Science.gov

Sample records for disposal system design

  1. A Disposable Anaerobic System Designed for Field and Laboratory Use

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, John H.; Allgeier, Daniel L.

    1968-01-01

    A disposable anaerobic system which is characterized by its light weight and its compactness is described. The system consists of a multilayer plastic bag with a unique sealing device. A collapsible impregnated cardboard container is fitted with a catalyst and holders for a disposable hydrogen generator and an anaerobic indicator. The catalyst is active at room temperature and requires no heat activation. This system, which lends itself readily to compact storage, quick assembly, and ease of operation, is disposable after use. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:4874452

  2. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 5, Land disposal compliance and hydrogen generation restricted concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  3. Subseabed disposal transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Jr., G. C.; Vernon, M. E.; Anderson, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Transportation requirements and interfaces are being considered in the evaluation of the seabed disposal option. Technical direction and planning are on-going to ensure the development of major transportation systems in support of the seabed disposal option. Factors which affect the risk and effectiveness of transportation are being included in site selection criteria. However, detailed development of port facilities and transport/emplacement equipment is still several years into the future. (DMC)

  4. Landfill disposal systems

    PubMed Central

    Slimak, Karen M.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual

  5. Some logistical considerations in designing a system of deep boreholes for disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Genetha Anne; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2012-09-01

    Deep boreholes could be a relatively inexpensive, safe, and rapidly deployable strategy for disposing Americas nuclear waste. To study this approach, Sandia invested in a three year LDRD project entitled %E2%80%9CRadionuclide Transport from Deep Boreholes.%E2%80%9D In the first two years, the borehole reference design and backfill analysis were completed and the supporting modeling of borehole temperature and fluid transport profiles were done. In the third year, some of the logistics of implementing a deep borehole waste disposal system were considered. This report describes what was learned in the third year of the study and draws some conclusions about the potential bottlenecks of system implementation.

  6. Design, construction, and performance of a single geomembrane liner system at a residual waste disposal site in western Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Khilji, K.H.; Gould, S.E.; Hamel, T.W.; Thomas, W.B.

    1997-11-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of a single geomembrane-lined deep valley coal ash/coal mine refuse disposal site to maintain ground-water quality after 10 years of operation. The site occupies over 81 hectares (ha) [200 acres (ac)] in western Pennsylvania. The effectiveness of the liner system was evaluated based on an assessment of the site`s ground-water quality. The liner system was designed in 1983. Selection of geosynthetics and drainage materials, interface shear values, and construction control methods were based on laboratory testing, field investigations, slope stability analyses, and construction load analyses. Diligent construction quality control was applied during all aspects of site development. To examine the site`s ground-water quality, the ground-water monitoring network was sampled approximately once every six weeks for one year. Results of statistical analyses show that the liner system is effectively separating disposal site leachate from ground water and that the site is not degrading ground water.

  7. MSFC Skylab Orbital Workshop, volume 3. [design and development of waste disposal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The waste management system for the Skylab Orbital Workshop is discussed. The general requirements of the system are presented. Illustrations of the components of the system are provided. Data concerning maximum expected performance capabilities are developed. The results of performance tests on the system components are reported. Emphasis is placed on the human factors engineering aspects of the system.

  8. Disposable telemetry cable deployment system

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A disposable telemetry cable deployment system for facilitating information retrieval while drilling a well includes a cable spool adapted for insertion into a drill string and an unarmored fiber optic cable spooled onto the spool cable and having a downhole end and a stinger end. Connected to the cable spool is a rigid stinger which extends through a kelly of the drilling apparatus. A data transmission device for transmitting data to a data acquisition system is disposed either within or on the upper end of the rigid stinger.

  9. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for land... contact of standing water with waste during disposal, and the contact of percolating or standing...

  10. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for land... contact of standing water with waste during disposal, and the contact of percolating or standing...

  11. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for land... contact of standing water with waste during disposal, and the contact of percolating or standing...

  12. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for land... contact of standing water with waste during disposal, and the contact of percolating or standing...

  13. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposal site design for land disposal. 61.51 Section 61.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF... result in erosion that will require ongoing active maintenance in the future. (6) The disposal site...

  14. Application of Generic Disposal System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, Paul; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Sevougian, S. David; Stein, Emily

    2015-11-01

    This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2015 (FY2015) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code (Hammond et al., 2011) and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code (Adams et al., 2013). Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through the engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to a well location in an overlying or underlying aquifer. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  15. Disposable Diaper Absorbency: Improvements via Advanced Designs.

    PubMed

    Helmes, C Tucker; O'Connor, Robert; Sawyer, Larry; Young, Sharon

    2014-06-24

    Absorbency effectiveness in diapers has improved significantly in recent years with the advent of new ingredient combinations and advanced design features. With these features, many leading products maintain their dryness performance overnight. Considering the importance of holding liquid away from the skin, ongoing research in diaper construction focuses on strategies to increase the effectiveness to capture liquid and help avoid rewetting of infant skin. The layout and design of a disposable diaper allows for distribution of absorbency features where they can provide the optimal benefit. Clinical evidence indicates materials can keep moisture away from the skin in the diapered area, helping maintain proper skin hydration, minimizing irritation, and contributing to reduced rates of diaper rash.

  16. Disposable Diaper Absorbency: Improvements via Advanced Designs.

    PubMed

    Helmes, C Tucker; O'Connor, Robert; Sawyer, Larry; Young, Sharon

    2014-06-24

    Absorbency effectiveness in diapers has improved significantly in recent years with the advent of new ingredient combinations and advanced design features. With these features, many leading products maintain their dryness performance overnight. Considering the importance of holding liquid away from the skin, ongoing research in diaper construction focuses on strategies to increase the effectiveness to capture liquid and help avoid rewetting of infant skin. The layout and design of a disposable diaper allows for distribution of absorbency features where they can provide the optimal benefit. Clinical evidence indicates materials can keep moisture away from the skin in the diapered area, helping maintain proper skin hydration, minimizing irritation, and contributing to reduced rates of diaper rash. PMID:24961785

  17. Systems engineering programs for geologic nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, R. D.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.; Ellis, M. A.

    1980-06-01

    The design sequence and system programs presented begin with general approximate solutions that permit inexpensive analysis of a multitude of possible wastes, disposal media, and disposal process properties and configurations. It then continues through progressively more precise solutions as parts of the design become fixed, and ends with repository and waste form optimization studies. The programs cover both solid and gaseous waste forms. The analytical development, a program listing, a users guide, and examples are presented for each program. Sensitivity studies showing the effects of disposal media and waste form thermophysical properties and repository layouts are presented as examples.

  18. Designing open water disposal for dredged muddy sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAnally, William H.; Adamec, Stephen A.

    1987-11-01

    Open water disposal of muddy sediments in the estuarine environment is practiced to minimize dredging costs and to preserve contained disposal site capacity. Open water sites are usually either dispersive or retentive. Dispersive sites are used in the expectation that disposed sediments will not remain there, but will be transported out of the site, leaving room for additional disposal. Retentive sites are designed to ensure that disposed sediments mostly remain within the site. Choice of one of these approaches depends on the site character, sediment character, and disposal quantities. Design of disposal management plans for both site types is accomplished by use of field observations, laboratory tests, and numerical modeling. Three disposal site studies illustrate the methods used. At the Alcatraz site in San Francisco Bay, a dispersive condition is maintained by use of constraints on dredged mud characteristics that were developed from laboratory tests on erosion rates and from numerical modeling of the dump process. Field experiments were designed to evaluate the management procedure. In Corpus Christi Bay a numerical model was used to determine how much disposed sediment returns to the navigation channel, and to devise a location for disposal that will minimize that return. In Puget Sound a model has been used to ensure that most of the disposed material remains in the site. New techniques, including a piped disposal through 60 m of water, were investigated.

  19. ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (1980 EDITION) AND ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL (2002 EDITION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) first issued detailed guidance on the design, construction, and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) in 1980. Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems (USEPA.1980) was the most comprehens...

  20. Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers/waste packages are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred underground through the access drifts using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System provides long term confinement of the naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) placed within the disposal containers, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval operations. The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time and limits radionuclide release thereafter. The waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum credible handling and rockfall loads, limits the waste form temperature after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Each naval SNF disposal container will hold a single naval SNF canister. There will be approximately 300 naval SNF canisters, composed of long and short canisters. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinder walls and lids. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify a disposal container and its contents. Different materials will be selected for the waste package inner and outer cylinders. The two metal cylinders, in combination with the Emplacement Drift System, drip shield, and the natural barrier will support the design philosophy of defense-in-depth. The use of materials with different properties prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The inner cylinder and inner cylinder lids will be constructed of stainless steel while the outer cylinder and outer cylinder lids will be made of high-nickel alloy.

  1. System for Odorless Disposal of Human Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Dave; Lewis, Tod

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual system provides clean, hygienic storage. Disposal system stores human wastes compactly. Releases no odor or bacteria and requires no dangerous chemicals or unpleasant handling. Stabilizes waste by natural process of biodegradation in which microbial activity eventually ceases and ordors and bacteria reduced to easily contained levels. Simple and reliable and needs little maintenance.

  2. DISPOSAL CONTAINER HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E. F. Loros

    2000-06-30

    The Disposal Container Handling System receives and prepares new disposal containers (DCs) and transfers them to the Assembly Transfer System (ATS) or Canister Transfer System (CTS) for loading. The system receives the loaded DCs from ATS or CTS and welds the lids. When the welds are accepted the DCs are termed waste packages (WPs). The system may stage the WP for later transfer or transfer the WP directly to the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System. The system can also transfer DCs/WPs to/from the Waste Package Remediation System. The Disposal Container Handling System begins with new DC preparation, which includes installing collars, tilting the DC upright, and outfitting the container for the specific fuel it is to receive. DCs and their lids are staged in the receipt area for transfer to the needed location. When called for, a DC is put on a cart and sent through an airlock into a hot cell. From this point on, all processes are done remotely. The DC transfer operation moves the DC to the ATS or CTS for loading and then receives the DC for welding. The DC welding operation receives loaded DCs directly from the waste handling lines or from interim lag storage for welding of the lids. The welding operation includes mounting the DC on a turntable, removing lid seals, and installing and welding the inner and outer lids. After the weld process and non-destructive examination are successfully completed, the WP is either staged or transferred to a tilting station. At the tilting station, the WP is tilted horizontally onto a cart and the collars removed. The cart is taken through an air lock where the WP is lifted, surveyed, decontaminated if required, and then moved into the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System. DCs that do not meet the welding non-destructive examination criteria are transferred to the Waste Package Remediation System for weld preparation or removal of the lids. The Disposal Container Handling System is contained within the Waste Handling Building System

  3. Uncanistered Spent Nuclear fuel Disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-12

    The Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded with intact uncanistered assemblies and/or individually canistered SNF assemblies and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access drifts, and emplaced in the emplacement drifts. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container provides long-term confinement of the commercial SNF placed inside, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual SNF assembly temperatures after emplacement, limits the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) disposal container designs are needed to accommodate the expected range of spent fuel assemblies and provide long-term confinement of the commercial SNF. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinder walls, outer cylinder lids (two on the top, one on the bottom), inner cylinder lids (one on the top, one on the bottom), and an internal metallic basket structure. Exterior labels will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. The two metal cylinders, in combination with the cladding, Emplacement Drift System, drip shield, and natural barrier, will support the design philosophy of defense-in-depth. The use of materials with different

  4. Design and Installation of a Disposal Cell Cover Field Test

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, C.H.; Waugh, W.J.; Albright, W.H.; Smith, G.M.; Bush, R.P.

    2011-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Legacy Management (LM) initiated a cover assessment project in September 2007 to evaluate an inexpensive approach to enhancing the hydrological performance of final covers for disposal cells. The objective is to accelerate and enhance natural processes that are transforming existing conventional covers, which rely on low-conductivity earthen barriers, into water balance covers, that store water in soil and release it as soil evaporation and plant transpiration. A low conductivity cover could be modified by deliberately blending the upper layers of the cover profile and planting native shrubs. A test facility was constructed at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site to evaluate the proposed methodology. The test cover was constructed in two identical sections, each including a large drainage lysimeter. The test cover was constructed with the same design and using the same materials as the existing disposal cell in order to allow for a direct comparison of performance. One test section will be renovated using the proposed method; the other is a control. LM is using the lysimeters to evaluate the effectiveness of the renovation treatment by monitoring hydrologic conditions within the cover profile as well as all water entering and leaving the system. This paper describes the historical experience of final covers employing earthen barrier layers, the design and operation of the lysimeter test facility, testing conducted to characterize the as-built engineering and edaphic properties of the lysimeter soils, the calibration of instruments installed at the test facility, and monitoring data collected since the lysimeters were constructed.

  5. Current Mined Geologic Disposal System concept of operations

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, R.B.; Teraoka, G.M.

    1998-07-01

    The concept of operations for the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) provides an integrated, conceptual description of the physical architecture and operating concept of the potential repository. The document facilitates a common understanding of the operations among system planners, developers and implementors by summarizing design solutions and operating concepts. During this past year, the MGDS Concept of Operations document was updated to reflect the Viability Assessment (VA) design and operating concept. Previously, this document reflected the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD). This paper presents a description of the significant operational changes from ACD to VA design that are now captured in the concept of operations document.

  6. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

    2000-06-07

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable canisters. The intended use of this analysis is to

  7. Mined Geologic Disposal System Concept of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Heidt, R.M.

    1995-06-08

    A Concept of Operations has been developed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The Concept of Operations has been developed to document a cormion understanding of how the repository is to be operated. It is based on the repository architecture identified in the Initial Summary Report for Repository/Waste Package Advanced Conceptual Design and describes the operation of the repository from the initial receipt of waste through repository closure. Also described are operations for waste retrieval.

  8. Satellite power system salvage and disposal alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A wide range of salvage options for the SPS satellite, ranging from use in and beyond geosynchronous orbit to use in low Earth orbit in return and use on Earth are presented. The satellite can be used intact to provide power for various purposes, it can be cannibalized or it can be melted down to supply materials for space or ground based products. The use of SPS beyond its nominal lifetime provides value that can be deducted from the SPS capital investment cost. The present value of the salvage value of the SPS satellites, referenced to the system initial operation data, is on the order of five to ten percent of its on-orbit capital cost. (Given a 30 year satellite lifetime and a four percent discount rate, the theoretical maximum salvage value is 30.8 percent of the capital cost.) The SPS demonstration satellite is available some 30 years earlier than the first full scale SPS satellite and has a salvage value on the order of 80 percent of its on-orbit capital cost. In the event that it becomes desirable to dispose of either the demonstration of full scale SPS satellite, a number of disposal options is presented for which intact disposal costs are less than one percent of capital costs.

  9. Satellite power system salvage and disposal alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    A wide range of salvage options for the SPS satellite, ranging from use in and beyond geosynchronous orbit to use in low Earth orbit in return and use on Earth are presented. The satellite can be used intact to provide power for various purposes, it can be cannibalized or it can be melted down to supply materials for space or ground based products. The use of SPS beyond its nominal lifetime provides value that can be deducted from the SPS capital investment cost. The present value of the salvage value of the SPS satellites, referenced to the system initial operation data, is on the order of five to ten percent of its on-orbit capital cost. (Given a 30 year satellite lifetime and a four percent discount rate, the theoretical maximum salvage value is 30.8 percent of the capital cost.) The SPS demonstration satellite is available some 30 years earlier than the first full scale SPS satellite and has a salvage value on the order of 80 percent of its on-orbit capital cost. In the event that it becomes desirable to dispose of either the demonstration of full scale SPS satellite, a number of disposal options is presented for which intact disposal costs are less than one percent of capital costs.

  10. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS.

  11. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  12. Design requirements document for project W-520, immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-08-06

    This design requirements document (DRD) identifies the functions that must be performed to accept, handle, and dispose of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) private treatment contractors and close the facility. It identifies the requirements that are associated with those functions and that must be met. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized Low-Activity Waste disposal facility project (W-520) and provides traceability from the program-level requirements to the project design activity.

  13. 33 CFR 401.19 - Disposal and discharge systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a sewage disposal system enabling compliance with the Canadian Garbage Pollution Prevention Regulations, the Canadian Great Lakes Sewage Pollution Prevention Regulations, the U.S. Clean Water Act, and..., leak-proof containers, until such time as it can be disposed of in accordance with the provisions...

  14. 33 CFR 401.19 - Disposal and discharge systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... a sewage disposal system enabling compliance with the Canadian Garbage Pollution Prevention Regulations, the Canadian Great Lakes Sewage Pollution Prevention Regulations, the U.S. Clean Water Act, and..., leak-proof containers, until such time as it can be disposed of in accordance with the provisions...

  15. 33 CFR 401.19 - Disposal and discharge systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a sewage disposal system enabling compliance with the Canadian Garbage Pollution Prevention Regulations, the Canadian Great Lakes Sewage Pollution Prevention Regulations, the U.S. Clean Water Act, and..., leak-proof containers, until such time as it can be disposed of in accordance with the provisions...

  16. 33 CFR 401.19 - Disposal and discharge systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... a sewage disposal system enabling compliance with the Canadian Garbage Pollution Prevention Regulations, the Canadian Great Lakes Sewage Pollution Prevention Regulations, the U.S. Clean Water Act, and..., leak-proof containers, until such time as it can be disposed of in accordance with the provisions...

  17. 33 CFR 401.19 - Disposal and discharge systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a sewage disposal system enabling compliance with the Vessel Pollution and Dangerous Chemicals regulations (Canada), the U.S. Clean Water Act and the U.S. River and Harbor Act, and amendments thereto. (b...; or (2) Retained on board in covered, leak-proof containers, until such time as it can be disposed...

  18. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission infrastructure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Root, R.W.

    1998-01-08

    This system plan presents the objectives, organization, and management and technical approaches for the Infrastructure Program. This Infrastructure Plan focuses on the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project`s Retrieval and Disposal Mission.

  19. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, D.D.; Stansbury, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions.

  20. The Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework for DOE-NE

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J A; Greenberg, H R; Halsey, W G; Jove-Colon, C; Nutt, W M; Sutton, M

    2010-12-15

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign within DOE-NE is evaluating storage and disposal options for a range of waste forms and a range of geologic environments. For each waste form and geologic environment combination, there are multiple options for repository conceptual design. The Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) is being developed to formalize the development and documentation of options for each waste form and environment combination. The DSEF is being implemented in two parts. One part is an Excel workbook with multiple sheets. This workbook is designed to be user friendly, such that anyone within the UFD Campaign can use it as a guide to develop and document repository conceptual designs that respect thermal, geometric, and other constraints. The other part is an Access relational database file that will be centrally maintained to document the ensemble of conceptual designs developed with individual implementations of the Excel workbook. The DSEF Excel workbook includes sheets for waste form, environment, geometric constraints, engineered barrier system (EBS) design, thermal, performance assessment (PA), materials, cost, and fuel cycle system impacts. Each of these sheets guides the user through the process of developing internally consistent design options, and documenting the thought process. The sheets interact with each other to transfer information and identify inconsistencies to the user. In some cases, the sheets are stand-alone, and in other cases (such as PA), the sheets refer the user to another tool, with the user being responsible to transfer summary results into the DSEF sheet. Finally, the DSEF includes three top-level sheets: inputs & results, interface parameters, and knowledge management (references). These sheets enable users and reviewers to see the overall picture on only a few summary sheets, while developing the design option systematically using the detailed sheets. The DSEF Access relational database file collects the key

  1. Final Design Report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Austad, S. L.

    2015-05-01

    The RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project was designed by AREVA Federal Services (AFS) and the design process was managed by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The final design report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility Project is a compilation of the documents and deliverables included in the facility final design.

  2. Final Design Report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Austad, Stephanie Lee

    2015-09-01

    The RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project was designed by AREVA Federal Services (AFS) and the design process was managed by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The final design report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility Project is a compilation of the documents and deliverables included in the facility final design.

  3. Optical ordnance system for use in explosive ordnance disposal activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merson, J. A.; Salas, F. J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    A portable hand-held solid state rod laser system and an optically-ignited detonator have been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Laser prototypes from Whittaker Ordnance and Universal Propulsion have been tested and evaluated. The optical detonator contains 2-(5 cyanotetrazolato) pentaamine cobalt(III) perchlorate (CP) as the DDT column and the explosive Octahydro- 1,3,5,7 - tetrazocine (HMX) as the output charge. The laser is designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse. This output allows firing through 2000 meters of optical fiber. The detonator can also be ignited with a portable laser diode source through a shorter length of fiber.

  4. Optical ordance system for use in explosive ordnance disposal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    A portable hand-held solid state rod laser system and an optically-ignited detonator have been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Laser prototypes from Whittaker Ordnance and Universal Propulsion have been tested and evaluated. The optical detonator contains 2-(5 cyanotetrazolato) pentaamine cobalt III perchlorate (CP) as the DDT column and the explosive Octahydro 1, 3, 5, 7 -- tetranitro -- 1, 3, 5, 7 -- tetrazocine (HMX) as the output charge. The laser is designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse. This output allows firing through 2000 meters of optical fiber. The detonator can also be ignited with a portable laser diode source through a shorter length of fiber.

  5. Alternative concepts for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal: Conceptual design report. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This conceptual design report is provided by the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program to assist states and compact regions in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities in accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendment Act of 1985. The report provides conceptual designs and evaluations of six widely considered concepts for LLW disposal. These are shallow land disposal (SLD), intermediate depth disposal (IDD), below-ground vaults (BGV), above-ground vaults (AGV), modular concrete canister disposal (MCCD), earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB). 40 refs., 45 figs., 77 tabs.

  6. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  7. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE CONCEPTUAL 24 BWR UCF TUBE BASKET DESIGN DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Lotz

    1995-12-18

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24,5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 24 boiling water reactor (BWR) uncanistered fuel (UCF) waste package (WP) to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment. The purpose of this analysis is to respond to a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the UCF waste package do not preclude UCF waste package compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual UCF WP design under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation and to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts. Future design efforts will focus on UCF design changes as further design and operations information becomes available.

  8. Preliminary Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification

    SciTech Connect

    C.A Kouts

    2006-11-22

    This document provides specifications for selected system components of the Transportation, Aging and Disposal (TAD) canister-based system. A list of system specified components and ancillary components are included in Section 1.2. The TAD canister, in conjunction with specialized overpacks will accomplish a number of functions in the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of these functions will be accomplished at purchaser sites where commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) is stored, and some will be performed within the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) transportation and disposal system. This document contains only those requirements unique to applications within Department of Energy's (DOE's) system. DOE recognizes that TAD canisters may have to perform similar functions at purchaser sites. Requirements to meet reactor functions, such as on-site dry storage, handling, and loading for transportation, are expected to be similar to commercially available canister-based systems. This document is intended to be referenced in the license application for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). As such, the requirements cited herein are needed for TAD system use in OCRWM's disposal system. This document contains specifications for the TAD canister, transportation overpack and aging overpack. The remaining components and equipment that are unique to the OCRWM system or for similar purchaser applications will be supplied by others.

  9. Design and Operating Criteria for Fluorine Disposal by Reaction with Charcoal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Harold W.

    1959-01-01

    Experiments with the charcoal-fluorine reaction for the disposal of fluorine have shown generally that this method is effective over a wide range of conditions. Pure fluorine or fluorine diluted with nitrogen to concentrations as low as 0.3 percent fluorine may be disposed of efficiently within the rate limitation. Maximum feed rates have been established and are inversely proportional to the charcoal-bed particle diameter. Moisture content in the charcoal had no appreciable effect on the disposal efficiency after the reaction zone was established and the moisture was driven off by the heat of reaction. There was no evidence of bed poisoning resulting from continued use. Design parameters may be based on the stoichiometric requirements plus sufficient excess charcoal to maintain desired efficiency toward the end of a disposal operation. The length of time a given reactor may be used continuously is limited by the rate of fluorine input and the resistance of the system to heat and fluorine attack. Refractory-lined reactors have been in routine field use at the Lewis Research Center for over a year and have given satisfactory service over a wide range of conditions.

  10. Aboveground roofed design for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.A.

    1993-03-01

    The conceptual designs proposed in this report resulted from a study for the Maine Low-level Radioactive Waste Authority to develop conceptual designs for a safe and reliable disposal facility for Maine`s low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Freezing temperatures, heavy rainfall, high groundwater tables, and very complex and shallow glaciated soils found in Maine place severe constraints on the design. The fundamental idea behind the study was to consider Maine`s climatic and geological conditions at the beginning of conceptual design rather than starting with a design for another location and adapting it for Maine`s conditions. The conceptual designs recommended are entirely above ground and consist of an inner vault designed to provide shielding and protection against inadvertent intrusion and an outer building to protect the inner vault from water. The air dry conditions within the outer building should lead to almost indefinite service life for the concrete inner vault and the waste containers. This concept differs sharply from the usual aboveground vault in its reliance on at least two independent, but more or less conventional, roofing systems for primary and secondary protection against leakage of radioisotopes from the facility. Features include disposal of waste in air dry environment, waste loading and visual inspection by remote-controlled overhead cranes, and reliance on engineered soils for tertiary protection against release of radioactive materials.

  11. Conceptual Design Report for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  12. Conceptual Design Report for Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; David Duncan; Joan Connolly; Margaret Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz; Gary Mecham

    2010-10-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  13. Conceptual Design Report for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; David Duncan; Joan Connolly; Margaret Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz; Gary Mecham

    2011-03-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  14. 29 CFR 1910.143 - Nonwater carriage disposal systems. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nonwater carriage disposal systems. 1910.143 Section 1910.143 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS General Environmental Controls §...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.143 - Nonwater carriage disposal systems. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nonwater carriage disposal systems. 1910.143 Section 1910.143 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS General Environmental Controls §...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.143 - Nonwater carriage disposal systems. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonwater carriage disposal systems. 1910.143 Section 1910.143 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS General Environmental Controls §...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.143 - Nonwater carriage disposal systems. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nonwater carriage disposal systems. 1910.143 Section 1910.143 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS General Environmental Controls §...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.143 - Nonwater carriage disposal systems. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nonwater carriage disposal systems. 1910.143 Section 1910.143 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS General Environmental Controls §...

  19. Design, construction, and operations experience with the SWSA 6 (Solid Waste Storage Area) Tumulus Disposal Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Van Cleve, J.E.; Wylie, A.N.; Williams, L.C.; Bolinsky, J.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge to improve the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. An engineered disposal concept demonstration involving placement of concrete encased waste on a monitored concrete pad with an earthen cover is being conducted. The design, construction, and operations experience with this project, the SWSA 6 Tumulus Disposal Demonstration, is described. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Disposable Miniature Check Valve Design Suitable for Scalable Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Hickerson, Anna I.; Lu, Hsiang-Wei; Roskos, Kristina; Carey, Thomas; Niemz, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    We present a passive, miniature check valve which can be manufactured using standard techniques ideal for low-cost, disposable systems used in medical devices and other applications. The body of the valve consists of a hollow cylindrical core, closed at one end, with a side port and a cylindrical elastomeric sleeve placed over the core body, covering the side port. The pressure required for initial opening of the valve, referred to as cracking pressure, can be adjusted, and depends predominantly on the valve core outer diameter, the sleeve inner diameter, the sleeve wall thickness, and the sleeve material’s modulus of elasticity. These parameters can be controlled to tight tolerances, while the tolerances on other features can be relaxed, which simplifies valve manufacturing and assembly. Valve embodiments produced from different materials, and with varying critical dimensions, exhibited distinct and reproducible cracking pressures in the range of 2 to 20 PSI. The cracking pressure did not vary significantly as a function of flow rate. No back flow leakage was encountered up to 30 PSI, the pressure limit of the sensor used in this experiment. Most of the valves tested had small internal volumes of 3–4 μL. The internal volume can be further reduced by selecting a core of smaller inner diameter. In contrast to lithography-based microvalves that generally must be manufactured in-situ within the fluidic device, the herein presented valve can be manufactured independently of, and can be readily integrated into fluidic systems manufactured via a wide selection of fabrication methods. PMID:24825946

  1. System for disposing of radioactive water

    DOEpatents

    Gotchy, Reginald L.

    1976-01-13

    A system for reducing radioactivity released to the biosphere in the course of producing natural gas from a reservoir stimulated by the detonation of nuclear explosives therein. Tritiated water produced with the gas is separated out and returned to a nuclear chimney through a string of tubing positioned within the well casing. The tubing string is positioned within the well casing in a manner which enhances separation of the water out of the gas and minimizes entrainment of water into the gas flowing out of the chimney.

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR DISPOSAL CONTAINER HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) disposal container handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-O333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  3. Interface management for the Mined Geologic Disposal System

    SciTech Connect

    Ashlock, K.J.

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the interface management process that is to be used for Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) development. As part of the systems engineering and integration performed on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), interface management is critical in the development of the potential MGDS. The application of interface management on the YMP directly addresses integration between physical elements of the MGDS and the organizations responsible for their development.

  4. Design analysis, basin F liquid waste disposal facility, Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado, FY81

    SciTech Connect

    1981-08-01

    This design document for the liquid waste disposal facility, Basin F, was authorized by directive No. 14, design 81-MCA-OMAHA District, dated 7 April 1981. This work consists of the design and preparation of a final design document, with on-board review for the construction of facilities to reduce the amount of free liquid in Basin F to a minimum to facilitate capping. Chapters include: accelerated evaporation, civil geotechnical investigation, structural, mechanical, electrical, roads and drainage, and safety. As a general description of the work, the Basin F enhanced evaporation project shall consist of the following: (1) construct a dike between the wet and dry areas in the basin, (2) construct an interior dike between the wet and dry areas of the basin as the liquid surface recedes, (3) construct a berm and/or ditch along the east side of the basin, (4) excavate and dispose of the chemical sewer system from south plants to Basin F, (5) provide pump capacity and trickle discharge pipeline, and (6) provide electrical power.

  5. Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2010-05-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  6. Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2010-02-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  7. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  8. Review of Design Approaches Applicable to Dewatering Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Pits

    SciTech Connect

    Gutknecht, P. J.; Gates, T. E.

    1982-03-01

    This report is a review of design approaches in the literature that may be applicable to uranium mill tailings drainage. Tailings dewatering is required in the deep mined-out pits used for wet tailings disposal. Agricultural drainage theory is reviewed because it is seen as the most applicable technology. It is concluded that the standard drain-pipe envelope design criteria should be easily adapted. The differences in dewatering objectives and physical characteristics between agricultural and tailings drainage systems prevent direct technology transfer with respect to drain spacing calculations. Recommendations for further research are based on the drainage features unique to uranium mill tailings. It is recommended that transient solutions be applied to describe liquid movement through saturated and partially saturated tailings. Modeling should be used to evaluate the benefits of drainage design approaches after careful consideration of potential construction problems.

  9. Applicability of Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline System to Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, K.; Okutsu, K.; Matsui, N.; Kosugi, S.

    2002-02-25

    Various transport systems have been studied for the transportation of waste packages and buffer materials from the ground surface to the underground radioactive waste disposal facility, such as a lift (vertical shaft type) and a vehicle (inclined tunnel type)(1). This paper introduces pneumatic capsule pipeline system as a new method for the transportation. The system is designed to transport pneumatically waste packages and buffer materials between the surface and the underground as shown in Fig. 1. The system is also used to transport excavated debris, equipment and materials during construction. It is economical to utilize the system for air ventilation in addition to be used for transportation. The capsule moving in the shaft can be controlled at appropriate speed by adjusting the air pressure in the shaft. This paper discusses the applicability of the system to the geological disposal based on analytical simulation and experimental study.

  10. Cost estimates and economic evaluations for conceptual LLRW disposal facility designs

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, R.D.; Chau, N.; Breeds, C.D.

    1995-12-31

    Total life-cycle costs were estimated in support of the New York LLRW Siting Commission`s project to select a disposal method from four near-surface LLRW disposal methods (namely, uncovered above-grade vaults, covered above-grade vaults, below-grade vaults, and augered holes) and two mined methods (namely, vertical shaft mines and drift mines). Conceptual designs for the disposal methods were prepared and used as the basis for the cost estimates. Typical economic performance of each disposal method was assessed. Life-cycle costs expressed in 1994 dollars ranged from $ 1,100 million (for below-grade vaults and both mined disposal methods) to $2,000 million (for augered holes). Present values ranged from $620 million (for below-grade vaults) to $ 1,100 million (for augered holes).

  11. Disposal strategy for the geosynchronous orbits of the Beidou Navigation Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jingshi; Liu, Lin

    Beidou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is China's navigation satelite system. It is now operational for navigation service in China and Asia-Pacific region and is due to be fully operational as a global navigation system by 2020. Unlike other navigation satellite systems, BDS consists of both 12-hour medium Earth orbit and 24-hour geosynchronous orbit. To sustain a safe environment for the navigation satellites, the end-of-life satellites must be disposed appropriately so they do not pose potential dangers to the operational satellites. There are currently two strategies for the disposal orbit. One is to put the disposed satellite in a graveyard orbit that has a safe distance from the operational satellites. It is often applied in geosynchronous orbits and such graveyard orbit can always maintain a safe distance even for a few centuries. This strategy is also currently adopted by GPS, yet recent researches show a re-entry orbit can sometimes be a better alternative. The interaction of Earth oblateness and lunisolar gravitation can lead to a rapid increase in the orbit eccentricity such that by proper design the disposed GPS satellite can be cleared out by re-entry into the atmosphere. In this work we focus on the disposal strategy for BDS geosynchronous orbit, which consists of the equatorial stationary orbit (GEO) and the inclined orbit (IGSO). We show that these two orbits are essentially in two different dynamical environments and evolve quite distinctly over a long period of time. Taking advantage of the dynamic nature, we apply the graveyard orbit and the re-entry orbit to GEO and IGSO respectively and propose appropriate disposal strategies accordingly.

  12. Evaluation of Neutron Poison Materials for DOE SNF Disposal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.W.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1998-09-01

    Aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors is being consolidated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for ultimate disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Most of the aluminum-based fuel material contains highly enriched uranium (HEU) (more than 20 percent 235U), which challenges the preclusion of criticality events for disposal periods exceeding 10,000 years. Recent criticality analyses have shown that the addition of neutron absorbing materials (poisons) is needed in waste packages containing DOE SNF canisters fully loaded with Al-SNF under flooded and degraded configurations to demonstrate compliance with the requirement that Keff less than 0.95. Compatibility of poison matrix materials and the Al-SNF, including their relative degradation rate and solubility, are important to maintain criticality control. An assessment of the viability of poison and matrix materials has been conducted, and an experimental corrosion program has been initiated to provide data on degradation rates of poison and matrix materials and Al-SNF materials under repository relevant vapor and aqueous environments. Initial testing includes Al6061, Type 316L stainless steel, and A516Gr55 in synthesized J-13 water vapor at 50 degrees C, 100 degrees C, and 200 degrees C and in condensate water vapor at 100 degrees C. Preliminary results are presented herein.

  13. Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-01-31

    Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP).

  14. Navy explosive ordnance disposal project: Optical ordnance system development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1996-03-01

    An optical ordnance firing system consisting of a portable hand held solid state rod laser and an optically ignited detonator has been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Solid state rod laser systems designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse have been produced and evaluated. A laser ignited detonator containing no primary explosives has been designed and fabricated. The detonator has the same functional output as an electrically fired blasting cap. The optical ordnance firing system has demonstrated the ability to reliably detonate Comp C-4 through 1000 meters of optical fiber.

  15. Use of depleted uranium metal as cask shielding in high-level waste storage, transport, and disposal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; McAllaster, M.E.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE has amassed over 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium from its uranium enrichment operations. Rather than dispose of this depleted uranium as waste, this study explores a beneficial use of depleted uranium as metal shielding in casks designed to contain canisters of vitrified high-level waste. Two high-level waste storage, transport, and disposal shielded cask systems are analyzed. The first system employs a shielded storage and disposal cask having a separate reusable transportation overpack. The second system employs a shielded combined storage, transport, and disposal cask. Conceptual cask designs that hold 1, 3, 4 and 7 high-level waste canisters are described for both systems. In all cases, cask design feasibility was established and analyses indicate that these casks meet applicable thermal, structural, shielding, and contact-handled requirements. Depleted uranium metal casting, fabrication, environmental, and radiation compatibility considerations are discussed and found to pose no serious implementation problems. About one-fourth of the depleted uranium inventory would be used to produce the casks required to store and dispose of the nearly 15,400 high-level waste canisters that would be produced. This study estimates the total-system cost for the preferred 7-canister storage and disposal configuration having a separate transportation overpack would be $6.3 billion. When credits are taken for depleted uranium disposal cost, a cost that would be avoided if depleted uranium were used as cask shielding material rather than disposed of as waste, total system net costs are between $3.8 billion and $5.5 billion.

  16. Thermodynamic data management system for nuclear waste disposal performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Hale, F.V.; Siegel, M.D.

    1988-04-01

    Thermodynamic property values for use in assessing the performance of a nuclear waste repository are described. More emphasis is on a computerized data base management system which facilitates use of the thermodynamic data in sensitivity analysis and other studies which critically assess the performance of disposal sites. Examples are given of critical evaluation procedures; comparison of apparent equilibrium constants calculated from the data base, with other work; and of correlations useful in estimating missing values of both free energy and enthalpy of formation for aqueous species. 49 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Engineering safety evaluation for 22 ton steel disposal box lifting bail design

    SciTech Connect

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    1999-11-23

    The objective of this analysis is to design and analyze the lifting bail of the 22 Ton Steel Waste Disposal Box (SWDB). The new design takes the original lifting bail and adds a hinge allowing the top portion of the bail to fold over towards the lid.

  18. Functional design criteria for Project W-252, Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, C.E.

    1994-11-10

    This document provides the functional design criteria required for the Phase 2 Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Project, Project W-252. Project W-252 shall provide new facilities and existing facility modifications required to implement Best Available Technology/All Known, Available, and Reasonable Methods of Prevention, Control, and Treatment (BAT/AKART) for the 200 East Phase II Liquid Effluent Streams. The project will also provide a 200 East Area Phase II Effluent Collection System (PTECS) for connection to a disposal system for relevant effluent streams to which BAT/AKART has been applied. Liquid wastestreams generated in the 200 East Area are currently discharged to the soil column. Included in these wastestreams are cooling water, steam condensate, raw water, and sanitary wastewaters. It is the policy of the DOE that the use of soil columns to treat and retain radionuclides and nonradioactive contaminants be discontinued at the earliest practical time in favor of wastewater treatment and waste minimization. In 1989, the DOE entered into an interagency agreement with Ecology and EPA. This agreement is referred to as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Project W-252 is one of the projects required to achieve the milestones set forth in the Tri-Party Agreement. One of the milestones requires BAT/AKART implementation for Phase II streams by October 1997. This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) document provides the technical baseline required to initiate Project W-252 to meet the Tri-Party Agreement milestone for the application of BAT/AKART to the Phase II effluents.

  19. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Michael; Baglietto, Emilio; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Lester, Richard; Brady, Patrick; Arnold, B. W.

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (≤ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  20. [Experimental modeling of nucleoprotein disposal disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Trofimenko, A S; Gontar, I P; Paramonova, O V; Simakova, E S; Zborovskaya, I A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to adapt the experimental model simulating the nucleoprotein disposal disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) for further study of its extracorporeal correction, as well as to assess validity of the model by short-term experiment. Twenty to female Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with the chromatin-containing extract from bovine liver followed by intravenous administration of anti-DNA antibodies derived from SLE patients. After these procedures plasma concentrations of anti-dsDNA, circulating immune complexes and DNA became sharply increased, together with distinct elevation of leukocytes. On the contrary, changes in erythrocytes, platelets, total protein concentration, creatinine, asparagine and alanine aminotransferase activities, as well as blood coagulation time were changed insignificantly. Using direct immunofluorescence of cryosections, we detected human IgG deposition in rat kidneys treated in accordance with the simulation protocol. Thus, our model reproduces essential DNA disposal disorders in SLE without any animal death or the life-threatening changes in examined markers during short-term experiment. PMID:26539869

  1. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this manual is to provide the engineering community and related industry with a new source of information to be used in the planning, design, and operation of present and future wastewater pollution control facilities. This manual supplements this existing knowledg...

  2. Automated Monitoring System for Waste Disposal Sites and Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2003-03-01

    A proposal submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program to deploy an automated monitoring system for waste disposal sites and groundwater, herein referred to as the ''Automated Monitoring System,'' was funded in fiscal year (FY) 2002. This two-year project included three parts: (1) deployment of cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers, (2) development of a data management system, and (3) development of Internet accessibility. The proposed concept was initially (in FY 2002) to deploy cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers and partially develop the data management system at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This initial effort included both Bechtel Nevada (BN) and the Desert Research Institute (DRI). The following year (FY 2003), cellular modems were to be similarly deployed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the early data management system developed at the NTS was to be brought to those locations for site-specific development and use. Also in FY 2003, additional site-specific development of the complete system was to be conducted at the NTS. To complete the project, certain data, depending on site-specific conditions or restrictions involving distribution of data, were to made available through the Internet via the DRI/Western Region Climate Center (WRCC) WEABASE platform. If the complete project had been implemented, the system schematic would have looked like the figure on the following page.

  3. Grout long radius flow testing to support Saltstone disposal Unit 5 design

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanko, D. B.; Langton, C. A.; Serrato, M. G.; Brooks, T. E. II; Huff, T. H.

    2013-02-24

    The Saltstone Facility, located within the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, consists of two facility segments: The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SPF receives decontaminated legacy low level sodium salt waste solution that is a byproduct of prior nuclear material processing. The salt solution is mixed with cementitious materials to form a grout slurry known as “Saltstone”. The grout is pumped to the SDF where it is placed in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) to solidify. SDU 6 is referred to as a “mega vault” and is currently in the design stage. The conceptual design for SDU 6 is a single cell, cylindrical geometry approximately 114.3 meters in diameter by 13.1 meter high and is larger than previous cylindrical SDU designs, 45.7 meters in diameter by 7.01 meters high (30 million gallons versus 2.9 million gallons of capacity). Saltstone slurry will be pumped into the new waste disposal unit through roof openings at a projected flow rate of about 34.1 cubic meters per hour. Nine roof openings are included in the design to discharge material into the SDU with an estimated grout pour radius of 22.9 to 24.4 meters and initial drop height of 13.1 meters. The conceptual design for the new SDU does not include partitions to limit the pour radius of the grout slurry during placement other than introducing material from different pour points. This paper addresses two technical issues associated with the larger diameter of SDU 6; saltstone flow distance in a tank 114.3 meters in diameter and quality of the grout. A long-radius flow test scaled to match the velocity of an advancing grout front was designed to address these technology gaps. The emphasis of the test was to quantify the flow distance and to collect samples to evaluate cured properties including compressive strength, porosity, density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Two clean cap surrogate mixes (saltstone premix plus water

  4. Hydraulic characteristics of an underdrained irrigation circle, Muskegon County wastewater disposal system, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    Muskegon County, Mich., disposes of wastewater by spray irrigating farmland on its waste-disposal site. Buried drains in the highly permeable unconfined aquifer at the site control the level of the water table. Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer and drain leakance, the reciprocal of resistance to flow into the drains, was determined at a representative irrigation circle while calibrating a model of the ground-water flow system. Hydraulic conductivity is .00055 meter per second, in the north zone of the circle, and .00039 meter per second in the south zone. Drain leakance is low in both zones: 0.0000029 meter per second in the north and 0.0000095 meter per second in the south. Low drain leakance is responsible for waterlogging when irrigation rates are maintained at design levels. The capacity of the study circle to accept wastewater has been reduced by more than 35%. (USGS)

  5. Design, construction and management of tailings storage facilities for surface disposal in China: case studies of failures.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zuoan; Yin, Guangzhi; Wang, J G; Wan, Ling; Li, Guangzhi

    2013-01-01

    Rapid development of China's economy demands for more mineral resources. At the same time, a vast quantity of mine tailings, as the waste byproduct of mining and mineral processing, is being produced in huge proportions. Tailings impoundments play an important role in the practical surface disposal of these large quantities of mining waste. Historically, tailings were relatively small in quantity and had no commercial value, thus little attention was paid to their disposal. The tailings were preferably discharged near the mines and few tailings storage facilities were constructed in mainland China. This situation has significantly changed since 2000, because the Chinese economy is growing rapidly and Chinese regulations and legislation require that tailings disposal systems must be ready before the mining operation begins. Consequently, data up to 2008 shows that more than 12 000 tailings storage facilities have been built in China. This paper reviews the history of tailings disposal in China, discusses three cases of tailings dam failures and explores failure mechanisms, and the procedures commonly used in China for planning, design, construction and management of tailings impoundments. This paper also discusses the current situation, shortcomings and key weaknesses, as well as future development trends for tailings storage facilities in China.

  6. 324 Bldg Liquid Waste Handling System Functional Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    HAM, J.E.

    1999-12-16

    The 324 Building in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, is preparing to design, construct, and operate the Liquid Waste Handling System (LWHS). The system will include transfer, collection, treatment, and disposal of radiological and mixed liquid waste.

  7. Geohydrologic aspects for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The objective for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste repository sites is to isolate the waste from the biosphere until the waste no longer poses an unacceptable hazard as a result of radioactive decay. Low-level radioactive waste commonly is isolated at shallow depths with various engineered features to stabilize the waste and to reduce its dissolution and transport by ground water. The unsaturated zone generally is preferred for isolating the waste. Low-level radioactive waste may need to be isolated for 300 to 500 years. Maintenance and monitoring of the repository site are required by Federal regulations for only the first 100 years. Therefore, geohydrology of the repository site needs to provide natural isolation of the waste for the hazardous period following maintenance of the site. Engineering design of the repository needs to be compatible with the natural geohydrologic conditions at the site. Studies at existing commercial and Federal waste-disposal sites provide information on the problems encountered and the basis for establishing siting guidelines for improved isolation of radioactive waste, engineering design of repository structures, and surveillance needs to assess the effectiveness of the repositories and to provide early warning of problems that may require remedial action. Climate directly affects the hydrology of a site and probably is the most important single factor that affects the suitability of a site for shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive waste. Humid and subhumid regions are not well suited for shallow isolation of low-level radioactive waste in the unsaturated zone; arid regions with zero to small infiltration from precipitation, great depths to the water table, and long flow paths to natural discharge areas are naturally well suited to isolation of the waste. The unsaturated zone is preferred for isolation of low-level radioactive waste. The guiding rationale is to minimize contact of water with the waste and to

  8. 77 FR 77076 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... AGENCY Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off... prepare a National Environmental Policy Document for all ODMDS designations (63 FR 58045, October 1998... approximately 7.18 square miles in size, for the disposal of dredged material from the proposed harbor...

  9. 75 FR 39523 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... AGENCY Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of... policy to prepare a voluntary National Environmental Policy document for all ODMDS designations (63 FR... size, offshore the mouth of the St. Johns River for the disposal of dredged material from...

  10. A roadmap to truly disposable unattended ground sensor (UGS) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Barry M.

    2010-04-01

    In the last two decades, research by McQ Inc. and others has led to substantial advances in the performance of unattended ground sensor (UGS) systems. These advancements include: extremely long battery life; small, robust packaging; high performance detection and classification algorithms; multimodal, multispectral sensors; long range communications; air droppable delivery; fully integrated sensor management; multi-sensor situational awareness and data fusion; advanced video detection and optical sensor development; and others. This research has demonstrated that there is a great deal that existing technology can do to solve users' intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) requirements using UGS sensors. However, in spite of these advances, UGS systems have not enjoyed widespread use in either DoD, DHS or with law enforcement agencies (LEA). Although requirements differ from agency to agency and application to application, the primary factor that limits more widespread use of UGS systems is cost. Cost determines how many sensors an agency can buy and how they are used operationally. Only when sensors cost $100 or less will they be considered truly disposable. The focus of this paper is to present the technical considerations and a roadmap for producing truly low cost UGS sensors. Achieving this goal will then create within the DoD, DHS, LEA and other communities' requirements for UGS systems intended for a wide variety of uses that were never seriously considered previously because of cost. The implications are significant and will lead to an explosion in the number of UGS systems made and used on an annual basis.

  11. Use of Clearance Indexes to Assess Waste Disposal Issues for the HYLIFE-II Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Sanz, J

    2002-01-17

    Traditionally, waste management studies for fusion energy have used the Waste Disposal Rating (WDR) to evaluate if radioactive material from irradiated structures could qualify for shallow land burial. However, given the space limitations and the negative public perception of large volumes of waste, there is a growing international motivation to develop a fusion waste management system that maximizes the amount of material that can be cleared or recycled. In this work, we present an updated assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, using the concept of Clearance Index (CI) for radioactive waste disposal. With that purpose, we have performed a detailed neutronics analysis of the HYLIFE-II design, using the TART and ACAB computer codes for neutron transport and activation, respectively. Whereas the traditional version of ACAB only provided the user with the WDR as an index for waste considerations, here we have modified the code to calculate Clearance Indexes using the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) clearance limits for radiological waste disposal. The results from the analysis are used to perform an assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II IFE design.

  12. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Liu, Hui-Hai; Steefel, Carl I.; Serrano de Caro, M. A.; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Blink, James A.; Sutton, Mark A.; Xu, Hongwu; Buscheck, Thomas A.; Levy, Schon S.; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Halsey, William G.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  13. PORFLOW MODELING FOR A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE PERFORMANCE OF NEW SALTSTONE DISPOSAL UNIT DESIGNS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.

    2012-08-06

    At the request of Savannah River Remediation (SRR), SRNL has analyzed the expected performance obtained from using seven 32 million gallon Saltstone Disposal Units (SDUs) in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) to store future saltstone grout. The analysis was based on preliminary SDU final design specifications. The analysis used PORFLOW modeling to calculate the release of 20 radionuclides from an SDU and transport of the radionuclides and daughters through the vadose zone. Results from this vadose zone analysis were combined with previously calculated releases from existing saltstone vaults and FDCs and a second PORFLOW model run to calculate aquifer transport to assessment points located along a boundary 100 m from the nearest edge of the SDF sources. Peak concentrations within 12 sectors spaced along the 100 m boundary were determined over a period of evaluation extending 20,000 years after SDF closure cap placement. These peak concentrations were provided to SRR to use as input for dose calculations.

  14. Software Design Analyzer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    CRISP80 software design analyzer system a set of programs that supports top-down, hierarchic, modular structured design, and programing methodologies. CRISP80 allows for expression of design as picture of program.

  15. Hydraulic characteristics of an underdrained irrigation circle, Muskegon County, wastewater disposal system, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Muskegon County, Michigan, disposes of waste water by spray irrigating farmland on its waste-disposal site. Buried drains in the highly permeable unconfined aquifer at the site control the level of the water table. Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer and drain-leakance, the reciprocal of resistance to flow into the drains, was determined at a representative irrigation circle while calibrating a model of the ground-water flow system. Hydraulic conductivity is 0.00055 meter per second in the north zone of the circle and 0.00039 meter per second in the south zone. Drain leakance is low in both zones: 2.9 x 10-6 meters per second in the north and 9.5 x 10-6 meters per second in the south. Low drain leakance is responsible for waterlogging when irrigation rates are maintained at design levels. The capacity of the study circle to accept waste water is 35 percent less than design capacity.

  16. MINED GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEM (MGDS) MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEMS CENTRALIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McGrath

    1998-03-31

    The objective of this report is to identify and document Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) requirements for centralized command and control. Additionally, to further develop the MGDS monitoring and control functions. This monitoring and control report provides the following information: (1) Determines the applicable requirements for a monitoring and control system for repository operations and construction (excluding Performance Confirmation). (2) Makes a determination as to whether or not centralized command and control is required.

  17. Influence of disposable ('Conchapak') and reusable humidifying systems on the incidence of ventilation pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Daschner, F; Kappstein, I; Schuster, F; Scholz, R; Bauer, E; Joossens, D; Just, H

    1988-02-01

    The contamination of disposable ('Conchapak') and reusable humidifying systems and their influence on the incidence of pneumonia was studied in 116 patients requiring continuous mechanical ventilation therapy. The water reservoirs of 11 (15.9%) of the 69 disposable systems became colonized, but all reusable systems were found to be sterile. In four of the 11 samples, the organisms isolated corresponded with those cultured from tracheal secretions several days before. Ventilator-associated pneumonia occurred in 36 (31.0%) of the patients, but there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of pneumonia between the patients treated with the disposable or the reusable humidifying systems. Gram-negative bacteria were the predominant organisms isolated from tracheal aspirates of patients who developed ventilator-associated pneumonia. These results suggest that disposable humidifying systems do not influence the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients.

  18. Control system design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  19. Underwater Manifold Centre - drilled-cuttings disposal system

    SciTech Connect

    Biddlestone, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    During the construction of the Central Cormorant Underwater Manifold Centre (UMC), it was recognized that the cuttings produced during the drilling of template wells would interfere with UMC operations, if deposited on top of the structure. A dual system was developed and installed on the Stadrill (the unit planned to drill the wells) to remove the cuttings from the rig to the seabed away from the UMC. The system as conceived and designed has been successful; it fulfills the requirements for flexibility, reliability, and efficiency. Its dependence on equipment external to the rig is minimal and after the capital outlay, the running costs are only for extra crew to operate the equipment and for maintenance. However, the system has been tailor-made for the UMC, the Stadrill, and the conditions prevailing in the Cormorant area.

  20. Changing needs for appropriate excreta disposal and small wastewater treatment methodologies or The future technology of small wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Randall, C W

    2003-01-01

    Recent developments will strongly influence the design and utilization of small wastewater treatment systems in the future, e.g. population increases in non-sewered rural areas and developing countries; increasing impairment of surface water quality; the construction of occupied high-rise buildings in metropolitan areas; the development of planned but somewhat isolated communities, growing shortages of water that mandate reuse of wastewaters. It is well known that there is a very strong linkage between wastewater disposal methods in rural areas and developing countries and the general health of the population. These problems could be greatly reduced or prevented by the utilization of well known excreta disposal and small wastewater treatment system technologies, but the development of more innovative on-site systems is needed. It is expected that future environmental and public health pressures in developed countries will require increasingly stringent effluent limitations for small and on-site wastewater disposal systems, based primarily on nutrient discharges. Both on-site and small-scale technologies are available for the more stringent requirements, but innovative and more economical designs are needed for wide-spread acceptance. Water reuse should be a consideration for the designs of these systems. Implementation and utilization of well known technologies are needed, but the obstacles are often more social and political than economical.

  1. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission waste feed delivery plan

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, R.D.

    1998-01-08

    This document is a plan presenting the objectives, organization, and management and technical approaches for the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Program. This WFD Plan focuses on the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project`s Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission.

  2. Design of a Robotic Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    H. B. Smartt; E.D. Larsen; D. P. Pace; R. J. Bitsoi; C. R. Tolle

    2006-08-01

    Canisters for long term storage or disposal of waste materials are normally closed by welding one or more lids to the top of the canister. This paper describes the development of a conceptual design of a control architecture for a robotic system for welding lids on canisters in a remote welding cell. This work extended over several years and included development of control systems for three machines.

  3. Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of Generic Disposal System Concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Sevougian, S. David; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Gardner, William Payton; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Mariner, Paul

    2014-09-01

    directly, rather than through simplified abstractions. It also a llows for complex representations of the source term, e.g., the explicit representation of many individual waste packages (i.e., meter - scale detail of an entire waste emplacement drift). This report fulfills the Generic Disposal System Analysis Work Packa ge Level 3 Milestone - Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of Generic Disposal System Concepts (M 3 FT - 1 4 SN08080 3 2 ).

  4. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  5. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  6. [PRIORITY TECHNOLOGIES OF THE MEDICAL WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM].

    PubMed

    Samutin, N M; Butorina, N N; Starodubova, N Yu; Korneychuk, S S; Ustinov, A K

    2015-01-01

    The annual production of waste in health care institutions (HCI) tends to increase because of the growth of health care provision for population. Among the many criteria for selecting the optimal treatment technologies HCI is important to provide epidemiological and chemical safety of the final products. Environmentally friendly method of thermal disinfection of medical waste may be sterilizators of medical wastes intended for hospitals, medical centers, laboratories and other health care facilities that have small and medium volume of processing of all types of waste Class B and C. The most optimal method of centralized disposal of medical waste is a thermal processing method of the collected material. PMID:26856137

  7. [PRIORITY TECHNOLOGIES OF THE MEDICAL WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM].

    PubMed

    Samutin, N M; Butorina, N N; Starodubova, N Yu; Korneychuk, S S; Ustinov, A K

    2015-01-01

    The annual production of waste in health care institutions (HCI) tends to increase because of the growth of health care provision for population. Among the many criteria for selecting the optimal treatment technologies HCI is important to provide epidemiological and chemical safety of the final products. Environmentally friendly method of thermal disinfection of medical waste may be sterilizators of medical wastes intended for hospitals, medical centers, laboratories and other health care facilities that have small and medium volume of processing of all types of waste Class B and C. The most optimal method of centralized disposal of medical waste is a thermal processing method of the collected material.

  8. The prospective usage of the multi-purpose canister and impacts on the waste management and disposal system

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, N.B.

    1993-12-31

    The Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) is designed to be loaded with spent fuel and sealed at reactors and then serve the functions of transport, storage and disposal without reopening. It can be either self-shielded or unshielded, thus requiring compatible overpacks for transport, storage and disposal. The MPC is not a new concept but it may now be viable because of the particular characteristics at Yucca Mountain: larger MPCs are possible because of ramp access to the repository horizon, and the less difficult temperature limits because of in-drift emplacement, rather than borehole emplacement. This paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of adopting the MPC as the principal technology to be employed in the US program. Use of the MPC permits integration of the utility and DOE portions of the system as well as among the elements within the DOE portion. Paradoxically, the principal disadvantage of the MPC is a direct consequence of its merit as an integrating technology. Full integration includes disposability without reopening, and requires that disposability design decisions be made and implemented well in advance of when waste package licensing uncertainties are resolved. There is, therefore, a risk that MPCs loaded prior to waste package licensing will have to be opened. This risk is discussed in terms of probability and consequences and various alternatives for mitigating this risk are discussed.

  9. An Evaluation of Long-Term Performance of Liner Systems for Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur S. Rood; Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-03-01

    Traditional liner systems consisting of a geosynthetic membrane underlying a waste disposal facility coupled with a leachate collection system have been proposed as a means of containing releases of low-level radioactive waste within the confines of the disposal facility and thereby eliminating migration of radionuclides into the vadose zone and groundwater. However, this type of hydraulic containment liner system is only effective as long as the leachate collection system remains functional or an overlying cover limits the total infiltration to the volumetric pore space of the disposal system. If either the leachate collection system fails, or the overlying cover becomes less effective during the 1,000’s of years of facility lifetime, the liner may fill with water and release contaminated water in a preferential or focused manner. If the height of the liner extends above the waste, the waste will become submerged which could increase the release rate and concentration of the leachate. If the liner extends near land surface, there is the potential for contamination reaching land surface creating a direct exposure pathway. Alternative protective liner systems can be engineered that eliminate radionuclide releases to the vadose zone during operations and minimizing long term migration of radionuclides from the disposal facility into the vadose zone and aquifer. Non-traditional systems include waste containerization in steel or composite materials. This type of system would promote drainage of clean infiltrating water through the facility without contacting the waste. Other alternatives include geochemical barriers designed to transmit water while adsorbing radionuclides beneath the facility. Facility performance for a hypothetical disposal facility has been compared for the hydraulic and steel containerization liner alternatives. Results were compared in terms of meeting the DOE Order 435.1 low-level waste performance objective of 25 mrem/yr all-pathways dose

  10. System-Level Logistics for Dual Purpose Canister Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinina, Elena A.

    2014-06-03

    The analysis presented in this report investigated how the direct disposal of dual purpose canisters (DPCs) may be affected by the use of standard transportation aging and disposal canisters (STADs), early or late start of the repository, and the repository emplacement thermal power limits. The impacts were evaluated with regard to the availability of the DPCs for emplacement, achievable repository acceptance rates, additional storage required at an interim storage facility (ISF) and additional emplacement time compared to the corresponding repackaging scenarios, and fuel age at emplacement. The result of this analysis demonstrated that the biggest difference in the availability of UNF for emplacement between the DPC-only loading scenario and the DPCs and STADs loading scenario is for a repository start date of 2036 with a 6 kW thermal power limit. The differences are also seen in the availability of UNF for emplacement between the DPC-only loading scenario and the DPCs and STADs loading scenario for the alternative with a 6 kW thermal limit and a 2048 start date, and for the alternatives with a 10 kW thermal limit and 2036 and 2048 start dates. The alternatives with disposal of UNF in both DPCs and STADs did not require additional storage, regardless of the repository acceptance rate, as compared to the reference repackaging case. In comparison to the reference repackaging case, alternatives with the 18 kW emplacement thermal limit required little to no additional emplacement time, regardless of the repository start time, the fuel loading scenario, or the repository acceptance rate. Alternatives with the 10 kW emplacement thermal limit and the DPCs and STADs fuel loading scenario required some additional emplacement time. The most significant decrease in additional emplacement time occurred in the alternative with the 6 kW thermal limit and the 2036 repository starting date. The average fuel age at emplacement ranges from 46 to 88 years. The maximum fuel age at

  11. Design and development of a family of explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichard, Karl; Simpson, Tim; Rogan, Chris; Merenich, John; Brennan, Sean; Crow, Ed

    2008-10-01

    Across many consumer product industries, the prevailing practice is to design families of product variants that exploit commonality to provide the ability to easily customize a base platform for particular uses and to take advantage of commonality for streamlining design, manufacturing, maintenance and logistic; examples include Black & Decker, Seagate, and Volkswagen. This paper describes the application of product family concepts to the design and development of a family of robots to satisfy requirements for explosive ordnance disposal. To facilitate this process, we have developed a market segmentation grid that plots the desired capabilities and cost versus the target use cases. The product family design trade space is presented using a multi-dimensional trade space visualization tool which helps identify dependencies between different design variables and identify Pareto frontiers along which optimal design choices will lie. The EOD robot product family designs share common components and subsystems yet are modularized and scalable to provide functionality to satisfy a range of user requirements. This approach has been shown to significantly reduce development time and costs, manufacturing costs, maintenance and spare parts inventory, and operator and maintainer training.

  12. Methodology for the technical evaluation of disposal systems for Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lamar, D.A.; Raymond, J.R.

    1990-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology that will be used for the evaluation of alternative disposal concepts for Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste. The primary focus will be on the technical evaluation of various disposal concepts leading toward the identification of technically feasible disposal systems.

  13. General design memorandum, Gulfport Harbor, Mississippi. Design Memorandum Number 1. Appendix E. Thin-layer disposal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, S.I.

    1989-06-01

    This report presents the results of a one year monitoring program of the impacts associated with the thin-layer disposal of 50,000 cubic yards of new work dredged material in Mississippi Sound. The object of thin-layer disposal is two fold: (1) the placement of dredged material in open water in a layer 12 inches thick or less and (2) reduction of short term impacts to the aquatic ecosystem. Results of this monitoring program indicate that: (1) It is possible to control lift-thickness during open water disposal. (2) Recovery of benthos following a December disposal operation begins as early as 6-weeks post disposal abundances within the disposal area are similar to non-disposal areas. (3) Recruitment to the disposal area, following the December disposal, was mediated by adult migration, followed by spring larval settlement.

  14. 78 FR 73097 - Ocean Dumping; Sabine-Neches Waterway (SNWW) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... estuarine nursery areas. The water column and benthic effects associated with ocean disposal of dredged... using EPA's ocean disposal criteria at 40 CFR part 228 and compared in the EIS. Of the sites that.... Ocean disposal of dredged material in the past has not interfered with other uses. 9. Existing...

  15. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2015-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1C, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  16. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2012-04-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  17. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Mecham

    2010-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  18. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2012-08-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  19. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Mecham

    2009-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  20. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Mecham

    2010-05-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  1. Treated effluent disposal system process control computer software requirements and specification

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1994-06-03

    The software requirements for the monitor and control system that will be associated with the effluent collection pipeline system known as the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal System is covered. The control logic for the two pump stations and specific requirements for the graphic displays are detailed.

  2. Probabilistic risk assessment for the Sandia National Laboratories Technical Area V Liquid Waste Disposal System surface impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, L.A.; Eidson, A.F.

    1996-03-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment was completed for a former radioactive waste disposal site. The site, two unlined surface impoundment, was designed as part of the Liquid Waste Disposal System (LWDS) to receive radioactive effluent from nuclear reactors in Technical Area-V (TA-V) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). First, a statistical comparison of site sampling results to natural background, using EPA methods, and a spatial distribution analysis were performed. Risk assessment was conducted with SNL/NM`s Probabilistic Risk Evaluation and Characterization Investigation System model. The risk assessment indicated that contamination from several constituents might have been high enough to require remediation. However, further analysis based on expected site closure activities and recent EPA guidance indicated that No Further Action was acceptable.

  3. 76 FR 26720 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... AGENCY Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off Fort... Environmental Policy Document for all ODMDS designations (63 FR 58045, October 1998). For Further Information... material from the potential construction dredging at Port Everglades Harbor. The need for an expanded...

  4. 9 CFR 331.4 - Control and disposal of non-federally-inspected products in States designated under paragraph 301...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control and disposal of non-federally... Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND... PROVISIONS FOR DESIGNATED STATES AND TERRITORIES; AND FOR DESIGNATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH ENDANGER...

  5. High density ash slurry pumping and disposal: An environmentally safe and economical alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Broek, B. van den

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes conventional ash disposal systems; high density slurry transportation and disposal systems, including the design, disposal site, technical features, sloped disposal site operating parameters, slurry quality and deposit management; typical operational questions; specific advantages of the proposed GEHO system; and GEHO piston diaphragm pumps.

  6. A disposable, continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction device: design, fabrication and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Victoria; Li, Huizhong; Sant, Himanshu; Ameel, Tim; Gale, Bruce K

    2016-08-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify a specific segment of DNA through a thermal cycling protocol. The PCR industry is shifting its focus away from macro-scale systems and towards micro-scale devices because: micro-scale sample sizes require less blood from patients, total reaction times are on the order of minutes opposed to hours, and there are cost advantages as many microfluidic devices are manufactured from inexpensive polymers. Some of the fastest PCR devices use continuous flow, but they have all been built of silicon or glass to allow sufficient heat transfer. This article presents a disposable polycarbonate (PC) device that is capable of achieving real-time, continuous flow PCR in a completely disposable polymer device in less than 13 minutes by thermally cycling the sample through an established temperature gradient in a serpentine channel. The desired temperature gradient was determined through simulations and validated by experiments which showed that PCR was achieved. Practical demonstration included amplification of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) derived cDNA. PMID:27393216

  7. Concept and Design of the JAEA KMS for Geological Disposal of HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Makino, Hitoshi; Osawa, Hideaki; Nakano, Katsushi; Naito, Morimasa; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Takase, Hiroyasu; McKinley, Ian G.

    2007-07-01

    The information explosion resulting from modern technology is identified as a critical problem for deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). A paradigm shift is needed in the basic concept for information management. This recognition had led to the development of a 'next generation' Knowledge Management System (the JAEA KMS) that makes maximum use of recent developments in Information Technology (IT) and the methodology of Knowledge Engineering (KE) as applied in other technical fields. This paper provides a brief outline of the key concepts of the JAEA KMS and then overviews recent progress towards development of an operational system, including a 'wish list' of expected functions of the JAEA KMS, a perspective on applicability of existing methodologies and an introduction to the concept of an 'intelligent assistant'. (authors)

  8. Control system design method

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  9. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    SciTech Connect

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-05

    This document provides a summary of the proposed Tank Waste Remediation System Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost) developed to demonstrate the Tank Waste Remediation System contractor`s Readiness-to-Proceed in support of the Phase 1B mission.

  10. Designing Menu Selection Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Ben

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on the multiple design issues involved in creating successful menu selection systems: semantic organization, response time, display rates, shortcuts for frequent users, titles, phrasing of menu items, graphic layout, and selection mechanisms. Pop-up and embedded menus, experimental results, and design guidelines are also covered.…

  11. Instructional Design: System Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Bruce R.; Sleeman, Phillip J.

    This book is intended as a source for those who desire to apply a coherent system of instructional design, thereby insuring accountability. Chapter 1 covers the instructional design process, including: instructional technology; the role of evaluation; goal setting; the psychology of teaching and learning; task analysis; operational objectives;…

  12. Optimum energy and by-product recovery in chlorinated hydrocarbon disposal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Santoleri, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper covers the three principal areas of a chlorinated hydrocarbon waste disposal system for a typical vinyl chloride monomer facility. These are the incineration, the energy recovery system, and the by-product recovery system. It is shown that the overall efficiency of the energy and by-product recovery systems is dependent on the optimization of the primary combustor (incineration system). 11 refs.

  13. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  14. Artificial Intelligence for Explosive Ordnance Disposal System (AI-EOD)

    SciTech Connect

    Madrid, R.; Williams, B.; Holland, J.

    1992-03-01

    Based on a dynamically configurable neural net that learns in a single pass of the training data, this paper describes a system used by the military in the identification of explosive ordnance. Allowing the technician to input incomplete, contradictory, and wrong information, this system combines expert systems and neural nets to provide a state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management system.

  15. Artificial Intelligence for Explosive Ordnance Disposal System (AI-EOD)

    SciTech Connect

    Madrid, R.; Williams, B.; Holland, J.

    1992-01-01

    Based on a dynamically configurable neural net that learns in a single pass of the training data, this paper describes a system used by the military in the identification of explosive ordnance. Allowing the technician to input incomplete, contradictory, and wrong information, this system combines expert systems and neural nets to provide a state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management system.

  16. Perspectives on integrating the US radioactive waste disposal system

    SciTech Connect

    Culler, F.L. ); Croff, A.G. )

    1990-01-01

    The waste management systems being developed and deployed by the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is large, complex, decentralized, and long term. As a result, a systems integration approach has been implemented by OCRWM. The fundamentals of systems integration and its application are examined in the context of the OCRWM program. This application is commendable, and some additional systems integration features are suggested to enhance its benefits. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Designing future photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    The large scale use of photovoltaic systems to generate our electricity is a dream for the future; but if this dream is to be realized, we must understand these systems today. As a result, there has been extensive research into the design and economic tradeoffs of utility interconnected photovoltaic applications. The understanding gained in this process has shown that photovoltaic system design can be a very simple and straight-forward endeavor. This paper reviews those past studies and shows how we have reached the present state of system design evolution. The concept of the utility interactive PV system with energy value determined by the utility's avoided cost will be explored. This concept simplifies the screening of potential applications for economic viability, and we will present several rules-of-thumb for this purpose.

  18. Onsite alternatives for treatment and disposal. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, W.; Otis, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    A review of onsite technologies for treatment and disposal of wastewater is presented with emphasis on the manipulation of wastewater generation events in the home as a means to enhance onsite treatment and disposal, the design and performance of subsurface disposal systems, alternative systems to solve wastewater management problems in small communities, and sanitation in developing countries. (KRM)

  19. Data System Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Charles R.

    Some of the major elements of administrative information systems design as applied to higher education are described. Differences between the application of computer technology in the commercial environment and the educational environment are discussed. The major steps in systems development from problem definition through implementation are…

  20. Digital systems design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 Computer Systems. The detaileds of the language, the translator, and the simulator, and the smulator programs are given. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  1. Explosive destruction system for disposal of chemical munitions

    DOEpatents

    Tschritter, Kenneth L.; Haroldsen, Brent L.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Stofleth, Jerome H.; DiBerardo, Raymond A.

    2005-04-19

    An explosive destruction system and method for safely destroying explosively configured chemical munitions. The system comprises a sealable, gas-tight explosive containment vessel, a fragment suppression system positioned in said vessel, and shaped charge means for accessing the interior of the munition when the munition is placed within the vessel and fragment suppression system. Also provided is a means for treatment and neutralization of the munition's chemical fills, and means for heating and agitating the contents of the vessel. The system is portable, rapidly deployable and provides the capability of explosively destroying and detoxifying chemical munitions within a gas-tight enclosure so that there is no venting of toxic or hazardous chemicals during detonation.

  2. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  3. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  4. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  5. Tank Waste Remediation System retrieval and disposal mission technical baseline summary description

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, T.J.

    1998-01-06

    This document is prepared in order to support the US Department of Energy`s evaluation of readiness-to-proceed for the Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission at the Hanford Site. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission is one of three primary missions under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The other two include programs to characterize tank waste and to provide for safe storage of the waste while it awaits treatment and disposal. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission includes the programs necessary to support tank waste retrieval, wastefeed, delivery, storage and disposal of immobilized waste, and closure of tank farms. This mission will enable the tank farms to be closed and turned over for final remediation. The Technical Baseline is defined as the set of science and engineering, equipment, facilities, materials, qualified staff, and enabling documentation needed to start up and complete the mission objectives. The primary purposes of this document are (1) to identify the important technical information and factors that should be used by contributors to the mission and (2) to serve as a basis for configuration management of the technical information and factors.

  6. DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    F. Habashi

    1998-06-26

    The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container (SNF DC) supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access mains, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container provides long term confinement of DOE SNF waste, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The DOE SNF Disposal Containers provide containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limit radionuclide release thereafter. The disposal containers maintain the waste in a designated configuration, withstand maximum handling and rockfall loads, limit the individual waste canister temperatures after emplacement. The disposal containers also limit the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resist corrosion in the expected repository environment, and provide complete or limited containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple disposal container designs may be needed to accommodate the expected range of DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel. The disposal container will include outer and inner barrier walls and outer and inner barrier lids. Exterior labels will identify the disposal container and contents. Differing metal barriers will support the design philosophy of defense in depth. The use of materials with different failure mechanisms prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The corrosion-resistant inner barrier and inner barrier lid will be constructed of a high-nickel alloy and the corrosion-allowance outer barrier and outer barrier lid will be made of carbon steel. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Containers interface with the emplacement drift environment by transferring heat from the waste to the external environment and by protecting

  7. 75 FR 22524 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... affect southern green sturgeon, euchalon, eastern Stellar sea lions, blue whales, fin whales, humpback..., EPA published a proposed rule at 75 FR 5708 to designate two new ocean dredged material disposal sites... the Federal Register in 1977 (42 FR 2461), a status superseded by later statutory changes to the...

  8. 78 FR 939 - Notice of Public Meeting: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...EPA Region 1 announces the rescheduled public meeting to discuss the Notice of Intent to Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) to Evaluate the Potential Designation of One or More Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) to Serve the Eastern Long Island Sound Region. The public meeting was originally scheduled for November 15, 2012, but was delayed due to the......

  9. REVISING/UPDATING EPA 625/1-79-011, PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) wishes to revise/update its very large and comprehensive 1979 Process Design Manual for Sludge Treatment and Disposal, EPA 625/1-79-011. As you might imagine the task is not trivial, as already in 1979 the original manual cost more tha...

  10. 9 CFR 331.4 - Control and disposal of non-federally-inspected products in States designated under paragraph 301...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control and disposal of non-federally-inspected products in States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act. 331.4 Section 331.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...

  11. 9 CFR 331.4 - Control and disposal of non-federally-inspected products in States designated under paragraph 301...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control and disposal of non-federally-inspected products in States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act. 331.4 Section 331.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...

  12. Creative spoil: Design concepts, construction techniques, and disposal of excavated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLindon, Gerald J.

    1985-03-01

    The author discusses some of the construction methods used in building the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, the disposal of surplus excavated materials, and the reclamation of disposal areas along the waterway Emphasis is placed on the steps taken to assure protection of natural resources and to promote overall environmental quality.

  13. 78 FR 29687 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... evaluated ] using EPA's ocean disposal criteria at 40 CFR Part 228 and compared in the EIS. Of the sites... effects from dredged material placement in the water column, sediments, or benthos of the site. These... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site...

  14. Energy conservation and alternate energy resources for a dairy utilizing a water flush waste disposal system

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, M.D.; Bryan, W.L.; Johnson, J.C. Jr.; Newton, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Electricity use and costs were evaluated for a dairy farm using a water flush disposal system. Electricity conservastion, reducing the peak electrical demand, and alternative energy production from animal waste can be reduce purchased electrical costs while still maintaining the benefits derived from mechanization. ref.

  15. Alternate Methods of Effluent Disposal for On-Lot Home Sewage Systems. Special Circular 214.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Several alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches and oversized absorption areas are discussed. Site characteristics and preparation are outlined. Each alternative is accompanied by a diagram…

  16. Managing suspect radioactive material in the DOE system -- A program to establish lower activity disposal criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, C.G.; Shuman, R.; Rogers, V.

    1994-12-31

    Operations at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear installations routinely generate radioactively contaminated waste. A large portion of this waste has extremely low levels of radioactive contamination or is suspect waste. Despite these very low levels of contamination, this waste is disposed of as low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or mixed waste. Doing so depleted limited available disposal capacity while providing little or no incremental benefit to the public health and safety. Efforts have been made by federal agencies, states, and industry to establish less rigorous control criteria for waste with low levels of radioactive contamination. The DOE addressed the establishment of lower activity disposal criteria in its threshold limit guidance in the early 1980s, but, to date, nor formal limits have emerged from the Department. A number of DOE installation have calculated suitable site-specific release limits. Efforts by other federal agencies range from proposed dose criteria for Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) waste developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to policy statements by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on BRC waste which were subsequently withdrawn. Such limits may be developed incrementally, focusing first on waste streams that are easily characterized and that will provide the greatest immediate benefit to the DOE system. Limits may then be developed for waste streams containing more complex mixtures of radionuclides. Separate limits may be developed for each DOE site, taking into account the site-specific disposal conditions, or a single set of limits may be developed for the entire DOE system. Once lower activity disposal limits are established, DOE installations will need to develop waste characterization methods adequate to ensure compliance with the new lower activity disposal criteria.

  17. Computer system design (supermicrocomputers)

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.

    1983-05-26

    The main architectural differences between conventional microcomputer systems and supermicrocomputers are the following features which the latter possess: specialised bus for interprocessor communication; two or more processors, ranging from 8-bit to 48-bit-slice designs; and fast bus designs which permit data transfers by the byte or by the word. The majority of supermicrocomputers are 16-bit or 32-bit multiuser, multitasking systems able to address large amounts of physical and virtual memory. Current developments in supermicrocomputers are discussed with reference to a variety of available machines.

  18. Underwater manifold centre-drilled cuttings disposal system

    SciTech Connect

    Biddlestone, P.A.

    1983-09-01

    During the construction of the Central Cormorant Underwater Manifold Centre (UMC), it was recognised that the cuttings produced during the drilling of template wells would interfere with UMC operations, if deposited on top of the structure. A dual system was developed and installed on the Stadrill (the unit planned to drill the wells) to remove the cuttings from the rig to the seabed away from the UMC.

  19. Vehicle Radiation Monitoring Systems for Medical Waste Disposal - 12102

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashov, Vladislav S.; Steranka, Steve A.

    2012-07-01

    Hospitals often declare their waste as being 'non-radioactive'; however this material often has excessive levels of radiation caused either by an accident or lack of control. To ensure the best possible protection against the accidental receipt of radioactive materials and as a safety precaution for their employees, waste-handling companies have installed large-scale radiation portal monitors at their weigh scales or entry gates of the incinerator plant, waste transfer station, and/or landfill. Large-volume plastic scintillator-based systems can be used to monitor radiation levels at entry points to companies handling medical waste. The recent and intensive field tests together with the thousands of accumulated hours of actual real-life vehicle scanning have proven that the plastic scintillation based system is an appropriate radiation control instrument for waste management companies. The Real-Time background compensation algorithm is flexible with automatic adjustable coefficients that will response to rapidly changing environmental and weather conditions maintaining the preset alarm threshold levels. The Dose Rate correction algorithms further enhance the system's ability to meet the stringent requirements of the waste industries need for Dose Rate measurements. (authors)

  20. Distributed System Design Checklist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Brendan; Driscoll, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a design checklist targeted to fault-tolerant distributed electronic systems. Many of the questions and discussions in this checklist may be generally applicable to the development of any safety-critical system. However, the primary focus of this report covers the issues relating to distributed electronic system design. The questions that comprise this design checklist were created with the intent to stimulate system designers' thought processes in a way that hopefully helps them to establish a broader perspective from which they can assess the system's dependability and fault-tolerance mechanisms. While best effort was expended to make this checklist as comprehensive as possible, it is not (and cannot be) complete. Instead, we expect that this list of questions and the associated rationale for the questions will continue to evolve as lessons are learned and further knowledge is established. In this regard, it is our intent to post the questions of this checklist on a suitable public web-forum, such as the NASA DASHLink AFCS repository. From there, we hope that it can be updated, extended, and maintained after our initial research has been completed.

  1. Analysis of space systems study for the space disposal of nuclear waste. Study report, volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Space systems concepts were identified and defined and evaluated as to their performance, risks, and technical viability in order to select the most attractive approach for disposal of high level nuclear wastes in space. Major study areas discussed include: (1) mission and operations analysis; (2) waste payload systems; (3) flight support system; (4) launch site systems; (5) launch vehicle systems; (6) orbit transfer system; (7) space disposal destinations; and (8) systems integration and evaluation.

  2. Management of soil systems for the disposal of industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J C

    1981-01-01

    Research continues to provide improved information about the toxicity of materials, their transport in soil, and the kinetics of detoxification that is most useful in evaluating alternative approaches for safely managing industrial wastes. The placement of industrial wastes into soil systems is a satisfactory management approach if the material is nontoxic, if the soil has the capability of detoxifying the material, or if the soil prevents the material from entering the biosphere. Examples from the literature of successful applications of industrial wastes to soil are discussed.

  3. Design of a toxicity biosensor based on Aliivibrio fischeri entrapped in a disposable card.

    PubMed

    Jouanneau, Sulivan; Durand-Thouand, Marie-José; Thouand, Gérald

    2016-03-01

    The degradation of the marine environment is a subject of concern for the European authorities primarily because of its contamination by hydrocarbons. The traditional methods (ISO 11348 standard) of general toxicity assessment are unsuitable in a context of in situ monitoring, such as seaports or bathing zones. Consequently, to address this issue, bacterial biosensors appear to be pertinent tools. This article presents the design of an innovative bioluminescent biosensor dedicated to in situ toxicity monitoring. This biosensor is based on the entrapment of the wild marine bioluminescent bacterial strain Aliivibrio fischeri ATCC® 49387™ in an agarose matrix within a disposable card. A pre-study was needed to select the most biological parameters. In particular, the regenerating medium's composition and the hydrogel concentration needed for the bacterial entrapment (mechanical resistance) were optimized. Based on these data, the ability of the bacterial reporter to assess the sample toxicity was demonstrated using naphthalene as a chemical model. The biosensor's results show a lower sensitivity to naphthalene (EC50 = 95 mg/L) compared with the results obtained using the reference method (EC50 = 43 mg/L). With this architecture, the biosensor is an interesting compromise among low maintenance, ease of use, appropriate sensitivity, relatively low cost and the ability to control online toxicity.

  4. Maglev system design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.T.

    1991-01-01

    Although efforts are now being made to develop magnetic levitation technologies in the United States, they have been underway for two decades in Germany and Japan. The characteristics of maglev systems being considered for implementation in the United States are speculative. A conference was held at Argonne National Laboratory on November 28--29, 1990, to discuss these characteristics and their implications for the design requirements of operational systems. This paper reviews some of the factors considered during that conference.

  5. Laser Communication System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, W. L.; Doughty, G. R.; Houston, , J. G.; Marston, R. K.; O'Pella, L. J.; Vo, L. V.

    1988-11-01

    The Air Force is interested in laser communication systems for a variety of air-to-air applications. Laser data transmission offers significant advantages over RF systems in certain areas including higher data rates with low transmitter power, narrower beam divergence leading to difficulty in interception, narrower field of view coupled with high off-axis energy rejection which makes jamming a very formidable task, and smaller antenna size which creates minimum installation impact on an aircraft. The applications with the greatest near-term potential involve the transfer of data between large aircraft operating in relatively benign dynamic environments normally present at altitudes of about 30,000 feet. Systems performing these strategic data exchange (SDE) functions must operate at ranges of 100 to 200 nautical miles at data rates of 2 to 3 megabits per second and the probability of bit error rates not exceeding 10-6. The paper presents the major communication channel elements of a design for a lasercom system performing SDE roles. The design is established by comparing the advantages of the different approaches. The final design selection is based on the transmitter characteristics required for each system. The characteristics include physical properties, development risk, cost, as well as the flexibility for meeting more stringent system performance specifications without requiring major redesign.

  6. HANDBOOK: GUIDE TO TECHNICAL RESOURCES FOR THE DESIGN OF LAND DISPOSAL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Handbook facilitates the preparation and processing of land disposal permit applications. It directs the regulated community and the regulators to the appropriate EPA technical resource documents, as they prepare or review permits required under PL 480 (RCRA). Topics discuss...

  7. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  8. New design deforming controlling system of the active stressed lap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Li; Wang, Daxing

    2008-07-01

    A 450mm diameter active stressed lap has been developed in NIAOT by 2003. We design a new lap in 2007. This paper puts on emphases on introducing the new deforming control system of the lap. Aiming at the control characteristic of the lap, a new kind of digital deforming controller is designed. The controller consists of 3 parts: computer signal disposing, motor driving and force sensor signal disposing. Intelligent numeral PID method is applied in the controller instead of traditional PID. In the end, the result of new deformation are given.

  9. Disposable Scholarship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fredrick

    2004-01-01

    The digital materials that faculty produce for their classrooms often are saved only to storage devices that might become obsolete in a few years. Without an institutional effort to provide access systems, storage, and services for their digital media, are campuses in danger of creating "Disposable Scholarship"? In this article, the author…

  10. Disposal rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  11. Disposable rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  12. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  13. Development of Wireless Data Transmission System for the Monitoring in Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste - 12063

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kei; Eto, Jiro; Tanabe, Hiromi; Esaki, Taichi; Takamura, Hisashi; Suyama, Yasuhiro

    2012-07-01

    The authors have been developing a wireless data transmission system to monitor the performance of a geological disposal system for radioactive waste. The system's concepts, advantages, and a recent development focused on reducing transmitter size to suit narrow spaces such as bentonite buffers and boreholes. A wireless transmitter with a built-in temperature sensor and a connector for external sensors has been developed, measuring 130 mm in length and 50 mm in diameter. The capability of the transmitter was confirmed by transmission tests on the ground and in a bentonite block. (authors)

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE-GENERATED HAZAROUS NONHAZARDOUS & SANITARY WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site generated hazardous, non-hazardous and sanitary waste disposal system system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  15. Willingness to Pay for Improving the Residential Waste Disposal System in Korea: A Choice Experiment Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Se-Ju; Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun

    2009-08-01

    This study attempts to apply choice experiments with regard to the residential waste disposal system (RWDS) in Korea by considering various attributes that are related to RWDS. Using data from a survey conducted on 492 households, the empirical analysis yields estimates of the willingness to pay for a clean food-waste collection facility, the collection of small items (such as obsolete mobile phones and add-ons for personal computers), and a more convenient large waste disposal system. The estimation results of multinomial logit models are quite similar to those of nested logit models. The results reveal that residents have preferences for the cleanliness of facilities and the collection of small items. In Korea, residents are required to purchase and attach stickers for the disposal of large items; they want to be able to obtain stickers at not only village offices but also supermarkets. On the other hand, the frequency of waste collection is not a significant factor in the choice of the improved waste management program.

  16. Willingness to pay for improving the residential waste disposal system in Korea: a choice experiment study.

    PubMed

    Ku, Se-Ju; Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun

    2009-08-01

    This study attempts to apply choice experiments with regard to the residential waste disposal system (RWDS) in Korea by considering various attributes that are related to RWDS. Using data from a survey conducted on 492 households, the empirical analysis yields estimates of the willingness to pay for a clean food-waste collection facility, the collection of small items (such as obsolete mobile phones and add-ons for personal computers), and a more convenient large waste disposal system. The estimation results of multinomial logit models are quite similar to those of nested logit models. The results reveal that residents have preferences for the cleanliness of facilities and the collection of small items. In Korea, residents are required to purchase and attach stickers for the disposal of large items; they want to be able to obtain stickers at not only village offices but also supermarkets. On the other hand, the frequency of waste collection is not a significant factor in the choice of the improved waste management program.

  17. Cloned foal derived from in vivo matured horse oocytes aspirated by the short disposable needle system

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonyou; Song, Kilyoung; Lee, Inhyung; Shin, Hyungdo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2015-01-01

    Transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration is one method of obtaining recipient oocytes for equine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). This study was conducted: (1) to evaluate the possibility of oocyte aspiration from pre-ovulatory follicles using a short disposable needle system (14-G) by comparing the oocyte recovery rate with that of a long double lumen needle (12-G); (2) to investigate the developmental competence of recovered oocytes after SCNT and embryo transfer. The recovery rates with the short disposable needle vs. the long needle were not significantly different (47.5% and 35.0%, respectively). Twenty-six SCNT embryos were transferred to 13 mares, and one mare delivered a live offspring at Day 342. There was a perfect identity match between the cloned foal and the cell donor after analysis of microsatellite DNA, and the mitochondrial DNA of the cloned foal was identical with that of the oocyte donor. These results demonstrated that the short disposable needle system can be used to recover oocytes to use as cytoplasts for SCNT, in the production of cloned foals and for other applications in equine embryology PMID:26119166

  18. Cloned foal derived from in vivo matured horse oocytes aspirated by the short disposable needle system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonyou; Song, Kilyoung; Lee, Inhyung; Shin, Hyungdo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Yeon, Seongchan; Jang, Goo

    2015-01-01

    Transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration is one method of obtaining recipient oocytes for equine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). This study was conducted: (1) to evaluate the possibility of oocyte aspiration from pre-ovulatory follicles using a short disposable needle system (14-G) by comparing the oocyte recovery rate with that of a long double lumen needle (12-G); (2) to investigate the developmental competence of recovered oocytes after SCNT and embryo transfer. The recovery rates with the short disposable needle vs. the long needle were not significantly different (47.5% and 35.0%, respectively). Twenty-six SCNT embryos were transferred to 13 mares, and one mare delivered a live offspring at Day 342. There was a perfect identity match between the cloned foal and the cell donor after analysis of microsatellite DNA, and the mitochondrial DNA of the cloned foal was identical with that of the oocyte donor. These results demonstrated that the short disposable needle system can be used to recover oocytes to use as cytoplasts for SCNT, in the production of cloned foals and for other applications in equine embryology. PMID:26119166

  19. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-09

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare Readiness to Proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people, and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2002. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed, transfer piping routes were mapped on it, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. Personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled.

  20. System design description cone penetrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Seda, R.Y., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The system design description documents in detail the design of the cone penetrometer system. The systems includes the cone penetrometer physical package, raman spectroscopy package and moisture sensor package. Information pertinent to the system design, development, fabrication and testing is provided.

  1. Code System For Risk Assessment From Underground Radioactive Waste Disposal In the United Kingdom.

    SciTech Connect

    THOMPSON,

    2000-04-18

    Version 00 The SYVAC D/2 program simulates the ground water mediated movement of radionuclides from underground facilities for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes to the accessible environment, and provides an estimate of the subsequent radiological risk to man. The simulated timescales are usually within the range 1.0E+03 to 1.0E+07 years. SYVAC is capable of modelling both shallow disposal facilities (located in argillaceous media and overlaying an aquifer) and deep disposal facilities (in a saturated environment). The software was developed for use within the UK Department of the Environment (DOE) Radioactive Waste Management Programme, as one tool in the DOE Assessment Methodology. The acronym SYVAC (System Variability Analysis Code for deep and shallow burial of radioactive waste) comes from the name of an assessment code originally obtained from the Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) in 1982, which was found to be inappropriate for geological conditions in the UK. The development of the previous version, SYVAC A/C, was undertaken by the following private installations under UK Department of the Environment (DOE) contracts: Atkins Research & Development, Epsom, Surrey, England; Associated Nuclear Services, Epsom, Surrey, England; CAP Scientific, London, England; Electrowatt Engineering Services, Horsham, West Sussex, England; and Scicon Limited, Wavendon, Milton Kenes, England.

  2. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    SciTech Connect

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-09

    This document provides a summary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost), developed to demonstrate Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) in support of the TWRS Phase 1B mission. This Updated Baseline is the proposed TWRS plan to execute and measure the mission work scope. This document and other supporting data demonstrate that the TWRS Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team is prepared to fully support Phase 1B by executing the following scope, schedule, and cost baseline activities: Deliver the specified initial low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) feed batches in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner to support private contractors` operations starting in June 2002; Deliver specified subsequent LAW and HLW feed batches during Phase 1B in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner; Provide for the interim storage of immobilized HLW (IHLW) products and the disposal of immobilized LAW (ILAW) products generated by the private contractors; Provide for disposal of byproduct wastes generated by the private contractors; and Provide the infrastructure to support construction and operations of the private contractors` facilities.

  3. Code System For Risk Assessment From Underground Radioactive Waste Disposal In the United Kingdom.

    2000-04-18

    Version 00 The SYVAC D/2 program simulates the ground water mediated movement of radionuclides from underground facilities for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes to the accessible environment, and provides an estimate of the subsequent radiological risk to man. The simulated timescales are usually within the range 1.0E+03 to 1.0E+07 years. SYVAC is capable of modelling both shallow disposal facilities (located in argillaceous media and overlaying an aquifer) and deep disposal facilities (inmore » a saturated environment). The software was developed for use within the UK Department of the Environment (DOE) Radioactive Waste Management Programme, as one tool in the DOE Assessment Methodology. The acronym SYVAC (System Variability Analysis Code for deep and shallow burial of radioactive waste) comes from the name of an assessment code originally obtained from the Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) in 1982, which was found to be inappropriate for geological conditions in the UK. The development of the previous version, SYVAC A/C, was undertaken by the following private installations under UK Department of the Environment (DOE) contracts: Atkins Research & Development, Epsom, Surrey, England; Associated Nuclear Services, Epsom, Surrey, England; CAP Scientific, London, England; Electrowatt Engineering Services, Horsham, West Sussex, England; and Scicon Limited, Wavendon, Milton Kenes, England.« less

  4. Design of a reverse osmosis plant for leachate treatment aiming for safe disposal.

    PubMed

    Thörneby, Lars; Hogland, William; Stenis, Jan; Mathiasson, Lennart; Somogyi, Pernilla

    2003-10-01

    Leachate treatment is one of the major environmental issues faced by landfill owners. One promising method for reduction of pollutant discharge is reverse osmosis (RO). RO technology was tested at a pilot plant at Hedeskoga Landfill in southern Sweden. This landfill receives municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial, commercial and institutional (IC&I) waste, and produces about 3000 m3/ha of leachate annually. Annual variations in the volume of leachate produced, estimated from changes in leachate electrical conductivity, were relatively small and should therefore have a minor effect on the main performance parameter of an RO plant, i.e., the achievable volume reduction. The volume reduction (V(permeate)/V(feed)) of polluted water achieved in batch experiments with 200-1000 litres of raw leachate was more than 80% (4MPa) and the remaining 20% was left as retentate. However, raw leachate caused severe fouling problems in a continuous flow run and after 24 hours, the flux had decreased to about 20% of the initial value. By pre-treating the leachate in a storage pond combined with a wetland, the situation was significantly improved and the decrease in membrane flux was only 0.2% per hour during a 200 hour run. The retention in terms of total solids and chemical oxygen demand was 90%, and for ammonia, it was 82%, at a volume reduction of 50%. The HELP-model was used for prediction of the water balance for the Hedeskoga landfill, with special focus on estimation of potential evapotranspiration. With different types of vegetation and a volume reduction of 75% in the RO plant, it was found possible to achieve safe disposal by irrigating 25% to 40% of the leachate-producing landfill area with pre-treated leachate. Pre-treatment with wetlands and nature based systems reduce the need of detergents for cleaning of the membranes and water only can be used. Short pre-treatment by aeration is not sufficient to bring leachate to a condition sustainable for RO-treatment. In that

  5. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-10-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume I contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume II. Volumes III through VII contain descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume VIII contains the appendixes.

  6. Efficient expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells in a disposable fixed bed culture system.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Amanda; Orellana, Maristela D; Caruso, Sâmia R; de Lima Prata, Karen; Covas, Dimas T; Swiech, Kamilla

    2013-01-01

    The need for efficient and reliable technologies for clinical-scale expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has led to the use of disposable bioreactors and culture systems. Here, we evaluate the expansion of cord blood-derived MSC in a disposable fixed bed culture system. Starting from an initial cell density of 6.0 × 10(7) cells, after 7 days of culture, it was possible to produce of 4.2(±0.8) × 10(8) cells, which represents a fold increase of 7.0 (±1.4). After enzymatic retrieval from Fibra-Cell disks, the cells were able to maintain their potential for differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes and were positive for many markers common to MSC (CD73, CD90, and CD105). The results obtained in this study demonstrate that MSC can be efficiently expanded in the culture system. This novel approach presents several advantages over the current expansion systems, based on culture flasks or microcarrier-based spinner flasks and represents a key element for MSC cellular therapy according to GMP compliant clinical-scale production system.

  7. Statistical design for microwave systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Roland; Purviance, John

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to statistical system design. Basic ideas needed to understand statistical design and a method for implementing statistical design are presented. The nonlinear characteristics of the system amplifiers and mixers are accounted for in the given examples. The specification of group delay, signal-to-noise ratio and output power are considered in these statistical designs.

  8. Vitrification of high level nuclear waste inside ambient temperature disposal containers using inductive heating: The SMILE system

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Barletta, R.

    1996-03-01

    A new approach, termed SMILE (Small Module Inductively Loaded Energy), for the vitrification of high level nuclear wastes (HLW) is described. Present vitrification systems liquefy the HLW solids and associated frit material in large high temperature melters. The molten mix is then poured into small ({approximately}1 m{sup 3}) disposal canisters, where it solidifies and cools. SMILE eliminates the separate, large high temperature melter. Instead, the BLW solids and frit melt inside the final disposal containers, using inductive heating. The contents then solidify and cool in place. The SMILE modules and the inductive heating process are designed so that the outer stainless can of the module remains at near ambient temperature during the process cycle. Module dimensions are similar to those of present disposal containers. The can is thermally insulated from the high temperature inner container by a thin layer of refractory alumina firebricks. The inner container is a graphite crucible lined with a dense alumina refractory that holds the HLW and fiit materials. After the SMILE module is loaded with a slurry of HLW and frit solids, an external multi-turn coil is energized with 30-cycle AC current. The enclosing external coil is the primary of a power transformer, with the graphite crucible acting as a single turn ``secondary.`` The induced current in the ``secondary`` heats the graphite, which in turn heats the HLW and frit materials. The first stage of the heating process is carried out at an intermediate temperature to drive off remnant liquid water and water of hydration, which takes about 1 day. The small fill/vent tube to the module is then sealed off and the interior temperature raised to the vitrification range, i.e., {approximately}1200C. Liquefaction is complete after approximately 1 day. The inductive heating then ceases and the module slowly loses heat to the environment, allowing the molten material to solidify and cool down to ambient temperature.

  9. Airborne virus detection by a sensing system using a disposable integrated impaction device.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Kei; Togashi, Shigenori; Miyake, Ryo; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Hide, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    There are many respiratory infections such as influenza that cause epidemics. These respiratory infection epidemics can be effectively prevented by determining the presence or absence of infections in patients using frequent tests. We think that self-diagnosis may be possible using a system that can collect and detect biological aerosol particles in the patient's breath because breath sampling is easy work requiring no examiner. In this paper, we report a sensing system for biological aerosol particles (SSBAP) with a disposable device. Using the system and the device, someone with no medical knowledge or skills can safely, easily, and rapidly detect infectious biological aerosol particles. The disposable device, which is the core of the SSBAP, can be an impactor for biological aerosol particles, a flow-cell for reagents, and an optical window for the fluorescent detection of collected particles. Furthermore, to detect the fluorescence of very small collected particles, this disposable device is covered with a light-blocking film that lets only fluorescence of particles pass through a fluorescence detector of the SSBAP. The SSBAP using the device can automatically detect biological aerosol particles by the following process: collecting biological aerosol particles from a patient's breath in a sampling bag by the impaction method, labeling the collected biological aerosol particles with fluorescent dyes by the antigen-antibody reaction, removing free fluorescent dyes, and detecting the fluorescence of the biological aerosol particles. The collection efficiency of the device for microspheres aerosolized in the sampling bag was more than 97%, and the SSBAP with the device could detect more than 8.3  ×  10(3) particles l(-1) of aerosolized influenza virus particles within 10 min. PMID:27447200

  10. Annotated bibliography for the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wurm, K.J.; Miller, N.E.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography identifies documents that are pertinent to the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The bibliography is divided into fourteen subject categories so that anyone wishing to review the subject of leaching, for example, can turn to the leaching section and review the abstracts of reports which are concerned primarily with leaching. Abstracts are also cross referenced according to secondary subject matter so that one can get a complete list of abstracts for any of the fourteen subject categories. All documents which by their title alone appear to deal with the design of waste packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste were obtained and reviewed. Only those documents which truly appear to be of interest to a waste package designer were abstracted. The documents not abstracted are listed in a separate section. There was no beginning date for consideration of a document for review. About 1100 documents were reviewed and about 450 documents were abstracted.

  11. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-05

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed to ensure they exist when needed. The review showed that since October 1996 a robust system engineering approach to establishing integrated Technical Baselines, work breakdown structures, tank farm structure and configurations and work scope and costs has been established itself as part of the culture within TWRS. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare readiness to proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2OO2. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed. Transfer piping routes were mapped out, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. TWRS personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled.

  12. State-of-the-art of liquid waste disposal for geothermal energy systems: 1979. Report PNL-2404

    SciTech Connect

    Defferding, L.J.

    1980-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of geothermal liquid waste disposal is reviewed and surface and subsurface disposal methods are evaluated with respect to technical, economic, legal, and environmental factors. Three disposal techniques are currently in use at numerous geothermal sites around the world: direct discharge into surface waters; deep-well injection; and ponding for evaporation. The review shows that effluents are directly discharged into surface waters at Wairakei, New Zealand; Larderello, Italy; and Ahuachapan, El Salvador. Ponding for evaporation is employed at Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Deep-well injection is being practiced at Larderello; Ahuachapan; Otake and Hatchobaru, Japan; and at The Geysers in California. All sites except Ahuachapan (which is injecting only 30% of total plant flow) have reported difficulties with their systems. Disposal techniques used in related industries are also reviewed. The oil industry's efforts at disposal of large quantities of liquid effluents have been quite successful as long as the effluents have been treated prior to injection. This study has determined that seven liquid disposal methods - four surface and three subsurface - are viable options for use in the geothermal energy industry. However, additional research and development is needed to reduce the uncertainties and to minimize the adverse environmental impacts of disposal. (MHR)

  13. Development of a requirements management system for technical decision - making processes in the geological disposal project

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroyoshi Ueda; Katsuhiko Ishiguro; Kazumi Kitayama; Kiyoshi Oyamada; Shoko Sato

    2007-07-01

    NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) has a responsibility for implementing geological disposal of vitrified HLW (High-Level radioactive Waste) in the Japanese nuclear waste management programme. Its staged siting procedure was initiated in 2002 by an open call for volunteer sites. Careful management strategy and methodology for the technical decision-making at every milestone are required to prepare for the volunteer site application and the site investigation stages after that. The formal Requirement Management System (RMS) is planned to support the computerized implementation of the specific management methodology, termed the NUMO Structured Approach (NSA). This planned RMS will help for comprehensive management of the decision-making processes in the geological disposal project, change management towards the anticipated project deviations, efficient project driving such as well programmed R and D etc. and structured record-keeping regarding the past decisions, which leads to soundness of the project in terms of the long-term continuity. The system should have handling/management functions for the database including the decisions/requirements in the project in consideration, their associated information and the structures composed of them in every decision-making process. The information relating to the premises, boundary conditions and time plan of the project should also be prepared in the system. Effective user interface and efficient operation on the in-house network are necessary. As a living system for the long-term formal use, flexibility to updating is indispensable. In advance of the formal system development, two-year activity to develop the preliminary RMS was already started. The purpose of this preliminary system is to template the decision/requirement structure, prototype the decision making management and thus show the feasibility of the innovative RMS. The paper describes the current status of the development, focusing on the

  14. Designing Instructional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtado, Lorraine T.

    1974-01-01

    The author presents an instructional design model for teachers that evolves around a teacher-manager concept which recognizes management functions of: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. (EA)

  15. Feasibility of an earth-to-space rail launcher system. [emphasizing nuclear waste disposal application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Marshall, R. A.; Kerslake, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of earth-to-space electromagnetic (railgun) launchers (ESRL) is considered, in order to determine their technical practicality and economic viability. The potential applications of the launcher include nuclear waste disposal into space, deep space probe launches, and atmospheric research. Examples of performance requirements of the ESRL system are a maximum acceleration of 10,000 g's for nuclear waste disposal in space (NWDS) missions and 2,500 g's for earth orbital missions, a 20 km/sec launch velocity for NWDS missions, and a launch azimuth of 90 degrees E. A brief configuration description is given, and test results indicate that for the 2020-2050 time period, as much as 3.0 MT per day of bulk material could be launched, and about 0.5 MT per day of high-level nuclear waste could be launched. For earth orbital missions, a significant projectile mass was approximately 6.5 MT, and an integral distributed energy store launch system demonstrated a good potential performance. ESRL prove to be economically and environmentally feasible, but an operational ESRL of the proposed size is not considered achievable before the year 2020.

  16. Advanced conceptual design report. Phase II. Liquid effluent treatment and disposal Project W-252

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-31

    This Advanced Conceptual Design Report (ACDR) provides a documented review and analysis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), WHC-SD-W252-CDR-001, June 30, 1993. The ACDR provides further design evaluation of the major design approaches and uncertainties identified in the original CDR. The ACDR will provide a firmer basis for the both the design approach and the associated planning for the performance of the Definitive Design phase of the project.

  17. DDL system: Design systhesis of digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language was integrated into the CADAT system environment of NASA-MSFC. The major technical aspects of this integration are summarized. Automatic hardware synthesis is now possible starting with a high level description of the system to be synthesized. The DDL system provides a high level design verification capability, thereby minimizing design changes in the later stages of the design cycle. An overview of the DDL system covering the translation, simulation and synthesis capabilities is provided. Two companion documents (the user's and programmer's manuals) are to be consulted for detailed discussions.

  18. FNAL system patching design

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Romero, Andy; Dawson, Troy; Sieh, Connie; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01

    FNAL has over 5000 PCs running either Linux or Windows software. Protecting these systems efficiently against the latest vulnerabilities that arise has prompted FNAL to take a more central approach to patching systems. Due to different levels of existing support infrastructures, the patching solution for linux systems differs from that of windows systems. In either case, systems are checked for vulnerabilities by Computer Security using the Nessus tool.

  19. Survey of waste package designs for disposal of high-level waste/spent fuel in selected foreign countries

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

    1989-09-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the waste package strategies for seven western countries with active nuclear power programs that are pursuing disposal of spent nuclear fuel or high-level wastes in deep geologic rock formations. Information, current as of January 1989, is given on the leading waste package concepts for Belgium, Canada, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All but two of the countries surveyed (France and the UK) have developed design concepts for their repositories, but none of the countries has developed its final waste repository or package concept. Waste package concepts are under study in all the countries surveyed, except the UK. Most of the countries have not yet developed a reference concept and are considering several concepts. Most of the information presented in this report is for the current reference or leading concepts. All canisters for the wastes are cylindrical, and are made of metal (stainless steel, mild steel, titanium, or copper). The canister concepts have relatively thin walls, except those for spent fuel in Sweden and Germany. Diagrams are presented for the reference or leading concepts for canisters for the countries surveyed. The expected lifetimes of the conceptual canisters in their respective disposal environment are typically 500 to 1,000 years, with Sweden's copper canister expected to last as long as one million years. Overpack containers that would contain the canisters are being considered in some of the countries. All of the countries surveyed, except one (Germany) are currently planning to utilize a buffer material (typically bentonite) surrounding the disposal package in the repository. Most of the countries surveyed plan to limit the maximum temperature in the buffer material to about 100{degree}C. 52 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Software-Design-Analyzer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    CRISP-90 software-design-analyzer system, update of CRISP-80, is set of computer programs constituting software tool for design and documentation of other software and supporting top-down, hierarchical, modular, structured methodologies for design and programming. Written in Microsoft QuickBasic.

  1. Mars oxygen production system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  2. Mars oxygen production system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the design and construction of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere has been assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer data acquisition and control instrumentation is continuing.

  3. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The impact on space systems of three alternative waste mixes was evaluated as part of an effort to investigate the disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories. A brief overview of the study background, objectives, scope, approach and guidelines, and limitations is presented. The effects of variations in waste mixes on space system concepts were studied in order to provide data for determining relative total system risk benefits resulting from space disposal of the alternative waste mixes. Overall objectives of the NASA-DOE sustaining-level study program are to investigate space disposal concepts which can provide information to support future nuclear waste terminal storage programmatic decisions and to maintain a low level of research activity in this area to provide a baseline for future development should a decision be made to increase the emphasis on this option.

  4. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The impact on space systems of three alternative waste mixes was evaluated as part of an effort to investigate the disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories. A brief overview of the study background, objectives, scope, approach and guidelines, and limitations is presented. The effects of variations in waste mixes on space system concepts were studied in order to provide data for determining relative total system risk benefits resulting from space disposal of the alternative waste mixes. Overall objectives of the NASA-DOE sustaining-level study program are to investigate space disposal concepts which can provide information to support future nuclear waste terminal storage programmatic decisions and to maintain a low level of research activity in this area to provide a baseline for future development should a decision be made to increase the emphasis on this option.

  5. Haptics-based immersive telerobotic system for improvised explosive device disposal: Are two hands better than one?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Lambert, Jason Michel; Mantegh, Iraj; Crymble, Derry; Daly, John; Zhao, Yan

    2012-06-01

    State-of-the-art robotic explosive ordnance disposal robotics have not, in general, adopted recent advances in control technology and man-machine interfaces and lag many years behind academia. This paper describes the Haptics-based Immersive Telerobotic System project investigating an immersive telepresence envrionment incorporating advanced vehicle control systems, Augmented immersive sensory feedback, dynamic 3D visual information, and haptic feedback for explosive ordnance disposal operators. The project aim is to provide operatiors a more sophisticated interface and expand sensory input to perform complex tasks to defeat improvised explosive devices successfully. The introduction of haptics and immersive teleprescence has the potential to shift the way teleprescence systems work for explosive ordnance disposal tasks or more widely for first responders scenarios involving remote unmanned ground vehicles.

  6. ATOMIC-LEVEL IMAGING OF CO2 DISPOSAL AS A CARBONATE MINERAL: OPTIMIZING REACTION PROCESS DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McKelvy; R. Sharma; A.V.G. Chizmeshya; H. Bearat; R.W. Carpenter

    2000-08-01

    Fossil fuels, especially coal, can support the energy demands of the world for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Permanent and safe methods for CO{sub 2} capture and disposal/storage need to be developed. Mineralization of stationary-source CO{sub 2} emissions as carbonates can provide such safe capture and long-term sequestration. Mg-rich lamellar-hydroxide based minerals (e.g., brucite and serpentine) offer a class of widely available, low-cost materials, with intriguing mineral carbonation potential. Carbonation of such materials inherently involves dehydroxylation, which can disrupt the material down to the atomic level. As such, controlled dehydroxylation before and/or during carbonation may provide an important parameter for enhancing carbonation reaction processes. Mg(OH){sub 2} was chosen as the model material for investigating lamellar hydroxide mineral dehydroxylation/carbonation mechanisms due to (i) its structural and chemical simplicity, (ii) interest in Mg(OH){sub 2} gas-solid carbonation as a potentially cost-effective CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration process component, and (iii) its structural and chemical similarity to other lamellar-hydroxide-based minerals (e.g., serpentine-based minerals) whose carbonation reaction processes are being explored due to their low-cost CO{sub 2} sequestration potential. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern dehydroxylation/carbonation processes is essential for cost optimization of any lamellar-hydroxide-based mineral carbonation sequestration process.

  7. Designing Systems for Environmental Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dr. Smith will describe his U.S. EPA research which involves elements of design, from systems as diverse as biofuel supply chains to recycling systems and chemical processes. Design uses models that rate performance as part of a synthesis approach, where steps of analysis and sy...

  8. REC Tracking Systems Design Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith Wingate

    2004-02-03

    OAK-B135 The Design Guide is presented in three parts. Section II describes the need for REC tracking, the two principal tracking methods available, and, in simple terms, the operation of certificate-based systems. Section III presents the major issues in the design of certificate-based tracking systems and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions. Finally, Section IV offers design principles or recommendations for most of these issues.

  9. 75 FR 19311 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... for formal designation through rulemaking published in the Federal Register (FR). Formal designation..., wetland creation, habitat restoration, landfill daily cover, and recycling into commercial products such... at the site--no dumping of toxic materials or industrial or municipal waste would be allowed....

  10. ATOMIC-LEVEL IMAGING OF CO2 DISPOSAL AS A CARBONATE MINERAL: OPTIMIZING REACTION PROCESS DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McKelvy; R. Sharma; A.V.G. Chizmeshya; H. Bearat; R.W. Carpenter

    2002-11-01

    Fossil fuels, especially coal, can support the energy demands of the world for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Permanent and safe methods for CO{sub 2} capture and disposal/storage need to be developed. Mineralization of stationary-source CO{sub 2} emissions as carbonates can provide such safe capture and long-term sequestration. Mg-rich lamellar-hydroxide based minerals (e.g., brucite and serpentine) offer a class of widely available, low-cost materials, with intriguing mineral carbonation potential. Carbonation of such materials inherently involves dehydroxylation, which can disrupt the material down to the atomic level. As such, controlled dehydroxylation, before and/or during carbonation, may provide an important parameter for enhancing carbonation reaction processes. Mg(OH){sub 2} was chosen as the model material for investigating lamellar hydroxide mineral dehydroxylation/carbonation mechanisms due to (1) its structural and chemical simplicity, (2) interest in Mg(OH){sub 2} gas-solid carbonation as a potentially cost-effective CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration process component, and (3) its structural and chemical similarity to other lamellar-hydroxide-based minerals (e.g., serpentine-based minerals) whose carbonation reaction processes are being explored due to their low-cost CO{sub 2} sequestration potential. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern dehydroxylation/carbonation processes is essential for minimizing the cost of any lamellar-hydroxide-based mineral carbonation sequestration process. This final report covers the overall progress of this grant.

  11. ATOMIC-LEVEL IMAGING OF CO2 DISPOSAL AS A CARBONATE MINERAL: OPTIMIZING REACTION PROCESS DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McKelvy; R. Sharma; A.V.G. Chizmeshya; H. Bearat; R.W. Carpenter

    2001-10-01

    Fossil fuels, especially coal, can support the energy demands of the world for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Permanent and safe methods for CO{sub 2} capture and disposal/storage need to be developed. Mineralization of stationary-source CO{sub 2} emissions as carbonates can provide such safe capture and long-term sequestration. Mg-rich lamellar-hydroxide based minerals (e.g., brucite and serpentine) offer a class of widely available, low-cost materials, with intriguing mineral carbonation potential. Carbonation of such materials inherently involves dehydroxylation, which can disrupt the material down to the atomic level. As such, controlled dehydroxylation, before and/or during carbonation, may provide an important parameter for enhancing carbonation reaction processes. Mg(OH){sub 2} was chosen as the model material for investigating lamellar hydroxide mineral dehydroxylation/carbonation mechanisms due to (i) its structural and chemical simplicity, (ii) interest in Mg(OH){sub 2} gas-solid carbonation as a potentially cost-effective CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration process component, and (iii) its structural and chemical similarity to other lamellar-hydroxide-based minerals (e.g., serpentine-based minerals) whose carbonation reaction processes are being explored due to their low-cost CO{sub 2} sequestration potential. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern dehydroxylation/carbonation processes is essential for minimizing the cost of any lamellar-hydroxide-based mineral carbonation sequestration process. This report covers the third year progress of this grant, as well as providing an integrated overview of the progress in years 1-3, as we have been granted a one-year no-cost extension to wrap up a few studies and publications to optimize project impact.

  12. Use of Long-Term Lysimeter Data in Support of Shallow Land Waste Disposal Cover Design

    SciTech Connect

    Desotell, L.T.; Hudson, D.B.; Yucel, V.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-07-01

    Water balance studies using two precision weighing lysimeters have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site in support of low-level radioactive waste disposal since 1994. The lysimeters are located in northern Frenchman Flat approximately 400 meters (m) from the southwest corner of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. Frenchman Flat is in the northern Mojave Desert and has an average annual precipitation of 125 millimeters (mm). Each lysimeter consists of a 2 m by 4 m by 2 m deep steel tank filled with native alluvium, supported on a sensitive scale. The scale is instrumented with an electronic load-cell and data-logger for continuous measurement of total soil water storage with a precision of approximately {+-}800 grams or {+-}0.1 mm of soil water storage. Data-loggers are linked to cell phone modems for remote data acquisition. One lysimeter is vegetated with native creosote bush, four wing salt bush, and annual grass at the approximate density of the surrounding landscape while the other is maintained as bare soil. Since no drainage has been observed from the bottom of the lysimeters and run-on/run-off is precluded, the change in soil-water storage is equal to precipitation minus evaporation/evapotranspiration. After equilibration, the bare lysimeter contains approximately 20.2 centimeters (cm) of water (10.1 % volumetric water content) and the vegetated lysimeter contains approximately 11.6 cm of water (5.8 % volumetric water content). The finite difference code UNSAT-H was used to simulate the continuous water balance of the lysimeters. Calibrated one-dimensional model simulations were generally in agreement with field data. 30-year model simulations were conducted to evaluate long-term potential transport of radionuclides via the soil water migration pathway. A 30-year climate record was generated by repeating the existing data record. Simulations indicate a 2 m thick closure cover, in conjunction with native vegetation, will essentially eliminate

  13. Disposal methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan

    1991-01-01

    A number of disposal options for space nuclear reactors and the associated risks, mostly in the long term, based on probabilities of Earth reentry are discussed. The results are based on a five year study that was conducted between 1978 and 1983 on the space disposal of high level nuclear waste. The study provided assessment of disposal options, stability of disposal or storage orbits, and assessment of the long term risks of Earth reentry of the nuclear waste.

  14. ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE EFFECTS ON THE TREATMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEMS - EBS INPUT

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Greenberg, H R; Sharma, M

    2012-04-25

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign within the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. The planning, construction, and operation of a nuclear disposal facility is a long-term process that involves engineered barriers that are tailored to both the geologic environment and the waste forms being emplaced. The UFD Campaign is considering a range of fuel cycles that in turn produce a range of waste forms. The UFD Campaign is also considering a range of geologic media. These ranges could be thought of as adding uncertainty to what the disposal facility design will ultimately be; however, it may be preferable to thinking about the ranges as adding flexibility to design of a disposal facility. For example, as the overall DOE-NE program and industrial actions result in the fuel cycles that will produce waste to be disposed, and the characteristics of those wastes become clear, the disposal program retains flexibility in both the choice of geologic environment and the specific repository design. Of course, other factors also play a major role, including local and State-level acceptance of the specific site that provides the geologic environment. In contrast, the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository license application (LA) is based on waste forms from an open fuel cycle (PWR and BWR assemblies from an open fuel cycle). These waste forms were about 90% of the total waste, and they were the determining waste form in developing the engineered barrier system (EBS) design for the Yucca Mountain Repository design. About 10% of the repository capacity was reserved for waste from a full recycle fuel cycle in which some actinides were extracted for weapons use, and the remaining fission products and some minor actinides were encapsulated

  15. Phosphorous adsorption and precipitation in a permeable reactive wall: Applications for wastewater disposal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.J.; Blowes, D.W. |; Placek, C.J. |

    1997-12-31

    A permeable reactive mixture has been developed using low cost, readily available materials that is capable of providing effective, long-term phosphorous treatment in areas impacted by on-land wastewater disposal. The reactive mixture creates a geochemical environment suitable for P-attenuation by both adsorption and precipitation reactions. Potential benefits include significant reductions in phosphorous loading to receiving groundwater and surface water systems, and the accumulation of P-mass in a finite and accessible volume of material. The mixture may be applied as a component within surface treatment systems or in subsurface applications such as horizontal or vertical permeable reactive walls. The mixture averaged > 90% treatment efficiency over 3.6 years of continuous-flow laboratory column experiments. The mixture was further evaluated at the pilot-scale to treat municipal wastewater, and the field-scale to treat a well-characterized septic system plume using an in situ funnel and gate system. Average PO{sub 4}-P concentrations in effluent exiting the reactive mixture range between 0 - 0.3 mg/L. Mineralogical analyses have isolated the phases responsible for phosphorous uptake, and discrete phosphate precipitates have been identified.

  16. Analysis of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste disposal system.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Yates, Scott R; Bradford, Scott A

    2008-01-15

    The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause an adverse effect on aquatic species. To better assess the potential risks of hormone contamination resulting from land application of dairy wastes, various steroid hormones were determined in a typical dairy waste disposal system. Quantitative methods using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were developed to monitor low levels of steroid hormones in complex solid and liquid samples contaminated with dairy manure. The preparation method for wastewater analysis consisted of solid-phase extraction and purification steps, which minimized interference from the sample matrices and achieved low detection limits for the studied hormones. In the dairy wastewater and lagoon water, three endogenous hormones-17alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, and estrone-were detected. The concentration of 17alpha-estradiol in fresh milk parlor effluent rapidly decreased along the wastewater disposal route, whereas the concentration of estrone increased along this same pathway. This suggests that 17alpha-estradiol was readily oxidized to the metabolite estrone. Levels of total steroid hormones in the sequencing lagoon water were approximately 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than those in the fresh dairy wastewaters, indicating significant removal of these hormones during the transport of dairy wastewater from source to field. In solid dairy waste samples, four steroid hormones were identified and quantified. Increasing the piling time of solid wastes and increasing the residence time of wastewater in sequencing lagoons are suggested to be economical and efficient agriculture practices to extend the degradation time of hormone contaminants and thereby reduce the hormone load to the environment.

  17. Launch vehicle systems design analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    Current launch vehicle design emphasis is on low life-cycle cost. This paper applies total quality management (TQM) principles to a conventional systems design analysis process to provide low-cost, high-reliability designs. Suggested TQM techniques include Steward's systems information flow matrix method, quality leverage principle, quality through robustness and function deployment, Pareto's principle, Pugh's selection and enhancement criteria, and other design process procedures. TQM quality performance at least-cost can be realized through competent concurrent engineering teams and brilliance of their technical leadership.

  18. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 8, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG&G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used.

  19. Tank-connected food waste disposer systems--current status and potential improvements.

    PubMed

    Bernstad, A; Davidsson, A; Tsai, J; Persson, E; Bissmont, M; la Cour Jansen, J

    2013-01-01

    An unconventional system for separate collection of food waste was investigated through evaluation of three full-scale systems in the city of Malmö, Sweden. Ground food waste is led to a separate settling tank where food waste sludge is collected regularly with a tank-vehicle. These tank-connected systems can be seen as a promising method for separate collection of food waste from both households and restaurants. Ground food waste collected from these systems is rich in fat and has a high methane potential when compared to food waste collected in conventional bag systems. The content of heavy metals is low. The concentrations of N-tot and P-tot in sludge collected from sedimentation tanks were on average 46.2 and 3.9 g/kg TS, equalling an estimated 0.48 and 0.05 kg N-tot and P-tot respectively per year and household connected to the food waste disposer system. Detergents in low concentrations can result in increased degradation rates and biogas production, while higher concentrations can result in temporary inhibition of methane production. Concentrations of COD and fat in effluent from full-scale tanks reached an average of 1068 mg/l and 149 mg/l respectively over the five month long evaluation period. Hydrolysis of the ground material is initiated between sludge collection occasions (30 days). Older food waste sludge increases the degradation rate and the risks of fugitive emissions of methane from tanks between collection occasions. Increased particle size decreases hydrolysis rate and could thus decrease losses of carbon and nutrients in the sewerage system, but further studies in full-scale systems are needed to confirm this.

  20. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: SURFACE DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human domestic activities generate wastewater that is piped into municipal sewer systems, underground septic tanks, or portable sanitation devices. Wastewater in municipal systems is treated before being discharged into the environment, as required under the Clean Water Act. This...

  1. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 2. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Some of the conclusions reached as a result of this study are summarized. Waste form parameters for the reference cermet waste form are available only by analogy. Detail design of the waste payload would require determination of actual waste form properties. The billet configuration constraints for the cermet waste form limit the packing efficiency to slightly under 75% net volume. The effect of this packing inefficiency in reducing the net waste form per waste payload can be seen graphically. The cermet waste form mass per unit mass of waste payload is lower than that of the iodine waste form even though the cermet has a higher density (6.5 versus 5.5). This is because the lead iodide is cast achieving almost 100% efficiency in packing. This inefficiency in the packing of the cermet results in a 20% increase in number of flights which increases both cost and risk. Alternative systems for waste mixes requiring low flight rates (technetium-99, iodine-129) can make effective use of the existing 65K space transportation system in either single- or dual-launch scenarios. A comprehensive trade study would be required to select the optimum orbit transfer system for low-launch-rate systems. This study was not conducted as part of the present effort due to selection of the cermet waste form as the reference for the study. Several candidates look attractive for both single- and dual-launch systems (see sec. 4.4), but due to the relatively small number of missions, a comprehensive comparison of life cycle costs including DDT and E would be required to select the best system. The reference system described in sections 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 offers the best combination of cost, risk, and alignment with ongoing NASA technology development efforts for disposal of the reference cermet waste form.

  2. Expert Systems: Instructional Design Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Joellyn; Grabinger, R. Scott

    1989-01-01

    Description of the components of expert systems highlights their potential uses in the field of instructional design. Uses of expert systems are described for determining the cost-effectiveness of instructional media; as instructional management aids; as job aids; in helping to diagnose student problems; and as student feedback/evaluation systems.…

  3. NASA System Engineering Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  4. Undrained shear strength of partially saturated combined coal refuse. First annual report: Strength and consolidation characteristics of coal refuse for design and construction of disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.H.; Li, J.

    1986-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study on the undrained shear strength of partially saturated combined refuse. The study is part of a research project entitled 'Strength and Consolidation Characteristics of Coal Refuse for Design and Construction of Disposal Facilities supported by the Office of Surface Mining, Department of the Interior. Information presented in the report will be used for the design and construction of disposal facilities. Coal refuse, the waste product from coal washing, is separated in the coal preparation plant into two fractions (coarse and fine). The fine refuse, in the form of either a slurry or a filter cake, is unstable and difficult to handle.

  5. Integration of optical fiber light guide, fluorescence detection system, and multichannel disposable microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Irawan, Rudi; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Fang, Xiaoqin; Fu, Chit Yaw

    2007-06-01

    A combination of fluorescence detection and microfluidic technology provides promising applications in life sciences. A prototype of an integrated fluorescence detection system and optical fiber light guide on a laminate-based multichannel microfluidic chip has been developed and tested. A blue LED, plastic optical fiber, photodiode, Mylar and PMMA, and fluorescein and BSA-FITC were used as an excitation source, light coupler and guide, detector, microfluidic substrate and sample, respectively. The results show that the system is capable of detecting weak fluorescence emission from a fluorescein solution at concentration down to 0.01 ng/ml, and gives linear response. The results were also reproducible, and no cross-talk between adjacent channels was observed. The test using BSA as a model analyte demonstrates its feasibility for on-chip immunosensor applications. The performance and applications can be developed further. This prototype can be used as a platform to develop a simple and compact bio-fluorescence detection system integrated with an inexpensive and disposable multichannel microfluidic chip for biomedical devices.

  6. 75 FR 56520 - Information on Surplus Land at a Military Installation Designated for Disposal: NASJRB Willow...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Willow Grove, PA AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice provides information on the surplus property at Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base (NASJRB) Willow Grove located in... INFORMATION: In 2005, NASJRB Willow Grove, PA was designated for closure under the authority of the...

  7. 75 FR 54497 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Register (FR). Historically, dredged material generated around Guam by the Navy and the Port Authority of... will, wherever feasible, designate ocean dumping sites beyond the edge of the continental shelf and... continental land mass and does not have a continental shelf. In the ] absence of a shelf break,...

  8. Nanoscale control designs for systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Yue

    2014-02-01

    Nanoscale control is the science of the control of objects at dimensions with 100 nm or less and the manipulation of them at this level of precision. The desired attributes of systems under nanoscale control design are extreme high resolution, accuracy, stability, and fast response. An important perspective of investigation in nanoscale control design includes system modeling and precision control devices and materials at a nanoscale dimension, i.e., design of nanopositioners. Nanopositioners are mechatronic systems with an ultraprecise resolution down to a fraction of an atomic diameter and developed to move objects over a small range in nanoscale dimension. After reviewing a lot of existing literatures for nanoscale control designs, the way to successful nanoscale control is accurate position sensing and feedback control of the motion. An overview of nanoscale identification, linear, and nonlinear control technologies, and devices that are playing a key role in improving precision, accuracy, and response of operation of these systems are introduced in this research.

  9. Design of Knight LED system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wen; Lou, Yuna; Xiao, Zhihong

    2010-02-01

    This design introduces a used car on the design of LED decorative light strip. This LED named Knight LED. In This system we use ATMEGA8 as the Master MCU Chip. Through the microcontroller to implement the wireless remote control receiver and the LED lights of different modes of switching, different brightness control. Also we use ULN2803 as the LED driver.

  10. Designing modern furnace cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

    2000-02-01

    An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

  11. Digital systems design language. Design synthesis of digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    The Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 computer systems. The details of the language, translator and simulator programs are included. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  12. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... part of an urban area. 1951.232 Section 1951.232 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of..., AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste...

  13. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... part of an urban area. 1951.232 Section 1951.232 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of..., AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste...

  14. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... part of an urban area. 1951.232 Section 1951.232 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of..., AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste...

  15. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... part of an urban area. 1951.232 Section 1951.232 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of..., AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste...

  16. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... part of an urban area. 1951.232 Section 1951.232 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of..., AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste...

  17. ATOMIC-LEVEL IMAGING OF CO2 DISPOSAL AS A CARBONATE MINERAL: OPTIMIZING REACTION PROCESS DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McKelvy; R. Sharma; A.V.G. Chizmeshya; H. Bearat; R.W. Carpenter; K. Streib

    1999-09-01

    Fossil fuels, especially coal, can support the energy demands of the world for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Permanent and safe methods for CO{sub 2} capture and disposal/storage need to be developed. Mineralization of stationary-source CO{sub 2} emissions as carbonates can provide such safe capture and long-term sequestration. Mg(OH){sub 2} carbonation is a leading process candidate, which generates the stable naturally occurring mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}) and water. Key to process cost and viability are the carbonation reaction rate and its degree of completion. This process, which involves simultaneous dehydroxylation and carbonation is very promising, but far from optimized. In order to optimize the dehydroxylation/carbonation process, an atomic-level understanding of the mechanisms involved is needed. Since Mg(OH){sub 2} dehydroxylation is intimately associated with the carbonation process, its mechanisms are also of direct interest in understanding and optimizing the process. In the first project year, our investigations have focused on developing an atomic-level understanding of the dehydroxylation/carbonation reaction mechanisms that govern the overall carbonation reaction process in well crystallized material. In years two and three, we will also explore the roles of crystalline defects and impurities. Environmental-cell, dynamic high-resolution transmission electron microscopy has been used to directly observe the dehydroxylation process at the atomic-level for the first time. These observations were combined with advanced computational modeling studies to better elucidate the atomic-level process. These studies were combined with direct carbonation studies to better elucidate dehydroxylation/carbonation reaction mechanisms. Dehydroxylation follows a lamellar nucleation and growth process involving oxide layer formation. These layers form lamellar oxyhydroxide regions, which can

  18. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The space option for disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geological repositories is studied. A brief overview of the study background, scope, objective, guidelines and assumptions, and contents is presented. The determination of the effects of variations in the waste mix on the space systems concept to allow determination of the space systems effect on total system risk benefits when used as a complement to the DOE reference mined geological repository is studied. The waste payload system, launch site, launch system, and orbit transfer system are all addressed. Rescue mission requirements are studied. The characteristics of waste forms suitable for space disposal are identified. Trajectories and performance requirements are discussed.

  19. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The space option for disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geological repositories is studied. A brief overview of the study background, scope, objective, guidelines and assumptions, and contents is presented. The determination of the effects of variations in the waste mix on the space systems concept to allow determination of the space systems effect on total system risk benefits when used as a complement to the DOE reference mined geological repository is studied. The waste payload system, launch site, launch system, and orbit transfer system are all addressed. Rescue mission requirements are studied. The characteristics of waste forms suitable for space disposal are identified. Trajectories and performance requirements are discussed.

  20. Submergible barge retrievable storage and permanent disposal system for radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Goldsberry, Fred L.; Cawley, William E.

    1981-01-01

    A submergible barge and process for submerging and storing radioactive waste material along a seabed. A submergible barge receives individual packages of radwaste within segregated cells. The cells are formed integrally within the barge, preferably surrounded by reinforced concrete. The cells are individually sealed by a concrete decking and by concrete hatch covers. Seawater may be vented into the cells for cooling, through an integral vent arrangement. The vent ducts may be attached to pumps when the barge is bouyant. The ducts are also arranged to promote passive ventilation of the cells when the barge is submerged. Packages of the radwaste are loaded into individual cells within the barge. The cells are then sealed and the barge is towed to the designated disposal-storage site. There, the individual cells are flooded and the barge will begin descent controlled by a powered submarine control device to the seabed storage site. The submerged barge will rest on the seabed permanently or until recovered by a submarine control device.

  1. Planning of wastewater treatment and disposal systems of Istanbul metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, V; Sarikaya, H Z; Aydin, A F

    2001-01-01

    Current and future wastewater treatment and disposal strategies of Istanbul city are presented. Istanbul is the largest city of Turkey and has a population of 10 million that may reach about 20 million in 2032. The city is divided into Asian and European sides by the Bosphorus Strait. The Sea of Marmara is an enclosed sea, connected to the Black Sea and Aegean Sea by the straits of Bosphorus and Dardanelles. Therefore, there is very strong and permanent stratification in the Sea of Marmara throughout the year, lower layers carrying Mediterranean and the upper layers carrying Black Sea water. This unique coastal structure of Istanbul necessitated a detailed study to determine the level of wastewater treatment and the location and depth of marine outfalls. A comprehensive three-dimensional water quality modelling study concluded that tertiary treatment including nitrogen and phosphorus removal is required for the effluent discharges into the Marmara Sea. However, enhanced primary or even primary treatment has been found satisfactory for discharges into the lower layers of the Bosphorus and into the Black Sea. Provisions for upgrading to secondary treatment were recommended. The status of existing and planned wastewater treatment plants and sea outfalls of Istanbul city are also presented. Although the amount of treated wastewater was only 63 percent in 1998, a target of 95 percent treatment level by the end of 2000 has been adopted in implementation plans. All treatment plants are located at or close to the coast except Pasakoy WWTP which is in the catchment area of Omerli Reservoir, the major source of drinking water for Istanbul city. The Pasakoy WWTP has been designed to treat wastewaters collected from the catchment area of Omerli Reservoir to tertiary level before ultimate disposal. The implementation programme together with the cost estimates are given. Total investment on water, wastewater and stormwater projects up to year 2032 is estimated at about 10

  2. Geochemical evaluation of different groundwater-host rock systems for radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Metz, V; Kienzler, B; Schüssler, W

    2003-03-01

    The geochemical suitability of a deep bedrock repository for radioactive waste disposal is determined by the composition of geomatrix and groundwater. Both influence radionuclide solubility, chemical buffer capacity and radionuclide retention. They also determine the chemical compatibility of waste forms, containers and backfill materials. Evaluation of different groundwater-host rock systems is performed by modeling the geochemical environments and the resulting radionuclide concentrations. In order to demonstrate the evaluation method, model calculations are applied to data sets available for various geological formations such as granite, clay and rocksalt. The saturation state of the groundwater-geomatrix system is found to be fundamental for the evaluation process. Hence, calculations are performed to determine if groundwater is in equilibrium with mineral phases of the geological formation. In addition, corrosion of waste forms in different groundwater is examined by means of reaction path modeling. The corrosion reactions change the solution compositions and pH, resulting in significant changes of radionuclide solubilities. The results demonstrate that geochemical modeling of saturation state and compatibility of the host formation environment with the radioactive waste proves to be a feasible tool for evaluation of various sites considered as deep underground repositories.

  3. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  4. Systems analysis approach to the disposal of high-level waste in deep ocean sediments

    SciTech Connect

    de Marsily, G.; Hill, M. D.; Murray, C. N.; Talbert, D. M.; Van Dorp, F.; Webb, G. A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Among the different options being studied for disposal of high-level solidified waste, increasing attention is being paid to that of emplacement of glasses incorporating the radioactivity in deep oceanic sediments. This option has the advantage that the areas of the oceans under investigation appear to be relatively unproductive biologically, are relatively free from cataclysmic events, and are areas in which the natural processes are slow. Thus the environment is stable and predictable so that a number of barriers to the release and dispersion of radioactivity can be defined. Task Groups set up in the framework of the International Seabed Working Group have been studying many aspects of this option since 1976. In order that the various parts of the problem can be assessed within an integrated framework, the methods of systems analysis have been applied. In this paper the Systems Analysis Task Group members report the development of an overall system model. This will be used in an iterative process in which a preliminary analysis, together with a sensitivity analysis, identifies the parameters and data of most importance. The work of the other task groups will then be focussed on these parameters and data requirements so that improved results can be fed back into an improved overall systems model. The major requirements for the development of a preliminary overall systems model are that the problem should be separated into identified elements and that the interfaces between the elements should be clearly defined. The model evolved is deterministic and defines the problem elements needed to estimate doses to man.

  5. Control system design for robotic underground storage tank inspection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    Control and data acquisition systems for robotic inspection and surveillance systems used in nuclear waste applications must be capable, versatile, and adaptable to changing conditions. The nuclear waste remediation application is dynamic -- requirements change as public policy is constantly re-examined and refocused, and as technology in this area advances. Control and data acquisition systems must adapt to these changing conditions and be able to accommodate future missions, both predictable and unexpected. This paper describes the control and data acquisition system for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System that is being developed for remote surveillance and inspection of underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. It is a high-performance system which has been designed for future growth. The priority mission at the Hanford site is to retrieve the waste generated by 50 years of production from its present storage and process it for final disposal. The LDUA will help to gather information about the waste and the tanks it is stored in to better plan and execute the cleanup mission.

  6. A steam inerting system for hydrogen disposal for the Vandenberg Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belknap, Stuart B.

    1988-01-01

    A two-year feasibility and test program to solve the problem of unburned confined hydrogen at the Vandenberg Space Launch Complex Six (SLC-6) during Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) firings is discussed. A novel steam inerting design was selected for development. Available sound suppression water is superheated to flash to steam at the duct entrance. Testing, analysis, and design during 1987 showed that the steam inerting system (SIS) solves the problem and meets other flight-critical system requirements. The SIS design is complete and available for installation at SLC-6 to support shuttle or derivative vehicles.

  7. Cost of using permanent vs. disposable ware. Studies in two school systems.

    PubMed

    Montag, G M; McMillen, F M; Henry, R M

    1977-04-01

    In this study, the cost of using permanent ware and disposable ware in selected schools was compared. Included in the permanent ware study were the costs of: The ware, machine washing of the ware (including labor time and consumption of utilities, detergents, and chemicals), and refuse removal. Data collected in the disposable ware study were: Meal count; number of items of ware used; labor time; and cost of equipment, supplies, and refuse removal. The cost per student was 4 cents for permanent ware and 10 cents for disposable ware. Although the findings in the schools studied point to an economic advantage in using permanent ware, other considerations might prompt a decision in favor of disposable ware.

  8. Expert System analysis of non-fuel assembly hardware and spent fuel disassembly hardware: Its generation and recommended disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, D.A.

    1991-12-31

    Almost all of the effort being expended on radioactive waste disposal in the United States is being focused on the disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, with little consideration for other areas that will have to be disposed of in the same facilities. one area of radioactive waste that has not been addressed adequately because it is considered a secondary part of the waste issue is the disposal of the various Non-Fuel Bearing Components of the reactor core. These hardware components fall somewhat arbitrarily into two categories: Non-Fuel Assembly (NFA) hardware and Spent Fuel Disassembly (SFD) hardware. This work provides a detailed examination of the generation and disposal of NFA hardware and SFD hardware by the nuclear utilities of the United States as it relates to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. All available sources of data on NFA and SFD hardware are analyzed with particular emphasis given to the Characteristics Data Base developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the characterization work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories and Rochester Gas & Electric. An Expert System developed as a portion of this work is used to assist in the prediction of quantities of NFA hardware and SFD hardware that will be generated by the United States` utilities. Finally, the hardware waste management practices of the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Sweden, and Japan are studied for possible application to the disposal of domestic hardware wastes. As a result of this work, a general classification scheme for NFA and SFD hardware was developed. Only NFA and SFD hardware constructed of zircaloy and experiencing a burnup of less than 70,000 MWD/MTIHM and PWR control rods constructed of stainless steel are considered Low-Level Waste. All other hardware is classified as Greater-ThanClass-C waste.

  9. Definitive design report: Design report project W-025, Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Land Disposal Facility NON-DRAG-OFF. Revision 1, Volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Roscha, V.

    1994-11-29

    The purpose of this report is to describe the definitive design of the Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Non-Drag-Off disposal facility, Project W-025. This report presents a n of the major landfill design features and a discussion of how each of the criteria is addressed in the design. The appendices include laboratory test results, design drawings, and individual analyses that were conducted in support of the design. Revision 1 of this document incorporates design changes resulting from an increase in the required operating life of the W-025 landfill from 2 to 20 years. The rationale for these design changes is described in Golder Associates Inc. 1991a. These changes include (1) adding a 1.5-foot-thick layer of compacted admix directory-under the primary FML on the floor of the landfill to mitigate the effects of possible stress cracking in the primary flexible membrane liner (FML), and (2) increasing the operations layer thickness from two to three feet over the entire landfill area, to provide additional protection for the secondary admix layer against mechanical damage and the effects of freezing and desiccation. The design of the W-025 Landfill has also been modified in response to the results of the EPA Method 9090 chemical compatibility testing program (Golder Associates Inc. 1991b and 1991c), which was completed after the original design was prepared. This program consisted of testing geosynthetic materials and soil/bentonite admix with synthetic leachate having the composition expected during the life of the W-025 Landfill., The results of this program indicated that the polyester geotextile originally specified for the landfill might be susceptible to deterioration. On this basis, polypropylene geotextiles were substituted as a more chemically-resistant alternative. In addition, the percentage of bentonite in the admix was increased to provide sufficiently low permeability to the expected leachate.

  10. Condition assessment survey of onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Roger W; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Cummings, Michael J; Cheong, Gloria H

    2014-01-01

    Onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) are the third leading cause of groundwater contamination in the USA. The existing condition of OSDSs in the State of Hawaii was investigated to determine whether a mandatory management program should be implemented. Based on observed conditions, OSDSs were differentiated into four categories: 'pass', 'sludge scum', 'potential failure' and 'fail'. Of all OSDSs inspected, approximately 68% appear to be in good working condition while the remaining 32% are failing or are in danger of failing. Homeowner interviews found that 80% of OSDSs were not being serviced in any way. About 70% of effluent samples had values of total-N and total-P greater than typical values and 40% had total suspended solids (TSS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) greater than typical values. The performance of aerobic treatment units (ATUs) was no better than septic tanks and cesspools indicating that the State's approach of requiring but not enforcing maintenance contracts for ATUs is not working. In addition, effluent samples from OSDSs located in drinking water wells estimated 2-year capture zones had higher average concentrations of TSS, BOD5, and total-P than units outside of these zones, indicating the potential for contamination. These findings suggest the need to introduce a proactive, life-cycle OSDS management program in the State of Hawaii.

  11. Alternative Site Technology Deployment-Monitoring System for the U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, J.M.; Levitt, D.G.; Rawlinson, S.E.

    2001-02-01

    In December 2000, a performance monitoring facility was constructed adjacent to the U-3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Recent studies conducted in the arid southwestern United States suggest that a vegetated monolayer evapotranspiration (ET) closure cover may be more effective at isolating waste than traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) multi-layered designs. The monitoring system deployed next to the U-3ax/bl disposal unit consists of eight drainage lysimeters with three surface treatments: two are left bare; two are revegetated with native species; two are being allowed to revegetate with invader species; and two are reserved for future studies. Soil used in each lysimeter is native alluvium taken from the same location as the soil used for the cover material on U-3ax/bl. The lysimeters were constructed so that any drainage to the bottom can be collected and measured. To provide a detailed evaluation of the cover performance, an ar ray of 16 sensors was installed in each lysimeter to measure soil water content, soil water potential, and soil temperature. Revegetation of the U-3ax/bl closure cover establishes a stable plant community that maximizes water loss through transpiration while at the same time, reduces water and wind erosion and ultimately restores the disposal unit to its surrounding Great Basin Desert environment.

  12. A Water Balance Study of Four Landfill Cover Designs at Material Disposal Area B in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    David D. Breshears; Fairley J. Barnes; John W. Nyhan; Johnny A. Salazar

    1998-09-01

    The goal of disposing of low-level radioactive and hazardous waste in shallow landfills is to reduce risk to human health and the environment by isolating contaminants until they no longer pose an unacceptable hazard. In order to achieve this, the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Program is comparing the performance of several different surface covers at Material Disposal Area (MDA) B in Los Alamos. Two conventional landfill were compared with an improved cover designed to minimize plant and animal intrusion and to minimize water infiltration into the underlying wastes. The conventional covers varied in depth and both conventional and improved designs had different combinations of vegetation (grass verses shrub) and gravel mulch (no mulch verses mulch). These treatments were applied to each of 12 plots and water balance parameters were measured from March1987 through June 1995. Adding a gravel mulch significantly influenced the plant covered field plots receiving no gravel mulch averaged 21.2% shrub cover, while plots with gravel had a 20% larger percent cover of shrubs. However, the influence of gravel mulch on the grass cover was even larger than the influence on shrub cover, average grass cover on the plots with no gravel was 16.3%, compared with a 42% increase in grass cover due to gravel mulch. These cover relationships are important to reduce runoff on the landfill cover, as shown by a regression model that predicts that as ground cover is increased from 30 to 90%,annual runoff is reduced from 8.8 to 0.98 cm-a nine-fold increase. We also found that decreasing the slope of the landfill cover from 6 to 2% reduced runoff from the landfill cover by 2.7-fold. To minimize the risk of hazardous waste from landfills to humans, runoff and seepage need to be minimized and evapotranspiration maximized on the landfill cover. This has to be accomplished for dry and wet years at MDA B. Seepage consisted of 1.9% and 6.2% of the precipitation in the average and

  13. Geological considerations in hazardouswaste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, K.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Johnson, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Present regulations assume that long-term isolation of hazardous wastes - including toxic chemical, biological, radioactive, flammable and explosive wastes - may be effected by disposal in landfills that have liners of very low hydraulic conductivity. In reality, total isolation of wastes in humid areas is not possible; some migration of leachate from wastes buried in the gound will always occur. Regulations should provide performance standards applicable on a site-by-site basis rather than rigid criteria for site selection and design. The performance standards should take into account several factors: (1) the categories, segregation, degradation and toxicity of the wastes; (2) the site hydrogeology, which governs the direction and rate of contaminant transport; (3) the attenuation of contaminants by geochemical interactions with geologic materials; and (4) the release rate of unattenuated pollutants to surface or groundwater. An adequate monitoring system is essential. The system should both test the extent to which the operation of the site meets performance standards and provide sufficient warning of pollution problems to allow implementation of remedial measures. In recent years there has been a trend away from numerous, small disposal sites toward fewer and larger sites. The size of a disposal site should be based on the attenuation capacity of the geologic material, which has a finite, though generally not well-defined, limit. For slowly degradable wastes, engineered sites with leachate-collection systems appear to be only a temporary solution since the leachate collected will also require final disposal. ?? 1981.

  14. Flight Design System-1 System Design Document. Volume 9: Executive logic flow, program design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The detailed logic flow for the Flight Design System Executive is presented. The system is designed to provide the hardware/software capability required for operational support of shuttle flight planning.

  15. Computer-aided system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  16. Lifecycle assessment of a system for food waste disposers to tank - A full-scale system evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bernstad Saraiva, A; Davidsson, Å; Bissmont, M

    2016-08-01

    An increased interest for separate collection of household food waste in Sweden has led to development of a number of different collection-systems - each with their particular benefits and drawbacks. In the present study, two systems for collection of food waste in households were compared; (a) use of food waste disposers (FWD) in kitchen sinks and (b) collection of food waste in paper bags for further treatment. The comparison was made in relation to greenhouse gas emissions as well as primary energy utilization. In both cases, collected food waste was treated through anaerobic digestion and digestate was used as fertilizer on farmland. Systems emissions of greenhouse gases from collection and treatment of 1ton of food waste (dry matter), are according to the performed assessment lower from the FWD-system compared to the reference system (-990 and -770kgCO2-eq./ton food waste dry matter respectively). The main reasons are a higher substitution of mineral nitrogen fertilizer followed by a higher substitution of diesel. Performed uncertainty analyses state that results are robust, but that decreasing losses of organic matter in pre-treatment of food waste collected in paper bags, as well as increased losses of organic matter and nutrients from the FWD-system could change the hierarchy in relation to greenhouse gas emissions. Owing to a higher use of electricity in the FWD-system, the paper bag collection system was preferable in relation to primary energy utilization. Due to the many questions still remaining regarding the impacts of an increased amount of nutrients and organic matter to the sewage system through an increased use of FWD, the later treatment of effluent from the FWD-system, as well as treatment of wastewater from kitchen sinks in the reference system, was not included in the assessment. In future work, these aspects would be of relevance to monitor. PMID:27184450

  17. Lifecycle assessment of a system for food waste disposers to tank - A full-scale system evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bernstad Saraiva, A; Davidsson, Å; Bissmont, M

    2016-08-01

    An increased interest for separate collection of household food waste in Sweden has led to development of a number of different collection-systems - each with their particular benefits and drawbacks. In the present study, two systems for collection of food waste in households were compared; (a) use of food waste disposers (FWD) in kitchen sinks and (b) collection of food waste in paper bags for further treatment. The comparison was made in relation to greenhouse gas emissions as well as primary energy utilization. In both cases, collected food waste was treated through anaerobic digestion and digestate was used as fertilizer on farmland. Systems emissions of greenhouse gases from collection and treatment of 1ton of food waste (dry matter), are according to the performed assessment lower from the FWD-system compared to the reference system (-990 and -770kgCO2-eq./ton food waste dry matter respectively). The main reasons are a higher substitution of mineral nitrogen fertilizer followed by a higher substitution of diesel. Performed uncertainty analyses state that results are robust, but that decreasing losses of organic matter in pre-treatment of food waste collected in paper bags, as well as increased losses of organic matter and nutrients from the FWD-system could change the hierarchy in relation to greenhouse gas emissions. Owing to a higher use of electricity in the FWD-system, the paper bag collection system was preferable in relation to primary energy utilization. Due to the many questions still remaining regarding the impacts of an increased amount of nutrients and organic matter to the sewage system through an increased use of FWD, the later treatment of effluent from the FWD-system, as well as treatment of wastewater from kitchen sinks in the reference system, was not included in the assessment. In future work, these aspects would be of relevance to monitor.

  18. Analysis of space systems study for the space disposal of nuclear waste study report. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Reasonable space systems concepts were systematically identified and defined and a total system was evaluated for the space disposal of nuclear wastes. Areas studied include space destinations, space transportation options, launch site options payload protection approaches, and payload rescue techniques. Systems level cost and performance trades defined four alternative space systems which deliver payloads to the selected 0.85 AU heliocentric orbit destination at least as economically as the reference system without requiring removal of the protective radiation shield container. No concepts significantly less costly than the reference concept were identified.

  19. RH-LLW Disposal Facility Project CD-2/3 to Design/Build Proposal Reconciliation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Annette L. Schafer

    2012-06-01

    A reconciliation plan was developed and implemented to address potential gaps and responses to gaps between the design/build vendor proposals and the Critical Decision-2/3 approval request package for the Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Facility Project. The plan and results of the plan implementation included development of a reconciliation team comprised of subject matter experts from Battelle Energy Alliance and the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office, identification of reconciliation questions, reconciliation by the team, identification of unresolved/remaining issues, and identification of follow-up actions and subsequent approvals of responses. The plan addressed the potential for gaps to exist in the following areas: • Department of Energy Order 435.1, “Radioactive Waste Management,” requirements, including the performance assessment, composite analysis, monitoring plan, performance assessment/composite analysis maintenance plan, and closure plan • Environmental assessment supporting the National Environmental Policy Act • Nuclear safety • Safeguards and security • Emplacement operations • Requirements for commissioning • General project implementation. The reconciliation plan and results of the plan implementation are provided in a business-sensitive project file. This report provides the reconciliation plan and non-business sensitive summary responses to identified gaps.

  20. Judgments of policies designed to elicit local cooperation on LLRW disposal siting: Comparing the public and decision makers

    SciTech Connect

    Bord, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The study reported here solicited the opinions of the general public of the State of Pennsylvania and of key decision makers in environmental, civic, industry, and health groups, on various policy issues connected with the establishment of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Specifically, the focus was on their judgment of options designed to elicit local cooperation and their trust in various officials and agencies. The data indicates that the general public views both compensation and power sharing options as important in promoting local cooperation. However, power sharing options are viewed as more important than incentives. The general public consistently demonstrates a preference for options which put control of the site in the hands of locals. On the other hand, influential decision-makers, with the exception of those representing environmental advocacy organizations, tend to view compensation as more important than local power sharing. Their preferences mirror those programs currently being pursued by federal and state officials. Preferences exhibited by leaders of environmental advocacy organizations parallel those of the general public.

  1. Blindness in designing intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    New investigations of the foundations of artificial intelligence are challenging the hypothesis that problem solving is the cornerstone of intelligence. New distinctions among three domains of concern for humans--description, action, and commitment--have revealed that the design process for programmable machines, such as expert systems, is based on descriptions of actions and induces blindness to nonanalytic action and commitment. Design processes focusing in the domain of description are likely to yield programs like burearcracies: rigid, obtuse, impersonal, and unable to adapt to changing circumstances. Systems that learn from their past actions, and systems that organize information for interpretation by human experts, are more likely to be successful in areas where expert systems have failed.

  2. Disposing of Canada's used fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Torgerson, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is assessing the permanent disposal of used nuclear fuel in a waste vault located 500 to 1,000 m deep in the Precambrian granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The specific objectives of the program are to develop and demonstrate the technology to site, design, build, and operate a disposal facility in a way that creates no, or negligible, burden on future generations. In addition, the program must develop a methodology to evaluate the performance of the disposal system against safety criteria and demonstrate that sites are likely to exist in the Canadian Shield that satisfy regulatory criteria. These criteria are very stringent. As in other national high-level waste management programs, the Canadian concept for the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes employs a multiple barrier system for isolating contaminants from the environment. The current phase of the work is generic in nature and is not site specific. Research and development (R and D) has advanced to the point where the generic concept will be evaluated under the Canadian environmental assessment review process, which involves public hearings and independent scientific review.

  3. Orbital Maneuvering system design evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, C.; Humphries, C.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary design considerations and changes made in the baseline space shuttle orbital maneuvering system (OMS) to reduce cost and weight are detailed. The definition of initial subsystem requirements, trade studies, and design approaches are considered. Design features of the engine, its injector, combustion chamber, nozzle extension and bipropellant valve are illustrated and discussed. The current OMS consists of two identical pods that use nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) propellants to provide 1000 ft/sec of delta velocity for a payload of 65,000 pounds. Major systems are pressurant gas storage and control, propellant storage supply and quantity measurement, and the rocket engine, which includes a bipropellant valve, an injector/thrust chamber, and a nozzle. The subsystem provides orbit insertion, circularization, and on orbit and deorbit capability for the shuttle orbiter.

  4. Cockpit control system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a means for operating the ailerons, elevator, elevator trim, rudder, nosewheel steering, and brakes in the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate system and subsystem integration, control function ability, and producibility. Weight and maintenance goals were addressed.

  5. Evaluation of biopolymer-modified concrete systems for disposal of cathode ray tube glass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daeik; Petrisor, loana G; Yen, Teh Fu

    2005-07-01

    Cathode ray tubes (CRTs) from computer monitors and television sets, which contain significantly high percentage of lead (Pb) by weight, represent an enormous and growing hazardous waste problem in the United States and worldwide. As a result, new technologies are needed to cope with current CRT waste stream and increased hazard and build new markets for its recycled components, developing commercially viable concrete composites, as well as minimizing CRT disposal problems. In this study, commercially available biopolymers, such as xanthan gum, guar gum, and chitosan, were used to encapsulate CRT glass waste, reducing the Pb leachability. The biopolymers utilized contain a number of useful functional groups, such as carboxyl (xanthan), hydroxyl (guar), and amino groups (chitosan), which play important roles in binding and stabilizing Pb onto concrete structures. The use of biopolymers in concrete systems can create a stable interpenetrating cross-linking composite that will last for many years. Results from these new composites show 30% higher compressive strength than standard concrete and a sharp decrease in lead leachability from several thousand milligrams per liter initially to an amount of three-tenths milligrams per liter or lower values (much lower than the U.S. Environment Protection Agency standard for hazardous waste of 5 mg/L by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test), and for some of the composites leachability is below even the standard for drinking water. This efficient and cost-effective CRT-biopolymer-concrete composite is a new class of biopolymer-modified material that can potentially perform a significant role in relieving the current CRT issue.

  6. Characterization of roadway stormwater system residuals for reuse and disposal options.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong-Chul; Jain, Pradeep; Tolaymat, Thabet; Dubey, Brajesh; Singh, Shrawan; Townsend, Timothy

    2010-03-15

    The chemical characterization of sediments accumulated in catch basins and stormwater ponds provides important information for assessing risks associated with management of these residuals upon removal of accumulated deposits in stormwater systems. In this study, over a period of 15 months, more than 150 residual samples were collected from 77 catch basin units and 22 stormwater ponds from 16 municipalities throughout the state of Florida. Concentrations (mg/kg) of metals and metalloids (arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and zinc) and trace organics (volatile organics, semi-volatile organics, herbicides, and pesticides) in the sediments were measured. In addition, the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) was utilized to evaluate pollutant leachability risk for a subset of the samples collected. Measured pollutant concentrations were compared to corresponding risk-based guidelines in Florida (i.e., Florida soil cleanup target levels) to assess potential human health risks of beneficial use of these residuals through land application. Leached concentrations were compared to risk-based water quality guidelines (i.e., Florida groundwater cleanup target levels) to examine the potential for groundwater contamination. Although several metals (arsenic, barium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc) were routinely detected in the catch basin and stormwater pond sediments, their concentrations were generally lower than the Florida's risk-based cleanup target levels for soils. A small number of organochlorine compounds (e.g., 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT) were detected, but only in a limited number of the samples (less than 10%); leaching of trace organic pollutants above the Florida risk-based groundwater thresholds was rare. The results suggest that when land-applied or beneficially used, these residuals are not expected to pose a significant threat to human health or the environment and the results of this research

  7. Chemical-Stockpile Disposal Program. Chemical agent and munition disposal. Summary of the US Army's experience. Final report, July 1972-August 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Flamm, K.J.; Kwan, Q.; McNulty, W.B.

    1987-09-21

    This report was prepared in support of the U.S. Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, and Discuss the Army's industrial-scale chemical agent and munitions disposal experience. Since 1969, when the National Academy of Science recommended that ocean dumping be discontinued as a method of chemical agent and munition disposal, the Army has destroyed nearly 15 million pounds of chemical agents by either chemical neutralization or incineration. This experience has been incorporated into the design of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System, which is being constructed on a small island in the Pacific Ocean, and the proposed CSDP disposal plants.

  8. Integrated Aeropropulsion Control System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. -F.; Hurley, Francis X.; Huang, Jie; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1996-01-01

    %T Integrated Aeropropulsion Control System Design%A C-F. Lin%A Francis X. Hurley%A Jie Huang%A F. Y. Hadaegh%J International Conference on Control and Information(psi)995%C Hong Kong%D June 1995%K aeropropulsion, control, system%U http://jpltrs.jpl.nasa.gov/1995/95-0658.pdfAn integrated intelligent control approach is proposed to design a high performance control system for aeropropulsion systems based on advanced sensor processing, nonlinear control and neural fuzzy control integration. Our approach features the following innovations:??e complexity and uncertainty issues are addressed via the distributed parallel processing, learning, and online reoptimization properties of neural networks.??e nonlinear dynamics and the severe coupling can be naturally incorporated into the design framework.??e knowledge base and decision making logic furnished by fuzzy systems leads to a human intelligence enhanced control scheme.In addition, fault tolerance, health monitoring and reconfigurable control strategies will be accommodated by this approach to ensure stability, graceful degradation and reoptimization in the case of failures, malfunctions and damage.!.

  9. Fluorine disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, A.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary design of an F2 dispoal system for HELSTF is presented along with recommendations on operational policy and identification of potential operational problems. The analysis is based on sizing a system to handle two different modes of the HELSTF Fluorine Flow System (one operational and one catastrophic). This information should serve both as a guide to a final detailed design for HELSTF as well as a reference for subsequent monitoring and/or modification of the system which consists of a charcoal reactor followed by a dry soda lime scrubber.

  10. Automating software design system DESTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovitsky, Vladimir A.; Pearce, Patricia D.

    1992-01-01

    'DESTA' is the acronym for the Dialogue Evolutionary Synthesizer of Turnkey Algorithms by means of a natural language (Russian or English) functional specification of algorithms or software being developed. DESTA represents the computer-aided and/or automatic artificial intelligence 'forgiving' system which provides users with software tools support for algorithm and/or structured program development. The DESTA system is intended to provide support for the higher levels and earlier stages of engineering design of software in contrast to conventional Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems which provide low level tools for use at a stage when the major planning and structuring decisions have already been taken. DESTA is a knowledge-intensive system. The main features of the knowledge are procedures, functions, modules, operating system commands, batch files, their natural language specifications, and their interlinks. The specific domain for the DESTA system is a high level programming language like Turbo Pascal 6.0. The DESTA system is operational and runs on an IBM PC computer.

  11. Telecommunications Systems Design Techniques Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, R. E. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) increasingly supports deep space missions sponsored and managed by organizations without long experience in DSN design and operation. The document is intended as a textbook for those DSN users inexperienced in the design and specification of a DSN-compatible spacecraft telecommunications system. For experienced DSN users, the document provides a reference source of telecommunication information which summarizes knowledge previously available only in a multitude of sources. Extensive references are quoted for those who wish to explore specific areas more deeply.

  12. Engineering Design Information System (EDIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.S.; Short, R.D.; Schwarz, R.K.

    1990-11-01

    This manual is a guide to the use of the Engineering Design Information System (EDIS) Phase I. The system runs on the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., IBM 3081 unclassified computer. This is the first phase in the implementation of EDIS, which is an index, storage, and retrieval system for engineering documents produced at various plants and laboratories operated by Energy Systems for the Department of Energy. This manual presents on overview of EDIS, describing the system's purpose; the functions it performs; hardware, software, and security requirements; and help and error functions. This manual describes how to access EDIS and how to operate system functions using Database 2 (DB2), Time Sharing Option (TSO), Interactive System Productivity Facility (ISPF), and Soft Master viewing features employed by this system. Appendix A contains a description of the Soft Master viewing capabilities provided through the EDIS View function. Appendix B provides examples of the system error screens and help screens for valid codes used for screen entry. Appendix C contains a dictionary of data elements and descriptions.

  13. ARGOS laser system mechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deysenroth, M.; Honsberg, M.; Gemperlein, H.; Ziegleder, J.; Raab, W.; Rabien, S.; Barl, L.; Gässler, W.; Borelli, J. L.

    2014-07-01

    ARGOS, a multi-star adaptive optics system is designed for the wide-field imager and multi-object spectrograph LUCI on the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope). Based on Rayleigh scattering the laser constellation images 3 artificial stars (at 532 nm) per each of the 2 eyes of the LBT, focused at a height of 12 km (Ground Layer Adaptive Optics). The stars are nominally positioned on a circle 2' in radius, but each star can be moved by up to 0.5' in any direction. For all of these needs are following main subsystems necessary: 1. A laser system with its 3 Lasers (Nd:YAG ~18W each) for delivering strong collimated light as for LGS indispensable. 2. The Launch system to project 3 beams per main mirror as a 40 cm telescope to the sky. 3. The Wave Front Sensor with a dichroic mirror. 4. The dichroic mirror unit to grab and interpret the data. 5. A Calibration Unit to adjust the system independently also during day time. 6. Racks + platforms for the WFS units. 7. Platforms and ladders for a secure access. This paper should mainly demonstrate how the ARGOS Laser System is configured and designed to support all other systems.

  14. Designing magnetic systems for reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Heitzenroeder, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Designing magnetic system is an iterative process in which the requirements are set, a design is developed, materials and manufacturing processes are defined, interrelationships with the various elements of the system are established, engineering analyses are performed, and fault modes and effects are studied. Reliability requires that all elements of the design process, from the seemingly most straightforward such as utilities connection design and implementation, to the most sophisticated such as advanced finite element analyses, receives a balanced and appropriate level of attention. D.B. Montgomery's study of magnet failures has shown that the predominance of magnet failures tend not to be in the most intensively engineered areas, but are associated with insulation, leads, ad unanticipated conditions. TFTR, JET, JT-60, and PBX are all major tokamaks which have suffered loss of reliability due to water leaks. Similarly the majority of causes of loss of magnet reliability at PPPL has not been in the sophisticated areas of the design but are due to difficulties associated with coolant connections, bus connections, and external structural connections. Looking towards the future, the major next-devices such as BPX and ITER are most costly and complex than any of their predecessors and are pressing the bounds of operating levels, materials, and fabrication. Emphasis on reliability is a must as the fusion program enters a phase where there are fewer, but very costly devices with the goal of reaching a reactor prototype stage in the next two or three decades. This paper reviews some of the magnet reliability issues which PPPL has faced over the years the lessons learned from them, and magnet design and fabrication practices which have been found to contribute to magnet reliability.

  15. SIRTF Science Operations System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, William

    1999-01-01

    SIRTF Science Operations System Design William B. Green Manager, SIRTF Science Center California Institute of Technology M/S 310-6 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena CA 91125 (626) 395 8572 Fax (626) 568 0673 bgreen@ipac.caltech.edu. The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will be launched in December 2001, and perform an extended series of science observations at wavelengths ranging from 20 to 160 microns for five years or more. The California Institute of Technology has been selected as the home for the SIRTF Science Center (SSC). The SSC will be responsible for evaluating and selecting observation proposals, providing technical support to the science community, performing mission planning and science observation scheduling activities, instrument calibration during operations and instrument health monitoring, production of archival quality data products, and management of science research grants. The science payload consists of three instruments delivered by instrument Principal Investigators located at University of Arizona, Cornell, and Harvard Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. The SSC is responsible for design, development, and operation of the Science Operations System (SOS) which will support the functions assigned to the SSC by NASA. The SIRTF spacecraft, mission profile, and science instrument design have undergone almost ten years of refinement. SIRTF development and operations activities are highly cost constrained. The cost constraints have impacted the design of the SOS in several ways. The Science Operations System has been designed to incorporate a set of efficient, easy to use tools which will make it possible for scientists to propose observation sequences in a rapid and automated manner. The use of highly automated tools for requesting observations will simplify the long range observatory scheduling process, and the short term scheduling of science observations. Pipeline data processing will be highly automated and data

  16. MINIPILOT SOLAR SYSTEM: DESIGN/OPERATION OF SYSTEM AND RESULTS OF NON-SOLAR TESTING AT MRI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to this project, MRI had carried out work for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the conceptual design of a solar system for solid waste disposal and a follow-on project to study the feasibility of bench-scale testing of desorption of organics from soil with destr...

  17. Model analysis of the impact on ground-water conditions of the Muskegon County wastewater disposal system, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Michael G.; Fleck, William B.

    1978-01-01

    A digital model was developed to study the impact on ground-water conditions of the Muskegon County, Mich., wastewater disposal system. At the disposal site, wastewater is stored in two 850-acre lagoons and then spray-irrigated on crop land. About 70 miles of drainage tile, which underlies the irrigated land, has caused the water table to be lowered substantially. The decline in water levels has been partially offset by irrigation and leakage from the lagoons; at some places the water table is higher than it was prior to construction. Predictive simulations by the model were used to study the effects of varying tile drainage, amount of irrigation water applied, lagoon leakage, and natural ground-water recharge. If the effectiveness of the tile to collect drainage is reduced by 75 percent, large areas within the wastewater site would become waterlogged. However, the effect outside of the wastewater site would be negligible. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Performance Assessment of a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site using GoldSim Integrated Systems Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrell, G.; Singh, A.; Tauxe, J.; Perona, R.; Dornsife, W.; grisak, G. E.; Holt, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has approved licenses for four landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) site located in Andrews County, West Texas. The site includes a hazardous waste landfill and three landfills for radioactive waste. An updated performance assessment is necessary prior to acceptance of waste at the landfills. The updated performance assessment a) provides for more realistic and flexible dose modeling capabilities, b) addresses all plausible release and accident scenarios as they relate to the performance objectives, c) includes impact of climate and hydrologic scenarios that may impact long-term performance of the landfill, d) addresses impact of cover naturalization and degradation on the landfill, and e) incorporates uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for critical parameters. For the updated performance assessment, WCS has developed an integrated systems level performance assessment model using the GoldSim platform. GoldSim serves as a model for integrating all of the major components of a performance assessment, which include the radionuclide source term, facility design, environmental transport pathways, exposure scenarios, and radiological doses. Unlike many computer models that are based on first principles, GoldSim is a systems level model that can be used to integrate and abstract more complex sub-models into one system. This can then be used to assess the results into a unified model of the disposal system and environment. In this particular application, the GoldSim model consists of a) hydrogeologic model that simulates flow and transport through the Dockum geologic unit that underlies all of the waste facilities, b) waste cells that represent the containment unit and simulate degradation of waste forms, radionuclide leaching, and partitioning into the liquid and vapor phase within the waste unit, c) a cover system model that simulates upward diffusive transport from the underground repository to the atmosphere. In

  19. A Strategy to Conduct an Analysis of the Long-Term Performance of Low-Activity Waste Glass in a Shallow Subsurface Disposal System at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    BP McGrail, WL Ebert, DH Bacon, DM Strachan

    1998-02-18

    Privatized services are being procured to vitrify low-activity tank wastes for eventual disposal in a shallow subsurface facility at the Hanford Site. Over 500,000 metric tons of low-activity waste glass will be generated, which is among the largest volumes of waste within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex and is one of the largest inventories of long-lived radionuclides planned for disposal in a low-level waste facility. Before immobilized waste can be disposed, DOE must approve a "performance assessment," which is a document that describes the impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. Because the release rate of radionuclides from the glass waste form is a key factor determining these impacts, a sound scientific basis for determining their long-term release rates must be developed if this disposal action is to be accepted by regulatory agencies, stakeholders, and the public. In part, the scientific basis is determined from a sound testing strategy. The foundation of the proposed testing strategy is a well accepted mechanistic model that is being used to calculate the glass corrosion behavior over the geologic time scales required for performance assessment. This model requires that six parameters be determined, and the testing program is defined by an appropriate set of laboratory experiments to determine these parameters, and is combined with a set of field experiments to validate the model as a whole. Three general classes of laboratory tests are proposed in this strategy: 1) characterization, 2) accelerated, and 3) service condition. Characterization tests isolate and provide specific information about processes or parameters in theoretical models. Accelerated tests investigate corrosion behavior that will be important over the regulated service life of a disposal system within a laboratory time frame of a few years or less. Service condition tests verify that the techniques used in accelerated tests do not change

  20. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  1. ATOMIC-LEVEL MODELING OF CO2 DISPOSAL AS A CARBONATE MINERAL: A SYNERGETIC APPROACH TO OPTIMIZING REACTION PROCESS DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya; M.J. McKelvy; J.B. Adams

    2001-11-01

    Fossil fuels, especially coal, can support the energy demands of the world for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Permanent and safe methods for CO{sub 2} capture and disposal/storage need to be developed. Mineralization of stationary-source CO{sub 2} emissions as carbonates can provide such safe capture and long-term sequestration. Mg-rich lamellar hydroxide mineral carbonation is a leading process candidate, which generates the stable naturally occurring mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}) and water. Key to process cost and viability are the carbonation reaction rate and its degree of completion. This process, which involves simultaneous dehydroxylation and carbonation is very promising, but far from optimized. In order to optimize the dehydroxylation/carbonation process, an atomic-level understanding of the mechanisms involved is needed. In this investigation Mg(OH){sub 2} was selected as a model Mg-rich lamellar hydrocide carbonation feedstock material due to its chemical and structural simplicity. Since Mg(OH){sub 2} dehydroxylation is intimately associated with the carbonation process, its mechanisms are also of direct interest in understanding and optimizing the process. The aim of the current innovative concepts project is to develop a specialized advanced computational methodology to complement the ongoing experimental inquiry of the atomic level processes involved in CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration. The ultimate goal is to integrate the insights provided by detailed predictive simulations with the data obtained from optical microscopy, FESEM, ion beam analysis, SIMS, TGA, Raman, XRD, and C and H elemental analysis. The modeling studies are specifically designed to enhance the synergism with, and complement the analysis of, existing mineral-CO{sub 2} reaction process studies being carried out under DOE UCR Grant DE-FG2698-FT40112. Direct contact between the simulations and the experimental

  2. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed memorandum

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, H.L.

    1998-01-07

    This memorandum provides a summary of PHMC [Project Hanford Management Contract] team work scope for the Phase 1 TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission, a declaration of readiness-to-proceed, a summary of the PHMC team readiness evaluation process, summary results of a structured independent appraisal and financial analysis including information associated with assumptions, risks, and recommendations and, a summary of program plans for the PHMC team`s component of the Phase 1 Mission.

  3. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed memorandum

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, K.N.

    1998-01-09

    This memorandum provides a summary of PHMC (Project Hanford Management Contract) team work scope for the Phase 1 TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission, a declaration of readiness-to proceed, a summary of the PHMC readiness evaluation process, summary results of a structured independent appraisal and financial analysis including information associated with assumptions, risks, and recommendations and, a summary of program plans for the PHMC team`s component of the Phase 1 Mission.

  4. Disposal of coal combustion residues in terrestrial systems: contamination and risk management.

    PubMed

    Dellantonio, Alex; Fitz, Walter J; Repmann, Frank; Wenzel, Walter W

    2010-01-01

    The world's ever-growing energy demand will lead to the installation of new coal-fired power plants. At least part of the coal combustion residue (CCR) generated in the coming years will be disposed of, adding to the large number of CCR disposal sites generated in the past and reinforcing the need for sound assessment and management of associated risks. Physical and chemical composition of CCR varies considerably depending on the quality of the feed coal, the combustion technology, fraction considered, and the method of disposal. Related risk pathways include (i) aerial routes, i.e., dust resuspension (Cr(VI)), emanation of radioactivity (Rn associated with U and Th series), and Hg volatilization threatening animal and human health; (ii) phytoaccumulation (B, Se, Mo, As) and plant toxicity (B) with subsequent effects on animals (e.g., Mo-induced hypocuprosis, As and Se toxicity) and humans (e.g., selenosis; food chain); and (iii) effluent discharge and percolation to groundwater and rivers (suspended solids, unfavorable pH, high Se, B, Hg, and As(III) concentrations). Recent and projected changes of CCR composition due to emerging clean coal technologies require close monitoring as the concentration of volatile elements such as Hg and Se, solubility (Hg, Cd, Cu) and volatilization (Hg, NH(3)) of some pollutants are likely to increase because of higher retention in certain fractions of CCRs and concurrent changes in pH (e.g., by mineral carbonation) and NH(3) content. These changes require additional research efforts to explore the implications for CCR quality, use, and management of risk associated with disposal sites.

  5. Fuel cleanup system for the tritium systems test assembly: design and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, E.C.; Bartlit, J.R.; Sherman, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A major subsystem of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly is the Fuel Cleanup System (FCU) whose functons are to: (1) remove impurities in the form of argon and tritiated methane, water, and ammonia from the reactor exhaust stream and (2) recover tritium for reuse from the tritiated impurities. To do this, a hybrid cleanup system has been designed which utilizes and will test concurrently two differing technologies - one based on disposable, hot metal (U and Ti) getter beds and a second based on regenerable cryogenic asdorption beds followed by catalytic oxidation of impurities to DTO and stackable gases and freezout of the resultant DTO to recover essentially all tritium for reuse.

  6. Disposable on-chip microfluidic system for buccal cell lysis, DNA purification, and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Cho, Woong; Maeng, Joon-Ho; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports the development of a disposable, integrated biochip for DNA sample preparation and PCR. The hybrid biochip (25 × 45 mm) is composed of a disposable PDMS layer with a microchannel chamber and reusable glass substrate integrated with a microheater and thermal microsensor. Lysis, purification, and PCR can be performed sequentially on this microfluidic device. Cell lysis is achieved by heat and purification is performed by mechanical filtration. Passive check valves are integrated to enable sample preparation and PCR in a fixed sequence. Reactor temperature is needed to lysis and PCR reaction is controlled within ±1°C by PID controller of LabVIEW software. Buccal epithelial cell lysis, DNA purification, and SY158 gene PCR amplification were successfully performed on this novel chip. Our experiments confirm that the entire process, except the off-chip gel electrophoresis, requires only approximately 1 h for completion. This disposable microfluidic chip for sample preparation and PCR can be easily united with other technologies to realize a fully integrated DNA chip.

  7. Indicator-based and indicator-free magnetic assays connected with disposable electrochemical nucleic acid sensor system.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, Hakan; Erdem, Arzum; Kuralay, Filiz; Jelen, Frantisek

    2009-04-15

    An indicator-based and indicator-free magnetic assays connected with a disposable pencil graphite electrode (PGE) were successfully developed, and also compared for the electrochemical detection of DNA hybridization. The oxidation signals of echinomycin (ECHI) and electroactive DNA bases, guanine and adenine, respectively were monitored in the presence of DNA hybridization by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique. The biotinylated probe was immobilized onto the magnetic beads (magnetic particles, microspheres) and hybridization with its complementary target at the surface of particles within the medium was exhibited successfully using electrochemical sensor system. For the selectivity studies, the results represent that both indicator-based and indicator-free magnetic assays provide a better discrimination for DNA hybridization compared to duplex with one-base or more mismatches. The detection limits (S/N=3) of the magnetic assays based on indicator or indicator-free were found in nM concentration level of target using disposable sensor technology with good reproducibility. The characterization and advantages of both proposed magnetic assays connected with a disposable electrochemical sensor are also discussed and compared with those methods previously reported in the literature.

  8. Content of system design descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    A System Design Description (SDD) describes the requirements and features of a system. This standard provides guidance on the expected technical content of SDDs. The need for such a standard was recognized during efforts to develop SDDs for safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Existing guidance related to the corresponding documents in other industries is generally not suitable to meet the needs of DOE nuclear facilities. Across the DOE complex, different contractors have guidance documents, but they vary widely from site to site. While such guidance documents are valuable, no single guidance document has all the attributes that DOE considers important, including a reasonable degree of consistency or standardization. This standard is a consolidation of the best of the existing guidance. This standard has been developed with a technical content and level of detail intended to be most applicable to safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Notwithstanding that primary intent, this standard is recommended for other systems at such facilities, especially those that are important to achieving the programmatic mission of the facility. In addition, application of this standard should be considered for systems at other facilities, including non-nuclear facilities, on the basis that SDDs may be beneficial and cost-effective.

  9. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 2: Preliminary feasibility screening study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes in concentrations, matrix materials, and containers designed for storage on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyland, R. E.; Wohl, M. L.; Thompson, R. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The results are reported of a preliminary feasibility screening study for providing long-term solutions to the problems of handling and managing radioactive wastes by extraterrestrial transportation of the wastes. Matrix materials and containers are discussed along with payloads, costs, and destinations for candidate space vehicles. The conclusions reached are: (1) Matrix material such as spray melt can be used without exceeding temperature limits of the matrix. (2) The cost in mills per kw hr electric, of space disposal of fission products is 4, 5, and 28 mills per kw hr for earth escape, solar orbit, and solar escape, respectively. (3) A major factor effecting cost is the earth storage time. Based on a normal operating condition design for solar escape, a storage time of more than sixty years is required to make the space disposal charge less than 10% of the bus-bar electric cost. (4) Based on a 10 year earth storage without further processing, the number of shuttle launches required would exceed one per day.

  10. Preliminary flight prototype waste collection subsystem. [performance of waste disposal system in weightless environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swider, J. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The zero gravity test program demonstrated the feasibility and practicability of collecting urine from both male and female crew members in a zero gravity environment in an earthlike manner not requiring any manual handling of urine containers. In addition, the testing demonstrated that a seat which is comfortable in both regimes of operation could be designed for use on the ground and in zero-gravity. Further, the tests showed that the vortex liquid/air separator is an effective liquid/air separation method in zero gravity. Visual observations indicate essentially zero liquid carry over. The system also demonstrated its ability to handle post elimination wipes without difficulty. The designs utilized in the WCS were verified as acceptable for usage in the space shuttle or other space vehicles.

  11. Computerized Adaptive Testing System Design: Preliminary Design Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Paul R.

    A functional design model for a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system was developed and presented through a series of hierarchy plus input-process-output (HIPO) diagrams. System functions were translated into system structure: specifically, into 34 software components. Implementation of the design in a physical system was addressed through…

  12. Prototype solar-heating system design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design package for complete residential solar-heating system is given. Includes documents and drawings describing performance design, verification standards, and analysis of system with sufficient information to assemble working system.

  13. Preliminary paper - Integrated control process for the development of the mined geologic disposal system

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Russell B.; Harbert, Kevin R.; Calloway, David E.

    1997-11-26

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management, begins to focus DOE Programs and Projects on the total system life cycle instead of looking at project execution or operation as individual components. As DOE begins to implement this order, the DOE Management and Operating contractors must develop a process to control not only the contract baseline but also the overall life cycle baseline. This paper presents an integrated process that is currently being developed on the Yucca Mountain Project for DOE. The process integrates the current contract/project baseline management process with the management control process for design and the configuration management change control process.

  14. 77 FR 55144 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... and the anticipated temporary nature of minor behavioral changes in flight or foraging during disposal... Concerning Regulations that Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR 28355) because... Hydrographic line, south of the proposed Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center's nearshore...

  15. 75 FR 5708 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... any person, EPA and the Corps must evaluate the project according to the ocean dumping regulatory... ocean. Should a site use conflict be identified, site use could be modified according to the SMMP to... through the water column. All dredged material proposed for disposal will be evaluated according to...

  16. Stability of disposal rooms during waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Brandshaug, T.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the results of a numerical analysis to determine the stability of waste disposal rooms for vertical and horizontal emplacement during the period of waste retrieval. It is assumed that waste retrieval starts 50 years after the initial emplacement of the waste, and that access to and retrieval of the waste containers take place through the disposal rooms. It is further assumed that the disposal rooms are not back-filled. Convective cooling of the disposal rooms in preparation for waste retrieval is included in the analysis. Conditions and parameters used were taken from the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report (MacDougall et al., 1987). Thermal results are presented which illustrate the heat transfer response of the rock adjacent to the disposal rooms. Mechanical results are presented which illustrate the predicted distribution of stress, joint slip, and room deformations for the period of time investigated. Under the assumption that the host rock can be classified as ``fair to good`` using the Geomechanics Classification System (Bieniawski, 1974), only light ground support would appear to be necessary for the disposal rooms to remain stable. 23 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    SciTech Connect

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1995-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 {times} 2 {times} 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs.

  18. 48 CFR 245.603 - Disposal methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 245.603 Section 245.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractor Inventory 245.603 Disposal methods....

  19. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  20. AGING SYSTEM DESIGN DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    J. Beesley

    2005-02-07

    This plan provides an overview, work to date, and the path forward for the design development strategy of the Aging cask for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository site. Waste for subsurface emplacement at the repository includes US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (HLW), DOE SNF, commercial fuel in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), uncanistered bare fuel, naval fuel, and other waste types. Table 1-1 lists the types of radioactive materials that may be aged at YMP, and those materials that will not be placed in an aging cask or module. This plan presents the strategy for design development of the Aging system. The Aging system will not handle naval fuel, DOE HLW, MCOs, or DOE SNF since those materials will be delivered to the repository in a state and sequence that allows them to be placed into waste packages for emplacement. Some CSNF from nuclear reactors, especially CSNF that is thermally too hot for emplacement underground, will need to be aged at the repository.

  1. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    SciTech Connect

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  2. Multi-arm multilateral haptics-based immersive tele-robotic system (HITS) for improvised explosive device disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Lai, Gilbert; Haddadi, Amir

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the latest advancements of the Haptics-based Immersive Tele-robotic System (HITS) project, a next generation Improvised Explosive Device (IED) disposal (IEDD) robotic interface containing an immersive telepresence environment for a remotely-controlled three-articulated-robotic-arm system. While the haptic feedback enhances the operator's perception of the remote environment, a third teleoperated dexterous arm, equipped with multiple vision sensors and cameras, provides stereo vision with proper visual cues, and a 3D photo-realistic model of the potential IED. This decentralized system combines various capabilities including stable and scaled motion, singularity avoidance, cross-coupled hybrid control, active collision detection and avoidance, compliance control and constrained motion to provide a safe and intuitive control environment for the operators. Experimental results and validation of the current system are presented through various essential IEDD tasks. This project demonstrates that a two-armed anthropomorphic Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot interface can achieve complex neutralization techniques against realistic IEDs without the operator approaching at any time.

  3. Space shuttle visual simulation system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A recommendation and a specification for the visual simulation system design for the space shuttle mission simulator are presented. A recommended visual system is described which most nearly meets the visual design requirements. The cost analysis of the recommended system covering design, development, manufacturing, and installation is reported. Four alternate systems are analyzed.

  4. Analysis of the dynamic response of eccentric, disposable, and arch-shaped bracing systems to earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Shiah, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    This research investigates the dynamic response of the split K braced frame (SKBF), disposable knee braced frame (DKBF), and arch shape braced frame (ASBF) subjected to earthquake loads and the influence of shear, rotatory inertia, and axial force on the frequencies and mode shapes of the vibrating built-in beams. An asymmetric braced model is introduced to study the elastic stability of the arch shaped braced frame. The influence of the axial force on the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the higher modes of the vibrating built-in beam are also studied. The earthquake loads are simulated by the random process using several built-up computer models. In these generated artificial earthquake models, the Autoregressive/Moving-Average (ARMA) models are used to analyze the San Fernando 1971 and El Centro 1941 earthquake loads. The energy-dissipating plates are used as the devices in the arch-shaped bracing frame in this study for the absorption of the earthquake energy. It is shown that the arch-shaped frame has a uniform story drift variation compared to split-K braced frame. The disposable knee braced frame has small story drift, and the arch-braced frame has no floor damages during earthquakes.

  5. Central nervous system consequences of an unusual body disposal strategy: case report and brief experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Andrews, John M; Gutstadt, Jeffrey P; Itabashi, Hideo H; Dowell, Steven J; Schuchardt, Mark S; Miller, Elizabeth A

    2003-09-01

    The body of a 73-year-old man was dismembered by his female companion for the purpose of covert disposal. The method employed included skillful separation of body parts with hacksaw and knife, piecemeal disposal of fragments, and prolonged boiling of the decapitated head. The latter treatment resulted in marked shrinkage of cranial dura mater, separation of dura mater from skull, and extrusion of brain fragments into the resultant enlarged epidural space through a dural defect due to the disproportionately greater shrinkage of dura mater compared to brain parenchyma. This resulted in curd-like brain fragments filling an enlarged epidural space and overlying a shrunken, leathery dura mater. The cranial dura mater, still adherent to the skull base, resembled a "shrunken brain" in contour but contained only the remnants of brain tissue not already extruded through the dural defect. This unusual thermal artifact is rarely illustrated or mentioned in forensic literature. The development of this postmortem artifact likely requires the presence of a specific combination of conditions which must be, but apparently rarely are, simultaneously present. PMID:14535685

  6. Potential for long-term isolation by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram-Howery, S.G. ); Swift, P.N. )

    1990-06-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) must comply with EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B, which sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal. The regulation, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (hereafter referred to as the Standard), was vacated in 1987 by a Federal Court of Appeals and is underground revision. By agreement with the Sate of New Mexico, the WIPP project is evaluating compliance with the Standard as promulgated, in 1985 until a new regulation is available. This report summarizes the early-1990 status of Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL) understanding of the Project's ability to achieve compliance. The report reviews the qualitative and quantitative requirements for compliance, and identifies unknowns complicating performance assessment. It discusses in relatively nontechnical terms the approaches to resolving those unknowns, and concludes that SNL has reasonable confidence that compliance is achievable with the Standard as first promulgated. 46 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Design and Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messer, Elizabeth; Messer, Brad; Carter, Judy; Singletary, Todd; Albasini, Colby; Smith, Tammy

    2007-01-01

    The Design and Data Management System (DDMS) was developed to automate the NASA Engineering Order (EO) and Engineering Change Request (ECR) processes at the Propulsion Test Facilities at Stennis Space Center for efficient and effective Configuration Management (CM). Prior to the development of DDMS, the CM system was a manual, paper-based system that required an EO or ECR submitter to walk the changes through the acceptance process to obtain necessary approval signatures. This approval process could take up to two weeks, and was subject to a variety of human errors. The process also requires that the CM office make copies and distribute them to the Configuration Control Board members for review prior to meetings. At any point, there was a potential for an error or loss of the change records, meaning the configuration of record was not accurate. The new Web-based DDMS eliminates unnecessary copies, reduces the time needed to distribute the paperwork, reduces time to gain the necessary signatures, and prevents the variety of errors inherent in the previous manual system. After implementation of the DDMS, all EOs and ECRs can be automatically checked prior to submittal to ensure that the documentation is complete and accurate. Much of the configuration information can be documented in the DDMS through pull-down forms to ensure consistent entries by the engineers and technicians in the field. The software also can electronically route the documents through the signature process to obtain the necessary approvals needed for work authorization. The workflow of the system allows for backups and timestamps that determine the correct routing and completion of all required authorizations in a more timely manner, as well as assuring the quality and accuracy of the configuration documents.

  8. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Hill, D.; Rowe, M.D.; Stern, E.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs.

  9. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. Volume 7, Subsystem concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem.

  10. Strength and consolidation characteristics of coal refuse for design and construction of disposal facilities: Applications of research findings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.H.

    1987-08-01

    The use of coal refuse properties for the short-term stability analysis of disposal facilities is illustrated in the report. Three types of disposal facilities are considered: waste embankments constructed of combined or fine refuse, refuse dams constructed by upstream method, and sandwich construction by placing coarse and fine refuse in alternate layers. Detailed procedures are presented to determine the factor of safety at the end of construction using the REAME computer program developed at the University of Kentucky. The results of analysis show that limiting the maximum moisture content of combined or fine refuse in waste embankments and keeping the construction of refuse dams at a slower pace are very important for short-term stability. Due to the granular nature of coarse and fine refuse, the use of sandwich construction appears to be an efficient and economical disposal method. To compare the properties of coal refuse from the Western Coal Field with those from the Eastern Coal Field reported previously, test results on combined and fine refuse taken from two sites in Colorado are presented.

  11. On the design of reversible QDCA systems.

    SciTech Connect

    DeBenedictis, Erik P.; Frank, Michael P. (Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL); Ottavi, Marco; Frost-Murphy, Sarah E.

    2006-10-01

    This work is the first to describe how to go about designing a reversible QDCA system. The design space is substantial, and there are many questions that a designer needs to answer before beginning to design. This document begins to explicate the tradeoffs and assumptions that need to be made and offers a range of approaches as starting points and examples. This design guide is an effective tool for aiding designers in creating the best quality QDCA implementation for a system.

  12. Uncertainty management in intelligent design aiding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald E.; Gabbert, Paula S.

    1988-01-01

    A novel approach to uncertainty management which is particularly effective in intelligent design aiding systems for large-scale systems is presented. The use of this approach in the materials handling system design domain is discussed. It is noted that, during any point in the design process, a point value can be obtained for the evaluation of feasible designs; however, the techniques described provide unique solutions for these point values using only the current information about the design environment.

  13. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  14. Solar assisted sludge and energy recycling disposal system utilizing the old Princeton sewage treatment and solid waste incineration facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Slaby, S.M.

    1980-12-01

    Princeton, New Jersey, a town of 30,000 people is in a unique position to utilize solid waste and sewage sludge as supplementary energy sources. The Stony Brook Sewage Authority recently constructed a new twenty million dollar sewage treatment plant next to the old sewage treatment plant which served the community of Princeton for forty years. On the site of the old plant is an abandoned incinerator plant which presently is being used as a transfer station. The new sewage treatment plant is disposing of its sludge by burning it in multiple hearth furnaces using sixty gallons of precious oil to do this. The proposed Princeton Energy Recycling Center is designed to be retrofitted with solar sludge dryers to dry the sewage sludge which would be transported by conveyer to the old incinerator plant where it would be mixed with garbage and be burned in rehabilitated furnaces which would be retrofitted for steam generators, a steam engine driven electric generator and air pollution control equipment. It is estimated that the proposed energy recycling center would fulfill all electrical needs of the new sewage treatment plant in addition to solving the solid waste and sludge disposal problems of the Princeton community. The paper presents a detailed discussion on the proposed Princeton Energy Recycling Center.

  15. Lessons Learned from Radioactive Waste Storage and Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Esh, David W.; Bradford, Anna H.

    2008-01-15

    The safety of radioactive waste disposal facilities and the decommissioning of complex sites may be predicated on the performance of engineered and natural barriers. For assessing the safety of a waste disposal facility or a decommissioned site, a performance assessment or similar analysis is often completed. The analysis is typically based on a site conceptual model that is developed from site characterization information, observations, and, in many cases, expert judgment. Because waste disposal facilities are sited, constructed, monitored, and maintained, a fair amount of data has been generated at a variety of sites in a variety of natural systems. This paper provides select examples of lessons learned from the observations developed from the monitoring of various radioactive waste facilities (storage and disposal), and discusses the implications for modeling of future waste disposal facilities that are yet to be constructed or for the development of dose assessments for the release of decommissioning sites. Monitoring has been and continues to be performed at a variety of different facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. These include facilities for the disposal of commercial low-level waste (LLW), reprocessing wastes, and uranium mill tailings. Many of the lessons learned and problems encountered provide a unique opportunity to improve future designs of waste disposal facilities, to improve dose modeling for decommissioning sites, and to be proactive in identifying future problems. Typically, an initial conceptual model was developed and the siting and design of the disposal facility was based on the conceptual model. After facility construction and operation, monitoring data was collected and evaluated. In many cases the monitoring data did not comport with the original site conceptual model, leading to additional investigation and changes to the site conceptual model and modifications to the design of the facility. The following cases are discussed

  16. Artwork Interactive Design System (AIDS) program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. T.; Taylor, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    An artwork interactive design system is described which provides the microelectronic circuit designer/engineer a tool to perform circuit design, automatic layout modification, standard cell design, and artwork verification at a graphics computer terminal using a graphics tablet at the designer/computer interface.

  17. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  18. Application and design of solar photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianze, Li; Hengwei, Lu; Chuan, Jiang; Luan, Hou; Xia, Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Solar modules, power electronic equipments which include the charge-discharge controller, the inverter, the test instrumentation and the computer monitoring, and the storage battery or the other energy storage and auxiliary generating plant make up of the photovoltaic system which is shown in the thesis. PV system design should follow to meet the load supply requirements, make system low cost, seriously consider the design of software and hardware, and make general software design prior to hardware design in the paper. To take the design of PV system for an example, the paper gives the analysis of the design of system software and system hardware, economic benefit, and basic ideas and steps of the installation and the connection of the system. It elaborates on the information acquisition, the software and hardware design of the system, the evaluation and optimization of the system. Finally, it shows the analysis and prospect of the application of photovoltaic technology in outer space, solar lamps, freeways and communications.

  19. The Huygens Probe System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, K. C.; Hassan, H.; Verdant, M.; Couzin, P.; Huttin, G.; Brisson, M.; Sollazzo, C.; Lebreton, J.-P.

    2002-07-01

    The Huygens Probe is the ESA-provided element of the joint NASA/ESA Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn and its largest moon Titan. Huygens is an entry probe designed to enter Titan's atmosphere and descend under parachute down to the surface. The Probe is carried to Titan on board the Cassini Saturn Orbiter. Huygens is dormant for 7.2 years, during the interplanetary journey and during the first 6 months around Saturn. It is activated about every 6 months for an in-flight checkout to verify and monitor its health and to perform a periodic maintenance and calibration of the payload instruments. The Probe will be targeted to Titan and released from the Orbiter about 3 weeks before the Titan encounter on the third Orbit around Saturn. During the 3-week coast phase the Probe is ‘OFF’, except a timer unit that has the task to awaken Huygens before it enters Titan's atmosphere. The Probe's aeroshell will decelerate it in less than 2 minutes from the entry speed of about 6 km s-1 to 400 m s-1 (Mach 1.5) at an altitude of 150 180 km. From that point onwards, a pre-programmed sequence will trigger the parachute deployment and the heat-shield ejection. The main part of the scientific mission will then start, lasting for a descent of 2 21/2 hours. The Orbiter will listen to the Probe for a total duration of at least 3 hours, which includes time to receive data from the surface, should the Probe continue to transmit data after touchdown. Huygens' transmissions are received and stored aboard the Orbiter for later retransmission to the Earth. This paper presents a technical description of the elements of the Huygens Probe System. The reader is invited to refer to the companion paper (Lebreton and Matson, 2002) for further background information about the Huygens mission, and the payload. The early in-flight performance of the Probe is briefly discussed. During in-flight testing in 2000, a technical anomaly was found with the Probe-to-Orbiter telecommunication system that

  20. Canister Cleaning System Final Design Report Project A-2A

    SciTech Connect

    FARWICK, C.C.

    2000-06-15

    Approximately 2,300 metric tons Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are currently stored within two water filled pools, the 105 K East (KE) fuel storage basin and the 105 K West (KW) fuel storage basin, at the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The SNF Project is responsible for operation of the K Basins and for the materials within them. A subproject to the SNF Project is the Debris Removal Subproject, which is responsible for removal of empty canisters and lids from the basins. The Canister Cleaning System (CCS) is part of the Debris Removal Project. The CCS will be installed in the KW Basin and operated during the fuel removal activity. The KW Basin has approximately 3600 canisters that require removal from the basin. The CCS is being designed to ''clean'' empty fuel canisters and lids and package them for disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility complex. The system will interface with the KW Basin and be located in the Dummy Elevator Pit.

  1. Design of experiments for thermal protection system process optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longani, Hans R.

    2000-01-01

    Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) structures were protected from heating due to aeroshear, radiation and plume impingement by a Thermal Protection System (TPS) known as Marshall Sprayable Ablative (MSA-2). MSA-2 contains Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) which due to strict environmental legislation was eliminated. MSA-2 was also classified as hazardous waste, which makes the disposal very costly. Marshall Convergent Coating (MCC-1) replaced MSA-2, and eliminated the use of solvents by delivering the dry filler materials and the fluid resin system to a patented spray gun which utilizes Convergent Spray Technologies spray process. The selection of TPS material was based on risk assessment, performance comparisons, processing, application and cost. Design of Experiments technique was used to optimize the spraying parameters. .

  2. Simulation, Design Abstraction, and SystemC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Ed

    2007-01-01

    SystemC is a system-level design and simulation language based on C++. We've been using SystemC for computer organization and design projects for the past several years. Because SystemC is embedded in C++ it contains the powerful abstraction mechanisms of C++ not found in traditional hardware description languages, such as support for…

  3. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission -- Phase 1: Financial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, J.C.

    1998-01-06

    In Section 1.0, an overview of the Financial Analysis was provided and summarized in Table 1 for both the Retrieval and Disposal program and the TWRS project life cycle. A table recaps the pre-Phase 1B analysis budget requirements as discussed in previous sections. Another table in this section shows a similar build-up of costs and the impact of proposed offsets and increases to the pre-Phase 1B analysis. The issues concerning the increased requirements in FY 1998/1999 and the recommended adjustments were discussed. The Phase 1B Program as recommended is achievable. Specific recommendations are as follows: (a) Adopt the revised project baseline as presented in the cited tables; (b) Incorporate the $248.5 million in allowances for risk into the baseline; (c) Develop detailed action plans to realize the costs reduction opportunities; (d) Incorporate site indirect and benefits reduction rates into baseline; (e) Delay non-critical path scope which can be moved beyond FY 1999, as indicated: and (f) Renegotiate the Tri-Party Agreement milestones associated with the current compliance unfunded list for FY 1998.

  4. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  5. Expert system to design communications circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, L.F.; Vahle, M.O.

    1986-07-01

    An expert system has been created to aid the design of fiber optic based communications circuits. The design system is based on an Apollo workstation, LISP and CPSL, an in-house developed expert system language. The optical circuit is taken from design specification through hardware selection and circuit routing to the production of detailed schematics and routing guides. A database containing the entire fiber optic trunk system is also maintained.

  6. Turbine Aerodynamic Design System Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Frank W.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Simpson, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    Presentation outline includes the following: 1. Volute manifold design and analysis methodology. 2. Meanline modification for compatibility with engine analysis code. Objective is to develop a manifold design methodology for turbines and pumps, and to enable rapid screening of candidate flow paths.

  7. Design of easily testable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rawat, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents structured testability techniques that can be applied to systolic arrays. Systolic arrays for signal processing have produced processing rates far in excess of general-purpose architecture. Fast testing is considered as one of the design criteria. The main goal is to derive test vectors for one- and two-dimensional systolic arrays. The author seeks to keep the number of test vectors independent of the size of the array under a generic fault model. The testable design is based on pseudo-exhaustive testing. Conventional testing uses Level Sensitive Scan Detection (LSSD) techniques which are very time consuming for an array of systolic processors. By making the testability analysis early the logic designer will be able to make early (and repeated) design trade-offs that make design for testability a simple extension of the design process. The author shows how one-dimensional sequential systolic arrays can be designed so that the faults can be easily detected and isolated. He also considers unilateral two-dimensional sequential arrays and suggests modifications to make them easily testable. Finally, he shows how a modified carry look ahead adder of arbitrary size can be tested with just 136 test vectors. Comparisons are made against the standard LSSD technique.

  8. Design and development of decentralized water and wastewater technologies: a combination of safe wastewater disposal and fertilizer production.

    PubMed

    Fach, S; Fuchs, S

    2010-01-01

    Modern wastewater treatment plants are often inappropriate for communities in developing countries. Such communities lack the funding, resources and skilled labour required to implement, operate, and maintain these plants. This research was conducted to investigate and establish an appropriate wastewater treatment system for the district of Gunung Kidul, Indonesia. Due to its lack of water during the dry season, this district is considered one of the poorest areas in the nation. First, wastewater was stored in septic tank units for a retention time of 26 days. Anaerobic conditions occurred, resulting in an 80% reduction of initial COD. The retained sludge was well stabilized with great potential, if dewatered, for reuse as fertilizer. Consequently, supernatant was separated for experiments consisting of lab scale aerobic sand filtering unit. Through filtration, further removals of COD (about 30%) and pathogens were achieved. Rich in nitrogen, the resulting effluent could be used for irrigation and soil conditioning. With faecal sludge and also a mixture of septic sludge and food waste, the hydrolysis stage of anaerobic digestion was examined. This paper discusses the laboratory findings in Karlsruhe and the design and implementation of a treatment system in Glompong, Indonesia.

  9. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  10. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    SciTech Connect

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  11. Conceptual spacecraft systems design and synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive systems design and synthesis is performed on future spacecraft concepts using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Systems (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis system. The capabilities and advantages of the systems-oriented interactive computer-aided design and analysis system are described. The synthesis of both large antenna and space station concepts, and space station evolutionary growth designs is demonstrated. The IDEAS program provides the user with both an interactive graphics and an interactive computing capability which consists of over 40 multidisciplinary synthesis and analysis modules. Thus, the user can create, analyze, and conduct parametric studies and modify earth-orbiting spacecraft designs (space stations, large antennas or platforms, and technologically advanced spacecraft) at an interactive terminal with relative ease. The IDEAS approach is useful during the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of parameters and concepts must be analyzed and evaluated in a cost-effective and timely manner.

  12. Rapid movement of wastewater from on-site disposal systems into surface waters in the lower Florida Keys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul, John H.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.; Stokes, Rodger; Rose, Joan B.

    2000-01-01

    Viral tracer studies have been used previously to study the potential for wastewater contamination of surface marine waters in the Upper and Middle Florida Keys. Two bacteriophages, the marine bacteriophage φHSIC and the Salmonella phage PRD1, were used as tracers in injection well and septic tank studies in Saddlebunch Keys of the Lower Florida Keys and in septic tank studies in Boot Key Harbor, Marathon, of the Middle Keys. In Boot Key Harbor, both phages were detected in a canal adjacent to the seeded septic tank within 3 h 15 min of the end of the seed period. The tracer was then detected at all sampling sites in Boot Key Harbor, including one on the opposite side of U. S. Highway 1 in Florida Bay, and at an Atlantic Ocean beach outside Boot Key Harbor. Rates of migration based on first appearance of the phage ranged from 1.7 to 57.5 m h-1. In Saddlebunch Keys, φHSIC and PRD1 were used to seed a residential septic tank and a commercial injection well. The septic tank tracer was not found in any surface water samples. The injection well tracer was first detected at a site most distant from the seed site, a channel that connected Sugarloaf Sound with the Atlantic Ocean. The rate of tracer migration from the injection well to this channel ranged from 66.8 to 141 m h-1. Both tracer studies showed a rapid movement of wastewater from on-site sewage treatment and disposal systems in a southeasterly direction toward the reef tract and Atlantic Ocean, with preferential movement through tidal channels. These studies indicate that wastewater disposal systems currently in widespread use in the Florida Keys can rapidly contaminate the marine environment.

  13. Systems design of long-life systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A long-life system is defined as a system which cannot be life-tested in its operational environment. Another restriction is that preventive maintenance and repair shall be either impossible or economically disadvantageous. Examples of such systems include planetary spacecraft, communication satellites, undersea telephone cables, and nuclear power plants. The questions discussed are related to the implementation of system functions, approaches to determine the required level of system reliability, and aspects of tradeoffs between requirements and reliability.

  14. Residential solar-heating system - design brochure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Design brochure for commercially-available solar-heating system is valuable to architects, engineers, and designers. It contains information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout. Drawings and specifications of all components and typical installation details are included in appendix.

  15. Process of system design and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, B.

    1995-09-01

    The design of an effective physical protection system includes the determination of the physical protection system objectives, the initial design of a physical protection system, the evaluation of the design, and, probably, a redesign or refinement of the system. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operations and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating states, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: Class of adversary, adversary`s capabilities, and range of adversary`s tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not nuclear materials are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the materiaL The designer now knows the objectives of the physical protection system, that is, ``What to protect against whom.`` The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors, procedures, communication devices, and protective force personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a physical protection system is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the physical protection objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to assure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted.

  16. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  17. 48 CFR 945.603 - Disposal methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposal methods. 945.603 Section 945.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 945.603 Disposal methods....

  18. 48 CFR 2845.603 - Disposal methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposal methods. 2845.603 Section 2845.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 2845.603 Disposal...

  19. 48 CFR 945.603 - Disposal methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 945.603 Section 945.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 945.603 Disposal methods....

  20. 48 CFR 2845.603 - Disposal methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Disposal methods. 2845.603 Section 2845.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Contract Management GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 2845.603 Disposal...

  1. A 5-GWe nuclear satellite power system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, M.; Thomson, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a brief study performed for MSFC on the conceptual design of a nuclear satellite power station which delivers 5 GWe net power to earth by microwave transmission. The system contains 26 modules each consisting of a reactor, fuel processing plant, Brayton PCU, space radiator, and nuclear shield. A high-temperature, gas-cooled, pebble-bed plutonium breeder concept was selected which is resupplied with fertile U-238. Sections of this core are periodically replaced and the spent fuel is chemically processed, the radioactive wastes separated, and stored for eventual space disposal. Fresh fuel pellets, formed from the U-238 and the bred plutonium, are recycled back to the reactor. The hot (1317 C) helium gas exiting the reactor serves as the working fluid in a 30%-efficient Brayton PCU.

  2. Conceptual design statement of work for the immobilized low-activity waste disposal facility, project W-520

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, W.W.

    1998-04-30

    This Statement of Work outlines the deliverables and schedule for preparation of the Project W-520 Conceptual Design Report, including, work plans, site development plan, preliminary safety evaluation, and conceptual design.

  3. Assembly design system based on engineering connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-05-01

    An assembly design system is an important part of computer-aided design systems, which are important tools for realizing product concept design. The traditional assembly design system does not record the connection information of production on the engineering layer; consequently, the upstream design idea cannot be fully used in the downstream design. An assembly design model based on the relationship of engineering connection is presented. In this model, all nodes are divided into two categories: The component and the connection. Moreover, the product is constructed on the basis of the connection relationship of the components. The model is an And/Or graph and has the ability to record all assembly schemes. This model records only the connection information that has engineering application value in the product design. In addition, this model can significantly reduce the number of combinations, and is very favorable for the assembly sequence planning in the downstream. The system contains a connection knowledge system that can be mapped to the connection node, and the connection knowledge obtained in practice can be returned to the knowledge system. Finally, VC++ 6.0 is used to develop a prototype system called Connect-based Assembly Planning (CAP). The relationship between the CAP system and the commercial assembly design system is also established.

  4. Systems design factors: The essential ingredients of system design, version 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Cuong M.; Howell, Steven L.

    1994-03-01

    The key to designing a real-time, large, complex system is to optimize the design to meet the requirements and desired measure of effectiveness. In order to achieve this, the system engineer/analyst must have the capability to specify the design goals/criteria, to quantify various aspects of the design, and to perform trade-offs among different design goals. One of the mechanisms that provides these capabilities is the system design factors. Whether the system design emphasis is on real-time, largeness, complexity, parallelism, or any specific criteria, it requires a set of system design factors to describe the properties, attributes, and characteristics of the system. Each system design factor must have its own metric to gauge every detail of that system. The metric describes the weaknesses and strengths of a specific area in the design. In turn, the correlation of the system design factor characterizes the completeness and robustness of the system. Whether the system is designed top-down, bottom-up, or middle-out, the system design factors have major influence in design capture and analysis, design structuring decisions, allocation decisions, and trade-off decisions between various design structures and resource allocation candidates.

  5. Tethered Satellite System control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlin, Donald D.; Mowery, David K.; Bodley, Carl S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the control aspects of the Tethered Satellite System mission. The deployer controls system uses length-error and tension-error feedback to control in-plane libration, length, and length rate. The satellite's reaction control system is used to augment tether tension, control rates and attitude about the tether axis, and to damp in-plane and out-of-plane libration. The orbiter's reaction control system is also used to control in-plane and out-of-plane libration. Results of simulations are presented for the flight portion of the Tethered Satellite System mission.

  6. The design of laser scanning galvanometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoling; Zhou, Bin; Xie, Weihao; Zhang, Yuangeng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we designed the laser scanning galvanometer system according to our requirements. Based on scanning range of our laser scanning galvanometer system, the design parameters of this system were optimized. During this work, we focused on the design of the f-θ field lens. An optical system of patent lens in the optical manual book, which had three glasses structure, was used in our designs. Combining the aberration theory, the aberration corrections and image quality evaluations were finished using Code V optical design software. An optimum f-θ field lens was designed, which had focal length of 434 mm, pupil diameter of 30 mm, scanning range of 160 mm × 160 mm, and half field angle of 18°×18°. At the last, we studied the influences of temperature changes on our system.

  7. Design, microfabrication, and characterization of a moulded PDMS/SU-8 inkjet dispenser for a Lab-on-a-Printer platform technology with disposable microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Bsoul, Anas; Pan, Sheng; Cretu, Edmond; Stoeber, Boris; Walus, Konrad

    2016-08-16

    In this paper, we present a disposable inkjet dispenser platform technology and demonstrate the Lab-on-a-Printer concept, an extension of the ubiquitous Lab-on-a-Chip concept, whereby microfluidic modules are directly integrated into the printhead. The concept is demonstrated here through the integration of an inkjet dispenser and a microfluidic mixer enabling control over droplet composition from a single nozzle in real-time during printing. The inkjet dispenser is based on a modular design platform that enables the low-cost microfluidic component and the more expensive actuation unit to be easily separated, allowing for the optional disposal of the former and reuse of the latter. To limit satellite droplet formation, a hydrophobic-coated and tapered micronozzle was microfabricated and integrated with the fluidics to realize the dispenser. The microfabricated devices generated droplets with diameters ranging from 150-220 μm, depending mainly on the orifice diameter, with printing rates up to 8000 droplets per second. The inkjet dispenser is capable of dispensing materials with a viscosity up to ∼19 mPa s. As a demonstration of the inkjet dispenser function and application, we have printed type I collagen seeded with human liver carcinoma cells (cell line HepG2), to form patterned biological structures.

  8. Design, microfabrication, and characterization of a moulded PDMS/SU-8 inkjet dispenser for a Lab-on-a-Printer platform technology with disposable microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Bsoul, Anas; Pan, Sheng; Cretu, Edmond; Stoeber, Boris; Walus, Konrad

    2016-08-16

    In this paper, we present a disposable inkjet dispenser platform technology and demonstrate the Lab-on-a-Printer concept, an extension of the ubiquitous Lab-on-a-Chip concept, whereby microfluidic modules are directly integrated into the printhead. The concept is demonstrated here through the integration of an inkjet dispenser and a microfluidic mixer enabling control over droplet composition from a single nozzle in real-time during printing. The inkjet dispenser is based on a modular design platform that enables the low-cost microfluidic component and the more expensive actuation unit to be easily separated, allowing for the optional disposal of the former and reuse of the latter. To limit satellite droplet formation, a hydrophobic-coated and tapered micronozzle was microfabricated and integrated with the fluidics to realize the dispenser. The microfabricated devices generated droplets with diameters ranging from 150-220 μm, depending mainly on the orifice diameter, with printing rates up to 8000 droplets per second. The inkjet dispenser is capable of dispensing materials with a viscosity up to ∼19 mPa s. As a demonstration of the inkjet dispenser function and application, we have printed type I collagen seeded with human liver carcinoma cells (cell line HepG2), to form patterned biological structures. PMID:27444216

  9. Using the Computer in Systems Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, W.

    1970-01-01

    With the aid of the programmed computer, the systems designer can analyze systems for which certain components have not yet been manufactured or even invented, and the power of solution-technique is greatly increased. (IR)

  10. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  11. Geotechnical engineering for ocean waste disposal. An introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Homa J.; Demars, Kenneth R.; Chaney, Ronald C.; ,

    1990-01-01

    As members of multidisciplinary teams, geotechnical engineers apply quantitative knowledge about the behavior of earth materials toward designing systems for disposing of wastes in the oceans and monitoring waste disposal sites. In dredge material disposal, geotechnical engineers assist in selecting disposal equipment, predict stable characteristics of dredge mounds, design mound caps, and predict erodibility of the material. In canister disposal, geotechnical engineers assist in specifying canister configurations, predict penetration depths into the seafloor, and predict and monitor canister performance following emplacement. With sewage outfalls, geotechnical engineers design foundation and anchor elements, estimate scour potential around the outfalls, and determine the stability of deposits made up of discharged material. With landfills, geotechnical engineers evaluate the stability and erodibility of margins and estimate settlement and cracking of the landfill mass. Geotechnical engineers also consider the influence that pollutants have on the engineering behavior of marine sediment and the extent to which changes in behavior affect the performance of structures founded on the sediment. In each of these roles, careful application of geotechnical engineering principles can contribute toward more efficient and environmentally safe waste disposal operations.

  12. Optmization design of zoom lens systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaotong; Cen, Zhaofeng

    2002-09-01

    A zoom lens system is usually composed of several components. Some of the components can be moved to change the focal length or magnification. Zoom lens system design is more complicated than fixed-focus lens design due to the moving of some components. In this paper, an optimization method that is used to design zoom lens systems is presented. Using this method, the Gaussian parameters of zoom lens systems are optimized at first, and then the initial structure parameters in each component are generated and optimized. At last the aberration balance is made using multi-configuration. In this paper the flowchart of optimization design for such complex optical systems is showed and the algorithms are described. As a conclusion, the relationship between power distribution, initial structure and the aberrations is considered at the beginning, the evaluation criteria are reliable and efficiency for designing zoom lens systems.

  13. Aviation System Analysis Capability Executive Assistant Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Eileen; Villani, James A.; Osman, Mohammed; Godso, David; King, Brent; Ricciardi, Michael

    1998-01-01

    In this technical document, we describe the design developed for the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Executive Assistant (EA) Proof of Concept (POC). We describe the genesis and role of the ASAC system, discuss the objectives of the ASAC system and provide an overview of components and models within the ASAC system, and describe the design process and the results of the ASAC EA POC system design. We also describe the evaluation process and results for applicable COTS software. The document has six chapters, a bibliography, three appendices and one attachment.

  14. Robust holographic storage system design.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru

    2011-11-21

    Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration.

  15. Designing To Learn about Complex Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hmelo, Cindy E.; Holton, Douglas L.; Kolodner, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the presence of complex structural, behavioral, and functional relations to understanding. Reports on a design experiment in which 6th grade children learned about the human respiratory system by designing artificial lungs and building partial working models. Makes suggestions for successful learning from design activities. (Contains 44…

  16. ESS Cryogenic System Process Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, P.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Su, X. T.; Wang, X. L.; Weisend, J. G., II

    2015-12-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron-scattering facility funded and supported in collaboration with 17 European countries in Lund, Sweden. Cryogenic cooling at ESS is vital particularly for the linear accelerator, the hydrogen target moderators, a test stand for cryomodules, the neutron instruments and their sample environments. The paper will focus on specific process design criteria, design decisions and their motivations for the helium cryoplants and auxiliary equipment. Key issues for all plants and their process concepts are energy efficiency, reliability, smooth turn-down behaviour and flexibility. The accelerator cryoplant (ACCP) and the target moderator cryoplant (TMCP) in particular need to be prepared for a range of refrigeration capacities due to the intrinsic uncertainties regarding heat load definitions. Furthermore the paper addresses questions regarding process arrangement, 2 K cooling methodology, LN2 precooling, helium storage, helium purification and heat recovery.

  17. Accelerating Science Driven System Design With RAMP

    SciTech Connect

    Wawrzynek, John

    2015-05-01

    Researchers from UC Berkeley, in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, are engaged in developing an Infrastructure for Synthesis with Integrated Simulation (ISIS). The ISIS Project was a cooperative effort for “application-driven hardware design” that engages application scientists in the early parts of the hardware design process for future generation supercomputing systems. This project served to foster development of computing systems that are better tuned to the application requirements of demanding scientific applications and result in more cost-effective and efficient HPC system designs. In order to overcome long conventional design-cycle times, we leveraged reconfigurable devices to aid in the design of high-efficiency systems, including conventional multi- and many-core systems. The resulting system emulation/prototyping environment, in conjunction with the appropriate intermediate abstractions, provided both a convenient user programming experience and retained flexibility, and thus efficiency, of a reconfigurable platform. We initially targeted the Berkeley RAMP system (Research Accelerator for Multiple Processors) as that hardware emulation environment to facilitate and ultimately accelerate the iterative process of science-driven system design. Our goal was to develop and demonstrate a design methodology for domain-optimized computer system architectures. The tangible outcome is a methodology and tools for rapid prototyping and design-space exploration, leading to highly optimized and efficient HPC systems.

  18. ODIN: Optimal design integration system. [reusable launch vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, C. R.; Hague, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    The report provides a summary of the Optimal Design Integration (ODIN) System as it exists at Langley Research Center. A discussion of the ODIN System, the executive program and the data base concepts are presented. Two examples illustrate the capabilities of the system which have been exploited. Appended to the report are a summary of abstracts for the ODIN library programs and a description of the use of the executive program in linking the library programs.

  19. Software Prototyping: Designing Systems for Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spies, Phyllis Bova

    1983-01-01

    Reports on major change in computer software development process--the prototype model, i.e., implementation of skeletal system that is enhanced during interaction with users. Expensive and unreliable software, software design errors, traditional development approach, resources required for prototyping, success stories, and systems designer's role…

  20. Interactive graphical computer-aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    System is used for design, layout, and modification of large-scale-integrated (LSI) metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) arrays. System is structured around small computer which provides real-time support for graphics storage display unit with keyboard, slave display unit, hard copy unit, and graphics tablet for designer/computer interface.

  1. Prevention of design flaws in multicomputer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Multicomputer configurations and redundancy management techniques used in various airborne systems were investigated to determine methods to prevent and/or treat generic design flaws. The findings are intended for use in the design of a computer system for use in the space shuttle orbiter.

  2. Design and Realisation of Chaotic Encryption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Wolfgang; Falk, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    Chaotic signal transmission systems are often claimed to be secure by itself. Using a simple example it is shown, that this is not true and that exact design criteria have to be set up before starting the design of a chaotic encryption system. Then, beginning with statistical design objectives an information encryption system is systematically designed. The structure design leads to a controlled filter structure with overflow nonlinearity, the parameter design has to assure chaotic behaviour and mixing properties of the encoded signal. This defines the limits for the choice of the parameter set representing the key for the encryption. After developing the system structure the system is realized by electronic circuitry. Discrete and IC versions of the solution are presented. In order to prove that the system meets the design requirements experimental results are provided. It can be shown that in a n-th order system the statistical characteristics up to the n-th order of the output signal will not be affected by the input signal. The paper closes with some security estimates for the designed system.

  3. Shuttle Global Positioning System (GPS) design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, P. W.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of oscillator noise on Shuttle Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver performance, GPS navigation system self-test, GPS ground transmitter design to augment shuttle navigation, the effect of ionospheric delay modelling on GPS receiver design, and GPS receiver tracking of Shuttle transient maneuvers were investigated.

  4. Designing a System for Observation of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on observation of teaching in a Higher Education (HE) context with a view to proposing some guidelines for the design and practice of institutional systems to observe teaching. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review and a proposed model for a system of observation of teaching…

  5. Physical protection system design and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1997-03-01

    The design of an effective physical protection system includes the determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, design evaluation, and probably a redesign or refinement. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operation and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating conditions, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: class of adversary, adversary`s capabilities, and range of adversary`s tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not the materials being protected are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the material. The designer now knows the objectives of the physical protection system, that is, {open_quotes}what to protect against whom.{close_quotes} The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors and assessment devices, entry control elements, procedures, communication devices, and protective forces personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a physical protection system is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the physical protection objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to ensure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of the protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted. This paper reviews the physical protection system design and methodology mentioned above. Examples of the steps required and a brief introduction to some of the technologies used in modem physical protections system are given.

  6. A rule based computer aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1986-01-01

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) system is presented which supports the iterative process of design, the dimensional continuity between mating parts, and the hierarchical structure of the parts in their assembled configuration. Prolog, an interactive logic programming language, is used to represent and interpret the data base. The solid geometry representing the parts is defined in parameterized form using the swept volume method. The system is demonstrated with a design of a spring piston.

  7. Designing Chaotic Systems by Piecewise Affine Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tiantian; Li, Qingdu; Yang, Xiao-Song

    Based on mathematical analysis, this paper provides a methodology to ensure the existence of homoclinic orbits in a class of three-dimensional piecewise affine systems. In addition, two chaotic generators are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

  8. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M.

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  9. CRBRP sodium fire protection system design

    SciTech Connect

    Buttrey, K. E.

    1984-09-10

    A passive catch pan fire suppression deck system was designed. A large-scale sodium spray fire test showed that the effects of spray burning were being underestimated. A modified computer code indicated that for a design basis IHTS leak in CRBRP, the design allowables would be exceeded. A modified pipe insulation design was developed and tested. The tests and analysis indicate that the concrete temperatures, structural steel temperatures, building pressures, and aerosol releases are now all reduced to acceptable levels. (DLC)

  10. Design and Implementation of Instructional Computer Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graczyk, Sandra L.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an input-process-output (IPO) model that can facilitate the design and implementation of instructional micro and minicomputer systems in school districts. A national survey of school districts with outstanding computer systems is described, a systems approach to develop the model is explained, and evaluation of the system is discussed.…

  11. Hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system controller design

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented.

  12. Conceptual Design of a Regional Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Regional Council of Governments, CO.

    This report describes the conceptual design of a regional information system, developed in support of the Denver Regional Council of Government's established comprehensive planning work program. It includes a discussion of system objectives, available data sources, recommended system content, software and system maintenance requirements,…

  13. TWRS information locator database system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J.

    1996-09-13

    This document gives an overview and description of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Locator Database (ILD)system design. The TWRS ILD system is an inventory of information used in the TWRS Systems Engineering process to represent the TWRS Technical Baseline. The inventory is maintained in the form of a relational database developed in Paradox 4.5.

  14. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Process

    SciTech Connect

    SHRADER, T.; MACBETH, P.

    2002-01-01

    On February 25, 2000, the US. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLWMLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLWMLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified disposal process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  15. Generic Model Host System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Chungming; Wu, Juhao; Qiang, Ji; Shen, Guobao; /Brookhaven

    2012-06-22

    There are many simulation codes for accelerator modelling; each one has some strength but not all. A platform which can host multiple modelling tools would be ideal for various purposes. The model platform along with infrastructure support can be used not only for online applications but also for offline purposes. Collaboration is formed for the effort of providing such a platform. In order to achieve such a platform, a set of common physics data structure has to be set. Application Programming Interface (API) for physics applications should also be defined within a model data provider. A preliminary platform design and prototype is discussed.

  16. System design description for Waste Information and Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.R.

    1994-12-16

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Hazardous Material Control Group (HMC) of the 222-S Laboratory has requested the development of a system to help resolve many of the difficulties associated with tracking and data collection of containers and drums of waste. This system has been identified as the Waste Information and Control System (WICS). WICS shall partially automate the procedure for acquisition, tracking and reporting of the container, drum, and waste data that is currently manually processed. The WICS project shall use handheld computer units (HCU) to collect laboratory data, a local database with an user friendly interface to import the laboratory data from the HCUs, and barcode technology with associated software and operational procedures. After the container, drum, and waste data has been collected and verified, WICS shall be manipulated to provide informal reports containing data required to properly document waste disposal. 8 refs, 82 figs, 69 tabs.

  17. Cask system design guidance for robotic handling

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmeyer, J.M.; Drotning, W.D.; Morimoto, A.K.; Bennett, P.C.

    1990-10-01

    Remote automated cask handling has the potential to reduce both the occupational exposure and the time required to process a nuclear waste transport cask at a handling facility. The ongoing Advanced Handling Technologies Project (AHTP) at Sandia National Laboratories is described. AHTP was initiated to explore the use of advanced robotic systems to perform cask handling operations at handling facilities for radioactive waste, and to provide guidance to cask designers regarding the impact of robotic handling on cask design. The proof-of-concept robotic systems developed in AHTP are intended to extrapolate from currently available commercial systems to the systems that will be available by the time that a repository would be open for operation. The project investigates those cask handling operations that would be performed at a nuclear waste repository facility during cask receiving and handling. The ongoing AHTP indicates that design guidance, rather than design specification, is appropriate, since the requirements for robotic handling do not place severe restrictions on cask design but rather focus on attention to detail and design for limited dexterity. The cask system design features that facilitate robotic handling operations are discussed, and results obtained from AHTP design and operation experience are summarized. The application of these design considerations is illustrated by discussion of the robot systems and their operation on cask feature mock-ups used in the AHTP project. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Optimization of Waste Disposal - 13338

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, E.; Walter, N.; Downey, H.; Collopy, P.; Conant, J.

    2013-07-01

    From 2009 through 2011, remediation of areas of a former fuel cycle facility used for government contract work was conducted. Remediation efforts were focused on building demolition, underground pipeline removal, contaminated soil removal and removal of contaminated sediments from portions of an on-site stream. Prior to conducting the remediation field effort, planning and preparation for remediation (including strategic planning for waste characterization and disposal) was conducted during the design phase. During the remediation field effort, waste characterization and disposal practices were continuously reviewed and refined to optimize waste disposal practices. This paper discusses strategic planning for waste characterization and disposal that was employed in the design phase, and continuously reviewed and refined to optimize efficiency. (authors)

  19. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D.; Sonntag, T.; Sundquist, J.

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  20. Data base systems in electronic design engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D.

    1980-01-01

    The concepts of an integrated design data base system (DBMS) as it might apply to an electronic design company are discussed. Data elements of documentation, project specifications, project tracking, firmware, software, electronic and mechanical design can be integrated and managed through a single DBMS. Combining the attributes of a DBMS data handler with specialized systems and functional data can provide users with maximum flexibility, reduced redundancy, and increased overall systems performance. Although some system overhead is lost due to redundancy in transitory data, it is believed the combination of the two data types is advisable rather than trying to do all data handling through a single DBMS.

  1. Design Methods for Clinical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Blum, B.I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a brief introduction to the techniques, methods and tools used to implement clinical systems. It begins with a taxonomy of software systems, describes the classic approach to development, provides some guidelines for the planning and management of software projects, and finishes with a guide to further reading. The conclusions are that there is no single right way to develop software, that most decisions are based upon judgment built from experience, and that there are tools that can automate some of the better understood tasks.

  2. Ares I Flight Control System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abran; Hall, Robert; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Ryan, Stephen; Jackson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle represents a challenging flex-body structural environment for flight control system design. This paper presents a design methodology for employing numerical optimization to develop the Ares I flight control system. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics, propellant slosh, and flex. Under the assumption that the Ares I time-varying dynamics and control system can be frozen over a short period of time, the flight controllers are designed to stabilize all selected frozen-time launch control systems in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Flex filters in the flight control system are designed to minimize the flex components in the error signals before they are sent to the attitude controller. To ensure adequate response to guidance command, step response specifications are introduced as constraints in the optimization problem. Imposing these constraints minimizes performance degradation caused by the addition of the flex filters. The first stage bending filter design achieves stability by adding lag to the first structural frequency to phase stabilize the first flex mode while gain stabilizing the higher modes. The upper stage bending filter design gain stabilizes all the flex bending modes. The flight control system designs provided here have been demonstrated to provide stable first and second stage control systems in both Draper Ares Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) and the MSFC 6DOF nonlinear time domain simulation.

  3. Disposal of municipal refuse and RDF in Japan by a two-bed pyrolysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, N.; Ishi, Y.; Ito, K. Hirayama, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This system efficiently and effectively produces high-quality, high-heating-value fuel gas from municipal refuse and RDF. In 1978, the commercial demonstration plant was constructed in Yokohama and since 1979 it has operated with municipal solid waste, RDF, and industrial refuse. The technology is now ready for commercialization.

  4. Automated CPX support system preliminary design phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordeaux, T. A.; Carson, E. T.; Hepburn, C. D.; Shinnick, F. M.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the Distributed Command and Control System (DCCS) is discussed. The development of an automated C2 system stimulated the development of an automated command post exercise (CPX) support system to provide a more realistic stimulus to DCCS than could be achieved with the existing manual system. An automated CPX system to support corps-level exercise was designed. The effort comprised four tasks: (1) collecting and documenting user requirements; (2) developing a preliminary system design; (3) defining a program plan; and (4) evaluating the suitability of the TRASANA FOURCE computer model.

  5. Designing Electronic Performance Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip; Banerji, Ashok

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the basic nature of performance support and describes a generic model that can be used to facilitate electronic performance support system (EPSS) development. Performance measures are discussed; performance support guidelines are summarized; and a case study of the use of an EPSS is presented. (LRW)

  6. Power Systems Design for Long Duration Ballooning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, Bryan; Chuzel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility has been designing and building high-altitude balloon power systems for over 26 years. With that experience, we have found certain types of PV panels, batteries, and charge controllers that are reliable in stratospheric environments. The ultimate goal is to ensure that power systems will provide power reliably throughout the duration of an LDB flight. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines and best practices for power system design.

  7. Resilient Control Systems: Next Generation Design Research

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Rieger

    2009-05-01

    Since digital control systems were introduced to the market more than 30 years ago, the operational efficiency and stability gained through their use have fueled our migration and ultimate dependence on them for the monitoring and control of critical infrastructure. While these systems have been designed for functionality and reliability, a hostile cyber environment and uncertainties in complex networks and human interactions have placed additional parameters on the design expectations for control systems.

  8. Performance of a plastic-wrapped composting system for biosecure emergency disposal of disease-related swine mortalities.

    PubMed

    Glanville, Thomas D; Ahn, Heekwon; Akdeniz, Neslihan; Crawford, Benjamin P; Koziel, Jacek A

    2016-02-01

    A passively-ventilated plastic-wrapped composting system initially developed for biosecure disposal of poultry mortalities caused by avian influenza was adapted and tested to assess its potential as an emergency disposal option for disease-related swine mortalities. Fresh air was supplied through perforated plastic tubing routed through the base of the compost pile. The combined air inlet and top vent area is ⩽∼1% of the gas exchange surface of a conventional uncovered windrow. Parameters evaluated included: (1) spatial and temporal variations in matrix moisture content (m.c.), leachate production, and matrix O2 concentrations; (2) extent of soft tissue decomposition; and (3) internal temperature and the success rate in achieving USEPA time/temperature (T) criteria for pathogen reduction. Six envelope materials (wood shavings, corn silage, ground cornstalks, ground oat straw, ground soybean straw, or ground alfalfa hay) and two initial m.c.'s (15-30% w.b. for materials stored indoors, and 45-65% w.b. to simulate materials exposed to precipitation) were tested to determine their effect on performance parameters (1-3). Results of triple-replicated field trials showed that the composting system did not accumulate moisture despite the 150kg carcass water load (65% of 225kg total carcass mass) released during decomposition. Mean compost m.c. in the carcass layer declined by ∼7 percentage points during 8-week trials, and a leachate accumulation was rare. Matrix O2 concentrations for all materials other than silage were ⩾10% using the equivalent of 2m inlet/vent spacing. In silage O2 dropped below 5% in some cases even when 0.5m inlet/vent spacing was used. Eight week soft tissue decomposition ranged from 87% in cornstalks to 72% in silage. Success rates for achievement of USEPA Class B time/temperature criteria ranged from 91% for silage to 33-57% for other materials. Companion laboratory biodegradation studies suggest that Class B success rates can be improved

  9. Performance of a plastic-wrapped composting system for biosecure emergency disposal of disease-related swine mortalities.

    PubMed

    Glanville, Thomas D; Ahn, Heekwon; Akdeniz, Neslihan; Crawford, Benjamin P; Koziel, Jacek A

    2016-02-01

    A passively-ventilated plastic-wrapped composting system initially developed for biosecure disposal of poultry mortalities caused by avian influenza was adapted and tested to assess its potential as an emergency disposal option for disease-related swine mortalities. Fresh air was supplied through perforated plastic tubing routed through the base of the compost pile. The combined air inlet and top vent area is ⩽∼1% of the gas exchange surface of a conventional uncovered windrow. Parameters evaluated included: (1) spatial and temporal variations in matrix moisture content (m.c.), leachate production, and matrix O2 concentrations; (2) extent of soft tissue decomposition; and (3) internal temperature and the success rate in achieving USEPA time/temperature (T) criteria for pathogen reduction. Six envelope materials (wood shavings, corn silage, ground cornstalks, ground oat straw, ground soybean straw, or ground alfalfa hay) and two initial m.c.'s (15-30% w.b. for materials stored indoors, and 45-65% w.b. to simulate materials exposed to precipitation) were tested to determine their effect on performance parameters (1-3). Results of triple-replicated field trials showed that the composting system did not accumulate moisture despite the 150kg carcass water load (65% of 225kg total carcass mass) released during decomposition. Mean compost m.c. in the carcass layer declined by ∼7 percentage points during 8-week trials, and a leachate accumulation was rare. Matrix O2 concentrations for all materials other than silage were ⩾10% using the equivalent of 2m inlet/vent spacing. In silage O2 dropped below 5% in some cases even when 0.5m inlet/vent spacing was used. Eight week soft tissue decomposition ranged from 87% in cornstalks to 72% in silage. Success rates for achievement of USEPA Class B time/temperature criteria ranged from 91% for silage to 33-57% for other materials. Companion laboratory biodegradation studies suggest that Class B success rates can be improved

  10. Systemic Free Fatty Acid Disposal Into Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Koutsari, Christina; Mundi, Manpreet S.; Ali, Asem H.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    We measured the incorporation of systemic free fatty acids (FFA) into circulating very low-density lipoprotein triglycerides (VLDL-TGs) under postabsorptive, postprandial, and walking conditions in humans. Fifty-five men and 85 premenopausal women with BMI 18–24 (lean) and 27–36 kg/m2 (overweight/obese) received an intravenous bolus injection of [1,1,2,3,3-2H5]glycerol (to measure VLDL-TG kinetics) and either [1-14C]palmitate or [9,10-3H]palmitate to determine the proportion of systemic FFA that is converted to VLDL-TG. Experiments started at 0630 h after a 12-h overnight fast. In the postabsorptive protocol, participants rested and remained fasted until 1330 h. In the postprandial protocol, volunteers ingested frequent portions of a fat-free smoothie. In the walking protocol, participants walked on a treadmill for 5.5 h at ∼3× resting energy expenditure. Approximately 7% of circulating FFA was converted into VLDL-TG. VLDL-TG secretion rates (SRs) were not statistically different among protocols. Visceral fat mass was the only independent predictor of VLDL-TG secretion, explaining 33–57% of the variance. The small proportion of systemic FFA that is converted to VLDL-TG can confound the expected relationship between plasma FFA concentration and VLDL-TG SRs. Regulation of VLDL-TG secretion is complex in that, despite a broad spectrum of physiological FFA concentrations, VLDL-TG SRs did not vary based on different acute substrate availability. PMID:23434937

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Project System Design Description for Can Loading System

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2001-02-15

    The purpose of this System Design Description (SDD) is to specify the system and component functions and requirements for the Can Loading System and provide a complete description of the system (design features, boundaries, and interfaces), principles of operation (including upsets and recovery), and the system maintenance approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize up to 13 metric tons (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials.

  12. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current production internal combustion engine vehicles. It is possible to achieve this goal and also provide passenger and cargo space comparable to a selected current production sub-compact car either in a unique new design or by utilizing the production vehicle as a base. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages - one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area - in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passsenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  13. Solafern solar system design brochure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A complete residential solar space heating and hot water system is described. Low maintenance, durable, and efficient air heating collectors are used. The collectors have a selective absorber and a tempered glass cover nearly one-quarter of an inch thick with an aluminum frame. The solar energy can be delivered directly to the living area when there is a demand; otherwise, it is stored in the form of hot water. Hot water storage is accomplished through the use of an air-to-water exchanger. The hot water storage is used simultaneously to preheat the domestic hot water, as well as to store energy for space heating.

  14. The Pegasus avionics system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffy, David A.

    The Pegasus air-launched space booster successfully completed its maiden flight on April 5, 1990. Many recent advances in digital avionics and computer technology simplified the vehicle and its testing. The single-string Pegasus avionics comprise multiple microcontroller-based remote units for controlling actuators, firing thrusters and pyrotechnics, and gathering telemetry arranged in a serial digital star network centered on the VMEBUS flight computer. Flight, aircraft, and test software is in C, with small amounts of FORTH and assembly language. A series of laboratory, simulation, mobile test bed, motor static firing, and captive flight tests verified that the avionics system was ready for free flight.

  15. Digital television system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1976-01-01

    The use of digital techniques for transmission of pictorial data is discussed for multi-frame images (television). Video signals are processed in a manner which includes quantization and coding such that they are separable from the noise introduced into the channel. The performance of digital television systems is determined by the nature of the processing techniques (i.e., whether the video signal itself or, instead, something related to the video signal is quantized and coded) and to the quantization and coding schemes employed.

  16. System Design and the Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, Darrel

    2008-05-06

    The objective of this paper is to present the Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) Lessons Learned for system design as it relates to safety basis documentation. BJC has had to reconcile incomplete or outdated system description information with current facility safety basis for a number of situations in recent months. This paper has relevance in multiple topical areas including documented safety analysis, decontamination & decommissioning (D&D), safety basis (SB) implementation, safety and design integration, potential inadequacy of the safety analysis (PISA), technical safety requirements (TSR), and unreviewed safety questions. BJC learned that nuclear safety compliance relies on adequate and well documented system design information. A number of PIS As and TSR violations occurred due to inadequate or erroneous system design information. As a corrective action, BJC assessed the occurrences caused by systems design-safety basis interface problems. Safety systems reviewed included the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Fluorination System, K-1065 fire alarm system, and the K-25 Radiation Criticality Accident Alarm System. The conclusion was that an inadequate knowledge of system design could result in continuous non-compliance issues relating to nuclear safety. This was especially true with older facilities that lacked current as-built drawings coupled with the loss of 'historical knowledge' as personnel retired or moved on in their careers. Walkdown of systems and the updating of drawings are imperative for nuclear safety compliance. System design integration with safety basis has relevance in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the BJC Lessons Learned in this area. It will be of benefit to DOE contractors that manage and operate an aging population of nuclear facilities.

  17. Mechatronic system design course for undergraduate programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, A.; Tutunji, T.; Al-Sharif, L.

    2011-08-01

    Technology advancement and human needs have led to integration among many engineering disciplines. Mechatronics engineering is an integrated discipline that focuses on the design and analysis of complete engineering systems. These systems include mechanical, electrical, computer and control subsystems. In this paper, the importance of teaching mechatronic system design to undergraduate engineering students is emphasised. The paper offers the collaborative experience in preparing and delivering the course material for two universities in Jordan. A detailed description of such a course is provided and a case study is presented. The case study used is a final year project, where students applied a six-stage design procedure that is described in the paper.

  18. Design of a clinical notification system.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M M; Tsui, F C; Pike, J; Pike, L

    1999-01-01

    We describe the requirements and design of an enterprise-wide notification system. From published descriptions of notification schemes, our own experience, and use cases provided by diverse users in our institution, we developed a set of functional requirements. The resulting design supports multiple communication channels, third party mappings (algorithms) from message to recipient and/or channel of delivery, and escalation algorithms. A requirement for multiple message formats is addressed by a document specification. We implemented this system in Java as a CORBA object. This paper describes the design and current implementation of our notification system. PMID:10566509

  19. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  20. Disposable and removable nucleic acid extraction and purification cartridges for automated flow-through systems

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, John Frederick

    2014-09-09

    Removable cartridges are used on automated flow-through systems for the purpose of extracting and purifying genetic material from complex matrices. Different types of cartridges are paired with specific automated protocols to concentrate, extract, and purifying pathogenic or human genetic material. Their flow-through nature allows large quantities sample to be processed. Matrices may be filtered using size exclusion and/or affinity filters to concentrate the pathogen of interest. Lysed material is ultimately passed through a filter to remove the insoluble material before the soluble genetic material is delivered past a silica-like membrane that binds the genetic material, where it is washed, dried, and eluted. Cartridges are inserted into the housing areas of flow-through automated instruments, which are equipped with sensors to ensure proper placement and usage of the cartridges. Properly inserted cartridges create fluid- and air-tight seals with the flow lines of an automated instrument.

  1. Demonstration of MMACE prototype TWT design system

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    The MMACE (Microwave and Millimeter-wave Advanced Computational Environment) design system is a software framework for integrating both existing and future microwave power tube design tools into a cohesive, productive whole. The first phase of the MMACE Program developed a detailed understanding of vacuum electronics design requirements and constructed a prototype design environment to test and evaluate framework concepts. MMACE has focused on five key features: (1) ``project``-based management of design data and codes; (2) common ``master`` geometry for all codes; (3) sharing of common data by all codes; (4) a smooth integration of geometry-driven codes with parametric codes; and (5) a consistent graphical user interface across codes. The prototype TWT design system was created to evaluate these concepts, using a representative collection of existing design and analysis tools. The selected tools include parametric design tools, a gun code, a magnetostatic code, PIC codes, and thermomechanical codes. Usability has been enhanced by implementing a consistent user interface via code wrappers which allow users to easily access, input and modify design data. Appropriate input files for each code are automatically created from the common data model and user-supplied code-specific data. This presentation will describe and demonstrate the key technical capabilities of the MMACE prototype system for designing helix TWT`s. In addition to the technical presentation, a hands-on demonstration will permit attendees to interact with the prototype and evaluate its technical capabilities and its ``look and feel``.

  2. The CADSS design automation system. [computerized design language for small digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franke, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    This research was designed to implement and extend a previously defined design automation system for the design of small digital structures. A description is included of the higher level language developed to describe systems as a sequence of register transfer operations. The system simulator which is used to determine if the original description is correct is also discussed. The design automation system produces tables describing the state transistions of the system and the operation of all registers. In addition all Boolean equations specifying system operation are minimized and converted to NAND gate structures. Suggestions for further extensions to the system are also given.

  3. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the Space Station Advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related extravehicular activity (EVA) support equipment were defined and established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as opertional, procedures, and training issues were considered.

  4. Preliminary design of a future integrated design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diggins, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    IPAD is a system of computer programs and data supporting the aerospace-vehicle design process by providing a set of services to aid in the management of a design project, project technical work, and project support work. Its purpose is to integrate people, programs, and data into a unified aerospace-vehicle design system. All project-management and technical data, together with certain standard data, are stored in a data base. The IPAD functions allow project personnel to query the data base and to perform operations on the data. This permits the orderly sequencing of the task elements of a complex operation and provides common access to a single data base by various participating groups who otherwise would require many separate files. These capabilities will be provided on a single host computer or across multiple heterogeneous computers on a distributed progress basis.

  5. Design for Verification: Using Design Patterns to Build Reliable Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlitz, Peter C.; Penix, John; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Components so far have been mainly used in commercial software development to reduce time to market. While some effort has been spent on formal aspects of components, most of this was done in the context of programming language or operating system framework integration. As a consequence, increased reliability of composed systems is mainly regarded as a side effect of a more rigid testing of pre-fabricated components. In contrast to this, Design for Verification (D4V) puts the focus on component specific property guarantees, which are used to design systems with high reliability requirements. D4V components are domain specific design pattern instances with well-defined property guarantees and usage rules, which are suitable for automatic verification. The guaranteed properties are explicitly used to select components according to key system requirements. The D4V hypothesis is that the same general architecture and design principles leading to good modularity, extensibility and complexity/functionality ratio can be adapted to overcome some of the limitations of conventional reliability assurance measures, such as too large a state space or too many execution paths.

  6. DESIGN PACKAGE 1D SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Eisler

    1995-02-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1D, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1D system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations excluding hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations.

  7. Design Rules for Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers some of the common assumptions and engineering rules of thumb used in life support system design. One general design rule is that the longer the mission, the more the life support system should use recycling and regenerable technologies. A more specific rule is that, if the system grows more than half the food, the food plants will supply all the oxygen needed for the crew life support. There are many such design rules that help in planning the analysis of life support systems and in checking results. These rules are typically if-then statements describing the results of steady-state, "back of the envelope," mass flow calculations. They are useful in identifying plausible candidate life support system designs and in rough allocations between resupply and resource recovery. Life support system designers should always review the design rules and make quick steady state calculations before doing detailed design and dynamic simulation. This paper develops the basis for the different assumptions and design rules and discusses how they should be used. We start top-down, with the highest level requirement to sustain human beings in a closed environment off Earth. We consider the crew needs for air, water, and food. We then discuss atmosphere leakage and recycling losses. The needs to support the crew and to make up losses define the fundamental life support system requirements. We consider the trade-offs between resupplying and recycling oxygen, water, and food. The specific choices between resupply and recycling are determined by mission duration, presence of in-situ resources, etc., and are defining parameters of life support system design.

  8. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-09-17

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I&C) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I&C systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures that

  9. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  10. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  11. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  12. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  13. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  14. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  15. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  16. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  17. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  18. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  19. Designing for Maintainability and System Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    The final goal for a delivered system (whether a car, aircraft, avionics box or computer) should be its availability to operate and perform its intended function over its expected design life. Hence, in designing a system, we cannot think in terms of delivering the system and just walking away. The system supplier needs to provide support throughout the operating life of the product. Here, supportability requires an effective combination of reliability, maintainability, logistics and operations engineering (as well as safety engineering) to have a system that is available for its intended use throughout its designated mission lifetime. Maintainability is a key driving element in the effective support and upkeep of the system as well as providing the ability to modify and upgrade the system throughout its lifetime. This paper then, will concentrate on maintainability and its integration into the system engineering and design process. The topics to be covered include elements of maintainability, the total cost of ownership, how system availability, maintenance and logistics costs and spare parts cost effect the overall program costs. System analysis and maintainability will show how maintainability fits into the overall systems approach to project development. Maintainability processes and documents will focus on how maintainability is to be performed and what documents are typically generated for a large scale program. Maintainability analysis shows how trade-offs can be performed for various alternative components. The conclusions summarize the paper and are followed by specific problems for hands-on training.

  20. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-08-25

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

  1. System design description PFP thermal stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    LARKIN, K.A.

    1999-02-23

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Thermal Stabilization project. The sources of material for this project are residues scraped from glovebox floors and materials already stored in vault storage that need further stabilizing. Stabilizing this material will promote long term storage and reduced worker exposure. This document addresses: functional design, equipment, and safety requirements for thermal stabilization of plutonium residues and oxides.

  2. Solar heating system final design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The system is composed of a warm air collector, a logic control unit and a universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and therefore provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic was designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit was designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.

  3. Use of ceramic materials in waste-package systems for geologic disposal of nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fullam, H.T.

    1980-12-01

    A study to investigate the potential use of ceramic materials as components in the waste package systems was conducted. The initial objective of the study was to screen and compare a large number of ceramic materials and identify the best materials for the proposed application. The principal method used to screen the candidates was to subject samples of each material to a series of leaching tests and to determine their relative resistance to attack by the leach solutions. A total of 14 ceramic materials, plus graphite and basalt were evaluated using three different leach solutions: demineralized water, a synthetic Hanford ground water, and a synthetic WIPP brine solution. The ceramic materials screened were Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (99%), Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (99.8%), mullite (2Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.SiO/sub 2/), vitreous silica (SiO/sub 2/), BaTiO/sub 3/, CaTiO/sub 3/, CaTiSiO/sub 5/, TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, ZrSiO/sub 4/, Pyroceram 9617, and Marcor Code 9658 machinable glass-ceramic. Average leach rates for the materials tested were determined from analyses of the leach solutions and/or sample weight loss measurements. Because of the limited scope of the present study, evaluation of the specimens was limited to ceramographic examination. Based on an overall evaluation of the leach rate data, five of the materials tested, namely graphite, TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, and the two grades of alumina, exhibited much greater resistance to leaching than did the other materials tested. Based on all the experimental data obtained, and considering other factors such as cost, availability, fabrication technology, and mechanical and physical properties, graphite and alumina are the preferred candidates for the barrier application. The secondary choices are TiO/sub 2/ and ZrO/sub 2/.

  4. DESIGN INFORMATION ON FINE PORE AERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies were conducted over several years at municipal wastewater treatment plants employing line pore diffused aeration systems. These studies were designed to produce reliable information on the performance and operational requirements of fine pore devices under process ...

  5. Computer automation for feedback system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical techniques and explanations of various steps used by an automated computer program to design feedback systems are summarized. Special attention was given to refining the automatic evaluation suboptimal loop transmission and the translation of time to frequency domain specifications.

  6. Mars orbiter conceptual systems design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, W.; Vogl, J.

    1982-01-01

    Spacecraft system and subsystem designs at the conceptual level to perform either of two Mars Orbiter missions, a Climatology Mission and an Aeronomy Mission were developed. The objectives of these missions are to obtain and return data.

  7. Design information for solar-heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains preliminary design information for two solar-heating and hot water systems presently under development. Information includes quality control data, special tooling specifications, hazard analysis, and preliminary training program for installation contractors.

  8. Modular solar-heating system - design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinton, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    Compilation contains design, performance, and hardware specifications in sufficient detail to fabricate or procure materials and install, operate, and maintain complete modular solar heating and hot water system for single family size dwellings.

  9. Astrionics system designers handbook, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Hardware elements in new and advanced astrionics system designs are discussed. This cost effective approach has as its goal the reduction of R&D and testing costs through the application of proven and tested astrionics components. The ready availability to the designer of data facts for applicable system components is highly desirable. The astrionics System Designers Handbook has as its objective this documenting of data facts to serve the anticipated requirements of the astrionics system designer. Eleven NASA programs were selected as the reference base for the document. These programs are: ATS-F, ERTS-B, HEAO-A, OSO-I, Viking Orbiter, OAO-C, Skylab AM/MDA, Skylab ATM, Apollo 17 CSM, Apollo 17 LM and Mariner Mars 71. Four subsystems were chosen for documentation: communications, data management, electrical power and guidance, navigation and control.

  10. Design data brochure: SIMS prototype system 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A closed hydronic solar system is reported for space and hot water heating. Design, performance, and hardware specifications are presented sufficient for architectural engineers and contractors to procure, install, operate, and maintain a similar solar application.

  11. Digital hydraulic valving system. [design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and development are reported of a digital hydraulic valving system that would accept direct digital inputs. Topics include: summary of contractual accomplishments, design and function description, valve parameters and calculations, conclusions, and recommendations. The electrical control circuit operating procedure is outlined in an appendix.

  12. Wake County Public School System Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake County Public School System, Raleigh, NC.

    The Wake County Public School System has published its guidelines for planning and design of functional, cost effective, and durable educational facilities that are attractive and enhance the students' educational experience. The guidelines present basic planning requirement and design criteria for the entire construction process, including: codes…

  13. Design and Simulation of MEMS Enabled Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Mark

    2001-03-01

    Over the past two decades considerable progress in microsystems (MEMS) fabrication technologies has been made resulting in a variety of commercially successful devices. Most of these devices have required application specific fabrication steps, which must be developed, and the lack of proper design tools often resulted in repeated prototyping that was expensive and time consuming. Further development of MEMS enabled commercial products and reduction of the time to market requires implementation of a concurrent design methodology through better design tools and standardization of the fabrication processes. The cross-disciplinary nature of MEMS-Enabled Systems necessitates designers with different backgrounds to work together in understanding the effects of one sub-system on another and this requires a top-down approach to integrated system design. Design tools that can facilitate this communication and reduce the need for excessive prototype fabrication and test iterations and significantly reduce cost and time-to-market are vitally important. The main focus of this article is to describe the top-down design methodology and and ongoing research on tools that facilitate concurrent design of MEMS enabled systems.

  14. Immobilization and geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste.

    PubMed

    Tait, J C

    1984-08-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is developing methods for the safe disposal of both used nuclear fuel and fuel recycle waste. The disposal strategy is based on interim storage of the used fuel, immobilization of either used fuel or recycle waste, and disposal, deep in a stable geological formation in the Canadian Shield. The disposal concept proposes a multibarrier system to inhibit the release of the radioactive waste from the disposal vault. The principal components of the multibarrier system are (i) the waste form in which the radionuclides are immobilized, (ii) engineered barriers including high integrity containers, buffers and backfills designed to retard the movement of groundwaters in the disposal vault, and (iii) the natural barrier provided by the massive geological formation itself. The research programs to investigate this concept are discussed briefly. Several different waste forms are being developed for the immobilization of high-level fuel recycle waste, including glass, glass-ceramics and crystalline materials. Dissolution of these materials in groundwater is the only likely scenario that could lead to radionuclide release. The factors that influence the aqueous dissolution behaviour of these materials are reviewed. PMID:6488089

  15. Immobilization and geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste.

    PubMed

    Tait, J C

    1984-08-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is developing methods for the safe disposal of both used nuclear fuel and fuel recycle waste. The disposal strategy is based on interim storage of the used fuel, immobilization of either used fuel or recycle waste, and disposal, deep in a stable geological formation in the Canadian Shield. The disposal concept proposes a multibarrier system to inhibit the release of the radioactive waste from the disposal vault. The principal components of the multibarrier system are (i) the waste form in which the radionuclides are immobilized, (ii) engineered barriers including high integrity containers, buffers and backfills designed to retard the movement of groundwaters in the disposal vault, and (iii) the natural barrier provided by the massive geological formation itself. The research programs to investigate this concept are discussed briefly. Several different waste forms are being developed for the immobilization of high-level fuel recycle waste, including glass, glass-ceramics and crystalline materials. Dissolution of these materials in groundwater is the only likely scenario that could lead to radionuclide release. The factors that influence the aqueous dissolution behaviour of these materials are reviewed.

  16. Preliminary conceptual design of DEMO EC system

    SciTech Connect

    Garavaglia, S. Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; Granucci, G.; Moro, A.; Rispoli, N.; Grossetti, G.; Strauss, D.; Jelonnek, J.; Tran, Q. M.; Franke, T.

    2015-12-10

    In the framework of EUROfusion Consortium the Work Package Heating and Current Drive addresses the engineering design and R&D for the electron cyclotron, ion cyclotron and neutral beam systems. This paper reports the activities performed in 2014, focusing on the work done regarding the input for the conceptual design of the EC system, particularly for the gyrotron, the transmission line and the launchers.

  17. Design of Galilean-type telescope systems.

    PubMed

    Menchaca, C; Malacara, D

    1988-09-01

    In this paper we present the design of three Galilean-type telescope systems with magnifications of 2.2x, 4x, and 5x. These systems are free of the large weight and length as well as the reduced field of view, which are frequent undesirable properties of Galilean telescopes. These designs have a moderate field of view and a short length, with reasonably good aberration correction, and may be used as binocular telescopes or magnifiers with a large working distance.

  18. Heliostat design for the daylighting system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hung; Hsiso, Horng-Ching; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Wang, Chen-You; Lin, Tzung-Han; Chen, Yi-Yung; Lai, Yi-Lung; Yen, Cho-Jung; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei

    2014-10-10

    The daylighting system is designed to guide sunlight into buildings for illumination. It has the best illumination performance when sunlight vertically impinges on the collector of the daylighting system, while it has low performance when sunlight impinges obliquely. To overcome the problem, this paper investigates the design of a heliostat that reflects sunlight vertically onto a daylighting system. This study proposes a 3×3 mirror matrix heliostat, which is different from the traditional heliostat with one single mirror. With the heliostat, the system efficiency increases as high as 3.32 times.

  19. Cross Cutting Structural Design for Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmes, Edmund B.

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of our new National Space Policy and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) is keyed to the development of more effective space access and transportation systems. Optimizing in-space systems through innovative cross cutting structural designs that reduce mass, combine functional requirements and improve performance can significantly advance spacecraft designs to meet the ever growing demands of our new National Space Policy. Dependence on limited structural designs is no longer an option. We must create robust materials, forms, function and evolvable systems. We must advance national policy objectives in the design, development, test and operation of multi-billion dollar new generation crew capsules by enabling them to evolve in meeting the requirements of long duration missions to the moon and mars. This paper discusses several current issues and major design drivers for consideration in structural design of advanced spacecraft systems. Approaches to addressing these multifunctional requirements is presented as well as a discussion on utilizing Functional Analysis System Technique (FAST) in developing cross cutting structural designs for future spacecraft. It will be shown how easy it is to deploy such techniques in any conceptual architecture definition or ongoing preliminary design. As experts in merging mission, safety and life support requirements of the frail human existence into robust vehicle and habitat design, we will conquer the final frontier, harness new resources and develop life giving technologies for mankind through more innovative designs. The rocket equation tells us that a reduction in mass optimizes our propulsive results. Primary and secondary structural elements provide for the containment of gases, fluids and solids; translate and sustain loads/impacts; conduct/radiate thermal energy; shield from the harmful effects of radiation; provide for grounding/bonding of electrical power systems; compartmentalize operational

  20. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Randle

    2000-01-07

    The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I&C) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I&C systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I&C systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored, controlled, and

  1. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    SciTech Connect

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  2. Electrostatic camera system functional design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botticelli, R. A.; Cook, F. J.; Moore, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A functional design study for an electrostatic camera system for application to planetary missions is presented. The electrostatic camera can produce and store a large number of pictures and provide for transmission of the stored information at arbitrary times after exposure. Preliminary configuration drawings and circuit diagrams for the system are illustrated. The camera system's size, weight, power consumption, and performance are characterized. Tradeoffs between system weight, power, and storage capacity are identified.

  3. Psychology of developing and designing expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; MacGregor, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses psychological problems relevant to developing and designing expert systems. With respect to the former, the psychological literature suggests that several cognitive biases may affect the elicitation of a valid knowledge base from the expert. The literature also suggests that common expert system inference engines may be quite inconsistent with reasoning heuristics employed by experts. With respect to expert system user interfaces, care should be taken when eliciting uncertainty estimates from users, presenting system conclusions, and ordering questions.

  4. Design considerations for divers' breathing gas systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, O. R.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the design methods used to establish the gas storage, mixing, and transfer requirements for existing deep dive systems are discussed. Gas mixing systems appear essential to provide the low oxygen concentration mixtures within the converging tolerance range dictated by applications to increasing depths. Time related use of gas together with the performance of the gas transfer system insures a reasonable time frame for systems application.

  5. The application test system: Technical approach and system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, J. L.; Mcclelland, D. R.; Tarbet, J. D.; Purnell, R. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    An insight is provided of the technical approach which was applied to the system design of the USDA Applications Test Program. Included are: identification of requirements, assessment of remote sensing contributions, evaluations of existing techniques, and cost effective development of a system design which utilizes techniques and procedures consistent with requirements.

  6. Designing Control System Application Software for Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) was used to design the Environmental Systems Test Stand (ESTS) control system software. The UML was chosen for its ability to facilitate a clear dialog between software designer and customer, from which requirements are discovered and documented in a manner which transposes directly to program objects. Applying the UML to control system software design has resulted in a baseline set of documents from which change and effort of that change can be accurately measured. As the Environmental Systems Test Stand evolves, accurate estimates of the time and effort required to change the control system software will be made. Accurate quantification of the cost of software change can be before implementation, improving schedule and budget accuracy.

  7. [Development and Design of Portable Sleep Electroencephalogram Monitoring System].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Ye, Datian; Peng, Cheng

    2015-06-01

    The growing rate of public health problem for increasing number of people afflicted with poor sleep quality suggests the importance of developing portable sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring systems. The system could record the overnight EEG signal, classify sleep stages automatically, and grade the sleep quality. We in our laboratory collected the signals in an easy way using a single channel with three electrodes which were placed in frontal position in case of the electrode drop-off during sleep. For a test, either silver disc electrodes or disposable medical electrocardiographic electrodes were used. Sleep EEG recorded by the two types of electrodes was compared to each other so as to find out which type was more suitable. Two algorithms were used for sleep EEG processing, i. e. amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) algorithm and sample entropy algorithm. Results showed that both algorithms could perform sleep stage classification and quality evaluation automatically. The present designed system could be used to monitor overnight sleep and provide quantitative evaluation.

  8. U.S. Space Station Freedom Supplemental Reboost System (SRS) design and operational impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Brian A.; Winters, Donna M.

    1992-07-01

    Current designs of the U.S. Space Station Freedom Propulsion System require the capability to perform reboost, attitude control, and other orbit adjustment maneuvers as part of normal operations. In order to reduce the quantity of hydrazine consumed by the Primary Propulsion System, the propulsion system includes the capability to propulsively dispose waste gases that are generated by various station systems and experiments. The impulses generated by the Supplemental Reboost System (SRS) are used to offset orbital decay due to atmospheric drag and reduce propellant requirements. This paper presents the designs of the SRS including schematics of the waste gas collection architecture, various system and component characteristics, and methods of system operation. Estimates of waste gas quantities, propellant savings, and operational altitude impacts are provided.

  9. UMTRA Project remedial action planning and disposal cell design to comply with the proposed EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) standards (40 CFR Part 192)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project involves stabilizing 24 inactive uranium mill tailings piles in 10 states. Remedial work must meet standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Remedial action must be designed and constructed to prevent dispersion of the tailings and other contaminated materials, and must prevent the inadvertent use of the tailings by man. This report is prepared primarily for distribution to parties involved in the UMTRA Project, including the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and states and tribes. It is intended to record the work done by the DOE since publication of the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards, and to show how the DOE has attempted to respond and react in a positive way to the new requirements that result from the proposed standards. This report discusses the groundwater compliance strategies now being defined and implemented by the DOE, and details the changes in disposal cell designs that result from studies to evaluate ways to facilitate compliance with the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. This report also serves to record the technical advances, planning, and progress made on the UMTRA Project since the appearance of the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. The report serves to establish, document, and disseminate technical approaches and engineering and groundwater information to people who may be interested or involved in similar or related projects. 24 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. SIMS prototype system 1: Design data brochure. [solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The system, subsystem, and installation requirements are described. System operation and performance are discussed, and procedures for sizing the system to a specific site are presented.

  11. A Model-Based Expert System For Digital Systems Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. G.; Ho, W. P. C.; Hu, Y. H.; Yun, D. Y. Y.; Parng, T. M.

    1987-05-01

    In this paper, we present a model-based expert system for automatic digital systems design. The goal of digital systems design is to generate a workable and efficient design from high level specifications. The formalization of the design process is a necessity for building an efficient automatic CAD system. Our approach combines model-based, heuristic best-first search, and meta-planning techniques from AI to facilitate the design process. The design process is decomposed into three subprocesses. First, the high-level behavioral specifications are translated into sequences of primitive behavioral operations. Next, primitive operations are grouped to form intermediate-level behavioral functions. Finally, structural function modules are selected to implement these functions. Using model-based reasoning on the primitive behavioral operations level extends the solution space considered in design and provides more opportunity for minimization. Heuristic best-first search and meta-planning tech-niques control the decision-making in the latter two subprocesses to optimize the final design. They also facilitate system maintenance by separating design strategy from design knowledge.

  12. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shenggang; Cao, Jingcan; Feng, Li; Liang, Wenyan; Zhang, Liqiu

    2014-07-15

    The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012. PMID:24887122

  13. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shenggang; Cao, Jingcan; Feng, Li; Liang, Wenyan; Zhang, Liqiu

    2014-07-15

    The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012.

  14. A feasibility assessment of installation, operation and disposal options for nuclear reactor power system concepts for a NASA growth space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.; Heller, Jack A.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth space station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational disposition, and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of space station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide the feasibility of each combination.

  15. SIMS prototype system 4: Design data brochure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A pre-package prototype unit having domestic hot water and room solar heating capability that uses air as the collector fluid is described. This system is designed to be used with a small single-family dwelling where a roof mounted collector array is not feasible. The prototype unit is an assemble containing 203 square feet of effective collector surface with 113 cubic feet of rock storage. The design of structure and storage is modular, which permits expansion and reduction of the collector array and storage bed in 68 square feet and 37 cubic feet increments respectively. The system is designed to be transportable. This permitted assemble and certification testing in one area and installation in another area without tear down and reassemble. Design, installation, operation, performance and maintenance of this system are described.

  16. DESIGN PACKAGE 1E SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1E, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1E system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1E structures/systems/components(S/S/Cs) in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions.

  17. A design methodology for unattended monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH,JAMES D.; DELAND,SHARON M.

    2000-03-01

    The authors presented a high-level methodology for the design of unattended monitoring systems, focusing on a system to detect diversion of nuclear materials from a storage facility. The methodology is composed of seven, interrelated analyses: Facility Analysis, Vulnerability Analysis, Threat Assessment, Scenario Assessment, Design Analysis, Conceptual Design, and Performance Assessment. The design of the monitoring system is iteratively improved until it meets a set of pre-established performance criteria. The methodology presented here is based on other, well-established system analysis methodologies and hence they believe it can be adapted to other verification or compliance applications. In order to make this approach more generic, however, there needs to be more work on techniques for establishing evaluation criteria and associated performance metrics. They found that defining general-purpose evaluation criteria for verifying compliance with international agreements was a significant undertaking in itself. They finally focused on diversion of nuclear material in order to simplify the problem so that they could work out an overall approach for the design methodology. However, general guidelines for the development of evaluation criteria are critical for a general-purpose methodology. A poor choice in evaluation criteria could result in a monitoring system design that solves the wrong problem.

  18. Advanced tracking systems design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potash, R.; Floyd, L.; Jacobsen, A.; Cunningham, K.; Kapoor, A.; Kwadrat, C.; Radel, J.; Mccarthy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of an assessment of several types of high-accuracy tracking systems proposed to track the spacecraft in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) are summarized. Tracking systems based on the use of interferometry and ranging are investigated. For each system, the top-level system design and operations concept are provided. A comparative system assessment is presented in terms of orbit determination performance, ATDRSS impacts, life-cycle cost, and technological risk.

  19. Design of a recumbent seating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croyle, Scott; Delarosa, Jose; George, Daren; Hinkle, Cathy; Karas, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Future space shuttle missions presented by NASA might require the shuttle to rendezvous with the Russian space station Mir for the purpose of transporting astronauts back to earth. Due to the atrophied state of these astronauts, a special seating system must be designed for their transportation. The main functions of this seating system are to support and restrain the astronauts during normal reentry flight and to dampen some of the loading that might occur in a crash situation. Through research, the design team developed many concept variants for these functional requirements. By evaluating each variant, the concepts were eliminated until the four most attractive designs remained. The team used a decision matrix to determine the best concept to carry through embodiment. This concept involved using struts for support during reentry flight and a spring damper/shock absorber system to dampen crash landing loads. The embodiment design process consisted of defining the layout of each of the main functional components, specifically, the seat structure and the strut structure. Through the use of MCS/pal two, the design was refined until it could handle all required loads and dampen to the forces specified. The auxiliary function carriers were then considered. Following the design of these components, the complete final layout could be determined. It is concluded that the final design meets all specifications outlined in the conceptual design. The main advantages of this design are its low weight, simplicity, and large amount of function sharing between different components. The disassembly of this design could potentially present a problem because of time and size constraints involved. Overall, this design meets or exceeds all functional requirements.

  20. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United

  1. A preliminary process design and economic assessment of a catalyst rejuvenation process for waste disposal of refinery spent catalysts.

    PubMed

    Marafi, Meena; Stanislaus, Antony; Kam, Ezra

    2008-03-01

    Spent hydroprocessing catalysts from refineries have been classified as hazardous solid waste by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), refiners must find a viable but economical solution to solve this serious environmental issue. Catalyst rejuvenation is an attractive option for minimizing the environmental problems associated with spent catalysts. In this study, a preliminary design for such a process and the corresponding economic analysis are performed to assess the proposed catalyst rejuvenation process for metal-fouled spent catalysts generated in residue hydroprocessing units. The scenarios used in the economic assessment are based on three options of process synthesis and two operator modes. It is found that the option of rejuvenating medium and lightly fouled spent catalyst produced by the refinery will be the best solution for refiners, both environmentally and economically.

  2. What do lay people want to know about the disposal of nuclear waste? A mental model approach to the design and development of an online risk communication.

    PubMed

    Skarlatidou, A; Cheng, T; Haklay, M

    2012-09-01

    Public participation requires the involvement of lay people in the decision-making processes of issues that concern them. It is currently practiced in a variety of domains, such as transport and environmental planning. Communicating risks can be a complex task, as there may be significant differences between the risk perceptions of experts and those of lay people. Among the plethora of problems that require public involvement is the site selection of a nuclear waste disposal site in the United Kingdom, which is discussed in this article. Previous ineffective attempts to locate a site provide evidence that the problem has a strong social dimension, and studies ascribe public opposition to a loss of public trust in governmental agencies and decisionmakers, and to a lack of public understanding of nuclear waste issues. Although the mental models approach has been successfully used in the effective communication of such risks as climate change, no attempt has been made to follow a prescriptive mental model approach to develop risk communication messages that inform lay people about nuclear waste disposal. After interviewing 20 lay people and 5 experts, we construct and compare their corresponding mental models to reveal any gaps and misconceptions. The mental models approach is further applied here to identify lay people's requirements regarding what they want to know about nuclear waste, and how this information should be presented so that it is easily understood. This article further describes how the mental models approach was used in the subsequent development of an online information system for the site selection of a nuclear waste repository in the United Kingdom, which is considered essential for the improvement of public understanding and the reestablishment of trust.

  3. National Ignition Facility system design requirements Laser System SDR002

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.W.; Bowers, J.M.; Bliss, E.S.; Karpenko, V.P.; English, E.

    1996-08-20

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the NIP Laser System. The Laser System generates and delivers high-power optical pulses to the target chamber, and is composed of all optical puke creating and transport elements from Puke Generation through Final Optics as well as the special equipment that supports, energizes and controls them. The Laser System consists of the following WBS elements: 1.3 Laser System 1.4 Beam Transport System 1.6 Optical Components 1.7 Laser Control 1.8.7 Final Optics.

  4. Evaluation in the Design of Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Li-An; Schwen, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    We identify literature that argues the process of creating knowledge-based system is often imbalanced. In most knowledge-based systems, development is often technology-driven instead of requirement-driven. Therefore, we argue designers must recognize that evaluation is a critical link in the application of requirement-driven development models…

  5. Solar-heating system design data brochure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report details design and performance specifications of complete system for space and hot-water heating that is assembled from commercially available components. System can meet need of single family dwelling having approximately 1,200 sq ft of floor area and can be scaled to requirements of larger or smaller installations.

  6. Solar-heating system design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report describes solar heating system composed of warm-air solar collector, logic control unit, and switching and transport unit, that meets government standards for installation in residential dwellings. Text describes system operation and performance specifications complemented by comprehensive set of subcomponent design drawings.

  7. Design data brochure: SIMS prototype system 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Information is provided on the design and performance of the IBM SIMS Prototype System 2, solar domestic hot water system, for single family residences. The document provides sufficient data to permit procurement, installation, operation, and maintenance by qualified architectural engineers or contractors.

  8. Mechatronic System Design Course for Undergraduate Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleem, A.; Tutunji, T.; Al-Sharif, L.

    2011-01-01

    Technology advancement and human needs have led to integration among many engineering disciplines. Mechatronics engineering is an integrated discipline that focuses on the design and analysis of complete engineering systems. These systems include mechanical, electrical, computer and control subsystems. In this paper, the importance of teaching…

  9. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  10. Design of nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Manga, J; Ferrer, J; Seco, A; Garcia-Usach, F

    2003-01-01

    A mechanistic mathematical model for nutrient and organic matter removal was used to describe the behavior of a nitrification denitrification enhanced biological phosphorus removal (NDEBPR) system. This model was implemented in a user-friendly software DESASS (design and simulation of activated sludge systems). A 484-L pilot plant was operated to verify the model results. The pilot plant was operated for three years over three different sludge ages. The validity of the model was confirmed with data from the pilot plant. Also, the utility of DESASS as a valuable tool for designing NDEBPR systems was confirmed.

  11. Design of nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Manga, J; Ferrer, J; Seco, A; Garcia-Usach, F

    2003-01-01

    A mechanistic mathematical model for nutrient and organic matter removal was used to describe the behavior of a nitrification denitrification enhanced biological phosphorus removal (NDEBPR) system. This model was implemented in a user-friendly software DESASS (design and simulation of activated sludge systems). A 484-L pilot plant was operated to verify the model results. The pilot plant was operated for three years over three different sludge ages. The validity of the model was confirmed with data from the pilot plant. Also, the utility of DESASS as a valuable tool for designing NDEBPR systems was confirmed. PMID:12906279

  12. Propulsion System Models for Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual design code NDARC (NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft) was initially implemented to model conventional rotorcraft propulsion systems, consisting of turboshaft engines burning jet fuel, connected to one or more rotors through a mechanical transmission. The NDARC propulsion system representation has been extended to cover additional propulsion concepts, including electric motors and generators, rotor reaction drive, turbojet and turbofan engines, fuel cells and solar cells, batteries, and fuel (energy) used without weight change. The paper describes these propulsion system components, the architecture of their implementation in NDARC, and the form of the models for performance and weight. Requirements are defined for improved performance and weight models of the new propulsion system components. With these new propulsion models, NDARC can be used to develop environmentally-friendly rotorcraft designs.

  13. The disposal of nuclear waste in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The important problem of disposal of nuclear waste in space is addressed. A prior study proposed carrying only actinide wastes to space, but the present study assumes that all actinides and all fission products are to be carried to space. It is shown that nuclear waste in the calcine (oxide) form can be packaged in a container designed to provide thermal control, radiation shielding, mechanical containment, and an abort reentry thermal protection system. This package can be transported to orbit via the Space Shuttle. A second Space Shuttle delivers an oxygen-hydrogen orbit transfer vehicle to a rendezvous compatible orbit and the mated OTV and waste package are sent to the preferred destination. Preferred locations are either a lunar crater or a solar orbit. Shuttle traffic densities (which vary in time) are given and the safety of space disposal of wastes discussed.

  14. Conceptual design of the FRIB cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    Weisend II, J G; Bull, Brad; Burns, Chris; Fila, Adam; Kelley, Patrick; Laumer, Helmut; Mann, Thomas; McCartney, Allyn; Jones, S; Zeller, A

    2012-06-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a new nuclear science facility funded by the DOE Office of Science and Michigan State University (MSU). FRIB is currently under design and will be located on the MSU campus. The centerpiece of FRIB is a heavy ion linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities and magnets which in turn requires a large cryogenic system. The cryogenic system consists of a commercially produced helium refrigeration plant and an extensive distribution system. Superconducting components will operate at both 4.5 K and 2 K. This paper describes the conceptual design of the system including the expected heat loads and operating modes. The strategy for procuring a custom turnkey helium refrigeration plant from industry, an overview of the distribution system, the interface of the cryogenic system to the conventional facilities and the project schedule are also described.

  15. Piston engine intake and exhaust system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. O. A. L.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of intake and exhaust system design is to control the transfer of acoustic energy from the sources and its emission by the system with minimal loss of engine performance. A rational design process depends on the adoption of a design methodology based on predictive modeling of acoustic behavior. Virtually any system geometry can be modeled by breaking it down to a sequence of simple elements or chambers. An initial design layout is then produced with simple parametric models of individual element behavior. This design is then refined to prototype level by systematic modification of detail using realistic assessments of system performance in its operational environment. Following prototype validation by practical testing, further necessary development is again assisted by predictive modeling. The application of appropriate procedures is illustrated by a series of practical examples. These concern improvements in interior noise by control of intake noise, of vehicle performance by reducing flow losses, of the environment by control of exhaust emissions, and lastly with the control of flow noise. The report concludes with a brief outline of current and new developments involving integrated design procedures.

  16. VOCs monitoring system simulation and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldararu, Florin; Vasile, Alexandru; Vatra, Cosmin

    2010-11-01

    The designed and simulated system will be used in the tanning industry, for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) measurements. In this industry, about 90% of the solvent contained in the emulsions evaporates during its application, giving rise to VOC, which are at the same time hazardous atmospheric pollutants and one of the sources of ground level photochemical ozone formation. It results that a monitoring system is necessary in a leather finishing process, in order to detect hazardous VOC concentration and conducting process in order of VOC concentration diminishing. The paper presents the design of a VOC monitoring system, which includes sensors for VOCs and temperature, the conditioning circuitry for these sensors, the suction system of the gas in the hood, the data acquisition and the computing system and graphic interface. The used sensor in the detection system is a semiconductor sensor, produced by Figaro Engineering Inc., characterized by a short response time, high sensitivity at almost all VOC substances. The design of the conditioning circuitry and data acquisition is done in order to compensate the sensor response variation with temperature and to maintain the low response time of the sensor. The temperature compensation is obtained by using a thermistor circuitry, and the compensation is done within the software design. A Mitsubishi PLC is used to receive the output signals of the circuits including the sensor and of the thermistor, respectively. The acquisition and computing system is done using Mitsubishi ALPHA 2 controller and a graphical terminal, GOT 1000.

  17. Design Criteria For Networked Image Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, Cliff; Nitteberg, Alan

    1982-01-01

    Image systems design is currently undergoing a metamorphosis from the conventional computing systems of the past into a new generation of special purpose designs. This change is motivated by several factors, notably among which is the increased opportunity for high performance with low cost offered by advances in semiconductor technology. Another key issue is a maturing in understanding of problems and the applicability of digital processing techniques. These factors allow the design of cost-effective systems that are functionally dedicated to specific applications and used in a utilitarian fashion. Following an overview of the above stated issues, the paper presents a top-down approach to the design of networked image analysis systems. The requirements for such a system are presented, with orientation toward the hospital environment. The three main areas are image data base management, viewing of image data and image data processing. This is followed by a survey of the current state of the art, covering image display systems, data base techniques, communications networks and software systems control. The paper concludes with a description of the functional subystems and architectural framework for networked image analysis in a production environment.

  18. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Shrader, T. A.; Macbeth, P. J.

    2002-02-26

    On February 25, 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLW/MLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLW/MLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified dispos al process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  19. Design of a physical format coding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Beibei; Pei, Jing; Zhang, Qicheng; Liu, Hailong; Tang, Yi

    2008-12-01

    A novel design of physical format coding system (PFCS) is presented based on Multi-level read-only memory disc (ML ROM) in order to solve the problem of low efficiency and long period of disc testing during system development. The PFCS is composed of four units, which are 'Encode', 'Add Noise', 'Decode', 'Error Rate', and 'Information'. It is developed with MFC under the environment of VC++ 6.0, and capable to visually simulate the procedure of data processing for ML ROM. This system can also be used for developing other optical disc storage system or similar channel coding system.

  20. Measuring advances in HVAC distribution system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, Ellen

    1998-07-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HVAC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  1. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  2. CRISP90 - SOFTWARE DESIGN ANALYZER SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The CRISP90 Software Design Analyzer System, an update of CRISP-80, is a set of programs forming a software design and documentation tool which supports top-down, hierarchic, modular, structured design and programming methodologies. The quality of a computer program can often be significantly influenced by the design medium in which the program is developed. The medium must foster the expression of the programmer's ideas easily and quickly, and it must permit flexible and facile alterations, additions, and deletions to these ideas as the design evolves. The CRISP90 software design analyzer system was developed to provide the PDL (Programmer Design Language) programmer with such a design medium. A program design using CRISP90 consists of short, English-like textual descriptions of data, interfaces, and procedures that are imbedded in a simple, structured, modular syntax. The display is formatted into two-dimensional, flowchart-like segments for a graphic presentation of the design. Together with a good interactive full-screen editor or word processor, the CRISP90 design analyzer becomes a powerful tool for the programmer. In addition to being a text formatter, the CRISP90 system prepares material that would be tedious and error prone to extract manually, such as a table of contents, module directory, structure (tier) chart, cross-references, and a statistics report on the characteristics of the design. Referenced modules are marked by schematic logic symbols to show conditional, iterative, and/or concurrent invocation in the program. A keyword usage profile can be generated automatically and glossary definitions inserted into the output documentation. Another feature is the capability to detect changes that were made between versions. Thus, "change-bars" can be placed in the output document along with a list of changed pages and a version history report. Also, items may be marked as "to be determined" and each will appear on a special table until the item is

  3. Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version

    SciTech Connect

    Abodeely, Jared; Stevens, Daniel; Ray, Allison; Newby, Deborah; Schaller, Kastli

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.

  4. Signal conditioning circuitry design for instrumentation systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Cory A.

    2012-01-01

    This report details the current progress in the design, implementation, and validation of the signal conditioning circuitry used in a measurement instrumentation system. The purpose of this text is to document the current progress of a particular design in signal conditioning circuitry in an instrumentation system. The input of the signal conditioning circuitry comes from a piezoresistive transducer and the output will be fed to a 250 ksps, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an input range of 0-5 V. It is assumed that the maximum differential voltage amplitude input from the sensor is 20 mV with an unknown, but presumably high, sensor bandwidth. This text focuses on a specific design; however, the theory is presented in such a way that this text can be used as a basis for future designs.

  5. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  6. Design guide for high pressure oxygen systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. C.; Pohl, H. O.; Chaffee, N. H.; Guy, W. W.; Allton, C. S.; Johnston, R. L.; Castner, W. L.; Stradling, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    A repository for critical and important detailed design data and information, hitherto unpublished, along with significant data on oxygen reactivity phenomena with metallic and nonmetallic materials in moderate to very high pressure environments is documented. This data and information provide a ready and easy to use reference for the guidance of designers of propulsion, power, and life support systems for use in space flight. The document is also applicable to designs for industrial and civilian uses of high pressure oxygen systems. The information presented herein are derived from data and design practices involving oxygen usage at pressures ranging from about 20 psia to 8000 psia equal with thermal conditions ranging from room temperatures up to 500 F.

  7. Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Design Verification

    SciTech Connect

    YANOCHKO, R.M.

    2000-01-27

    This document was prepared as part of an independent review to explain design verification activities already completed, and to define the remaining design verification actions for the Fuel Retrieval System. The Fuel Retrieval Subproject was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) to retrieve and repackage the SNF located in the K Basins. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) construction work is complete in the KW Basin, and start-up testing is underway Design modifications and construction planning are also underway for the KE Basin. An independent review of the design verification process as applied to the K Basin projects was initiated in support of preparation for the SNF Project operational readiness review (ORR).

  8. Improving patient safety by instructional systems design

    PubMed Central

    Battles, J B

    2006-01-01

    Education and training are important elements in patient safety, both as a potential contributing factor to risks and hazards of healthcare associated injury or harm and as an intervention to be used in eliminating or preventing such harm. All too often we have relied on training as the only interventions for patient safety without examining other alternatives or realizing that, in some cases, the training systems themselves are part of the problem. One way to ensure safety by design is to apply established design principles to education and training. Instructional systems design (ISD) is a systematic method of development of education and training programs for improved learner performance. The ISD process involves five integrated steps: analysis, development, design, implementation, and evaluation (ADDIE). The application of ISD using the ADDIE approach can eliminate or prevent education and training from being a contributing factor of health associated injury or harm, and can also be effective in preventing injury or harm. PMID:17142604

  9. Innovative Design of Complex Engineering Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The document contains the proceedings of the training workshop on Innovative Design of Complex Engineering Systems. The workshop was held at the Peninsula Higher Education Center, Hampton, Virginia, March 23 and 24, 2004. The workshop was jointly sponsored by Old Dominion University and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to a) provide broad overviews of the diverse activities related to innovative design of high-tech engineering systems; and b) identify training needs for future aerospace work force development in the design area. The format of the workshop included fifteen, half-hour overview-type presentations, a panel discussion on how to teach and train engineers in innovative design, and three exhibits by commercial vendors.

  10. System Design Description PFP Thermal Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description (SDD) and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Thermal Stabilization project. The chief objective of the SDD is to document the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) that establish and maintain the facility Safety Envelope necessary for normal safe operation of the facility; as identified in the FSAR, the OSRs, and Safety Assessment Documents (SADs). This safety equipment documentation should satisfy guidelines for the SDD given in WHC-SD-CP-TI-18 1, Criteria for Identification and Control of Equipment Necessary for Preservation of the Safety Envelope and Safe Operation of PFP. The basis for operational, alarm response, maintenance, and surveillance procedures are also identified and justified in this document. This document and its appendices address the following elements of the PFP Thermal Stabilization project: Functional and design requirements; Design description; Safety Envelope Analysis; Safety Equipment Class; and Operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures.

  11. Ultimate disposal of scrubber wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohenour, B. C.

    1978-01-01

    Part of the initial concern with using the wet scrubbers on the hypergolic propellants was the subsequential disposal of the liquid wastes. To do this, consideration was given to all possible methods to reduce the volume of the wastes and stay within the guidelines established by the state and federal environmental protection agencies. One method that was proposed was the use of water hyacinths in disposal ponds to reduce the waste concentration in the effluent to less than EPA tolerable levels. This method was under consideration and even in use by private industry, municipal governments, and NASA for upgrading existing wastewater treatment facilities to a tertiary system. The use of water hyacinths in disposal ponds appears to be a very cost-effective method for reduction and disposal of hypergolic propellants.

  12. Theory of reliable systems. [systems analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The analysis and design of reliable systems are discussed. The attributes of system reliability studied are fault tolerance, diagnosability, and reconfigurability. Objectives of the study include: to determine properties of system structure that are conducive to a particular attribute; to determine methods for obtaining reliable realizations of a given system; and to determine how properties of system behavior relate to the complexity of fault tolerant realizations. A list of 34 references is included.

  13. The Current Status of Radioactive Waste Management and Planning for Near Surface Disposal in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Purnomo, A. S.

    2003-02-24

    Near surface disposal has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. Near surface disposal also rely on active institutional controls, such as monitoring and maintenance. The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste so that it does not result in undue radiation exposure to humans and the environment. The required degree of isolation can be obtained by implementing various disposal methods, of which near surface disposal represents an option commonly used and demonstrated in several countries. In near surface disposal, the disposal facility is located on or below the ground surface, where the protective covering is generally a few meters thick. The se facilities are intended to contain low and intermediate level waste without appreciable quantities of long-lived radionuclides.

  14. ATLAS, an integrated structural analysis and design system. Volume 2: System design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. J. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    ATLAS is a structural analysis and design system, operational on the Control Data Corporation 6600/CYBER computers. The overall system design, the design of the individual program modules, and the routines in the ATLAS system library are described. The overall design is discussed in terms of system architecture, executive function, data base structure, user program interfaces and operational procedures. The program module sections include detailed code description, common block usage and random access file usage. The description of the ATLAS program library includes all information needed to use these general purpose routines.

  15. Development of Conceptual Design Support Tool Founded on Formalization of Conceptual Design Process for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyajima, Hiroyuki; Yuhara, Naohiro

    Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS), which maintain human lives by recycling substances essential for living, are comprised of humans, plants, and material circulation systems. The plants supply food to the humans or reproduce water and gases by photosynthesis, while the material circulation systems recycle physicochemically and circulate substances disposed by humans and plants. RLSS attracts attention since manned space activities have been shifted from previous short trips to long-term stay activities as such base as a space station, a lunar base, and a Mars base. The present typical space base is the International Space Station (ISS), a manned experimental base for prolonged stays, where RLSS recycles only water and air. In order to accommodate prolonged and extended manned activity in future space bases, developing RLSS that implements food production and regeneration of resources at once using plants is expected. The configuration of RLSS should be designed to suit its own duty, for which design requirements for RLSS with an unprecedented configuration may arise. Accordingly, it is necessary to establish a conceptual design method for generalized RLSS. It is difficult, however, to systematize the design process by analyzing previous design because there are only a few ground-experimental facilities, namely CEEF (Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities) of Japan, BIO-Plex (Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex) of the U.S., and BIOS3 of Russia. Thus a conceptual design method which doesn’t rely on previous design examples is required for generalized RLSS from the above reasons. This study formalizes a conceptual design process, and develops a conceptual design support tool for RLSS based on this design process.

  16. High voltage spacecraft electrical systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Factors which must be considered when designing the best and the most cost-effective high-voltage electrical system for a spacecraft are discussed with particular attention given to the EMC considerations, high-voltage power bus, and harnesses. It is emphasized that the use of serial data buses and lines greatly simplify the harness design and weight. Careful attention to the grounding concept and the EMC requirements is necessary for insuring a 'quiet' spacecraft.

  17. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Prosthesis Design Classification System.

    PubMed

    Routman, Howard D; Flurin, Pierre-Henri; Wright, Thomas W; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Hamilton, Matthew A; Roche, Christopher P

    2015-12-01

    Multiple different reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) prosthesis designs are available in the global marketplace for surgeons to perform this growing procedure. Subtle differences in rTSA prosthesis design parameters have been shown to have significant biomechanical impact and clinical consequences. We propose an rTSA prosthesis design classification system to objectively identify and categorize different designs based upon their specific glenoid and humeral prosthetic characteristics for the purpose of standardizing nomenclature that will help the orthopaedic surgeon determine which combination of design configurations best suit a given clinical scenario. The impact of each prosthesis classification type on shoulder muscle length and deltoid wrapping are also described to illustrate how each prosthesis classification type impacts these biomechanical parameters. PMID:26631189

  18. Tritium glovebox stripper system seismic design evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, J. J.; Klein, J. E.

    2015-09-01

    The use of glovebox confinement at US Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities has been discussed in numerous publications. Glovebox confinement protects the workers from radioactive material (especially tritium oxide), provides an inert atmosphere for prevention of flammable gas mixtures and deflagrations, and allows recovery of tritium released from the process into the glovebox when a glovebox stripper system (GBSS) is part of the design. Tritium recovery from the glovebox atmosphere reduces emissions from the facility and the radiological dose to the public. Location of US DOE defense programs facilities away from public boundaries also aids in reducing radiological doses to the public. This is a study based upon design concepts to identify issues and considerations for design of a Seismic GBSS. Safety requirements and analysis should be considered preliminary. Safety requirements for design of GBSS should be developed and finalized as a part of the final design process.

  19. PEMFC MEA and System Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Knights, Shanna; Bashyam, Rajesh; He, Ping; Lauritzen, Michael; Startek, Cara; Colbow, Vesna; Cheng, Tommy; Kolodziej, Joanna; Wessel, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are being developed and sold commercially for multiple near term markets. Ballard Power Systems is focused on the near term markets of backup power, distributed generation, materials handling, and buses. Significant advances have been made in cost and durability of fuel cell products. Improved tolerance to a wide range of system operation and environmental noises will enable increased viability across a broad range of applications. In order to apply the most effective membrane electrode assembly (MEA) design for each market, the system requirements and associated MEA failures must be well understood. The failure modes associated with the electrodes and membrane degradation are discussed with respect to associated system operation and mitigating approaches. A few key system considerations that influence MEA design include expected fuel quality, balance-of-plant materials, time under idle or open circuit operation, and start-up and shut-down conditions.

  20. Flight software requirements and design support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, W. E.; Edwards, B.

    1980-01-01

    The desirability and feasibility of computer-augmented support for the pre-implementation activities occurring during the development of flight control software was investigated. The specific topics to be investigated were the capabilities to be included in a pre-implementation support system for flight control software system development, and the specification of a preliminary design for such a system. Further, the pre-implementation support system was to be characterized and specified under the constraints that it: (1) support both description and assessment of flight control software requirements definitions and design specification; (2) account for known software description and assessment techniques; (3) be compatible with existing and planned NASA flight control software development support system; and (4) does not impose, but may encourage, specific development technologies. An overview of the results is given.