higher for lower initial dose rates at point A. Finally, higher post-treatment complications are observed in LDR brachytherapy, often for unknown reasons. Some of these are probably a result of IDRE excess cell killing. Measurements of IDRE need be performed for connective and adjacent organ tissues, i.e. bladder, rectum, urinary tract and small bowels. The measured dose rate-dependent dose responses should extended to <10 cGy h(-1) and involve multiple patients to detect patient variability. Results may suggest a preference for high dose rate brachytherapy or LDR brachytherapy without permanent retention of the implant seeds (hence the dose rates in peripheral tissues and organs remain above IDRE thresholds).

  7. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    Cardiomyopathy - restrictive; Infiltrative cardiomyopathy; Idiopathic myocardial fibrosis ... In a case of restrictive cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle is of normal size or slightly enlarged. Most of the time, it also pumps normally. However, it does ...

  8. 7 CFR 3550.118 - Grant restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant restrictions. 3550.118 Section 3550.118... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 504 Origination and Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal Grants § 3550.118 Grant restrictions. (a) Maximum grant. Lifetime assistance to any...

  9. 7 CFR 3550.118 - Grant restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grant restrictions. 3550.118 Section 3550.118... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 504 Origination and Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal Grants § 3550.118 Grant restrictions. (a) Maximum grant. Lifetime assistance to any...

  10. Disposal of hazardous debris contaminated with a listed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, D.; Johnson, M.; Poy, T.

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and its contractor, PRC Environmental Management, Inc. (PRC), are conducting remedial design (RD) activities at the Peerless Plating Superfund (Peerless) site in Muskegon, Michigan. As part of the predesign activities for the RD, EPA required that PRC demolish an above ground building and foundation at the Peerless site. Based on their observations, PRC and EPA have determined that the building`s floor and footings may be contaminated with F007 hazardous waste. The Debris Rule presents several alternative treatment standard options for contaminated debris. This paper will present the options that are practical for the Peerless site that the demolition and disposal contractor can choose from. The Debris Rule provides an alternative to treating the contaminated debris to existing LDR standards for the waste contaminating the debris and continuing to manage it under RCRA Subtitle C. Based on the analytical results, the concrete floor and footings that are contaminated with F007 hazardous waste may be treated on site or demolished and transported off site for treatment and disposal. Heavy metals were among the contaminants found in surface water. Organic and inorganic compounds contaminated soils and groundwater.

  11. Drilling fluid disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, L.E.; Sander, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper attempts to review the effect of the regulatory process on the selection and handling of drilling fluids for proper disposal. It is shown that a maze of regulations and regulatory agencies coupled with uncertainty in interpretation of environmental data and an evolving system of disposal engineering will require industry action to monitor the area and derive a solid engineering basis for disposal of spent drilling fluid. 16 refs.

  12. Disposables in downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Disposable equipment has been used for many years in the downstream processing industry, but mainly for filtration and buffer/media storage. Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the use of disposable concepts for chromatography, replacing steel and glass fixed systems with disposable plastic modules that can be discarded once exhausted, fouled or contaminated. These modules save on cleaning and validation costs, and their reduce footprints reduce buffer consumption, water for injection, labor and facility space, contributing to an overall reduction in expenditure that lowers the cost of goods. This chapter examines the practical and economic benefits of disposable modules in downstream processing.

  13. In-vivo laser induced urethral stricture animal model for investigating the potential of LDR-brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Lellig, Katja; Bader, Markus; Stief, Christian; Weidlich, Patrick; Wechsel, G.; Assmann, Walter; Becker, R.; Fedorova, O.; Khoder, Wael

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Treatment of urethral strictures is a major challenge in urology. For investigation of different treatment methods an animal model was developed by reproducible induction of urethral strictures in rabbits to mimic the human clinical situation. By means of this model the potential of endoluminal LDR brachytherapy using β-irradiation as prophylaxis of recurrent urethral strictures investigated. Material and Methods: A circumferential urethral stricture was induced by energy deposition using laser light application (wavelength λ=1470 nm, 10 W, 10 s, applied energy 100 J) in the posterior urethra of anaesthetized New Zealand White male rabbits. The radial light emitting fiber was introduced by means of a children resectoscope (14F). The grade of urethral stricture was evaluated in 18 rabbits using videourethroscopy and urethrography at day 28 after stricture induction. An innovative catheter was developed based on a β-irradiation emitting foil containing 32P, which was wrapped around the application system. Two main groups (each n=18) were separated. The "internal urethrotomy group" received after 28days of stricture induction immediately after surgical urethrotomy of the stricture the radioactive catheter for one week in a randomized, controlled and blinded manner. There were 3 subgroups with 6 animals each receiving 0 Gy, 15 Gy and 30 Gy. In contrast animals from the "De Nuovo group" received directly after the stricture induction (day 0) the radioactive catheter also for the duration of one week divided into the same dose subgroups. In order to determine the radiation tolerance of the urethral mucosa, additional animals without any stricture induction received a radioactive catheter applying a total dose of 30 Gy (n=2) and 15 Gy (n=1). Cystourethrography and endoscopic examination of urethra were performed on all operation days for monitoring treatment progress. Based on these investigation a classification of the stricture size was performed and

  14. SU-F-19A-11: Retrospective Evaluation of Thermal Coverage by Thermobrachytherapy Seed Arrangements of Clinical LDR Prostate Implants

    SciTech Connect

    Warrell, G; Shvydka, D; Chen, C; Parsai, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The superiority of a properly-administered combination of radiation therapy and hyperthermia over radiation alone in treatment of human cancers has been demonstrated in multiple studies examining radiobiology, local control, and survival. Unfortunately, hyperthermia is not yet a common modality in oncology practice, due in part to the technical difficulty of heating a deep-seated target volume to sufficient temperature. To address this problem, our group has invented a thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed based on a commonly-used low dose-rate permanent brachytherapy seed for implant in solid tumors. Instead of the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard seed, the TB seed contains one of a self-regulating ferromagnetic alloy. Placement of a patient implanted with such seeds in an oscillating magnetic field generates heat via induction of eddy currents. We present the results of studies of the capability of clinically-realistic TB seed arrangements to adequately heat defined target volumes. Methods: Seed distributions for several past LDR prostate permanent implant brachytherapy patients were reproduced in the finite element analysis software package COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4, with the difference that TB seeds were modelled, rather than the radiation-only seeds actually used for their treatments. The implant geometries were mainly of the modified peripheral loading type; a range of prostatic volumes and blood perfusion rates likely to be seen in a clinical setting were examined. Results: According to the simulations, when distributed to optimize radiation dose, TB seeds also produce sufficient heat to provide thermal coverage of the target given proper selection of the magnetic field strength. However, the thermal distributions may be improved by additional use of hyperthermia-only seeds. Conclusion: A dual-modality seed intended as an alternative to and using the same implantation apparatus and technique as the standard LDR permanent implant seed has been

  15. Deep sea waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Kester, D.R.; Burt, W.V.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Park, P.K.; Ketchum, B.W.; Duedall, I.W.

    1985-01-01

    The book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include incineration at sea, the modelling and biological effects of industrial wastes, microbial studies of ocean dumping, deep-sea mining wastes, the chemical analysis of ferromanganese nodules, and economic aspects of deep-sea disposal.

  16. Disposable Diapers Are OK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poore, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    A personal account of measuring the pros and cons of disposable diaper usage leads the author to differentiate between a garbage problem and environmental problem. Concludes the disposable diaper issue is a political and economic issue with a local environmental impact and well within our abilities to manage. (MCO)

  17. Disposable Diapers Are OK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poore, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    A personal account of measuring the pros and cons of disposable diaper usage leads the author to differentiate between a garbage problem and environmental problem. Concludes the disposable diaper issue is a political and economic issue with a local environmental impact and well within our abilities to manage. (MCO)

  18. Disposal of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, W.R.

    1983-06-01

    Prior to 1974 the disposal of drilling fluids was not considered to be much of an environmental problem. In the past, disposal of drilling fluids was accomplished in various ways such as spreading on oil field lease roads to stabilize the road surface and control dust, spreading in the base of depressions of sandy land areas to increase water retention, and leaving the fluid in the reserve pit to be covered on closure of the pit. In recent years, some states have become concerned over the indescriminate dumping of drilling fluids into pits or unauthorized locations and have developed specific regulations to alleviate the perceived deterioration of environmental and groundwater quality from uncontrolled disposal practices. The disposal of drilling fluids in Kansas is discussed along with a newer method or treatment in drilling fluid disposal.

  19. Disposal of Vessels at Sea

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vessel disposal general permits are issued by the EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Information is provided for vessel disposal permit applicants and where to dispose a vessel.

  20. Bacterial discrimination by means of a universal array approach mediated by LDR (ligase detection reaction)

    PubMed Central

    Busti, Elena; Bordoni, Roberta; Castiglioni, Bianca; Monciardini, Paolo; Sosio, Margherita; Donadio, Stefano; Consolandi, Clarissa; Rossi Bernardi, Luigi; Battaglia, Cristina; De Bellis, Gianluca

    2002-01-01

    Background PCR amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes provides the most comprehensive and flexible means of sampling bacterial communities. Sequence analysis of these cloned fragments can provide a qualitative and quantitative insight of the microbial population under scrutiny although this approach is not suited to large-scale screenings. Other methods, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, heteroduplex or terminal restriction fragment analysis are rapid and therefore amenable to field-scale experiments. A very recent addition to these analytical tools is represented by microarray technology. Results Here we present our results using a Universal DNA Microarray approach as an analytical tool for bacterial discrimination. The proposed procedure is based on the properties of the DNA ligation reaction and requires the design of two probes specific for each target sequence. One oligo carries a fluorescent label and the other a unique sequence (cZipCode or complementary ZipCode) which identifies a ligation product. Ligated fragments, obtained in presence of a proper template (a PCR amplified fragment of the 16s rRNA gene) contain either the fluorescent label or the unique sequence and therefore are addressed to the location on the microarray where the ZipCode sequence has been spotted. Such an array is therefore "Universal" being unrelated to a specific molecular analysis. Here we present the design of probes specific for some groups of bacteria and their application to bacterial diagnostics. Conclusions The combined use of selective probes, ligation reaction and the Universal Array approach yielded an analytical procedure with a good power of discrimination among bacteria. PMID:12243651

  1. Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Connie W.; Kraus, William E.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE While the impact of caloric restriction on human health is not fully understood, there is strong evidence to support further studies of its influence on cardiovascular health. The purpose of this review is to update the state of the science by examining the relevant literature regarding calorie restriction effects on aging and cardiovascular health and to discuss the possible role(s) of calorie restriction in preserving cardiovascular function in humans. METHODS For purpose of this review, we have defined calorie restriction as a reduction in energy intake well below the amount of calories that would be consumed ad libitum (≥ 10% in humans, ≥20% in animals). We examined the relevant literature on calorie restriction effects on longevity and cardiovascular health, with an emphasis on the state of the science regarding calorie restriction in humans. We have emphasized the importance of the preliminary and expected findings from the Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effect of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE) trial. RESULTS Evidence from animal studies and a limited number of human trials indicates that calorie restriction has the potential to both delay cardiac aging and help prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease via beneficial effects on blood pressure, lipids, inflammatory processes, and potentially other mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS Based upon its known benefits to cardiometabolic health, including modest calorie restriction in a combined lifestyle program is likely to improve heart health and prevent subsequent cardiovascular events in overweight and obese individuals. Additional study is needed to further illuminate its long-term applicability for older adults and for those with significant comorbidities such as heart failure. PMID:23748374

  2. SU-E-T-431: Feasiblity of Using CT Scout Images for 2D LDR Brachytherpay Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, J; Weaver, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: i) To show the feasibility of using CT scout images for 2D low-dose rate brachytherapy planning with BrachyVision (version 10.4); ii) to show their advantages and disadvantages over DRRs. Methods: A phantom was constructed to house a Fletcher-Suite applicator. The phantom is made of Styrofoam with metal BBs positioned at well-defined separations. These markers are used to assess the image distortion in the scout images. Unlike DRRs, scout images are distorted only in the direction normal to the couch direction; therefore, they needed to be scaled unidirectionally prior to importing into BrachyVision. In addition to confirming the scaling is performed correctly by measuring distances between well-positioned BB, we also compare a LDR plan using scout images to a 3D CT-based plan. Results: There is no distortion of the image along the couch direction due to the collimation of the CT scanner. The distortion in the transverse plane can be corrected by multiplying by the ratio of distances between source-to-isocenter and source-to-detector. The results show the distance separations between BBs as measured in scout images and by a caliber are within a few millimeters. Dosimetrically, the difference between the dose rates to points A and B based on scout images and on 3D CT are less than a few percents. The accuracy can be improved by correcting for the distortion on the transverse plane. Conclusion: It is possible to use CT scout images for 2D planning in BrachyVision. This is an advantage because scout images have no metal artifacts often present in CT images or DRRs. Another advantage is the lack of distortion in the couch direction. One major disadvantage is that the image distortion due to beam divergence can be large. This is due to the inherent short distance between source-to-isocenter and source-to-detector on a CT scanner.

  3. Comparison between beta radiation dose distribution due to LDR and HDR ocular brachytherapy applicators using GATE Monte Carlo platform.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Laoues; Rachid, Khelifi; Ahmed, Sidi Moussa

    2016-08-01

    Eye applicators with 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta-ray sources are generally used in brachytherapy for the treatment of eye diseases as uveal melanoma. Whenever, radiation is used in treatment, dosimetry is essential. However, knowledge of the exact dose distribution is a critical decision-making to the outcome of the treatment. The Monte Carlo technique provides a powerful tool for calculation of the dose and dose distributions which helps to predict and determine the doses from different shapes of various types of eye applicators more accurately. The aim of this work consisted in using the Monte Carlo GATE platform to calculate the 3D dose distribution on a mathematical model of the human eye according to international recommendations. Mathematical models were developed for four ophthalmic applicators, two HDR 90Sr applicators SIA.20 and SIA.6, and two LDR 106Ru applicators, a concave CCB model and a flat CCB model. In present work, considering a heterogeneous eye phantom and the chosen tumor, obtained results with the use of GATE for mean doses distributions in a phantom and according to international recommendations show a discrepancy with respect to those specified by the manufacturers. The QC of dosimetric parameters shows that contrarily to the other applicators, the SIA.20 applicator is consistent with recommendations. The GATE platform show that the SIA.20 applicator present better results, namely the dose delivered to critical structures were lower compared to those obtained for the other applicators, and the SIA.6 applicator, simulated with MCNPX generates higher lens doses than those generated by GATE.

  4. Commissioning of a well type chamber for HDR and LDR brachytherapy applications: a review of methodology and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mukwada, Godfrey; Neveri, Gabor; Alkhatib, Zaid; Waterhouse, David K; Ebert, Martin

    2016-03-01

    For safe and accurate dose delivery in brachytherapy, associated equipment is subject to commissioning and ongoing quality assurance (QA). Many centres depend on the use of a well-type chamber ('well chamber') for performing brachytherapy dosimetry. Documentation of well chamber commissioning is scarce despite the important role the chamber plays in the whole brachytherapy QA process. An extensive and structured commissioning of the HDR 1000 plus well chamber (Standard Imaging Inc, Middleton WI) for HDR and LDR dosimetry was undertaken at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. The methodology and outcomes of this commissioning is documented and presented as a guideline to others involved in brachytherapy. The commissioning tests described include mechanical integrity, leakage current, directional dependence, response, length of uniform response, the influence of insert holders, ion collection efficiency, polarity effect, accuracy of measured air kerma strength (S(K)) or reference air kerma rate (K(R)) and baseline setting (for ongoing constancy checks). For the HDR 1000 plus well chamber, some of the insert holders modify the response curve. The measured sweet length was 2.5 cm which is within 0.5% of that specified by the manufacturer. Correction for polarity was negligible (0.9999) and ion recombination was small (0.9994). Directional dependence was small (less than 0.2%) and leakage current was negligible. The measured K(R) for (192)Ir agreed within 0.11% compared with a second well chamber of similar model and was within 0.5% of that determined via a free-in-air measurement method. Routine constancy checks over a year agreed with the baseline within 0.4%.

  5. Minimal percentage of dose received by 90% of the urethra (%UD90) is the most significant predictor of PSA bounce in patients who underwent low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-brachytherapy) for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To clarify the significant clinicopathological and postdosimetric parameters to predict PSA bounce in patients who underwent low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-brachytherapy) for prostate cancer. Methods We studied 200 consecutive patients who received LDR-brachytherapy between July 2004 and November 2008. Of them, 137 patients did not receive neoadjuvant or adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. One hundred and forty-two patients were treated with LDR-brachytherapy alone, and 58 were treated with LDR-brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiation therapy. The cut-off value of PSA bounce was 0.1 ng/mL. The incidence, time, height, and duration of PSA bounce were investigated. Clinicopathological and postdosimetric parameters were evaluated to elucidate independent factors to predict PSA bounce in hormone-naïve patients who underwent LDR-brachytherapy alone. Results Fifty patients (25%) showed PSA bounce and 10 patients (5%) showed PSA failure. The median time, height, and duration of PSA bounce were 17 months, 0.29 ng/mL, and 7.0 months, respectively. In 103 hormone-naïve patients treated with LDR-brachytherapy alone, and univariate Cox proportional regression hazard model indicated that age and minimal percentage of the dose received by 30% and 90% of the urethra were independent predictors of PSA bounce. With a multivariate Cox proportional regression hazard model, minimal percentage of the dose received by 90% of the urethra was the most significant parameter of PSA bounce. Conclusions Minimal percentage of the dose received by 90% of the urethra was the most significant predictor of PSA bounce in hormone-naïve patients treated with LDR-brachytherapy alone. PMID:22974428

  6. Disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  7. Restrictive cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Dawson, David

    2009-12-01

    Restrictive cardiomyopathies constitute a heterogenous group of heart muscle conditions that all have, in common, the symptoms of heart failure. Diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic function is often the only echocardiographic abnormality that may be noted, although systolic dysfunction may also be an integral part of some specific pathologies, particularly in the most advanced cases such as amyloid infiltration of the heart. By far, the majority of restrictive cardiomyopathies are secondary to a systemic disorder such as amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, scleroderma, haemochromatosis, eosinophilic heart disease, or as a result of radiation treatment. The much more rare diagnosis of idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy is supported only by the absence of specific pathology on either endomyocardial biopsies or at post-mortem. Restrictive cardiomyopathy is diagnosed based on medical history, physical examination, and tests: such as blood tests, electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. With its wide availability, echocardiography is probably the most important investigation to identify the left ventricular dysfunction and should be performed early and by groups that are familiar with the wide variety of aetiologies. Finally, on rare occasions, the differential diagnosis from constrictive pericarditis may be necessary.

  8. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  9. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  10. Phase IV Land Disposal Restrictions Rule - Clarification of Effective Dates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memo to clarify the effective dates for the major provisions of the Phase IV rule. It is supplemental to the final rule preamble at page 28556 (“Effective Dates”) and pages 28634-5 (“State Authority”).

  11. Low level tank waste disposal study

    SciTech Connect

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  12. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alff, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility and costs were determined for a 1 m to 30 m diameter ambient temperature, infrared to submillimeter orbiting astronomical telescope which is to be shuttle-deployed, free-flying, and have a 10 year orbital life. Baseline concepts, constraints on delivery and deployment, and the sunshield required are examined. Reflector concepts, the optical configuration, alignment and pointing, and materials are also discussed. Technology studies show that a 10 m to 30 m diameter system which is background and diffraction limited at 30 micron m is feasible within the stated time frame. A 10 m system is feasible with current mirror technology, while a 30 m system requires technology still in development.

  13. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  14. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    EPA Science Inventory

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  15. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    EPA Science Inventory

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  16. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  19. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  20. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  1. Disposal of Liquid Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-13

    concentrate (formaldehydestrongly catalyzes the formation of nitrosamines from nitrite and secondary amines ). I ° Minimize concentrations of catalytically ...components, as interest in these compounds is relatively new. Therefore, methods for disposing of similar compounds such as triethanol- amine ...appears to have the greatest potential for accomplishing degradation of HAN- based liquid propellant residues in an economical, environmentally safe manner

  2. Alternative Trench Disposal Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E.

    2001-09-05

    During Fiscal Year 2000, a number of activities were conducted to expand the use of trenches for disposal of low-level waste in the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF). This document presents a summary and interpretation of these activities in the context of future work.

  3. Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

  4. 48 CFR 2845.603 - Disposal methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 2845.603 Disposal methods. Policies pertaining to reutilization and disposal of DOJ property, including requirements for internal...

  5. Disposal of Some Problem Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes procedures for the disposal of chemicals commonly used in secondary school chemistry laboratories. Special reference is given to inorganic salts. It is suggested that cyanides and other highly toxic salts should be disposed of by experts. (MA)

  6. Disposal of Some Problem Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes procedures for the disposal of chemicals commonly used in secondary school chemistry laboratories. Special reference is given to inorganic salts. It is suggested that cyanides and other highly toxic salts should be disposed of by experts. (MA)

  7. Diaper area and disposable diapers.

    PubMed

    Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis.

  8. Immune potentiation after fractionated exposure to very low doses of ionizing radiation and/or caloric restriction in autoimmune-prone and normal C57Bl/6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    James, S.J.; Enger, S.M.; Peterson, W.J.; Makinodan, T. )

    1990-06-01

    Very low doses of ionizing radiation can enhance immune responsiveness and extend life span in normal mice. Total lymphoid irradiation at relatively high doses of radiation can retard autoimmune disease in genetically susceptible mice, but may impair immune function. In order to determine whether fractionated low dose exposure would enhance immune response and retard lymphadenopathy in autoimmune-prone mice, groups of C57B1/6 lpr/lpr mice were sham irradiated, exposed 5 days/week for 4 weeks to 0.04 Gy/day, or to 0.1 Gy/day. After the radiation protocol, the mice were evaluated for splenic T cell proliferative capacity, T cell subset distribution, and total spleen cell numbers. The independent and additive effect of caloric restriction was additionally assessed since this intervention has been shown to increase immune responsiveness and retard disease progression in autoimmune-prone mice. The congenic C57B1/6 +/+ immunologically normal strain was evaluated in parallel as congenic control. The results indicated that mitogen-stimulated proliferation was up-regulated in both strains of mice after exposure to 0.04 Gy/day. The proliferative capacity was additively enhanced when radiation at this dose level was combined with caloric restriction. Exposure to 0.1 Gy/day resulted in further augmentation of proliferative response in the lpr/lpr mice, but was depressive in the +/+ mice. Although the proportions of the various T cell subpopulations were altered in both strains after exposure to LDR, the specific subset alterations were different within each strain. Additional experiments were subsequently performed to assess whether the thymus is required for LDR-induced immune potentiation. Thymectomy completely abrogated the LDR effect in the +/+ mice, suggesting that thymic processing and/or trafficking is adaptively altered with LDR in this strain.

  9. Commissioning a CT-compatible LDR tandem and ovoid applicator using Monte Carlo calculation and 3D dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Justus; Newton, Joseph; Yang, Yun; Steffey, Beverly; Cai, Jing; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark; Chino, Junzo; Craciunescu, Oana

    2012-07-01

    To determine the geometric and dose attenuation characteristics of a new commercially available CT-compatible LDR tandem and ovoid (T&O) applicator using Monte Carlo calculation and 3D dosimetry. For geometric characterization, we quantified physical dimensions and investigated a systematic difference found to exist between nominal ovoid angle and the angle at which the afterloading buckets fall within the ovoid. For dosimetric characterization, we determined source attenuation through asymmetric gold shielding in the buckets using Monte Carlo simulations and 3D dosimetry. Monte Carlo code MCNP5 was used to simulate 1.5 × 10(9) photon histories from a (137)Cs source placed in the bucket to achieve statistical uncertainty of 1% at a 6 cm distance. For 3D dosimetry, the distribution about an unshielded source was first measured to evaluate the system for (137)Cs, after which the distribution was measured about sources placed in each bucket. Cylindrical PRESAGE(®) dosimeters (9.5 cm diameter, 9.2 cm height) with a central channel bored for source placement were supplied by Heuris Inc. The dosimeters were scanned with the Duke Large field of view Optical CT-Scanner before and after delivering a nominal dose at 1 cm of 5-8 Gy. During irradiation the dosimeter was placed in a water phantom to provide backscatter. Optical CT scan time lasted 15 min during which 720 projections were acquired at 0.5° increments, and a 3D distribution was reconstructed with a (0.05 cm)(3) isotropic voxel size. The distributions about the buckets were used to calculate a 3D distribution of transmission rate through the bucket, which was applied to a clinical CT-based T&O implant plan. The systematic difference in bucket angle relative to the nominal ovoid angle (105°) was 3.1°-4.7°. A systematic difference in bucket angle of 1°, 5°, and 10° caused a 1% ± 0.1%, 1.7% ± 0.4%, and 2.6% ± 0.7% increase in rectal dose, respectively, with smaller effect to dose to Point A, bladder

  10. Commissioning a CT-compatible LDR tandem and ovoid applicator using Monte Carlo calculation and 3D dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Justus; Newton, Joseph; Yang Yun; Steffey, Beverly; Cai, Jing; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark; Chino, Junzo; Craciunescu, Oana

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the geometric and dose attenuation characteristics of a new commercially available CT-compatible LDR tandem and ovoid (T and O) applicator using Monte Carlo calculation and 3D dosimetry. Methods: For geometric characterization, we quantified physical dimensions and investigated a systematic difference found to exist between nominal ovoid angle and the angle at which the afterloading buckets fall within the ovoid. For dosimetric characterization, we determined source attenuation through asymmetric gold shielding in the buckets using Monte Carlo simulations and 3D dosimetry. Monte Carlo code MCNP5 was used to simulate 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} photon histories from a {sup 137}Cs source placed in the bucket to achieve statistical uncertainty of 1% at a 6 cm distance. For 3D dosimetry, the distribution about an unshielded source was first measured to evaluate the system for {sup 137}Cs, after which the distribution was measured about sources placed in each bucket. Cylindrical PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} dosimeters (9.5 cm diameter, 9.2 cm height) with a central channel bored for source placement were supplied by Heuris Inc. The dosimeters were scanned with the Duke Large field of view Optical CT-Scanner before and after delivering a nominal dose at 1 cm of 5-8 Gy. During irradiation the dosimeter was placed in a water phantom to provide backscatter. Optical CT scan time lasted 15 min during which 720 projections were acquired at 0.5 Degree-Sign increments, and a 3D distribution was reconstructed with a (0.05 cm){sup 3} isotropic voxel size. The distributions about the buckets were used to calculate a 3D distribution of transmission rate through the bucket, which was applied to a clinical CT-based T and O implant plan. Results: The systematic difference in bucket angle relative to the nominal ovoid angle (105 Degree-Sign ) was 3.1 Degree-Sign -4.7 Degree-Sign . A systematic difference in bucket angle of 1 Degree-Sign , 5 Degree-Sign , and

  11. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  12. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  13. Landfill disposal systems

    PubMed Central

    Slimak, Karen M.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual

  14. WE-A-17A-02: BEST IN PHYSICS (THERAPY) - Development of a Calorimeter for the Measurement of the Power Emitted From LDR Brachytherapy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, M; Palmer, B; DeWerd, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Model-based dose calculation algorithms for brachytherapy sources are designed to compute dose per particle or dose per unit energy leaving the encapsulation of a brachytherapy source. As such, the power leaving the encapsulation of a source, called emitted power (EP), would be a natural source strength metric for these new algorithms. However, no instrument is currently capable of an absolute measurement of EP. A calorimeter operating with a liquid helium thermal sink was designed and constructed to measure the EP of low-dose rate (LDR) I-125 and Pd-103 brachytherapy sources. Methods: Calorimeter design was optimized through thermal and Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. Thermal modeling showed that specific thermal conditions would be necessary for accurate calorimeter measurements. These conditions were experimentally verified. The EP of two LDR I-125 source models was measured. An air-kermastrength (AKS)-to-EP conversion coefficient was determined through MC simulations and applied to well-type ionization chamber measurements of AKS to enable comparison with EP measurements. Results: MCdetermined EP per unit AKS conversion coefficients were source model dependent and are on the order of 0.1 μW/U. The signal-to-noise ratio was a function of source strength, and was 294 for a 0.5 μW source. Measurements were repeatable to within 3.6% for a 0.5 μW source. Initial EP measurements were made with two I-125 source models, a 5.7 U Oncura 6711 and a 2.9 U Best Medical 2301. Model 2301 results agreed with the MC-converted AKS value to within the measurement uncertainty of 4.3% at k=1. The Model 6711 results were systematically high and are under investigation. Conclusion: A calorimeter was designed to provide an absolute measurement of the EP for LDR brachytherapy sources and preliminary EP measurements have been made. This new calorimeter design shows promise of providing a more fundamentally useful source strength standard.

  15. NRC disposed to site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    A committee of the National Research Council (NRC) has found the risk of human exposure to radiation from nuclear waste to be minimal at a proposed underground disposal site. In a report on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, the NRC committee asserted that the danger of radioactive exposure at the site is unlikely to exceed U.S. and international standards for protection from radiation. Unless the site is breached by humans—most likely those drilling for gas or oil—there is no credible or probable chance of the release of the radioactive waste, the committee said.

  16. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  17. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  18. Low dose rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) as monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer in Italy: practice and outcome analysis in a series of 2237 patients from 11 institutions

    PubMed Central

    Fellin, Giovanni; Mirri, Maria A; Santoro, Luigi; Divan, Claudio; Mussari, Salvatore; Ziglio, Francesco; La Face, Beniamino; Barbera, Fernando; Buglione, Michela; Bandera, Laura; Ghedi, Barbara; Di Muzio, Nadia G; Losa, Andrea; Mangili, Paola; Nava, Luciano; Chiarlone, Renato; Ciscognetti, Nunzia; Gastaldi, Emilio; Cattani, Federica; Spoto, Ruggero; Vavassori, Andrea; Giglioli, Francesca R; Guarneri, Alessia; Cerboneschi, Valentina; Mignogna, Marcello; Paoluzzi, Mauro; Ravaglia, Valentina; Chiumento, Costanza; Clemente, Stefania; Fusco, Vincenzo; Santini, Roberto; Stefanacci, Marco; Mangiacotti, Francesco P; Martini, Marco; Palloni, Tiziana; Schinaia, Giuseppe; Lazzari, Grazia; Silvano, Giovanni; Magrini, Stefano; Ricardi, Umberto; Santoni, Riccardo; Orecchia, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) in localized prostate cancer is available since 15 years in Italy. We realized the first national multicentre and multidisciplinary data collection to evaluate LDR-BT practice, given as monotherapy, and outcome in terms of biochemical failure. Methods: Between May 1998 and December 2011, 2237 patients with early-stage prostate cancer from 11 Italian community and academic hospitals were treated with iodine-125 (125I) or palladium-103 LDR-BT as monotherapy and followed up for at least 2 years. 125I seeds were implanted in 97.7% of the patients: the mean dose received by 90% of target volume was 145 Gy; the mean target volume receiving 100% of prescribed dose (V100) was 91.1%. Biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using Kaplan–Meier method. Log-rank test and multivariable Cox regression were used to evaluate the relationship of covariates with outcomes. Results: Median follow-up time was 65 months. 5- and 7-year DSS, OS and BFFS were 99 and 98%, 94 and 89%, and 92 and 88%, respectively. At multivariate analysis, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network score (p < 0.0001) and V100 (p = 0.09) were correlated with BFFS, with V100 effect significantly different between patients at low risk and those at intermediate/high risk (p = 0.04). Short follow-up and lack of toxicity data represent the main limitations for a global evaluation of LDR-BT. Conclusion: This first multicentre Italian report confirms LDR-BT as an excellent curative modality for low-/intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Advances in knowledge: Multidisciplinary teams may help to select adequately patients to be treated with brachytherapy, with a direct impact on the implant quality and, possibly, on outcome. PMID:27384381

  19. Low dose rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) as monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer in Italy: practice and outcome analysis in a series of 2237 patients from 11 institutions.

    PubMed

    Fellin, Giovanni; Mirri, Maria A; Santoro, Luigi; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A; Divan, Claudio; Mussari, Salvatore; Ziglio, Francesco; La Face, Beniamino; Barbera, Fernando; Buglione, Michela; Bandera, Laura; Ghedi, Barbara; Di Muzio, Nadia G; Losa, Andrea; Mangili, Paola; Nava, Luciano; Chiarlone, Renato; Ciscognetti, Nunzia; Gastaldi, Emilio; Cattani, Federica; Spoto, Ruggero; Vavassori, Andrea; Giglioli, Francesca R; Guarneri, Alessia; Cerboneschi, Valentina; Mignogna, Marcello; Paoluzzi, Mauro; Ravaglia, Valentina; Chiumento, Costanza; Clemente, Stefania; Fusco, Vincenzo; Santini, Roberto; Stefanacci, Marco; Mangiacotti, Francesco P; Martini, Marco; Palloni, Tiziana; Schinaia, Giuseppe; Lazzari, Grazia; Silvano, Giovanni; Magrini, Stefano; Ricardi, Umberto; Santoni, Riccardo; Orecchia, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) in localized prostate cancer is available since 15 years in Italy. We realized the first national multicentre and multidisciplinary data collection to evaluate LDR-BT practice, given as monotherapy, and outcome in terms of biochemical failure. Between May 1998 and December 2011, 2237 patients with early-stage prostate cancer from 11 Italian community and academic hospitals were treated with iodine-125 ((125)I) or palladium-103 LDR-BT as monotherapy and followed up for at least 2 years. (125)I seeds were implanted in 97.7% of the patients: the mean dose received by 90% of target volume was 145 Gy; the mean target volume receiving 100% of prescribed dose (V100) was 91.1%. Biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test and multivariable Cox regression were used to evaluate the relationship of covariates with outcomes. Median follow-up time was 65 months. 5- and 7-year DSS, OS and BFFS were 99 and 98%, 94 and 89%, and 92 and 88%, respectively. At multivariate analysis, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network score (p < 0.0001) and V100 (p = 0.09) were correlated with BFFS, with V100 effect significantly different between patients at low risk and those at intermediate/high risk (p = 0.04). Short follow-up and lack of toxicity data represent the main limitations for a global evaluation of LDR-BT. This first multicentre Italian report confirms LDR-BT as an excellent curative modality for low-/intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Multidisciplinary teams may help to select adequately patients to be treated with brachytherapy, with a direct impact on the implant quality and, possibly, on outcome.

  20. EPA proposes new standards for municipal solid waste disposal landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency on August 24 took its first major regulatory action to control the disposal of municipal garbage. In this effort, the agency proposed standards to upgrade the condition and help ensure the safety of municipal landfills used to dispose of solid waste. Under the proposal, states would use the standards to ensure protection of the environment from the operation of the landfills. In addition, landfill operators would be required to set up groundwater-monitoring systems and clean up contamination at operating landfills as well as close down within five years landfills located in unstable areas; landfills in some restricted areas would require special controls.

  1. Lakeview, Oregon, Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Linard, Joshua; Hall, Steve

    2016-03-01

    9.1 Compliance Summary The Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I Disposal Site was inspected September 16 and 17, 2015. Other than some ongoing concern with erosion-control rock riprap degradation, the disposal cell was in good condition. Some minor fence repairs and vegetation removal, and minor erosion repair work along the west site fence is planned. Inspectors identified no other maintenance needs or cause for a follow-up or contingency inspection. Disposal cell riprap is evaluated annually to ensure continued long-term protection of the cell from erosion during a severe precipitation event. Degradation of the rock riprap was first observed at the site in the mid-1990s. Rock gradation monitoring of the riprap on the west side slope has been performed as part of the annual inspection since 1997 to determine the mean diameter (D50) value. As prescribed by the monitoring procedure, the rock monitoring is routinely conducted at random locations. However, at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) request, the 2015 rock monitoring approach deviated from the normal procedure by using a pre-established monitoring grid in a subset area of the west side slope. This changed the monitoring approach from random sampling to biased sampling. The D50 value measured during the 2015 gradation monitoring is 2.39 inches, which falls below the original D50 design size range of 2.7–3.9 inches for the Type B size side slope riprap. At NRC’s request, rock durability monitoring was added to the gradation monitoring in 2009 to monitor durability by rock type. Results of the 2015 durability monitoring showed that74 percent of the total rock sampled is durability class code A rock with an assigned durability class of “highly durable” or durability class code B “durable” rock, and that over 90 percent of the 3-inch or larger rock is durability class code A or B. The rock durability

  2. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  3. Military nuclear waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    A National Research Council (NRC) panel has endorsed a plan for a proposed underground military nuclear waste disposal facility located on a site near Carlsbad, N.M. The Department of Energy (DOE) asked NRC to evaluate the geologic suitability of the site.The NRC panel, chaired by Frank L. Parker of Vanderbilt University, concluded in its final report that “the important issues about the geology of the site have been resolved…” Those issues include the purity and volume of salt, the absence of brine pockets at the repository horizon in the areas excavated, the absence of breccia pipes and of toxic gases, and the nearly horizontal bedding of the salt. Thick underground salt beds have long been considered prime candidates for nuclear waste repositories. The existence of salt beds is believed to indicate long-term stability. In addition, the salt is flexible and will seal cracks and discontinuities over time.

  4. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  5. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    SciTech Connect

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  6. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  7. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  8. NASA Personal Property Disposal Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Personal Property Disposal Manual is issued pursuant to Subchapters E and H of the Federal Property Management Regulations and the Space Act of 1958, as amended. It sets forth policy and procedural guidance for NASA personnel for the reporting, utilization, redistribution, and disposal of installation and contractor-held NASA excess and surplus personal property.

  9. Disposable diapers: safe and effective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namita; Purthi, P K; Sachdev, Anupam; Gupta, Suresh

    2003-09-01

    Nappy rash is a common problem in infants due to their thinner skin, wetness, heat and friction under cloth nappy, fecal enzymes and alkaline urine. The disposable diapers containing Super Absorbent Material (SAM) reduce the incidence of nappy rash. SAM quickly absorbs urine and keeps the skin dry. Also disposable diapers prevent fecal contamination by absorbing the urine and containing stools.

  10. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  11. 40 CFR 268.50 - Prohibitions on storage of restricted wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wastes. 268.50 Section 268.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions on Storage § 268.50 Prohibitions on storage of restricted wastes. (a) Except as provided in this section, the storage of hazardous wastes restricted...

  12. 40 CFR 268.50 - Prohibitions on storage of restricted wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wastes. 268.50 Section 268.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions on Storage § 268.50 Prohibitions on storage of restricted wastes. (a) Except as provided in this section, the storage of hazardous wastes restricted...

  13. 40 CFR 268.50 - Prohibitions on storage of restricted wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... wastes. 268.50 Section 268.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions on Storage § 268.50 Prohibitions on storage of restricted wastes. (a) Except as provided in this section, the storage of hazardous wastes restricted...

  14. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  15. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration.

    PubMed

    Holder, Amara L; Vejerano, Eric P; Zhou, Xinzhe; Marr, Linsey C

    2013-09-01

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which nanomaterials may enter incinerator waste streams and the fate of these nanomaterials during the incineration process. Although the literature on incineration of nanomaterials is scarce, results from studies of their behavior at high temperature or in combustion environments for other applications can help predict their fate within an incinerator. Preliminary evidence suggests nanomaterials may catalyze the formation or destruction of combustion by-products. Depending on their composition, nanomaterials may undergo physical and chemical transformations within the incinerator, impacting their partitioning within the incineration system (e.g., bottom ash, fly ash) and the effectiveness of control technology for removing them. These transformations may also drastically affect nanomaterial transport and impacts in the environment. Current regulations on incinerator emissions do not specifically address nanomaterials, but limits on particle and metal emissions may prove somewhat effective at reducing the release of nanomaterials in incinerator effluent. Control technology used to meet these regulations, such as fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators, and wet electrostatic scrubbers, are expected to be at least partially effective at removing nanomaterials from incinerator flue gas.

  16. SU-E-J-215: Towards MR-Only Image Guided Identification of Calcifications and Brachytherapy Seeds: Application to Prostate and Breast LDR Implant Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Elzibak, A; Fatemi-Ardekani, A; Soliman, A; Mashouf, S; Safigholi, H; Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, WY; Han, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify and analyze the appearance of calcifications and brachytherapy seeds on magnitude and phase MRI images and to investigate whether they can be distinguished from each other on corrected phase images for application to prostate and breast low dose rate (LDR) implant dosimetry. Methods: An agar-based gel phantom containing two LDR brachytherapy seeds (Advantage Pd-103, IsoAid, 0.8mm diameter, 4.5mm length) and two spherical calcifications (large: 7mm diameter and small: 4mm diameter) was constructed and imaged on a 3T Philips MR scanner using a 16-channel head coil and a susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequence (2mm slices, 320mm FOV, TR/ TE= 26.5/5.3ms, 15 degree flip angle). The phase images were unwrapped and corrected using a 32×32, 2D Hanning high pass filter to remove background phase noise. Appearance of the seeds and calcifications was assessed visually and quantitatively using Osirix (http://www.osirix-viewer.com/). Results: As expected, calcifications and brachytherapy seeds appeared dark (hypointense) relative to the surrounding gel on the magnitude MRI images. The diameter of each seed without the surrounding artifact was measured to be 0.1 cm on the magnitude image, while diameters of 0.79 and 0.37 cm were measured for the larger and smaller calcifications, respectively. On the corrected phase images, the brachytherapy seeds and the calcifications appeared bright (hyperintense). The diameter of the seeds was larger on the phase images (0.17 cm) likely due to the dipole effect. Conclusion: MRI has the best soft tissue contrast for accurate organ delineation leading to most accurate implant dosimetry. This work demonstrated that phase images can potentially be useful in identifying brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate and breast due to their bright appearance, which helps in their visualization and quantification for accurate dosimetry using MR-only. Future work includes optimizing phase filters to best identify

  17. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, J. D.; Goetsch, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper.

  18. Disposable diapers: a hygienic alternative.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Maithili; Malkani, Ram

    2003-11-01

    The use of disposable diapers has offered improved health care benefits. Urine and fecal matter leakage from the cloth nappies and the hand-to-mouth behavior in infants leads to many illnesses with a feco-oral mode of transmission. Also, the tender skin of the infant is more prone to nappy rash. The modern age disposable diapers, when compared to cloth nappy, have displayed a superior ability in containment of urine and feces, thereby reducing contamination and transmission of infection. Also disposable diapers contain Super Absorbent Material (SAM) that successfully reduces the incidence of nappy rash.

  19. Options for the disposal of unwanted donations.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, E R

    1990-01-01

    Donations of biomedical books and journals frequently duplicate the holdings of a receiving library. A decision must then be made concerning the distribution of the material to other libraries that may need it. What options are available to the librarian? Are many volumes of valuable material destroyed each year because libraries lack the necessary staff, space, or money to distribute donated materials? Are libraries restricted in choice of methods for distribution or unaware of available options? A survey questionnaire was mailed to 150 health sciences libraries in the spring of 1988 to determine the various methods used to dispose of unwanted gift materials. A total of 113 responses was received (75% return rate). This paper reports the results and discusses some of the creative methods used by receiving libraries to place unneeded materials. Statistical comparisons are included for the methods used by academic, hospital, and other types of health sciences libraries. Images PMID:2224303

  20. Carbon dioxide disposal in solid form

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Sharp, D.H.; Wendt, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    Coal reserves can provide for the world`s energy needs for centuries. However, coal`s long term use may be severely curtailed if the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is not eliminated. We present a safe and permanent method of carbon dioxide disposal that is based on combining carbon dioxide chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals. We discuss the availability of raw materials and potential process designs. We consider our initial rough cost estimate of about 3{cents}/kWh encouraging. The availability of a carbon dioxide fixation technology would serve as insurance in case global warming, or the perception of global warming, causes severe restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions. If the increased energy demand of a growing world population is to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of such a technology would quite likely be unavoidable.

  1. Options for the disposal of unwanted donations.

    PubMed

    Cooper, E R

    1990-10-01

    Donations of biomedical books and journals frequently duplicate the holdings of a receiving library. A decision must then be made concerning the distribution of the material to other libraries that may need it. What options are available to the librarian? Are many volumes of valuable material destroyed each year because libraries lack the necessary staff, space, or money to distribute donated materials? Are libraries restricted in choice of methods for distribution or unaware of available options? A survey questionnaire was mailed to 150 health sciences libraries in the spring of 1988 to determine the various methods used to dispose of unwanted gift materials. A total of 113 responses was received (75% return rate). This paper reports the results and discusses some of the creative methods used by receiving libraries to place unneeded materials. Statistical comparisons are included for the methods used by academic, hospital, and other types of health sciences libraries.

  2. SERDP munition disposal source characterization pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.C.; Couch, R.G.; Fried, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is supporting studies to develop and implement technologies for the safe, efficient, and environmentally sound disposal of obsolete munitions and propellants which are stored at various locations across the country. One proposed disposal technique is the open-air burning or detonation (OB/OD) of this material. Although OB/OD is viewed as an efficient and cost-effective method for reducing the inventory of unwanted munitions and propellants, questions regarding its safety and environmental impacts must be addressed. Since very large amounts of munitions and propellants must be consumed inexpensively in relatively short time periods and with the very restrictive Federal and State regulations on environmental issues, it is clear that traditional OB/OD procedures will not be acceptable and that it is necessary to develop modified or advanced OB/OD technology. The effectiveness and environmental impact of the OB/OD technology must be verified by experimental data and with validated numerical models for acceptance by Federal and State regulators. Specifically, technology must be developed and tested that minimizes toxic bum and detonation products the noise (peak pressure) and destructive effect (impulse) of the explosive blast generation and travel distance of shrapnel, and entrainment of dust. Three explosion attenuation scenarios are analyzed: Contained water, aqueous foams, and wet sand.

  3. Ultimate disposal of scrubber wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohenour, B. C.

    1978-01-01

    Part of the initial concern with using the wet scrubbers on the hypergolic propellants was the subsequential disposal of the liquid wastes. To do this, consideration was given to all possible methods to reduce the volume of the wastes and stay within the guidelines established by the state and federal environmental protection agencies. One method that was proposed was the use of water hyacinths in disposal ponds to reduce the waste concentration in the effluent to less than EPA tolerable levels. This method was under consideration and even in use by private industry, municipal governments, and NASA for upgrading existing wastewater treatment facilities to a tertiary system. The use of water hyacinths in disposal ponds appears to be a very cost-effective method for reduction and disposal of hypergolic propellants.

  4. Optimization of Waste Disposal - 13338

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, E.; Walter, N.; Downey, H.; Collopy, P.; Conant, J.

    2013-07-01

    From 2009 through 2011, remediation of areas of a former fuel cycle facility used for government contract work was conducted. Remediation efforts were focused on building demolition, underground pipeline removal, contaminated soil removal and removal of contaminated sediments from portions of an on-site stream. Prior to conducting the remediation field effort, planning and preparation for remediation (including strategic planning for waste characterization and disposal) was conducted during the design phase. During the remediation field effort, waste characterization and disposal practices were continuously reviewed and refined to optimize waste disposal practices. This paper discusses strategic planning for waste characterization and disposal that was employed in the design phase, and continuously reviewed and refined to optimize efficiency. (authors)

  5. Recycling and Disposal of CFLs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Consumers can help prevent the release of mercury into the environment by taking advantage of available local options for recycling CFLs and other household hazardous wastes, rather than disposing of them in regular household trash.

  6. Disposal phase experimental program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes.

  7. 40 CFR 191.24 - Disposal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.24 Disposal standards. (a) Disposal systems. (1) General. Disposal systems for waste and...

  8. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal site design for land disposal. 61.51 Section 61.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for...

  9. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal site design for land disposal. 61.51 Section 61.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for...

  10. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal site design for land disposal. 61.51 Section 61.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for...

  11. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal site design for land disposal. 61.51 Section 61.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for...

  12. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    SciTech Connect

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H.; Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B.

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  13. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  14. Poster - Thur Eve - 06: Comparison of an open source genetic algorithm to the commercially used IPSA for generation of seed distributions in LDR prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    McGeachy, P; Khan, R

    2012-07-01

    In early stage prostate cancer, low dose rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy is a favorable treatment modality, where small radioactive seeds are permanently implanted throughout the prostate. Treatment centres currently rely on a commercial optimization algorithm, IPSA, to generate seed distributions for treatment plans. However, commercial software does not allow the user access to the source code, thus reducing the flexibility for treatment planning and impeding any implementation of new and, perhaps, improved clinical techniques. An open source genetic algorithm (GA) has been encoded in MATLAB to generate seed distributions for a simplified prostate and urethra model. To assess the quality of the seed distributions created by the GA, both the GA and IPSA were used to generate seed distributions for two clinically relevant scenarios and the quality of the GA distributions relative to IPSA distributions and clinically accepted standards for seed distributions was investigated. The first clinically relevant scenario involved generating seed distributions for three different prostate volumes (19.2 cc, 32.4 cc, and 54.7 cc). The second scenario involved generating distributions for three separate seed activities (0.397 mCi, 0.455 mCi, and 0.5 mCi). Both GA and IPSA met the clinically accepted criteria for the two scenarios, where distributions produced by the GA were comparable to IPSA in terms of full coverage of the prostate by the prescribed dose, and minimized dose to the urethra, which passed straight through the prostate. Further, the GA offered improved reduction of high dose regions (i.e hot spots) within the planned target volume. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. Technical aspects of the integration of three-dimensional treatment planning dose parameters (GEC-ESTRO Working Group) into pre-implant planning for LDR gynecological interstitial brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Chi, A; Gao, M; Nguyen, N P; Albuquerque, K

    2009-06-01

    This study investigates the technical feasibility of pre-implant image-based treatment planning for LDR GYN interstitial brachytherapy(IB) based on the GEC-ESTRO guidelines. Initially, a virtual plan is generated based on the prescription dose and GEC-ESTRO defined OAR dose constraints with a pre-implant CT. After the actual implant, a regular diagnostic CT was obtained and fused with our pre-implant scan/initial treatment plan in our planning software. The Flexi-needle position changes, and treatment plan modifications were made if needed. Dose values were normalized to equivalent doses in 2 Gy fractions (LQED 2 Gy) derived from the linear-quadratic model with alpha/beta of 3 for late responding tissues and alpha/beta of 10 for early responding tissues. D(90) to the CTV, which was gross tumor (GTV) at the time of brachytherapy with a margin to count for microscopic disease, was 84.7 +/- 4.9% of the prescribed dose. The OAR doses were evaluated by D(2cc) (EBRT+IB). Mean D(2cc) values (LQED(2Gy)) for the rectum, bladder, sigmoid, and small bowel were the following: 63.7 +/- 8.4 Gy, 61.2 +/- 6.9 Gy, 48.0 +/- 3.5 Gy, and 49.9 +/- 4.2 Gy. This study confirms the feasibility of applying the GEC-ESTRO recommended dose parameters in pre-implant CT-based treatment planning in GYN IB. In the process, this pre-implant technique also demonstrates a good approximation of the target volume dose coverage, and doses to the OARs.

  16. A Multiplex PCR/LDR Assay for the Simultaneous Identification of Category A Infectious Pathogens: Agents of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever and Variola Virus.

    PubMed

    Das, Sanchita; Rundell, Mark S; Mirza, Aashiq H; Pingle, Maneesh R; Shigyo, Kristi; Garrison, Aura R; Paragas, Jason; Smith, Scott K; Olson, Victoria A; Larone, Davise H; Spitzer, Eric D; Barany, Francis; Golightly, Linnie M

    2015-01-01

    CDC designated category A infectious agents pose a major risk to national security and require special action for public health preparedness. They include viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) syndrome as well as variola virus, the agent of smallpox. VHF is characterized by hemorrhage and fever with multi-organ failure leading to high morbidity and mortality. Smallpox, a prior scourge, has been eradicated for decades, making it a particularly serious threat if released nefariously in the essentially non-immune world population. Early detection of the causative agents, and the ability to distinguish them from other pathogens, is essential to contain outbreaks, implement proper control measures, and prevent morbidity and mortality. We have developed a multiplex detection assay that uses several species-specific PCR primers to generate amplicons from multiple pathogens; these are then targeted in a ligase detection reaction (LDR). The resultant fluorescently-labeled ligation products are detected on a universal array enabling simultaneous identification of the pathogens. The assay was evaluated on 32 different isolates associated with VHF (ebolavirus, marburgvirus, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Dengue virus, and Yellow fever virus) as well as variola virus and vaccinia virus (the agent of smallpox and its vaccine strain, respectively). The assay was able to detect all viruses tested, including 8 sequences representative of different variola virus strains from the CDC repository. It does not cross react with other emerging zoonoses such as monkeypox virus or cowpox virus, or six flaviviruses tested (St. Louis encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus).

  17. A Multiplex PCR/LDR Assay for the Simultaneous Identification of Category A Infectious Pathogens: Agents of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever and Variola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sanchita; Rundell, Mark S.; Mirza, Aashiq H.; Pingle, Maneesh R.; Shigyo, Kristi; Garrison, Aura R.; Paragas, Jason; Smith, Scott K.; Olson, Victoria A.; Larone, Davise H.; Spitzer, Eric D.; Barany, Francis; Golightly, Linnie M.

    2015-01-01

    CDC designated category A infectious agents pose a major risk to national security and require special action for public health preparedness. They include viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) syndrome as well as variola virus, the agent of smallpox. VHF is characterized by hemorrhage and fever with multi-organ failure leading to high morbidity and mortality. Smallpox, a prior scourge, has been eradicated for decades, making it a particularly serious threat if released nefariously in the essentially non-immune world population. Early detection of the causative agents, and the ability to distinguish them from other pathogens, is essential to contain outbreaks, implement proper control measures, and prevent morbidity and mortality. We have developed a multiplex detection assay that uses several species-specific PCR primers to generate amplicons from multiple pathogens; these are then targeted in a ligase detection reaction (LDR). The resultant fluorescently-labeled ligation products are detected on a universal array enabling simultaneous identification of the pathogens. The assay was evaluated on 32 different isolates associated with VHF (ebolavirus, marburgvirus, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Dengue virus, and Yellow fever virus) as well as variola virus and vaccinia virus (the agent of smallpox and its vaccine strain, respectively). The assay was able to detect all viruses tested, including 8 sequences representative of different variola virus strains from the CDC repository. It does not cross react with other emerging zoonoses such as monkeypox virus or cowpox virus, or six flaviviruses tested (St. Louis encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus). PMID:26381398

  18. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  19. Disposable telemetry cable deployment system

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A disposable telemetry cable deployment system for facilitating information retrieval while drilling a well includes a cable spool adapted for insertion into a drill string and an unarmored fiber optic cable spooled onto the spool cable and having a downhole end and a stinger end. Connected to the cable spool is a rigid stinger which extends through a kelly of the drilling apparatus. A data transmission device for transmitting data to a data acquisition system is disposed either within or on the upper end of the rigid stinger.

  20. DOSE ASSESSMENTS FROM THE DISPOSAL OF LOW ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modeling the long-term performance of the RCRA-C disposal cell and potential doses to off-site receptors is used to derive maximum radionuclide specific concentrations in the wastes that would enable these wastes to be disposed of safely using the RCRA-C disposal cell technology. Modeling potential exposures to derive these waste acceptance concentrations involves modeling exposures to workers during storage, treatment and disposal of the wastes, as well as exposures to individuals after disposal operations have ceased. Post facility closure exposures can result from the slow expected degradation of the disposal cell over long time periods (one thousand years after disposal) and in advertent human intrusion. Provide a means of determining waste acceptance radionuclide concentrations for disposal of debris from radiological dispersal device incidents as well as low-activity wastes generated in commercial, medical and research activities, potentially serve as the technical basis for guidance on disposal of these materials.

  1. Consolidation and disposal of PWR fuel inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, B.H. )

    1992-08-01

    Design and licensing of the Surry Power Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation was initiated in 1982 by Virginia Power as part of a comprehensive strategy to increase spent fuel storage capacity at the Station. Designed to use large, metal dry storage casks, the Surry Installation will accommodate 84 such casks with a total storage capacity of 811 MTU of spent pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies. Virginia Power provided three storage casks for testing at the Idaho National Engineerinq Laboratory's Test Area North and the testing results have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute. Sixty-nine spent fuel assemblies were transported in truck casks from the Surry Power Station to Test Area North for testing in the three casks. Because of restrictions imposed by the cask testing equipment at Test Area North, the irradiated insert components stored in these fuel assemblies at Surry were removed prior to transport of the fuel assemblies. Retaining these insert components proved to be a problem because of a shortage of spent fuel assemblies in the spent fuel storage pool that did not already contain insert components. In 1987 Virginia Power contracted with Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. to process and dispose of 136 irradiated insert components consisting of 125 burnable poison rod assemblies, 10 thimble plugging devices and 1 part-length rod cluster control assembly. This work was completed in August and September 1987, culminating in the disposal at the Barnwell, SC low-level radioactive waste facility of two CNS 3-55 liners containing the consolidated insert components.

  2. Evaluation of Proposed New LLW Disposal Activity Disposal of LLW in a Mega Trench rather than in Slit Trenches

    SciTech Connect

    WILHITE, ELMERL.

    2004-05-04

    The effect of disposing of low-level waste in a much larger trench than the slit trenches analyzed in the revised performance assessment for the E-Area low-level waste facility is evaluated. The conclusion of the evaluation is that such disposal is bounded by the performance assessment if two restrictions are imposed. These restrictions are: the radionuclide inventory limits for slit trench disposal derived from the revised performance assessment, rather than the radionuclide concentration or package limits, are applied to the larger trench. For stabilized waste radionuclide concentration or package limits derived from the inventory limits for these wasteforms calculated in the performance assessment and the volumetric waste capacity of the entire MegaTrench may be used if this waste fills a large-enough segment of the trench to provide structural support for the closure cap, as assumed in the performance assessment and the stabilized waste is segregated from the unstabilized waste by emplacing the stabilized waste along the edge of the trench and separating the stabilized waste from the unstabilized waste by a minimum of two feet of soil or other material with similar hydraulic properties.

  3. Geological considerations in hazardouswaste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, K.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Johnson, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Present regulations assume that long-term isolation of hazardous wastes - including toxic chemical, biological, radioactive, flammable and explosive wastes - may be effected by disposal in landfills that have liners of very low hydraulic conductivity. In reality, total isolation of wastes in humid areas is not possible; some migration of leachate from wastes buried in the gound will always occur. Regulations should provide performance standards applicable on a site-by-site basis rather than rigid criteria for site selection and design. The performance standards should take into account several factors: (1) the categories, segregation, degradation and toxicity of the wastes; (2) the site hydrogeology, which governs the direction and rate of contaminant transport; (3) the attenuation of contaminants by geochemical interactions with geologic materials; and (4) the release rate of unattenuated pollutants to surface or groundwater. An adequate monitoring system is essential. The system should both test the extent to which the operation of the site meets performance standards and provide sufficient warning of pollution problems to allow implementation of remedial measures. In recent years there has been a trend away from numerous, small disposal sites toward fewer and larger sites. The size of a disposal site should be based on the attenuation capacity of the geologic material, which has a finite, though generally not well-defined, limit. For slowly degradable wastes, engineered sites with leachate-collection systems appear to be only a temporary solution since the leachate collected will also require final disposal. ?? 1981.

  4. Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Permits and authorizations for the ocean dumping of dredged material is issued by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Information is provided about where to dispose dredged material and the process for obtaining an ocean dumping permit for dredged material.

  5. HANDBOOK: SEPTAGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principal purpose of the handbook is to present an up-to-date review of available design, performance, operation and maintenance, cost, and energy information pertaining to the receiving, treatment, and disposal of septage. Septage is the liquid and solid material pumped from...

  6. Disposables: saving by throwing away.

    PubMed

    Wilton, G

    1980-07-18

    The demand for health care facilities and services will remain insatiable, concludes a report by Frost and Sullivan due to be published shortly. The report on trends in the European clinical soft goods market says growth is guaranteed but that the market penetration of disposables is not.

  7. Disposing of Canada's used fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Torgerson, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is assessing the permanent disposal of used nuclear fuel in a waste vault located 500 to 1,000 m deep in the Precambrian granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The specific objectives of the program are to develop and demonstrate the technology to site, design, build, and operate a disposal facility in a way that creates no, or negligible, burden on future generations. In addition, the program must develop a methodology to evaluate the performance of the disposal system against safety criteria and demonstrate that sites are likely to exist in the Canadian Shield that satisfy regulatory criteria. These criteria are very stringent. As in other national high-level waste management programs, the Canadian concept for the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes employs a multiple barrier system for isolating contaminants from the environment. The current phase of the work is generic in nature and is not site specific. Research and development (R and D) has advanced to the point where the generic concept will be evaluated under the Canadian environmental assessment review process, which involves public hearings and independent scientific review.

  8. Sludge Treatment, Utilization, and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Richard I.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers such areas: (1) industrial and hazardous sludges; (2) chemical sludges; (3) stabilization and combustion; (4) ocean disposal; and (5) land application. A list of 411 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. HANDBOOK: SEPTAGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principal purpose of the handbook is to present an up-to-date review of available design, performance, operation and maintenance, cost, and energy information pertaining to the receiving, treatment, and disposal of septage. Septage is the liquid and solid material pumped from...

  10. Biology of DNA restriction.

    PubMed Central

    Bickle, T A; Krüger, D H

    1993-01-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of DNA restriction and modification systems, the control of the expression of the structural genes for the enzymes, and the importance of DNA restriction in the cellular economy has advanced by leaps and bounds in recent years. This review documents these advances for the three major classes of classical restriction and modification systems, describes the discovery of a new class of restriction systems that specifically cut DNA carrying the modification signature of foreign cells, and deals with the mechanisms developed by phages to avoid the restriction systems of their hosts. PMID:8336674

  11. Genetics of restrictive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sen-Chowdhry, Srijita; Syrris, Petros; McKenna, William J

    2010-04-01

    Restrictive physiology, a severe form of diastolic dysfunction, is characteristically observed in the setting of constrictive pericarditis and myocardial restriction. The latter is commonly due to systemic diseases, some of which are inherited as mendelian traits (eg, hereditary amyloidosis), while others are multifactorial (eg, sarcoidosis). When restrictive physiology occurs as an early and dominant feature of a primary myocardial disorder, it may be termed restrictive cardiomyopathy. In the past decade, clinical and genetic studies have demonstrated that restrictive cardiomyopathy as such is part of the spectrum of sarcomeric disease and frequently coexists with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in affected families.

  12. Disposal requirements for PCB waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. PCB materials that are no longer in use and have been declared a waste must be disposed of according to the requirements found at 40 CFR 761.60. These requirements establish disposal options for a multitude of PCB materials including soil and debris, liquid PCBs, sludges and slurries, containers, transformers, capacitors, hydraulic machines, and other electrical equipment. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning disposal requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  13. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  14. 7 CFR 982.67 - Reports of disposition of restricted hazelnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports of disposition of restricted hazelnuts. 982.67... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... disposition of restricted hazelnuts. (a) Each handler, before he disposes of any quantity of...

  15. 7 CFR 982.67 - Reports of disposition of restricted hazelnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of disposition of restricted hazelnuts. 982.67... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... disposition of restricted hazelnuts. (a) Each handler, before he disposes of any quantity of...

  16. 7 CFR 982.67 - Reports of disposition of restricted hazelnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports of disposition of restricted hazelnuts. 982.67... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... disposition of restricted hazelnuts. (a) Each handler, before he disposes of any quantity of...

  17. 7 CFR 982.67 - Reports of disposition of restricted hazelnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of disposition of restricted hazelnuts. 982.67... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... disposition of restricted hazelnuts. (a) Each handler, before he disposes of any quantity of...

  18. 7 CFR 982.67 - Reports of disposition of restricted hazelnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of disposition of restricted hazelnuts. 982.67... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... disposition of restricted hazelnuts. (a) Each handler, before he disposes of any quantity of...

  19. Worldwide low-level waste disposal practices

    SciTech Connect

    Towler, O A

    1985-01-01

    Low-level waste disposal practices will be described for ten or more countries. These practices will be compared with expectations for disposal designs for low-level waste regional compacts in the US.

  20. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  1. Phytoextraction crop disposal--an unsolved problem.

    PubMed

    Sas-Nowosielska, A; Kucharski, R; Małkowski, E; Pogrzeba, M; Kuperberg, J M; Kryński, K

    2004-01-01

    Several methods of contaminated crop disposal after phytoextraction process (composting, compaction, incineration, ashing, pyrolysis, direct disposal, liquid extraction) have been described. Advantages and disadvantages of methods are presented and discussed. Composting, compaction and pyrolysis are the pretreatment steps, since significant amount of contaminated biomass will still exist after each of the process. Four methods of final disposal were distinguished: incineration, direct disposal, ashing and liquid extraction. Among them, incineration (smelting) is proposed as the most feasible, economically acceptable and environmentally sound.

  2. 32 CFR 644.315 - Disposal priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal priorities. 644.315 Section 644.315 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.315 Disposal priorities. Consistent with the best interest of the United...

  3. Waste disposal options report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes the potential options for the processing and disposal of mixed waste generated by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. It compares the proposed waste-immobilization processes, quantifies and characterizes the resulting waste forms, identifies potential disposal sites and their primary acceptance criteria, and addresses disposal issues for hazardous waste.

  4. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  5. Nuclear waste management: storage and disposal aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, B.D.; Dave, S.A.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Long-term disposal of nuclear wastes must resolve difficulties arising chiefly from the potential for contamination of the environment and the risk of misuse. Alternatives available for storage and disposal of wastes are examined in this overview paper. Guidelines and criteria which may govern in the development of methods of disposal are discussed.

  6. Safe Disposal of Highly Reactive Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B.

    1994-01-01

    Provides specific procedures for the disposal of a variety of highly reactive chemicals and reports the results of a study of their safe disposal. Disposal of some problematic sulfur-containing compounds are included. Procedures are based on a combination of literature review and author development. (LZ)

  7. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  8. Safe Disposal of Highly Reactive Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B.

    1994-01-01

    Provides specific procedures for the disposal of a variety of highly reactive chemicals and reports the results of a study of their safe disposal. Disposal of some problematic sulfur-containing compounds are included. Procedures are based on a combination of literature review and author development. (LZ)

  9. TU-AB-201-11: A Novel Theoretical Framework for MRI-Only Image Guided LDR Prostate and Breast Brachytherapy Implant Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Soliman, A; Elzibak, A; Fatemi, A; Safigholi, H; Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, W; Han, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a novel framework for accurate model-based dose calculations using only MR images for LDR prostate and breast seed implant brachytherapy. Methods: Model-based dose calculation methodologies recommended by TG-186 require further knowledge about specific tissue composition, which is challenging with MRI. However, relying on MRI-only for implant dosimetry would reduce the soft tissue delineation uncertainty, costs, and uncertainties associated with multi-modality registration and fusion processes. We propose a novel framework to address this problem using quantitative MRI acquisitions and reconstruction techniques. The framework includes three steps: (1) Identify the locations of seeds(2) Identify the presence (or absence) of calcification(s)(3) Quantify the water and fat content in the underlying tissueSteps (1) and (2) consider the sources that limit patient dosimetry, particularly the inter-seed attenuation and the calcified regions; while step (3) targets the quantification of the tissue composition to consider the heterogeneities in the medium. Our preliminary work has shown that the seeds and the calcifications can be identified with MRI using both the magnitude and the phase images. By employing susceptibility-weighted imaging with specific post-processing techniques, the phase images can be further explored to distinguish the seeds from the calcifications. Absolute quantification of tissue, water, and fat content is feasible and was previously demonstrated in phantoms and in-vivo applications, particularly for brain diseases. The approach relies on the proportionality of the MR signal to the number of protons in an image volume. By employing appropriate correction algorithms for T1 - and T2*-related biases, B1 transmit and receive field inhomogeneities, absolute water/fat content can be determined. Results: By considering calcification and interseed attenuation, and through the knowledge of water and fat mass density, accurate patient

  10. Disposable remote zero headspace extractor

    DOEpatents

    Hand, Julie J.; Roberts, Mark P.

    2006-03-21

    The remote zero headspace extractor uses a sampling container inside a stainless steel vessel to perform toxicity characteristics leaching procedure to analyze volatile organic compounds. The system uses an in line filter for ease of replacement. This eliminates cleaning and disassembly of the extractor. All connections are made with quick connect fittings which can be easily replaced. After use, the bag can be removed and disposed of, and a new sampling container is inserted for the next extraction.

  11. The disposal of military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    The end of the war saw every belligerent with vast stocks of aircraft and aircraft supplies in all stages of usefulness, much of the material being absolutely new. The question of the best method of getting rid of this accumulation is one which has been agitating those responsible for its disposal for more than three years now, but no wholly satisfactory solution has yet been reached.

  12. SPS salvage and disposal alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A wide range of salvage options exist for the satellite power system (SPS) satellite, ranging from use in and beyond geosynchronous orbit to use in low Earth orbit to return and use on Earth. The satellite might be used intact to provide for various purposes, it might be cannibalized, or it might be melted down to supply materials for space- or ground-based products. The use of SPS beyond its nominal lifetime provides value that can be deducted from the SPS capital investment cost. It is shown that the present value of the salvage value of the SPS satellites, referenced to the system initial operation data, is likely to be on the order of five to ten percent of its on-orbit capital cost. (Given a 30 year satellite lifetime and a four percent discount rate, the theoretical maximum salvage value is 30.8 percent of the initial capital cost). The SPS demonstration satellite is available some 30 years earlier than the first full-scale SPS satellite and has a likely salvage value on the order of 80 percent of its on site capital cost. In the event that it becomes desirable to dispose of either the demonstration or full-scale SPS satellite, a number of disposal options appear to exist for which intact disposal costs are less than one percent of capital costs.

  13. Long-Term Performance of Uranium Tailings Disposal Cells - 13340

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Pill, Ken; Tachiev, Georgio; Noosai, Nantaporn; Villamizar, Viviana

    2013-07-01

    Recently, there has been interest in the performance and evolution of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell covers because some sites are not compliant with groundwater standards. Field observations of UMTRA disposal cells indicate that rock covers tend to become vegetated and that saturated conductivities in the upper portion of radon barriers may increase due to freeze/thaw cycles and biointrusion. This paper describes the results of modeling that addresses whether these potential changes and transient drainage of moisture in the tailings affect overall performance of the disposal cells. A numerical unsaturated/saturated 3-dimensional flow model was used to simulate whether increases in saturated conductivities in radon barriers with rock covers affect the overall performance of the disposal cells using field data from the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site. A unique modeling approach allowed simulation with daily climatic conditions to determine changes in moisture and moisture flux from the disposal cell. Modeling results indicated that increases in the saturated conductivity at the top of radon barrier do not influence flux from the tailings with time because the tailings behave similar hydraulically to the radon barrier. The presence of a thin layer of low conductivity material anywhere in the cover or tailings restricts flux in the worst case to the saturated conductivity of that material. Where materials are unsaturated at depth within the radon barrier of tailings slimes, conductivities are typically less than 10{sup -8} centimeters per second. If the low conductivity layer is deep within the disposal cell, its saturated properties are less likely to change with time. The significance of this modeling is that operation and maintenance of the disposal cells can be minimized if they are allowed to progress to a natural condition with some vegetation and soil genesis. Because the covers and underlying tailings have a very low saturated

  14. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

    2000-06-07

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable canisters. The intended use of this analysis is to

  15. Thalweg disposal: demonstration of an alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.M.; McCown, D.L.; Paddock, R.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    Disposal of dredged material in the main channel, or thalweg, is an alternative disposal option for maintenance dredging. The material dredged from the Upper Mississippi River is clean sand and water quality is not a primary concern with regard to thalweg disposal. Modifications of channel morphology and, more importantly, of riverine habitats due to thalweg disposal are the major environmental issues raised. The Rock Island District, Corps of Engineers, is addressing these issues by means of thalweg disposal experiments at three sites on the Upper Mississippi River. In these experiments, dredged sand has been tagged with dyed sand prior to disposal in the thalweg. Monitoring of dyed sand in the bottom sediments in and downstream of the disposal areas at two sites (for periods of 1 and 2 years) has indicated that the dredged sand remains in the thalweg without apparent modification of channel border habitats. 7 references, 5 figures.

  16. DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    F. Habashi

    1998-06-26

    The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container (SNF DC) supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access mains, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container provides long term confinement of DOE SNF waste, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The DOE SNF Disposal Containers provide containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limit radionuclide release thereafter. The disposal containers maintain the waste in a designated configuration, withstand maximum handling and rockfall loads, limit the individual waste canister temperatures after emplacement. The disposal containers also limit the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resist corrosion in the expected repository environment, and provide complete or limited containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple disposal container designs may be needed to accommodate the expected range of DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel. The disposal container will include outer and inner barrier walls and outer and inner barrier lids. Exterior labels will identify the disposal container and contents. Differing metal barriers will support the design philosophy of defense in depth. The use of materials with different failure mechanisms prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The corrosion-resistant inner barrier and inner barrier lid will be constructed of a high-nickel alloy and the corrosion-allowance outer barrier and outer barrier lid will be made of carbon steel. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Containers interface with the emplacement drift environment by transferring heat from the waste to the external environment and by protecting

  17. Determination of the solids retainment effectiveness of disposable swim diapers.

    PubMed

    Maas, Richard P; Patch, Steven C; Berkowitz, Jacob F; Johnson, Holly D

    2004-06-01

    In light of recent and increasing incidences of pathogenic E. coli outbreaks at public bathing facilities attributable to non-toilet-trained infants and toddlers, many such facilities are restricting water contact for this age group. A number of manufacturers are now offering disposable "swim diapers," which claim to effectively retain fecal material under typical pool play conditions. The study reported here examined the solids retention effectiveness of three major brands of swim diapers as well as of conventional disposable diapers, under simulated water play conditions. Swim diapers of all three brands exhibited an approximately equal fine-solids retention capability of about 98 to 99 percent over 30 minutes of water immersion activity. Conventional disposable diapers invariably fell down or came apart during the experiments, resulting in very limited solids retention. This study indicates that commercially available swim diapers represent a vast improvement in reducing the potential for fecal material release in public pool facilities, but that some release will still generally occur with these products.

  18. 41 CFR 102-75.250 - What general policy must the disposal agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the disposal agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus property? 102-75.250 Section 102-75.250...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal § 102-75.250 What general policy must the disposal agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus...

  19. 41 CFR 102-75.250 - What general policy must the disposal agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the disposal agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus property? 102-75.250 Section 102-75.250...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal § 102-75.250 What general policy must the disposal agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus...

  20. 41 CFR 102-75.250 - What general policy must the disposal agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the disposal agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus property? 102-75.250 Section 102-75.250...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal § 102-75.250 What general policy must the disposal agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus...

  1. 41 CFR 102-75.250 - What general policy must the disposal agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the disposal agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus property? 102-75.250 Section 102-75.250...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal § 102-75.250 What general policy must the disposal agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus...

  2. 41 CFR 102-75.250 - What general policy must the disposal agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the disposal agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus property? 102-75.250 Section 102-75.250...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal § 102-75.250 What general policy must the disposal agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus...

  3. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  4. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, Scott Leroy; Chu, Shaoping; Harp, Dylan Robert; Perry, Frank Vinton; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  5. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Irina; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Trotter, Steven

    2017-09-01

    In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  6. Evaluation of Proposed New LLW Disposal Activity Disposal of Compacted Job Control Waste, Non-compactible, Non-incinerable Waste, And Other Wasteforms In Slit Trenches

    SciTech Connect

    WILHITE, ELMERL.

    2000-05-04

    The effect of trench disposal of low-level wasteforms that were not analyzed in the original performance assessment for the E-Area low-level waste facility, but were analyzed in the revised performance assessment is evaluated. This evaluation was conducted to provide a bridge from the current waste acceptance criteria, which are based on the original performance assessment, to those that will be developed from the revised performance assessment. The conclusion of the evaluation is that any waste except for materials that would retain radionuclides more strongly than soil that meets the radionuclide concentration of package limits for trench burial based on the revised performance assessment, and presented in Table 1 of this document, is suitable for trench disposal; provided that, for cellulosic material the current 40 percent restriction is retained. Table 2 of this document lists materials acceptable for trench disposal.

  7. An industry perspective on commercial radioactive waste disposal conditions and trends.

    PubMed

    Romano, Stephen A

    2006-11-01

    The United States is presently served by Class-A, -B and -C low-level radioactive waste and naturally-occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material disposal sites in Washington and South Carolina; a Class-A and mixed waste disposal site in Utah that also accepts naturally-occurring radioactive material; and hazardous and solid waste facilities and uranium mill tailings sites that accept certain radioactive materials on a site-specific basis. The Washington site only accepts low-level radioactive waste from 11 western states due to interstate Compact restrictions on waste importation. The South Carolina site will be subject to geographic service area restrictions beginning 1 July 2008, after which only three states will have continued access. The Utah site dominates the commercial Class-A and mixed waste disposal market due to generally lower state fees than apply in South Carolina. To expand existing commercial services, an existing hazardous waste site in western Texas is seeking a Class-A, -B and -C and mixed waste disposal license. With that exception, no new Compact facilities are proposed. This fluid, uncertain situation has inspired national level rulemaking initiatives and policy studies, as well as alternative disposal practices for certain low-activity materials.

  8. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-01-01

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications. PMID:26586153

  9. Participatory management of waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Noosorn, Narongsak

    2005-05-01

    The general objective of this study was to develop a sustainable waste disposal management model in Yom riverside communities by creating a sense of ownership in the project among the villagers and encourage the community to identify problems based on their socio-cultural background. The participatory approach was applied in developing a continual learning process between the researcher and stakeholders. The Tub Phueng community of Si Samrong, Sukhothai Province was selected as the location for this study. From the population of 240 households in the area, 40 stakeholders were selected to be on the research team. The team found that the waste in this community was comprised of 4 categories: 1. Occupation: discarded insecticide containers used for farming activities; 2. Consumption: plastic bags and wrappers form pre-packed foods; 3. Traditional activities: after holding ceremonies and festivities, the waste was dumped in the river; and 4. Environmental hygiene: waste water from washing, bathing, toileting, cooking and cleaning was directly drained into the Yom River. The sustainable waste disposal model developed to manage these problems included building simple waste-water treatment wells, digging garbage holes, prosecuting people who throw garbage into the river, withdrawing privileges from people who throw garbage into the river, and establishing a garbage center. Most of the villagers were satisfied with the proposed model, looked forward to the expected positive changes, and thought this kind of solution would be easy to put into practice.

  10. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-11-20

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications.

  11. Aerosol can waste disposal device

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, M.D.; Klapperick, R.L.; Bell, C.

    1993-12-21

    Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The device punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container. 7 figures.

  12. Aerosol can waste disposal device

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Michael D.; Klapperick, Robert L.; Bell, Chris

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The ice punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container.

  13. Real Estate: Disposal of Real Estate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-10

    50,000 or involving more than 500 acres of withdrawn public lands . (3) Holds on real property disposal and withdrawals from excess of property...certificate as shown at figure 6–1. 6–7. Timber Unless otherwise agreed, the BLM disposes of timber on withdrawn public lands . Other standing timber...under COE procedures. The authorized officer of the BLM will dispose of such materials on withdrawn public lands under 30 USC 601. This includes

  14. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2008 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2008 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  15. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2007 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2007 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  16. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2013 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2013 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  17. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2014 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2014 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  18. Radioactive waste disposal in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. R.

    In order to find the optimal solution to waste disposal problems, it is necessary to make comparisons between disposal media. It has become obvious to many within the scientific community that the single medium approach leads to over protection of one medium at the expense of the others. Cross media comparisons are being conducted in the Department of Energy ocean disposal programs for several radioactive wastes. Investigations in three areas address model development, comparisons of laboratory tests with field results and predictions, and research needs in marine disposal of radioactive waste. Tabulated data are included on composition of liquid high level waste and concentration of some natural radionuclides in the sea.

  19. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2010 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2010 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  20. Effects from past solid waste disposal practices.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, L J; Daniel, D E; Abeele, W V; Ledbetter, J O; Hansen, W R

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews documented environmental effects experience from the disposal of solid waste materials in the U.S. Selected case histories are discussed that illustrate waste migration and its actual or potential effects on human or environmental health. Principal conclusions resulting from this review were: solid waste materials do migrate beyond the geometric confines of the initial placement location; environmental effects have been experienced from disposal of municipal, agricultural, and toxic chemical wastes; and utilization of presently known science and engineering principles in sitting and operating solid waste disposal facilities would make a significant improvement in the containment capability of shallow land disposal facilities. PMID:367769

  1. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2012 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2011 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  2. Energy restriction and potential energy restriction mimetics.

    PubMed

    Nikolai, Sibylle; Pallauf, Kathrin; Huebbe, Patricia; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Energy restriction (ER; also known as caloric restriction) is the only nutritional intervention that has repeatedly been shown to increase lifespan in model organisms and may delay ageing in humans. In the present review we discuss current scientific literature on ER and its molecular, metabolic and hormonal effects. Moreover, criteria for the classification of substances that might induce positive ER-like changes without having to reduce energy intake are summarised. Additionally, the putative ER mimetics (ERM) 2-deoxy-d-glucose, metformin, rapamycin, resveratrol, spermidine and lipoic acid and their suggested molecular targets are discussed. While there are reports on these ERM candidates that describe lifespan extension in model organisms, data on longevity-inducing effects in higher organisms such as mice remain controversial or are missing. Furthermore, some of these candidates produce detrimental side effects such as immunosuppression or lactic acidosis, or have not been tested for safety in long-term studies. Up to now, there are no known ERM that could be recommended without limitations for use in humans.

  3. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) The boundaries and locations of each disposal unit (e.g., trenches) must be accurately located and... forth in the approved site closure plan must be carried out as each disposal unit (e.g., each trench)...

  4. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) The boundaries and locations of each disposal unit (e.g., trenches) must be accurately located and... forth in the approved site closure plan must be carried out as each disposal unit (e.g., each trench)...

  5. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) The boundaries and locations of each disposal unit (e.g., trenches) must be accurately located and... forth in the approved site closure plan must be carried out as each disposal unit (e.g., each trench)...

  6. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The boundaries and locations of each disposal unit (e.g., trenches) must be accurately located and... forth in the approved site closure plan must be carried out as each disposal unit (e.g., each trench)...

  7. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) The boundaries and locations of each disposal unit (e.g., trenches) must be accurately located and... forth in the approved site closure plan must be carried out as each disposal unit (e.g., each trench)...

  8. Dealing with electronic waste: modeling the costs and environmental benefits of computer monitor disposal.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Molly; Palmer, Karen; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

    2003-05-01

    The importance of information technology to the world economy has brought about a surge in demand for electronic equipment. With rapid technological change, a growing fraction of the increasing stock of many types of electronics becomes obsolete each year. We model the costs and benefits of policies to manage 'e-waste' by focusing on a large component of the electronic waste stream-computer monitors-and the environmental concerns associated with disposal of the lead embodied in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in most monitors. We find that the benefits of avoiding health effects associated with CRT disposal appear far outweighed by the costs for a wide range of policies. For the stock of monitors disposed of in the United States in 1998, we find that policies restricting or banning some popular disposal options would increase disposal costs from about US dollar 1 per monitor to between US dollars 3 and US dollars 20 per monitor. Policies to promote a modest amount of recycling of monitor parts, including lead, can be less expensive. In all cases, however, the costs of the policies exceed the value of the avoided health effects of CRT disposal.

  9. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: A Long-Term Socio-Technical Experiment.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Jantine

    2016-06-01

    In this article we investigate whether long-term radioactive waste management by means of geological disposal can be understood as a social experiment. Geological disposal is a rather particular technology in the way it deals with the analytical and ethical complexities implied by the idea of technological innovation as social experimentation, because it is presented as a technology that ultimately functions without human involvement. We argue that, even when the long term function of the 'social' is foreseen to be restricted to safeguarding the functioning of the 'technical', geological disposal is still a social experiment. In order to better understand this argument and explore how it could be addressed, we elaborate the idea of social experimentation with the notion of co-production and the analytical tools of delegation, prescription and network as developed by actor-network theory. In doing so we emphasize that geological disposal inherently involves relations between surface and subsurface, between humans and nonhumans, between the social, material and natural realm, and that these relations require recognition and further elaboration. In other words, we argue that geological disposal concurrently is a social and a technical experiment, or better, a long-term socio-technical experiment. We end with proposing the idea of 'actor-networking' as a sensitizing concept for future research into what geological disposal as a socio-technical experiment could look like.

  10. Alcatraz Disposal Site Investigation. Report 3. San Francisco Bay- Alcatraz Disposal Site Erodibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    MISCELLANEOUS PAPER HL-86-1 ALCATRAZ DISPOSAL SITE INVESTIGATION in Report 3 91X FILE COP’Y SAN FRANCISCO BAY- ALCATRAZ DISPOSAL SITE ERODIBILITY (V...Street ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO San Francisco, CA 94105-1905 ________________ 11 TITLE (include Security Classification) Alcatraz Disposal Site...Investigation; Report 3, San Francisco Day- Alcatraz Disposal Site Teeter, Allen M. 13a TYPE OF REPORT 113b TIME COVERED 114 DATE OF REPORT (Year, A4oiith

  11. Application for Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-08-05

    The NTS is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. NNSA/NSO is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and NSTec is the Management & Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The U10C Disposal Site is located in the northwest corner of Area 9 at the NTS (Figure 1) and is located in a subsidence crater created by two underground nuclear events, one in October 1962 and another in April 1964. The disposal site opened in 1971 for the disposal of rubbish, refuse, pathological waste, asbestos-containing material, and industrial solid waste. A Notice of Intent form to operate the disposal site as a Class II site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 26, 1994, and was acknowledged in a letter to the DOE on February 8, 1994. It operated as a state of Nevada Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS) until it closed on October 5, 1995, for retrofit as a Class III SWDS. The retrofit consisted of the installation of a minimum four-foot compacted soil layer to segregate the different waste types and function as a liner to inhibit leachate and water flow into the lower waste zone. Five neutron monitoring tubes were installed in this layer to monitor possible leachate production and water activity. Upon acceptance of the installed barrier and approval of an Operating Plan by NDEP/BFF, the site reopened in January 1996 as a Class III SWDS for the disposal of industrial solid waste and other inert waste.

  12. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... extent practicable water infiltration, to direct percolating or surface water away from the disposed... must direct surface water drainage away from disposal units at velocities and gradients which will not result in erosion that will require ongoing active maintenance in the future. (6) The disposal site...

  13. DOSE ASSESSMENTS FROM THE DISPOSAL OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTES IN RCRA-C DISPOSAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling the long-term performance of the RCRA-C disposal cell and potential doses to off-site receptors is used to derive maximum radionuclide specific concentrations in the wastes that would enable these wastes to be disposed of safely using the RCRA-C disposal cell technology....

  14. DOSE ASSESSMENTS FROM THE DISPOSAL OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTES IN RCRA-C DISPOSAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling the long-term performance of the RCRA-C disposal cell and potential doses to off-site receptors is used to derive maximum radionuclide specific concentrations in the wastes that would enable these wastes to be disposed of safely using the RCRA-C disposal cell technology....

  15. NEP processing, operations, and disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stancati, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Several recent studies by ASAO/NPO staff members at LeRC and by other organizations have highlighted the potential benefits of using Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) as the primary transportation means for some of the proposed missions of the Space Exploration Initiative. These include the potential to reduce initial mass in orbit and Mars transit time. Modular NEP configurations also introduce fully redundant main propulsion to Mars flight systems adding several abort or fall back options not otherwise available. Recent studies have also identified mission operations, such as on orbital assembly, refurbishment, and reactor disposal, as important discriminators for propulsion system evaluation. This study is intended to identify and assess 'end-to-end' operational issues associated with using NEP for transporting crews and cargo between Earth and Mars. We also include some consideration of lunar cargo transfer as well.

  16. Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

  17. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Stein, Emily; Price, Laura L.; MacKinnon, Robert J.; Tillman, Jack Bruce

    2016-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  18. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-18

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  19. 75 FR 58328 - Nebraska: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... promulgation of the Zinc Fertilizer Rule on July 24, 2002 (67 FR 48393). Specifically, the commenter argued that the Phase IV Land Disposal Restriction (LDR)--which is more stringent than the Zinc Fertilizer Rule--resulted from an ``affirmative finding of safety'' when zinc-containing hazardous wastes were...

  20. Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). Volumes 1 and 2 and Reference Document

    SciTech Connect

    Helmich, E.; Noller, D.K.; Wierzbicki, K.S.; Bailey, L.L.

    1994-12-22

    The Compliance Plan Volume provides overall schedules with target dates for achieving compliance with the land disposal restrictions (LDR) and contains procedures to establish milestones to be enforced under the Order. Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume and is provided for informational purposes only.

  1. A disposable blood cyanide sensor.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Mahon, Sari B; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R

    2013-03-20

    Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160 s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 μM, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 μL, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20 μL, 50 μL). RSDs were<10% in all cases and the linear range extended from 0.5 to 200 μM. The method was validated against a microdiffusion approach and applied to the measurement of cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in <4 min. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Disposable Blood Cyanide Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583 nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 μM, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 μL, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20μL, 50 μL). RSDs were < 10% in all cases and the linear range extended from 0.5 to 200 μM. The method was validated against a microdiffusion approach and applied to the measurement of cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in < 4 min. PMID:23473259

  3. Effectiveness of GNSS disposal strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, E. M.; Rossi, A.; Valsecchi, G. B.; Anselmo, L.; Pardini, C.; Colombo, C.; Lewis, H. G.; Daquin, J.; Deleflie, F.; Vasile, M.; Zuiani, F.; Merz, K.

    2014-06-01

    The management of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and of the Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) region as a whole is a subject that cannot be deferred, due to the growing exploitation and launch rate in that orbital regime. The advent of the European Galileo and the Chinese Beidou constellations significantly added complexity to the system and calls for an adequate global view on the four constellations present in operation. The operation procedures, including maintenance and disposal practices, of the constellations currently deployed were analyzed in order to asses a proper reference simulation scenario. The complex dynamics of the MEO region with all the geopotential and lunisolar resonances was studied to better identify the proper end-of-life orbit for every proposed strategy, taking into account and, whenever possible, exploiting the orbital dynamics in this peculiar region of space. The possibility to exploit low thrust propulsion or non gravitational perturbations with passive de-orbiting devices (and a combination of the two) was analyzed, in view of possible applications in the design of the future generations of the constellations satellites. Several upgrades in the long-term evolution software SDM and DAMAGE were undertaken to properly handle the constellation simulations in every aspect from constellation maintenance to orbital dynamics. A thorough approach considering the full time evolving covariance matrix associated with every object was implemented in SDM to compute the collision risk and associated maneuver rate for the constellation satellites. Once the software upgrades will be completed, the effectiveness of the different disposal strategies will be analyzed in terms of residual collision risk and avoidance maneuvers rate. This work was performed under the ESA/GSP Contract no. 4000107201/12/F/MOS.

  4. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  5. 50 CFR 300.109 - Gear disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear disposal. 300.109 Section 300.109... Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.109 Gear disposal. (a) The operator of a harvesting vessel may not... fishing vessels or gear, or that may catch fish or cause damage to any marine resource, including...

  6. 50 CFR 300.109 - Gear disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear disposal. 300.109 Section 300.109... Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.109 Gear disposal. (a) The operator of a harvesting vessel may not... fishing vessels or gear, or that may catch fish or cause damage to any marine resource, including...

  7. 50 CFR 300.109 - Gear disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear disposal. 300.109 Section 300.109... Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.109 Gear disposal. (a) The operator of a harvesting vessel may not... fishing vessels or gear, or that may catch fish or cause damage to any marine resource, including...

  8. 50 CFR 300.109 - Gear disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear disposal. 300.109 Section 300.109... Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.109 Gear disposal. (a) The operator of a harvesting vessel may not... fishing vessels or gear, or that may catch fish or cause damage to any marine resource, including...

  9. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  10. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Hari S.; Chu, Shaoping; Reimus, Paul William; Makedonska, Nataliia; Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Karra, Satish; Dittrich, Timothy M.

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  11. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  12. Subseabed disposal program. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinga, K. R.

    1982-02-01

    This is the seventh annual report describing the results of the investigations of the Subseabed Disposal Program. The program, international in scope, is evaluating the feasibility of disposing of high-level radioactive wastes by burial in certain geologically stable and economically valueless sediments of the deep sea floor.

  13. Tritium waste disposal technology in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Albenesius, E.L.; Towler, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and 10 million curies in defense related sites. At three disposal sites in humid areas, tritium has migrated into the ground water, and at one arid site tritium vapor has been detected emerging from the soil above the disposal area. Leaching tests on tritium containing waste show that tritium in the form of HTO leaches readily from most waste forms, but that leaching rates of tritiated water into polymer impregnated concrete are reduced by as much as a factor of ten. Tests on improved tritium containment are ongoing. Disposal costs for tritium waste are 7 to 10 dollars per cubic foot for shallow land burial of low specific activity tritium waste, and 10 to 20 dollars per cubic foot for disposal of high specific activity waste. The cost of packaging the high specific activity waste is 150 to 300 dollars per cubic foot. 18 references.

  14. Petroleum Engineering Techniques for HLW Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    van den Broek, W. M. G. T.

    2002-02-25

    This paper describes why petroleum engineering techniques are of importance and can be used for underground disposal of HLW (high-level radioactive waste). It is focused on rock salt as a geological host medium in combination with disposal of the HLW canisters in boreholes drilled from the surface. Both permanent disposal and disposal with the option to retrieve the waste are considered. The paper starts with a description of the disposal procedure. Next disposal in deep boreholes is treated. Then the possible use of deviated boreholes and of multiple boreholes is discussed. Also waste isolation aspects and the implications of the HLW heat generation are treated. It appears that the use of deep boreholes can be beneficial, and also that--to a certain extent--borehole deviation offers possibilities. The benefits of using multiple boreholes are questionable for permanent disposal, while this technique cannot be applied for retrievable disposal. For the use of casing material, the additional temperature rise due to the HLW heat generation must be taken into account.

  15. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  16. 21 CFR 1250.79 - Garbage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Garbage disposal. 1250.79 Section 1250.79 Food and... SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.79 Garbage disposal. (a) Water-tight, readily cleanable, nonabsorbent containers with close-fitting covers shall be used to receive and store garbage. (b...

  17. 21 CFR 1250.79 - Garbage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Garbage disposal. 1250.79 Section 1250.79 Food and... SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.79 Garbage disposal. (a) Water-tight, readily cleanable, nonabsorbent containers with close-fitting covers shall be used to receive and store garbage. (b...

  18. 21 CFR 1250.79 - Garbage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Garbage disposal. 1250.79 Section 1250.79 Food and... SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.79 Garbage disposal. (a) Water-tight, readily cleanable, nonabsorbent containers with close-fitting covers shall be used to receive and store garbage. (b...

  19. 21 CFR 1250.79 - Garbage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Garbage disposal. 1250.79 Section 1250.79 Food and... SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.79 Garbage disposal. (a) Water-tight, readily cleanable, nonabsorbent containers with close-fitting covers shall be used to receive and store garbage. (b...

  20. 21 CFR 1250.79 - Garbage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Garbage disposal. 1250.79 Section 1250.79 Food and... SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.79 Garbage disposal. (a) Water-tight, readily cleanable, nonabsorbent containers with close-fitting covers shall be used to receive and store garbage. (b...

  1. 7 CFR 3203.10 - Disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT... PURSUANT TO SECTION 14220 OF THE 2008 FARM BILL § 3203.10 Disposal. When property received under this part is no longer needed by the recipient, it must be disposed of in an environmentally sound manner...

  2. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provisions of this section, shall, to the maximum extent practicable, not be disposed of onto sea ice, ice... and domestic liquid wastes may be discharged directly into the sea, taking into account the... treatment processes are used, the by-product of such treatment may be disposed of into the sea...

  3. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provisions of this section, shall, to the maximum extent practicable, not be disposed of onto sea ice, ice... and domestic liquid wastes may be discharged directly into the sea, taking into account the... treatment processes are used, the by-product of such treatment may be disposed of into the sea...

  4. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provisions of this section, shall, to the maximum extent practicable, not be disposed of onto sea ice, ice... and domestic liquid wastes may be discharged directly into the sea, taking into account the... treatment processes are used, the by-product of such treatment may be disposed of into the sea...

  5. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provisions of this section, shall, to the maximum extent practicable, not be disposed of onto sea ice, ice... and domestic liquid wastes may be discharged directly into the sea, taking into account the... treatment processes are used, the by-product of such treatment may be disposed of into the sea...

  6. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provisions of this section, shall, to the maximum extent practicable, not be disposed of onto sea ice, ice... and domestic liquid wastes may be discharged directly into the sea, taking into account the... treatment processes are used, the by-product of such treatment may be disposed of into the sea...

  7. 32 CFR 644.395 - Coordination on disposal problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... problem adversely affecting a specific disposal project or the overall program for disposal or property. ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coordination on disposal problems. 644.395... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Predisposal Action § 644.395 Coordination on disposal problems. If...

  8. Rotating restricted Schur polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornman, Nicholas; de Mello Koch, Robert; Tribelhorn, Laila

    2017-09-01

    Large N but nonplanar limits of 𝒩 = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory can be described using restricted Schur polynomials. Previous investigations demonstrate that the action of the one loop dilatation operator on restricted Schur operators, with classical dimension of order N and belonging to the su(2) sector, is largely determined by the su(2) ℛ symmetry algebra as well as structural features of perturbative field theory. Studies presented so far have used the form of ℛ symmetry generators when acting on small perturbations of half-BPS operators. In this paper as a first step towards going beyond small perturbations of the half-BPS operators, we explain how the exact action of symmetry generators on restricted Schur polynomials can be determined.

  9. Perioperative Fluid Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Bleier, Joshua I.S.; Aarons, Cary B.

    2013-01-01

    Perioperative fluid management of the colorectal surgical patient has evolved significantly over the last five decades. Older notions espousing aggressive hydration have been shown to be associated with increased complications. Newer data regarding fluid restriction has shown an association with improved outcomes. Management of perioperative fluid administration can be considered in three primary phases: In the preoperative phase, data suggests that avoidance of preoperative bowel preparation and avoidance of undue preoperative dehydration can improve outcomes. Although the type of intraoperative fluid given does not have a significant effect on outcome, data do suggest that a restrictive fluid regimen results in improved outcomes. Finally, in the postoperative phase of fluid management, a fluid-restrictive regimen, coupled with early enteral feeding also seems to result in improved outcomes. PMID:24436675

  10. 41 CFR 102-75.255 - What are disposal agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus property? 102-75.255 Section 102-75...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal § 102-75.255 What are disposal agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus...

  11. 41 CFR 102-75.255 - What are disposal agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus property? 102-75.255 Section 102-75...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal § 102-75.255 What are disposal agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus...

  12. 41 CFR 102-75.255 - What are disposal agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus property? 102-75.255 Section 102-75...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal § 102-75.255 What are disposal agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus...

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.255 - What are disposal agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus property? 102-75.255 Section 102-75...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal § 102-75.255 What are disposal agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus...

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.255 - What are disposal agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus property? 102-75.255 Section 102-75...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal § 102-75.255 What are disposal agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus...

  15. A method for permanent disposal of CO{sub 2} in solid form

    SciTech Connect

    Butt, D.P.; Lackner, K.S.; Wendt, C.H.

    1997-02-04

    We describe a method for binding the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide as magnesium carbonate, a thermodynamically stable solid, for safe and permanent disposal, and with minimal environment impact. The technique is based on extracting magnesium hydroxide from common ultramafic rock for thermal carbonation and subsequent disposition. The economics of the method appear to be promising, however, many details of the proposed process have yet to be optimized. Initial estimates indicate that binding and disposal would impose a burden of approximately 3{cents}/kWH onto the cost of electricity. This cost could be reduced significantly in the short term by entering niche markets for various technologies for efficient extraction and thermal carbonation. In this paper, we describe some of the kinetic limitations and opportunities. The proposed disposal technique may be viewed as a sort of insurance policy in case global warming, or the perception of global warming causes severe restrictions on CO{sub 2} emissions.

  16. The need and options available for permanent CO{sub 2} disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, H.J.; Butt, D.P.; Lackner, K.S.; Wendt, C.H.

    1999-04-01

    Inexpensive, readily available energy is the cornerstone of modern society and the basis of a decent standard of living. The high probability of future restrictions on CO{sub 2} emissions has put in question the use of fossil fuels, the largest, most convenient, and most cost-effective energy resource available. The rapidly growing world population, the need for an improved standard of living worldwide, and the nearly linear dependence of the standard of living on energy consumption, all coupled with the magnitude of today`s CO{sub 2} emissions point to an impending crisis. The authors briefly review the problem and look at the available options. They conclude that for the foreseeable future, fossil fuels will continue to dominate the world energy market, but that CO{sub 2} disposal will be required. Of the possible disposal options, mineral sequestration of CO{sub 2} appears as an extremely promising, permanent, and environmentally benign disposal option.

  17. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE`s Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS.

  18. Calorie restriction and stroke

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Stroke, a major cause of disability and mortality in the elderly, occurs when a cerebral blood vessel is occluded or ruptured, resulting in ischemic damage and death of brain cells. The injury mechanism involves metabolic and oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis and inflammatory processes, including activation of glial cells and infiltration of leukocytes. In animal models, dietary energy restriction, by daily calorie reduction (CR) or intermittent fasting (IF), extends lifespan and decreases the development of age-related diseases. Dietary energy restriction may also benefit neurons, as suggested by experimental evidence showing that CR and IF protect neurons against degeneration in animal models. Recent findings by our group and others suggest the possibility that dietary energy restriction may protect against stroke induced brain injury, in part by inducing the expression of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF); protein chaperones, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78); antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1), uncoupling proteins and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This article discusses the protective mechanisms activated by dietary energy restriction in ischemic stroke. PMID:21910904

  19. Restricting Grammatical Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Theories of natural language syntax often characterize grammatical knowledge as a form of abstract computation. This paper argues that such a characterization is correct, and that fundamental properties of grammar can and should be understood in terms of restrictions on the complexity of possible grammatical computation, when defined in terms of…

  20. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products, authorized...

  1. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance with...

  2. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance with...

  3. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance with...

  4. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance with...

  5. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products, authorized...

  6. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products, authorized...

  7. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products, authorized...

  8. Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

    2000-07-01

    Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

  9. Consideration of privatization of solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.K.

    1995-09-01

    Martin County is responsible by law for the solid waste disposal needs of all County residents. In the State of Florida, counties have the responsibility of providing solid waste disposal services. Florida Statutes 403.706 divides the responsibility among local governments as follows: {open_quotes}The governing body of a County has the responsibility and power to provide for the operation of solid waste disposal facilities to meet the needs of all incorporated and unincorporated areas of the County. In accordance with this section, municipalities are responsible for collecting and transporting solid waste from their jurisdictions to a solid waste disposal facility operated by a county or operated under a contract with a county.{close_quotes} Solid waste disposal is a mandatory obligation primarily because of public health and safety concerns. In addition to contributing to environmental damage, dumping (as opposed to landfilling) contributes to infestations of insects and rodents that carry disease to the human population. Although the County may choose to provide solid waste disposal service indirectly, the ultimate responsibility for the service will remain with the County. If a contractor fails to provide the service, the County will be legally responsible to the State and to County residents for correcting the failure. This report discussess issues associated with the privatization of solid waste disposal.

  10. Peristaltic pumps for waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, G.W.

    1992-09-01

    Laboratory robots are capable of generating large volumes of hazardous liquid wastes when they are used to perform chemical analyses of metal finishing solutions. A robot at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division, generates 30 gallons of acid waste each month. This waste contains mineral acids, heavy metals, metal fluorides, and other materials. The waste must be contained in special drums that are closed to the atmosphere. The initial disposal method was to have the robot pour the waste into a collecting funnel, which contained a liquid-sensing valve to admit the waste into the drum. Spills were inevitable, splashing occurred, and the special valve often didn`t work well. The device also occupied a large amount of premium bench space. Peristaltic pumps are made to handle hazardous liquids quickly and efficiently. A variable-speed pump, equipped with a quick-loading pump head, was mounted below the robot bench near the waste barrel. The pump inlet tube was mounted above the bench within easy reach of the robot, while the outlet tube was connected directly to the barrel. During operation, the robot brings the waste liquid up to the pump inlet tube and activates the pump. When the waste has been removed, the pump stops. The procedure is quick, simple, inexpensive, safe, and reliable.

  11. Peristaltic pumps for waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, G.W.

    1992-09-01

    Laboratory robots are capable of generating large volumes of hazardous liquid wastes when they are used to perform chemical analyses of metal finishing solutions. A robot at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division, generates 30 gallons of acid waste each month. This waste contains mineral acids, heavy metals, metal fluorides, and other materials. The waste must be contained in special drums that are closed to the atmosphere. The initial disposal method was to have the robot pour the waste into a collecting funnel, which contained a liquid-sensing valve to admit the waste into the drum. Spills were inevitable, splashing occurred, and the special valve often didn't work well. The device also occupied a large amount of premium bench space. Peristaltic pumps are made to handle hazardous liquids quickly and efficiently. A variable-speed pump, equipped with a quick-loading pump head, was mounted below the robot bench near the waste barrel. The pump inlet tube was mounted above the bench within easy reach of the robot, while the outlet tube was connected directly to the barrel. During operation, the robot brings the waste liquid up to the pump inlet tube and activates the pump. When the waste has been removed, the pump stops. The procedure is quick, simple, inexpensive, safe, and reliable.

  12. System for disposing of sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1991-05-28

    This patent describes improvement in a system for disposing of sludge by using the sludge as a primary source of fuel for its disposition by combustion thereof. The system comprises: processing a mass of liquified sludge to reduce the solids to a predetermined size for use as the fuel and concurrently separating a substantial portion of the contained liquid as a water vapor; delivering the processes solids and liquid to the combustor such that the combustor contains the solids and the liquids in the processed mass for conversion of the solids to ash and the conversion of the liquids to vapor; admitting a portion of the ambient air to the burner to support combustion of the solids, and another portion of ambient air to the combustor for removing the vapor at a temperature below the temperature at which the solids are reduced to ash; utilizing a part of the removed vapor to initiate evaporization of the liquid in the processed mass, and a part of the removed vapor to elevate the temperature of the ambient air admitted to the burner and to the combustor; releasing the part of the removed vapor used to elevate the temperature of the admitted ambient air to the ambient atmosphere; and removing the ash substantially free of vapor.

  13. Processing Irradiated Beryllium For Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    T. J. Tranter; R. D. Tillotson; N. R. Mann; G. R. Longhurst

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a process for decontaminating irradiated beryllium that will allow it to be disposed of through normal radwaste channels. Thus, the primary objectives of this ongoing study are to remove the transuranic (TRU) isotopes to less than 100 nCi/g and remove {sup 60}Co, and {sup 137}Cs, to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. One possible approach that appears to have the most promise is aqueous dissolution and separation of the isotopes by selected solvent extraction followed by precipitation, resulting in a granular form for the beryllium that may be fixed to prevent it from becoming respirable and therefore hazardous. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluorboric acids. Isotopes of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in tributyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each isotope with only three contact stages.

  14. Large Component Removal/Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D. M.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 399: Area 18 Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro Nevada Environmental Services

    2010-08-10

    The closure report for CAU 399 is just a one page summary listing the coordinates of the disposal site which were given at the time (1995) in Nevada State Plan Coordinates - North American Datum of 1983. The drawing of the use restricted site also listed the coordinates in Nevada State Plan Coordinates - North American Datum of 1983. In the ensuing years the reporting of coordinates has been standardized so that all coordinates are reported in the same manner, which is: NAD 27 UTM Zone 11 N, meters. This Errata Sheet updates the coordinate reporting to the currently accepted method and includes an aerial photo showing the disposal site with the coordinates listed showing the use restricted area.

  16. Future trends which will influence waste disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Wolman, A

    1978-01-01

    The disposal and management of solid wastes are ancient problems. The evolution of practices naturally changed as populations grew and sites for disposal became less acceptable. The central search was for easy disposal at minimum costs. The methods changed from indiscriminate dumping to sanitary landfill, feeding to swine, reduction, incineration, and various forms of re-use and recycling. Virtually all procedures have disabilities and rising costs. Many methods once abandoned are being rediscovered. Promises for so-called innovations outstrip accomplishments. Markets for salvage vary widely or disappear completely. The search for conserving materials and energy at minimum cost must go on forever. PMID:570105

  17. Utilities continue to wrestle with radwaste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, S.D.

    1983-12-01

    The continuing doldrums in nuclear generation as an industry is a matter of public knowledge. The level of commercial activity related to nuclear energy, however, is another matter entirely, with waste disposal holding the spotlight. While the ultimate disposal of high-level waste (spent fuel, essentially) is the dramatic headline producer, it is the low-level radioactive wastes that dominate radwaste planning and design activities at nuclear utilities. Dwindling waste-disposal sites and economic considerations have spotlighted the need for volume minimization for at least a half-dozen years.

  18. Disposal of medical waste: a legal perspective.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, Karen; Bodenstein, Johannes

    2013-09-03

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa provides that everyone has the right to an environment that is not harmful to their health and well-being. The illegal dumping of hazardous waste poses a danger to the environment when pollutants migrate into water sources and ultimately cause widespread infection or toxicity, endangering the health of humans who might become exposed to infection and toxins. To give effect to the Constitution, the safe disposal of hazardous waste is governed by legislation in South Africa. Reports of the illegal disposal of waste suggest a general lack of awareness and training in regard to the safe disposal of medical waste. 

  19. The end-of-life disposal of satellites in libration-point orbits using solar radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldini, Stefania; Colombo, Camilla; Walker, Scott

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes an end-of-life propellant-free disposal strategy for libration-point orbits which uses solar radiation pressure to restrict the evolution of the spacecraft motion. The spacecraft is initially disposed into the unstable manifold leaving the libration-point orbit, before a reflective sun-pointing surface is deployed to enhance the effect of solar radiation pressure. Therefore, the consequent increase in energy prevents the spacecraft's return to Earth. Three European Space Agency missions are selected as test case scenarios: Herschel, SOHO and Gaia. Guidelines for the end-of-life disposal of future libration-point orbit missions are proposed and a preliminary study on the effect of the Earth's orbital eccentricity on the disposal strategy is shown for the Gaia mission.

  20. A temporal and spatial assessment of TBT concentrations at dredged material disposal sites around the coast of England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Bolam, Thi; Barry, Jon; Law, Robin J; James, David; Thomas, Boby; Bolam, Stefan G

    2014-02-15

    Despite legislative interventions since the 1980s, contemporary concentrations of organotin compounds in marine sediments still impose restrictions on the disposal of dredged material in the UK. Here, we analyse temporal and spatial data to assess the effectiveness of the ban on the use of TBT paints in reducing concentrations at disposal sites. At a national scale, there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of samples in which the concentration was below the limit of detection (LOD) from 1998 to 2010. This was observed for sediments both inside and outside the disposal sites. However, this temporal decline in organotin concentration is disposal site-specific. Of the four sites studied in detail, two displayed significant increases in proportion of samples below LOD over time. We argue that site-specificity in the effectiveness of the TBT ban results from variations in historical practices at source and unique environmental characteristics of each site.

  1. Assessment of recycling or disposal alternatives for radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III; Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for evaluation of management alternatives for radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives. This effort includes development of inventory estimates for contaminated metals; investigation of scrap metal market structure, processes, and trends; assessment of radiological and nonradiological effects of recycling; and investigation of social and political factors that are likely to either facilitate or constrain recycling opportunities. In addition, the option of scrap metal disposal is being assessed, especially with regard to the environmental and health impacts of replacing these metals if they are withdrawn from use. This paper focuses on the radiological risk assessment and dose estimate sensitivity analysis. A {open_quotes}tiered{close_quotes} concept for release categories, with and without use restrictions, is being developed. Within the tiers, different release limits may be indicated for specific groupings of radionuclides. Depending on the spectrum of radionuclides that are present and the level of residual activity after decontamination and/or smelting, the scrap may be released for unrestricted public use or for specified public uses, or it may be recycled within the nuclear industry. The conservatism of baseline dose estimates is examined, and both more realistic parameter values and protective measures for workers are suggested.

  2. A BOD monitoring disposable reactor with alginate-entrapped bacteria.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Patricio; Acevedo, Cristian A; Albornoz, Fernando; Sánchez, Elizabeth; Valdés, Erika; Galindo, Raúl; Young, Manuel E

    2010-10-01

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a measure of the amount of dissolved oxygen that is required for the biochemical oxidation of the organic compounds in 5 days. New biosensor-based methods have been conducted for a faster determination of BOD. In this study, a mathematical model to evaluate the feasibility of using a BOD sensor, based on disposable alginate-entrapped bacteria, for monitoring BOD in situ was applied. The model considers the influences of alginate bead size and bacterial concentration. The disposable biosensor can be adapted according to specific requirements depending on the organic load contained in the wastewater. Using Klein and Washausen parameter in a Lineweaver-Burk plot, the glucose diffusivity was calculated in 6.4 × 10(-10) (m2/s) for beads of 1 mm in diameter and slight diffusion restrictions were observed (n = 0.85). Experimental results showed a correlation (p < 0.05) between the respirometric peak and the standard BOD test. The biosensor response was representative of BOD.

  3. Frequencies of restriction sites.

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, M S

    1983-01-01

    Restriction sites or other sequence patterns are usually assumed to occur according to a Poisson distribution with mean equal to the reciprocal of the probability of the given site or pattern. For situations where non-overlapping occurrences of patterns, such as restriction sites, are the objects of interest, this note shows that the Poisson assumption is frequently misleading. Both the case of base composition (independent bases) and of dinucleotide frequencies (Markov chains) are treated. Moreover, a new technique is presented which allows treatment of collections of patterns, where the departure from the Poisson assumption is even more striking. This later case includes double digests, and an example of a five enzyme digest is included. PMID:6324109

  4. Child Feces Disposal Practices in Rural Orissa: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Majorin, Fiona; Freeman, Matthew C.; Barnard, Sharmani; Routray, Parimita; Boisson, Sophie; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background An estimated 2.5 billion people worldwide lack access to improved sanitation facilities. While large-scale programs in some countries have increased latrine coverage, they sometimes fail to ensure optimal latrine use, including the safe disposal of child feces, a significant source of exposure to fecal pathogens. We undertook a cross-sectional study to explore fecal disposal practices among children in rural Orissa, India in villages where the Government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign had been implemented at least three years prior to the study. Methods and Findings We conducted surveys with heads of 136 households with 145 children under 5 years of age in 20 villages. We describe defecation and feces disposal practices and explore associations between safe disposal and risk factors. Respondents reported that children commonly defecated on the ground, either inside the household (57.5%) for pre-ambulatory children or around the compound (55.2%) for ambulatory children. Twenty percent of pre-ambulatory children used potties and nappies; the same percentage of ambulatory children defecated in a latrine. While 78.6% of study children came from 106 households with a latrine, less than a quarter (22.8%) reported using them for disposal of child feces. Most child feces were deposited with other household waste, both for pre-ambulatory (67.5%) and ambulatory (58.1%) children. After restricting the analysis to households owning a latrine, the use of a nappy or potty was associated with safe disposal of feces (OR 6.72, 95%CI 1.02–44.38) though due to small sample size the regression could not adjust for confounders. Conclusions In the area surveyed, the Total Sanitation Campaign has not led to high levels of safe disposal of child feces. Further research is needed to identify the actual scope of this potential gap in programming, the health risk presented and interventions to minimize any adverse effect. PMID:24586864

  5. Spent fuel characteristics & disposal considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Oversby, V.M.

    1996-06-01

    The fuel used in commercial nuclear power reactors is uranium, generally in the form of an oxide. The gas-cooled reactors developed in England use metallic uranium enclosed in a thin layer of Magnox. Since this fuel must be processed into a more stable form before disposal, we will not consider the characteristics of the Magnox spent fuel. The vast majority of the remaining power reactors in the world use uranium dioxide pellets in Zircaloy cladding as the fuel material. Reactors that are fueled with uranium dioxide generally use water as the moderator. If ordinary water is used, the reactors are called Light Water Reactors (LWR), while if water enriched in the deuterium isotope of hydrogen is used, the reactors are called Heavy Water reactors. The LWRs can be either pressurized reactors (PWR) or boiling water reactors (BWR). Both of these reactor types use uranium that has been enriched in the 235 isotope to about 3.5 to 4% total abundance. There may be minor differences in the details of the spent fuel characteristics for PWRs and BWRs, but for simplicity we will not consider these second-order effects. The Canadian designed reactor (CANDU) that is moderated by heavy water uses natural uranium without enrichment of the 235 isotope as the fuel. These reactors run at higher linear power density than LWRs and produce spent fuel with lower total burn-up than LWRs. Where these difference are important with respect to spent fuel management, we will discuss them. Otherwise, we will concentrate on spent fuel from LWRs.

  6. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, D. S.

    1980-03-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the absorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strengths and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area.

  7. Arsenic Treatment Residuals: Quantities, Characteristics and Disposal

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides information on the quantities, the characteristics and the disposal options for the common arsenic removal technologies. The technologies consist of adsorption media, iron removal, coagulation/filtration and ion exchange. The information for the prese...

  8. Disposal of controlled substances. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-09-09

    This rule governs the secure disposal of controlled substances by registrants and ultimate users. These regulations will implement the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010 by expanding the options available to collect controlled substances from ultimate users for the purpose of disposal, including: Take-back events, mail-back programs, and collection receptacle locations. These regulations contain specific language allowing law enforcement to voluntarily continue to conduct take-back events, administer mail-back programs, and maintain collection receptacles. These regulations will allow authorized manufacturers, distributors, reverse distributors, narcotic treatment programs (NTPs), hospitals/clinics with an on-site pharmacy, and retail pharmacies to voluntarily administer mail-back programs and maintain collection receptacles. In addition, this rule expands the authority of authorized hospitals/clinics and retail pharmacies to voluntarily maintain collection receptacles at long-term care facilities. This rule also reorganizes and consolidates previously existing regulations on disposal, including the role of reverse distributors.

  9. How to Dispose of Unused Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... your city’s or county government’s household trash and recycling service to learn about medication disposal options and ... regulations and laws, contact your local trash and recycling facility. This article appears on FDA's Consumer Updates ...

  10. Method of Disposing of Corrosive Gases

    DOEpatents

    Burford, W.B. III; Anderson, H.C.

    1950-07-11

    Waste gas containing elemental fluorine is disposed of in the disclosed method by introducing the gas near the top of a vertical chamber under a downward spray of caustic soda solution which contains a small amount of sodium sulfide.

  11. Arsenic Treatment Residuals: Quantities, Characteristics and Disposal

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides information on the quantities, the characteristics and the disposal options for the common arsenic removal technologies. The technologies consist of adsorption media, iron removal, coagulation/filtration and ion exchange. The information for the prese...

  12. Assessment of Preferred Depleted Uranium Disposal Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Croff, A.G.; Hightower, J.R.; Lee, D.W.; Michaels, G.E.; Ranek, N.L.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of converting about 700,000 metric tons (MT) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) containing 475,000 MT of depleted uranium (DU) to a stable form more suitable for long-term storage or disposal. Potential conversion forms include the tetrafluoride (DUF4), oxide (DUO2 or DU3O8), or metal. If worthwhile beneficial uses cannot be found for the DU product form, it will be sent to an appropriate site for disposal. The DU products are considered to be low-level waste (LLW) under both DOE orders and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of the potential DU conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE decisions on the preferred DU product form and a path forward that will ensure reliable and efficient disposal.

  13. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  14. Disposal of radioactive iodine in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Defield, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of space disposal of iodine waste from nuclear power reactors is investigated. The space transportation system utilized relies upon the space shuttle, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen orbit transfer vehicle, and a solid propellant final stage. The iodine is assumed to be in the form of either an iodide or an iodate, and calculations assume that the final destination is either solar orbit or solar system escape. It is concluded that space disposal of iodine is feasible.

  15. Disposal of Chemotherapeutic Agent -- Contaminated Waste

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Human interface is limited to manual loading and unloading to protect the operator and to prevent malfunction as a result of operator error. The system...wastes are not vet controlled but should be prevented from entering thp drinking water recycling chain. These wastes contain halogenated hydrocarbons that...This design promises to safely dispose of these types of wastes. No technical problems were encountered which would prevent this disposal process

  16. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    SciTech Connect

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1995-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 {times} 2 {times} 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs.

  17. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER... resale of special forest products remaining from a previous sale, the Forest Service shall not consider a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of...

  18. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER... resale of special forest products remaining from a previous sale, the Forest Service shall not consider a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of...

  19. 46 CFR 387.6 - Terms, reservations, restrictions, and conditions of conveyance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reasonable terms, without discrimination. (g) The Grantee shall, insofar as it is within its powers and to... powers necessary to perform or comply with any or all of the terms, reservations, restrictions and... mineral rights, (2) improvements without land, (3) military chapels, and (4) property disposed of pursuant...

  20. Cavern/Vault Disposal Concepts and Thermal Calculations for Direct Disposal of 37-PWR Size DPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest; Hadgu, Teklu; Clayton, Daniel James

    2015-03-01

    This report provides two sets of calculations not presented in previous reports on the technical feasibility of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal directly in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs): 1) thermal calculations for reference disposal concepts using larger 37-PWR size DPC-based waste packages, and 2) analysis and thermal calculations for underground vault-type storage and eventual disposal of DPCs. The reader is referred to the earlier reports (Hardin et al. 2011, 2012, 2013; Hardin and Voegele 2013) for contextual information on DPC direct disposal alternatives.

  1. 32 CFR 644.394 - Protection of disposal information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of disposal information. 644.394... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Predisposal Action § 644.394 Protection of disposal information. To... to Army or Air Force requirements. (The Air Force preliminary real estate disposal directive is not...

  2. 10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2005 Disposal of specific wastes. (a) A licensee may dispose of the following licensed material as if it...

  3. 10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2005 Disposal of specific wastes. (a) A licensee may dispose of the following licensed material as if it...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  5. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  6. 10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2005 Disposal of specific wastes. (a) A licensee may dispose of the following licensed material as if it...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  8. 10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2005 Disposal of specific wastes. (a) A licensee may dispose of the following licensed material as if it...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  12. 10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2005 Disposal of specific wastes. (a) A licensee may dispose of the following licensed material as if it...

  13. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  14. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  15. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  16. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  17. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  18. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  19. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  20. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  1. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  2. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  3. 48 CFR 45.605 - Inventory disposal reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory disposal reports... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.605 Inventory disposal reports. The plant clearance officer shall promptly prepare an SF 1424, Inventory Disposal Report,...

  4. 48 CFR 45.605 - Inventory disposal reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inventory disposal reports... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.605 Inventory disposal reports. The plant clearance officer shall promptly prepare an SF 1424, Inventory Disposal Report,...

  5. 48 CFR 1345.604 - Disposal of surplus property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposal of surplus... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal § 1345.604 Disposal of surplus property. Surplus property shall be disposed of in accordance with procedures outlined in the DOC Personal Property...

  6. 48 CFR 1345.604 - Disposal of surplus property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disposal of surplus... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal § 1345.604 Disposal of surplus property. Surplus property shall be disposed of in accordance with procedures outlined in the DOC Personal Property...

  7. 48 CFR 1345.604 - Disposal of surplus property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposal of surplus... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal § 1345.604 Disposal of surplus property. Surplus property shall be disposed of in accordance with procedures outlined in the DOC Personal Property...

  8. 48 CFR 1345.604 - Disposal of surplus property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of surplus... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal § 1345.604 Disposal of surplus property. Surplus property shall be disposed of in accordance with procedures outlined in the DOC Personal Property...

  9. 48 CFR 1345.604 - Disposal of surplus property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposal of surplus... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal § 1345.604 Disposal of surplus property. Surplus property shall be disposed of in accordance with procedures outlined in the DOC Personal Property...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within one...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located...

  13. 36 CFR 228.57 - Types of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.57 Types of disposal. Except as provided in § 228.41(b), disposal of mineral materials may be made by: (a) Competitive sale to the highest... contract. (1) For removal of materials to be used in connection with a public works improvement program on...

  14. 12 CFR 717.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 717.83... FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 717.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) In general. You must properly dispose of any...

  15. 12 CFR 717.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 717.83... FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 717.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) In general. You must properly dispose of any...

  16. 12 CFR 717.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 717.83... FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 717.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) In general. You must properly dispose of any...

  17. 40 CFR 761.97 - Export for disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export for disposal. 761.97 Section... PROHIBITIONS Transboundary Shipments of PCBs for Disposal § 761.97 Export for disposal. (a) General provisions. No person may export PCBs or PCB Items for disposal without an exemption, except that: (1) PCBs...

  18. 36 CFR 228.57 - Types of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Types of disposal. 228.57 Section 228.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.57 Types of disposal. Except as provided...

  19. 36 CFR 228.57 - Types of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of disposal. 228.57 Section 228.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.57 Types of disposal. Except as provided...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within one...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located...

  3. 12 CFR 717.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 717.83... FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 717.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) In general. You must properly dispose of...

  4. Subseabed Disposal Program Plan. Volume I. Overview

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    The primary objective of the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the scientific, environmental, and engineering feasibility of disposing of processed and packaged high-level nuclear waste in geologic formations beneath the world's oceans. High-level waste (HLW) is considered the most difficult of radioactive wastes to dispose of in oceanic geologic formations because of its heat and radiation output. From a scientific standpoint, the understanding developed for the disposal of such HLW can be used for other nuclear wastes (e.g., transuranic - TRU - or low-level) and materials from decommissioned facilities, since any set of barriers competent to contain the heat and radiation outputs of high-level waste will also contain such outputs from low-level waste. If subseabed disposal is found to be feasible for HLW, then other factors such as cost will become more important in considering subseabed emplacement for other nuclear wastes. A secondary objective of the SDP is to develop and maintain a capability to assess and cooperate with the seabed nuclear waste disposal programs of other nations. There are, of course, a number of nations with nuclear programs, and not all of these nations have convenient access to land-based repositories for nuclear waste. Many are attempting to develop legislative and scientific programs that will avoid potential hazards to man, threats to other ocean uses, and marine pollution, and they work together to such purpose in meetings of the international NEA/Seabed Working Group. The US SDP, as the first and most highly developed R and D program in the area, strongly influences the development of subseabed-disposal-related policy in such nations.

  5. 76 FR 19003 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Nevada and California; Site Specific Treatment Variances for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to issue both a site-specific treatment variance to U.S. Ecology... proposes to issue both a site-specific treatment variance to U.S. Ecology Nevada (USEN) located in Beatty... section of this document. II. Does this action apply to me? This proposal applies only to U. S. Ecology...

  6. 76 FR 18921 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Nevada and California; Site Specific Treatment Variances for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... variance to U.S. Ecology Nevada (USEN) in Beatty, Nevada and to withdraw an existing site-specific.... Ecology Nevada located in Beatty, Nevada and to Chemical Waste Management, Inc. located in Kettleman Hills...-Bearing Waste II. Basis for This Determination III. Development of This Variance A. U.S. Ecology Nevada...

  7. 75 FR 65482 - Approval of a Petition for Exemption From Hazardous Waste Disposal Injection Restrictions to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... ArcelorMittal Burns Harbor, LLC (AMBH) of Burns Harbor, Indiana, for three Class I injection wells located... (code K062 under 40 CFR part 261), into one Class I hazardous waste injection well specifically... part 261), into two Class I hazardous injection wells specifically identified as Waste Ammonia Liquor...

  8. 75 FR 30392 - Approval of a Petition for Exemption from Hazardous Waste Disposal Injection Restrictions to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Tuscola Plant (Cabot Corporation) of Tuscola, Illinois, for two Class I injection wells located in Tuscola... injection wells specifically identified as Injection Wells No. 2 and No. 3 at the Tuscola facility. This... existing injection wells, Well 2 and Well 3 located at the Cabot Corporation facility at 700 E. U.S...

  9. 76 FR 34147 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Revision of the Treatment Standards for Carbamate Wastes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Dimetilan P192 Isolan P194 Oxamyl P196 Manganese dimethyldithiocarbamate P197 Formparanate P198 Formetanate... applies to generators and TSDFs of ignitable, corrosive, reactive and toxic hazardous wastes that are..., corrosive, reactive, and/or toxic (i.e., wastes that exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste) or...

  10. 7 CFR 319.37 - Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... prohibited article or any article whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis in..., as prescribed by an inspector to prevent the introduction into the United States of quarantine pests... consider the degree of pest risk presented by the quarantine pest associated with the article, whether the...

  11. 7 CFR 319.37 - Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... any prohibited article or any article whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis... quarantine pests. In choosing which action to order and in setting the time limit for the action, the inspector shall consider the degree of pest risk presented by the quarantine pest associated with the...

  12. 7 CFR 319.37 - Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... prohibited article or any article whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis in..., as prescribed by an inspector to prevent the introduction into the United States of quarantine pests... consider the degree of pest risk presented by the quarantine pest associated with the article, whether the...

  13. 7 CFR 319.37 - Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the United States of plant pests. In choosing which action to order and in setting the time limit for the action, the inspector shall consider the degree of pest risk presented by the plant pest associated with the article, whether the article is a host of the pest, the types of other host materials for...

  14. 7 CFR 319.37 - Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the United States of plant pests. In choosing which action to order and in setting the time limit for the action, the inspector shall consider the degree of pest risk presented by the plant pest associated with the article, whether the article is a host of the pest, the types of other host materials for...

  15. APOBECs and Virus Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Reuben S.; Dudley, Jaquelin P.

    2015-01-01

    The APOBEC family of single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminases comprises a formidable arm of the vertebrate innate immune system. Pre-vertebrates express a single APOBEC, whereas some mammals produce as many as eleven enzymes. The APOBEC3 subfamily displays both copy number variation and polymorphisms, consistent with ongoing pathogenic pressures. These enzymes restrict the replication of many DNA-based parasites, such as exogenous viruses and endogenous transposable elements. APOBEC1 and activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) have specialized functions in RNA editing and antibody gene diversification, respectively, whereas APOBEC2 and APOBEC4 appear to have different functions. Nevertheless, the APOBEC family protects against both periodic viral zoonoses as well as exogenous and endogenous parasite replication. This review highlights viral pathogens that are restricted by APOBEC enzymes, but manage to escape through unique mechanisms. The sensitivity of viruses that lack counterdefense measures highlights the need to develop APOBEC-enabling small molecules as a new class of anti-viral drugs. PMID:25818029

  16. 7 CFR 1484.36 - How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property? 1484.36 Section 1484.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN...

  17. 7 CFR 1484.36 - How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property? 1484.36 Section 1484.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS PROGRAMS TO...

  18. 7 CFR 1484.36 - How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property? 1484.36 Section 1484.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN...

  19. 7 CFR 1484.36 - How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property? 1484.36 Section 1484.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN...

  20. Contamination of disposable tonometer prisms during tonometry.

    PubMed

    Rajak, S N; Paul, J; Sharma, V; Vickers, S

    2006-03-01

    Due to the theoretical possibility of prion transmission in applanation tonometry, many ophthalmological units in the United Kingdom now use disposable tonometer prisms. We have investigated the potential for bacterial and viral transmission from the health practitioner to the patient via disposable prisms. All staff who perform applanation tonometry at the Sussex Eye Hospital (SEH) received a questionnaire to evaluate if the applanating face of the prism is touched during tonometry and the ease of use of the disposable prism compared to the reusable prisms that were previously used. We then cultured prisms handled by a random sample of staff members for common bacteria. Finally, we constructed a model to investigate the possibility of interpatient adenoviral transmission via disposable tonometer prisms. The questionnaire revealed that almost 50% of the staff admit to touching the applanating face of the tonometer prism prior to applanation. Cultures of the prisms grew a range of bacteria including Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus species. The viral model suggested that adenovirus could be transmitted by applanation tonometry. The use of disposable prisms for applanation tonometry may reduce the risk of prion transmission but is not bacteriologically or virologically aseptic. This is a potential infection risk to patients.

  1. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  2. Restrictive chest wall disorders.

    PubMed

    Donath, Joseph; Miller, Albert

    2009-06-01

    Hypoventilation can be caused by diseases of the chest wall. Any anatomical or functional abnormality of the bony thorax increases dead space ventilation and the work of breathing, whether congenital or acquired, acute or chronic, and whether its cause is infectious, traumatic, environmental, iatrogenic, or unknown. In this article, we discuss these heterogeneous disorders from the viewpoint of the practicing nonpediatric pulmonary physician, only briefly touching on surgical, pediatric, rheumatologic, and other nonpulmonary ramifications. Emphasis is on the most common and the best researched forms of chest wall restriction, including kyphoscoliosis, fibrothorax, thoracoplasty, flail chest, and ankylosing spondylitis. Other diseases such as osteoporosis with its less well known pulmonary effects, and some rarely seen entities, are briefly discussed.

  3. Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This Final Second Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SSEIS) to the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the effects of receiving, storing, and ultimately destructing the United States stockpile of lethal unitary chemical munitions currently stored in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) (European stockpile) at the Army's JACADS facility located on Johnston Atoll in the Pacific Ocean. This Final SSEIS addresses the effects of the following proposed European stockpile activities: the transport of the European stockpile from the territorial limit to Johnston Island, the unloading of munitions from transportation ships, the on-island munitions transport and handling, on-island munitions storage, the disposal of munitions in the JACADS facility, the disposal of incineration wastes, and alternatives to the proposed action. This document also updates information in the 1983 EIS and the 1988 SEIS, as appropriate. 46 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Workshop on disposable fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smyrl, W.H.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the present workshop was to assess the feasibility of a low-power disposable fuel cell. The technological basis for the concept was evaluated along with the barriers that must be overcome for its development. The scope was limited to systems with a useful life of 500 hours or less and a power production of 1 kilowatt or less. Tabulated results reveal that such a system would have advantages related to mass over competitive batteries or other power systems, and this workshop compared other characteristics of such systems as well. Disposable devices infer that a major consideration will be the cost, but there is also implied a limited environment burden. The consensus of the participants was that a disposable fuel cell (DFC) is a viable concept and that there is merit pursuing its development.

  5. Colors in Disposable Diapers: Addressing Myths.

    PubMed

    Evans, Eric B; Helmes, C Tucker; Kirsch, Taryn; Ruble, Karen M

    2014-08-01

    Colors are frequently added to disposable diapers to enhance the diapering experience. The colors in the interior of diapers are composed of nonsensitizing pigments that are bound during the fiber-making process into the fibers of the nonwoven that covers the absorbent core materials. In the past, the use of color in diapers has been called into question based on the presumed use of disperse dyes, known sensitizers in the textile industry, and erroneous reports in literature. In fact, disperse dyes are not used in leading disposable diapers; the colors used in these disposable diapers are nonsensitizing pigments with favorable safety profiles. Numerous safety tests, such as skin patch tests with pigments used on diaper backsheets, have found no evidence of skin irritation or sensitization.

  6. Oklahoma's recent earthquakes and saltwater disposal.

    PubMed

    Walsh, F Rall; Zoback, Mark D

    2015-06-01

    Over the past 5 years, parts of Oklahoma have experienced marked increases in the number of small- to moderate-sized earthquakes. In three study areas that encompass the vast majority of the recent seismicity, we show that the increases in seismicity follow 5- to 10-fold increases in the rates of saltwater disposal. Adjacent areas where there has been relatively little saltwater disposal have had comparatively few recent earthquakes. In the areas of seismic activity, the saltwater disposal principally comes from "produced" water, saline pore water that is coproduced with oil and then injected into deeper sedimentary formations. These formations appear to be in hydraulic communication with potentially active faults in crystalline basement, where nearly all the earthquakes are occurring. Although most of the recent earthquakes have posed little danger to the public, the possibility of triggering damaging earthquakes on potentially active basement faults cannot be discounted.

  7. Qualifying radioactive waste forms for geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.J.; Laidler, J.J.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1994-09-01

    We have developed a phased strategy that defines specific program-management activities and critical documentation for producing radioactive waste forms, from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, that will be acceptable for geologic disposal by the US Department of Energy. The documentation of these waste forms begins with the decision to develop the pyroprocessing technology for spent fuel conditioning and ends with production of the last waste form for disposal. The need for this strategy is underscored by the fact that existing written guidance for establishing the acceptability for disposal of radioactive waste is largely limited to borosilicate glass forms generated from the treatment of aqueous reprocessing wastes. The existing guidance documents do not provide specific requirements and criteria for nonstandard waste forms such as those generated from pyrochemical processing operations.

  8. Municipal solid wastes and their disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, R

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the sources, characteristics, and toxic constituents of municipal solid wastes. Several methods are presented for handling, treating, and disposal of solid wastes. Monitoring the landfill site is necessary; there has been a trend to recognize that municipal solid wastes may be hazardous and to provide separate secure handling, treatment, and disposal for their dangerous constituents. Under current state and Federal regulations, permits are being required to assure that proper handling of conventional solid wastes and more hazardous constituents are carefully managed. PMID:738240

  9. Reusable acoustic tweezers for disposable devices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Feng; Xie, Yuliang; Li, Sixing; Lata, James; Ren, Liqiang; Mao, Zhangming; Ren, Baiyang; Wu, Mengxi; Ozcelik, Adem

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate acoustic tweezers used for disposable devices. Rather than forming an acoustic resonance, we locally transmitted standing surface acoustic waves into a removable, independent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-glass hybridized microfluidic superstrate device for micromanipulation. By configuring and regulating the displacement nodes on a piezoelectric substrate, cells and particles were effectively patterned and transported into said superstrate, accordingly. With the label-free and contactless nature of acoustic waves, the presented technology could offer a simple, accurate, low-cost, biocompatible, and disposable method for applications in the fields of point-of-care diagnostics and fundamental biomedical studies. PMID:26507411

  10. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    DOEpatents

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  11. Co-disposal of mixed waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.J.; Alexander, R.G.; Crane, P.J.; England, J.L.; Kemp, C.J.; Stewart, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    Co-disposal of process waste streams with hazardous and radioactive materials in landfills results in large, use-efficiencies waste minimization and considerable cost savings. Wasterock, produced from nuclear and chemical process waste streams, is segregated, treated, tested to ensure regulatory compliance, and then is placed in mixed waste landfills, burial trenches, or existing environmental restoration sites. Large geotechnical unit operations are used to pretreat, stabilize, transport, and emplace wasterock into landfill or equivalent subsurface structures. Prototype system components currently are being developed for demonstration of co-disposal.

  12. Improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, R.A.; Hoffman, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    The study on improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections included surface inspections of 15 refuse disposal sites. Monthly aerial photos were taken of the sites and computer methods were used to determine elevation changes. Photogrammetric techniques that were used are described in detail. A comparison of the results of each of these inspection techniques is included. A detailed evaluation of the photogrammetric techniques was made and conclusions were drawn concerning the advantages and disadvantages of using aerial photography and photogrammetry as part of the inspection procedure. Operators' opinions of the aerial photography methods are included.

  13. Environmental restoration waste materials co-disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.J.; Alexander, R.G.; England, J.L.; Kirdendall, J.R.; Raney, E.A.; Stewart, W.E.; Dagan, E.B.; Holt, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    Co-disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste is a highly efficient and cost-saving technology. The technology used for final treatment of soil-washing size fractionization operations is being demonstrated on simulated waste. Treated material (wasterock) is used to stabilize and isolate retired underground waste disposal structures or is used to construct landfills or equivalent surface or subsurface structures. Prototype equipment is under development as well as undergoing standardized testing protocols to prequalify treated waste materials. Polymer and hydraulic cement solidification agents are currently used for geotechnical demonstration activities.

  14. Restrictive vs. non-restrictive composition: a magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Leffel, Timothy; Lauter, Miriam; Westerlund, Masha; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the brain mechanisms underlying language processing has implicated the left anterior temporal lobe (LATL) as a central region for the composition of simple phrases. Because these studies typically present their critical stimuli without contextual information, the sensitivity of LATL responses to contextual factors is unknown. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we employed a simple question-answer paradigm to manipulate whether a prenominal adjective or determiner is interpreted restrictively, i.e., as limiting the set of entities under discussion. Our results show that the LATL is sensitive to restriction, with restrictive composition eliciting higher responses than non-restrictive composition. However, this effect was only observed when the restricting element was a determiner, adjectival stimuli showing the opposite pattern, which we hypothesise to be driven by the special pragmatic properties of non-restrictive adjectives. Overall, our results demonstrate a robust sensitivity of the LATL to high level contextual and potentially also pragmatic factors. PMID:25379512

  15. Relative risk assessment of cruise ships biosolids disposal alternatives.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda, Pedro M; Englehardt, James D; Olascoaga, Josefina; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Brand, Larry; Lirman, Diego; Rogge, Wolfgang F; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Tchobanoglous, George

    2011-10-01

    A relative risk assessment of biosolids disposal alternatives for cruise ships is presented in this paper. The area of study encompasses islands and marine waters of the Caribbean Sea. The objective was to evaluate relative human health and ecological risks of (a) dewatering/incineration, (b) landing the solids for disposal, considering that in some countries land-disposed solids might be discharged in the near-shore environment untreated, and (c) deep ocean disposal. Input to the Bayesian assessment consisted of professional judgment based on available literature and modeling information, data on constituent concentrations in cruise ship biosolids, and simulations of constituent concentrations in Caribbean waters assuming ocean disposal. Results indicate that human health and ecological risks associated with land disposal and shallow ocean disposal are higher than those of the deep ocean disposal and incineration. For incineration, predicted ecological impacts were lower relative to deep ocean disposal before considering potential impacts of carbon emissions.

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Forest Waste Disposal, MI. (Second remedial action), March 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-31

    The Forest Waste Disposal site consists of an 11-acre, abandoned municipal and industrial waste landfill and 9 surface impoundments. It is located in Genesee County, Michigan, 20 miles northeast of Flint, and is surrounded by agricultural land and undeveloped woodlands and wetlands. Forest Waste Disposal conducted landfill operations from 1972-1978, receiving limited types of liquid industrial waste, general household refuse, and drummed waste until 1978. Specific waste material found within the landfill includes PBB-contaminated feed, septic sludge, and drums containing primarily solid and liquid VOCs in high concentrations. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs including toluene and TCE; other organics including pesticides, PAHs and PBBs; and metals including arsenic and lead. The selected remedial action for the site includes: removal and incineration of contaminated soil; installation of a containment system including a RCRA cap, slurry wall, dewatering system and a leachate collection system; and treatment and disposal of collected leachate; deed restrictions to prevent use of the ground water as a drinking water source; access restrictions; and ground water monitoring.

  17. Alternative disposal options for alpha-mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Sherick, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents several disposal options for the Department of Energy alpha-mixed low-level waste. The mixed nature of the waste favors thermally treating the waste to either an iron-enriched basalt or glass waste form, at which point a multitude of reasonable disposal options, including in-state disposal, are a possibility. Most notably, these waste forms will meet the land-ban restrictions. However, the thermal treatment of this waste involves considerable waste handling and complicated/expensive offgas systems with secondary waste management problems. In the United States, public perception of offgas systems in the radioactive incinerator area is unfavorable. The alternatives presented here are nonthermal in nature and involve homogenizing the waste with cryogenic techniques followed by complete encapsulation with a variety of chemical/grouting agents into retrievable waste forms. Once encapsulated, the waste forms are suitable for transport out of the state or for actual in-state disposal. This paper investigates variances that would have to be obtained and contrasts the alternative encapsulation idea with the thermal treatment option.

  18. Alternative disposal options for alpha-mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Sherick, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents several disposal options for the Department of Energy alpha-mixed low-level waste. The mixed nature of the waste favors thermally treating the waste to either an iron-enriched basalt or glass waste form, at which point a multitude of reasonable disposal options, including in-state disposal, are a possibility. Most notably, these waste forms will meet the land-ban restrictions. However, the thermal treatment of this waste involves considerable waste handling and complicated/expensive offgas, systems with secondary waste management problems. In the United States, public perception of off gas systems in the radioactive incinerator area is unfavorable. The alternatives presented here are nonthermal in nature and involve homogenizing the waste with cryogenic techniques followed by complete encapsulation with a variety of chemical/grouting agents into retrievable waste forms. Once encapsulated, the waste forms are suitable for transport out of the state or for actual in-state disposal. This paper investigates variances that would have to be obtained and contrasts the alternative encapsulation idea with the thermal treatment option.

  19. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  20. The disposal of orphan wastes using the greater confinement disposal concept

    SciTech Connect

    Bonano, E.J.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Price, L.L.; Conrad, S.H.; Dickman, P.T.

    1991-02-01

    In the United States, radioactive wastes are conventionally classified as high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, or low-level wastes. Each of these types of wastes, by law, has a ``home`` for their final disposal; i.e., high-level wastes are destined for disposal at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, transuranic waste for the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and low-level waste for shallow-land disposal sites. However, there are some radioactive wastes within the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of either high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. The former are called ``special-case`` or ``orphan`` wastes. This paper describes an ongoing project sponsored by the DOE`s Nevada Operations Office for the disposal of orphan wastes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site at Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site using the greater confinement disposal (GCD) concept. The objectives of the GCD project are to evaluate the safety of the site for disposal of orphan wastes by assessing compliance with pertinent regulations through performance assessment, and to examine the feasibility of this disposal concept as a cost-effective, safe alternative for management of orphan wastes within the DOE complex. Decisions on the use of GCD or other alternate disposal concepts for orphan wastes can be expected to be addressed in a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement being prepared by DOE. The ultimate decision to use GCD will require a Record of Decision through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS TO SIMULATE CO2 OCEAN DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen M. Masutani

    1999-12-31

    This Final Technical Report summarizes the technical accomplishments of an investigation entitled ''Laboratory Experiments to Simulate CO{sub 2} Ocean Disposal'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's University Coal Research Program. This investigation responds to the possibility that restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions may be imposed in the future to comply with the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The primary objective of the investigation was to obtain experimental data that can be applied to assess the technical feasibility and environmental impacts of oceanic containment strategies to limit release of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal and other fossil fuel combustion systems into the atmosphere. A number of critical technical uncertainties of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} were addressed by performing laboratory experiments on liquid CO{sub 2} jet break-up into a dispersed droplet phase, and hydrate formation, under deep ocean conditions. Major accomplishments of this study included: (1) five jet instability regimes were identified that occur in sequence as liquid CO{sub 2} jet disintegration progresses from laminar instability to turbulent atomization; (2) linear regression to the data yielded relationships for the boundaries between the five instability regimes in dimensionless Ohnesorge Number, Oh, and jet Reynolds Number, Re, space; (3) droplet size spectra was measured over the full range of instabilities; (4) characteristic droplet diameters decrease steadily with increasing jet velocity (and increasing Weber Number), attaining an asymptotic value in instability regime 5 (full atomization); and (5) pre-breakup hydrate formation appears to affect the size distribution of the droplet phase primary by changing the effective geometry of the jet.

  2. Retroviral restriction: nature's own solution.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher E; McKnight, Áine

    2016-12-01

    The present review will discuss recent advances in the development of anti-HIV therapies inspired by studies of the mechanisms of host restriction factor-mediated resistance to HIV infection. Manipulating the interplay between host cell restriction factors and viral accessory factors that overcome them can potentially be therapeutically useful. Preliminarily successful therapies - some of which are entering clinical trials - either inhibit the ability of virus to evade restriction factor-mediated immunity, or promote intracellular levels of restriction factors. These aims are achieved by multiple means, which are discussed. Many restriction factors appear to provide potentially useful targets for anti-HIV therapies, so time and interest should be invested in investigating ways to successfully therapeutically manipulate restriction factor-mediated immunity.

  3. 7 CFR 2902.21 - Disposable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished product. (c) Biodegradability. At the time a..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.21 Disposable containers. (a) Definition. Products designed to be used for...

  4. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other items...

  5. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other items...

  6. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other items...

  7. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other items...

  8. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other items...

  9. Urban garbage disposal and management in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan; Kang, Mu-yi; Liu, Zheng; Zhou, Yan-fang

    2003-07-01

    This paper, probing into the present situation of urban domestic garbage by analyzing its growing trend, compositional change and regional difference, reveals the problems existing in its disposal and management in China. Meanwhile, a questionnaire was conducted in five big cities around China for surveying urban residents' attitudes towards garbage disposal and management policies and measures. Results showed the output of urban domestic garbage in Chinese cities is ever increasing, and the recoverable materials and energy in garbage composition are also increasing. The population growth, economic development, and increase of residents' expenditure level are the main factors influencing the growing output and changing composition of the garbage. Information acquired from the questionnaire showed that majority of the urban residents are in favor of the garbage reduction policies and managerial measures and are willing to collaborate with municipal government in battling against garbage. Based on the analysis and questionnaire, some policymaking-oriented suggestions such as operating the garbage disposal from a social welfare service to a sector of profit-gaining enterprises, transferring the garbage management from passive end control to active source control, promoting the classified garbage collection in cities around China, and charging garbage fees for its cleanup and disposal, have also been put forward in the paper.

  10. System for Odorless Disposal of Human Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Dave; Lewis, Tod

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual system provides clean, hygienic storage. Disposal system stores human wastes compactly. Releases no odor or bacteria and requires no dangerous chemicals or unpleasant handling. Stabilizes waste by natural process of biodegradation in which microbial activity eventually ceases and ordors and bacteria reduced to easily contained levels. Simple and reliable and needs little maintenance.

  11. 7 CFR 2902.21 - Disposable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BioPreferred Web site of qualifying biobased products about the intended uses of the product... recommendations can be found on EPA's Web site http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/procure/products.htm and then... Items § 2902.21 Disposable containers. (a) Definition. Products designed to be used for temporary...

  12. The Disposable Syringe: More Experiments and Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Andrew

    1973-01-01

    Describes a variety of experiments that can be performed using the disposable syringe. Among others, these include the removal of oxygen during rusting, convection in a liquid and in air, gas collection in an electrolysis cell, small scale production of a fog, and hydrogen/oxygen extraction from a voltameter. (JR)

  13. Disposable bioreactors: maturation into pharmaceutical glycoprotein manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Brecht, René

    2009-01-01

    Modern biopharmaceutical development is characterised by deep understanding of the structure activity relationship of biological drugs. Therefore, the production process has to be tailored more to the product requirements than to the existing equipment in a certain facility. In addition, the major challenges for the industry are to lower the high production costs of biologics and to shorten the overall development time. The flexibility for providing different modes of operation using disposable bioreactors in the same facility can fulfil these demands and support tailor-made processes.Over the last 10 years, a huge and still increasing number of disposable bioreactors have entered the market. Bioreactor volumes of up to 2,000 L can be handled by using disposable bag systems. Each individual technology has been made available for different purposes up to the GMP compliant production of therapeutic drugs, even for market supply. This chapter summarises disposable technology development over the last decade by comparing the different technologies and showing trends and concepts for the future.

  14. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    H. Alsaed; P. Gottlieb

    2000-09-12

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year.

  15. Laboratory Waste Disposal Manual. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, F. G., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide laboratory personnel with information about chemical hazards and ways of disposing of chemical wastes with minimum contamination of the environment. The manual contains a reference chart section which has alphabetical listings of some 1200 chemical substances with information on the health, fire and reactivity…

  16. Recycling disposable cups into paper plastic composites.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Vandeperre, Luc; Dvorak, Rob; Kosior, Ed; Tarverdi, Karnik; Cheeseman, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    The majority of disposable cups are made from paper plastic laminates (PPL) which consist of high quality cellulose fibre with a thin internal polyethylene coating. There are limited recycling options for PPLs and this has contributed to disposable cups becoming a high profile, problematic waste. In this work disposable cups have been shredded to form PPL flakes and these have been used to reinforce polypropylene to form novel paper plastic composites (PPCs). The PPL flakes and polypropylene were mixed, extruded, pelletised and injection moulded at low temperatures to prevent degradation of the cellulose fibres. The level of PPL flake addition and the use of a maleated polyolefin coupling agent to enhance interfacial adhesion have been investigated. Samples have been characterised using tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis. Use of a coupling agent allows composites containing 40 wt.% of PPL flakes to increase tensile strength of PP by 50% to 30 MPa. The Young modulus also increases from 1 to 2.5 GPa and the work to fracture increases by a factor of 5. The work demonstrates that PPL disposable cups have potential to be beneficially reused as reinforcement in novel polypropylene composites.

  17. DISPOSAL OF RESIDUES FROM BUILDING DECONTAMINATION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After a building has gone through decontamination activities from a chemical attack there will be a significant amount of building decontamination residue that will need to undergo disposal. This project consists of a fundamental study to investigate the desorption of simulated c...

  18. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, L.

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  19. 40 CFR 721.85 - Disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., State, or local laws and regulations. (1) Incineration. (2) Landfill. (3) Deep well injection. (d... by the following. This provision does not supercede any applicable Federal, State, or local laws and regulations. (1) Incineration. (2) Landfill. (3) Deep well injection. (b) Disposal of the process...

  20. 50 CFR 12.33 - Disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to the wild; (2) Use by the Service or transfer to another government agency for official use; (3... perish, deteriorate, decay, waste, or greatly decrease in value by keeping, or that the expense of keeping is disproportionate to its value may be disposed of immediately after forfeiture or...

  1. 7 CFR 2902.29 - Disposable cutlery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... use in eating food. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a.... (c) Preference compliance date. No later than May 14, 2009, procuring agencies, in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased disposable cutlery. By that date...

  2. GUIDE TO SEPTAGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide presents information on the handling, treatment, and disposal of septage in a format easily used by administrators of waste management programs, septage haulers, and managers or operators of septage handling facilities. The guide does not provide detailed engineering d...

  3. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  4. Hydrologic implications of solid-water disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, William Joseph

    1970-01-01

    Site selection for disposal of solid wastes must be based on adequate water-resources information if pollutional potential is to be minimized. This will require regional as well as localized data on the water resources of the area. Only through such an approach can adequate protection be afforded to the environment in general and the water resources in particular.

  5. GUIDE TO SEPTAGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide presents information on the handling, treatment, and disposal of septage in a format easily used by administrators of waste management programs, septage haulers, and managers or operators of septage handling facilities. The guide does not provide detailed engineering d...

  6. DISPOSAL OF RESIDUES FROM BUILDING DECONTAMINATION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After a building has gone through decontamination activities from a chemical attack there will be a significant amount of building decontamination residue that will need to undergo disposal. This project consists of a fundamental study to investigate the desorption of simulated c...

  7. Toxic Overload: The Waste Disposal Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the Environmental Protection Agency as ombudsman concerning waste disposal is examined with respect to both the current options of source reduction and recycling as pollution prevention, and alternative approaches that expand upon these current options, particularly with respect to toxic and medical waste. (JJK)

  8. 23 CFR 710.409 - Disposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... market value for continued public use is clearly justified as in the public interest and approved by the... use. Where property is sold at fair market value no reversion clause is required. Disposal actions described in 23 CFR 710.403(d)(1) for less than fair market value require a public interest determination...

  9. Laboratory Waste Disposal Manual. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, F. G., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide laboratory personnel with information about chemical hazards and ways of disposing of chemical wastes with minimum contamination of the environment. The manual contains a reference chart section which has alphabetical listings of some 1200 chemical substances with information on the health, fire and reactivity…

  10. The Disposable Syringe: More Experiments and Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Andrew

    1973-01-01

    Describes a variety of experiments that can be performed using the disposable syringe. Among others, these include the removal of oxygen during rusting, convection in a liquid and in air, gas collection in an electrolysis cell, small scale production of a fog, and hydrogen/oxygen extraction from a voltameter. (JR)

  11. System for Odorless Disposal of Human Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Dave; Lewis, Tod

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual system provides clean, hygienic storage. Disposal system stores human wastes compactly. Releases no odor or bacteria and requires no dangerous chemicals or unpleasant handling. Stabilizes waste by natural process of biodegradation in which microbial activity eventually ceases and ordors and bacteria reduced to easily contained levels. Simple and reliable and needs little maintenance.

  12. Process for the disposal of alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.

    1977-01-01

    Large quantities of alkali metals may be safely reacted for ultimate disposal by contact with a hot concentrated caustic solution. The alkali metals react with water in the caustic solution in a controlled reaction while steam dilutes the hydrogen formed by the reaction to a safe level.

  13. 7 CFR 2902.52 - Disposable tableware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposable tableware. 2902.52 Section 2902.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... and used in dining, such as drink ware and dishware, including but not limited to cups, plates,...

  14. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W; Larsson, C-M; McKenney, C; Minon, J-P; Mobbs, S; Schneider, T; Umeki, H; Hilden, W; Pescatore, C; Vesterlind, M

    2013-06-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission's three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  15. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  16. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  17. Materials and degradation modes in an alternative LLW (low-level waste) disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, M.G.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The materials used in the construction of alternative low-level waste disposal facilities will be subject to interaction with both the internal and the external environments associated with the facilities and unless precautions are taken, may degrade, leading to structural failure. This paper reviews the characteristics of both environments with respect to three alternative disposal concepts, then assesses how reaction with them might affect the properties of the materials, which include concrete, steel-reinforced concrete, structural steel, and various protective coatings and membranes. It identifies and evaluates the probability of reactions occurring which might lead to degradation of the materials and so compromise the structure. The probability of failure (interpreted relative to the ability of the structure to restrict ingress and egress of water) is assessed for each material and precautionary measures, intended to maximize the durability of the facility, are reviewed. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. 10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be conclusively shown that disposal site characteristics will result in molecular diffusion being the predominant means of radionuclide movement and the rate of movement will result in the performance...

  19. 10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be conclusively shown that disposal site characteristics will result in molecular diffusion being the predominant means of radionuclide movement and the rate of movement will result in the performance...

  20. 10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be conclusively shown that disposal site characteristics will result in molecular diffusion being the predominant means of radionuclide movement and the rate of movement will result in the performance...

  1. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-09-14

    The NTS solid waste disposal sites must be permitted by the state of Nevada Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA). The SWMA for the NTS is the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as land manager (owner), and National Security Technologies (NSTec), as operator, will store, collect, process, and dispose all solid waste by means that do not create a health hazard, a public nuisance, or cause impairment of the environment. NTS disposal sites will not be included in the Nye County Solid Waste Management Plan. The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS, and NSTec is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS has signs posted along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The Area 5 RWMS is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NTS (Figure 2), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. A Notice of Intent to operate the disposal site as a Class III site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 28, 1994, and was acknowledged as being received in a letter to the NNSA/NSO on August 30, 1994. Interim approval to operate a Class III SWDS for regulated asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) was authorized on August 12, 1996 (in letter from Paul Liebendorfer to Runore Wycoff), with operations to be conducted in accordance with the ''Management Plan

  2. Disposal of Unused Medicines: What You Should Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Safe Disposal of Medicines Disposal of Unused Medicines: What You Should Know Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... the container. Back to Top Flushing of Certain Medicines There is a small number of medicines that ...

  3. 36 CFR 222.70 - Disposal of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.70 Disposal of carcasses. Carcasses of animals that have lost their status as wild free-roaming horses or burros may be disposed of in any...

  4. 36 CFR 222.70 - Disposal of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.70 Disposal of carcasses. Carcasses of animals that have lost their status as wild free-roaming horses or burros may be disposed of in any...

  5. 36 CFR 222.30 - Disposal of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.30 Disposal of carcasses. Carcasses of animals that have lost their status as wild free-roaming horses or burros may be disposed of in any...

  6. 36 CFR 222.30 - Disposal of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.30 Disposal of carcasses. Carcasses of animals that have lost their status as wild free-roaming horses or burros may be disposed of in any...

  7. 36 CFR 222.30 - Disposal of carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.30 Disposal of carcasses. Carcasses of animals that have lost their status as wild free-roaming horses or burros may be disposed of in any...

  8. Storing, Transporting and Disposing of Mercury in Your Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... passenger compartment, make sure there is adequate ventilation. Recycling and Disposal Options Many states and local agencies ... com) Exit Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Recycling and Disposal Requirements that Apply to Business and ...

  9. 32 CFR 644.473 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without the Related Land) § 644... a denominational house of worship. (4) Owner of the underlying land as a part of restoration... specific purpose. (e) By donation, abandonment or destruction....

  10. Radioactive Waste Disposal in Hydrologically-Challenged Environments: Opportunities for Waste Disposal Resource Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauxe, J. D.; Black, P. K.

    2006-12-01

    The hydrologic behavior of arid environments poses unique benefits for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in the shallow subsurface, and unique challenges for modeling as well. Stochastic models of a pair of LLW disposal sites in southern Nevada are presented as examples of how to address a range of closely- coupled environmental contaminant transport phenomena, including unsaturated zone hydrologic processes, in the context of regulatory compliance and site operations optimization. Certain significant insights into system behavior and optimization are achievable only through probabilistic modeling techniques, followed by global sensitivity analysis. Such information is simply not available using traditional modeling techniques involving a chain of deterministic process models. Examples of specific instances of coupled phenomena are presented. The unique perspective provided by a fully-coupled probabilistic model, including contaminant transport through natural and engineered systems and assessment of risk to potential future receptors, allows site operators to evaluate the cost effectiveness of different disposal techniques, and the optimization of disposal of candidate waste streams. This approach simultaneously optimizes superior disposal sites for waste inventories at minimal cost and future risk. In light of the demands on current LLW disposal capacity around the world, this fully-integrated approach to the modeling of contaminant transport, risk to future generations, and site operations is critical to making the best use of this resource.

  11. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, J.

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  12. 40 CFR 228.7 - Regulation of disposal site use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 228.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.7 Regulation of disposal site use. Where necessary, disposal site use will be regulated by setting limitations on times of dumping and rates...

  13. 40 CFR 228.11 - Modification in disposal site use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modification in disposal site use. 228.11 Section 228.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.11 Modification in disposal site...

  14. 40 CFR 228.3 - Disposal site management responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal site management responsibilities. 228.3 Section 228.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.3 Disposal site...

  15. Disposal of logging slash, thinnings, and brush by burying

    Treesearch

    Harry E Schimke; Ronald H. Dougherty

    1966-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted on the Stanislaus National Forest to find out if logging slash, thinnings, and brush could be disposed of by burying. This method of slash disposal shows promise and has some distinct advantages over disposal by chipping and burning.

  16. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and...

  17. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644...

  18. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from the...

  19. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from the...

  20. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from the...